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8 results for "reading"
1. Tosefta, Sukkah, 4.5-4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
4.5. "ולוים בכנורות [ובנבלים] וכל כלי שיר מהן אומרים (תהילים קל״ד:א׳) שיר המעלות הנה ברכו וגו' [יש מהן] שהיו אומרים (שם) שאו ידיכם קדש וגו' וכשנפטרין זה מזה היו אומרים (שם) יברכך ה' מציון וגו' וראה בנים וגו' שתי חצוצרות בידם קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לשער המים תקעו והריעו ותקעו רבי יהודה אומר אין פחות משבע ולא יותר על עשרה שלש לפתיחת שערים האומר על פתיחתן אינו אומר על נעילתן האומר על נעילתן אינו אומר על פתיחתן שלש [לפני מזבח האומר לפני מזבח אינו אומר למעלה העשירי האומר למעלה העשירי אינו אומר לפני מזבח].", 4.6. "[כיצד] ג' להבטיל את העם מן המלאכה חזן הכנסת נוטל חצוצרת ועולה לראש הגג גבוה שבעיר [נטל לקרות] הסמוכין לעיר בטלין הסמוכין לתחום מתכנסין ובאין לתוך התחום ולא היו נכנסין מיד אלא ממתינין עד שיבואו כולן ויתכנסו כולן בבת אחת [מאימתי הוא נכנס משימלא לו חבית ויצלה לו דגה וידליק לו את הנר].", 4.5. "And the Levites with their harps and lyres and cymbals and all manner of musical instruments without number were there, saying, “Behold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord.” Some were saying, Lift up your hands to the sanctuary, and bless ye the Lord. When they parted they said to one another, The Lord bless thee out of Zion, and see thou the good of Jerusalem all the days of thy life. You should see your children's children. The herald cried out: they sounded a plain note, a tremolo, and a plain note. Rabbi Yehudah said: They did not sound less than seven nor more than thirteen times at the opening of the Temple gates. He who blew at their opening did not do so at their closing. Three times they sounded before the altar. He who blew before the altar did not do so on the tenth step, and he who blew on the tenth step did not do so before the altar.", 4.6. "Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. ",
2. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
4.2. "בְּרָאשֵׁי חֳדָשִׁים וּבְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, קוֹרִין אַרְבָּעָה, אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מֵהֶן וְאֵין מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶן, וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא. הַפּוֹתֵחַ וְהַחוֹתֵם בַּתּוֹרָה, מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מוּסָף וְאֵינוֹ יוֹם טוֹב, קוֹרִין אַרְבָּעָה. בְּיוֹם טוֹב, חֲמִשָּׁה. בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, שִׁשָּׁה. בְּשַׁבָּת, שִׁבְעָה. אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין מֵהֶן, אֲבָל מוֹסִיפִין עֲלֵיהֶן, וּמַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא. הַפּוֹתֵחַ וְהַחוֹתֵם בַּתּוֹרָה, מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנֶיהָ וּלְאַחֲרֶיהָ:", 4.2. "On Rosh Hodesh and on the intermediate days of festivals four read. They do not add [to this number] nor decrease [from it], nor do they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it. This is the general rule: on any day which has a musaf and is not a festival four read. On a festival five. On Yom Hakippurim six. On Shabbat seven; they may not decrease [from this number] but they may add [to it], and they conclude with [a haftarah] from the Prophets. The one who begins the Torah reading and the one who concludes the Torah reading blesses before it and after it.",
3. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
7.6. "בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים כֵּיצַד, בַּמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה אֶחָת. בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ אוֹמֵר אֶת הַשֵּׁם כִּכְתָבוֹ, וּבַמְּדִינָה בְכִנּוּיוֹ. בַּמְּדִינָה כֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִים אֶת יְדֵיהֶן כְּנֶגֶד כִּתְפֵיהֶן, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁיהֶן, חוּץ מִכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַגְבִּיהַּ יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט) וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם: \n", 7.6. "How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22).",
4. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
5.1. "אָמַר לָהֶם הַמְמֻנֶּה, בָּרְכוּ בְרָכָה אֶחַת, וְהֵן בֵּרְכוּ. קָרְאוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים, שְׁמַע, וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, וַיֹּאמֶר. בֵּרְכוּ אֶת הָעָם שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב, וַעֲבוֹדָה, וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים. וּבְשַׁבָּת מוֹסִיפִין בְּרָכָה אַחַת לַמִּשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא: \n", 7.2. "בָּאוּ וְעָמְדוּ עַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם. עָמְדוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לִדְרוֹם אֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים, וַחֲמִשָּׁה כֵלִים בְּיָדָם, הַטֶּנִי בְיַד אֶחָד, וְהַכּוּז בְּיַד אֶחָד, וְהַמַּחְתָּה בְיַד אֶחָד, וְהַבָּזָךְ בְּיַד אֶחָד, וְכַף וְכִסּוּיָהּ בְּיַד אֶחָד. וּבֵרְכוּ אֶת הָעָם בְּרָכָה אַחַת, אֶלָּא שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה אֶחָת. בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם כִּכְתָבוֹ, וּבַמְּדִינָה בְּכִנּוּיוֹ. בַּמְּדִינָה הַכֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִים אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, יְדֵיהֶם כְּנֶגֶד כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁיהֶן, חוּץ מִכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט), וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם:", 5.1. "The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving.", 7.2. "They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22).",
5. New Testament, Acts, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
3.1. Πέτρος δὲ καὶ Ἰωάνης ἀνέβαινον εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν ἐπὶ τὴν ὥραν τῆς προσευχῆς τὴν ἐνάτην, 3.1. Peter and John were going up into the temple at the hour of prayer, the ninth hour.
6. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
6.5. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί· ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.5. "When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward.
7. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168
12a. אלא אי אמרת אהבה רבה הוו אמרי מאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו דלמא האי דלא אמרי יוצר אור משום דלא מטא זמן יוצר אור וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי,ואי מכללא מאי,דאי מכללא לעולם אהבה רבה הוו אמרי וכי מטא זמן יוצר אור הוו אמרי ליה ומאי ברכות אין מעכבות זו את זו סדר ברכות:,וקורין עשרת הדברות שמע והיה אם שמוע ויאמר אמת ויציב ועבודה וברכת כהנים.,א"ר יהודה אמר שמואל אף בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,תניא נמי הכי ר' נתן אומר בגבולין בקשו לקרות כן אלא שכבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,רבה בב"ח סבר למקבעינהו בסורא א"ל רב חסדא כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין,אמימר סבר למקבעינהו בנהרדעא א"ל רב אשי כבר בטלום מפני תרעומת המינין:,ובשבת מוסיפין ברכה אחת למשמר היוצא. מאי ברכה אחת א"ר חלבו משמר היוצא אומר למשמר הנכנס מי ששכן את שמו בבית הזה הוא ישכין ביניכם אהבה ואחוה ושלום וריעות:,מקום שאמרו להאריך: פשיטא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דחמרא בידיה וקסבר דשכרא הוא ופתח ומברך אדעתא דשכרא וסיים בדחמרא יצא דאי נמי אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא דהא תנן על כולם אם אמר שהכל נהיה בדברו יצא,אלא היכא דקא נקיט כסא דשכרא בידיה וקסבר דחמרא הוא פתח ובריך אדעתא דחמרא וסיים בדשכרא מאי,בתר עיקר ברכה אזלינן או בתר חתימה אזלינן,ת"ש שחרית פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים לא יצא פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור יצא,ערבית פתח במעריב ערבים וסיים ביוצר אור לא יצא פתח ביוצר אור וסיים במעריב ערבים יצא,כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום,שאני התם דקאמר ברוך יוצר המאורות,הניחא לרב דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה הזכרת השם אינה ברכה שפיר אלא לר' יוחנן דאמר כל ברכה שאין בה מלכות אינה ברכה מאי איכא למימר,אלא כיון דאמר רבה בר עולא כדי להזכיר מדת יום בלילה ומדת לילה ביום כי קאמר ברכה ומלכות מעיקרא אתרוייהו קאמר,ת"ש מסיפא כללו של דבר הכל הולך אחר החתום כללו של דבר לאתויי מאי לאו לאתויי הא דאמרן,לא לאתויי נהמא ותמרי ה"ד אילימא דאכל נהמא וקסבר דתמרי אכל ופתח אדעתא דתמרי וסיים בדנהמא היינו בעיין,לא צריכא כגון דאכל תמרי וקסבר נהמא אכל ופתח בדנהמא וסיים בדתמרי [יצא] דאפילו סיים בדנהמא נמי יצא,מאי טעמא דתמרי נמי מיזן זייני:,אמר רבה בר חיננא סבא משמיה דרב כל שלא אמר אמת ויציב שחרית ואמת ואמונה ערבית לא יצא ידי חובתו שנאמר (תהלים צב, ג) להגיד בבקר חסדך ואמונתך בלילות:,ואמר רבה בר חיננא [סבא] משמיה דרב המתפלל כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך וכשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם,אמר שמואל מאי טעמא דרב דכתיב (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים,מיתיבי (מלאכי ב, ה) מפני שמי נחת הוא,מי כתיב בשמי מפני שמי כתיב,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אוריאן תא ואימא לך מלתא מעלייתא דאמר אבוך הכי אמר אבוך כשהוא כורע כורע בברוך כשהוא זוקף זוקף בשם. 12a. b However, if you say that they /b would omit: Who creates light, and b would recite: An abounding love, /b on b what /b basis would you conclude that failure to recite one of the b blessings /b recited before i Shema /i b does not prevent /b one from reciting the b other? /b In that case, one could offer another reason why only a single blessing is recited. b Perhaps /b the fact b that they did not recite: Who creates light was because the time for the recitation of: Who creates light, had not yet arrived, /b as the sun had yet to rise. The blessings of the priestly watch are recited in the early morning hours, long before sunrise. b However, /b afterward, b when the time /b to recite: b Who creates light arrived, they would recite it. /b From the conclusion drawn by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, that failure to recite one of the blessings recited before b i Shema /i /b does not prevent one from reciting the other, it is clear that the blessing recited by the members of the priestly watch was: Who creates light.,As this deductive reasoning seems coherent and convincing, the Gemara asks: b And if /b this i halakha /i is b based on inference, /b and not on an explicit statement, b what /b of it? There seems to be no other way to interpret Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish’s statement.,The Gemara answers: b If /b this conclusion b were based on an inference, /b one could say that b actually they recited: An abounding love, and when the time /b to recite: b Who creates light arrived, they would recite it. /b In that case, b what /b is the meaning of: Failure to recite one of the b blessings /b recited before i Shema /i b does not prevent /b one from reciting the b other? /b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish meant that failure to recite b the /b correct b order of the blessings /b does not prevent one from fulfilling his obligation. Even if one recites: An abounding love before: Who creates light, he fulfills his obligation. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish did not refer to a case where only one of the blessings was recited. Consequently, one cannot infer from his statement his opinion regarding the identity of the single blessing.,The Gemara related above that the priests in the Temple b read the Ten Commandments, /b along with the sections of b i Shema /i , i VeHaya im Shamoa /i , i VaYomer /i , True and Firm, i Avoda, /i and the priestly benediction. /b , b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: Even in the outlying areas, /b outside the Temple, b they sought to recite /b the Ten Commandments b in this manner /b every day, as they are the basis of the Torah (Rambam), b but they had already abolished /b recitation of the Ten Commandments b due to the grievance of the heretics, /b who argued that the entire Torah, with the exception of the Ten Commandments, did not emanate from God (Jerusalem Talmud). If the Ten Commandments were recited daily, that would lend credence to their claim, so their recitation was expunged from the daily prayers., b That was also taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Natan says: In the outlying areas, they sought to recite /b the Ten Commandments b in this manner, but they had already abolished /b their recitation b due to the grievance of the heretics. /b ,The Gemara relates that several Sages sought to reinstitute recitation of the Ten Commandments, as b Rabba bar bar Ḥana thought to institute this in /b the city of b Sura, /b but b Rav Ḥisda said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b ,So too, b Ameimar thought to institute this in /b the city of b Neharde’a. Rav Ashi, /b the most prominent of the Sages in that generation, b said to him: They already abolished them due to the grievance of the heretics. /b ,We learned in a mishna in tractate i Tamid /i that b on Shabbat a single blessing is added to /b bless b the outgoing priestly watch. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b that b single blessing? Rabbi Ḥelbo said: /b As they finished their service, b the outgoing priestly watch would say to the incoming priestly watch: May He who caused His Name to dwell in this house cause love and brotherhood, peace and camaraderie to dwell among you. /b ,We learned in the mishna: b Where /b the Sages b said /b to recite b a long /b blessing, one may not shorten it, and vice-versa. The Gemara proceeds to address a particular problem arising from conclusions drawn from this mishna. Before addressing the primary problem, however, a simpler, secondary issue is raised: b Obviously, in a case where one took a cup of wine in his hand and thought it was beer, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was beer, /b i.e., he intended to recite the appropriate blessing on beer: By Whose word all things came to be, b and /b upon realizing that it was wine, b he concluded /b the blessing b with that /b which is recited over b wine: /b Who creates the fruit of the vine, b he fulfilled /b his obligation. In that case, b even had he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, /b as he originally intended, b he /b would have b fulfilled /b his obligation, b as we learned /b in a mishna: b If one /b recited the general blessing: b By Whose word all things came to be, over all /b food items, b he fulfilled /b his obligation after the fact, even if i ab initio /i another blessing was instituted to recite before eating that food. Therefore, if he reconsidered and concluded the blessing with the ending of the blessing over wine, he fulfilled his obligation., b However in a case where one took a cup of beer in his hand and thought it was wine, and began reciting the blessing thinking it was wine, /b meaning he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, b and /b upon realizing that it was beer b he concluded /b the blessing b with that /b which is recited over b beer: /b By Whose word all things came to be, b what /b is the i halakha /i ?,Ostensibly, this blessing is comprised of two sections. The first section, during which he intended to recite: Who creates the fruit of the vine, cannot fulfill his obligation as it is an inappropriate blessing to recite over beer. However, in the second section he recited: By Whose word all things came to be, the appropriate blessing. The dilemma, then, is: b Do we follow the essence /b of the blessing, the first section, b or do we follow the conclusion /b of the blessing?, b Come and hear /b a proof from what was taught in a i baraita /i with regard to a similar case: If, in b the morning prayer /b , one b began /b the blessings prior to the recitation of i Shema /i appropriately b with: Who creates light, and concluded with /b the formula of the evening prayer: b Who brings on evenings, he did not fulfill /b his obligation. However, if one did the opposite, and b commenced with: Who brings on evenings, and concluded with: Who creates light, he fulfilled /b his obligation.,Similarly, if, in b the evening prayer /b , b one commenced /b the recitation of i Shema /i b with: Who brings on evenings and concluded with: Who creates light, he did not fulfill /b his obligation. If b one commenced with: Who creates light and concluded with: Who brings on evenings, he fulfilled /b his obligation.,The i baraita /i summarizes that b the general principle is: Everything follows the conclusion /b of the blessing. Based on this principle, the question with regard to a blessing recited over food and drink posed above can be resolved.,This proof is rejected: b There, /b in the case of the blessing recited over the radiant lights, b it is different, as one recites: Blessed /b …Who b forms the radiant lights, /b and similarly, in the evening one recites: Blessed…Who brings on evenings. Since these are long blessings that conclude with a second blessing summarizing their content, one could assert that everything follows the conclusion. However, in the case of short blessings, such as: By Whose word all things came to be, or: Who creates the fruit of the vine, ostensibly, if there is a problem with the first part of the blessing, the entire blessing is nullified.,The distinction between the blessing recited over the radiant lights and the blessings recited over food and drink stems from the assumption that the conclusion: Blessed…Who fashions the radiant lights, is a complete, independent blessing. However, this is not necessarily so. b This works out well according to Rav, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of God’s name is not /b considered b a blessing, /b and since: Who creates light, includes God’s name, it constitutes a complete, independent blessing. b However, according to Rabbi Yoḥa, who said: Any blessing that does not include mention of /b God’s b sovereignty, /b i.e., our God, King of the universe, b is not /b considered b a blessing, what can be said /b to distinguish between the conclusion of the blessings over food and drink and the blessing over the radiant lights? Since the conclusion: Who creates light, does not mention God’s sovereignty, it does not constitute a complete, independent blessing.,The Gemara responds: b Rather, /b Rabbi Yoḥa also holds that the blessing over the radiant lights is a complete blessing. b Since Rabba bar Ulla said: /b Who creates darkness, is mentioned during the day and: Rolling away the light before the darkness, is mentioned at night b in order to mention the attribute of day at night and the attribute of night in the day, /b the beginning of the blessing in which God’s sovereignty is mentioned day and night is appropriate to both day and night, and b when one recites the blessing /b with God’s name b and /b mentions God’s b sovereignty at the beginning of the blessing, /b it refers b to both /b day and night. Therefore, no proof can be cited from the blessing over the radiant lights to the blessings recited over food and drink.,The Gemara attempts to cite an additional proof: b Come and hear /b another solution based on what we learned b in the latter clause /b of the i baraita /i cited above: b The general principle is: Everything follows the conclusion /b of the blessing. b What does /b the phrase: The general principle is, come b to include /b beyond the detailed example cited in the i baraita /i ? b Does it not come to include /b the case b that we stated, /b that both in the case of a long blessing and the case of a short blessing, the conclusion of the blessing is the determining factor?,The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b the principle is cited b to include /b a case of b bread and dates. /b The Gemara clarifies: b What are the circumstances /b of the dilemma with regard to the blessings on these food items? b If you say that /b it is a case b where one ate bread and thought that he ate dates, and commenced /b reciting the blessing b thinking it was dates; /b then, upon realizing that it was bread, b he concluded /b the blessing b with that /b which is recited b over bread, isn’t that our dilemma, /b as this case is identical to the one involving wine and beer?,The Gemara answers: b No; this /b general principle b is /b only b necessary /b to teach a special b case /b , b where one ate dates and thought that he ate bread, and commenced /b reciting the blessing b thinking they were bread. /b Upon realizing that they were dates, b he concluded /b the blessing b with that /b which is recited b over dates. /b In that case b he fulfilled /b his obligation, as b even had he concluded /b the blessing b with that /b which is recited b over bread, he /b would have b fulfilled his obligation. /b , b What is the reason /b that had he concluded with the blessing recited over bread he would have fulfilled his obligation to recite a blessing over dates? This is b because dates also provide /b a person b sustece. /b While i ab initio /i one should not recite the blessing for bread over dates, after the fact, if one did so, he fulfilled his obligation. It is with regard to this particular situation that the i baraita /i established the principle: Everything follows the conclusion of the blessing. Ultimately, the dilemma regarding a blessing with an inappropriate opening and an appropriate conclusion remains unresolved. br The Gemara proceeds to discuss the formula for the blessings recited along with i Shema /i ., b Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who did not recite: True and Firm [ i emet veyatziv /i ] /b at the beginning of the blessing of redemption that follows i Shema /i b in the morning prayer, and: True and Trustworthy [ i emet ve’emuna /i ] in the evening prayer, he did not fulfill his obligation. /b An allusion to the difference in formulation between morning and evening is, b as it is stated: “To declare Your kindness in the morning and Your faith in the nights” /b (Psalms 92:3). In the morning, one must mention God’s loving-kindness, while in the evening one is required to emphasize the aspect of faith., b And Rabba bar Ḥina Sava said in the name of Rav: One who is praying, when he bows /b in the appropriate places, b he bows when /b he says: b Blessed, and when he /b subsequently b stands upright, he stands upright when he says /b God’s b name. /b , b Shmuel, /b who was Rav’s colleague and significantly outlived him, b said: What is Rav’s reason /b for saying that one should stand upright at the mention of God’s name? b As it is written: “The Lord, who raises the bowed” /b (Psalms 146:8); one stands upright at the mention of God’s name to recall that it is God who raises the bowed.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b based on what we learned in praise of a priest: b “And he was afraid before My name” /b (Malachi 2:5), indicating that one must be humbled and not upright before God’s name.,The Gemara responds: b Is it written: At My name? Before My name, is written, /b meaning that one is humbled and bows prior to the mention of God’s name, when he says: Blessed.,The Gemara relates: b Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of Torah, come and I will tell you a great saying that your father said. Your father said the following: When one bows, he bows when /b he says: b Blessed, and when he stands upright, he stands upright when he says /b God’s b name. /b
8. Anon., Sifre Zuta, 6.27  Tagged with subjects: •reading, blessings before and after Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 168