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16 results for "reading"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.7, 31.9-31.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, babylonia Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 38
6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 31.9. "וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 31.11. "בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃", 31.12. "הַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ וּלְמַעַן יִלְמְדוּ וְיָרְאוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְשָׁמְרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃", 31.13. "וּבְנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדְעוּ יִשְׁמְעוּ וְלָמְדוּ לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כָּל־הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם חַיִּים עַל־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 31.9. "And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.", 31.10. "And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,", 31.11. "when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing.", 31.12. "Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones, and thy stranger that is within thy gates, that they may hear, and that they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, and observe to do all the words of this law;", 31.13. "and that their children, who have not known, may hear, and learn to fear the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the land whither ye go over the Jordan to possess it.’",
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •bavli (babylonian talmud), reading in context Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 5; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 5
23.40. "And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.",
3. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, reading of biblical figures as rabbis Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 121
6.7. "וְהַבַּיִת בְּהִבָּנֹתוֹ אֶבֶן־שְׁלֵמָה מַסָּע נִבְנָה וּמַקָּבוֹת וְהַגַּרְזֶן כָּל־כְּלִי בַרְזֶל לֹא־נִשְׁמַע בַּבַּיִת בְּהִבָּנֹתוֹ׃", 6.7. "For the house, when it was in building, was built of stone made ready at the quarry; and there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building.—",
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 17.7-17.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •reading, babylonia Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 38
17.7. "וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִיד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מִן־אַחֲרֵי הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.8. "וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִית אֶת־כָּל־אוֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂיתִי לְךָ שֵׁם כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדוֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃", 17.9. "וְשַׂמְתִּי מָקוֹם לְעַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְטַעְתִּיהוּ וְשָׁכַן תַּחְתָּיו וְלֹא יִרְגַּז עוֹד וְלֹא־יוֹסִיפוּ בְנֵי־עַוְלָה לְבַלֹּתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה׃", 17.7. "Now therefore thus shalt thou say unto My servant David: Thus saith the LORD of hosts: I took thee from the sheepcote, from following the sheep, that thou shouldest be prince over My people Israel;", 17.8. "and I have been with thee whithersoever thou wentest, and have cut off all thine enemies from before thee; and I will make thee a name, like unto the name of the great ones that are in the earth.", 17.9. "And I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place, and be disquieted no more; neither shall the children of wickedness waste them any more, as at the first,",
5. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
6. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan
7. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, reading of biblical figures as rabbis Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 96, 116, 120, 121
8. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 577
31a. ברכות וקללות אין מפסיקין בקללות אלא אחד קורא את כולן,בשני ובחמישי בשבת במנחה קורין כסדרן ואין עולים להם מן החשבון,שנאמר (ויקרא כג, מד) וידבר משה את מועדי ה' אל בני ישראל מצותן שיהו קורין כל אחד ואחד בזמנו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בפסח קורין בפרשת מועדות ומפטירין בפסח (יהושע ה, י) גלגל והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי יומא קמא בפסח גלגל ולמחר בפסח (מלכים ב כג, טז) יאשיהו,ושאר ימות הפסח מלקט וקורא מענינו של פסח מאי היא אמר רב פפא מאפ"ו סימן,יום טוב האחרון של פסח קורין (שמות יג, יז) ויהי בשלח ומפטירין (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד ולמחר (דברים טו, יט) כל הבכור ומפטירין (ישעיהו י, לב) עוד היום,אמר אביי והאידנא נהוג עלמא למיקרי משך תורא קדש בכספא פסל במדברא שלח בוכרא,בעצרת (דברים טז, ט) שבעה שבועות ומפטירין (חבקוק ג, א) בחבקוק אחרים אומרים (שמות יט, א) בחדש השלישי ומפטירין (יחזקאל א, א) במרכבה והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי עבדינן כתרוייהו ואיפכא,בראש השנה (במדבר כט, א) בחדש השביעי ומפטירין (ירמיהו לא, כ) הבן יקיר לי אפרים ויש אומרים (בראשית כא, א) וה' פקד את שרה ומפטירין (שמואל א ב, א) בחנה,והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי יומא קמא כיש אומרים למחר (בראשית כב, א) והאלהים נסה את אברהם ומפטירין הבן יקיר,ביוה"כ קורין (ויקרא טז, א) אחרי מות ומפטירין (ישעיהו נז, טו) כי כה אמר רם ונשא ובמנחה קורין בעריות ומפטירין ביונה,אמר ר' יוחנן כל מקום שאתה מוצא גבורתו של הקב"ה אתה מוצא ענוותנותו דבר זה כתוב בתורה ושנוי בנביאים ומשולש בכתובים,כתוב בתורה (דברים י, יז) כי ה' אלהיכם הוא אלהי האלהים ואדוני האדונים וכתיב בתריה עושה משפט יתום ואלמנה שנוי בנביאים (ישעיהו נז, טו) כה אמר רם ונשא שוכן עד וקדוש וגו' וכתיב בתריה ואת דכא ושפל רוח משולש בכתובים דכתיב (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו וכתיב בתריה אבי יתומים ודיין אלמנות,יו"ט הראשון של חג קורין בפרשת מועדות שבתורת כהנים ומפטירין (זכריה יד, א) הנה יום בא לה' והאידנא דאיכא תרי יומי למחר מיקרא ה"נ קרינן אפטורי מאי מפטירין (מלכים א ח, ב) ויקהלו אל המלך שלמה,ושאר כל ימות החג קורין בקרבנות החג יו"ט האחרון קורין כל הבכור מצות וחוקים ובכור ומפטירין (מלכים א ט, א) ויהי ככלות שלמה למחר קורין וזאת הברכה ומפטירין (מלכים א ח, כב) ויעמד שלמה,אמר רב הונא אמר רב שבת שחל להיות בחולו של מועד בין בפסח בין בסוכות מקרא קרינן (שמות לג, יב) ראה אתה אפטורי בפסח (יחזקאל לז, ד) העצמות היבשות ובסוכות (יחזקאל לח, יח) ביום בא גוג,בחנוכה בנשיאים ומפטירין (זכריה ב, יד) בנרות דזכריה ואי מיקלעי שתי שבתות קמייתא בנרות דזכריה בתרייתא (מלכים א ז, מ) בנרות שלמה,בפורים (שמות יז, ח) ויבא עמלק בראשי חדשים (במדבר כח, יא) ובראשי חדשיכם ראש חדש שחל להיות בשבת מפטירין (ישעיהו סו) והיה מדי חדש בחדשו חל להיות באחד בשבת מאתמול מפטירין (שמואל א כ) ויאמר לו יהונתן מחר חדש,אמר רב הונא 31a. they read the portion of b blessings and curses /b (Leviticus, chapter 26). b One should not interrupt /b the reading of the b curses /b by having two different people read them. b Rather, one person reads all of them. /b , b On Mondays, and on Thursdays, /b and b on Shabbat during the afternoon /b service, b they read in accordance /b with the regular weekly b order, /b i.e., they proceed to read the first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning. b However, /b these readings b are not counted /b as a progression b in the reckoning /b of reading the Torah portions, i.e., they do not proceed on Monday to read the section that immediately follows the section read on Shabbat during the afternoon, and then the following section on Thursday. Rather, until the reading on the following Shabbat morning, they return to and read the same first section of the Torah portion that follows the portion that was read on the previous Shabbat morning.,On Festivals and holidays, they read a portion relating to the character of the day, b as /b it b is stated: “And Moses declared to the children of Israel the appointed seasons of the Lord” /b (Leviticus 23:44), which indicates that part of b the mitzva /b of the Festivals is b that /b the people b should read /b the portion relating to them, b each one in its /b appointed b time. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On /b the first day of b Passover, /b the congregation b reads from the portion of the Festivals /b (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), b and they read as the i haftara /i /b the account of the b Passover /b celebrated at b Gilgal /b (Joshua 5:2–14). The Gemara comments: b And nowadays, /b in the Diaspora, b when there are two /b Festival b days of Passover, on the first day /b they read as the i haftara /i the account of the b Passover /b celebrated b at Gilgal, and on the next day /b they read b from /b the account of the b Passover /b observed b by Josiah /b (II Kings 23).,The i baraita /i continues: b And on /b the b other days of Passover, one collects and reads /b from various Torah portions of b matters /b relating b to Passover. /b The Gemara asks: b What are these /b portions? b Rav Pappa said: A mnemonic /b for them is b i mem /i , i alef /i , i peh vav /i . /b Each letter stands for a different reading: i Mem /i for the portion of: “Draw out [ i mishkhu /i ] and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51); i alef /i for the portion of “If b [ /b i im /i ] you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19 i ) /i ; i peh /i for the portion of “Hew [ i pesol /i ] for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26); and i vav /i for the portion “And the Lord spoke [ i vaydabber /i ]” (Numbers 9:1–14).,The i baraita /i continues: b On the last Festival day of Passover, they read /b the portion of b “And it came to pass, when /b Pharaoh b let /b the people b go” /b (Exodus 13:17–15:26), because it includes the account of the splitting of the Red Sea, b and they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion b “And David spoke” /b (II Samuel 22), which is the song of David. b And /b in the Diaspora, b on the next day, /b the eighth day of Passover, they read the portion b “All the firstborns” /b (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17), b and they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion of b “This very day” /b (Isaiah 10:32–12:6), because it discusses the downfall of Sennacherib, which occurred on the night of Passover., b Abaye said: And nowadays, /b on the eight days of Passover in the Diaspora, b everyone is accustomed to read /b portions that are indicated by the mnemonic phrase: b Draw the bull, sanctify with money, hew in the wilderness, send the firstborn. /b This alludes to the following portions: “Draw out and take your lambs” (Exodus 12:21–51) and “A bull or a sheep” (Leviticus 22:26–23:44); “Sanctify to Me all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:1–16) and “If you lend money to any of My people” (Exodus 22:24–23:19); “Hew for yourself” (Exodus 34:1–26) and “And the Lord spoke to Moses in the wilderness of Sinai” (Numbers 9:1–14); “And it came to pass, when Pharaoh let the people go” (Exodus 13:17–15:26) and “All the firstborns” (Deuteronomy 15:19–16:17).,The i baraita /i continues: b On i Shavuot /i /b they read the portion of b “Seven weeks,” and they read as the i haftara /i from Habakkuk, /b chapter 2, since it mentions the giving of the Torah at Sinai. b Others say: /b They read the portion of b “In the third month” /b (Exodus 19:1–20:23), which describes the giving of the Torah, b and they read as the i haftara /i from /b the account of b the /b Divine b Chariot /b (Ezekiel 1). The Gemara comments: b And nowadays, /b in the Diaspora, b when there are two days /b of i Shavuot /i , b we act in accordance with both /b opinions, b but in the reverse order. /b On the first day they read the portion of “In the third month,” and on the second day they read the portion of “Seven weeks.”,The i baraita /i continues: b On Rosh HaShana /b they read the portion of b “On the seventh month /b on the first of the month” (Numbers 29:1–6) b and they read as the i haftara /i “Is Ephraim My dear son?” /b (Jeremiah 31:1–20), as it contains the verse: “I earnestly remember him still,” which recalls God’s love for His people. b And some say /b that they read b “And the Lord visited Sarah” /b (Genesis 21), which describes how God blessed her that she should have a child, and, according to tradition, God blessed her on Rosh HaShana. b And they read as the i haftara /i from /b the account of b Hannah /b (I Samuel 1:1–2:10), who, according to tradition, was also blessed on Rosh HaShana that she should have a child.,The Gemara comments: b And nowadays, when there are two days /b of Rosh HaShana, on b the first day /b they read Genesis 21 b in accordance /b with the opinion cited as: b Some say. And on the next day /b they read b “And God tested Abraham” /b (Genesis 22), in order to mention the merit of the binding of Isaac on the day of God’s judgment, b and they read as the i haftara /i “Is Ephraim My dear son?” /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b On Yom Kippur they read /b the portion of b “After the death” /b (Leviticus 16) b , and they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion of b “For thus says the High and Lofty One” /b (Isaiah 57:14–58:14), which deals with fasting and repentance. b And during the afternoon /b service they b read from /b the portion detailing b forbidden sexual relations /b (Leviticus 18) to convey the severity of these transgressions, so that if anyone transgressed any of these prohibitions he will repent on Yom Kippur. b And they read as the i haftara /i /b the book of b Jonah, /b which mentions the repentance of the people of Nineveh.,Having mentioned the i haftara /i read on Yom Kippur, the Gemara cites that which b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Wherever you find /b a reference in the Bible to b the might of the Holy One, Blessed be He, you /b also b find /b a reference to b His humility /b adjacent to it. Evidence of b this fact is written in the Torah, repeated in the Prophets, and stated a third time in the Writings. /b , b It is written in the Torah: “For the Lord your God is the God of gods and the Lord of lords” /b (Deuteronomy 10:17), b and it is written /b immediately b afterward: “He executes the judgment of the fatherless and widow” /b (Deuteronomy 10:18), displaying his humility in caring for even the weakest parts of society. b It is repeated in the Prophets: /b “For b thus says the High and Lofty One that inhabits eternity, Whose name is sacred” /b (Isaiah 57:15), b and it is written /b immediately b afterward: /b “In the high and holy place I dwell b with him that is of a contrite and humble spirit, /b to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones” (Isaiah 57:15). b It is stated a third time in the Writings, as it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the clouds, Whose name is the Lord” /b (Psalms 68:5), b and it is written /b immediately b afterward: “A father of the fatherless, and a judge of widows” /b (Psalms 68:6).,The i baraita /i continues: On b the first Festival day of i Sukkot /i , they read from the portion of the Festivals /b found b in Leviticus /b (Leviticus 22:26–23:44), b and they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion of b “Behold the day of the Lord comes” /b (Zechariah 14), which mentions the festival of i Sukkot /i . The Gemara comments: b And nowadays, /b in the Diaspora, b when there are two /b Festival b days /b of i Sukkot /i , b on the next day, they read the same /b Torah portion. But b what do they read as the i haftara /i ? /b They read the portion of b “And /b all the men of Israel b assembled themselves to King Solomon” /b (I Kings 8:2–21), which describes events that took place on the festival of i Sukkot /i .,The i baraita /i continues: b And on all the other days of i Sukkot /i , they read /b selections b from /b the portion of b the offerings of i Sukkot /i /b found in the book of Numbers, chapter 29. b On the last Festival day /b of i Sukkot /i , i.e., the Eighth Day of Assembly, b they read /b the portion of b “All the firstborns,” /b starting with the portion of “You shall tithe,” since it includes many b mitzvot and statutes /b relating to gifts for the poor, who should be helped during this period of rejoicing, and it concludes with the i halakhot /i governing b firstborns /b (Deuteronomy 14:22–16:17). b And they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion of b “And it was so, that when Solomon had made an end /b of praying” (I Kings 8:54–9:1), which occurred on that day. b On the next day, /b the second day of the Eighth Day of Assembly in the Diaspora, b they read /b the portion of b “And this is the blessing” /b (Deuteronomy, chapters 33–34) until the end of the Torah, b and they read as the i haftara /i “And Solomon stood” /b (I Kings 8:22–53)., b Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said: /b When b Shabbat occurs on /b one of b the intermediate days /b of a Festival, b whether on Passover or on i Sukkot /i , they read the Torah /b portion of b “See, You /b say to me” (Exodus 33:12–34:26), as it includes the i halakhot /i of the Festivals and the intermediate days. b They read as the i haftara /i , on Passover, /b from the portion of b the dry bones /b (Ezekiel 37:1–14), which portrays redemption from servitude, b and on i Sukkot /i /b they read “And it shall come to pass b on that day when Gog shall come” /b (Ezekiel 38:18–39:16), which speaks of the future redemption.,The i baraita /i continues: b On /b each day of b Hanukkah /b they read a selection b from /b the portion of the dedication of the altar by b the /b tribal b princes /b (Numbers 7), b and they read as the i haftara /i from /b the portion of b the lamps of Zechariah /b (Zechariah 2:14–4:7). The Gemara comments: b And if it occurs that there are two i Shabbatot /i /b during Hanukkah, b on the first /b Shabbat they read b from /b the portion of b the lamps of Zechariah, and on the latter one /b they read b from /b the portion of b the lamps of Solomon /b (I Kings 7:40–50), which discusses the lamps in the Temple.,The i baraita /i continues: b On Purim /b they read the portion of b “And Amalek came” /b (Exodus 17:8–16). b On the New Moon /b they read the portion of b “And in the beginnings of your month” /b (Numbers 28:11–15). When b the New Moon occurs on Shabbat, they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion that concludes with b “And it shall come to pass that every New Moon, /b and every Shabbat, shall all flesh come to bow down on the ground before Me” (Isaiah 66), as it mentions both Shabbat and the New Moon. When the New Moon b occurs on Sunday, on the previous day, /b i.e., Shabbat, b they read as the i haftara /i /b the portion of b “And Jonathan said to him: Tomorrow is the New Moon” /b (I Samuel 20:18–42), which describes events that took place on the eve of the New Moon., b Rav Huna said: /b
9. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bavli (babylonian talmud), reading in context Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 5, 6; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 5, 6
20b. רבי חנינא הוא דחכים כולי עלמא לאו חכימי הכי,אמר רבי יוחנן חכמתא דרבי חנינא גרמא לי דלא אחזי דמא מטמינא מטהר מטהרנא מטמא אמר רבי אלעזר ענוותנותא דרבי חנינא גרמא לי דחזאי דמא ומה רבי חנינא דענותן הוא מחית נפשיה לספק וחזי אנא לא אחזי,אמר רבי זירא טבעא דבבל גרמא לי דלא חזאי דמא דאמינא בטבעא לא ידענא בדמא ידענא,למימרא דבטבעא תליא מלתא והא רבה הוא דידע בטבעא ולא ידע בדמא כל שכן קאמר ומה רבה דידע בטבעא לא חזא דמא ואנא אחזי,עולא אקלע לפומבדיתא אייתו לקמיה דמא ולא חזא אמר ומה רבי אלעזר דמרא דארעא דישראל הוה כי מקלע לאתרא דר' יהודה לא חזי דמא אנא אחזי,ואמאי קרו ליה מרא דארעא דישראל דההיא אתתא דאייתא דמא לקמיה דרבי אלעזר הוה יתיב רבי אמי קמיה ארחיה אמר לה האי דם חימוד הוא בתר דנפקה אטפל לה רבי אמי אמרה ליה בעלי היה בדרך וחמדתיו קרי עליה (תהלים כה, יד) סוד ה' ליראיו,אפרא הורמיז אמיה דשבור מלכא שדרה דמא לקמיה דרבא הוה יתיב רב עובדיה קמיה ארחיה אמר לה האי דם חימוד הוא אמרה ליה לבריה תא חזי כמה חכימי יהודאי א"ל דלמא כסומא בארובה,הדר שדרה ליה שתין מיני דמא וכולהו אמרינהו ההוא בתרא דם כנים הוה ולא ידע אסתייע מילתא ושדר לה סריקותא דמקטלא כלמי אמרה יהודאי בתווני דלבא יתביתו,אמר רב יהודה מרישא הוה חזינא דמא כיון דאמרה לי אמיה דיצחק ברי האי טיפתא קמייתא לא מייתינן לה קמייהו דרבנן משום דזהימא לא חזינא,בין טמאה לטהורה ודאי חזינא,ילתא אייתא דמא לקמיה דרבה בר בר חנה וטמי לה הדר אייתא לקמיה דרב יצחק בריה דרב יהודה ודכי לה,והיכי עביד הכי והתניא חכם שטימא אין חברו רשאי לטהר אסר אין חבירו רשאי להתיר,מעיקרא טמויי הוה מטמי לה כיון דא"ל דכל יומא הוה מדכי לי כי האי גונא והאידנא הוא דחש בעיניה דכי לה,ומי מהימני אין והתניא נאמנת אשה לומר כזה ראיתי ואבדתיו,איבעיא להו כזה טיהר איש פלוני חכם מהו,תא שמע נאמנת אשה לומר כזה ראיתי ואבדתיו שאני התם דליתיה לקמה,תא שמע דילתא אייתא דמא לקמיה דרבה בר בר חנה וטמי לה לקמיה דרב יצחק בריה דרב יהודה ודכי לה והיכי עביד הכי והתניא חכם שטימא אין חבירו רשאי לטהר וכו',ואמרינן טמויי הוה מטמי לה כיון דאמרה ליה דכל יומא מדכי לה כי האי גונא והאידנא הוא דחש בעיניה הדר דכי לה אלמא מהימנא לה,רב יצחק בר יהודה אגמריה סמך,רבי ראה דם בלילה וטימא ראה ביום וטיהר המתין שעה אחת חזר וטימא אמר אוי לי שמא טעיתי,שמא טעיתי ודאי טעה דתניא לא יאמר חכם אילו היה לח היה ודאי טמא,אלא אמר אין לו לדיין אלא מה שעיניו רואות מעיקרא אחזקיה בטמא כיון דחזא לצפרא דאשתני אמר (ליה) ודאי טהור הוה ובלילה הוא דלא אתחזי שפיר כיון דחזא דהדר אשתני אמר האי טמא הוא ומפכח הוא דקא מפכח ואזיל,רבי בדיק לאור הנר רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסף בדיק ביום המעונן ביני עמודי אמר רב אמי בר שמואל וכולן אין בודקין אותן אלא בין חמה לצל רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה בחמה ובצל ידו,וכמזוג שני חלקים כו' תנא 20b. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, explained: b It is /b only b Rabbi Ḥanina /b who is permitted to examine the blood in this fashion, b as he is wise, /b but b everyone /b else b is not so wise /b that they can successfully perform the examination without water., b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Ḥanina’s wisdom causes me not to see blood /b for a halakhic examination. When b I would /b examine blood and b deem /b it b impure, he would deem /b it b pure, /b and when b I would deem /b it b pure, he would deem /b it b impure. /b Conversely, b Rabbi Elazar says: Rabbi Ḥanina’s humility causes me to see blood, /b as I reason to myself: b If Rabbi Ḥanina, who is humble, places himself into /b a situation of b uncertainty and sees /b various types of blood to determine their status, should b I, /b who am not nearly as humble, b not see /b blood for an examination?, b Rabbi Zeira says: The /b complex b nature /b of the residents b of Babylonia causes me not to see blood /b for a halakhic examination, b as I say /b to myself: Even matters b involving the /b complex b nature /b of people b I do not know; /b can I then claim that b I know /b about matters b of blood? /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is this to say that /b the b matter /b of the appearance of blood b is dependent on the nature /b of people, i.e., that it changes in accordance with their nature? b But Rabba is /b an example of someone b who knew about the /b complex b nature /b of the people of Babylonia, b and /b yet b he did not know /b how to distinguish between different types b of blood. /b The Gemara answers: Rabbi Zeira took this factor into account and b said /b to himself: b All the more so; if Rabba, who knew about the /b complex b nature /b of these people, nevertheless b would not see blood, /b should b I, /b who am unknowledgeable about the nature of these people, b see /b blood for examination?,The Gemara relates that b Ulla happened /b to come b to Pumbedita, /b where b they brought blood before him /b for an examination, b but he would not see /b it, as b he said: If Rabbi Elazar, who was the master of Eretz Yisrael /b in wisdom, b when he would happen /b to come b to the locale of Rabbi Yehuda, he would not see blood, shall I see blood /b here?,The Gemara asks: b And why would they call /b Rabbi Elazar b the master of Eretz Yisrael /b in wisdom? The Gemara explains that there was an incident b involving a certain woman who brought blood before Rabbi Elazar /b for examination, and b Rabbi Ami was sitting before him. /b Rabbi Ami observed that Rabbi Elazar b smelled /b the blood and b said to /b the woman: b This is blood of desire, /b i.e., your desire for your husband caused you to emit this blood, and it is not the blood of menstruation. b After /b the woman b left /b Rabbi Elazar’s presence, b Rabbi Ami caught up with her /b and inquired into the circumstances of her case. b She said to him: My husband was /b absent b on a journey, and I desired him. /b Rabbi Ami b read /b the following verse b about /b Rabbi Elazar: b “The counsel of the Lord is with those who fear Him; /b and His covet, to make them know it” (Psalms 25:14), i.e., God reveals secret matters to those who fear Him.,The Gemara further relates that b Ifera Hurmiz, the mother of King Shapur, sent blood before Rava /b for examination, as she sought to convert and was practicing the i halakhot /i of menstruation. At that time b Rav Ovadya was sitting before /b Rava. Rav Ovadya observed that Rava b smelled /b the blood and later b said to /b the woman: b This is blood of desire. She said to her son: Come /b and b see how wise the Jews /b are, as Rava is correct. Her son b said to her: Perhaps /b Rava was b like a blind man /b who escapes b from a chimney, /b i.e., it was a lucky guess.,Ifera Hurmiz b then sent /b Rava b sixty /b different types of b blood, /b some impure and others pure, b and /b with regard to b all of them /b Rava accurately b told her /b their origin. The Gemara adds: b That last /b sample of blood sent by Ifera Hurmiz b was blood of lice, and /b Rava b did not know /b what it was. He received b support /b in this b matter /b in the form of heavenly guidance, as he unwittingly b sent her /b as a gift b a comb for killing lice. She said /b in exclamation: b Jews, you /b must b dwell in the chamber of /b people’s b hearts. /b ,§ The Gemara cites more statements of the Sages with regard to the examination of blood. b Rav Yehuda says: At first I would see blood, /b i.e., perform examinations of blood, but I changed my conduct b when the mother of my son Yitzḥak, /b i.e., my wife, b said to me /b that she acts as follows: With regard to b this first drop /b of blood that I see, b I do not bring it before the Sages, because it is not pristine /b blood, i.e., other substances are mixed with it. After hearing this, I decided b I /b would b no /b longer b see /b blood, as it is possible that the first drop, which I do not get to see, was impure.,Rav Yehuda continues: But with regard to the examination of blood that a woman who gave birth emitted after the completion of her days of purity, i.e., at least forty days after giving birth to a male, or eighty after giving birth to a female (see Leviticus, chapter 12), in order to determine b whether she is ritually impure or pure, I certainly see /b this blood and determine her status based on its color. This blood is clean, as the woman has been bleeding for a long period of time.,§ The Gemara relates that b Yalta, /b Rav Naḥman’s wife, b brought blood before Rabba bar bar Ḥana, and he deemed her ritually impure. She then brought /b it b before Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But how could /b Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b act in this manner? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a halakhic authority who deemed /b an item b impure, another /b halakhic authority b is not allowed to deem /b it b pure; /b if one halakhic authority b deemed /b a matter b prohibited, another /b halakhic authority b is not allowed to deem /b it b permitted? /b ,The Gemara explains that b initially /b Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b deemed her impure, /b but he changed his mind b when /b Yalta b said to him: Every day /b that I bring blood b of this kind /b of color to Rabba bar bar Ḥana b he deems me pure, and specifically now /b he issued a different ruling, b as he feels /b pain b in his eye. /b Upon hearing this, Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b deemed her pure. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b are people b deemed credible /b to present claims such as the one presented by Yalta? The Gemara answers: b Yes; and /b likewise b it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A woman is deemed credible /b if she b says: I saw /b blood b like this /b color, b but I lost it /b before it could be examined., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If a woman states to her friend who showed her blood: My blood, which has an appearance b like this, so-and-so, the halakhic authority, deemed /b it b pure, what is /b the i halakha /i ? Is she deemed credible concerning its status?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a resolution to this dilemma from the i baraita /i cited above: b A woman is deemed credible /b if she b says: I saw /b blood b like this /b color, b but I lost it. /b This demonstrates that a woman may issue claims of this kind. The Gemara rejects this proof: b There /b it b is different, as /b in that case the blood b is not before her, /b and therefore the Sages were lenient. But here, the woman’s friend can take her blood to a halakhic authority for examination.,The Gemara further suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b the incident cited above, b as Yalta brought blood before Rabba bar bar Ḥana, and he deemed her ritually impure; /b she then brought it b before Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, and he deemed her pure. And /b the Gemara asked: b How could /b Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b act in this manner? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a halakhic authority who deemed /b an item b impure, another /b halakhic authority b is not allowed to deem /b it b pure? /b , b And we say /b in response that initially Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b deemed her impure, /b but he changed his mind b when she said to him that every day /b that she brings blood b of this kind /b of color to Rabba bar bar Ḥana b he deems her pure, and specifically now /b he issued a different ruling, b as he feels /b pain b in his eye. /b The Gemara summarizes: The conclusion of the story was that upon hearing this, Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, b then deemed her pure. Evidently, /b when a woman issues claims with regard to blood that is presented, b we deem her /b claims b credible. /b ,The Gemara answers: That incident does not provide proof, as b Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Yehuda, relied on his studies /b in his lenient ruling. At first, he was reluctant to issue his ruling, in deference to Rabba bar bar Ḥana, who had said the blood was impure. But when he heard Yalta’s explanation he deemed the blood pure, as he had originally thought. Therefore, there is no proof from there that a woman’s statements of this kind are accepted.,§ The Gemara further relates: b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi once b saw /b a woman’s b blood at night and deemed /b it b impure. He /b again b saw /b that blood b in the day, /b after it had dried, b and deemed /b it b pure. /b He b waited one hour /b and then b deemed /b it b impure again. /b It is assumed that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi did not conduct another examination at this point; rather, he reasoned that the previous night’s examination had been correct, and the blood’s color should be deemed impure because of how it had looked when it was moist. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi then b said: Woe is me! Perhaps I erred /b by declaring the blood impure, as based on its color it should be pure.,The Gemara questions this statement: b Perhaps I erred? He certainly erred, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b a halakhic authority may not say: If /b the blood b were moist it would certainly have been impure, /b and yet here, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi deemed the blood impure based on that type of reasoning.,The Gemara explains that the incident did not unfold as initially assumed. b Rather, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi examined the blood three times, as he b said: A judge has only what his eyes see /b as the basis for his ruling. b Initially, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b established the presumptive status /b of the blood b as ritually impure, /b but b when he saw in the morning that /b its color had b changed, he said: It was definitely pure /b last night as well, b and only /b because it was b at night /b I thought that it was impure, b because it could not be seen well. /b Subsequently, b when he saw /b after a short while b that /b its color b again changed, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said: This /b blood b is impure, and it is gradually becoming lighter /b as its color fades.,With regard to the manner in which the Sages would examine blood, the Gemara relates that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b would examine /b blood b by candlelight. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosef, would examine /b blood b between the pillars /b of the study hall even b on a cloudy day, /b despite the fact that it was not very light there. b Rav Ami bar Shmuel says: And /b in b all these /b cases, b one examines /b blood b only between sunlight and shade. Rav Naḥman /b says that b Rabba bar Avuh says: /b One stands b in /b a place lit by the b sun, and /b he conducts the examination b under the shadow of his hand, /b i.e., he places his hand over the blood. In this manner the color of the blood can be best discerned.,§ The mishna states: b And /b what is the color that is b like diluted /b wine that is impure? It is specifically when the dilution consists of b two parts /b water and one part wine, and specifically when it is from the wine of the Sharon region in Eretz Yisrael. The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i :
10. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 10; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 10
30a. הוה אמינא לשטן גירא בעיניך א"ל רבא לר' נתן בר אמי אדידך על צוארי דבריך משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתי ואמרי לה מתמני סרי עד עשרים וארבעה,כתנאי (משלי כב, ו) "חנ(ו)ך לנער על פי דרכו" ר' יהודה ורבי נחמיה חד אמר משיתסר ועד עשרים ותרתין וחד אמר מתמני סרי ועד עשרים וארבעה,עד היכן חייב אדם ללמד את בנו תורה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כגון זבולון בן דן שלימדו אבי אביו מקרא ומשנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות מיתיבי למדו מקרא אין מלמדו משנה ואמר רבא מקרא זו תורה,כזבולון בן דן ולא כזבולון בן דן כזבולון בן דן שלמדו אבי אביו ולא כזבולון בן דן דאילו התם מקרא משנה ותלמוד הלכות ואגדות ואילו הכא מקרא לבד,ואבי אביו מי מיחייב והתניא (דברים יא, יט) ולמדתם אותם את בניכם ולא בני בניכם ומה אני מקיים (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך לומר לך שכל המלמד את בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו למדו לו ולבנו ולבן בנו עד סוף כל הדורות, הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא ולמדתם אותם את בניכם אין לי אלא בניכם, בני בניכם מנין ת"ל והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך א"כ מה ת"ל בניכם בניכם ולא בנותיכם,אמר ריב"ל כל המלמד את בן בנו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו קבלה מהר סיני שנאמר והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב (דברים ד, י),רבי חייא בר אבא אשכחיה לריב"ל דשדי דיסנא ארישיה וקא ממטי ליה לינוקא לבי כנישתא א"ל מאי כולי האי א"ל מי זוטר מאי דכתיב והודעתם לבניך וסמיך ליה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מכאן ואילך רבי חייא בר אבא לא טעים אומצא עד דמקרי לינוקא ומוספיה רבה בר רב הונא לא טעים אומצא עד דמייתי לינוקא לבית מדרשא,אמר רב ספרא משום ר' יהושע בן חנניא מאי דכתיב (דברים ו, ז) ושננתם לבניך אל תקרי ושננתם אלא ושלשתם,לעולם ישלש אדם שנותיו שליש במקרא שליש במשנה שליש בתלמוד מי יודע כמה חיי לא צריכא ליומי,לפיכך נקראו ראשונים סופרים שהיו סופרים כל האותיות שבתורה שהיו אומרים וא"ו (ויקרא יא, מב) דגחון חציין של אותיות של ס"ת (ויקרא י, טז) דרש דרש חציין של תיבות (ויקרא יג, לג) "והתגלח" של פסוקים (תהלים פ, יד) יכרסמנה חזיר מיער עי"ן דיער חציין של תהלים (תהלים עח, לח) והוא רחום יכפר עון חציו דפסוקים,בעי רב יוסף וא"ו דגחון מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל ניתי ס"ת ואימנינהו מי לא אמר רבה בר בר חנה לא זזו משם עד שהביאו ספר תורה ומנאום א"ל אינהו בקיאי בחסירות ויתרות אנן לא בקיאינן,בעי רב יוסף והתגלח מהאי גיסא או מהאי גיסא א"ל אביי פסוקי מיהא ליתו לימנוי' בפסוקי נמי לא בקיאינן דכי אתא רב אחא בר אדא אמר במערבא פסקי ליה להאי קרא לתלתא פסוקי (שמות יט, ט) ויאמר ה' אל משה הנה אנכי בא אליך בעב הענן,תנו רבנן חמשת אלפים ושמונה מאות ושמונים ושמונה פסוקים הוו פסוקי ס"ת יתר עליו תהלים שמונה חסר ממנו דברי הימים שמונה,תנו רבנן ושננתם שיהו דברי תורה מחודדים בפיך שאם ישאל לך אדם דבר אל תגמגם ותאמר לו אלא אמור לו מיד שנאמר 30a. b I would say to the Satan: An arrow in your eye, /b i.e., I would not be afraid of the evil inclination at all. b Rava said to Rabbi Natan bar Ami: While your hand is still on your son’s neck, /b i.e., while you still have authority and control over him, find him a wife. What is the appropriate age? b From sixteen until twenty-two, and some say from eighteen until twenty-four. /b ,The Gemara notes that this is b like /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i , /b based on the verse: b “Train a child in the way that he should go” /b (Proverbs 22:6). b Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Neḥemya /b disagreed about the age in which the verse instructs the parent to educate his child: b One said /b that the verse is referring to the ages b from sixteen until twenty-two, and one said /b it is referring to the ages b from eighteen until twenty-four. /b The dispute concerning the correct age for marriage and the dispute about educating a child are the same, as while a father still has a large measure of influence over his son, he must both teach him and find him a wife.,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of a father’s obligation to teach his son Torah. b To what /b extent b is a person obligated to teach his son Torah? Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b One should emulate the education of, b for example, Zevulun ben Dan, /b a contemporary of Shmuel, b whose father’s father taught him Bible, Mishna, Talmud, i halakhot /i , and i aggadot /i . The Gemara raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : If a father b taught /b his son b Bible, /b he is b not /b required to b teach him Mishna. And Rava said /b in explanation of this i baraita /i : b Bible is /b the b Torah, /b not the Prophets or Writings, i.e., he is not required to teach him anything else, including Mishna.,The Gemara answers that Shmuel’s statement should be understood as follows: One should teach his son b like Zevulun ben Dan was taught /b in certain aspects, b but not like Zevulun ben Dan /b in other respects. One should teach his son b like Zevulun ben Dan /b in b that his father’s father taught him; but not like Zevulun ben Dan, as there /b he was taught b Bible, Mishna, Talmud, i halakhot /i , and i aggadot /i , while here, /b in this i baraita /i , one is required to teach his son b Bible alone. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But is one’s father’s father obligated /b to teach him Torah? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i , that the verse: b “And you shall teach them to your sons” /b (Deuteronomy 11:19), indicates: b But not your sons’ sons? And how do I realize, /b i.e., understand, the meaning of the verse: b “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons” /b (Deuteronomy 4:9)? This serves b to say to you /b that b whoever teaches his son Torah, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he taught him, and his son, and his son’s son, until the end of all generations. /b ,The Gemara answers that the i tanna /i of this i baraita /i b stated /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion of b that i tanna /i , as it is taught /b in another i baraita /i : From the verse b “And you shall teach them to your sons” I have /b derived b only /b that you must teach b your sons. From where do /b I derive that there is an obligation to teach b your sons’ sons? The verse states: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons.” If so, what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “Your sons” /b (Deuteronomy 11:19), which implies only sons? This limitation teaches: b Your sons, but not your daughters. /b , b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who teaches his son’s son Torah, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he received it from Mount Sinai, as it is stated: “But make them known to your sons and to your sons’ sons,” and juxtaposed to it /b is the phrase in the verse: b “The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb” /b (Deuteronomy 4:10), as Horeb is Mount Sinai.,The Gemara relates: Once b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba encountered Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, /b and saw b that he had placed /b an inexpensive b covering on his head and brought /b his b child to the synagogue /b to study. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba b said to him: What /b is the reason for b all this /b fuss, as you are in such a hurry that you do not have time to dress yourself properly? b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said to him: Is it insignificant, that which is written: “But make them known to your sons,” and juxtaposed to it /b is the phrase in the verse that states: b “The day when you stood before the Lord your God in Horeb”? /b The Gemara comments: b From this /b moment b onward, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would not taste meat [ i umtza /i ], /b meaning he would not eat breakfast, b before he had read to /b his b child and added to /b the child’s studies from the day before. Similarly, b Rabba bar Rav Huna would not taste meat before he had brought /b his b child to the study hall. /b ,§ b Rav Safra says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “And you shall teach them diligently [ i veshintam /i ] to your sons” /b (Deuteronomy 6:7)? b Do not read /b this as b “ i veshintam /i ,” /b with the root i shin /i , i nun /i , i nun /i , which indicates a repetition. b Rather, /b read it as b i veshillashtam /i , /b with the root i shin /i , i lamed /i , i shin /i , related to the word three, i shalosh /i . This means that one must study, review, and study again, thereby dividing one’s studies into three parts.,In light of this statement, the Sages said that b a person should always divide his years into three /b parts, as follows: b A third for Bible, a third for Mishna, and a third for Talmud. /b The Gemara asks: How can a person divide his life this way? b Who knows the length of his life, /b so that he can calculate how long a third will be? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is b necessary for /b one’s b days, /b i.e., one should divide each day of his life in this manner., b Therefore, /b because they devoted so much time to the Bible, the b first /b Sages b were called: Those who count [ i soferim /i ], /b because b they would count all the letters in the Torah, as they would say /b that the letter b i vav /i /b in the word b “belly [ i gaḥon /i ]” /b (Leviticus 11:42) b is the midpoint of the letters in a Torah scroll. /b The words: b “Diligently inquired [ i darosh darash /i ]” /b (Leviticus 10:16), b are the midpoint of the words /b in a Torah scroll. And the verse that begins with: b “Then he shall be shaven” /b (Leviticus 13:33), is the midpoint b of /b the b verses. /b Similarly, in the expression: b “The boar out of the wood [ i miya’ar /i ] ravages it” /b (Psalms 80:14), b the i ayin /i in /b the word wood b [ i ya’ar /i ] /b is the b midpoint of Psalms, /b with regard to its number of letters. The verse: b “But He, being full of compassion, forgives iniquity” /b (Psalms 78:38), b is the midpoint /b of b verses /b in the book of Psalms., b Rav Yosef raises a dilemma: /b Does the b i vav /i of /b the word b “belly [ i gaḥon /i ]” /b belong b to this side or to this side? /b Is it part of the first or second half of the Torah? The Sages b said to him: Let us bring a Torah scroll and count /b the letters. b Didn’t Rabba bar bar Ḥana say /b with regard to a different issue: b They did not move from there until they brought a Torah scroll and counted /b the letters? Therefore we can do the same. Rav Yosef b said to them: They /b were b experts /b in the b deficient and plene /b forms of words and therefore could count the letters precisely. b We are not experts /b in this regard, and therefore we would be unable to resolve the question even if we were to count the letters.,Similarly, b Rav Yosef raises a dilemma: /b Does the midpoint of the verses in the Torah, which is b “then he shall be shaven,” /b belong b to this side or to this side? Abaye said to him: /b Even if we cannot count the letters, b we can at least bring /b a Torah scroll b to count the verses. /b Rav Yosef explained: b We are not experts about verses either, as when Rav Aḥa bar Adda came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: In the West, /b i.e., Eretz Yisrael, b they divide this /b following b verse into three /b separate b verses: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold I come to you in a thick cloud, /b that the people may hear when I speak with you, and may also believe you forever; And Moses told the words of the people to the Lord” (Exodus 19:9). Perhaps there are other verses that we do not know how to divide properly., b The Sages taught: Five thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight verses are the verses in a Torah scroll. Psalms has eight more /b verses b than that, /b and b Chronicles /b has b eight fewer /b verses b than that. /b ,§ b The Sages taught: /b The verse states: b “And you shall teach them diligently [ i veshintam /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 6:7). The root i shin /i , i nun /i , i nun /i , of i veshintam /i should be understood as meaning sharp, i.e., b that matters of Torah should be sharp /b and clear b in your mouth, /b so b that if a person asks you something, do not stutter /b in uncertainty b and say /b an uncertain response b to him. Rather, answer him immediately, as it is stated: /b
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •bavli (babylonian talmud), reading in context Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 9; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 9
24a. בעדים פסולין ודיינין כשרין מיגו דפסלי עדים פסלי נמי דייני סיפא בדיינין פסולין ועדים כשרין דמיגו דפסלי דיינין פסלי נמי עדים,מתקיף לה רבא בשלמא מיגו דפסלי עדים פסלי נמי דייני איכא בי דינא אחרינא אלא מיגו דפסלי דייני פסלי נמי עדים והא עדים תו ליכא,לא צריכא דאיכא כת אחרת,הא ליכא כת אחרת מאי הכי נמי דלא מצי פסלי היינו דרב דימי,איכא בינייהו מיגו דמר סבר אמרינן מיגו ומר סבר לא אמרינן מיגו,גופא אמר ר"ל פה קדוש יאמר דבר זה תני עדו,איני והאמר עולא הרואה את ר"ל בבית המדרש כאילו עוקר הרים וטוחנן זה בזה,אמר רבינא והלא כל הרואה ר"מ בבית המדרש כאילו עוקר הרי הרים וטוחנן זה בזה,הכי קאמר בא וראה כמה מחבבין זה את זה,כי הא דיתיב רבי וקאמר אסור להטמין את הצונן אמר לפניו ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי אבא התיר להטמין את הצונן א"ל כבר הורה זקן,אמר רב פפא בא וראה כמה מחבבין זה את זה דאילו רבי יוסי קיים היה כפוף ויושב לפני רבי דהא ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה והיה כפוף ויושב לפני רבי וקא אמר כבר הורה זקן,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (זכריה יא, ז) ואקח לי (את) שני מקלות לאחד קראתי נועם ולאחד קראתי חובלים נועם אלו ת"ח שבארץ ישראל שמנעימין זה לזה בהלכה חובלים אלו ת"ח שבבבל שמחבלים זה לזה בהלכה,(זכריה יא, יג) ויאמר (אלי) אלה [שני] בני היצהר העומדים וגו' ושנים זיתים עליה יצהר אמר רבי יצחק אלו ת"ח שבא"י שנוחין זה לזה בהלכה כשמן זית ושנים זיתים עליה אלו ת"ח שבבבל שמרורין זה לזה בהלכה כזית,(זכריה ה, ט) ואשא עיני וארא והנה שתים נשים יוצאות ורוח בכנפיהם ולהנה כנפים ככנפי החסידה ותשאנה האיפה בין השמים ובין הארץ ואומר אל המלאך הדובר בי אנה המה מוליכות את האיפה ויאמר אלי לבנות לה בית בארץ שנער א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי זו חנופה וגסות הרוח שירדו לבבל,וגסות הרוח לבבל נחית והאמר מר עשרה קבין גסות ירדו לעולם תשעה נטלה עילם ואחת כל העולם כולו,אין לבבל נחית ואישתרבובי דאישתרבב לעילם דיקא נמי דכתיב לבנות לה בית בארץ שנער ש"מ,והאמר מר סימן לגסות הרוח עניות ועניות לבבל נחית מאי עניות עניות תורה דכתיב (שיר השירים ח, ח) אחות לנו קטנה ושדים אין לה אמר ר' יוחנן זו עילם שזכתה ללמוד ולא זכתה ללמד,מאי בבל א"ר יוחנן בלולה במקרא בלולה במשנה בלולה בתלמוד (איכה ג, ו) במחשכים הושיבני כמתי עולם אמר ר' ירמיה זה תלמודה של בבל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר לו נאמן עלי אבא נאמן עלי אביך נאמנים עלי שלשה רועי בקר ר"מ אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכמים אומרים אינו יכול לחזור בו,היה חייב לחבירו שבועה ואמר לו דור לי בחיי ראשך ר"מ אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכ"א אין יכול לחזור בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב דימי בריה דרב נחמן בריה דרב יוסף כגון דקבליה עליה בחד,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מחלוקת במחול לך אבל באתן לך דברי הכל יכול לחזור בו ורבי יוחנן אמר באתן לך מחלוקת,איבעיא להו באתן לך מחלוקת אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו או דילמא בין בזו ובין בזו מחלוקת,תא שמע דאמר רבא מחלוקת באתן לך אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו,אי אמרת בשלמא באתן לך מחלוקת אבל במחול לך דברי הכל אין יכול לחזור בו רבא דאמר כרבי יוחנן אלא אי אמרת בין בזו ובין בזו מחלוקת רבא דאמר כמאן,רבא טעמא דנפשיה קאמר,איתיביה רב אחא בר תחליפא לרבא היה חייב לחבירו שבועה ואמר לו דור לי בחיי ראשך רבי מאיר אומר יכול לחזור בו וחכמים אומרים אין יכול לחזור בו 24a. is stated b with regard to /b a case of b disqualified witnesses and fit judges, /b i.e., the litigant claims that both the witnesses and the judges are disqualified and proves his claim only with regard to the witnesses. Rabbi Meir holds that b since the witnesses are disqualified the judges are also disqualified, /b as the litigant’s entire claim is deemed credible. b The latter clause, /b where Rabbi Meir rules that a litigant can disqualify witnesses, is stated b with regard to /b a case of b disqualified judges and fit witnesses, /b i.e., the litigant proves his claim only with regard to the judges. b Since the judges are disqualified the witnesses were also disqualified. /b , b Rava objects to this /b interpretation: b Granted, /b in the former clause, it is reasonable that b since the witnesses are disqualified the judges are also disqualified, /b as, since b there is /b the option of going to b another court, /b disqualifying these specific judges has no irreversible effect on the outcome of the case. b But /b in the latter case, how can Rabbi Meir hold that b since the judges are disqualified, the witnesses are also disqualified /b without proof? This disqualification nullifies the entire case, as b there are no more witnesses. /b ,The Gemara answers: b No, /b the mishna is not referring to a case where there are no other witnesses. The dispute between Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis is b necessary /b only in a case b where there is another set /b of witnesses, which the litigant did not disqualify. Since disqualifying this set will not predetermine the outcome, the litigant’s claim that these witnesses are disqualified is accepted.,The Gemara asks: b But /b if b there is no other set /b of witnesses, b what /b is the i halakha /i ? Is it b indeed /b true b that /b the litigant b cannot disqualify /b them? If so, b this is /b identical to b Rav Dimi’s /b interpretation that the mishna is referring to a case where there are two sets of witnesses.,The Gemara answers: b There is /b a practical difference b between them /b with regard to the principle that b since [ i miggo /i ] /b one of the litigant’s claims is found to be correct, it can be assumed that other claims of his are correct as well. b As /b one b Sage, /b Ravin, b holds /b that according to Rabbi Meir, b we say i miggo /i , /b i.e., this principle should be followed, b and /b one b Sage, /b Rav Dimi, b holds /b that b we do not say i miggo /i , /b but rather the litigant is required to prove every claim he makes.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss b the /b matter b itself: Reish Lakish says: Would a holy mouth, /b i.e., that of Rabbi Meir, b say this /b strange b statement, /b that a litigant can prevent a witness from testifying against him? Rather, emend the text of the mishna and b teach: His witness, /b in the singular, meaning that a litigant can disqualify only a witness who testifies alone.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? /b Was it in character for Reish Lakish to speak of Rabbi Meir with such reverence when disagreeing with his ruling? b But doesn’t Ulla say: /b When b one sees Reish Lakish /b studying Torah b in the study hall /b it is b as though he is uprooting mountains and grinding them into each other? /b Reish Lakish was evidently very sharp in his analyses., b Ravina said /b in response: What is the difficulty? b But is it not /b so that when b anyone sees Rabbi Meir /b studying Torah b in the study hall, /b it is b as though he is uprooting the highest of mountains and grinding them into each other? /b Rabbi Meir was a greater scholar than Reish Lakish, so it was fitting for Reish Lakish to speak of him with reverence.,The Gemara answers: The question: Is that so, was not stated to raise a difficulty; rather, b this /b is what he b is saying, /b i.e., this is what the Gemara was noting: b Come and see how much /b the Sages b love each other. /b Although Reish Lakish was himself very sharp and a great Torah scholar, he spoke of Rabbi Meir with reverence.,The Gemara cites another example of Torah scholars who spoke of each other with reverence. It is b like that /b incident b where Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b sat and said: It is prohibited to insulate cold /b food on Shabbat to keep it cold, as this may lead one to insulate hot food on Shabbat to keep it hot. b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said before him: My father /b ruled that it is b permitted to insulate cold /b food on Shabbat. There is no concern that this will lead one to insulate hot food on Shabbat. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi subsequently b said to /b those who asked him about this issue: I retract my previous statement; b the elder, /b Rabbi Yosei, b has already issued a ruling /b on this topic, and I defer to his ruling., b Rav Pappa says: Come and see how much they loved each other. As, had Rabbi Yosei /b still b been alive, he would have been subordinate /b to b and sitting before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi as his student, b as Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, was his fathers’ replacement, /b i.e., he was as great a Torah scholar as his forebears, b and he was subordinate /b to b and sitting before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi as his student. b And, /b nevertheless, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said: The elder has already issued a ruling /b on this topic, and he deferred to Rabbi Yosei’s ruling.,This demonstrates what b Rabbi Oshaya says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “And I took for myself two staves; the one I called Graciousness, and the other I called Binders” /b (Zechariah 11:7)? b “Graciousness”; these are /b the b Torah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, who are gracious to one another in /b discussions of b i halakha /i . /b They treat each other with honor and love, as demonstrated in the statements of Reish Lakish and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. b “Binders [ i ḥovelim /i ]”; these are /b the b Torah scholars in Babylonia, who injure [ i shemeḥabbelim /i ] each other in /b discussions of b i halakha /i , /b i.e., they speak harshly to each other when they disagree.,Similarly, it is stated: b “Then he said to me: These are the two anointed ones, that stand /b by the Lord of the whole earth” (Zechariah 4:14), and it is stated: b “And two olive trees by it, /b one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon its left side” (Zechariah 4:3). With regard to the expression b “anointed ones,” Rabbi Yitzḥak says: These are /b the b Torah scholars in Eretz Yisrael, who are pleasant to each other in /b discussions of b i halakha /i like olive oil, /b which is not bitter. The verse b “and two olive trees by it” /b should be interpreted as follows: b These are /b the b Torah scholars in Babylonia, who are bitter to each other in /b discussions of b i halakha /i like an olive. /b ,The Gemara interprets another verse in Zechariah: b “Then I lifted my eyes and saw, and behold there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings, for they had wings like the wings of a stork. And they lifted up the measure between the earth and the heaven. Then I said to the angel that spoke with me: To where do they take the measure? And he said to me: To build her a house in the land of Shinar” /b (Zechariah 5:9–11). b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: This /b measure refers to b flattery and arrogance that descended to Babylonia, /b i.e., Shinar.,The Gemara asks: b And did arrogance descend to Babylonia? But doesn’t the Master say: Ten i kav /i /b of b arrogance descended to the world; Eilam took nine and all /b the rest of b the world in its entirety /b took b one? /b ,The Gemara answers: b Yes, it descended to Babylonia, and it made its way to Eilam. /b The language of the verse b is also precise, as it is written: “To build her a house in the land of Shinar,” /b which indicates that the original intention was to build a house in Babylonia, but it was not built there. The Gemara comments: b Conclude from it /b that arrogance did not remain in Babylonia.,The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t the Master say: A sign of arrogance /b is b poverty? And poverty descended to Babylonia, /b not to Eilam. The Gemara answers: To b what /b kind of b poverty /b is this referring? It is b poverty /b with regard to b Torah, /b which was characteristic of Eilam. b As it is written: “We have a little sister, and she has no breasts” /b (Song of Songs 8:8), and b Rabbi Yoḥa says: This /b refers to b Eilam, whose /b inhabitants b merited to learn /b Torah b but did not merit to teach /b it. They did not produce Torah scholars capable of imparting their wisdom to others.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the homiletic interpretation of the word b Babylonia? Rabbi Yoḥa says, /b as a tribute to the Jewish community of Babylonia and its Torah scholars: It means b mixed with Bible, mixed with Mishna, /b and b mixed with Talmud. /b Other Sages had a different opinion of the Torah in Babylonia: With regard to the verse: b “He has made me dwell in dark places, as those that have been long dead” /b (Lamentations 3:6), b Rabbi Yirmeya says: This is the Talmud of Babylonia, /b which is not as clear as the Talmud of Eretz Yisrael., strong MISHNA: /strong If one litigant b says to /b the other: b My father is trusted /b to adjudicate b for me, /b or: b Your father is trusted /b to adjudicate b for me, /b or: b Three cattle herders, /b who are not proficient in i halakha /i , b are trusted /b to adjudicate b for me, /b all of whom are disqualified from serving as judges, b Rabbi Meir says: /b The one who made the offer b can retract it, and the Rabbis say: He cannot retract it, /b but must accept their verdict.,Similarly, one who b was obligated /b by Torah law to take b an oath to another, /b which is done while grasping a sacred object, b and /b the latter b said to him: /b Instead of taking an oath, merely b vow to me by the life of your head /b that what you claim is true, b Rabbi Meir says: /b The one who made the offer b can retract it, /b and demand that the other litigant take an oath, as he is obligated to do by Torah law. b And the Rabbis say: He cannot retract /b his offer. Once he has agreed to accept a vow, which is of less severity than an oath, he cannot retract his agreement., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav Dimi, son of Rav Naḥman, son of Rav Yosef, says: /b The case of a litigant who accepts his father or the father of the other litigant as a judge is referring to b where /b the litigant b accepted /b this relative b upon himself as one /b of the judges in a court of three, where the other two judges are fit. It is not referring to where he accepted him as the sole judge., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b The b dispute /b between Rabbi Meir and the Rabbis is b with regard to /b a case where the claimant had said to the defendant: The money I claim you owe me is b forgiven you /b if my father or your father rules as judge to that effect, and the claimant subsequently wishes to retract his offer. b But in /b a case where it is the defendant who said: b I will give you /b what you claim if that is the ruling of this judge, b everyone agrees /b that b he can retract /b his offer. b And Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b The b dispute /b is b with regard to /b a case where the defendant said: b I will give you /b what you claim if that is the ruling of this judge., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages with regard to the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa: Is the b dispute /b only b with regard to /b a case where the defendant says: b I will give you, but in /b a case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is b forgiven you, everyone agrees /b that b he cannot retract /b his offer? b Or perhaps /b Rabbi Yoḥa maintains that the b dispute is both with regard to this /b case b and with regard to that /b case?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a resolution from that b which Rava says: /b The b dispute is with regard to /b a case where the defendant says: b I will give you, but in /b a case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is b forgiven you, everyone agrees /b that b he cannot retract /b his offer., b Granted, /b this makes sense b if you say /b that according to Rabbi Yoḥa too, the b dispute /b is b with regard to /b a case where the defendant says: b I will give you, but in /b a case where the claimant says: The money I claim you owe me is b forgiven you, everyone agrees /b that b he cannot retract /b his offer; this means that b Rava is stating /b the i halakha /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa. But if you say /b that according to Rabbi Yoḥa the b dispute is both with regard to this /b case b and with regard to that /b case, then b in accordance with whose /b opinion b is Rava stating /b the i halakha /i ? His statement is in accordance with neither Shmuel’s opinion nor Rabbi Yoḥa’s opinion.,The Gemara rejects this: Perhaps b Rava is stating his own explanation /b of the dispute., b Rav Aḥa bar Taḥlifa raised an objection to /b the opinion of b Rava /b from the latter clause in the mishna: With regard to one who b was obligated /b by Torah law to take b an oath to another, and /b the latter b said to him: Vow to me by the life of your head /b that what you claim is true, b Rabbi Meir says: /b The one who made the offer b can retract it; and the Rabbis say: He cannot retract /b his offer.
12. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, reading of biblical figures as rabbis Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 40
13. Nag Hammadi, The Testimony of Truth, 9.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, reading of biblical figures as rabbis Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 116
15. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 47, 49, 14  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 569
16. Epigraphy, Aramaic Incantation Bowls, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan