Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.





390 results for "rabbis"
1. Septuagint, Lamentations, 29.8-29.13 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 158
2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.6, 5.8, 11.3, 14.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community •rabbis, the •avtolas the elder, rabbi •judah the patriarch, rabbi •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 191; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 210; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 214
5.6. "בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם׃", 5.8. "תִּקְעוּ שׁוֹפָר בַּגִּבְעָה חֲצֹצְרָה בָּרָמָה הָרִיעוּ בֵּית אָוֶן אַחֲרֶיךָ בִּנְיָמִין׃", 11.3. "וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃", 14.6. "אֶהְיֶה כַטַּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יִפְרַח כַּשּׁוֹשַׁנָּה וְיַךְ שָׁרָשָׁיו כַּלְּבָנוֹן׃", 5.6. "With their flocks and with their herds they shall go To seek the LORD, but they shall not find Him; He hath withdrawn Himself from them.", 5.8. "Blow ye the horn in Gibeah, And the trumpet in Ramah; Sound an alarm at Beth-aven: ‘Behind thee, O Benjamin! ’", 11.3. "And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them.", 14.6. "I will be as the dew unto Israel; He shall blossom as the lily, And cast forth his roots as Lebanon.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.1, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 3.19, 9.6-9.7, 15.3-15.5, 22.1-22.3, 22.15, 25.23, 29.31, 31.4, 32.5, 34.5, 39.11, 47.31, 48.16, 49.4, 49.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, and the value of torah study •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and the body •rabbi (judah the patriarch) •rabbis, the •judah the prince (hanasi), rabbi •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •rabbis, condemning theater •yoḥanan, rabbi, and women at the mikveh Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 178, 181; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203, 204, 205; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63, 422; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 183, 211; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 61, 64, 65; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 278; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 51; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 158, 159
1.1. "וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃", 1.1. "בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.27. "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃", 1.28. "וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 2.7. "וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃", 3.19. "בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃", 9.6. "שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃", 9.7. "וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃", 15.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם הֵן לִי לֹא נָתַתָּה זָרַע וְהִנֵּה בֶן־בֵּיתִי יוֹרֵשׁ אֹתִי׃", 15.4. "וְהִנֵּה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר לֹא יִירָשְׁךָ זֶה כִּי־אִם אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ הוּא יִירָשֶׁךָ׃", 15.5. "וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃", 22.1. "וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃", 22.1. "וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃", 22.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר קַח־נָא אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ אֲשֶׁר־אָהַבְתָּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְלֶךְ־לְךָ אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה וְהַעֲלֵהוּ שָׁם לְעֹלָה עַל אַחַד הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃", 22.2. "וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֻּגַּד לְאַבְרָהָם לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה יָלְדָה מִלְכָּה גַם־הִוא בָּנִים לְנָחוֹר אָחִיךָ׃", 22.3. "וַיַּשְׁכֵּם אַבְרָהָם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּחֲבֹשׁ אֶת־חֲמֹרוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו אִתּוֹ וְאֵת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וַיְבַקַּע עֲצֵי עֹלָה וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־אָמַר־לוֹ הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 22.15. "וַיִּקְרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שֵׁנִית מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 25.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לָהּ שְׁנֵי גיים [גוֹיִם] בְּבִטְנֵךְ וּשְׁנֵי לְאֻמִּים מִמֵּעַיִךְ יִפָּרֵדוּ וּלְאֹם מִלְאֹם יֶאֱמָץ וְרַב יַעֲבֹד צָעִיר׃", 29.31. "וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי־שְׂנוּאָה לֵאָה וַיִּפְתַּח אֶת־רַחְמָהּ וְרָחֵל עֲקָרָה׃", 31.4. "הָיִיתִי בַיּוֹם אֲכָלַנִי חֹרֶב וְקֶרַח בַּלָּיְלָה וַתִּדַּד שְׁנָתִי מֵעֵינָי׃", 31.4. "וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב וַיִּקְרָא לְרָחֵל וּלְלֵאָה הַשָּׂדֶה אֶל־צֹאנוֹ׃", 32.5. "וַיְצַו אֹתָם לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמְרוּן לַאדֹנִי לְעֵשָׂו כֹּה אָמַר עַבְדְּךָ יַעֲקֹב עִם־לָבָן גַּרְתִּי וָאֵחַר עַד־עָתָּה׃", 34.5. "וְיַעֲקֹב שָׁמַע כִּי טִמֵּא אֶת־דִּינָה בִתּוֹ וּבָנָיו הָיוּ אֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה וְהֶחֱרִשׁ יַעֲקֹב עַד־בֹּאָם׃", 39.11. "וַיְהִי כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיָּבֹא הַבַּיְתָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ וְאֵין אִישׁ מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַבַּיִת שָׁם בַּבָּיִת׃", 47.31. "וַיֹּאמֶר הִשָּׁבְעָה לִי וַיִּשָּׁבַע לוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־רֹאשׁ הַמִּטָּה׃", 48.16. "הַמַּלְאָךְ הַגֹּאֵל אֹתִי מִכָּל־רָע יְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הַנְּעָרִים וְיִקָּרֵא בָהֶם שְׁמִי וְשֵׁם אֲבֹתַי אַבְרָהָם וְיִצְחָק וְיִדְגּוּ לָרֹב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃", 49.4. "פַּחַז כַּמַּיִם אַל־תּוֹתַר כִּי עָלִיתָ מִשְׁכְּבֵי אָבִיךָ אָז חִלַּלְתָּ יְצוּעִי עָלָה׃", 49.22. "בֵּן פֹּרָת יוֹסֵף בֵּן פֹּרָת עֲלֵי־עָיִן בָּנוֹת צָעֲדָה עֲלֵי־שׁוּר׃", 1.1. "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.", 1.26. "And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’", 1.27. "And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.", 1.28. "And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’", 2.7. "Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.", 3.19. "In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’", 9.6. "Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man.", 9.7. "And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ .", 15.3. "And Abram said: ‘Behold, to me Thou hast given no seed, and, lo, one born in my house is to be mine heir.’", 15.4. "And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying: ‘This man shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir.’", 15.5. "And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’", 22.1. "And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’", 22.2. "And He said: ‘Take now thy son, thine only son, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.’", 22.3. "And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he cleaved the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God had told him.", 22.15. "And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven,", 25.23. "And the LORD said unto her: Two nations are in thy womb, And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels; And the one people shall be stronger than the other people; And the elder shall serve the younger.", 29.31. "And the LORD saw that Leah was hated, and he opened her womb; but Rachel was barren.", 31.4. "And Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field unto his flock,", 32.5. "And he commanded them, saying: ‘Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob: I have sojourned with Laban, and stayed until now.", 34.5. "Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his cattle in the field; and Jacob held his peace until they came.", 39.11. "And it came to pass on a certain day, when he went into the house to do his work, and there was none of the men of the house there within,", 47.31. "And he said: ‘Swear unto me.’ And he swore unto him. And Israel bowed down upon the bed’s head.", 48.16. "the angel who hath redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads; and let my name be named in them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.’", 49.4. "Unstable as water, have not thou the excellency; Because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed; Then defiledst thou it—he went up to my couch.", 49.22. "Joseph is a fruitful vine, A fruitful vine by a fountain; Its branches run over the wall. .",
4. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 2.21, 6.11-6.12, 8.9, 8.15-8.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi ḥiyya the great •judah the patriarch, rabbi, Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 228, 229; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 95
2.21. "בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וּמָרְדֳּכַי יֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ קָצַף בִּגְתָן וָתֶרֶשׁ שְׁנֵי־סָרִיסֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ מִשֹּׁמְרֵי הַסַּף וַיְבַקְשׁוּ לִשְׁלֹחַ יָד בַּמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרֹשׁ׃", 6.11. "וַיִּקַּח הָמָן אֶת־הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת־הַסּוּס וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֶת־מָרְדֳּכָי וַיַּרְכִּיבֵהוּ בִּרְחוֹב הָעִיר וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו כָּכָה יֵעָשֶׂה לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר הַמֶּלֶךְ חָפֵץ בִּיקָרוֹ׃", 6.12. "וַיָּשָׁב מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־שַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ וְהָמָן נִדְחַף אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ אָבֵל וַחֲפוּי רֹאשׁ׃", 8.9. "וַיִּקָּרְאוּ סֹפְרֵי־הַמֶּלֶךְ בָּעֵת־הַהִיא בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא־חֹדֶשׁ סִיוָן בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁה וְעֶשְׂרִים בּוֹ וַיִּכָּתֵב כְּכָל־אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים וְאֶל הָאֲחַשְׁדַּרְפְּנִים־וְהַפַּחוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַמְּדִינוֹת אֲשֶׁר מֵהֹדּוּ וְעַד־כּוּשׁ שֶׁבַע וְעֶשְׂרִים וּמֵאָה מְדִינָה מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה כִּכְתָבָהּ וְעַם וָעָם כִּלְשֹׁנוֹ וְאֶל־הַיְּהוּדִים כִּכְתָבָם וְכִלְשׁוֹנָם׃", 8.15. "וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָצָא מִלִּפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ בִּלְבוּשׁ מַלְכוּת תְּכֵלֶת וָחוּר וַעֲטֶרֶת זָהָב גְּדוֹלָה וְתַכְרִיךְ בּוּץ וְאַרְגָּמָן וְהָעִיר שׁוּשָׁן צָהֲלָה וְשָׂמֵחָה׃", 8.16. "לַיְּהוּדִים הָיְתָה אוֹרָה וְשִׂמְחָה וְשָׂשֹׂן וִיקָר׃", 2.21. "in those days, while Mordecai sat in the king’s gate, two of the king’s chamberlains, Bigthan and Teresh, of those that kept the door, were wroth, and sought to lay hands on the king Ahasuerus.", 6.11. "Then took Haman the apparel and the horse, and arrayed Mordecai, and caused him to ride through the street of the city, and proclaimed before him: ‘Thus shall it be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honour.’", 6.12. "And Mordecai returned to the king’s gate. But Haman hasted to his house, mourning and having his head covered.", 8.9. "Then were the king’s scribes called at that time, in the third month, which is the month Sivan, on the three and twentieth day thereof; and it was written according to all that Mordecai commanded concerning the Jews, even to the satraps, and the governors and princes of the provinces which are from India unto Ethiopia, a hundred twenty and seven provinces, unto every province according to the writing thereof, and unto every people after their language, and to the Jews according to their writing, and according to their language.", 8.15. "And Mordecai went forth from the presence of the king in royal apparel of blue and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a rob of fine linen and purple; and the city of Shushan shouted and was glad.", 8.16. "The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honour.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 25.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203
25.6. "אַף כִּי־אֱנוֹשׁ רִמָּה וּבֶן־אָדָם תּוֹלֵעָה׃", 25.6. "How much less man, that is a worm! And the son of man, that is a maggot!",
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of Found in books: Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131
2.22. "אַל־תִּירְאוּ בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדַי כִּי דָשְׁאוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר כִּי־עֵץ נָשָׂא פִרְיוֹ תְּאֵנָה וָגֶפֶן נָתְנוּ חֵילָם׃", 2.22. "Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field; for the pastures of the wilderness do spring, for the tree beareth its fruit, the fig-tree and the vine do yield their strength.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 4.30, 5.1, 5.21, 5.24, 12.3, 16.4, 16.30, 18.3, 19.9-19.19, 20.22, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 444; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 133; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 154, 159, 167, 222; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 46, 61; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 235, 244; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 30, 75
5.1. "וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃", 5.1. "וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃", 5.21. "נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃", 5.24. "אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃", 12.3. "וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃", 16.4. "כְּתֹנֶת־בַּד קֹדֶשׁ יִלְבָּשׁ וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִהְיוּ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבְאַבְנֵט בַּד יַחְגֹּר וּבְמִצְנֶפֶת בַּד יִצְנֹף בִּגְדֵי־קֹדֶשׁ הֵם וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּלְבֵשָׁם׃", 18.3. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי לְבִלְתִּי עֲשׂוֹת מֵחֻקּוֹת הַתּוֹעֵבֹת אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשׂוּ לִפְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 18.3. "כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם אֲשֶׁר יְשַׁבְתֶּם־בָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּכְמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ־כְּנַעַן אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ וּבְחֻקֹּתֵיהֶם לֹא תֵלֵכוּ׃", 19.9. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃", 19.11. "לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃", 19.12. "וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.13. "לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃", 19.14. "לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.15. "לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃", 19.16. "לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.17. "לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃", 19.18. "לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.19. "אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃", 20.22. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפָּטַי וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וְלֹא־תָקִיא אֶתְכֶם הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה לָשֶׁבֶת בָּהּ׃", 27.21. "וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כִּשְׂדֵה הַחֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃", 4.30. "And the priest shall take of the blood thereof with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering, and all the remaining blood thereof shall he pour out at the base of the altar.", 5.1. "And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity;", 5.21. "If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;", 5.24. "or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty.", 12.3. "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.", 16.4. "He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his flesh, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen mitre shall he be attired; they are the holy garments; and he shall bathe his flesh in water, and put them on.", 16.30. "For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins shall ye be clean before the LORD.", 18.3. "After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do; and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do; neither shall ye walk in their statutes.", 19.9. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest.", 19.10. "And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.", 19.11. "Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another.", 19.12. "And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.", 19.13. "Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning.", 19.14. "Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD.", 19.15. "Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.", 19.16. "Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD.", 19.17. "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.", 19.18. "Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.", 19.19. "Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.", 20.22. "Ye shall therefore keep all My statutes, and all Mine ordices, and do them, that the land, whither I bring you to dwell therein, vomit you not out.", 27.21. "But the field, when it goeth out in the jubilee, shall be holy unto the LORD, as a field devoted; the possession thereof shall be the priest’s.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 4.13, 7.2, 7.4, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community •rabbi ḥiyya the great Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 228; Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 32, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 191; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 150, 157
4.13. "קוּמִי וָדוֹשִׁי בַת־צִיּוֹן כִּי־קַרְנֵךְ אָשִׂים בַּרְזֶל וּפַרְסֹתַיִךְ אָשִׂים נְחוּשָׁה וַהֲדִקּוֹת עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי לַיהוָה בִּצְעָם וְחֵילָם לַאֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 7.2. "תִּתֵּן אֱמֶת לְיַעֲקֹב חֶסֶד לְאַבְרָהָם אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּעְתָּ לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ מִימֵי קֶדֶם׃", 7.2. "אָבַד חָסִיד מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשָׁר בָּאָדָם אָיִן כֻּלָּם לְדָמִים יֶאֱרֹבוּ אִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיהוּ יָצוּדוּ חֵרֶם׃", 7.4. "טוֹבָם כְּחֵדֶק יָשָׁר מִמְּסוּכָה יוֹם מְצַפֶּיךָ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ בָאָה עַתָּה תִהְיֶה מְבוּכָתָם׃", 7.8. "אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי אֹיַבְתִּי לִי כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָמְתִּי כִּי־אֵשֵׁב בַּחֹשֶׁךְ יְהוָה אוֹר לִי׃", 4.13. "Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion; For I will make thy horn iron, And I will make thy hoofs brass; And thou shalt beat in pieces many peoples; And thou shalt devote their gain unto the LORD, And their substance unto the Lord of the whole earth.", 7.2. "The godly man is perished out of the earth, And the upright among men is no more; They all lie in wait for blood; They hunt every man his brother with a net.", 7.4. "The best of them is as a brier; The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge; The day of thy watchmen, even thy visitation, is come; Now shall be their perplexity.", 7.8. "Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy; Though I am fallen, I shall arise; Though I sit in darkness, the LORD is a light unto me.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 157
1.2. "אֵל קַנּוֹא וְנֹקֵם יְהוָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה וּבַעַל חֵמָה נֹקֵם יְהוָה לְצָרָיו וְנוֹטֵר הוּא לְאֹיְבָיו׃", 1.2. "The LORD is a jealous and avenging God, The LORD avengeth and is full of wrath; The LORD taketh vengeance on His adversaries, And He reserveth wrath for His enemies.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 793, 795
17.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־יָד עַל־כֵּס יָהּ מִלְחָמָה לַיהוָה בַּעֲמָלֵק מִדֹּר דֹּר׃", 17.16. "And he said: ‘The hand upon the throne of the LORD: the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.’",
11. Hebrew Bible, Obadiah, 1.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 792
1.4. "אִם־תַּגְבִּיהַּ כַּנֶּשֶׁר וְאִם־בֵּין כּוֹכָבִים שִׂים קִנֶּךָ מִשָּׁם אוֹרִידְךָ נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃", 1.4. "Though thou make thy nest as high as the eagle, And though thou set it among the stars, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 23.25, 27.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •honi the circle-drawer, rabbi •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of Found in books: Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 153
23.25. "יִשְׂמַח־אָבִיךָ וְאִמֶּךָ וְתָגֵל יוֹלַדְתֶּךָ׃", 27.18. "נֹצֵר תְּאֵנָה יֹאכַל פִּרְיָהּ וְשֹׁמֵר אֲדֹנָיו יְכֻבָּד׃", 23.25. "Let thy father and thy mother be glad, and let her that bore thee rejoice.", 27.18. "Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof; And he that waiteth on his master shall be honoured.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 61; Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 196; Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 35, 191; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 176, 180, 181; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 445; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 134; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 793; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 94; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 52; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 155, 156, 214; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 261; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 58, 60
1.1. "אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃", 1.2. "כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃", 8.5. "מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃", 17.14. "מִמְתִים יָדְךָ יְהוָה מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים וצפינך [וּצְפוּנְךָ] תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם׃", 25.14. "סוֹד יְהוָה לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם׃", 30.6. "כִּי רֶגַע בְּאַפּוֹ חַיִּים בִּרְצוֹנוֹ בָּעֶרֶב יָלִין בֶּכִי וְלַבֹּקֶר רִנָּה׃", 68.28. "שָׁם בִּנְיָמִן צָעִיר רֹדֵם שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה רִגְמָתָם שָׂרֵי זְבֻלוּן שָׂרֵי נַפְתָּלִי׃", 69.13. "יָשִׂיחוּ בִי יֹשְׁבֵי שָׁעַר וּנְגִינוֹת שׁוֹתֵי שֵׁכָר׃", 69.22. "וַיִּתְּנוּ בְּבָרוּתִי רֹאשׁ וְלִצְמָאִי יַשְׁקוּנִי חֹמֶץ׃", 78.15. "יְבַקַּע צֻרִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיַּשְׁקְ כִּתְהֹמוֹת רַבָּה׃", 97.1. "אֹהֲבֵי יְהוָה שִׂנְאוּ רָע שֹׁמֵר נַפְשׁוֹת חֲסִידָיו מִיַּד רְשָׁעִים יַצִּילֵם׃", 97.1. "יְהוָה מָלָךְ תָּגֵל הָאָרֶץ יִשְׂמְחוּ אִיִּים רַבִּים׃", 104.32. "הַמַּבִּיט לָאָרֶץ וַתִּרְעָד יִגַּע בֶּהָרִים וְיֶעֱשָׁנוּ׃", 105.39. "פָּרַשׂ עָנָן לְמָסָךְ וְאֵשׁ לְהָאִיר לָיְלָה׃", 126.1. "שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת בְּשׁוּב יְהוָה אֶת־שִׁיבַת צִיּוֹן הָיִינוּ כְּחֹלְמִים׃", 128.6. "וּרְאֵה־בָנִים לְבָנֶיךָ שָׁלוֹם עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 129.1. "שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת רַבַּת צְרָרוּנִי מִנְּעוּרַי יֹאמַר־נָא יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 129.2. "רַבַּת צְרָרוּנִי מִנְּעוּרָי גַּם לֹא־יָכְלוּ לִי׃", 135.8. "שֶׁהִכָּה בְּכוֹרֵי מִצְרָיִם מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה׃", 135.9. "שָׁלַח אֹתוֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּתוֹכֵכִי מִצְרָיִם בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו׃", 135.11. "לְסִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וּלְעוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן וּלְכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת כְּנָעַן׃", 135.12. "וְנָתַן אַרְצָם נַחֲלָה נַחֲלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַמּוֹ׃", 136.11. "וַיּוֹצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל מִתּוֹכָם כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.12. "בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.13. "לְגֹזֵר יַם־סוּף לִגְזָרִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.14. "וְהֶעֱבִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.15. "וְנִעֵר פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ בְיַם־סוּף כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.16. "לְמוֹלִיךְ עַמּוֹ בַּמִּדְבָּר כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.17. "לְמַכֵּה מְלָכִים גְּדֹלִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.18. "וַיַּהֲרֹג מְלָכִים אַדִּירִים כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.19. "לְסִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.21. "וְנָתַן אַרְצָם לְנַחֲלָה כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.22. "נַחֲלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַבְדּוֹ כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.23. "שֶׁבְּשִׁפְלֵנוּ זָכַר לָנוּ כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 136.24. "וַיִּפְרְקֵנוּ מִצָּרֵינוּ כִּי לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ׃", 1.1. "HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.", 1.2. "But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night.", 8.5. "What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?", 17.14. "From men, by Thy hand, O LORD, From men of the world, whose portion is in this life, And whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure; Who have children in plenty, And leave their abundance to their babes.", 25.14. "The counsel of the LORD is with them that fear Him; And His covet, to make them know it.", 30.6. "For His anger is but for a moment, His favour is for a life-time; weeping may tarry for the night, but joy cometh in the morning.", 68.28. "There is Benjamin, the youngest, ruling them, The princes of Judah their council, The princes of Zebulun, the princes of Naphtali.", 69.13. "They that sit in the gate talk of me; And I am the song of the drunkards. .", 69.22. "Yea, they put poison into my food; And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.", 78.15. "He cleaved rocks in the wilderness, And gave them drink abundantly as out of the great deep.", 97.1. "The LORD reigneth; let the earth rejoice; Let the multitude of isles be glad.", 104.32. "Who looketh on the earth, and it trembleth; He toucheth the mountains, and they smoke.", 105.39. "He spread a cloud for a screen; And fire to give light in the night.", 126.1. "A Song of Ascents. When the LORD brought back those that returned to Zion, We were like unto them that dream.", 128.6. "And see thy children's children. Peace be upon Israel!", 129.1. "A Song of Ascents. 'Much have they afflicted me from my youth up', Let Israel now say;", 129.2. "'Much have they afflicted me from my youth up; But they have not prevailed against me.", 135.8. "Who smote the first-born of Egypt, Both of man and beast.", 135.9. "He sent signs and wonders into the midst of thee, O Egypt, Upon Pharaoh, and upon all his servants.", 135.10. "Who smote many nations, And slew mighty kings:", 135.11. "Sihon king of the Amorites, And Og king of Bashan, And all the kingdoms of Canaan;", 135.12. "And gave their land for a heritage, A heritage unto Israel His people.", 136.10. "To Him that smote Egypt in their first-born, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.11. "And brought out Israel from among them, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.12. "With a strong hand, and with an outstretched arm, For His mercy endureth for ever.", 136.13. "To Him who divided the Red Sea in sunder, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.14. "And made Israel to pass through the midst of it, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.15. "But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea, For His mercy endureth for ever.", 136.16. "To Him that led His people through the wilderness, For His mercy endureth for ever.", 136.17. "To Him that smote great kings; For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.18. "And slew mighty kings, For His mercy endureth for ever.", 136.19. "Sihon king of the Amorites, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.20. "And Og king of Bashan, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.21. "And gave their land for a heritage, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.22. "Even a heritage unto Israel His servant, For His mercy endureth for ever.", 136.23. "Who remembered us in our low estate, For His mercy endureth for ever;", 136.24. "And hath delivered us from our adversaries, For His mercy endureth for ever.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 15.16, 19.14, 21.21-21.35, 24.14, 25.1-25.15, 30.9, 32.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 158; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 218; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 52, 53; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 48; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 163; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 261
15.16. "תּוֹרָה אַחַת וּמִשְׁפָּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְלַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם׃", 19.14. "זֹאת הַתּוֹרָה אָדָם כִּי־יָמוּת בְּאֹהֶל כָּל־הַבָּא אֶל־הָאֹהֶל וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאֹהֶל יִטְמָא שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 21.21. "וַיִּשְׁלַח יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְאָכִים אֶל־סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ־הָאֱמֹרִי לֵאמֹר׃", 21.22. "אֶעְבְּרָה בְאַרְצֶךָ לֹא נִטֶּה בְּשָׂדֶה וּבְכֶרֶם לֹא נִשְׁתֶּה מֵי בְאֵר בְּדֶרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ נֵלֵךְ עַד אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲבֹר גְּבֻלֶךָ׃", 21.23. "וְלֹא־נָתַן סִיחֹן אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבֹר בִּגְבֻלוֹ וַיֶּאֱסֹף סִיחֹן אֶת־כָּל־עַמּוֹ וַיֵּצֵא לִקְרַאת יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּדְבָּרָה וַיָּבֹא יָהְצָה וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 21.24. "וַיַּכֵּהוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לְפִי־חָרֶב וַיִּירַשׁ אֶת־אַרְצוֹ מֵאַרְנֹן עַד־יַבֹּק עַד־בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן כִּי עַז גְּבוּל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃", 21.25. "וַיִּקַּח יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הֶעָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּכָל־עָרֵי הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן וּבְכָל־בְּנֹתֶיהָ׃", 21.26. "כִּי חֶשְׁבּוֹן עִיר סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי הִוא וְהוּא נִלְחַם בְּמֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיִּקַּח אֶת־כָּל־אַרְצוֹ מִיָּדוֹ עַד־אַרְנֹן׃", 21.27. "עַל־כֵּן יֹאמְרוּ הַמֹּשְׁלִים בֹּאוּ חֶשְׁבּוֹן תִּבָּנֶה וְתִכּוֹנֵן עִיר סִיחוֹן׃", 21.28. "כִּי־אֵשׁ יָצְאָה מֵחֶשְׁבּוֹן לֶהָבָה מִקִּרְיַת סִיחֹן אָכְלָה עָר מוֹאָב בַּעֲלֵי בָּמוֹת אַרְנֹן׃", 21.29. "אוֹי־לְךָ מוֹאָב אָבַדְתָּ עַם־כְּמוֹשׁ נָתַן בָּנָיו פְּלֵיטִם וּבְנֹתָיו בַּשְּׁבִית לְמֶלֶךְ אֱמֹרִי סִיחוֹן׃", 21.31. "וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ הָאֱמֹרִי׃", 21.32. "וַיִּשְׁלַח מֹשֶׁה לְרַגֵּל אֶת־יַעְזֵר וַיִּלְכְּדוּ בְּנֹתֶיהָ ויירש [וַיּוֹרֶשׁ] אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם׃", 21.33. "וַיִּפְנוּ וַיַּעֲלוּ דֶּרֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן וַיֵּצֵא עוֹג מֶלֶךְ־הַבָּשָׁן לִקְרָאתָם הוּא וְכָל־עַמּוֹ לַמִּלְחָמָה אֶדְרֶעִי׃", 21.34. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אַל־תִּירָא אֹתוֹ כִּי בְיָדְךָ נָתַתִּי אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּוֹ וְאֶת־אַרְצוֹ וְעָשִׂיתָ לּוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ לְסִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר יוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן׃", 21.35. "וַיַּכּוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־כָּל־עַמּוֹ עַד־בִּלְתִּי הִשְׁאִיר־לוֹ שָׂרִיד וַיִּירְשׁוּ אֶת־אַרְצוֹ׃", 24.14. "וְעַתָּה הִנְנִי הוֹלֵךְ לְעַמִּי לְכָה אִיעָצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָעָם הַזֶּה לְעַמְּךָ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃", 25.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 25.1. "וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃", 25.2. "וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃", 25.3. "וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃", 25.6. "וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 25.7. "וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃", 25.8. "וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.9. "וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃", 25.11. "פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃", 25.12. "לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃", 25.13. "וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.14. "וְשֵׁם אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמֻּכֶּה אֲשֶׁר הֻכָּה אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית זִמְרִי בֶּן־סָלוּא נְשִׂיא בֵית־אָב לַשִּׁמְעֹנִי׃", 25.15. "וְשֵׁם הָאִשָּׁה הַמֻּכָּה הַמִּדְיָנִית כָּזְבִּי בַת־צוּר רֹאשׁ אֻמּוֹת בֵּית־אָב בְּמִדְיָן הוּא׃", 30.9. "וְאִם בְּיוֹם שְׁמֹעַ אִישָׁהּ יָנִיא אוֹתָהּ וְהֵפֵר אֶת־נִדְרָהּ אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִבְטָא שְׂפָתֶיהָ אֲשֶׁר אָסְרָה עַל־נַפְשָׁהּ וַיהוָה יִסְלַח־לָהּ׃", 32.33. "וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה לִבְנֵי־גָד וְלִבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן וְלַחֲצִי שֵׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה בֶן־יוֹסֵף אֶת־מַמְלֶכֶת סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֶת־מַמְלֶכֶת עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן הָאָרֶץ לְעָרֶיהָ בִּגְבֻלֹת עָרֵי הָאָרֶץ סָבִיב׃", 15.16. "One law and one ordice shall be both for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you.", 19.14. "This is the law: when a man dieth in a tent, every one that cometh into the tent, and every thing that is in the tent, shall be unclean seven days.", 21.21. "And Israel sent messengers unto Sihon king of the Amorites, saying:", 21.22. "’Let me pass through thy land; we will not turn aside into field, or into vineyard; we will not drink of the water of the wells; we will go by the king’s highway, until we have passed thy border.’", 21.23. "And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border; but Sihon gathered all his people together, and went out against Israel into the wilderness, and came to Jahaz; and he fought against Israel.", 21.24. "And Israel smote him with the edge of the sword, and possessed his land from the Arnon unto the Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon; for the border of the children of Ammon was strong.", 21.25. "And Israel took all these cities; and Israel dwelt in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the towns thereof.", 21.26. "For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab, and taken all his land out of his hand, even unto the Arnon.", 21.27. "Wherefore they that speak in parables say: Come ye to Heshbon! Let the city of Sihon be built and established!", 21.28. "For a fire is gone out of Heshbon, A flame from the city of Sihon; It hath devoured Ar of Moab, The lords of the high places of Arnon.", 21.29. "Woe to thee, Moab! Thou art undone, O people of Chemosh; He hath given his sons as fugitives, And his daughters into captivity, Unto Sihon king of the Amorites.", 21.30. "We have shot at them—Heshbon is perished—even unto Dibon, And we have laid waste even unto Nophah, Which reacheth unto Medeba.", 21.31. "Thus Israel dwelt in the land of the Amorites.", 21.32. "And Moses sent to spy out Jazer, and they took the towns thereof, and drove out the Amorites that were there.", 21.33. "And they turned and went up by the way of Bashan; and Og the king of Bashan went out against them, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei.", 21.34. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Fear him not; for I have delivered him into thy hand, and all his people, and his land; and thou shalt do to him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon.’", 21.35. "So they smote him, and his sons, and all his people, until there was none left him remaining; and they possessed his land.", 24.14. "And now, behold, I go unto my people; come, and I will announce to thee what this people shall do to thy people in the end of days.’", 25.1. "And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab.", 25.2. "And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods.", 25.3. "And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel.", 25.4. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’", 25.5. "And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’", 25.6. "And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting.", 25.7. "And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand.", 25.8. "And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel.", 25.9. "And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand.", 25.10. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 25.11. "’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy.", 25.12. "Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;", 25.13. "and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’", 25.14. "Now the name of the man of Israel that was slain, who was slain with the Midianitish woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince of a fathers’house among the Simeonites.", 25.15. "And the name of the Midianitish woman that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter of Zur; he was head of the people of a fathers’house in Midian.", 30.9. "But if her husband disallow her in the day that he heareth it, then he shall make void her vow which is upon her, and the clear utterance of her lips, wherewith she hath bound her soul; and the LORD will forgive her.", 32.33. "And Moses gave unto them, even to the children of Gad, and to the children of Reuben, and unto the half-tribe of Manasseh the son of Joseph, the kingdom of Sihon king of the Amorites, and the kingdom of Og king of Bashan, the land, according to the cities thereof with their borders, even the cities of the land round about.",
15. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 1.4, 1.16, 4.9, 4.32, 5.12-5.13, 6.6-6.7, 10.22, 12.3, 13.7, 17.14-17.20, 18.9-18.12, 22.19, 23.13-23.15, 23.24, 25.4, 25.19, 27.20, 31.9-31.11, 32.2, 32.8, 32.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •eliezer, rabbi, son of rabbi yose the galilean •yose the galilean, rabbi •conversion court, rabbi yehudah and the •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and list, cosmic adam •rabbis, the •de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis),, on tosefet shabbat •judah the patriarch, rabbi, •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, shared with the aramaic magic bowls •rabbi judah the prince •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 176, 179, 213; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203, 211; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 161, 188; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 794; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 158, 160, 218, 422; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 94, 95, 100, 177; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 158; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 52, 53; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 51; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 142; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 177; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 75
1.4. "אַחֲרֵי הַכֹּתוֹ אֵת סִיחֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר יוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן וְאֵת עוֹג מֶלֶךְ הַבָּשָׁן אֲשֶׁר־יוֹשֵׁב בְּעַשְׁתָּרֹת בְּאֶדְרֶעִי׃", 1.4. "וְאַתֶּם פְּנוּ לָכֶם וּסְעוּ הַמִּדְבָּרָה דֶּרֶךְ יַם־סוּף׃", 1.16. "וָאֲצַוֶּה אֶת־שֹׁפְטֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לֵאמֹר שָׁמֹעַ בֵּין־אֲחֵיכֶם וּשְׁפַטְתֶּם צֶדֶק בֵּין־אִישׁ וּבֵין־אָחִיו וּבֵין גֵּרוֹ׃", 4.9. "רַק הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ וּשְׁמֹר נַפְשְׁךָ מְאֹד פֶּן־תִּשְׁכַּח אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר־רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וּפֶן־יָסוּרוּ מִלְּבָבְךָ כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ וְהוֹדַעְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֵי בָנֶיךָ׃", 4.32. "כִּי שְׁאַל־נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר־הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד־קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם הֲנִהְיָה כַּדָּבָר הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה אוֹ הֲנִשְׁמַע כָּמֹהוּ׃", 5.12. "שָׁמוֹר אֶת־יוֹם הַשַׁבָּת לְקַדְּשׁוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ", 5.13. "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ׃", 6.6. "וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃", 6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 10.22. "בְּשִׁבְעִים נֶפֶשׁ יָרְדוּ אֲבֹתֶיךָ מִצְרָיְמָהּ וְעַתָּה שָׂמְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כְּכוֹכְבֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם לָרֹב׃", 12.3. "הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־תִּנָּקֵשׁ אַחֲרֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵי הִשָּׁמְדָם מִפָּנֶיךָ וּפֶן־תִּדְרֹשׁ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר אֵיכָה יַעַבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֶעֱשֶׂה־כֵּן גַּם־אָנִי׃", 12.3. "וְנִתַּצְתֶּם אֶת־מִזְבּחֹתָם וְשִׁבַּרְתֶּם אֶת־מַצֵּבֹתָם וַאֲשֵׁרֵיהֶם תִּשְׂרְפוּן בָּאֵשׁ וּפְסִילֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶם תְּגַדֵּעוּן וְאִבַּדְתֶּם אֶת־שְׁמָם מִן־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃", 13.7. "כִּי יְסִיתְךָ אָחִיךָ בֶן־אִמֶּךָ אוֹ־בִנְךָ אוֹ־בִתְּךָ אוֹ אֵשֶׁת חֵיקֶךָ אוֹ רֵעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ בַּסֵּתֶר לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃", 17.14. "כִּי־תָבֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּה בָּהּ וְאָמַרְתָּ אָשִׂימָה עָלַי מֶלֶךְ כְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתָי׃", 17.15. "שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃", 17.16. "רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃", 17.17. "וְלֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ נָשִׁים וְלֹא יָסוּר לְבָבוֹ וְכֶסֶף וְזָהָב לֹא יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ מְאֹד׃", 17.18. "וְהָיָה כְשִׁבְתּוֹ עַל כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ וְכָתַב לוֹ אֶת־מִשְׁנֵה הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת עַל־סֵפֶר מִלִּפְנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם׃", 17.19. "וְהָיְתָה עִמּוֹ וְקָרָא בוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו לְמַעַן יִלְמַד לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וְאֶת־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לַעֲשֹׂתָם׃", 18.9. "כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃", 18.11. "וְחֹבֵר חָבֶר וְשֹׁאֵל אוֹב וְיִדְּעֹנִי וְדֹרֵשׁ אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃", 18.12. "כִּי־תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה וּבִגְלַל הַתּוֹעֵבֹת הָאֵלֶּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מוֹרִישׁ אוֹתָם מִפָּנֶיךָ׃", 22.19. "וְעָנְשׁוּ אֹתוֹ מֵאָה כֶסֶף וְנָתְנוּ לַאֲבִי הַנַּעֲרָה כִּי הוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע עַל בְּתוּלַת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלוֹ־תִהְיֶה לְאִשָּׁה לֹא־יוּכַל לְשַּׁלְּחָהּ כָּל־יָמָיו׃", 23.13. "וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃", 23.14. "וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃", 23.15. "כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃", 23.24. "מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃", 25.4. "לֹא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ׃", 25.19. "וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃", 31.9. "וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 31.11. "בְּבוֹא כָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵרָאוֹת אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר תִּקְרָא אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת נֶגֶד כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאָזְנֵיהֶם׃", 32.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַסְתִּירָה פָנַי מֵהֶם אֶרְאֶה מָה אַחֲרִיתָם כִּי דוֹר תַּהְפֻּכֹת הֵמָּה בָּנִים לֹא־אֵמֻן בָּם׃", 32.2. "יַעֲרֹף כַּמָּטָר לִקְחִי תִּזַּל כַּטַּל אִמְרָתִי כִּשְׂעִירִם עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא וְכִרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב׃", 32.8. "בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 32.46. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מֵעִיד בָּכֶם הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תְּצַוֻּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃", 1.4. "after he had smitten Sihon the king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who dwelt in Ashtaroth, at Edrei;", 1.16. "And I charged your judges at that time, saying: ‘Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between a man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him.", 4.9. "Only take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the things which thine eyes saw, and lest they depart from thy heart all the days of thy life; but make them known unto thy children and thy children’s children;", 4.32. "For ask now of the days past, which were before thee, since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other, whether there hath been any such thing as this great thing is, or hath been heard like it?", 5.12. "Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the LORD thy God commanded thee.", 5.13. "Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;", 6.6. "And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart;", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 10.22. "Thy fathers went down into Egypt with threescore and ten persons; and now the LORD thy God hath made thee as the stars of heaven for multitude.", 12.3. "And ye shall break down their altars, and dash in pieces their pillars, and burn their Asherim with fire; and ye shall hew down the graven images of their gods; and ye shall destroy their name out of that place.", 13.7. "If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend, that is as thine own soul, entice thee secretly, saying: 'Let us go and serve other gods,' which thou hast not known, thou, nor thy fathers;", 17.14. "When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein; and shalt say: ‘I will set a king over me, like all the nations that are round about me’;", 17.15. "thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother.", 17.16. "Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’", 17.17. "Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away; neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold.", 17.18. "And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book, out of that which is before the priests the Levites.", 17.19. "And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life; that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them;", 17.20. "that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left; to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his children, in the midst of Israel.", 18.9. "When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.", 18.10. "There shall not be found among you any one that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, one that useth divination, a soothsayer, or an enchanter, or a sorcerer,", 18.11. "or a charmer, or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit, or a necromancer.", 18.12. "For whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD; and because of these abominations the LORD thy God is driving them out from before thee.", 22.19. "And they shall fine him a hundred shekels of silver, and give them unto the father of the damsel, because he hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin of Israel; and she shall be his wife; he may not put her away all his days.", 23.13. "Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad.", 23.14. "And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee.", 23.15. "For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee.", 23.24. "That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth.", 25.4. "Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn.", 25.19. "Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget.", 27.20. "Cursed be he that lieth with his father’s wife; because he hath uncovered his father’s skirt. And all the people shall say: Amen. .", 31.9. "And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.", 31.10. "And Moses commanded them, saying: ‘At the end of every seven years, in the set time of the year of release, in the feast of tabernacles,", 31.11. "when all Israel is come to appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose, thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing.", 32.2. "My doctrine shall drop as the rain, My speech shall distil as the dew; As the small rain upon the tender grass, And as the showers upon the herb.", 32.8. "When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel.", 32.46. "he said unto them: ‘Set your heart unto all the words wherewith I testify against you this day; that ye may charge your children therewith to observe to do all the words of this law.",
16. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.11-3.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •yehuda the patriarch, rabbi Found in books: Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 52; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 81; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 81
3.11. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא תֵבוֹשִׁי מִכֹּל עֲלִילֹתַיִךְ אֲשֶׁר פָּשַׁעַתְּ בִּי כִּי־אָז אָסִיר מִקִּרְבֵּךְ עַלִּיזֵי גַּאֲוָתֵךְ וְלֹא־תוֹסִפִי לְגָבְהָה עוֹד בְּהַר קָדְשִׁי׃", 3.12. "וְהִשְׁאַרְתִּי בְקִרְבֵּךְ עַם עָנִי וָדָל וְחָסוּ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃", 3.13. "שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־יַעֲשׂוּ עַוְלָה וְלֹא־יְדַבְּרוּ כָזָב וְלֹא־יִמָּצֵא בְּפִיהֶם לְשׁוֹן תַּרְמִית כִּי־הֵמָּה יִרְעוּ וְרָבְצוּ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃", 3.14. "רָנִּי בַּת־צִיּוֹן הָרִיעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂמְחִי וְעָלְזִי בְּכָל־לֵב בַּת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃", 3.15. "הֵסִיר יְהוָה מִשְׁפָּטַיִךְ פִּנָּה אֹיְבֵךְ מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּךְ לֹא־תִירְאִי רָע עוֹד׃", 3.11. "In that day shalt thou not be ashamed for all thy doings, Wherein thou hast transgressed against Me; For then I will take away out of the midst of thee Thy proudly exulting ones, And thou shalt no more be haughty In My holy mountain.", 3.12. "And I will leave in the midst of thee An afflicted and poor people, And they shall take refuge in the name of the LORD.", 3.13. "The remt of Israel shall not do iniquity, Nor speak lies, Neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth; For they shall feed and lie down, And none shall make them afraid.", 3.14. "Sing, O daughter of Zion, Shout, O Israel; Be glad and rejoice with all the heart, O daughter of Jerusalem.", 3.15. "The LORD hath taken away thy judgments, He hath cast out thine enemy; The King of Israel, even the LORD, is in the midst of thee; Thou shalt not fear evil any more.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.13, 4.4, 4.13, 4.15, 6.8, 7.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and list, cosmic adam •yose the galilean, rabbi •avtolas the elder, rabbi •judah the patriarch, rabbi •eliezer, rabbi, son of rabbi yose the galilean Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 211; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 51, 52, 53, 125; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 214
2.13. "הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ קוּמִי לכי [לָךְ] רַעְיָתִי יָפָתִי וּלְכִי־לָךְ׃", 4.4. "כְּמִגְדַּל דָּוִיד צַוָּארֵךְ בָּנוּי לְתַלְפִּיּוֹת אֶלֶף הַמָּגֵן תָּלוּי עָלָיו כֹּל שִׁלְטֵי הַגִּבּוֹרִים׃", 4.13. "שְׁלָחַיִךְ פַּרְדֵּס רִמּוֹנִים עִם פְּרִי מְגָדִים כְּפָרִים עִם־נְרָדִים׃", 4.15. "מַעְיַן גַּנִּים בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים וְנֹזְלִים מִן־לְבָנוֹן׃", 6.8. "שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃", 7.8. "זֹאת קוֹמָתֵךְ דָּמְתָה לְתָמָר וְשָׁדַיִךְ לְאַשְׁכֹּלוֹת׃", 2.13. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 4.4. Thy neck is like the tower of David Builded with turrets, Whereon there hang a thousand shields, All the armour of the mighty men. 4.13. Thy shoots are a park of pomegranates, With precious fruits; Henna with spikenard plants, 4.15. Thou art a fountain of gardens, A well of living waters, And flowing streams from Lebanon. 6.8. There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number. 7.8. This thy stature is like to a palm-tree, and thy breasts to clusters of grapes.
18. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 1.16, 4.2-4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 191; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 178
1.16. "וַתֹּאמֶר רוּת אַל־תִּפְגְּעִי־בִי לְעָזְבֵךְ לָשׁוּב מֵאַחֲרָיִךְ כִּי אֶל־אֲשֶׁר תֵּלְכִי אֵלֵךְ וּבַאֲשֶׁר תָּלִינִי אָלִין עַמֵּךְ עַמִּי וֵאלֹהַיִךְ אֱלֹהָי׃", 4.2. "וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃", 4.2. "וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃", 4.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר לַגֹּאֵל חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר לְאָחִינוּ לֶאֱלִימֶלֶךְ מָכְרָה נָעֳמִי הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵה מוֹאָב׃", 4.4. "וַאֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֶגְלֶה אָזְנְךָ לֵאמֹר קְנֵה נֶגֶד הַיֹּשְׁבִים וְנֶגֶד זִקְנֵי עַמִּי אִם־תִּגְאַל גְּאָל וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל הַגִּידָה לִּי ואדע [וְאֵדְעָה] כִּי אֵין זוּלָתְךָ לִגְאוֹל וְאָנֹכִי אַחֲרֶיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֶגְאָל׃", 4.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז בְּיוֹם־קְנוֹתְךָ הַשָּׂדֶה מִיַּד נָעֳמִי וּמֵאֵת רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת קניתי [קָנִיתָה] לְהָקִים שֵׁם־הַמֵּת עַל־נַחֲלָתוֹ׃", 4.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לֹא אוּכַל לגאול־[לִגְאָל־] לִי פֶּן־אַשְׁחִית אֶת־נַחֲלָתִי גְּאַל־לְךָ אַתָּה אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתִי כִּי לֹא־אוּכַל לִגְאֹל׃", 4.7. "וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל־דָּבָר שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ וְזֹאת הַתְּעוּדָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 4.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לְבֹעַז קְנֵה־לָךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹף נַעֲלוֹ׃", 1.16. "And Ruth said: ‘Entreat me not to leave thee, and to return from following after thee; for whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge; thy people shall be my people, and thy God my God;", 4.2. "And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down.", 4.3. "And he said unto the near kinsman: ‘Naomi, that is come back out of the field of Moab, selleth the parcel of land, which was our brother Elimelech’s;", 4.4. "and I thought to disclose it unto thee, saying: Buy it before them that sit here, and before the elders of my people. If thou wilt redeem it, redeem it; but if it will not be redeemed, then tell me, that I may know; for there is none to redeem it beside thee; and I am after thee.’ And he said: ‘I will redeem it.’", 4.5. "Then said Boaz: ‘What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi—hast thou also bought of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance?’", 4.6. "And the near kinsman said: ‘I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance; take thou my right of redemption on thee; for I cannot redeem it.’—", 4.7. "Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.—", 4.8. "So the near kinsman said unto Boaz: ‘Buy it for thyself.’ And he drew off his shoe.",
19. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 1.15-1.17, 3.17 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 157; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131
1.15. "כֻּלֹּה בְּחַכָּה הֵעֲלָה יְגֹרֵהוּ בְחֶרְמוֹ וְיַאַסְפֵהוּ בְּמִכְמַרְתּוֹ עַל־כֵּן יִשְׂמַח וְיָגִיל׃", 1.16. "עַל־כֵּן יְזַבֵּחַ לְחֶרְמוֹ וִיקַטֵּר לְמִכְמַרְתּוֹ כִּי בָהֵמָּה שָׁמֵן חֶלְקוֹ וּמַאֲכָלוֹ בְּרִאָה׃", 1.17. "הַעַל כֵּן יָרִיק חֶרְמוֹ וְתָמִיד לַהֲרֹג גּוֹיִם לֹא יַחְמוֹל׃", 3.17. "כִּי־תְאֵנָה לֹא־תִפְרָח וְאֵין יְבוּל בַּגְּפָנִים כִּחֵשׁ מַעֲשֵׂה־זַיִת וּשְׁדֵמוֹת לֹא־עָשָׂה אֹכֶל גָּזַר מִמִּכְלָה צֹאן וְאֵין בָּקָר בָּרְפָתִים׃", 1.15. "They take up all of them with the angle, They catch them in their net, And gather them in their drag; Therefore they rejoice and exult.", 1.16. "Therefore they sacrifice unto their net, And offer unto their drag; Because by them their portion is fat, And their food plenteous.", 1.17. "Shall they therefore empty their net, And not spare to slay the nations continually?", 3.17. "For though the fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labour of the olive shall fail, And the fields shall yield no food; The flock shall be cut off from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the stalls;",
20. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.9, 10.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 270; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 51
5.9. "וַיִּתֵּן אֱלֹהִים חָכְמָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה וּתְבוּנָה הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְרֹחַב לֵב כַּחוֹל אֲשֶׁר עַל־שְׂפַת הַיָּם׃", 10.19. "שֵׁשׁ מַעֲלוֹת לַכִּסֵּה וְרֹאשׁ־עָגֹל לַכִּסֵּה מֵאַחֲרָיו וְיָדֹת מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה אֶל־מְקוֹם הַשָּׁבֶת וּשְׁנַיִם אֲרָיוֹת עֹמְדִים אֵצֶל הַיָּדוֹת׃", 5.9. "And God gave Solomon wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and largeness of heart, even as the sand that is on the sea-shore.", 10.19. "There were six steps to the throne, and the top of the throne was round behind; and there were arms on either side by the place of the seat, and two lions standing beside the arms.",
21. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.25, 7.14, 13.3, 14.11, 24.23, 28.22, 34.4, 44.6, 51.6, 51.21, 54.1, 54.10, 58.6, 58.13-58.14, 61.1-61.2, 63.3-63.4, 65.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the patriarch, rabbi •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility •rabbi (r. yehuda the prince) •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of •yose the galilean, rabbi •eliezer b. rabbi the galilean •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue •rabbis, the •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of •rabbis, babylonian, the fourth century as a transitional period among Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 61; Bar Asher Siegal (2013), Early Christian Monastic Literature and the Babylonian Talmud, 171; Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 30, 32, 159, 160, 191; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 236; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 792, 794; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 160; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 167; Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 77; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 49; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 51, 52; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 81; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 81
1.25. "וְאָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ וְאֶצְרֹף כַּבֹּר סִיגָיִךְ וְאָסִירָה כָּל־בְּדִילָיִךְ׃", 7.14. "לָכֵן יִתֵּן אֲדֹנָי הוּא לָכֶם אוֹת הִנֵּה הָעַלְמָה הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ עִמָּנוּ אֵל׃", 13.3. "אֲנִי צִוֵּיתִי לִמְקֻדָּשָׁי גַּם קָרָאתִי גִבּוֹרַי לְאַפִּי עַלִּיזֵי גַּאֲוָתִי׃", 14.11. "הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃", 24.23. "וְחָפְרָה הַלְּבָנָה וּבוֹשָׁה הַחַמָּה כִּי־מָלַךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּהַר צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם וְנֶגֶד זְקֵנָיו כָּבוֹד׃", 28.22. "וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּתְלוֹצָצוּ פֶּן־יֶחְזְקוּ מוֹסְרֵיכֶם כִּי־כָלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה שָׁמַעְתִּי מֵאֵת אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 34.4. "וְנָמַקּוּ כָּל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנָגֹלּוּ כַסֵּפֶר הַשָּׁמָיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם יִבּוֹל כִּנְבֹל עָלֶה מִגֶּפֶן וּכְנֹבֶלֶת מִתְּאֵנָה׃", 44.6. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃", 51.6. "שְׂאוּ לַשָּׁמַיִם עֵינֵיכֶם וְהַבִּיטוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ מִתַּחַת כִּי־שָׁמַיִם כֶּעָשָׁן נִמְלָחוּ וְהָאָרֶץ כַּבֶּגֶד תִּבְלֶה וְיֹשְׁבֶיהָ כְּמוֹ־כֵן יְמוּתוּן וִישׁוּעָתִי לְעוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה וְצִדְקָתִי לֹא תֵחָת׃", 51.21. "לָכֵן שִׁמְעִי־נָא זֹאת עֲנִיָּה וּשְׁכֻרַת וְלֹא מִיָּיִן׃", 54.1. "רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 54.1. "כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃", 58.6. "הֲלוֹא זֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ פַּתֵּחַ חַרְצֻבּוֹת רֶשַׁע הַתֵּר אֲגֻדּוֹת מוֹטָה וְשַׁלַּח רְצוּצִים חָפְשִׁים וְכָל־מוֹטָה תְּנַתֵּקוּ׃", 58.13. "אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃", 58.14. "אָז תִּתְעַנַּג עַל־יְהוָה וְהִרְכַּבְתִּיךָ עַל־בָּמֳותֵי אָרֶץ וְהַאֲכַלְתִּיךָ נַחֲלַת יַעֲקֹב אָבִיךָ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃", 61.1. "שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃", 61.1. "רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃", 61.2. "לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃", 63.3. "פּוּרָה דָּרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי וּמֵעַמִּים אֵין־אִישׁ אִתִּי וְאֶדְרְכֵם בְּאַפִּי וְאֶרְמְסֵם בַּחֲמָתִי וְיֵז נִצְחָם עַל־בְּגָדַי וְכָל־מַלְבּוּשַׁי אֶגְאָלְתִּי׃", 63.4. "כִּי יוֹם נָקָם בְּלִבִּי וּשְׁנַת גְּאוּלַי בָּאָה׃", 65.5. "הָאֹמְרִים קְרַב אֵלֶיךָ אַל־תִּגַּשׁ־בִּי כִּי קְדַשְׁתִּיךָ אֵלֶּה עָשָׁן בְּאַפִּי אֵשׁ יֹקֶדֶת כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃", 1.25. "And I will turn My hand upon thee, And purge away thy dross as with lye, And will take away all thine alloy;", 7.14. "Therefore the Lord Himself shall give you a sign: behold, the young woman shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.", 13.3. "I have commanded My consecrated ones, Yea, I have called My mighty ones for mine anger, Even My proudly exulting ones.", 14.11. "Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’", 24.23. "Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed; For the LORD of hosts will reign in mount Zion, And in Jerusalem, and before His elders shall be Glory.", 28.22. "Now therefore be ye not scoffers, Lest your bands be made strong; For an extermination wholly determined have I heard from the Lord, the GOD of hosts, Upon the whole land.", 34.4. "And all the host of heaven shall moulder away, And the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll; And all their host shall fall down, As the leaf falleth off from the vine, And as a falling fig from the fig-tree.", 44.6. "Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God.", 51.6. "Lift up your eyes to the heavens, And look upon the earth beneath; For the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, And the earth shall wax old like a garment, And they that dwell therein shall die in like manner; But My salvation shall be for ever, And My favour shall not be abolished.", 51.21. "Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, And drunken, but not with wine;", 54.1. "Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.", 54.10. "For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee.", 58.6. "Is not this the fast that I have chosen? To loose the fetters of wickedness, To undo the bands of the yoke, And to let the oppressed go free, And that ye break every yoke?", 58.13. "If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;", 58.14. "Then shalt thou delight thyself in the LORD, And I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, And I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father; For the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.", 61.1. "The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;", 61.2. "To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;", 63.3. "’I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the peoples there was no man with Me; yea, I trod them in Mine anger, and trampled them in My fury; and their lifeblood is dashed against My garments, and I have stained all My raiment.", 63.4. "For the day of vengeance that was in My heart, and My year of redemption are come.", 65.5. "That say: ‘Stand by thyself, come not near to me, for I am holier than thou’; these are a smoke in My nose, a fire that burneth all the day. .",
22. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.1-2.3, 3.17, 8.13, 11.16, 15.17, 25.11, 29.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, shared with the aramaic magic bowls •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations •rabbis, condemning theater •honi the circle-drawer, rabbi Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 179; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 794; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 210; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131; Levine Allison and Crossan (2006), The Historical Jesus in Context, 156; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 139
2.1. "כִּי עִבְרוּ אִיֵּי כִתִּיִּים וּרְאוּ וְקֵדָר שִׁלְחוּ וְהִתְבּוֹנְנוּ מְאֹד וּרְאוּ הֵן הָיְתָה כָּזֹאת׃", 2.1. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 2.2. "הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃", 2.2. "כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃", 2.3. "לַשָּׁוְא הִכֵּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם מוּסָר לֹא לָקָחוּ אָכְלָה חַרְבְּכֶם נְבִיאֵיכֶם כְּאַרְיֵה מַשְׁחִית׃", 2.3. "קֹדֶשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה רֵאשִׁית תְּבוּאָתֹה כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יֶאְשָׁמוּ רָעָה תָּבֹא אֲלֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃", 3.17. "בָּעֵת הַהִיא יִקְרְאוּ לִירוּשָׁלִַם כִּסֵּא יְהוָה וְנִקְוּוּ אֵלֶיהָ כָל־הַגּוֹיִם לְשֵׁם יְהוָה לִירוּשָׁלִָם וְלֹא־יֵלְכוּ עוֹד אַחֲרֵי שְׁרִרוּת לִבָּם הָרָע׃", 8.13. "אָסֹף אֲסִיפֵם נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אֵין עֲנָבִים בַּגֶּפֶן וְאֵין תְּאֵנִים בַּתְּאֵנָה וְהֶעָלֶה נָבֵל וָאֶתֵּן לָהֶם יַעַבְרוּם׃", 11.16. "זַיִת רַעֲנָן יְפֵה פְרִי־תֹאַר קָרָא יְהוָה שְׁמֵךְ לְקוֹל הֲמוּלָּה גְדֹלָה הִצִּית אֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ וְרָעוּ דָּלִיּוֹתָיו׃", 15.17. "לֹא־יָשַׁבְתִּי בְסוֹד־מְשַׂחֲקִים וָאֶעְלֹז מִפְּנֵי יָדְךָ בָּדָד יָשַׁבְתִּי כִּי־זַעַם מִלֵּאתָנִי׃", 25.11. "וְהָיְתָה כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְחָרְבָּה לְשַׁמָּה וְעָבְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה אֶת־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה׃", 2.1. "And the word of the LORD came to me, saying:", 2.2. "Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown.", 2.3. "Israel is the LORD’S hallowed portion, His first-fruits of the increase; all that devour him shall be held guilty, evil shall come upon them, saith the LORD.", 3.17. "At that time they shall call Jerusalem The throne of the LORD; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem; neither shall they walk any more after the stubbornness of their evil heart.", 8.13. "I will utterly consume them, saith the LORD; there are no grapes on the vine, nor figs on the fig-tree, and the leaf is faded; and I gave them that which they transgress.", 11.16. "The LORD called thy name A leafy olive-tree, fair with goodly fruit; With the noise of a great tumult He hath kindled fire upon it, And the branches of it are broken.", 15.17. "I sat not in the assembly of them that make merry, nor rejoiced; I sat alone because of Thy hand; For Thou hast filled me with indignation.", 25.11. "And this whole land shall be a desolation, and a waste; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.", 29.10. "For thus saith the LORD: After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will remember you, and perform My good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place.",
23. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.15-1.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •eliezer b. rabbi the galilean Found in books: Avery-Peck, Chilton, and Scott Green (2014), A Legacy of Learning: Essays in Honor of Jacob Neusner , 61
1.15. "וַתַּעַן חַנָּה וַתֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲדֹנִי אִשָּׁה קְשַׁת־רוּחַ אָנֹכִי וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר לֹא שָׁתִיתִי וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃", 1.16. "אַל־תִּתֵּן אֶת־אֲמָתְךָ לִפְנֵי בַּת־בְּלִיָּעַל כִּי־מֵרֹב שִׂיחִי וְכַעְסִי דִּבַּרְתִּי עַד־הֵנָּה׃", 1.17. "וַיַּעַן עֵלִי וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי לְשָׁלוֹם וֵאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִתֵּן אֶת־שֵׁלָתֵךְ אֲשֶׁר שָׁאַלְתְּ מֵעִמּוֹ׃", 1.18. "וַתֹּאמֶר תִּמְצָא שִׁפְחָתְךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָאִשָּׁה לְדַרְכָּהּ וַתֹּאכַל וּפָנֶיהָ לֹא־הָיוּ־לָהּ עוֹד׃", 1.15. "And Ĥanna answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the Lord.", 1.16. "Take not thy handmaid for a worthless woman: for out of the greatness of my complaint and grief have I been speaking.", 1.17. "Then ῾Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Yisra᾽el grant thee thy petition which thou hast asked of him.", 1.18. "And she said, Let thy handmaid find favour in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countece was no more sad.",
24. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose the galilean, rabbi Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 52
2.10. "For we have heard how the LORD dried up the water of the Red Sea before you, when ye came out of Egypt; and what ye did unto the two kings of the Amorites, that were beyond the Jordan, unto Sihon and to Og, whom ye utterly destroyed.",
25. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.14, 3.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 181; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 135
3.14. "הָיִיתִי שְּׂחֹק לְכָל־עַמִּי נְגִינָתָם כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃", 3.17. "וַתִּזְנַח מִשָּׁלוֹם נַפְשִׁי נָשִׁיתִי טוֹבָה׃", 3.14. "I am become a derision to all my people, And their song all the day.", 3.17. "And my soul is removed far off from peace, I forgot prosperity.",
26. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 6.25, 23.2-23.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility •rabbis, the Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 218
6.25. "וַיְהִי רָעָב גָּדוֹל בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן וְהִנֵּה צָרִים עָלֶיהָ עַד הֱיוֹת רֹאשׁ־חֲמוֹר בִּשְׁמֹנִים כֶּסֶף וְרֹבַע הַקַּב חרייונים [דִּבְיוֹנִים] בַּחֲמִשָּׁה־כָסֶף׃", 23.2. "וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃", 23.2. "וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃", 23.3. "וַיַּרְכִּבֻהוּ עֲבָדָיו מֵת מִמְּגִדּוֹ וַיְבִאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בִּקְבֻרָתוֹ וַיִּקַּח עַם־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו׃", 23.3. "וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃", 6.25. "And there was a great famine in Samaria; and, behold, they besieged it, until an ass’s head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a kab of dove’s dung for five pieces of silver.", 23.2. "And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD.", 23.3. "And the king stood on the platform, and made a covet before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covet that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covet.",
27. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 3.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judah the prince (hanasi), rabbi Found in books: Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 279
3.12. "וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְנֵר מַלְאָכִים אֶל־דָּוִד תחתו [תַּחְתָּיו] לֵאמֹר לְמִי־אָרֶץ לֵאמֹר כָּרְתָה בְרִיתְךָ אִתִּי וְהִנֵּה יָדִי עִמָּךְ לְהָסֵב אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 3.12. "And Avner sent messengers to David from his place, saying, Whose is the land? saying also, Make thy league with me, and, behold, my hand shall be with thee, to bring all Yisra᾽el round to thee.",
28. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 2.9, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose the galilean, rabbi •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 32, 159, 191; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 50
2.9. "וְאָנֹכִי הִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי מִפְּנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר כְּגֹבַהּ אֲרָזִים גָּבְהוֹ וְחָסֹן הוּא כָּאַלּוֹנִים וָאַשְׁמִיד פִּרְיוֹ מִמַּעַל וְשָׁרָשָׁיו מִתָּחַת׃", 4.13. "כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃", 2.9. "Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, Whose height was like the height of the cedars, And he was strong as the oaks; Yet I destroyed his fruit from above, And his roots from beneath.", 4.13. "For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.",
29. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 9.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of Found in books: Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131
9.11. "וַתֹּאמֶר לָהֶם הַתְּאֵנָה הֶחֳדַלְתִּי אֶת־מָתְקִי וְאֶת־תְּנוּבָתִי הַטּוֹבָה וְהָלַכְתִּי לָנוּעַ עַל־הָעֵצִים׃", 9.11. "But the fig tree said to them, Should I forsake my sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to hold sway over the trees?",
30. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.10-2.13, 2.19 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the idea of sanctity •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131
2.11. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שְׁאַל־נָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים תּוֹרָה לֵאמֹר׃", 2.12. "הֵן יִשָּׂא־אִישׁ בְּשַׂר־קֹדֶשׁ בִּכְנַף בִּגְדוֹ וְנָגַע בִּכְנָפוֹ אֶל־הַלֶּחֶם וְאֶל־הַנָּזִיד וְאֶל־הַיַּיִן וְאֶל־שֶׁמֶן וְאֶל־כָּל־מַאֲכָל הֲיִקְדָּשׁ וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא׃", 2.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר חַגַּי אִם־יִגַּע טְמֵא־נֶפֶשׁ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה הֲיִטְמָא וַיַּעֲנוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וַיֹּאמְרוּ יִטְמָא׃", 2.19. "הַעוֹד הַזֶּרַע בַּמְּגוּרָה וְעַד־הַגֶּפֶן וְהַתְּאֵנָה וְהָרִמּוֹן וְעֵץ הַזַּיִת לֹא נָשָׂא מִן־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה אֲבָרֵךְ׃", 2.10. "In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:", 2.11. "’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: Ask now the priests for instruction, saying:", 2.12. "If one bear hallowed flesh in the skirt of his garment, and with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, or any food, shall it be holy?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘No.’", 2.13. "Then said Haggai: ‘If one that is unclean by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean?’ And the priests answered and said: ‘It shall be unclean.’", 2.19. "is the seed yet in the barn? yea, the vine, and the fig-tree, and the pomegranate, and the olive-tree hath not brought forth—from this day will I bless you.’ .",
31. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 4.6, 16.6, 21.21-21.23, 31.3, 32.3, 43.17, 48.12, 48.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 444, 445; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 104, 157; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 50; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 139
4.6. "וְכִלִּיתָ אֶת־אֵלֶּה וְשָׁכַבְתָּ עַל־צִדְּךָ הימוני [הַיְמָנִי] שֵׁנִית וְנָשָׂאתָ אֶת־עֲוֺן בֵּית־יְהוּדָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה יוֹם לַשָּׁנָה נְתַתִּיו לָךְ׃", 16.6. "וָאֶעֱבֹר עָלַיִךְ וָאֶרְאֵךְ מִתְבּוֹסֶסֶת בְּדָמָיִךְ וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי וָאֹמַר לָךְ בְּדָמַיִךְ חֲיִי׃", 16.6. "וְזָכַרְתִּי אֲנִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אוֹתָךְ בִּימֵי נְעוּרָיִךְ וַהֲקִמוֹתִי לָךְ בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃", 21.21. "הִתְאַחֲדִי הֵימִנִי הָשִׂימִי הַשְׂמִילִי אָנָה פָּנַיִךְ מֻעָדוֹת׃", 21.22. "וְגַם־אֲנִי אַכֶּה כַפִּי אֶל־כַּפִּי וַהֲנִחֹתִי חֲמָתִי אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃", 21.23. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 31.3. "הִנֵּה אַשּׁוּר אֶרֶז בַּלְּבָנוֹן יְפֵה עָנָף וְחֹרֶשׁ מֵצַל וּגְבַהּ קוֹמָה וּבֵין עֲבֹתִים הָיְתָה צַמַּרְתּוֹ׃", 32.3. "שָׁמָּה נְסִיכֵי צָפוֹן כֻּלָּם וְכָל־צִדֹנִי אֲשֶׁר־יָרְדוּ אֶת־חֲלָלִים בְּחִתִּיתָם מִגְבוּרָתָם בּוֹשִׁים וַיִּשְׁכְּבוּ עֲרֵלִים אֶת־חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב וַיִּשְׂאוּ כְלִמָּתָם אֶת־יוֹרְדֵי בוֹר׃", 32.3. "כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה וּפָרַשְׂתִּי עָלֶיךָ אֶת־רִשְׁתִּי בִּקְהַל עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהֶעֱלוּךָ בְּחֶרְמִי׃", 43.17. "וְהָעֲזָרָה אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה אֹרֶךְ בְּאַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה רֹחַב אֶל אַרְבַּעַת רְבָעֶיהָ וְהַגְּבוּל סָבִיב אוֹתָהּ חֲצִי הָאַמָּה וְהַחֵיק־לָהּ אַמָּה סָבִיב וּמַעֲלֹתֵהוּ פְּנוֹת קָדִים׃", 48.12. "וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם תְּרוּמִיָּה מִתְּרוּמַת הָאָרֶץ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים אֶל־גְּבוּל הַלְוִיִּם׃", 48.14. "וְלֹא־יִמְכְּרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא יָמֵר וְלֹא יעבור [יַעֲבִיר] רֵאשִׁית הָאָרֶץ כִּי־קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃", 4.6. "And again, when thou hast accomplished these, thou shalt lie on thy right side, and shalt bear the iniquity of the house of Judah; forty days, each day for a year, have I appointed it unto thee.", 16.6. "And when I passed by thee, and saw thee wallowing in thy blood, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live; yea, I said unto thee: In thy blood, live;", 21.21. "Go thee one way to the right, or direct thyself to the left; whither is thy face set?", 21.22. "I will also smite My hands together, and I will satisfy My fury; I the LORD have spoken it.’", 21.23. "And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:", 31.3. "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon, With fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, And of a high stature; And its top was among the thick boughs.", 32.3. "Thus saith the Lord GOD: I will therefore spread out My net over thee With a company of many peoples; And they shall bring thee up in My net.", 43.17. "And the settle shall be fourteen cubits long by fourteen broad in the four sides thereof; and the border about it shall be half a cubit; and the bottom thereof shall be a cubit about; and the steps thereof shall look toward the east.’", 48.12. "And it shall be unto them a portion set apart from the offering of the land, a thing most holy, by the border of the Levites.", 48.14. "And they shall not sell of it, nor exchange, nor alienate the first portion of the land; for it is holy unto the LORD.",
32. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 31.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
31.17. "וְאֵת הִתְיַחֵשׂ הַכֹּהֲנִים לְבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְהַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וּלְמָעְלָה בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם בְּמַחְלְקוֹתֵיהֶם׃", 31.17. "and them that were reckoned by genealogy of the priests by their fathers’houses, and the Levites from twenty years old and upward, in their charges by their courses;",
33. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.8, 2.14, 5.11, 7.8, 7.10, 12.2, 12.7 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •jose the galilean, rabbi •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and list, cosmic adam •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203, 211; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 135, 215; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 53; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 47, 61
2.8. "כָּנַסְתִּי לִי גַּם־כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּסְגֻלַּת מְלָכִים וְהַמְּדִינוֹת עָשִׂיתִי לִי שָׁרִים וְשָׁרוֹת וְתַעֲנוּגֹת בְּנֵי הָאָדָם שִׁדָּה וְשִׁדּוֹת׃", 2.14. "הֶחָכָם עֵינָיו בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וְהַכְּסִיל בַּחֹשֶׁךְ הוֹלֵךְ וְיָדַעְתִּי גַם־אָנִי שֶׁמִּקְרֶה אֶחָד יִקְרֶה אֶת־כֻּלָּם׃", 5.11. "מְתוּקָה שְׁנַת הָעֹבֵד אִם־מְעַט וְאִם־הַרְבֵּה יֹאכֵל וְהַשָּׂבָע לֶעָשִׁיר אֵינֶנּוּ מַנִּיחַ לוֹ לִישׁוֹן׃", 7.8. "טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁיתוֹ טוֹב אֶרֶךְ־רוּחַ מִגְּבַהּ־רוּחַ׃", 12.2. "עַד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֶחְשַׁךְ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהָאוֹר וְהַיָּרֵחַ וְהַכּוֹכָבִים וְשָׁבוּ הֶעָבִים אַחַר הַגָּשֶׁם׃", 12.7. "וְיָשֹׁב הֶעָפָר עַל־הָאָרֶץ כְּשֶׁהָיָה וְהָרוּחַ תָּשׁוּב אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נְתָנָהּ׃", 2.8. "I gathered me also silver and gold, and treasure such as kings and the provinces have as their own; I got me men-singers and women-singers, and the delights of the sons of men, women very many.", 2.14. "The wise man, his eyes are in his head; But the fool walketh in darkness. And I also perceived that one event happeneth to them all.", 5.11. "Sweet is the sleep of a labouring man, whether he eat little or much; but the satiety of the rich will not suffer him to sleep.", 7.8. "Better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof; And the patient in spirit is better than the proud in spirit.", 7.10. "Say not thou: ‘How was it that the former days were better than these?’ for it is not out of wisdom that thou inquirest concerning this.", 12.2. "Before the sun, and the light, and the moon, and the stars, are darkened, and the clouds return after the rain;", 12.7. "And the dust returneth to the earth as it was, and the spirit returneth unto God who gave it.",
34. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 5.1, 26.28, 29.11 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the •rabbis, and the consecration of land •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 794; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 422; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 148
5.1. "וּבְנֵי רְאוּבֵן בְּכוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי הוּא הַבְּכוֹר וּבְחַלְּלוֹ יְצוּעֵי אָבִיו נִתְּנָה בְּכֹרָתוֹ לִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף בֶּן־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא לְהִתְיַחֵשׂ לַבְּכֹרָה׃", 5.1. "וּבִימֵי שָׁאוּל עָשׂוּ מִלְחָמָה עִם־הַהַגְרִאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ בְּיָדָם וַיֵּשְׁבוּ בְּאָהֳלֵיהֶם עַל־כָּל־פְּנֵי מִזְרָח לַגִּלְעָד׃", 26.28. "וְכֹל הַהִקְדִּישׁ שְׁמוּאֵל הָרֹאֶה וְשָׁאוּל בֶּן־קִישׁ וְאַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר וְיוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה כֹּל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַל יַד־שְׁלֹמִית וְאֶחָיו׃", 29.11. "לְךָ יְהוָה הַגְּדֻלָּה וְהַגְּבוּרָה וְהַתִּפְאֶרֶת וְהַנֵּצַח וְהַהוֹד כִּי־כֹל בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ לְךָ יְהוָה הַמַּמְלָכָה וְהַמִּתְנַשֵּׂא לְכֹל לְרֹאשׁ׃", 5.1. "And the sons of Reuben the first-born of Israel—for he was the first-born; but, forasmuch as he defiled his father’s couch, his birthright was given unto the sons of Joseph the son of Israel, yet not so that he was to be reckoned in the genealogy as first-born.", 26.28. "And all that Samuel the seer, and Saul the son of Kish, and Abner the son of Ner, and Joab the son of Zeruiah, had dedicated; whosoever had dedicated any thing, it was under the hand of Shelomith, and of his brethren.", 29.11. "Thine, O LORD, is the greatness, and the power, and the glory, and the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heaven and in the earth is Thine; Thine is the kingdom, O LORD, and Thou art exalted as head above all.",
35. Herodotus, Histories, 5.52-5.54 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 39
5.52. Now the nature of this road is as I will show. All along it are the king's road stations and very good resting places, and the whole of it passes through country that is inhabited and safe. Its course through Lydia and Phrygia is of the length of twenty stages, and ninety-four and a half parasangs. ,Next after Phrygia it comes to the river Halys, where there is both a defile which must be passed before the river can be crossed and a great fortress to guard it. After the passage into Cappadocia, the road in that land as far as the borders of Cilicia is of twenty-eight stages and one hundred and four parasangs. On this frontier you must ride through two defiles and pass two fortresses. ,Ride past these, and you will have a journey through Cilica of three stages and fifteen and a half parasangs. The boundary of Cilicia and Armenia is a navigable river, the name of which is the Euphrates. In Armenia there are fifteen resting-stages and fifty-six and a half parasangs. Here too there is a fortress. From Armenia the road enters the Matienian land, in which there are thirty-four stages and one hundred and thirty-seven parasangs. ,Through this land flow four navigable rivers which must be passed by ferries, first the Tigris, then a second and a third of the same name, yet not the same stream nor flowing from the same source. The first-mentioned of them flows from the Armenians and the second from the Matieni. ,The fourth river is called Gyndes, that Gyndes which Cyrus parted once into three hundred and sixty channels. ,When this country is passed, the road is in the Cissian land, where there are eleven stages and forty-two and a half parasangs, as far as yet another navigable river, the Choaspes, on the banks of which stands the city of Susa. 5.53. Thus the sum total of stages is one hundred and eleven. So many resting-stages, then, are there in the journey up from Sardis to Susa. If I have accurately counted the parasangs of the royal road, and the parasang is of thirty furlongs' length, which assuredly it is, then between Sardis and the king's abode called Memnonian there are thirteen thousand and five hundred furlongs, the number of parasangs being four hundred and fifty. If each day's journey is one hundred and fifty furlongs, then the sum of days spent is ninety, neither more nor less. 5.54. Aristagoras of Miletus accordingly spoke the truth to Cleomenes the Lacedaemonian when he said that the journey inland was three months long. If anyone should desire a more exact measurement, I will give him that too, for the journey from Ephesus to Sardis must be added to the rest. ,So, then, from the Greek sea to Susa, which is the city called Memnonian, it is a journey of fourteen thousand and forty stages, for there are five hundred and forty furlongs from Ephesus to Sardis. The three months' journey is accordingly made longer by three days.
36. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 3.3, 3.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the priests of jericho Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201
3.3. "אחרי [אַחֲרָיו] הֶחֱזִיק חֲנַנְיָה בֶן־שֶׁלֶמְיָה וְחָנוּן בֶּן־צָלָף הַשִּׁשִּׁי מִדָּה שֵׁנִי אַחֲרָיו הֶחֱזִיק מְשֻׁלָּם בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָה נֶגֶד נִשְׁכָּתוֹ׃", 3.3. "וְאֵת שַׁעַר הַדָּגִים בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הַסְּנָאָה הֵמָּה קֵרוּהוּ וַיַּעֲמִידוּ דַּלְתֹתָיו מַנְעוּלָיו וּבְרִיחָיו׃", 3.21. "אַחֲרָיו הֶחֱזִיק מְרֵמוֹת בֶּן־אוּרִיָּה בֶּן־הַקּוֹץ מִדָּה שֵׁנִית מִפֶּתַח בֵּית אֶלְיָשִׁיב וְעַד־תַּכְלִית בֵּית אֶלְיָשִׁיב׃", 3.3. "And the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof.", 3.21. "After him repaired Meremoth the son of Uriah the son of Hakkoz another portion, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.",
37. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 1.1, 3.10, 9.7, 9.12, 11.7, 14.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, and the new testament •joshua, rabbi, jotham, the parable of •rabbis, condemning theater •judah the patriarch, rabbi, •yehuda the patriarch, rabbi •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 180; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 793; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 94; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 131; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 158; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 86; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 86
1.1. "וַיַּעַן הָאִישׁ הָעֹמֵד בֵּין־הַהַדַסִּים וַיֹּאמַר אֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח יְהוָה לְהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ׃", 1.1. "בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בִּשְׁנַת שְׁתַּיִם לְדָרְיָוֶשׁ הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־זְכַרְיָה בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָה בֶּן־עִדּוֹ הַנָּבִיא לֵאמֹר׃" 9.7. "וַהֲסִרֹתִי דָמָיו מִפִּיו וְשִׁקֻּצָיו מִבֵּין שִׁנָּיו וְנִשְׁאַר גַּם־הוּא לֵאלֹהֵינוּ וְהָיָה כְּאַלֻּף בִּיהוּדָה וְעֶקְרוֹן כִּיבוּסִי׃", 9.12. "שׁוּבוּ לְבִצָּרוֹן אֲסִירֵי הַתִּקְוָה גַּם־הַיּוֹם מַגִּיד מִשְׁנֶה אָשִׁיב לָךְ׃", 11.7. "וָאֶרְעֶה אֶת־צֹאן הַהֲרֵגָה לָכֵן עֲנִיֵּי הַצֹּאן וָאֶקַּח־לִי שְׁנֵי מַקְלוֹת לְאַחַד קָרָאתִי נֹעַם וּלְאַחַד קָרָאתִי חֹבְלִים וָאֶרְעֶה אֶת־הַצֹּאן׃", 14.9. "וְהָיָה יְהוָה לְמֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִהְיֶה יְהוָה אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ אֶחָד׃", 1.1. "In the eighth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD unto Zechariah the son of Berechiah, the son of Iddo, the prophet, saying:" 3.10. "In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine and under the fig-tree.", 9.7. "And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, And his detestable things from between his teeth, And he also shall be a remt for our God; And he shall be as a chief in Judah, And Ekron as a Jebusite.", 9.12. "Return to the stronghold, Ye prisoners of hope; Even to-day do I declare That I will render double unto thee.", 11.7. "So I fed the flock of slaughter, verily the poor of the flock. And I took unto me two staves; the one I called Graciousness, and the other I called Binders; and I fed the flock.", 14.9. "And the LORD shall be King over all the earth; In that day shall the LORD be One, and His name one.",
38. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 4.7, 8.33 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judah the patriarch, rabbi, •rabbis, and the priests of jericho Found in books: Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 94; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201
4.7. "וּבִימֵי אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתָּא כָּתַב בִּשְׁלָם מִתְרְדָת טָבְאֵל וּשְׁאָר כנותו [כְּנָוֺתָיו] עַל־ארתחששתא [אַרְתַּחְשַׁשְׂתְּ] מֶלֶךְ פָּרָס וּכְתָב הַנִּשְׁתְּוָן כָּתוּב אֲרָמִית וּמְתֻרְגָּם אֲרָמִית׃", 8.33. "וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי נִשְׁקַל הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב וְהַכֵּלִים בְּבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל יַד־מְרֵמוֹת בֶּן־אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְעִמּוֹ אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־פִּינְחָס וְעִמָּהֶם יוֹזָבָד בֶּן־יֵשׁוּעַ וְנוֹעַדְיָה בֶן־בִּנּוּי הַלְוִיִּם׃", 4.7. "And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of his companions, unto Artaxerxes king of Persia; and the writing of the letter was written in the Aramaic character, and set forth in the Aramaic tongue.", 8.33. "And on the fourth day was the silver and the gold and the vessels weighed in the house of our God into the hand of Meremoth the son of Uriah the priest; and with him was Eleazar the son of Phinehas; and with them was Jozabad the son of Jeshua, and Noadiah the son of Binnui, the Levites;",
39. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 10, 10.10, 10.14, 10.14-11.18, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 11, 11.17, 11.18, 12, 16, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 150, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 228
40. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q270, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 158
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.11-2.22, 5.8-5.10, 8.12-8.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yose the galilean •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 206
42. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 11.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 115
43. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Document, 11.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 115
44. Dead Sea Scrolls, of Discipline, 7.4, 7.16, 8.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 177
45. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 2.11-2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yose the galilean Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 206
46. Dead Sea Scrolls, Rule of The Community, 2.11-2.22 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yose the galilean Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 206
47. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 17.8, 46.13, 46.14, 46.15, 46.16, 46.17, 46.18, 56.12-57.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
48. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 9.9, 9.10, 9.11, 10, 10.10, 10.14, 10.14-11.18, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 11, 11.17, 11.18, 12, 16, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.14, 16.15, 16.16, 16.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 150, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 228
49. Anon., Testament of Moses, 5.5-5.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 160
50. Septuagint, Judith, 6.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 213
6.13. However, they got under the shelter of the hill and they bound Achior and left him lying at the foot of the hill, and returned to their master.
51. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7, 6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 296
52. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.29-2.42, 10.34, 10.39, 10.43, 14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, travel to the diaspora in rabbinic sources of •simeon the tsanua, rabbi •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 148, 228; Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 391; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
2.29. Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there, 2.30. they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31. And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32. Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33. And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live." 2.34. But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day." 2.35. Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36. But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places, 2.37. for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly." 2.38. So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 2.39. When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply. 2.40. And each said to his neighbor: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordices, they will quickly destroy us from the earth." 2.41. So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places." 2.42. Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 10.34. And all the feasts and sabbaths and new moons and appointed days, and the three days before a feast and the three after a feast -- let them all be days of immunity and release for all the Jews who are in my kingdom. 10.39. Ptolemais and the land adjoining it I have given as a gift to the sanctuary in Jerusalem, to meet the necessary expenses of the sanctuary. 10.43. And whoever takes refuge at the temple in Jerusalem, or in any of its precincts, because he owes money to the king or has any debt, let him be released and receive back all his property in my kingdom. 14.6. He extended the borders of his nation,and gained full control of the country.
53. Anon., Jubilees, 1.16, 6.22, 49.17, 50.6-50.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations •rabbis, the •rabbi judah the prince •de-rabbanan (laws decreed by the rabbis) Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63, 158, 160; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 210; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 97
1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, 6.22. And He gave to Noah and his sons a sign that there should not again be a flood on the earth. 49.17. And it is not permissible to slay it during any period of the light, but during the period bordering on the evening, 50.6. and there are yet forty years to come (lit. "distant for learning the commandments of the Lord, until they pass over into the land of Canaan, crossing the Jordan to the west. 50.7. And the jubilees will pass by, until Israel is cleansed from all guilt of fornication, and uncleanness, and pollution, and sin, and error, and dwelleth with confidence in all the land, and there will be no more a Satan or any evil one, and the land will be clean from that time for evermore. 50.8. And behold the commandment regarding the Sabbaths--I have written (them) down for thee and all the judgments of its laws. br Six days wilt thou labour, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. 50.9. In it ye shall do no manner of work, ye and your sons, and your men-servants and your maid-servants, and all your cattle and the sojourner also who is with you. br And the man that doeth any work on it shall die: 50.10. whoever desecrateth that day, whoever lieth with (his) wife or whoever saith he will do something on it, that he will set out on a journey thereon in regard to any buying or selling: and whoever draweth water thereon which he had not prepared for himself on the sixth day, and whoever taketh up any burden to carry it out of his tent or out of his house shall die. 50.11. Ye shall do no work whatever on the Sabbath day save that ye have prepared for yourselves on the sixth day, so as to eat, and drink, and rest, and keep Sabbath from all work on that day, and to bless the Lord your God, who has given you a day of festival, 50.12. and a holy day: and a day of the holy kingdom for all Israel is this day among their days for ever. 50.13. For great is the honour which the Lord hath given to Israel that they should eat and drink and be satisfied on this festival day, and rest thereon from all labour which belongeth to the labour of the children of men, save burning frankincense and bringing oblations and sacrifices before the Lord for days and for Sabbaths.
54. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.32, 4.17, 5.8, 7.3, 7.7, 7.9, 7.23, 11.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose the galilean, rabbi •judah the patriarch, rabbi, •johanan ben naphcha, rabbi, comments of about the roman empire •rabbi judah the prince Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 788; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 94; Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 50; Kattan Gribetz et al. (2016), Genesis Rabbah in Text and Context. 77; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 263
2.32. "הוּא צַלְמָא רֵאשֵׁהּ דִּי־דְהַב טָב חֲדוֹהִי וּדְרָעוֹהִי דִּי כְסַף מְעוֹהִי וְיַרְכָתֵהּ דִּי נְחָשׁ׃", 4.17. "אִילָנָא דִּי חֲזַיְתָ דִּי רְבָה וּתְקִף וְרוּמֵהּ יִמְטֵא לִשְׁמַיָּא וַחֲזוֹתֵהּ לְכָל־אַרְעָא׃", 5.8. "אֱדַיִן עללין [עָלִּין] כֹּל חַכִּימֵי מַלְכָּא וְלָא־כָהֲלִין כְּתָבָא לְמִקְרֵא ופשרא [וּפִשְׁרֵהּ] לְהוֹדָעָה לְמַלְכָּא׃", 7.3. "וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן־יַמָּא שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן־דָּא׃", 7.7. "בָּאתַר דְּנָה חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רביעיה [רְבִיעָאָה] דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָא וְשִׁנַּיִן דִּי־פַרְזֶל לַהּ רַבְרְבָן אָכְלָה וּמַדֱּקָה וּשְׁאָרָא ברגליה [בְּרַגְלַהּ] רָפְסָה וְהִיא מְשַׁנְּיָה מִן־כָּל־חֵיוָתָא דִּי קָדָמַיהּ וְקַרְנַיִן עֲשַׂר לַהּ׃", 7.9. "חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃", 7.23. "כֵּן אֲמַר חֵיוְתָא רְבִיעָיְתָא מַלְכוּ רביעיא [רְבִיעָאָה] תֶּהֱוֵא בְאַרְעָא דִּי תִשְׁנֵא מִן־כָּל־מַלְכְוָתָא וְתֵאכֻל כָּל־אַרְעָא וּתְדוּשִׁנַּהּ וְתַדְּקִנַּהּ׃", 11.34. "וּבְהִכָּשְׁלָם יֵעָזְרוּ עֵזֶר מְעָט וְנִלְווּ עֲלֵיהֶם רַבִּים בַּחֲלַקְלַקּוֹת׃", 2.32. "As for that image, its head was of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass,", 4.17. "The tree that thou sawest, which grew, and was strong, whose height reached unto the heaven, and the sight thereof to all the earth;", 5.8. "Then came in all the king’s wise men: but they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation.", 7.3. "And four great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.", 7.7. "After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was diverse from all the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns.", 7.9. "I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire.", 7.23. "Thus he said: ‘The fourth beast shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.", 11.34. "Now when they shall stumble, they shall be helped with a little help; but many shall join themselves unto them with blandishments.",
55. Livy, History, 23.18.12 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, views of the romans Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
56. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 74, 84-85, 95 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 182
95. The truth is, as I have said already, the whole business was a deliberate contrivance designed by the cruelty of Flaccus and of the multitude, in which even women were included; for they were dragged away as captives, not only in the market-place, but even in the middle of the theatre, and dragged upon the stage on any false accusation that might be brought against them with the most painful and intolerable insults;
57. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.76, 2.37 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 148, 159, 228
1.76. But the temple has for its revenues not only portions of land, but also other possessions of much greater extent and importance, which will never be destroyed or diminished; for as long as the race of mankind shall last, the revenues likewise of the temple will always be preserved, being coeval in their duration with the universal world. 2.37. And if the thing which he has vowed be his house, again he must have the priest for a valuer. But those who may chance to buy it shall not pay an equal ransom for it; but if the man who has vowed it chooses to ransom it, he shall pay its price and a fifth besides, punishing his own rashness and impetuous desire for his two faults, his rashness for making the vow, and his impetuous desire for wishing for things back again which he had before abandoned. But if any one else brings it he shall not pay more than its value.
58. Anon., Rhetorica Ad Herennium, 4.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 237
4.14.  of the Simple type of style, which is brought down to the most ordinary speech of every day, the following will serve as an example: "Now our friend happened to enter the baths, and, after washing, was beginning to be rubbed down. Then, just as he decided to go down into the pool, suddenly this fellow turned up. 'Say, young chap,' said he, 'you slaveboys have just beat me; you must make it good.' The young man grew red, for at his age he was not used to being hailed by a stranger. This creature started to shout the same words, and more, in a louder voice. With difficulty the youth replied: 'Well, but let me look into the matter.' Right then the fellow cries out in that tone of his that might well force blushes from any one; this is how aggressive and harsh it is — a tone certainly not practised in the neighbourhood of the Sundial, I would say, but backstage, and in places of that kind. The young man was embarrassed. And no wonder, for his ears still rang with the scoldings of his tutor, and he was not used to abusive language of this kind. For where would he have seen a buffoon, with not a blush left, who thought of himself as having no good name to lose, so that he could do anything he liked without damage to his reputation?"
59. Tosefta, Bekhorot, 1.6, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on resemblance to mother Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 235, 244
1.6. "פרה שילדה מין שה אין פודין בו פטר חמור שכל מקום שנאמר שה תופס כבשים ועזים גדולים וקטנים זכרים ונקבות תמימים ובעלי מומין פודה בו שונה ומשלש ומביאו בנדר ונדבה לחטאתו ולאשמו וחייב בבכורה ובמתנות. רבי אלעזר אומר הכלאים מן הרחל ומן הגדי פודין בו מן החיה אין פודין בו. כשם שאין פודין בשחוטה כך אין פודין בפטר חמור שמת. פטר חמור מצותו לקיימו שלשים יום מכאן ואילך או פודו או עורפו. מכמה לא יפחות ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר לא יפחות משוה שקל. איזה הוא פדיון פטר חמור הנכנס לדיר להתעשר ישראל שהיו לו ספיקות ועמד ופדאן וכן כהן שירש את אביו ואת אמו ישראל או שניתן לו במתנה פטר חמור לפדותו. איזה הוא פדיון פטר חמור הנכנס לדיר להתעשר הרי שיש לו פטר חמור אין לו לפדותו. אמר לו כהן תנהו לי ואני פודה אותו הרי זה לא יתננו לו אא\"כ יודע שהוא פודה אותו. עורפו בקופץ מאחריו וקוברו ואסור בהנאה לא ימיתנו לא במקל ולא בקנה ולא ינעול דלת בפניו בשביל שימות ואם עשה כן ה\"ז יצא. בחייו אסור בגיזה ובעבודה. ור' שמעון מתיר ובכור אדם מותר בכולן. חמורה שלא ביכרה וילדה שני זכרים נותן טלה אחד לכהן זכר ונקבה מפריש טלה והוא לעצמו. חמור וטלה שהיו בכרו וילדו שני זכרים נותן שני טלאים לכהן זכר ונקבה או שני זכרים ונקבה נותן טלה אחד לכהן שתי נקבות וזכר או שני זכרים וב' נקבות ואין יודע אין כאן לכהן כלום אלא מפריש טלה אחד ופודה בו כל אחד ואחד לעצמו. ",
60. Tosefta, Bikkurim, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on the koy Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 125
2.5. "דרכים ששוה [בהן] לאנשים ולנשים חייבין על נזקו [בין איש בין אשה] ההורגו במזיד נהרג בשוגג גולה לערי מקלט [אמו יושבת עליו בדם טוהר כאנשים] וכנשים ומביאה עליו קרבן כאנשים וכנשים [ונוחל בכל נחלות כאנשים וכנשים חולק בקדשי הגבול כאנשים וכנשים ואם אמר הריני נזיר שזה איש ואשה הרי זה נזיר].",
61. Mishnah, Nedarim, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •eliezer, rabbi, mother of Found in books: Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 82
8.7. "הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹנָם שֶׁאֲנִי נֶהֱנֶה לְךָ אִם אֵין אַתָּה בָא וְנוֹטֵל לְבָנֶיךָ כּוֹר אֶחָד שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן, הֲרֵי זֶה יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר אֶת נִדְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עַל פִּי חָכָם, וְיֹאמַר לוֹ, כְּלוּם אָמַרְתָּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי כְבוֹדִי, זֶהוּ כְבוֹדִי. וְכֵן הָאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ קוֹנָם שֶׁאַתָּה נֶהֱנֶה לִי אִם אֵין אַתָּה בָא וְנוֹתֵן לִבְנִי כּוֹר אֶחָד שֶׁל חִטִּין וּשְׁתֵּי חָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִן, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אָסוּר עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אַף זֶה יָכוֹל לְהָפֵר אֶת נִדְרוֹ שֶׁלֹּא עַל פִּי חָכָם, וְיֹאמַר לוֹ, הֲרֵי אֲנִי כְאִלּוּ הִתְקַבָּלְתִּי. הָיוּ מְסָרְבִין בּוֹ לָשֵׂאת בַּת אֲחוֹתוֹ וְאָמַר קוֹנָם שֶׁהִיא נֶהֱנֵית לִי לְעוֹלָם, וְכֵן הַמְגָרֵשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאָמַר קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי לְעוֹלָם, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרוֹת לֵהָנוֹת לוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְשׁוּם אִישׁוּת. הָיָה מְסָרֵב בַּחֲבֵרוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל אֶצְלוֹ, אָמַר קוֹנָם לְבֵיתְךָ שֶׁאֵינִי נִכְנָס, טִפַּת צוֹנֵן שֶׁאֵינִי טוֹעֵם לָךְ, מֻתָּר לִכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ צוֹנֵן, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן זֶה אֶלָּא לְשׁוּם אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה: \n", 8.7. "If one says to his neighbor “Konam, what I benefit from you, if you do not come and take for your sons a kor of wheat and two barrels of wine,” the latter may annul his vow without the release of a sage, by declaring, “Did you vow for any other purpose but to honor me? This [refusal] is my honor.” Similarly, if one says to his neighbor, “Konam, what you benefit from me, if you do not give my son a kor of wheat and two barrels of wine”: Rabbi Meir says: he is forbidden until he gives; But the Sages say: he too can annul his vow without the release of a sage, by saying to him, “I regard it as though I have received it.” If they were urging him to marry his sister’s daughter, and he said, “Konam, what she benefits from me forever”; Likewise, if he is divorcing his wife and he said, “Konam, what my wife benefits from me forever,” they are permitted to benefit from him, because he meant only marriage. If he was urging his neighbor to eat at his house, and he replied, “Konam be your house which I do not enter,” or, “The drop of water that I do not drink,” he may enter his house and drink cold water because he only meant eating and drinking in general.",
62. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 3.4, 8.10-8.15, 9.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, as provincial residents of the roman world Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 151; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
3.4. "כיצד משלם במותר חצי נזק שור שוה מנה שנגח שור שוה מאתים הכחישו חמשים זוז חזר האחרון הכחישו שלשה של זהב האחרון משלם לראשון חצי דינר זהב שור שוה מאתים שנגח שור שוה מאתים וחבל בו חמשים זוז חזר האחרון והכחישו השביח הניזק היה יפה ד' מאות זוז שאלמלא לא הזיקו היה יפה שמנה מאות זוז עד שלא עמד בב\"ד השביח המזיק אם עד שלא עמד בדין השביח אין לו אלא כשעת נזקו הכחיש אין לו אלא כשעת עמידתו בב\"ד השביח המזיק אם עד שלא עמד בב\"ד השביח אין לו אלא כשעת נזקו הכחיש אין לו אלא כשעת עמידתו בב\"ד אם משעמד בב\"ד השביח אין לו אלא כשעת עמידתו בב\"ד הרג שורו של חבירו הוקרה בהמתו או שהוזלה הדליק גדיש של חבירו והוקרה תבואה או שהוזלה בין משעמד בב\"ד ובין עד שלא עמד בבית דין אין לו אלא כשעת נזקו.",
63. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 2.33 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
64. Tosefta, Bava Batra, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, as provincial residents of the roman world •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 61, 72
3.3. "המוכר את בית הבד מכר את היצירים ואת היקבים את המפרכות ואת הרחיים התחתונה אבל לא מכר את השקין ולא את המרצופין ולא את הרחיים העליונה ואם אמר לו הוא ומה שבתוכו אני מוכר לך הרי כולן מכורין ואף על פי שאמר לו הוא ומה שבתוכו אני מוכר לך לא מכר לא את הבור ולא את השיח ולא את היציעין ולא את הדותות ולא את המערות שבתוכו ואם אמר לו הוא ומה שבתוכו אני מוכר לך הרי כולן מכורין.",
65. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.5, 2.7, 3.9-3.10, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, and the masses Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 177, 183; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 133, 212
66. Tacitus, Histories, 3.32 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 232
3.32.  In the meantime the people of Cremona were buffeted about among the troops, and there came near being a massacre, when the commanders by their appeals succeeded in calming the soldiers. Then Antonius called them together and spoke in warmest eulogy of the victors; the conquered he addressed in kindly terms; but he said nothing for or against Cremona. The troops, prompted not only by their ingrained desire for plunder, but also by their old hatred, were bent on destroying the people of the town. They believed that they had helped the party of Vitellius in the war with Otho as well; and later the common people of the town (for the mob always has an insolent nature) had insulted and taunted the soldiers of the Thirteenth legion who had been left behind to finish the amphitheatre. The troops' anger was increased by other causes as well: Caecina had given an exhibition of gladiators there; the town had twice been the seat of war; the townspeople had provided food for the Vitellians when they were actually in battle-line; and some women had been killed who had been carried by their zeal for Vitellius's side into the very battle; besides this the market season had filled the colony, always rich, with a greater show of wealth. Now the other commanders were little noticed; but fame and fortune had made Antonius conspicuous to the eyes of all. He hurried to some baths to wash away the blood with which he was covered. When he complained of the temperature, a voice was heard saying that they would soon be hot enough. This answer of some slave turned all the odium of what followed on Antonius, as if he had given the signal to burn Cremona, which was indeed at that moment in flames.
67. Tacitus, Annals, 15.64 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 232
15.64. At Nero nullo in Paulinam proprio odio, ac ne glisceret invidia crudelitatis, iubet inhiberi mortem. hortantibus militibus servi libertique obligant brachia, premunt sanguinem, incertum an ignarae. nam ut est vulgus ad deteriora promptum, non defuere qui crederent, donec implacabilem Neronem timuerit, famam sociatae cum marito mortis petivisse, deinde oblata mitiore spe blandimentis vitae evictam; cui addidit paucos postea annos, laudabili in maritum memoria et ore ac membris in eum pallorem albentibus ut ostentui esset multum vitalis spiritus egestum. Seneca interim, durante tractu et lentitudine mortis, Statium Annaeum, diu sibi amicitiae fide et arte medicinae probatum, orat provisum pridem venenum quo damnati publico Atheniensium iudicio extinguerentur promeret; adlatumque hausit frustra, frigidus iam artus et cluso corpore adversum vim veneni. postremo stagnum calidae aquae introiit, respergens proximos servorum addita voce libare se liquorem illum Iovi liberatori. exim balneo inlatus et vapore eius exanimatus sine ullo funeris sollemni crematur. ita codicillis praescripserat, cum etiam tum praedives et praepotens supremis suis consuleret. 15.64.  Nero, however, who had no private animosity against Paulina, and did not wish to increase the odium of his cruelty, ordered her suicide to be arrested. Under instructions from the military, her slaves and freedmen bandaged her arms and checked the bleeding — whether without her knowledge is uncertain. For, with the usual readiness of the multitude to think the worst, there were those who believed that, so long as she feared an implacable Nero, she had sought the credit of sharing her husband's fate, and then, when a milder prospect offered itself, had succumbed to the blandishments of life. To that life she added a few more years — laudably faithful to her husband's memory and blanched in face and limb to a pallor which showed how great had been the drain upon her vital powers. Seneca, in the meantime, as death continued to be protracted and slow, asked Statius Annaeus, who had long held his confidence as a loyal friend and a skilful doctor, to produce the poison — it had been provided much earlier — which was used for despatching prisoners condemned by the public tribunal of Athens. It was brought, and he swallowed it, but to no purpose; his limbs were already cold, and his system closed to the action of the drug. In the last resort, he entered a vessel of heated water, sprinkling some on the slaves nearest, with the remark that he offered the liquid as a drink-offering to Jove the Liberator. He was then lifted into a bath, suffocated by the vapour, and cremated without ceremony. It was the order he had given in his will, at a time when, still at the zenith of his wealth and power, he was already taking thought for his latter end.
68. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 293
6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
69. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 293
6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men.
70. New Testament, Matthew, 4.23, 6.2, 6.5, 6.19-6.21, 8.5-8.13, 9.18, 9.23, 9.35, 10.1, 10.5-10.8, 10.17, 11.1, 11.4-11.5, 12.2, 12.9-12.14, 13.54, 15.3-15.6, 23.1-23.7, 23.16-23.22, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 158, 162; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 158; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 75; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 49, 52, 347, 418
4.23. Καὶ περιῆγεν ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ Γαλιλαίᾳ, διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν καὶ κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας καὶ θεραπεύων πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν ἐν τῷ λαῷ. 6.2. Ὅταν οὖν ποιῇς ἐλεημοσύνην, μὴ σαλπίσῃς ἔμπροσθέν σου, ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ ποιοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις, ὅπως δοξασθῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.5. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί· ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.19. Μὴ θησαυρίζετε ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅπου σὴς καὶ βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται διορύσσουσιν καὶ κλέπτουσιν· 6.20. θησαυρίζετε δὲ ὑμῖν θησαυροὺς ἐν οὐρανῷ, ὅπου οὔτε σὴς οὔτε βρῶσις ἀφανίζει, καὶ ὅπου κλέπται οὐ διορύσσουσιν οὐδὲ κλέπτουσιν· 6.21. ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρός σου, ἐκεῖ ἔσται [καὶ] ἡ καρδία σου. 8.5. Εἰσελθόντος δὲ αὐτοῦ εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ προσῆλθεν αὐτῷ ἑκατόνταρχος παρακαλῶν αὐτὸν 8.6. καὶ λέγων Κύριε, ὁ παῖς μου βέβληται ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ παραλυτικός, δεινῶς βασανιζόμενος. 8.7. λέγει αὐτῷ Ἐγὼ ἐλθὼν θεραπεύσω αὐτόν. 8.8. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἑκατόνταρχος ἔφη Κύριε, οὐκ εἰμὶ ἱκανὸς ἵνα μου ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην εἰσέλθῃς· ἀλλὰ μόνον εἰπὲ λόγῳ, καὶ ἰαθήσεται ὁ παῖς μου· 8.9. καὶ γὰρ ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπός εἰμι ὑπὸ ἐξουσίαν [τασσόμενος], ἔχων ὑπʼ ἐμαυτὸν στρατιώτας, καὶ λέγω τούτῳ Πορεύθητι, καὶ πορεύεται, καὶ ἄλλῳ Ἔρχου, καὶ ἔρχεται, καὶ τῷ δούλῳ μου Ποίησον τοῦτο, καὶ ποιεῖ. 8.10. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐθαύμασεν καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς ἀκολουθοῦσιν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, παρʼ οὐδενὶ τοσαύτην πίστιν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ εὗρον. 8.11. λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι πολλοὶ ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν καὶ δυσμῶν ἥξουσιν καὶ ἀνακλιθήσονται μετὰ Ἀβραὰμ καὶ Ἰσαὰκ καὶ Ἰακὼβ ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν· 8.12. οἱ δὲ υἱοὶ τῆς βασιλείας ἐκβληθήσονται εἰς τὸ σκότος τὸ ἐξώτερον· ἐκεῖ ἔσται ὁ κλαυθμὸς καὶ ὁ βρυγμὸς τῶν ὀδόντων. 8.13. καὶ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ ἑκατοντάρχῃ Ὕπαγε, ὡς ἐπίστευσας γενηθήτω σοι· καὶ ἰάθη ὁ παῖς ἐν τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐκείνῃ. 9.18. Ταῦτα αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος αὐτοῖς ἰδοὺ ἄρχων [εἷς] προσελθὼν προσεκύνει αὐτῷ λέγων ὅτι Ἡ θυγάτηρ μου ἄρτι ἐτελεύτησεν· ἀλλὰ ἐλθὼν ἐπίθες τὴν χεῖρά σου ἐπʼ αὐτήν, καὶ ζήσεται. 9.23. Καὶ ἐλθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἄρχοντος καὶ ἰδὼν τοὺς αὐλητὰς καὶ τὸν ὄχλον θορυβούμενον 9.35. Καὶ περιῆγεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὰς πόλεις πάσας καὶ τὰς κώμας, διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν καὶ κηρύσσων τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας καὶ θεραπεύων πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν. 10.1. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς δώδεκα μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν πνευμάτων ἀκαθάρτων ὥστε ἐκβάλλειν αὐτὰ καὶ θεραπεύειν πᾶσαν νόσον καὶ πᾶσαν μαλακίαν. 10.5. Τούτους τοὺς δώδεκα ἀπέστειλεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς παραγγείλας αὐτοῖς λέγων Εἰς ὁδὸν ἐθνῶν μὴ ἀπέλθητε, καὶ εἰς πόλιν Σαμαρειτῶν μὴ εἰσέλθητε· 10.6. πορεύεσθε δὲ μᾶλλον πρὸς τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἀπολωλότα οἴκου Ἰσραήλ. 10.7. πορευόμενοι δὲ κηρύσσετε λέγοντες ὅτι Ἤγγικεν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 10.8. ἀσθενοῦντας θεραπεύετε, νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε, λεπροὺς καθαρίζετε, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλετε· δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε. 10.17. προσέχετε δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· παραδώσουσιν γὰρ ὑμᾶς εἰς συνέδρια, καὶ ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν μαστιγώσουσιν ὑμᾶς· 11.1. Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς διατάσσων τοῖς δώδεκα μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, μετέβη ἐκεῖθεν τοῦ διδάσκειν καὶ κηρύσσειν ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν αὐτῶν. 11.4. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πορευθέντες ἀπαγγείλατε Ἰωάνει ἃ ἀκούετε καὶ βλέπετε· 11.5. τυφλοὶ ἀναβλέπουσιν καὶ χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν, λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται καὶ κωφοὶ ἀκούουσιν, καὶ νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται καὶ πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται· 12.2. οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἰδόντες εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἰδοὺ οἱ μαθηταί σου ποιοῦσιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν σαββάτῳ. 12.9. Καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν ἦλθεν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτῶν· 12.10. καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος χεῖρα ἔχων ξηράν. καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Εἰ ἔξεστι τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύειν; ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. 12.11. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τίς [ἔσται] ἐξ ὑμῶν ἄνθρωπος ὃς ἕξει πρόβατον ἕν, καὶ ἐὰν ἐμπέσῃ τοῦτο τοῖς σάββασιν εἰς βόθυνον, οὐχὶ κρατήσει αὐτὸ καὶ ἐγερεῖ; 12.12. πόσῳ οὖν διαφέρει ἄνθρωπος προβάτου. ὥστε ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν καλῶς ποιεῖν. 12.13. Τότε λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινόν σου τὴν χεῖρα· καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ὑγιὴς ὡς ἡ ἄλλη. 12.14. Ἐξελθόντες δὲ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 13.54. καὶ ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν, ὥστε ἐκπλήσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ λέγειν Πόθεν τούτῳ ἡ σοφία αὕτη καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις; 15.3. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Διὰ τί καὶ ὑμεῖς παραβαίνετε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν; 15.4. ὁ γὰρ θεὸς εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητέρα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 15.5. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ὃς ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Δῶρον ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 15.6. οὐ μὴ τιμήσει τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ· καὶ ἠκυρώσατε τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ διὰ τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν. 23.1. Τότε [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν τοῖς ὄχλοις καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ λέγων 23.2. Ἐπὶ τῆς Μωυσέως καθέδρας ἐκάθισαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι. 23.3. πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν εἴπωσιν ὑμῖν ποιήσατε καὶ τηρεῖτε, κατὰ δὲ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν μὴ ποιεῖτε, λέγουσιν γὰρ καὶ οὐ ποιοῦσιν. 23.4. δεσμεύουσιν δὲ φορτία βαρέα καὶ ἐπιτιθέασιν ἐπὶ τοὺς ὤμους τῶν ἀνθρώπων, αὐτοὶ δὲ τῷ δακτύλῳ αὐτῶν οὐ θέλουσιν κινῆσαι αὐτά. 23.5. πάντα δὲ τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν ποιοῦσιν πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· πλατύνουσι γὰρ τὰ φυλακτήρια αὐτῶν καὶ μεγαλύνουσι τὰ κράσπεδα, 23.6. φιλοῦσι δὲ τὴν πρωτοκλισίαν ἐν τοῖς δείπνοις καὶ τὰς πρωτοκαθεδρίας ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς 23.7. καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς καὶ καλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων Ῥαββεί. 23.16. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, ὁδηγοὶ τυφλοὶ οἱ λέγοντες Ὃς ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ ναῷ, οὐδέν ἐστιν, ὃς δʼ ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ χρυσῷ τοῦ ναοῦ ὀφείλει· 23.17. μωροὶ καὶ τυφλοί, τίς γὰρ μείζων ἐστίν, ὁ χρυσὸς ἢ ὁ ναὸς ὁ ἁγιάσας τὸν χρυσόν; 23.18. καί Ὃς ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ, οὐδέν ἐστιν, ὃς δʼ ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ δώρῳ τῷ ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ ὀφείλει· 23.19. τυφλοί, τί γὰρ μεῖζον, τὸ δῶρον ἢ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τὸ ἁγιάζον τὸ δῶρον; 23.20. ὁ οὖν ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ ὀμνύει ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ· 23.21. καὶ ὁ ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ ναῷ ὀμνύει ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν τῷ κατοικοῦντι αὐτόν· 23.22. καὶ ὁ ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὀμνύει ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ. 23.34. διὰ τοῦτο ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω πρὸς ὑμᾶς προφήτας καὶ σοφοὺς καὶ γραμματεῖς· ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτενεῖτε καὶ σταυρώσετε, καὶ ἐξ αὐτῶν μαστιγώσετε ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς ὑμῶν καὶ διώξετε ἀπὸ πόλεως εἰς πόλιν· 4.23. Jesus went about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.5. "When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.19. "Don't lay up treasures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break through and steal; 6.20. but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consume, and where thieves don't break through and steal; 6.21. for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. 8.5. When he came into Capernaum, a centurion came to him, asking him, 8.6. and saying, "Lord, my servant lies in the house paralyzed, grievously tormented." 8.7. Jesus said to him, "I will come and heal him." 8.8. The centurion answered, "Lord, I'm not worthy for you to come under my roof. Just say the word, and my servant will be healed. 8.9. For I am also a man under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go,' and he goes; and to another, 'Come,' and he comes; and to my servant, 'Do this,' and he does it." 8.10. When Jesus heard it, he marveled, and said to those who followed, "Most assuredly I tell you, I haven't found so great a faith, not even in Israel. 8.11. I tell you that many will come from the east and the west, and will sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the Kingdom of Heaven, 8.12. but the sons of the kingdom will be thrown out into the outer darkness. There will be weeping and the gnashing of teeth." 8.13. Jesus said to the centurion, "Go your way. Let it be done for you as you as you have believed." His servant was healed in that hour. 9.18. While he told these things to them, behold, a ruler came and worshiped him, saying, "My daughter has just died, but come and lay your hand on her, and she will live." 9.23. When Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the flute players, and the crowd in noisy disorder, 9.35. Jesus went about all the cities and the villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every disease and every sickness among the people. 10.1. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. 10.5. Jesus sent these twelve out, and charged them, saying, "Don't go among the Gentiles, and don't enter into any city of the Samaritans. 10.6. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. 10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 11.1. It happened that when Jesus had finished directing his twelve disciples, he departed from there to teach and preach in their cities. 11.4. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you hear and see: 11.5. the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 12.2. But the Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, "Behold, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on the Sabbath." 12.9. He departed there, and went into their synagogue. 12.10. And behold there was a man with a withered hand. They asked him, "Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day?" that they might accuse him. 12.11. He said to them, "What man is there among you, who has one sheep, and if this one falls into a pit on the Sabbath day, won't he grab on to it, and lift it out? 12.12. of how much more value then is a man than a sheep! Therefore it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath day." 12.13. Then he told the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out; and it was restored whole, just like the other. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 13.54. Coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, "Where did this man get this wisdom, and these mighty works? 15.3. He answered them, "Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? 15.4. For God commanded, 'Honor your father and your mother,' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God," 15.6. he shall not honor his father or mother.' You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition. 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.3. All things therefore whatever they tell you to observe, observe and do, but don't do their works; for they say, and don't do. 23.4. For they bind heavy burdens that are grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not lift a finger to help them. 23.5. But all their works they do to be seen by men. They make their phylacteries broad, enlarge the fringes of their garments, 23.6. and love the place of honor at feasts, the best seats in the synagogues, 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.16. "Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city;
71. New Testament, Mark, 1.23, 1.39, 3.1, 3.15, 5.22, 5.35-5.36, 5.38, 6.1-6.7, 6.45-6.52, 7.9-7.13, 10.2-10.9, 12.1-12.9, 12.38-12.39, 13.9, 23.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269, 270, 272, 273; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 249; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 494; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 158, 165, 228, 229; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 75; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 49, 418
1.23. καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξεν 1.39. καὶ ἦλθεν κηρύσσων εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς αὐτῶν εἰς ὅλην τὴν Γαλιλαίαν καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλων. 3.1. Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα· 3.15. καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια· 5.22. Καὶ ἔρχεται εἷς τῶν ἀρχισυναγώγων, ὀνόματι Ἰάειρος, 5.35. Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἔρχονται ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου λέγοντες ὅτι Ἡ θυγάτηρ σου ἀπέθανεν· τί ἔτι σκύλλεις τὸν διδάσκαλον; 5.36. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς παρακούσας τὸν λόγον λαλούμενον λέγει τῷ ἀρχισυναγώγῳ Μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε. 5.38. καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου, καὶ θεωρεῖ θόρυβον καὶ κλαίοντας καὶ ἀλαλάζοντας πολλά, 6.1. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκεῖθεν, καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 6.2. Καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ· καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες Πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα τούτῳ, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι; 6.3. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ. 6.4. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τοῖς συγγενεῦσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 6.5. Καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο ἐκεῖ ποιῆσαι οὐδεμίαν δύναμιν, εἰ μὴ ὀλίγοις ἀρρώστοις ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας ἐθεράπευσεν· 6.6. καὶ ἐθαύμασεν διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν. Καὶ περιῆγεν τὰς κώμας κύκλῳ διδάσκων. 6.7. Καὶ προσκαλεῖται τοὺς δώδεκα, καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοὺς ἀποστέλλειν δύο δύο, καὶ ἐδίδου αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν ἀκαθάρτων, 6.45. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἠνάγκασεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐμβῆναι εἰς τὸ πλοῖον καὶ προάγειν εἰς τὸ πέραν πρὸς Βηθσαιδάν, ἕως αὐτὸς ἀπολύει τὸν ὄχλον. 6.46. καὶ ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι. 6.47. καὶ ὀψίας γενομένης ἦν τὸ πλοῖον ἐν μέσῳ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ αὐτὸς μόνος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 6.48. καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτοὺς βασανιζομένους ἐν τῷ ἐλαύνειν, ἦν γὰρ ὁ ἄνεμος ἐναντίος αὐτοῖς, περὶ τετάρτην φυλακὴν τῆς νυκτὸς ἔρχεται πρὸς αὐτοὺς περιπατῶν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης· καὶ ἤθελεν παρελθεῖν αὐτούς. 6.49. οἱ δὲ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης περιπατοῦντα ἔδοξαν ὅτι φάντασμά ἐστιν καὶ ἀνέκραξαν, 6.50. πάντες γὰρ αὐτὸν εἶδαν καὶ ἐταράχθησαν. ὁ δὲ εὐθὺς ἐλάλησεν μετʼ αὐτῶν, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Θαρσεῖτε, ἐγώ εἰμι, μὴ φοβεῖσθε. 6.51. καὶ ἀνέβη πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος. 6.52. καὶ λίαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἐξίσταντο, οὐ γὰρ συνῆκαν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄρτοις, ἀλλʼ ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη. 7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 10.2. Καὶ [προσελθόντες Φαρισαῖοι] ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν εἰ ἔξεστιν ἀνδρὶ γυναῖκα ἀπολῦσαι, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 10.3. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί ὑμῖν ἐνετείλατο Μωυσῆς; 10.4. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωυσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι καὶ ἀπολῦσαι. 10.5. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν ἔγραψεν ὑμῖν τὴν ἐντολὴν ταύτην· 10.6. ἀπὸ δὲ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν [αὐτούς]· 10.7. ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα, 10.8. καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν· ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ μία σάρξ· 10.9. ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω. 12.1. Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν Ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν, καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον, καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς, καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν. 12.2. καὶ ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς τοὺς γεωργοὺς τῷ καιρῷ δοῦλον, ἵνα παρὰ τῶν γεωργῶν λάβῃ ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος· 12.3. καὶ λαβόντες αὐτὸν ἔδειραν καὶ ἀπέστειλαν κενόν. 12.4. καὶ πάλιν ἀπέστειλεν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἄλλον δοῦλον· κἀκεῖνον ἐκεφαλίωσαν καὶ ἠτίμασαν. 12.5. καὶ ἄλλον ἀπέστειλεν· κἀκεῖνον ἀπέκτειναν, καὶ πολλοὺς ἄλλους, οὓς μὲν δέροντες οὓς δὲ ἀποκτέννυντες. 12.6. ἔτι ἕνα εἶχεν, υἱὸν ἀγαπητόν· ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν ἔσχατον πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγων ὅτι Ἐντραπήσονται τὸν υἱόν μου. 12.7. ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οἱ γεωργοὶ πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς εἶπαν ὅτι Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ κληρονόμος· δεῦτε ἀποκτείνωμεν αὐτόν, καὶ ἡμῶν ἔσται ἡ κληρονομία. 12.8. καὶ λαβόντες ἀπέκτειναν αὐτόν, καὶ ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος. 12.9. τί ποιήσει ὁ κύριος τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος; ἐλεύσεται καὶ ἀπολέσει τοὺς γεωργούς, καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις. 12.38. Καὶ ἐν τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ ἔλεγεν Βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῶν γραμματέων τῶν θελόντων ἐν στολαῖς περιπατεῖν καὶ ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς 12.39. καὶ πρωτοκαθεδρίας ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ πρωτοκλισίας ἐν τοῖς δείπνοις, 13.9. βλέπετε δὲ ὑμεῖς ἑαυτούς· παραδώσουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς συνέδρια καὶ εἰς συναγωγὰς δαρήσεσθε καὶ ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνων καὶ βασιλέων σταθήσεσθε ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ εἰς μαρτύριον αὐτοῖς. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1.39. He went into their synagogues throughout all Galilee, preaching and casting out demons. 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.15. and to have authority to heal sicknesses and to cast out demons: 5.22. Behold, one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name, came; and seeing him, he fell at his feet, 5.35. While he was still speaking, they came from the synagogue ruler's house saying, "Your daughter is dead. Why bother the Teacher any more?" 5.36. But Jesus, when he heard the message spoken, immediately said to the ruler of the synagogue, "Don't be afraid, only believe." 5.38. He came to the synagogue ruler's house, and he saw an uproar, weeping, and great wailing. 6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.3. Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him. 6.4. Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and among his own relatives, and in his own house." 6.5. He could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick folk, and healed them. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 6.7. He called to himself the twelve, and began to send them out two by two; and he gave them authority over the unclean spirits. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them, 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 6.50. for they all saw him, and were troubled. But he immediately spoke with them, and said to them, "Cheer up! It is I! Don't be afraid." 6.51. He got into the boat with them; and the wind ceased, and they were very amazed among themselves, and marveled; 6.52. for they hadn't understood about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this." 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?" 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you?" 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her." 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife, 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate." 12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.3. They took him, beat him, and sent him away empty. 12.4. Again, he sent another servant to them; and they threw stones at him, wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully treated. 12.5. Again he sent another; and they killed him; and many others, beating some, and killing some. 12.6. Therefore still having one, his beloved son, he sent him last to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' 12.7. But those farmers said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' 12.8. They took him, killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. 12.9. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers, and will give the vineyard to others. 12.38. In his teaching he said to them, "Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes, and to get greetings in the marketplaces, 12.39. and the best seats in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts: 13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them.
72. New Testament, Luke, 4.15-4.30, 6.6, 7.22, 8.41, 8.49, 9.1, 11.43, 12.11, 12.32-12.34, 13.10-13.17, 14.49, 20.46, 21.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue •rabbis, babylonian, and the new testament •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 158, 162; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269, 272, 273, 274; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 75; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 49, 418
4.15. καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδίδασκεν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν, δοξαζόμενος ὑπὸ πάντων. 4.16. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρά, οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι. 4.17. καὶ ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαίου, καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον εὗρεν [τὸν] τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον 4.18. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, 4.19. κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν. 4.20. καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισεν· καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ. 4.21. ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν. 4.22. καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος; 4.23. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Πάντως ἐρεῖτέ μοι τὴν παραβολὴν ταύτην Ἰατρέ, θεράπευσον σεαυτόν· ὅσα ἠκούσαμεν γενόμενα εἰς τὴν — Καφαρναοὺμ ποίησον καὶ ὧδε ἐν τῇ πατρίδι σου. 4.24. εἶπεν δέ Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς προφήτης δεκτός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ. 4.25. ἐπʼ ἀληθείας δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, πολλαὶ χῆραι ἦσαν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Ἠλείου ἐν τῷ Ἰσραήλ, ὅτε ἐκλείσθη ὁ οὐρανὸς ἔτη τρία καὶ μῆνας ἕξ, ὡς ἐγένετο λιμὸς μέγας ἐπὶ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν, 4.26. καὶ πρὸς οὐδεμίαν αὐτῶν ἐπέμφθη Ἠλείας εἰ μὴ εἰς Σάρεπτα τῆς Σιδωνίας πρὸς γυναῖκα χήραν. 4.27. καὶ πολλοὶ λεπροὶ ἦσαν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ ἐπὶ Ἐλισαίου τοῦ προφήτου, καὶ οὐδεὶς αὐτῶν ἐκαθαρίσθη εἰ μὴ Ναιμὰν ὁ Σύρος. 4.28. καὶ ἐπλήσθησαν πάντες θυμοῦ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἀκούοντες ταῦτα, 4.29. καὶ ἀναστάντες ἐξέβαλον αὐτὸν ἔξω τῆς πόλεως, καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἕως ὀφρύος τοῦ ὄρους ἐφʼ οὗ ἡ πόλις ᾠκοδόμητο αὐτῶν, ὥστε κατακρημνίσαι αὐτόν· 4.30. αὐτὸς δὲ διελθὼν διὰ μέσου αὐτῶν ἐπορεύετο. 6.6. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ εἰσελθεῖν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν καὶ διδάσκειν· καὶ ἦν ἄνθρωπος ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ ἡ δεξιὰ ἦν ξηρά· 7.22. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πορευθέντες ἀπαγγείλατε Ἰωάνει ἃ εἴδετε καὶ ἠκούσατε· τυφλοὶ ἀναβλέπουσιν, χωλοὶ περιπατοῦσιν, λεπροὶ καθαρίζονται καὶ κωφοὶ ἀκούουσιν, νεκροὶ ἐγείρονται, πτωχοὶ εὐαγγελίζονται· 8.41. Καὶ ἰδοὺ ἦλθεν ἀνὴρ ᾧ ὄνομα Ἰάειρος, καὶ οὗτος ἄρχων τῆς συναγωγῆς ὑπῆρχεν, καὶ πεσὼν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Ἰησοῦ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ, 8.49. Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἔρχεταί τις παρὰ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου λέγων ὅτι Τέθνηκεν ἡ θυγάτηρ σου, μηκέτι σκύλλε τὸν διδάσκαλον. 9.1. Συνκαλεσάμενος δὲ τοὺς δώδεκα ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς δύναμιν καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ δαιμόνια καὶ νόσους θεραπεύειν, 11.43. οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς Φαρισαίοις, ὅτι ἀγαπᾶτε τὴν πρωτοκαθεδρίαν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς. 12.11. Ὅταν δὲ εἰσφέρωσιν ὑμᾶς ἐπὶ τὰς συναγωγὰς καὶ τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας, μὴ μεριμνήσητε πῶς [ἢ τί] ἀπολογήσησθε ἢ τί εἴπητε· 12.32. μὴ φοβοῦ, τὸ μικρὸν ποίμνιον, ὅτι εὐδόκησεν ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν δοῦναι ὑμῖν τὴν βασιλείαν. 12.33. Πωλήσατε τὰ ὑπάρχοντα ὑμῶν καὶ δότε ἐλεημοσύνην· ποιήσατε ἑαυτοῖς βαλλάντια μὴ παλαιούμενα, θησαυρὸν ἀνέκλειπτον ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, 12.34. ὅπου κλέπτης οὐκ ἐγγίζει οὐδὲ σὴς διαφθείρει· ὅπου γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θησαυρὸς ὑμῶν, ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ καρδία ὑμῶν ἔσται. 13.10. Ἦν δὲ διδάσκων ἐν μιᾷ τῶν συναγωγῶν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν. 13.11. καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ πνεῦμα ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας ἔτη δέκα ὀκτώ, καὶ ἦν συνκύπτουσα καὶ μὴ δυναμένη ἀνακύψαι εἰς τὸ παντελές. 13.12. ἰδὼν δὲ αὐτὴν ὁ Ἰησοῦς προσεφώνησεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Γύναι, ἀπολέλυσαι τῆς ἀσθενείας σου 13.13. , καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτῇ τὰς χεῖρας· καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀνωρθώθη, καὶ ἐδόξαζεν τὸν θεόν. 13.14. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ἀγανακτῶν ὅτι τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐθεράπευσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἔλεγεν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὅτι Ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσὶν ἐν αἷς δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι· ἐν αὐταῖς οὖν ἐρχόμενοι θεραπεύεσθε καὶ μὴ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου. 13.15. ἀπεκρίθη δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ κύριος καὶ εἶπεν Ὑποκριται, ἕκαστος ὑμῶν τῷ σαββάτῳ οὐ λύει τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ ἢ τὸν ὄνον ἀπὸ τῆς φάτνης καὶ ἀπάγων ποτίζει; 13.16. ταύτην δὲ θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ οὖσαν, ἣν ἔδησεν ὁ Σατανᾶς ἰδοὺ δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ ἔτη, οὐκ ἔδει λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου; 13.17. Καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντος αὐτοῦ κατῃσχύνοντο πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι αὐτῷ, καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἔχαιρεν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τοῖς γινομένοις ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ. 20.46. Προσέχετε ἀπὸ τῶν γραμματέων τῶν θελόντων περιπατεῖν ἐν στολαῖς καὶ φιλούντων ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς καὶ πρωτοκαθεδρίας ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ πρωτοκλισίας ἐν τοῖς δείπνοις, 21.12. πρὸ δὲ τούτων πάντων ἐπιβαλοῦσιν ἐφʼ ὑμᾶς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν καὶ διώξουσιν, παραδιδόντες εἰς τὰς συναγωγὰς καὶ φυλακάς, ἀπαγομένους ἐπὶ βασιλεῖς καὶ ἡγεμόνας ἕνεκεν τοῦ ὀνόματός μου· 4.15. He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, 4.18. "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed, 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son?" 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.'" 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian." 4.28. They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 4.29. They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 4.30. But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 6.6. It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered. 7.22. Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you have seen and heard: that the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. 8.41. Behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue. He fell down at Jesus' feet, and begged him to come into his house, 8.49. While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble the Teacher." 9.1. He called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all demons, and to cure diseases. 11.43. Woe to you Pharisees! For you love the best seats in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces. 12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 12.32. Don't be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the Kingdom. 12.33. Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys. 12.34. For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 13.10. He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 13.11. Behold, there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 13.12. When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed from your infirmity." 13.13. He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified God. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!" 13.15. Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 13.16. Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound eighteen long years, be freed from this bondage on the Sabbath day?" 13.17. As he said these things, all his adversaries were put to shame, and all the multitude rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him. 20.46. "Beware of the scribes, who like to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts; 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake.
73. New Testament, John, 12.42, 19.28-19.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •rabbis, contacts with the mesopotamian christian community Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 35; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269
12.42. Ὅμως μέντοι καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς Φαρισαίους οὐχ ὡμολόγουν ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται, 19.28. Μετὰ τοῦτο εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤδη πάντα τετέλεσται ἵνα τελειωθῇ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει Διψῶ. 19.29. σκεῦος ἔκειτο ὄξους μεστόν· σπόγγον οὖν μεστὸν τοῦ ὄξους ὑσσώπῳ περιθέντες προσήνεγκαν αὐτοῦ τῷ στόματι. 19.30. ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Τετέλεσται, καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμα. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue, 19.28. After this, Jesus, seeing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, "I am thirsty." 19.29. Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and held it at his mouth. 19.30. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished." He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.
74. New Testament, Romans, 11.16-11.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, and the idea of sanctity •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations •rabbis, and the grafting of branches onto sacred trees Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 206, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 221, 222, 229
11.16. εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀπαρχὴ ἁγία, καὶ τὸ φύραμα· καὶ εἰ ἡ ῥίζα ἁγία, καὶ οἱ κλάδοι. 11.17. Εἰ δέ τινες τῶν κλάδων ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ ἀγριέλαιος ὢν ἐνεκεντρίσθης ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ συνκοινωνὸς τῆς ῥίζης τῆς πιότητος τῆς ἐλαίας ἐγένου, μὴ κατακαυχῶ τῶν κλάδων· 11.18. εἰ δὲ κατακαυχᾶσαι, οὐ σὺ τὴν ῥίζαν βαστάζεις ἀλλὰ ἡ ῥίζα σέ. 11.19. ἐρεῖς οὖν Ἐξεκλάσθησαν κλάδοι ἵνα ἐγὼ ἐνκεντρισθῶ. καλῶς· 11.20. τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ τῇ πίστει ἕστηκας. 11.21. μὴ ὑψηλὰ φρόνει, ἀλλὰ φοβοῦ· εἰ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τῶν κατὰ φύσιν κλάδων οὐκ ἐφείσατο, οὐδὲ σοῦ φείσεται. ἴδε οὖν χρηστότητα καὶ ἀποτομίαν θεοῦ· 11.22. ἐπὶ μὲν τοὺς πεσόντας ἀποτομία, ἐπὶ δὲ σὲ χρηστότης θεοῦ, ἐὰν ἐπιμένῃς τῇ χρηστότητι, ἐπεὶ καὶ σὺ ἐκκοπήσῃ. 11.23. κἀκεῖνοι δέ, ἐὰν μὴ ἐπιμένωσι τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἐνκεντρισθήσονται· δυνατὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς πάλιν ἐνκεντρίσαι αὐτούς. 11.24. εἰ γὰρ σὺ ἐκ τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐξεκόπης ἀγριελαίου καὶ παρὰ φύσιν ἐνεκεντρίσθης εἰς καλλιέλαιον, πόσῳ μᾶλλον οὗτοι οἱ κατὰ φύσιν ἐνκεντρισθήσονται τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐλαίᾳ. 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in." 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?
75. New Testament, Hebrews, 12.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 213
12.15. ἐπισκοποῦντες μή τις ὑστερῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χάριτος τοῦ θεοῦ,μή τις ῥίζα πικρίας ἄνω φύουσα ἐνοχλῇκαὶ διʼ αὐτῆς μιανθῶσιν οἱ πολλοί, 12.15. looking carefully lest there be any man who falls short of the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby the many be defiled;
76. New Testament, Galatians, 3.28, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 159; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289
3.28. οὐκ ἔνι Ἰουδαῖος οὐδὲ Ἕλλην, οὐκ ἔνι δοῦλος οὐδὲ ἐλεύθερος, οὐκ ἔνι ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ· πάντες γὰρ ὑμεῖς εἷς ἐστὲ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. 4.21. Λέγετέ μοι, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι, τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε; 4.22. γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν, ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας· 4.23. ἀλλʼ ὁ [μὲν] ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διʼ ἐπαγγελίας. 4.24. ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν δύο διαθῆκαι, μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινά, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν Ἅγαρ, 4.25. τὸ δὲ Ἅγαρ Σινὰ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς· 4.26. ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, 4.27. ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ ἡμῶν· γέγραπται γάρ 4.28. ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαὰκ ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐσμέν· 4.29. ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. 4.30. ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, οὐ γὰρ μὴ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 4.31. διό, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 3.28. There is neither Jewnor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither malenor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? 4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don't bear. Break forth and shout, you that don't travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband." 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman." 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.
77. New Testament, Acts, 13.15, 14.2, 18.8, 18.12-18.17, 21.23-21.26, 22.3, 22.19, 26.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 274; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 218; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 418
13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε. 14.2. οἱ δὲ ἀπειθήσαντες Ἰουδαῖοι ἐπήγειραν καὶ ἐκάκωσαν τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν ἐθνῶν κατὰ τῶν ἀδελφῶν. 18.8. Κρίσπος δὲ ὁ ἀρχισυνάγωγος ἐπίστευσεν τῷ κυρίῳ σὺν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν Κορινθίων ἀκούοντες ἐπίστευον καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο. 18.12. Γαλλίωνος δὲ ἀνθυπάτου ὄντος τῆς Ἀχαίας κατεπέστησαν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ὁμοθυμαδὸν τῷ Παύλῳ καὶ ἤγαγον αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ βῆμα, 18.13. λέγοντες ὅτι Παρὰ τὸν νόμον ἀναπείθει οὗτος τοὺς ἀνθρώπους σέβεσθαι τὸν θεόν. 18.14. μέλλοντος δὲ τοῦ Παύλου ἀνοίγειν τὸ στόμα εἶπεν ὁ Γαλλίων πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους Εἰ μὲν ἦν ἀδίκημά τι ἢ ῥᾳδιούργημα πονηρόν, ὦ Ἰουδαῖοι, κατὰ λόγον ἂν ἀνεσχόμην ὑμῶν· 18.15. εἰ δὲ ζητήματά ἐστιν περὶ λόγου καὶ ὀνομάτων καὶ νόμου τοῦ καθʼ ὑμᾶς, ὄψεσθε αὐτοί· κριτὴς ἐγὼ τούτων οὐ βούλομαι εἶναι. 18.16. καὶ ἀπήλασεν αὐτοὺς ἀπὸ τοῦ βήματος. 18.17. ἐπιλαβόμενοι δὲ πάντες Σωσθένην τὸν ἀρχισυνάγωγον ἔτυπτον ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ βήματος· καὶ οὐδὲν τούτων τῷ Γαλλίωνι ἔμελεν. 21.23. τοῦτο οὖν ποίησον ὅ σοι λέγομεν· εἰσὶν ἡμῖν ἄνδρες τέσσαρες εὐχὴν ἔχοντες ἀφʼ ἑαυτῶν. 21.24. τούτους παραλαβὼν ἁγνίσθητι σὺν αὐτοῖς καὶ δαπάνησον ἐπʼ αὐτοῖς ἵνα ξυρήσονται τὴν κεφαλήν, καὶ γνώσονται πάντες ὅτι ὧν κατήχηνται περὶ σοῦ οὐδὲν ἔστιν, ἀλλὰ στοιχεῖς καὶ αὐτὸς φυλάσσων τὸν νόμον. 21.25. περὶ δὲ τῶν πεπιστευκότων ἐθνῶν ἡμεῖς ἀπεστείλαμεν κρίναντες φυλάσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς τό τε εἰδωλόθυτον καὶ αἷμα καὶ πνικτὸν καὶ πορνείαν. 21.26. τότε ὁ Παῦλος παραλαβὼν τοὺς ἄνδρας τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἡμέρᾳ σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁγνισθεὶς εἰσῄει εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, διαγγέλλων τὴν ἐκπλήρωσιν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ ἁγνισμοῦ ἕως οὗ προσηνέχθη ὑπὲρ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου αὐτῶν ἡ προσφορά. 22.3. Ἐγώ εἰμι ἀνὴρ Ἰουδαῖος, γεγεννημένος ἐν Ταρσῷ τῆς Κιλικίας, ἀνατεθραμμένος δὲ ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιήλ, πεπαιδευμένος κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν τοῦ πατρῴου νόμου, ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τοῦ θεοῦ καθὼς πάντες ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ σήμερον, 22.19. κἀγὼ εἶπον Κύριε, αὐτοὶ ἐπίστανται ὅτι ἐγὼ ἤμην φυλακίζων καὶ δέρων κατὰ τὰς συναγωγὰς τοὺς πιστεύοντας ἐπὶ σέ· 26.5. προγινώσκοντές με ἄνωθεν, ἐὰν θέλωσι μαρτυρεῖν, ὅτι κατὰ τὴν ἀκριβεστάτην αἵρεσιν τῆς ἡμετέρας θρησκείας ἔζησα Φαρισαῖος. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak." 14.2. But the disobedient Jews stirred up and embittered the souls of the Gentiles against the brothers. 18.8. Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, believed in the Lord with all his house. Many of the Corinthians, hearing, believed and were baptized. 18.12. But when Gallio was proconsul of Achaia, the Jews with one accord rose up against Paul and brought him before the judgment seat, 18.13. saying, "This man persuades men to worship God contrary to the law." 18.14. But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, "If indeed it were a matter of wrong or of wicked crime, Jews, it would be reasonable that I should bear with you; 18.15. but if they are questions about words and names and your own law, look to it yourselves. For I don't want to be a judge of these matters." 18.16. He drove them from the judgment seat. 18.17. Then all the Greeks laid hold on Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. Gallio didn't care about any of these things. 21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality." 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 22.3. "I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you. 26.5. having known me from the first, if they are willing to testify, that after the strictest sect of our religion I lived a Pharisee.
78. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 6.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 213
6.10. ῥίζα γὰρ πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἐστὶν ἡ φιλαργυρία, ἧς τινὲς ὀρεγόμενοι ἀπεπλανήθησαν ἀπὸ τῆς πίστεως καὶ ἑαυτοὺς περιέπειραν ὀδύναις πολλαῖς. 6.10. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some have been led astray from the faith in their greed, and have pierced themselves through with many sorrows.
79. Tosefta, Berachot, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
6.24. "לא יכנס אדם [בהר הבית במעות הצרורות לו בסדינו ובאבק שעל רגליו באפונדתו החגורה לו] מבחוץ שנאמר (קוהלת ד) שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים.",
80. Tosefta, Demai, 2.13-2.14, 3.17, 5.2, 6.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290, 294; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 174; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 52
2.13. "לא יאמר אדם חבר לעם הארץ הולך ככר זו ותן לפלוני חבר שאין משלחין טהרות ביד עם הארץ חבר שאמר לו עם הארץ הולך ככר זו והולך לפלוני ע\"ה לא יתן לו שאין מוסרין טהרות לעם הארץ.", 2.14. "עם הארץ שאמר לחבר תן לי ככר זה ואוכלנו יין זה ואשתנו לא יתן לו שאין מאכילין טהרות לעם הארץ היה נדור מן הככר ואמר לו תן לי ואוכלנו אבטיח שניקר ואמר [לו] תן לי ואוכלנו יין ונתגלה ואמר לו תן לי ואשתנו לא יתן שאין מאכילין את האדם דבר האסור לו כיוצא בו לא יושיט ישראל אבר מן החי לבני נח ולא כוס יין לנזיר שאין מאכילין את האדם דבר האסור לו ועל כולן אין מברכין עליהן ואין מזמנין עליהן ואין עונין אחריהן אמן.", 3.17. "[המשלח] בין לעם הארץ ובין לחבר צריך לעשר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעם הארץ צריך לעשר לחבר צריך להודיע אמר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל מעשה ששלח <לו> [לי] ר' יוסי ברבי אתרוג גדול מציפורי ואמר זה בא בידי מקסרי ולמדתי ממנו שלשה דברים אחד שהיה ודאי ושהיה טמא ושלא היה בידו אלא זה בלבד שאילו היה בידו אחר היה מעשר ממנו עליו.", 5.2. "ישראל שמכר את זיתו בששים לוג טבלים ואמר לו כהן תנם לי בששים לוג מתוקנין [ומעשרות שלי מעשרות שלו ואינו חושש לא משום שביעית ולא משום רבית ולא משום מחלל את הקדשים.", 5.2. "היה מוכר פירות בערב שבת עם חשיכה אמר מתוקנין הן הלוקח ממנו למוצאי שבת לא יאכל עד שיעשר.", 6.13. "ישראל ונכרי שלקחו ביתו של נכרי אין רשאי שיאמר לו טול אתה צלמים ואני כלים אתה יין ואני פירות לקחו [את המרחץ] אין רשאי שיאמר לו תהא שבת בחלקך וחול בחלקי ואם התנה עמו מתחלה על מנת לעשות כן מותר.",
81. Tosefta, Eruvin, 1.2, 5.7, 5.10, 5.24, 6.2, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290, 293, 294, 295; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 115
1.2. "ר\"א אומר הכשר מבוי בלחיים מעשה בר\"א שהלך אצל [יוסף] בן פרידה לאובלין [וראה לו מבוי] שאין לו אלא לחי אחד אמר לו עשה [לו שניה אמר לו אתה חוזר לסותמו] אמר לו יסתם [מה ראיה לשבת] בכך.", 5.7. "ה' חבורות מקצת שרוין בחדרים ומקצת שרוין בעליות טרקלין שלהן כחצר לבתים שנים ששותפין זה לזה בין ביין בין בשמן אינן צריכין לערב היו ג' זה שותף לזה ביין וזה שותף לזה בשמן צריכין לערב רש\"א א' יין וא' שמן אין צריכין לערב אלעזר בן תדאי אומר אסורין עד שיערבו.", 6.2. "גזוזטרא שהיא למעלה מן [הים] אין ממלאין הימנה בשבת אלא אם כן עשו לה מחיצה גבוהה י' טפחים למטה מן המים אע\"פ שהמים צפין על גבה אין בכך כלום ר' מאיר אומר אף מלמעלה רבי חנניא בן [עקיבה אומר גזוזטרא שהיא למעלה מן הים גבוהה עשרה טפחים נוקבה וממלא ממנה בשבת].", 6.2. "אר\"ש ב\"א פעם א' [היינו יושבין לפני ר\"מ בערדסקין ואמר אחד] ערבתי בבצלים והושיבו ר\"מ בד\"א שלו וכן היה רשב\"א אומר מערבין לחולה ולאסטניס [ולקטן במזונו ולרעבתן בבינוני] של כל אדם.", 6.4. "[שיתוף מבוי צריך שיהא עמהם במבוי עירוב חצירות צריך שיהא עמהם בחצר] שנים ששותפין זה לזה [בין ביין בין] בשמן צריך [שיהא] עמהן במבוי אמר ר\"מ מפני מה אמרו אין מערבין לאדם אלא [לדעתו] לפי שאין רוצה שישתתפו אחרים עמו בחלקו אבל אם [היתה] לו תבשיל או עיסה אצל חבירו זכה לו תבשילו.",
82. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1, 2.9, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •jose the galilean, rabbi Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292, 293; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 60
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.",
83. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289
1.7. "רשב\"א משום ר\"מ וכן היה רבי דוסא אומר כדבריו חצי תשרי מרחשון וחצי כסלו זרע חצי כסלו וטבת [וחצי שבט] חורף חצי שבט ואדר וחצי ניסן קור חצי ניסן אייר וחצי סיון קציר חצי סיון תמוז וחצי אב קיץ חצי אב אלול וחצי תשרי חום רבי יהודה היה מונה ממרחשון ר\"ש מונה מתשרי."
84. Tosefta, Sukkah, 1.9, 2.2, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 271, 293, 295; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 347
1.9. "העמיד ארבע קורות וסיכך על גביהן רבי יעקב אומר רואין אותן [שאם יחקקו ויש בהן טפח על טפח על רום טפח כשרה ואם לאו פסולה] וחכ\"א שתים כהלכתן שלישית אפילו טפח ר\"ש אומר [שלישית] כהלכתן ורביעית אפילו טפח רשב\"א אמר משום רבי מאיר שתים בידי אדם ואחת באילן כשרה ועולין לה ביו\"ט.", 2.2. "חולין ומשמשיהן פטורין מן הסוכה ולא חולה מסוכן אלא אפי' חש בראשו [אפילו] חש [בעינו ואמר רשב\"ג מעשה וחשתי] בעיני בקיסרין והתיר לי רבי יוסי [בר ר'] לישן אני [ושמשי] חוץ לסוכה [אמר רבי כשהיינו באין אני ור\"א בר' צדוק אצל רבי יוחנן בן נורי לבית שערים והיינו אוכלים תאנים וענבים חוץ לסוכה וכן היה רבי אומר כל סוכה שאין בה ד\"א על ד\"א פסולה וחכ\"א אין מחזקת אלא ראשו ורובו בלבד כשרה. מעשה באנשי ירושלים שהיו משלשלין מטותיהן בחלונות שגבוהין עשרה ומסככין על גביהם וישנים תחתיהן פסל היוצא חוץ לסוכה נידון כסוכה].", 4.6. "[כיצד] ג' להבטיל את העם מן המלאכה חזן הכנסת נוטל חצוצרת ועולה לראש הגג גבוה שבעיר [נטל לקרות] הסמוכין לעיר בטלין הסמוכין לתחום מתכנסין ובאין לתוך התחום ולא היו נכנסין מיד אלא ממתינין עד שיבואו כולן ויתכנסו כולן בבת אחת [מאימתי הוא נכנס משימלא לו חבית ויצלה לו דגה וידליק לו את הנר].", 1.9. "One who puts up four beams, and covers them over [with schach], R. Yaakov says, They should be seen whether, were they divided, each post would reach a span on each side; if so, it is kosher; if not, it is invalid. And the sages say: Two legal walls; and the third wall [need only be] one handbreadth. R. Shimon says: Three legal [walls], and a fourth [need only be] one handbreadth. R. Shimon b. Elazar says in the name of R. Meir: If two are man-made and one by a tree, the sukkah is kosher and they may enter it on the festival.", 2.2. "The sick and their attendants are exempt from observance of the festival ; and not only one who is dangerously ill, but even one who has a headache or a pain in his eyes. Rabbi Simeon ben Gamaliel said: Once I was in Csesarea with pain in my eyes, and R. Jose allowed me and my attendant to sleep outside the sukkah. Rabbi said, \"Once I and Rabbi Elieser ben Rabbi Zadok were visiting Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri at Beth-Shearim, and we were eating figs and grapes outside the sukkah, and Rabbi was saying, 'Every sukkah which is not four cubits square is not valid.'\" But the sages say, \"If it contains space for the head, and the greater part of the body only, it is valid.\" There is a story of the men of Jerusalem that they were lowering their beds through windows which were ten handbreadths high, and were sleeping under them. A lath roof prolonged beyond the walls of a sukkah is to be judged like a sukkah. ", 4.6. "Why did they blow three blasts? To make the people cease from work. The sexton took the trumpets, and went to the top of the highest roof in the city to summon those near the city to cease from work. Those near the limits of the city assembled themselves together and came to the schoolhouse. They did not come immediately the trumpets blew, but waited till all were gathered together, and then all came at once. When did they assemble? After one could fill a bottle of water, or fry a fish, or light his lamp. ",
85. Tosefta, Sotah, 7.5, 7.7, 7.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •conversion court, rabbi yehudah and the •judah the patriarch, rabbi, •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 295; Fraade (2023), Multilingualism and Translation in Ancient Judaism: Before and After Babel. 177; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 53
7.5. "ברכת כהנים אלו בשעה שהכהנים אומרים על מעלות האולם הכל כשרין לעלות במעלות האולם בין תמימים בין בעלי מומין בין במשמר שלו בין במשמר שאינו שלו חוץ ממי שיש בו מום בפניו בידיו וברגליו [שלא ישא את כפיו מפני שהעם מסתכלין בו] וכשם שנשיאות כפים במקדש כך נשיאות כפים בגבולין.", 7.7. "ועוד דרש (קוהלת י) דברי חכמים כדרבונות וכמסמרות נטועים מה דרבן זה מכוין את הפרה להביא חיים לעולם אף דברי תורה [אינן אלא חיים לעולם] שנאמר (משלי ג׳:י״ח) עץ חיים היא אי מה דרבן זה מיטלטל יכול אף דברי תורה כן ת\"ל [וכמסמרות נטועים או אינן חסירין ולא יתירין] ת\"ל נטועים מה נטיעה פרה ורבה אף דברי תורה פרין ורבין בעלי אסופות אלו תלמידי חכמים שנכנסין ויושבין אסופות ואומרים על טמא טמא ועל טהור טהור על טמא במקומו ועל טהור במקומו שמא יאמר אדם בדעתו הואיל וב\"ש מטמאין וב\"ה מטהרין איש פלוני אוסר איש פלוני מתיר [למה] אני למד תורה מעתה [ת\"ל דברים הדברים אלה הדברים כל הדברים נתנו מרועה אחד כלם אל אחד בראן פרנס אחד נתנן רבון כל המעשים ברוך הוא אמרן אף אתה עשה לבך חדרי חדרים והכניס בו דברי ב\"ש ודברי ב\"ה דברי המטמאין ודברי המטהרין] אמר להן אין דור יתום שר' אלעזר בן עזריה שרוי בתוכו.", 7.9. "קורא מתחלה (דברים א׳:א׳) אלה הדברים עד שמע והיה אם שמוע תשמעו עשר תעשר וכי תכלה לעשר רבי אומר לא היה צריך להתחיל מראש הספר אלא שמע והיה אם שמוע [תשמעו] עשר תעשר וכי תכלה לעשר ופרשת המלך עד שגומר את כולה ודרשיות נדרשות בה וגו' עד סוף (דברים כ׳:ד׳) כי ה' אלהיכם ההולך עמכם זה השם שנתון בארון שנאמר (במדבר ל״א:ו׳) וישלח אותם משה אלף למטה לצבא אותם ואת פינחס מגיד שפינחס משוח מלחמה וכלי הקדש זה הארון שנאמר (במדבר ד׳:כ׳) ולא יבאו לראות כבלע וגו' וי\"א אלו בגדי כהונה שנאמר (שמות כ״ט:כ״ט) ובגדי הקדש וגו' ר' יהודה בן לקיש אומר שני ארונות היו אחד שיוצא עמהן למלחמה ואחד ששרוי עמהן במחנה זה שיוצא עמהן למלחמה היה בו ס\"ת שנאמר (במדבר י׳:ל״ג) וארון ברית ה' נוסע לפניהם וגו' וזה ששרוי [עמהן] במחנה זה שהיה בו שברי לוחות שנא' (במדבר י״ד:מ״ד) וארון ברית ה' ומשה לא משו מן המחנה.",
86. Tosefta, Shevuot, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
3.2. "ר' יהושע אומר ד' אין חייבין לשלם מן הדין ואין השמים מוחלין להם עד שישלמו. היודע עדות לחבירו ואינו מעיד אינו חייב לשלם מן הדין ואין השמים מוחלין לו עד שישלם. השוכר עדי שקר וגבה אינו חייב לשלם מן הדין ואין השמים מוחלין לו. הכובש קמה לפני האור והפורץ גדר לפני בהמה אין חייבין לו מן הדין ואין השמים מוחלין להן עד שישלם.",
87. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.13, 2.5, 3.3-3.4, 13.2, 16.14, 16.16-16.17, 16.19, 16.22, 17.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, and other jews Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 133; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293, 294; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 72, 99, 115, 119, 174
2.5. "א\"ר יהודה כשהיינו שרויין בעליית בית נתזה בלוד היינו נוקבין שפופרת של ביצה וממלאין אותה שמן ונותנין אותה על הנר בע\"ש עם חשיכה שיהא שוהה ודולק בלילי שבת [היו שם זקנים ולא אמר אחד מהן] דבר אם חברה בסיד ובגפסיס בע\"ש מותר.", 3.3. "המבשל בשבת בשוגג יאכל במזיד לא יאכל דברי ר\"מ ר' יהודה אומר בשוגג יאכל [במוצאי] שבת במזיד לא יאכל ר' יוחנן הסנדלר אומר בשוגג יאכל [במוצאי] שבת לאחרים ולא לו במזיד לא יאכל לא [לו ולא לאחרים כלל אמר] ר' ישמעאל ב\"ר יוחנן בן ברוקה דבר שחייבין על זדונו כרת ועל שגגתו חטאת ועשאו בשבת בין בשוגג בין במזיד אסור לו ולאחרים ודבר שאין חייבין על זדונו כרת ועל שגגתו חטאת ועשאה בשבת בשוגג יאכל למוצאי שבת לאחרים ולא לו במזיד לא לו ולא לאחרים.", 3.4. "השוחט בשבת בשוגג יאכל למוצאי שבת במזיד לא יאכל פירות שלקטן בשבת בשוגג [יאכלו] למוצאי שבת במזיד לא [יאכלו].", 13.2. "שנים שצדו את הצבי שניהן פטורין שאין שנים חייבין על מלאכה אחת צדו הראשון והניחו שניהם חייבין צדו הראשון ונתנו לשני הראשון חייב והשני פטור.", 16.14. "ר' אחא אמר משום ר\"ע הרי הוא אומר (שמות כב) אם במחתרת ימצא הגנב וגו' בעל הבית מהו ודאי או ספק הוי אומר ספק אם הורגין נפש להחיות נפש בספק דין הוא שידחו את השבת להחיות נפש בספק הא לא נתנו מצות לישראל אלא לחיות בהן שנאמר (ויקרא יח) אשר יעשה אותם האדם וחי בהן וחי בהן ולא שימות בהן אין לך דבר עומד בפני פיקוח נפש חוץ מע\"ז וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים בד\"א שלא בשעת הגזירה אבל בשעת הגזירה אפילו [מצוה] קלה שבקלות אדם נותן נפשו עליה שנא' (ויקרא כב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי [וגו'] ואומר (משלי טז) כל פעל ה' למענהו.", 17.1. "אמר ר' יהודה אימתי אמרו נותנין לתלויה ביו\"ט בזמן שנתן לתוכה מעיו\"ט לא נתן לתוכה מעיו\"ט לא יתן לתוכה ביו\"ט רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר טורף אדם חבית יינה בשמריה ונותן לתלויה ביו\"ט מסננין את הביצה בסודרין ובכפיפה מצרית נוטל בכברה ונותן לתוך האבוס ר\"א בן יעקב אומר מערין לכברה בשבת.", 17.1. "אין סכין את הכלים בשביל ליפותן אם לנאותן להשתמש בהן מותר לא יתן אדם שמן ע\"ג טבלא של שייש להתעגל עליה לפי שאין סכין ואין נופחין ואין מדיחין את הקרקע ביו\"ט ואצ\"ל בשבת.", 16.14. "R. Aha said in the name of R. Akiva. Behold, it says: “If a thief is found tunneling in…” Is the house’s owner certain or uncertain? You must say he is uncertain. If they kill a person to save a life in a case of uncertainty, it is logical that they should push off the Sabbath, in order to save a life in a case of uncertainty. Behold, the commandments were only given to Israel that they might live by them, as it is written “Which a man shall perform and live by them” - he shall live by them, and not die by them. Nothing takes precedence over saving a life, save idolatry, sexual sins, and murder. In which circumstances are these things said? When it is not a time of persecution. But, when it is a time of persecution, even when it comes to the smallest of small commandments, a person should die for it, as it is written: “Do not profane my holy name” (Leviticus 22) and “the Lord made everything for his own sake” (Proverbs 16).",
88. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, a b c d\n0 4 4 4 None\n1 7.8 7.8 7 8 \n2 7.7 7.7 7 7 \n3 7.10 7.10 7 10 \n4 7.9 7.9 7 9 \n5 5.5 5.5 5 5 \n6 7.1 7.1 7 1 \n7 .8 .8 8 \n8 4.8 4.8 4 8 \n9 4.7 4.7 4 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 218
89. Tosefta, Qiddushin, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 53
4.1. "הנותן רשות לשלשה לקדש לו אשה ר' נתן אומר בית שמאי אומרים יכולין שנים להעשות עדים ואחד שליח ב\"ה אומרים שלשתן שלוחין ואין יכולין להעיד.", 4.1. "ב' אחים שקדשו שתי אחיות זה אינו יודע לאיזו קדש וזה אינו יודע לאיזו קדש שניהם אסורין מן הספק אם היו עסוקין בגדולה לגדול ובקטנה לקטן אומר אני גדולה לא נתקדשה אלא לגדול וקטנה לא נתקדשה אלא לקטן.", 4.1. "A man who gave permission to 3 people to betroth for him a wife—Rabbi Natan says: Beit Shammai say: Two of them can be witnesses and one of them an agent; but Beit Hillel say: All of them are agents and they are not able to testify.",
90. Tosefta, Pesahim, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the grafting of branches onto sacred trees •rabbis, and the priests of jericho •yehuda the son of rabbi hiiyya •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201, 221; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 123
6.1. "אימתי אמרו הפסח נאכל בטומאה בזמן שבא מתחלתו בטומאה שחטו בטהרה [ונטמא הצבור] יזרק הדם [בטומאה] ואל יאכל הבשר בטומאה [שחטו בטהרה ונטמא הדם יזרק הדם בטומאה ואל יאכל הבשר בטומאה.", 10.12. "מעשה ברבן גמליאל וזקנים שהיו מסובין בבית ביתוס בן זונין בלוד והיו [עוסקין בהלכות הפסח] כל הלילה עד קרות הגבר, הגביהו מלפניהם ונועדו והלכו [להן] לבית המדרש.", 10.12. "Once, Rabban Gamliel and the elders were reclining in the house of Boethus ben Zonin in Lod, and they were occupied in studying the laws of Pesach all that night, until the cock crowed. They lifted the table, made themselves ready and went to the house of study [to pray].",
91. Tosefta, Peah, 4.6, 4.8-4.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •simeon the tsanua, rabbi •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •translation, attitudes of the rabbis toward Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 158; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
4.6. "שתי חזקות בא\"י נשיאות כפים וחילוק גרנות ובסוריא ועד מקום ששלוחי ר\"ח מגיעים נשיאות כפים אבל לא חילוק גרנות ובבל כסוריא ר\"ש בן אליעזר אומר אף באלכסנדריא בראשונה כשהיה שם ב\"ד.", 4.8. "אין פוחתין לעני העובר ממקום למקום מככר בפונדיון מארבע סאין בסלע לן נותנין לו פרנסת לינה שמן וקטנית שבת נותנין לו מזון שלש סעודות שמן וקיטנית דג וירק בד\"א בזמן שאין מכירין אותו אבל בזמן שמכירין אותו אף מכסין אותו היה מסבב על הפתחים אין נזקקין לו לכל דבר.", 4.9. "תמחוי כל היום קופה מערב שבת לערב שבת תמחוי לכל אדם קופה לאנשי אותה העיר אם שהה שם שלשים יום הרי הוא כאנשי העיר לקופה [ולכיסוי ששה חדשים לעניי] העיר שנים עשר חודש.", 4.11. "היה משתמש בכלי זהב מוכרן ומשתמש בכלי כסף בכלי כסף מוכרן ומשתמש בכלי נחושת בכלי נחושת מוכרן ומשתמש בכלי זכוכית אמרו משפחת בית נבלטא היתה בירושלים והיתה מתיחסת על בני ארנן היבוסי העלו להם חכמים שלש מאות שקלי זהב ולא רצו להוציאן חוץ מירושלים.", 4.12. "[האומר איני מתפרנס משל אחרים שוקדין עליו ומפרנסין אותו ונותנין לו לשום מלוה וחוזרין ונותנין לו לשום מתנה דר\"מ רש\"א אומרין לו הבא משכון כדי לגוס את דעתו].", 4.13. "היה אומר איני מתפרנס משל עצמי שוקדין עליו ומפרנסין אותו ונותנין לו לשם מתנה וחוזרין וגובין [לו] לשום מלוה.", 4.14. "המסמא את עינו והמצבה את כריסו והמעבה את שוקיו אין נפטר מן העולם עד שיהא לו כן.", 4.15. "גבאי צדקה אין רשאין לפרוש זה מזה אפילו נתן לו חבירו מעות שהוא חייב לו אפילו מצא מעות בדרך אינו רשאי ליטלן שנאמר (במדבר ל״ב:כ״ב) והייתם נקיים מה' ומישראל אבל פורשים זה מזה לתוך חצר או לתוך חנות וגובין.", 4.16. "מעשר <עני> [שני] אין פורעין ממנו מלוה וחוב ואין משלמין ממנו את הגמולים ואין פודין בו שבוים ואין עושין בו שושבינות ואין נותנין ממנו דבר לצדקה אבל משלחין ממנו דבר של גמילות חסדים וצריך להודיע ונותנין אותו לחבר עיר בטובה.", 4.17. "אמר ליתן ונתן נותנין לו שכר אמירה ושכר מעשה [אמר ליתן ולא הספיק בידו ליתן נותנין לו שכר אמירה כשכר מעשה] לא אמר ליתן אבל אמר לאחרים תנו נותנין לו שכר על כך שנא' (דברים ט״ו:י׳) כי בגלל הדבר הזה יברכך ה' אלהיך וגו' לא אמר לאחרים תנו אבל מניח לו בדברים טובים מנין שנותנים לו שכר על כך שנאמר כי בגלל הדבר הזה וגו'.", 4.18. "מעשה במונבז המלך שעמד ובזבז את כל אוצרותיו בשני בצורת אמרו לו אחיו אבותיך גנזו אוצרות והוסיפו על [של] אבותם ואתה עמדת ובזבזת את כל אוצרותיך שלך ושל אבותיך אמר להם אבותי גנזו אוצרות למטה ואני גנזתי למעלה שנא' (תהילים פ״ה:י״ב) אמת מארץ תצמח וגו' אבותי גנזו [אוצרות] במקום שהיד שולטת בו ואני גנזתי אוצרות במקום שאין היד שולטת בו שנאמר (תהילים פ״ט:ט״ו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך וגו' אבותי גנזו אוצרות שאין עושין פירות ואני גנזתי אוצרות שעושין פירות שנאמר (ישעיהו ג׳:י׳) אמרו צדיק כי טוב [וגו'] אבותי גנזו אוצרות של ממון ואני גנזתי אוצרות של נפשות שנא' (משלי י״א:ל׳) פרי צדיק עץ חיים ולוקח נפשות חכם אבותי גנזו אוצרות לאחרים ואני גנזתי לעצמי שנא' (דברים כ״ד:י״ג) ולך תהיה צדקה לפני ה' אלהיך אבותי גנזו אוצרות בעוה\"ז ואני גנזתי לעוה\"ב שנא' (ישעיהו נ״ח:ח׳) והלך לפניך צדקך צדקה וגמילת חסדים שקולין כנגד כל מצות שבתורה אלא שהצדקה בחיים וגמ\"ח בחיים ובמתים צדקה בעניים גמילות חסדים בעניים ובעשירים צדקה בממונו גמילות חסדים בממונו ובגופו.", 4.19. "א\"ר יהושע בן קרחה מנין שכל המעלים [את] עיניו מן הצדקה כאילו עובד ע\"ז שנאמר (דברים ט״ו:ט׳) השמר לך פן יהיה דבר עם לבבך בליעל לאמר ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים י״ג:י״ד) יצאו אנשים בני בליעל מקרבך מה בליעל האמור להלן ע\"ז אף בליעל האמור כאן ע\"ז.",
92. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 418
1.1. ΠΑΥΛΟΣ κλητὸς ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ καὶ Σωσθένης ὁ ἀδελφὸς 1.1. Paul, called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the willof God, and our brother Sosthenes,
93. Tosefta, Oholot, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 295
94. Tosefta, Nazir, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 295
5.1. "כל אלו שאמרו אין מתחיל לימנות עד שיטהר אם נטמא אין מביא קרבן טומאה כל אלו שאמרו מתחיל ומונה מיד אם נטמא מביא קרבן טומאה.",
95. Tosefta, Moed Qatan, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 99, 132
96. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 232
5.7. "מי כבשים ומי שלקות ומי זיתים מטבילין בהן ובלבד שאין בהן עקב שמן והתמד עד שלא החמיץ אין מטבילין בו.",
97. Tosefta, Megillah, 1.5, 2.5, 2.15, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, travel to the diaspora in rabbinic sources of •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 272, 294; Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 390
1.5. "מגבת פורים לפורים ומגבת העיר לאותה העיר אין מדקדקין במגבת פורים אבל לוקחים את העגלים ושוחטין ואוכלין אותן והמותר [אל] יפול לכיס של צדקה ר\"א אומר מגבת פורים [אל יעשה ממנו עני רצועה לסנדלו].", 2.5. "מצות מגילה מתחלתה ועד סופה דברי רבי מאיר ר' יהודה אומר מאיש יהודי ר' יוסי אומר (אסתר ג) מאחר הדברים האלה ר\"ש בן [אלעזר] אומר (אסתר ו) מבלילה ההוא אבל הכל מודים [שמצותה לגמור עד סוף].", 3.21. "כתב הנכתב ליחיד מכנין אותה לרבים לרבים אין מכנין אותה ליחיד רבי יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף הרי זה מגדף. תורגמן העומד לפני חכם אינו רשאי לא לפחות ולא להוסיף ולא לשנות אלא אם כן יהיה אביו או רבו. ", 1.5. "The collection of Purim is designated for Purim and the collection of a city is designated for that city. One is not frugal with the collection of Purim, rather we buy with it calves and slaughter and eat them. The extra money should (not) be added to the general charity fund. Rabbi Akiva said \"The collection of Purim should not be used to buy a shoe lace for a poor person.\"",
98. Tosefta, Maaser Sheni, 3.1, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 133, 134
99. Tosefta, Kilayim, 1.6, 1.8, 5.3, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on the koy •yose, rabbi, on resemblance to mother Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 125, 235, 244
1.6. "חמשה דברים נאמרו בשור הבר אסור משום אותו ואת בנו וחלבו אסור וקרב לגבי מזבח וחייב במתנות וניקח בכסף מעשר לזבחי שלמים אבל לא לבשר תאוה והרי הוא כבהמה לכל דבר ר' יוסי אומר זהו תאו האמור בתורה ומותר משום אותו ואת בנו וחלבו מותר ופסול לגבי מזבח ופטור מן המתנות וניקח בכסף מעשר לבשר תאוה אבל לא לזבחי שלמים והרי הוא כחיה לכל דבר וחכ\"א תאו בריה לעצמו שור הבר בריה לעצמו.", 1.8. "אין מרכיבין כשות על גבי [תאנא] מפני שהוא ירק באילן רבי יהודה מתיר ירק באילן אילן בירק רבן שב\"ג מתיר משום ר' יהודה בן אגרא איש כפר עכו.", 5.3. "אין קושרין את הסוס לצדי הקרון ולא לאחר הקרון ולא את הלבדקים לגמלים ר' מאיר מתיר אם היו מסייעין בירידה ובעליה הכל מודים שהוא אסור.", 5.5. "כלב מין חיה ר\"מ אומר מין בהמה מה הפרש בין ר\"מ וחכמים אלא שהכותב חייתו לבנו ר\"מ אומר כתב לו כלב וחכ\"א לא כתב לו כלב הכותב בהמתו לבנו ר\"מ אומר לא כתב לו כלב וחכמים אומרים כתב לו כלב כלב כופרי מין חיה.",
100. Tosefta, Kiddushin, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 53
4.1. "הנותן רשות לשלשה לקדש לו אשה ר' נתן אומר בית שמאי אומרים יכולין שנים להעשות עדים ואחד שליח ב\"ה אומרים שלשתן שלוחין ואין יכולין להעיד.", 4.1. "ב' אחים שקדשו שתי אחיות זה אינו יודע לאיזו קדש וזה אינו יודע לאיזו קדש שניהם אסורין מן הספק אם היו עסוקין בגדולה לגדול ובקטנה לקטן אומר אני גדולה לא נתקדשה אלא לגדול וקטנה לא נתקדשה אלא לקטן.", 4.1. "A man who gave permission to 3 people to betroth for him a wife—Rabbi Natan says: Beit Shammai say: Two of them can be witnesses and one of them an agent; but Beit Hillel say: All of them are agents and they are not able to testify.",
101. Tosefta, Kelim, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •simeon the tsanua, rabbi Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
102. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 5.1, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 155
5.1. "הבוגרת [בתביעה נותנים] לה שנים עשר חודש אם היתה קטנה בין היא בין אביה יכולין לעכב ר\"ט אומר נותנין לה הכל תרומה בד\"א מן האירוסין אבל מן הנישואין מודה ר\"ט שנותנין לה מחצה חולין ומחצה תרומה במה ד\"א בבת כהן לכהן אבל בת ישראל לכהן [הכל מודים שמעלין לה כל מזונותיה מן החולין] ר' יהודה בן בתירה אומר שתי ידות תרומה ואחד חולין ר' יהודה אומר [מוכרת את התרומה ולוקחת בדמיה חולין] רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר כל מקום שהוזכרו [שם] תרומה נותנין [כפול] חולין. זו משנה ראשונה רבותינו אמרו אין האשה אוכלת בתרומה עד שתכנס לחופה והיבמה עד שתבעל ואם מתה בעלה יורשה אמר ר' מנחם בן נפח [משם] ר' אליעזר הקפר מעשה בר' טרפון שקדש ג' מאות נשים להאכילן בתרומה שהיו שני בצורת וכבר שלח יוחנן בן בג בג אצל ר' יהודה בן בתירה לנציבים אמר לו שמעתי עליך שאתה אומר בת ישראל המאורסת לכהן אוכלת בתרומה שלח לו [ואמר לו] מוחזק הייתי בך שאתה בקי בחדרי תורה לדון קל וחומר אי אתה יודע ומה שפחה כנענית שאין ביאתה קונה אותה לאכול בתרומה [כסף] קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה בת ישראל שהביאה קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה אינו דין שיהא כסף קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה אבל מה אעשה שהרי אמרו חכמים אין ארוסה בת ישראל אוכלת בתרומה עד שתכנס לחופה [אם] מתה בעלה יורשה.", 11.2. "כשם שאלמנה מוכרת שלא בב\"ד כך יורשיה הבאין ברשותה מוכרין שלא בב\"ד ר\"ש אומר אלמנה מוכרת שלא בב\"ד ואין יורשיה הבאין ברשותה מוכרין שלא בב\"ד אמר ר\"ש מפני מה אמרו אלמנה מוכרת שלא בב\"ד ליפות כוחן של יתומים שלא תבזבז את נכסיהם ירדה לשדה העשויה אפותיקי ואכלה והוציאה הוצאות שמין לה מה שאכלה ושמין לזו מה שהוציאה אם שמו לה [בב\"ד] מה ששמו שמו.", 5.1. "The adult woman is like (sic!) one claimed—they give her 12 months. If she were a minor, either she or her father is able to delay [the marriage until she is of majority age]. Rabbi Tarfon says: They give her everything terumah [if she is claimed by a priest and the time limit of 12 months is up and they are still not married, she eats entirely terumah]. When does this apply? From betrothal [i.e. when the claiming 12 months is up, she is betrothed but still not married], but from marriage, Rabbi Tarfon agrees that they give her half hullin and half terumah. When does this apply? With a kohen's daughter [married to a] kohen, but an Israelite's daughter to a kohen, everyone agrees they raise all of her food from hullin. Rabbi Yehudah ben Betera says: Two parts terumah and one hullin. Rabbi Yehudah says: She should sell the terumah and buy with its value hullin. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Any place where they [the sages] mention \"terumah\", he gives double hullin. This was the original mishnah. Our rabbis said: A wife who is an Israelite's daughter doesn't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber, and a yevamah doesn't [eat terumah] until she has sex [with her levir]. If her husband dies [after the time of claiming has passed], he inherits her. Said Rabbi Menahem ben Nafah in the name of Rabbi Liezer Ha-Kappar: A case, that Rabbi Tarfon who betrothed 300 wives for them to eat terumah, for they were years of famine. But Yoha ben Bagbag already sent to Rabbi Yehudah ben Beterah to Netzivin, he said to him: I heard about you that you say a betrothed Israelite's daughter betrothed to a kohen can eat terumah. He replied to him and said to him: I had assumed that you were an expert in the chambers of Torah, but you don't know how to do a kal va-homer! Just as a Canaanite slavegirl, whose sex [with a kohen] does not acquire her to allow her to eat terumah, isn't it logical that money would acquire her to eat terumah!? But what can I do? For the Hakhamim said: A betrothed Israelite's daughter can't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber. If she dies, her father inherits her.", 11.2. "Just as a widow can sell [her ketubah] without the court, so too can her inheritors [or] those who come with her permission sell [it] without the court. Said Rabbi Shimon: Why did they say that a widow can sell [it] without the court? In order to benefit the orphans, such that they shouldn't plunder their property [if they have to wait to go to court, they will be using up their property in the meantime, so they said that they don't need a court and can sell the ketubah immediately]. If she took possession of a field that was made a security [for her ketubah] and ate it [i.e. used up the value of the property], but profits came out of it—they evaluate for her what she ate, and evaluate for her the profits [just like someone who took possession of a field without permission]. If they evaluate for her in a court, whatever they evaluated is evaluated.",
103. Tosefta, Negaim, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 202
2.3. "שתי בהרות וחוט של מחיה ביניהן נפרץ מכאן מקום שערה אחת ומכאן מקום שערה אחת טמא משום פסיון וטמא משום מחיה. בהרת שטהרה מתוך החלט מחיה ושער לבן מתוך פסיון מתוך הסגר אינו משמשת את הסגור אבל עלו לו ליטמא בשער לבן והפסיון הבא אחר הנגע. בהרת אחד הפטור כנסה ופשתה או פשתה וכנסה. נשתנית מן השלג לסיד ומן הסיד לשלג הרי זו כמו שהיה. בהרת כגריס ופשתה כחצי גריס והלך מן האום כחצי גריס. ר\"ע אומר תראה בתחלה וחכמים מטהרין בהרת כגריס ופשתה כגריס ועוד והלך מן האום כחצי גריס ר\"ע מטמא וחכ\"א תראה כתחלה.",
104. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jose the damascene (ben durmaskith), rabbi Found in books: Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 58
4.3. "בּוֹ בַיּוֹם אָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב, מַה הֵן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. גָּזַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מַעְשַׂר עָנִי. וְגָזַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, עָלֶיךָ רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁאַתָּה מַחְמִיר, שֶׁכָּל הַמַּחְמִיר, עָלָיו רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָחִי, אֲנִי לֹא שִׁנִּיתִי מִסֵּדֶר הַשָּׁנִים, טַרְפוֹן אָחִי שִׁנָּה, וְעָלָיו רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד. הֵשִׁיב רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מִצְרַיִם חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, מַה מִּצְרַיִם מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית. הֵשִׁיב רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, בָּבֶל חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, מַה בָּבֶל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מִצְרַיִם שֶׁהִיא קְרוֹבָה, עֲשָׂאוּהָ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִסְמָכִים עָלֶיהָ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב, שֶׁהֵם קְרוֹבִים, נַעֲשִׂים מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִסְמָכִים עֲלֵיהֶם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, הֲרֵי אַתָּה כִמְהַנָּן מָמוֹן, וְאֵין אַתָּה אֶלָּא כְמַפְסִיד נְפָשׁוֹת. קוֹבֵעַ אַתָּה אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם מִלְּהוֹרִיד טַל וּמָטָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג), הֲיִקְבַּע אָדָם אֱלֹהִים כִּי אַתֶּם קֹבְעִים אֹתִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה קְבַעֲנוּךָ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַתְּרוּמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, הֲרֵינִי כְמֵשִׁיב עַל טַרְפוֹן אָחִי, אֲבָל לֹא לְעִנְיַן דְּבָרָיו. מִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ, וּבָבֶל מַעֲשֶׂה יָשָׁן, וְהַנִּדּוֹן שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ. יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ מִמַּעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ, וְאַל יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ מִמַּעֲשֶׂה יָשָׁן. מִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים, וּבָבֶל מַעֲשֵׂה נְבִיאִים, וְהַנִּדּוֹן שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים. יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים מִמַּעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים, וְאַל יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים מִמַּעֲשֵׂה נְבִיאִים. נִמְנוּ וְגָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִין מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וּכְשֶׁבָּא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן דֻּרְמַסְקִית אֵצֶל רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּלוֹד, אָמַר לוֹ, מַה חִדּוּשׁ הָיָה לָכֶם בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַיּוֹם. אָמַר לוֹ, נִמְנוּ וְגָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִים מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. בָּכָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְאָמַר, סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם (תהלים כה). צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶם, אַל תָּחֹשּׁוּ לְמִנְיַנְכֶם. מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁשָּׁמַע מֵרַבּוֹ, וְרַבּוֹ מֵרַבּוֹ עַד הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, שֶׁעַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִין מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית: \n", 4.3. "On that day they said: what is the law applying to Ammon and Moab in the seventh year? Rabbi Tarfon decreed tithe for the poor. And Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah decreed second tithe. Rabbi Ishmael said: Elazar ben Azariah, you must produce your proof because you are expressing the stricter view and whoever expresses a stricter view has the burden to produce the proof. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Ishmael, my brother, I have not deviated from the sequence of years, Tarfon, my brother, has deviated from it and the burden is upon him to produce the proof. Rabbi Tarfon answered: Egypt is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Egypt must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah answered: Babylon is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Babylon must give second tithe in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give second tithe in the seventh year. Rabbi Tarfon said: on Egypt which is near, they imposed tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel might be supported by it during the seventh year; so on Ammon and Moab which are near, we should impose tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel may be supported by it during the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Behold, you are like one who would benefit them with gain, yet you are really as one who causes them to perish. Would you rob the heavens so that dew or rain should not descend? As it is said, \"Will a man rob God? Yet you rob me. But you: How have we robbed You? In tithes and heave-offerings\" (Malakhi 3:8). Rabbi Joshua said: Behold, I shall be as one who replies on behalf of Tarfon, my brother, but not in accordance with the substance of his arguments. The law regarding Egypt is a new act and the law regarding Babylon is an old act, and the law which is being argued before us is a new act. A new act should be argued from [another] new act, but a new act should not be argued from an old act. The law regarding Egypt is the act of the elders and the law regarding Babylon is the act of the prophets, and the law which is being argued before us is the act of the elders. Let one act of the elders be argued from [another] act of the elders, but let not an act of the elders be argued from an act of the prophets. The votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab should give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. And when Rabbi Yose ben Durmaskit visited Rabbi Eliezer in Lod he said to him: what new thing did you have in the house of study today? He said to him: their votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Eliezer wept and said: \"The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear him: and his covet, to make them know it\" (Psalms 25:14). Go and tell them: Don't worry about your voting. I received a tradition from Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai who heard it from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher, and so back to a halachah given to Moses from Sinai, that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year.",
105. Mishnah, Toharot, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 73
7.7. "הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת כֵּלָיו בְּחַלּוֹן שֶׁל אוֹדְיָארִין, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה מְטַהֵר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיִּתֶּן לוֹ אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ אוֹ חוֹתָם אוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה סִימָן. הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת כֵּלָיו מִגַּת זוֹ לַגַּת הַבָּאָה, כֵּלָיו טְהוֹרִין. וּבְיִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר בְּלִבִּי הָיָה לְשָׁמְרָם: \n", 7.7. "One who left his clothes in the cubbies of the bath house attendants: Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says that they are clean, But the sages say: [they are not clean] unless he gives him the key or the seal or unless he left some sign on them. One who left his clothes from one wine-pressing to the next, his clothes remain clean. If he left them with an Israelite [the clothes are unclean] unless he says, \"I have watched over them carefully.\"",
106. Mishnah, Sheviit, 5.9, 8.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 223
5.9. "מַשְׁאֶלֶת אִשָּׁה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ הַחֲשׁוּדָה עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר. אֲבָל לֹא תָבוֹר וְלֹא תִטְחַן עִמָּהּ. אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר מַשְׁאֶלֶת לְאֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ נָפָה וּכְבָרָה, וּבוֹרֶרֶת וְטוֹחֶנֶת וּמַרְקֶדֶת עִמָּהּ. אֲבָל מִשֶּׁתַּטִּיל הַמַּיִם, לֹא תִגַּע אֶצְלָהּ, שֶׁאֵין מַחְזִיקִין יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְכֻלָּן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וּמַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי נָכְרִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם: \n", 8.11. "מֶרְחָץ שֶׁהֻסְּקָה בְּתֶבֶן אוֹ בְקַשׁ שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית, מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ בָּהּ. וְאִם מִתְחַשֵּׁב הוּא, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִרְחֹץ: \n", 5.9. "A woman may lend to her neighbor who is suspect of transgressing the laws of the sabbatical year, a sifter, a sieve, a hand-mill, or an oven. But she may not sift or grind with her. The wife of a haver may lend to the wife of an am haaretz a sifter and a sieve and may even sift, grind, or sift flour with her. But once she poured water [over the flour], she may not touch [it] with her, for one may not aid those who commit a transgression. And all these things were only allowed in the interests of peace. They may offer encouragement to Gentiles during the sabbatical year, but not to Jews. In the interests of peace, one may also offer greetings to Gentiles.", 8.11. "A bathhouse that is heated with straw or stubble [grown during] the Sabbatical year, one is allowed to bath in it. But if he is an important person [whose actions will be influential], he may not bathe [in it].",
107. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 99
8.8. "הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַשּׂוֹכֵר. הִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ לֶחֳדָשִׁים, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַמַּשְׂכִּיר. מַעֲשֶׂה בְצִפּוֹרִי בְּאֶחָד שֶׁשָּׂכַר מֶרְחָץ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר זָהָב לְשָׁנָה, מִדִּינַר זָהָב לְחֹדֶשׁ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְלִפְנֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וְאָמְרוּ, יַחֲלֹקוּ אֶת חֹדֶשׁ הָעִבּוּר: \n", 8.8. "If one rented a house to his fellow by the year and the year was made a leap year, the extra month goes to the tet. If he rented it by the month and the year was made a leap year, the extra month goes to the owner. It once happened in Tzippori that a person leased a bath-house from his fellow at “twelve golden dinars a year, one dinar per month”, and [when the year became a leap year] the case came before Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel and Rabbi Yose, and they said: “Let them share the extra month.”",
108. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 7.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
7.7. "אֵין מְגַדְּלִין בְּהֵמָה דַּקָּה בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל מְגַדְּלִין בְּסוּרְיָא, וּבַמִּדְבָּרוֹת שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. אֵין מְגַדְּלִין תַּרְנְגוֹלִים בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, מִפְּנֵי הַקָּדָשִׁים, וְלֹא כֹהֲנִים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִפְּנֵי הַטָּהֳרוֹת. אֵין מְגַדְּלִין חֲזִירִים בְּכָל מָקוֹם. לֹא יְגַדֵּל אָדָם אֶת הַכֶּלֶב, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה קָשׁוּר בְּשַׁלְשֶׁלֶת. אֵין פּוֹרְסִין נִשְׁבִּים לַיּוֹנִים. אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה רָחוֹק מִן הַיִּשׁוּב שְׁלֹשִׁים רִיס: \n", 7.7. "It is forbidden to rear small herd animals in the Land of Israel, but it is permitted to rear them in Syria or in the wildernesses of the Land of Israel. It is forbidden to rear fowls in Jerusalem because of the “Holy Things”, nor may priests rear them [anywhere] in the Land of Israel because of [the laws concerning] clean foods. It is forbidden to rear pigs anywhere. One should not rear a dog unless it is tied with a chain. It is forbidden to set snares for pigeons unless it be thirty ris from an inhabited place.",
109. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2, 1.5, 2.2-2.3, 2.5, 4.10, 8.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on resemblance to mother •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, and the masses Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 166; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 235, 244
1.2. "פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו: \n", 1.5. "אֵין פּוֹדִים לֹא בָעֵגֶל, וְלֹא בַחַיָּה, וְלֹא בַשְּׁחוּטָה, וְלֹא בַטְּרֵפָה, וְלֹא בַכִּלְאַיִם, וְלֹא בַכּוֹי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר מַתִּיר בַּכִּלְאַיִם מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא שֶׂה, וְאוֹסֵר בַּכּוֹי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. נְתָנוֹ לַכֹּהֵן, אֵין הַכֹּהֵן רַשַּׁאי לְקַיְּמוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁ שֶׂה תַחְתָּיו: \n", 2.2. "כָּל הַקֳּדָשִׁים שֶׁקָּדַם מוּם קָבוּעַ לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן, וְנִפְדּוּ, חַיָּבִים בַּבְּכוֹרָה וּבַמַּתָּנוֹת, וְיוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין לִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד, וּוְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן מֻתָּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָן, וְהַשּׁוֹחֲטָן בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה, וְאִם מֵתוּ יִפָּדוּ, חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר: \n", 2.3. "כֹּל שֶׁקָּדַם הֶקְדֵּשָׁן אֶת מוּמָן, אוֹ מוּם עוֹבֵר לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן נוֹלָד לָהֶם מוּם קָבוּעַ (וְנִפְדּוּ), פְּטוּרִין מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה וּמִן הַמַּתָּנוֹת, וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין לִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד, וּוְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן אָסוּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָן, וְהַשּׁוֹחֲטָן בַּחוּץ חַיָּב, וְעוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה, וְאִם מֵתוּ יִקָּבֵרוּ: \n" 2.5. "רָחֵל שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין עֵז, וְעֵז שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין רָחֵל, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה. וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ מִקְצָת סִימָנִין, חַיָּב: \n", 4.10. "הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית. הֶחָשׁוּד עַל זֶה וְעַל זֶה, חָשׁוּד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת. וְיֵשׁ שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּד עַל הַטָּהֳרוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּד לֹא עַל זֶה וְלֹא עַל זֶה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הֶחָשׁוּד עַל הַדָּבָר, לֹא דָנוֹ וְלֹא מְעִידוֹ:", 8.8. "אֵין פּוֹדִין לֹא בַעֲבָדִים, וְלֹא בִשְׁטָרוֹת, וְלֹא בְקַרְקָעוֹת, וְלֹא בְהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת. כָּתַב לַכֹּהֵן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים, חַיָּב לִתֵּן לוֹ וּבְנוֹ אֵינוֹ פָדוּי, לְפִיכָךְ אִם רָצָה הַכֹּהֵן לִתֵּן לוֹ מַתָּנָה, רַשַּׁאי. הַמַּפְרִישׁ פִּדְיוֹן בְּנוֹ וְאָבַד, חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יח), יִהְיֶה לָּךְ וּפָדֹה תִפְדֶּה: \n", 1.2. "If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from [the law of] the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice [to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply] until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not [the clean fish's] growth.", 1.5. "We do not redeem with a calf, a wild animal, an animal slaughtered, a terefah, kilayim (a mixed breed) or a koy. Rabbi Eliezer permits [redemption] with kilayim because it is a lamb. But he forbids with a koy, because its nature is doubtful. If he gave [the first-born of a donkey] itself to the priest, the latter may not keep it, until he sets aside a lamb in its place.", 2.2. "All consecrated animals whose permanent physical blemish preceded their consecration and were then redeemed:Are subject to the law of the firstling and to the priestly gifts, And when they become like hullin [by being redeemed] they may be shorn and may be put to work. And their young and their milk are permitted after they have been redeemed. And he who slaughtered them outside the sanctuary is not liable. And they do not render what is substituted for them [holy]. And if they died they may be redeemed, except for the firstling and the tithe of cattle.", 2.3. "All [consecrated animals] whose consecration preceded their permanent, or their impermanent blemish [preceded] their consecration and subsequently they contracted a permanent blemish, and they were redeemed:Are exempt from the law of the firstling, and from priestly gifts; And they are not like unconsecrated animals to be shorn or put to work; And [even] after they have been redeemed their young and their milk are forbidden; And he who slaughtered them outside the sanctuary is liable; And they render what was substituted for them [holy], And if they died they must be buried." 2.5. "If a ewe gave birth to what looked like a kid, or a [female] goat gave birth to what looked like a lamb, it is exempt from [the law of] the first born. But if it some of the signs of [its mother] it is liable [to the law of the first born].", 4.10. "One who is suspected of ignoring the sabbatical year is not suspected of ignoring [also] the tithes. One who is suspected of ignoring tithes is not suspected of ignoring [also] the sabbatical year. One who is suspected of ignoring both is suspected of ignoring the rules of purity. And it is possible for one to be suspected of ignoring the rules of purity and yet not be suspected of ignoring the two laws [cited above]. This is the general rule: one who is suspected of [transgressing] something must not give judgment on it or testify concerning it.", 8.8. "We must not redeem [a first-born] with slaves, nor with notes of indebtedness, nor with immovable properties, nor with objects of hekdesh. If one gives a written acknowledgment to a priest that he owes him five selas he is bound to give them to him, although his son is not considered as redeemed. Therefore, if the priest wishes to give him [the note of indebtedness] as a gift he is permitted to do so. If one set aside the redemption money of his son and it became lost, he is responsible for it, because it says: “Shall be for you [but] you shall surely redeem” (Numbers 18:15).",
110. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 2.11, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on the koy •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 168; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 125
2.11. "כֵּיצַד אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לֹא לַחַיָּה וְלֹא לַבְּהֵמָה, אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם עִם הַחַיָּה וְעִם הַבְּהֵמָה, הַכּוֹתֵב חַיָּתוֹ וּבְהֶמְתּוֹ לִבְנוֹ, לֹא כָתַב לוֹ אֶת הַכּוֹי, אִם אָמַר הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּה אוֹ בְהֵמָה, הֲרֵי הוּא נָזִיר. וּשְׁאָר כָּל דְּרָכָיו, שָׁוִים לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה, וְטָעוּן שְׁחִיטָה כָּזֶה וְכָזֶה, וּמְטַמֵּא מִשּׁוּם נְבֵלָה וּמִשּׁוּם אֵבֶר מִן הַחַי כָּזֶה וְכָזֶה: \n", 3.1. "כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישִׁין הַבִּכּוּרִים. יוֹרֵד אָדָם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְרוֹאֶה תְּאֵנָה שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁבִּכֵּר, רִמּוֹן שֶׁבִּכֵּר, קוֹשְׁרוֹ בְגֶמִי, וְאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִּכּוּרִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא אוֹתָם בִּכּוּרִים מֵאַחַר שֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ מִן הַקַּרְקָע: \n", 2.11. "And how is [a koy] neither like a behemah nor like a hayyah?It is forbidden because of kilayim [to yoke it] with either a behemah or a hayyah. One who deeds his son his behemah and his hayyah he has not [thereby] given him the koy. If one says, “I will become a nazirite if this is [not] a hayyah or a behemah”, he is a nazirite. In all other ways it is like a behemah and a hayyah: It requires slaughtering (shehitah) like them both; It carries carrion impurity; And to it applies the law relating to a limb of a living being like them both.", 3.1. "How does one set aside bikkurim? A man goes down into his field, he sees a fig that ripened, or a cluster of grapes that ripened, or a pomegranate that ripened, he ties a reed-rope around it and says: “Let these be bikkurim.” Rabbi Shimon says: even so, he must again designate them as bikkurim after they have been plucked from the soil.",
111. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.5, 4.2, 6.6, 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, and the masses •rabbi yose the galilean Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 142; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 206
3.5. "הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת: \n", 4.2. "רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה הָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל בִּכְנִיסָתוֹ לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ תְּפִלָּה קְצָרָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַה מָּקוֹם לִתְפִלָּה זוֹ. אָמַר לָהֶם, בִּכְנִיסָתִי אֲנִי מִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁלֹּא תֶאֱרַע תַּקָלָה עַל יָדִי, וּבִיצִיאָתִי אֲנִי נוֹתֵן הוֹדָיָה עַל חֶלְקִי:", 6.6. "הָיוּ יוֹשְׁבִין לֶאֱכֹל, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ. הֵסֵבּוּ, אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּן. בָּא לָהֶם יַיִן בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּזוֹן, כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְעַצְמוֹ. לְאַחַר הַמָּזוֹן, אֶחָד מְבָרֵךְ לְכֻלָּם. וְהוּא אוֹמֵר עַל הַמֻּגְמָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְבִיאִין אֶת הַמֻּגְמָר אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַסְּעֻדָּה: \n", 7.3. "כֵּיצַד מְזַמְּנִין, בִּשְׁלשָׁה אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ. בִּשְׁלשָׁה וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בַּעֲשָׂרָה, אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ לֵאלֹהֵינוּ. בַּעֲשָׂרָה וָהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. אֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה וְאֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה רִבּוֹא. בְּמֵאָה אוֹמֵר, נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ. בְּמֵאָה וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בְּאֶלֶף, אוֹמֵר נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. בְּאֶלֶף וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. בְּרִבּוֹא, אוֹמֵר, נְבָרֵךְ לַייָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי הַצְּבָאוֹת יוֹשֵׁב הַכְּרוּבִים עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכָלְנוּ. בְּרִבּוֹא וְהוּא, אוֹמֵר בָּרְכוּ. כְּעִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ, כָּךְ עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו, בָּרוּךְ יְיָ אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי הַצְּבָאוֹת יוֹשֵׁב הַכְּרוּבִים עַל הַמָּזוֹן שֶׁאָכָלְנוּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, לְפִי רֹב הַקָּהָל הֵן מְבָרְכִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בְּמַקְהֵלוֹת בָּרְכוּ אֱלֹהִים, יְיָ מִמְּקוֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל (תהלים סח). אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, מַה מָּצִינוּ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, אֶחָד מְרֻבִּין וְאֶחָד מֻעָטִין אוֹמֵר, בָּרְכוּ אֶת יְיָ. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, בָּרְכוּ אֶת יְיָ הַמְבֹרָךְ: \n", 3.5. "If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits.", 4.2. "Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakaneh used to pray as he entered the Bet Hamidrash and as he left it a short prayer. They said to him: what is the reason for this prayer? He replied: When I enter I pray that that no mishap should occur through me, and when I leave I express thanks for my portion.", 6.6. "If [those at the table] are sitting upright, each one blesses for himself. If they are reclining, one blesses for them all. If wine came during the meal, each one says a blessing for himself. If after the meal, one blesses for them all. The same one says [the blessing] over the incense, even though the incense is not brought until after the meal.", 7.3. "How do they invite [one another to recite the Birkat Hamazon]?If there are three, he [the one saying Birkat Hamazon] says, “Let us bless [Him of whose food we have eaten].” If there are three and him he says, “Bless [Him of whose food we have eaten]” If there are ten, he says, “Let us bless our God [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are ten and he says, “Bless.” It is the same whether there are ten or ten myriads (ten ten thousands). If there are a hundred he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God [of whose food we have eaten]. If there are a hundred and him he says, “Bless.” If there are a thousand he says “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel [of whose food we have eaten].” If there are a thousand and him he says “Bless.” If there are ten thousand he says, “Let us bless the Lord our God, the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” If there are ten thousand and him he says, “Bless.” Corresponding to his blessing the others answer after him, “Blessed be the Lord our God the God of Israel, the God of hosts, who dwells among the cherubim, for the food which we have eaten.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: According to the number of the congregation, they bless, as it says, “In assemblies bless God, the Lord, O you who are from the fountain of Israel.” Rabbi Akiba said: What do we find in the synagogue? Whether there are many or few the he says, “Bless the Lord your God.” Rabbi Ishmael says: “Bless the Lord your God who is blessed.”",
112. Mishnah, Demai, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290
2.2. "הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִהְיוֹת נֶאֱמָן, מְעַשֵּׂר אֶת שֶׁהוּא אוֹכֵל, וְאֶת שֶׁהוּא מוֹכֵר, וְאֶת שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֵחַ, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאָרֵחַ אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמִּתְאָרֵחַ אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ נֶאֱמָן. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, עַל עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן, כֵּיצַד יְהֵא נֶאֱמָן עַל שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים: \n", 2.3. "הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִהְיוֹת חָבֵר, אֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ לַח וְיָבֵשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ לַח, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאָרֵח אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא מְאָרְחוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף לֹא יְגַדֵּל בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה, וְלֹא יְהֵא פָרוּץ בִּנְדָרִים וּבִשְׂחוֹק, וְלֹא יְהֵא מִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים, וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא בָאוּ אֵלּוּ לַכְּלָל: \n" 2.2. "One who accepts upon himself to be trustworthy (ne’eman), must tithe whatever he eats and whatever he sells and whatever he buys, and he may not be the guest of an am haaretz. Rabbi Judah says: even one who is the guest of an am haaretz can still be considered trustworthy. They said to him: He is not trustworthy in respect of himself! How can he be considered trustworthy in respect of others?", 2.3. "One who takes upon himself to become a “chaver” may not sell to an am haaretz either moist or dry [produce], nor may he buy from him moist [produce], nor may he be the guest of an am haaretz, nor may he host an am haaretz as a guest while [the am haaretz] is wearing his own garment. Rabbi Judah says: he may not also raise small animals, nor may make a lot of vows or merriment, nor may he defile himself by contact with the dead. Rather he should be an attendant at the house of study. They said to him: these [requirements] do not come within the general rule [of being a chaver]."
113. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yehudah the patriarch Found in books: Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 68
5.7. "בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָתוֹ אָמַר לִבְנוֹ, בְּנִי, חֲזֹר בְּךָ בְאַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר. אָמַר לוֹ, וְלָמָּה לֹא חָזַרְתָּ בָּךְ. אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי מִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּים, וְהֵם שָׁמְעוּ מִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּים. אֲנִי עָמַדְתִּי בִשְׁמוּעָתִי, וְהֵם עָמְדוּ בִשְׁמוּעָתָן. אֲבָל אַתָּה שָׁמַעְתָּ מִפִּי הַיָּחִיד, וּמִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּין. מוּטָב לְהַנִּיחַ דִּבְרֵי הַיָּחִיד, וְלֶאֱחֹז בְּדִבְרֵי הַמְרֻבִּין. אָמַר לוֹ, אַבָּא, פְּקֹד עָלַי לַחֲבֵרֶיךָ. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵינִי מַפְקִיד. אָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁמָּא עִילָה מָצָאתָ בִי. אָמַר לוֹ, לָאו. מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְקָרְבוּךָ וּמַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְרַחֲקוּךָ: \n", 5.7. "At the time of his death he said to his son, “Retract the four opinions which I used to declare.” He (the said to him, “Why did not you retract them?” He said to him, “I heard them from the mouth of the many, and they heard [the contrary] from the mouth of the many. I stood fast by the tradition which I heard, and they stood fast by the tradition which they heard. But you have heard [my tradition] from the mouth of a single individual and [their tradition] from the mouth of the many. It is better to leave the opinion of the single individual and to hold by the opinion of the many.” He said to him, “Father commend me to your colleagues.” He said to him, “I will not commend you.” He said to him, “Have you found in me any wrong?” He said, “No; your own deeds will cause you to be near, and your own deeds will cause you to be far.”",
114. Mishnah, Eruvin, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world Found in books: Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 43
3.1. "בַּכֹּל מְעָרְבִין וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים, חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַמֶּלַח. וְהַכֹּל נִקָּח בְּכֶסֶף מַעֲשֵׂר, חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם וּמִן הַמֶּלַח. הַנּוֹדֵר מִן הַמָּזוֹן, מֻתָּר בְּמַיִם וּבְמֶלַח. מְעָרְבִין לְנָזִיר בְּיַיִן וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּתְרוּמָה. סוּמְכוֹס אוֹמֵר, בְּחֻלִּין. וּלְכֹהֵן בְּבֵית הַפְּרָס. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לָחוֹץ וְלֶאֱכֹל: \n", 3.1. "With all [kinds of food] they may make an ‘eruv and a shittuf, except water and salt. And all [kinds of food] may be purchased with money of the second tithe, except water and salt. One who vowed to abstain from food is allowed [to consume] both water and salt. An eruv may be prepared for a nazirite with wine and for an Israelite with terumah, But Symmachus says: with unconsecrated produce only. [An eruv may be prepared] for a priest in a bet hapras. Rabbi Judah says: even in a cemetary, because he can put up a partition and thus enter [the area] and eat [his eruv].",
115. Mishnah, Gittin, 5.9, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbi judah the prince Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 267
5.9. "מַשְׁאֶלֶת אִשָּׁה לַחֲבֶרְתָּהּ הַחֲשׁוּדָה עַל הַשְּׁבִיעִית, נָפָה וּכְבָרָה וְרֵחַיִם וְתַנּוּר, אֲבָל לֹא תָבֹר וְלֹא תִטְחַן עִמָּהּ. אֵשֶׁת חָבֵר מַשְׁאֶלֶת לְאֵשֶׁת עַם הָאָרֶץ, נָפָה וּכְבָרָה, וּבוֹרֶרֶת וְטוֹחֶנֶת וּמַרְקֶדֶת עִמָּהּ, אֲבָל מִשֶּׁתַּטִּיל הַמַּיִם, לֹא תִגַּע עִמָּהּ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרָה. וְכֻלָּן לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם. וּמַחֲזִיקִין יְדֵי גוֹיִם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אֲבָל לֹא יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְשׁוֹאֲלִין בִּשְׁלוֹמָן, מִפְּנֵי דַרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם: \n", 9.8. "גֵּט שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעֵדָיו יְוָנִית, יְוָנִית וְעֵדָיו עִבְרִית, עֵד אֶחָד עִבְרִי וְעֵד אֶחָד יְוָנִי, כָּתַב סוֹפֵר וְעֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן אִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי, וְלֹא כָתַב עֵד, כָּשֵׁר. וְכָךְ הָיוּ נְקִיֵּי הַדַּעַת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם עוֹשִׂין. כָּתַב חֲנִיכָתוֹ וַחֲנִיכָתָהּ, כָּשֵׁר. גֵּט מְעֻשֶּׂה, בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, כָּשֵׁר. וּבְגוֹיִם, פָּסוּל. וּבְגוֹיִם, חוֹבְטִין אוֹתוֹ וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ עֲשֵׂה מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים לְךָ, וְכָשֵׁר: \n", 5.9. "A woman may lend to another woman who is suspected of not observing the sabbatical year a fan or a sieve or a handmill or a stove, but she should not sift or grind with her. The wife of a “haver” may lend to the wife of an “am ha-aretz” a fan or a sieve and may winnow and grind and sift with her, but once she has poured water over the flour she should not touch anything with her, because we do not assist those who commit a transgression. All these rules were only said because of the ways of peace. Gentiles may be wished luck in the Sabbatical year but not Israelites and greeting may be given to them, because of the ways of peace.", 9.8. "A get which was written in Hebrew and whose signatures are in Greek, or was written in Greek and whose signatures are in Hebrew, or which has one Hebrew signature and one Greek signature, or which was written by a scribe and signed by one witness, is valid. [If a man signs], “So-and-so, witness,” it is valid. [If he signs,] “Son of so-and-so, witness, it is valid. [If he signs,] “So-and-so son of so-and-so” and he didn’t write “witness”, it is valid. If he wrote his own family name and hers, the get is valid. And this is how the scrupulous in Jerusalem would do. A get given imposed by court: in the case of a Jewish court is valid, and in the case of a Gentile court is invalid. And with regard to Gentiles, if they beat him and say to him, “Do what the Israelites say to you,” (and it is valid).",
116. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, as provincial residents of the roman world Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 56, 61
4.6. הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ, לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַנְּסָרִים וְאֶת הַסַּפְסָלִים וְאֶת הַוִּילָאוֹת. בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ, הוּא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, הֲרֵי כֻלָּן מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ, לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַמְּגֻרוֹת שֶׁל מַיִם וְלֹא אֶת הָאוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁל עֵצִים. 4.6. "If a man sold a bath house, he has not sold the planks or the benches or the curtains. But if he had said: “It and all that is in it”, all these are sold also. In neither case has he sold the water containers or the stores of wood.",
117. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
2.1. "אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם: \n", 2.1. "They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.",
118. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 5.8, 7.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •the fathers according to rabbi nathan (r. nathan), and humility Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 295
5.8. "הַמַּשְׁרֶה אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ עַל יְדֵי שָׁלִישׁ, לֹא יִפְחֹת לָהּ מִשְּׁנֵי קַבִּין חִטִּין, אוֹ מֵאַרְבָּעָה קַבִּין שְׂעוֹרִים. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, לֹא פָסַק לָהּ שְׂעוֹרִים אֶלָּא רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל שֶׁהָיָה סָמוּךְ לֶאֱדוֹם. וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ חֲצִי קַב קִטְנִית וַחֲצִי לֹג שֶׁמֶן, וְקַב גְּרוֹגָרוֹת, אוֹ מָנֶה דְבֵלָה. וְאִם אֵין לוֹ, פּוֹסֵק לְעֻמָּתָן פֵּרוֹת מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר. וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ מִטָּה, מַפָּץ, וּמַחֲצֶלֶת. וְנוֹתֵן לָהּ כִּפָּה לְרֹאשָׁהּ, וַחֲגוֹר לְמָתְנֶיהָ, וּמִנְעָלִים מִמּוֹעֵד לְמוֹעֵד, וְכֵלִים שֶׁל חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז מִשָּׁנָה לְשָׁנָה. וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין לָהּ, לֹא חֲדָשִׁים בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, וְלֹא שְׁחָקִים בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים. אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לָהּ כֵּלִים שֶׁל חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וְהִיא מִתְכַּסָּה בִבְלָאוֹתֵיהֶן בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, וְהַשְּׁחָקִים שֶׁלָּהּ: \n", 7.10. "וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁכּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לְהוֹצִיא, מֻכֵּה שְׁחִין, וּבַעַל פּוֹלִיפּוֹס, וְהַמְקַמֵּץ, וְהַמְצָרֵף נְחֹשֶׁת, וְהַבֻּרְסִי, בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ בָם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְּׂאוּ וּבֵין מִשֶּׁנִּשְּׂאוּ נוֹלָדוּ. וְעַל כֻּלָּן אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמָּהּ, יְכוֹלָהּ הִיא שֶׁתֹּאמַר, סְבוּרָה הָיִיתִי שֶׁאֲנִי יְכוֹלָהּ לְקַבֵּל, וְעַכְשָׁיו אֵינִי יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְקַבֶּלֶת הִיא עַל כָּרְחָהּ, חוּץ מִמֻּכֵּה שְׁחִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּמִקָּתוֹ. מַעֲשֶׂה בְצִידוֹן בְּבֻרְסִי אֶחָד שֶׁמֵּת וְהָיָה לוֹ אָח בֻּרְסִי, אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, יְכוֹלָה הִיא שֶׁתֹּאמַר, לְאָחִיךָ הָיִיתִי יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל, וּלְךָ אֵינִי יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל: \n", 5.8. "If a man provides for his wife through an agent, he must give her [every week] not less than two kavs of wheat or four kavs of barley. Rabbi Yose said: only Rabbi Ishmael, who lived near Edom, granted her a supply of barley. He must also give her half a kav of pulse and half a log of oil; and a kav of dried figs or a maneh of pressed figs, and if he has no [such fruit] he must supply her with a corresponding quantity of other fruit. He must also provide her with a bed, a mattress and a mat. He must also give her a hat for her head and a girdle for her loins; shoes, from festival to festival; and clothing worth fifty zuz every year. She is not to be given new [clothes] in the summer or worn-out clothes in the winter, but must be given clothes worth fifty zuz during the winter, and she wears them when they are worn-out during the summer; and the worn-out clothes remain her property.", 7.10. "These are the ones who are forced to divorce [their wives]: one who is afflicted with boils, one who has a polypus, a gatherer [of dog feces for the treatment of hides], a coppersmith or a tanner whether they were [in such a condition] before they married or whether they arose after they had married. And concerning all these Rabbi Meir said: although the man made a condition with her [that she accept him despite these defects] she may nevertheless say, “I thought I could accept him, but now I cannot accept him.” The Sages say: she must accept [such a person] against her will, the only exception being a man afflicted with boils, because she [by her intercourse] will enervate him. It once happened at Sidon that a tanner died, and he had a brother who was also a tanner. The Sages said: she may say, “I was able to accept your brother but I cannot accept you.”",
119. Mishnah, Kelim, 12.6, 22.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, as provincial residents of the roman world Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 61, 73
12.6. "אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מְטַמֵּא, וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִין. כִּסּוּי טֶנִי שֶׁל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים, וּתְלוֹי הַמַּגְרֵדוֹת, וְגֹלְמֵי כְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת, וְטַבְלָה שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לִשְׁנָיִם. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּטַבְלָה שֶׁנֶּחְלְקָה לִשְׁנַיִם, אֶחָד גָּדוֹל וְאֶחָד קָטָן, שֶׁהַגָּדוֹל טָמֵא וְהַקָּטָן טָהוֹר: \n", 22.10. "הָאַסְלָה, טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וּטְמֵא מֵת. פֵּרְשָׁה, הָעוֹר טָמֵא מִדְרָס, וְהַבַּרְזֶל טָמֵא טְמֵא מֵת. הַטְּרַסְקָל שֶׁחִפּוּיוֹ שֶׁל עוֹר, טָמֵא מִדְרָס וּטְמֵא מֵת. פֵּרְשָׁה, הָעוֹר טָמֵא מִדְרָס, וְהַטְּרַסְקָל טָהוֹר מִכְּלוּם. סַפְסָלִין שֶׁבַּמֶּרְחָץ וּשְׁתֵּי רַגְלָיו שֶׁל עֵץ, טָמֵא. אַחַת שֶׁל עֵץ וְאַחַת שֶׁל אֶבֶן, טָהוֹר. הַנְּסָרִין שֶׁבַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁשִּׁגְּמָן, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְטַמֵּא וַחֲכָמִים מְטַהֲרִין, שֶׁאֵינָם עֲשׂוּיִן אֶלָּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם מְהַלְּכִין תַּחְתֵּיהֶן. קַנְקֵילִין שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ בֵּית קַבָּלַת כְּסוּת, טְמֵאָה. וְהָעֲשׂוּיָה כְּכַוֶּרֶת, טְהוֹרָה: \n", 12.6. "There are four things which Rabban Gamaliel says are susceptible to impurity, and the sages say are not susceptible to impurity.The covering of a metal basket, if it belongs to householders; And the hanger of a strigil; And metal vessels which are still unshaped; And a plate that is divided into two [equal] parts. And the sages agree with Rabban Gamaliel in the case of a plate that was divided into two parts, one large and one small, that the large one is susceptible to impurity and the small one is not susceptible to impurity.", 22.10. "A toilet is subject to both midras and corpse uncleanness. If the leather seat was separated, the leather is subject to midras uncleanness and the iron is subject only to corpse uncleanness. A folding stool whose cover is of leather is subject to both midras and corpse uncleanness. If it was taken apart, the leather is subject to midras uncleanness while the stool is altogether clean. A bath-house bench that has two wooden legs is susceptible to uncleanness. If one leg was of wood and the other of stone it is clean. Boards in a bath-house which were joined together: Rabbi Akiva says that they are susceptible to [midras] uncleanness; But the sages say that they are clean, since they are made only for the water to flow under them. A fumigation-cage that contains a receptacle for garments is susceptible to uncleanness, But one that is made like a bee-hive is clean.",
120. Mishnah, Keritot, 5.2-5.3, 6.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 165, 166
5.2. "רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּב עַל סְפֵק מְעִילוֹת אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִים. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, שֶׁאֵין מֵבִיא אֶת מְעִילָתוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּתְוַדַּע לוֹ, וְיָבִיא עִמָּהּ אָשָׁם וַדָּאי. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מַה לָּזֶה מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי אֲשָׁמוֹת. אֶלָּא יָבִיא מְעִילָה וְחֻמְשָׁהּ, וְיָבִיא אָשָׁם בִּשְׁנֵי סְלָעִים, וְיֹאמַר, אִם וַדַּאי מָעַלְתִּי, זוֹ מְעִילָתִי וְזֶה אֲשָׁמִי. וְאִם סָפֵק, הַמָּעוֹת נְדָבָה וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. שֶׁמִּמִּין שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא עַל הוֹדַע, מֵבִיא עַל לֹא הוֹדַע: \n", 5.3. "אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, נִרְאִים דְּבָרֶיךָ בִּמְעִילָה מְעֻטָּה. הֲרֵי שֶׁבָּא עַל יָדוֹ סְפֵק מְעִילָה בְּמֵאָה מָנֶה, לֹא יָפֶה לוֹ שֶׁיָּבִיא אָשָׁם בִּשְׁתֵּי סְלָעִים וְאַל יָבִיא סְפֵק מְעִילָה בְּמֵאָה מָנֶה. הָא מוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לְרַבִּי טַרְפוֹן בִּמְעִילָה מֻעָטֶת. הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁהֵבִיאָה חַטַּאת הָעוֹף סָפֵק, אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִמְלְקָה נוֹדַע לָהּ שֶׁיָּלְדָה וַדַּאי, תַּעֲשֶׂנָּה וַדַּאי. שֶׁמִּמִּין שֶׁהִיא מְבִיאָה עַל לֹא הוֹדַע, מְבִיאָה עַל הוֹדַע: \n", 6.8. "מְבִיאִין מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה, שְׂעִירָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ שְׂעִירָה, כִּשְׂבָּה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ כִּשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה, תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה. מֵהֶקְדֵּשׁ תּוֹרִין וּבְנֵי יוֹנָה, עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. כֵּיצַד. הִפְרִישׁ לְכִשְׂבָּה אוֹ לִשְׂעִירָה, הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱנִי, יָבִיא עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה. הִפְרִישׁ לַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא עוֹף. הֶעֱשִׁיר, יָבִיא כִשְׂבָּה וּשְׂעִירָה. הִפְרִישׁ כִּשְׂבָּה אוֹ שְׂעִירָה וְנִסְתָּאֲבוּ, אִם רָצָה יָבִיא בִדְמֵיהֶן עוֹף. הִפְרִישׁ עוֹף וְנִסְתָּאֵב, לֹא יָבִיא בְדָמָיו עֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה, שֶׁאֵין לָעוֹף פִּדְיוֹן: \n", 5.2. "Rabbi Akiva declares one liable to an asham talui for sacrilege; But the sages declare him exempt. Rabbi Akiba admits that he does not bring his restitution money until he becomes aware [of his trespass], when he must bring with it a certain asham. Rabbi Tarfon: Why should he bring two ashams? Rather, let him set aside the principal with an added fifth, and bring an asham the value of two sela's and stipulate: “If I did commit sacrilege, here is my restitution and this my asham; and if the sacrilege was doubtful, let the money be a freewill gift and the [offering an] asham talui;” since the same type of sacrifice he brings for a case where he doesn’t know, he brings for one where he does know.", 5.3. "Rabbi Akiba: Your words seem plausible in the case of a minor amount of sacrilege; but if it was a case of doubtful sacrilege of a hundred manehs, would it not be more advantageous for him to bring an asham for two sela's rather than restore out of doubt the sum of a hundred manehs? Rabbi Akiba agrees with Rabbi Tarfon in the case of a minor amount of sacrilege. If a woman brought a bird hatat for a case of a doubtful miscarriage, and prior to the pinching of its neck she learned that the birth was a certainty, she can offer it as a certain hatat, for that which she offers in the case of certainty is of the same kind as that which she offers in the case of doubt.", 6.8. "One may bring with [money] dedicated to buy a lamb [for a hatat] a goat, or with [what was] dedicated to buy a goat [one may bring] a lamb; Or with [what was] dedicated to buy a lamb or a goat [one may bring] turtle-doves or young pigeons; Or with [what was] dedicated to buy turtle-doves or young pigeons [one may bring] the tenth of an ephah. How so? If a man set apart [money] for a lamb or a goat [for a hatat] and he became poor, he may bring a bird-offering; If he became still poorer he may bring the tenth of an ephah. If a man set apart [money] for the tenth of an ephah and he became richer, he must bring a bird-offering; If he became still richer he must bring a lamb or a goat. If a man set apart a lamb or a goat and they became blemished, he may bring with their price a bird-offering; But if he set apart a bird-offering and it became blemished, he may not bring with its price the tenth of an ephah, since a bird-offering cannot be redeemed.",
121. Mishnah, Kilayim, 6.4, 8.2, 8.4-8.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •yose, rabbi, on the koy •yose, rabbi, on resemblance to mother Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 295; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 125, 235
6.4. "הַמַּדְלֶה אֶת הַגֶּפֶן עַל מִקְצָת אִילַן מַאֲכָל, מֻתָּר לְהָבִיא זֶרַע אֶל תַּחַת הַמּוֹתָר. וְאִם הִלֵּךְ הֶחָדָשׁ, יַחֲזִירֶנּוּ. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁהָלַךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵצֶל רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל לִכְפַר עָזִיז, וְהֶרְאָהוּ גֶפֶן מֻדְלֶה עַל מִקְצָת תְּאֵנָה. אָמַר לוֹ, מָה אֲנִי לְהָבִיא זֶרַע אֶל תַּחַת הַמּוֹתָר. אָמַר לוֹ, מֻתָּר. וְהֶעֱלָהוּ מִשָּׁם לְבֵית הַמָּגְנִיָּה, וְהֶרְאָהוּ גֶפֶן שֶׁהִיא מֻדְּלֶה עַל מִקְצָת הַקּוֹרָה, וְסַדָּן שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה, וּבוֹ קוֹרוֹת הַרְבֵּה. אָמַר לוֹ, תַּחַת הַקּוֹרָה זוֹ אָסוּר, וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר: \n", 8.2. "בְּהֵמָה עִם בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה עִם חַיָּה, בְּהֵמָה עִם חַיָּה וְחַיָּה עִם בְּהֵמָה, טְמֵאָה עִם טְמֵאָה וּטְהוֹרָה עִם טְהוֹרָה, טְמֵאָה עִם טְהוֹרָה וּטְהוֹרָה עִם טְמֵאָה, אֲסוּרִין לַחֲרֹשׁ וְלִמְשֹׁךְ וּלְהַנְהִיג: \n", 8.4. "אֵין קוֹשְׁרִין אֶת הַסּוּס לֹא לְצִדְדֵי הַקָּרוֹן וְלֹא לְאַחַר הַקָּרוֹן, וְלֹא אֶת הַלֻּבְדְּקִים לִגְמַלִּים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַנּוֹלָדִים מִן הַסּוּס, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲבִיהֶן חֲמוֹר, מֻתָּרִין זֶה עִם זֶה. וְכֵן הַנּוֹלָדִים מִן הַחֲמוֹר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲבִיהֶם סוּס, מֻתָּרִין זֶה עִם זֶה. אֲבָל הַנּוֹלָדִים מִן הַסּוּס עִם הַנּוֹלָדִים מֵחֲמוֹר, אֲסוּרִים זֶה עִם זֶה: \n", 8.5. "הַפְּרוּטִיּוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת, וְהָרַמָּךְ מֻתָּר. וְאַדְנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה, חַיָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מְטַמְּאוֹת בָּאֹהֶל כָּאָדָם. הַקֻּפָּד וְחֻלְדַּת הַסְּנָיִים, חַיָּה. חֻלְדַּת הַסְּנָיִים, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מְטַמֵּא כַזַּיִת בְּמַשָּׂא, וְכָעֲדָשָׁה בְּמַגָּע: \n", 6.4. "One who suspends [branches of] a vine on part of [the branches of] a fruit tree, it is permitted to bring seed beneath the remainder. If new [tendrils] spread [over the remainder], he must turn them back. It happened that Rabbi Joshua went to Rabbi Ishmael in Kefar Aziz, and the latter showed him a vine [with its branches] suspended on part of [the branches of] a fig tree. He [Rabbi Yishmael] asked him [Rabbi Joshua]: “May I bring seed beneath the remainder?” He answered him: “It is permitted.” He took him to Bet Hamaganyah and he showed him a vine [whose branches were] suspended on part of a beam belonging to the trunk of a sycamore, which had many beams. He [Rabbi Joshua] said to him [Rabbi Yishmael]: beneath this beam it is prohibited [to sow] but beneath the remainder it is permitted.", 8.2. "A beast (behemah) with a beast [of another species]; a wild animal (hayyah) with a wild animal [of another species]; a behemah with a hayyah; a hayyah with a behemah; an unclean beast with an unclean beast [of another species]; a clean beast with a clean beast [of another species]; or an unclean beast with a clean beast; or a clean beast with an unclean beast; they are forbidden for plowing, and [it is forbidden] to pull them or lead them [tied together].", 8.4. "They may not tie a horse neither to the sides of a wagon [drawn by oxen] nor behind the wagon, nor [may they tie] a Libyan donkey to [a wagon drawn by] camels. Rabbi Judah says: all [mules] born from horses, even though their father is a donkey, are permitted one with another. Likewise [mules] born from donkey, even though their father is a horse, are permitted one with another. But [mules] born from a horse with [mules] born from donkeys are prohibited one with another.", 8.5. "Mules of uncertain parentage are forbidden [one with another,] And a ramakh is permitted. Wild man-like creatures are [in the category of] hayyah. Rabbi Yose says: they cause impurity in a tent like a human being. The hedgehog and the bush-mole are [in the category of] hayyah. The bush-mole: Rabbi Yose says in the name of Bet Shammai: an olive's size [of its carcass] renders a person carrying it unclean, and a lentil’s size [of its carcass] renders a person touching it unclean.",
122. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.2, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251
5.2. "כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי הָיָה עוֹלֶה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מַהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד לְכָל צָד. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא תְחוּמָהּ, אֵילַת מִן הַדָּרוֹם וְעַקְרַבַּת מִן הַצָּפוֹן, לוֹד מִן הַמַּעֲרָב וְהַיַּרְדֵּן מִן הַמִּזְרָח. וּמִשֶּׁרַבּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נִפְדֶּה סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה הַדָּבָר, שֶׁאֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצוּ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיָה הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה, אֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה: \n", 5.9. "מִי שֶׁהָיוּ פֵרוֹתָיו רְחוֹקִים מִמֶּנּוּ, צָרִיךְ לִקְרוֹא לָהֶם שֵׁם. מַעֲשֶׂה בְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְהַזְּקֵנִים שֶׁהָיוּ בָאִין בִּסְפִינָה, אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, עִשּׂוּר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמוֹד, נָתוּן לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. עִשּׂוּר אַחֵר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמֹד, נָתוּן לַעֲקִיבָא בֶן יוֹסֵף שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה בוֹ לָעֲנִיִּים, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, עִשּׂוּר שֶׁאֲנִי עָתִיד לָמוֹד נָתוּן לְאֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, וּמְקוֹמוֹ מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ. וְנִתְקַבְּלוּ זֶה מִזֶּה שָׂכָר: \n",
123. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.2, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 274; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 166
3.2. "הַטָּמֵא שֶׁאָכַל אֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְהַבָּא אֶל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ טָמֵא, וְהָאוֹכֵל חֵלֶב, וְדָם, וְנוֹתָר, וּפִגּוּל, וְטָמֵא, הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְהַמַּעֲלֶה בַחוּץ, וְהָאוֹכֵל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, וְהָאוֹכֵל וְהָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן, וְהַמְפַטֵּם אֶת הַקְּטֹרֶת, וְהַסָּךְ בְּשֶׁמֶן הַמִּשְׁחָה, וְהָאוֹכֵל נְבֵלוֹת וּטְרֵפוֹת, שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים. אָכַל טֶבֶל וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ. כַּמָּה יֹאכַל מִן הַטֶּבֶל וִיהֵא חַיָּב, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כַּזַּיִת. אָמַר לָהֶם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, אֵין אַתֶּם מוֹדִים לִי בְּאוֹכֵל נְמָלָה כָּל שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כִבְרִיָּתָהּ. אָמַר לָהֶן, אַף חִטָּה אַחַת כִּבְרִיָּתָהּ: \n", 3.12. "כֵּיצַד מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, כּוֹפֵת שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עַל הָעַמּוּד הֵילָךְ וְהֵילָךְ, וְחַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹחֵז בִּבְגָדָיו, אִם נִקְרְעוּ נִקְרָעוּ, וְאִם נִפְרְמוּ נִפְרָמוּ, עַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה אֶת לִבּוֹ. וְהָאֶבֶן נְתוּנָה מֵאַחֲרָיו, חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת עוֹמֵד עָלֶיהָ. וּרְצוּעָה שֶׁל עֵגֶל בְּיָדוֹ, כְּפוּלָה אֶחָד לִשְׁנַיִם וּשְׁנַיִם לְאַרְבָּעָה, וּשְׁתֵּי רְצוּעוֹת עוֹלוֹת וְיוֹרְדוֹת בָּהּ: \n", 3.2. "An unclean person who ate holy meat (Leviticus 7:20, 12:4); One who entered the sanctuary while unclean (Leviticus 12:4, Numbers 5:3, 19:13); One who ate forbidden fat or blood (Leviticus 3:16, 7:23-27); Or leftover sacrificial meats (Leviticus 19:6-8); Or sacrifices that had been offered up with improper intention (Leviticus 7:18); Or [an offering] that has became unclean (Leviticus 7:19); One who slaughters, or offers up a sacrifice, outside the Temple precincts (Leviticus 17:4); One who ate leavened [bread] during Passover (Exodus 12:15,; One who partakes of food [or drink] or does work on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:27-31); One who puts together the ingredients for the [anointing] oil, or the ingredients for the incense, or anoints with the oil for anointing (Exodus 30:22-28): One who eats an animal that died a natural death (Deuteronomy 14:21); Or was improperly slaughtered (Exodus 22:30); Or any of the [creatures deemed] ‘abominable’ and ‘teeming’ (Leviticus 11:11,. One who eats non-tithed produce, or first-tithe from which heave offering has not been removed, or unredeemed second-tithe, or unredeemed sanctified property. How much untithed produce is one to eat to become liable? Rabbi Shimon says: “Any amount.” The Sages say: “An olive's size.” Rabbi Shimon said to them: “Do you not admit that if one ate the minutest ant that he would be liable? They said to him: “[Only] because it is a whole creature.” He said to them: “Even a grain of wheat is a whole entity.”", 3.12. "How do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it.",
124. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yose the galilean •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 206
4.3. "אֵין פּוֹרְסִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְאֵין עוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מַעֲמָד וּמוֹשָׁב, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים וּבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים, וְאֵין מְזַמְּנִין בַּשֵּׁם, פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה. וּבַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:", 4.3. "They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings.",
125. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251
10.5. "מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר, יוֹצְאִין וּמוֹצְאִין שׁוּק יְרוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא קֶמַח וְקָלִי, שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הָעֹמֶר, הֻתַּר הֶחָדָשׁ מִיָּד, וְהָרְחוֹקִים מֻתָּרִים מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְהַלָּן. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וַהֲלֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה הוּא אָסוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג), עַד עֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. מִפְּנֵי מָה הָרְחוֹקִים מֻתָּרִים מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְהַלָּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן יוֹדְעִין שֶׁאֵין בֵּית דִּין מִתְעַצְּלִין בּוֹ: \n", 10.5. "After the omer was offered they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce]; This was without the approval of the rabbis, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: it was with the approval of the rabbis. After the omer was offered the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: is it not so forbidden by the law of the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” Why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday? Because they know that the court would not be negligent with it.",
126. Mishnah, Nazir, 3.6, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •rabbis, the Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 274; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251
3.6. "מִי שֶׁנָּזַר נְזִירוּת הַרְבֵּה וְהִשְׁלִים אֶת נְזִירוּתוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא לָאָרֶץ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, נָזִיר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, נָזִיר בַּתְּחִלָּה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְהִילְנִי הַמַּלְכָּה, שֶׁהָלַךְ בְּנָהּ לַמִּלְחָמָה, וְאָמְרָה, אִם יָבֹא בְנִי מִן הַמִּלְחָמָה בְשָׁלוֹם אֱהֵא נְזִירָה שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים, וּבָא בְנָהּ מִן הַמִּלְחָמָה, וְהָיְתָה נְזִירָה שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים. וּבְסוֹף שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים עָלְתָה לָאָרֶץ, וְהוֹרוּהָ בֵית הִלֵּל שֶׁתְּהֵא נְזִירָה עוֹד שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים אֲחֵרוֹת. וּבְסוֹף שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים נִטְמֵאת, וְנִמְצֵאת נְזִירָה עֶשְׂרִים וְאַחַת שָׁנָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, לֹא הָיְתָה נְזִירָה אֶלָּא אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה: \n", 5.4. "מִי שֶׁנָּדַר בְּנָזִיר וְהָלַךְ לְהָבִיא אֶת בְּהֶמְתּוֹ וּמְצָאָהּ שֶׁנִּגְנְבָה, אִם עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִגְנְבָה בְהֶמְתּוֹ נָזַר, הֲרֵי זֶה נָזִיר. וְאִם מִשֶּׁנִּגְנְבָה בְהֶמְתּוֹ נָזַר, אֵינוֹ נָזִיר. וְזוֹ טָעוּת טָעָה נַחוּם הַמָּדִי כְּשֶׁעָלוּ נְזִירִים מִן הַגּוֹלָה וּמָצְאוּ בֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ חָרֵב, אָמַר לָהֶם נַחוּם הַמָּדִי, אִלּוּ הֱיִיתֶם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ חָרֵב הֱיִיתֶם נוֹזְרִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לֹא, וְהִתִּירָן נַחוּם הַמָּדִי. וּכְשֶׁבָּא הַדָּבָר אֵצֶל חֲכָמִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כֹּל שֶׁנָּזַר עַד שֶׁלֹּא חָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, נָזִיר. וּמִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֵינוֹ נָזִיר: \n", 3.6. "If one vows a long naziriteship of and completes his naziriteship and afterwards comes to the land [of Israel]: Beth Shammai says that he is a nazirite for thirty days, But Beth Hillel says that his naziriteship begins again. It happened that Queen Helena, when her son went to war, said: “If my son returns in peace from the war, I shall be a nazirite for seven years.” Her son returned from the war, and she was a nazirite for seven years. At the end of the seven years, she went up to the land [of Israel] and Beth Hillel instructed her to be a nazirite for a further seven years. Towards the end of this seven years, she contracted ritual defilement, and so altogether she was a nazirite for twenty-one years. Rabbi Judah said: she was a nazirite only for fourteen years.", 5.4. "If one vowed to be a nazirite and went to bring his animal [for the sacrifice] and found that it had been stolen: If he had taken the nazirite vow before his animal was stolen, he is [still] a nazirite. But if he had taken the nazirite vow after his animal was stolen, he is not a nazirite. It was this mistake that Nahum the Mede made. When nazirites arrived [in Jerusalem] from the Diaspora and found the Temple destroyed, Nahum the Mede said to them, “Had you known that the Temple would be destroyed, would you have become nazirites?” They answered, no, and Nahum the Mede released them [from their vow]. When the matter came before the sages they said to him: whoever vowed a nazirite vow before the destruction of the Temple is a nazirite, but if after the destruction of the temple, he is not a nazirite.",
127. Mishnah, Hulin, 1.2, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi (judah the patriarch) •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 166; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 39, 42, 43
1.2. "הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד, בְּצוֹר, וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּלְעוֹלָם שׁוֹחֲטִין, וּבַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין, חוּץ מִמַּגַּל קָצִיר, וְהַמְּגֵרָה, וְהַשִּׁנַּיִם, וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן חוֹנְקִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר בְּדֶרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתָהּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִין. וְאִם הֶחֱלִיקוּ שִׁנֶּיהָ, הֲרֵי הִיא כְסַכִּין: \n", 10.2. "כָּל הַקֳּדָשִׁים שֶׁקָּדַם מוּם קָבוּעַ לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן וְנִפְדּוּ, חַיָּבִין בַּבְּכוֹרָה וּבַמַּתָּנוֹת, וְיוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין, לְהִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד, וּוְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן מֻתָּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָן, וְהַשּׁוֹחֲטָן בַּחוּץ פָּטוּר, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה, וְאִם מֵתוּ יִפָּדוּ, חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר. כֹּל שֶׁקָּדַם הֶקְדֵּשָׁן אֶת מוּמָן, אוֹ מוּם עוֹבֵר לְהֶקְדֵּשָׁן, וּלְאַחַר מִכָּאן נוֹלַד לָהֶם מוּם קָבוּעַ וְנִפְדּוּ, פְּטוּרִין מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה וּמִן הַמַּתָּנוֹת, וְאֵינָן יוֹצְאִין לְחֻלִּין לְהִגָּזֵז וּלְהֵעָבֵד, וּוְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן אָסוּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָן, וְהַשּׁוֹחֲטָן בַּחוּץ חַיָּב, וְעוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה, וְאִם מֵתוּ, יִקָּבֵרוּ: \n", 1.2. "If one slaughtered with [the smooth edge of] a hand sickle, with a flint or with a reed, the slaughtering is valid. All may slaughter; at all times one may slaughter; and with any implement one may slaughter, except a scythe, a saw, teeth or a finger nail, since these strangle. One who slaughtered with a scythe, moving it forward only: Bet Shammai declare it invalid, But Bet Hillel declare it valid. If the teeth of the scythe were filed away it is regarded as an ordinary knife.", 10.2. "All consecrated animals whose permanent physical blemish preceded their consecration and were then redeemed: Are subject to the law of the firstling and to the priestly gifts, And when they become like hullin [by being redeemed] they may be shorn and may be put to work. And their young and their milk are permitted after they have been redeemed. And he who slaughtered them outside the sanctuary is not liable. And they do not render what is substituted for them [holy]. And if they died they may be redeemed, except for the firstling and the tithe of cattle. All [consecrated animals] whose consecration preceded their permanent, or their impermanent blemish [preceded] their consecration and subsequently they contracted a permanent blemish, and they were redeemed: Are exempt from the law of the firstling, and from priestly gifts; And they are not like unconsecrated animals to be shorn or put to work; And [even] after they have been redeemed their young and their milk are forbidden; And he who slaughtered them outside the sanctuary is liable; And they render what was substituted for them [holy], And if they died they must be buried.",
128. Tosefta, Yevamot, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 52, 53; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 167; Shemesh (2009), Halakhah in the Making: The Development of Jewish Law from Qumran to the Rabbis. 61
1.2. "שש עריות חמורות מאלו מפני שהן נשואות לאחרים צרותיהן מותרות אמו ואשת אביו ואחות אביו ואחותו מאביו ואשת אחיו מאביו ואשת אחי אביו שאין צרה אלא מאח נישאו לאחין שלא בעבירה צרותיהן פטורות הלכו צרות אלו ונשאו ב\"ש אומרים הן פסולות והולד פסול וב\"ה אומרים הן כשירות והולד כשר נתיבמו ב\"ש אומרים הן כשירות והולד כשר וב\"ה אומרים הן פסולות והולד ממזר א\"ר יוחנן בן נורי בא וראה היאך הלכה זו רווחת בישראל [לקיים] כדברי ב\"ש הולד ממזר [כדברי] ב\"ה [אם לקיים] כדברי ב\"ה הולד פגום [כדברי] ב\"ש אלא בואו [נתקן] שיהו הצרות חולצות ולא מתיבמות [ולא הספיק] לגמור את הדבר עד שנטרפה [שעה] אמר רשב\"ג מה נעשה לצרות הראשונות שאלו את רבי יהושע [בני צרות מה הן אמר להם למה] אתם מכניסין ראשי בין שני הרים גדולים [בין] ב\"ש [ובין ב\"ה] שירוצו את ראשי אלא מעיד אני על משפחת בית עלובאי מבית [צבאים] [ועל משפחת] בית קופאי מבית מקושש [שהן] בני צרות ומהם כהנים והיו מקריבין [לגבי מזבח] א\"ר טרפון תאב אני שיהא לי צרת הבת ואשיאנה לכהונה א\"ר אליעזר אע\"פ שנחלקו בית שמאי [כנגד ב\"ה] בצרות מודים שאין הולד ממזר [שאין ממזר] אלא [מן האשה שאסורה] איסור ערוה [וחייבין עליה] כרת.", 8.1. "בן תשע שנים ויום אחד עמוני ומואבי מצרי ואדומי ועובד כוכבים נתין וממזר שבא על בת כהן ועל בת לוי ועל בת ישראל פסלה מן הכהונה ר' יוסי אומר כל שזרעו כשר היא כשרה וכל שזרעו פסול היא פסולה רשב\"ג אומר כל שאתה מותר לישא בתו אתה מותר לישא אלמנתו וכל שאי אתה מותר לישא בתו אי אתה מותר לישא אלמנתו לויה שנשבית בתה כשרה לכהונה לוים המזוהמין באמן לא חששו להם חכמים לויה שנשבית ושנבעלה בעילת זנות נותנין לה את המעשר בת לוי מן הנתינה ומן הממזרת אין נותנין לה את המעשר כהן הדיוט שנשא [את] איילונית הרי זה מאכילה בתרומה כהן גדול לא ישא אנוסתו ומפותתו אבל נושא הוא את הממאנת כה\"ג שמת אחיו חולץ אם יש שם אחין אין חולץ [מפני] מה אמרו כהן גדול שעשה מאמר ביבמתו לא יכנוס שאין מאמר קונה קנין גמור.", 10.6. "[איזו] היא איילונית כל [ששהתה] עשרים [שנה] ולא הביאה שתי שערות [אע\"פ שהביאה] לאחר מכאן הרי היא כאיילונית לכל דבר אלו הן סימניה כל שאין לה [דדין ושערה לקוי ומקשה] בשעת [בעילה] רשב\"ג אומר כל שאין לה שפולי מעים כנשים רשב\"א אומר כל שקולה עבה ואין ניכרת בין אשה [בין איש]. ",
129. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1-2.8, 1.1, 3.1, 3.7, 3.8, 3.14, 4.1, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 84
130. Mishnah, Peah, 1.6, 8.7-8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167
1.6. "לְעוֹלָם הוּא נוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּפוֹדֶה, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ הַגִּזְבָּר:", 8.7. "אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין לֶעָנִי הָעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם מִכִּכָּר בְּפוּנְדְיוֹן, מֵאַרְבַּע סְאִין בְּסֶלַע. לָן, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ פַּרְנָסַת לִינָה. שָׁבַת, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ מְזוֹן שָׁלשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת. מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת, לֹא יִטֹּל מִן הַתַּמְחוּי. מְזוֹן אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעֻדּוֹת, לֹא יִטֹּל מִן הַקֻּפָּה. וְהַקֻּפָּה נִגְבֵּית בִּשְׁנַיִם, וּמִתְחַלֶּקֶת בִּשְׁלשָׁה:", 8.8. "מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ מָאתַיִם זוּז, לֹא יִטֹּל לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי. הָיוּ לוֹ מָאתַיִם חָסֵר דִּינָר, אֲפִלּוּ אֶלֶף נוֹתְנִין לוֹ כְאַחַת, הֲרֵי זֶה יִטֹּל. הָיוּ מְמֻשְׁכָּנִים לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ אוֹ לִכְתֻבַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה יִטֹּל. אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְכֹּר אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁוֹ:", 8.9. "מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בָּהֶם, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְנוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר מִן הָעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וְכָל מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיְּפַרְנֵס אֲחֵרִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, וְעָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר יִבְטַח בַּה' וְהָיָה ה' מִבְטַחוֹ (ירמיה יז). וְכֵן דַּיָּן שֶׁדָּן דִּין אֱמֶת לַאֲמִתּוֹ. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא חִגֵּר, וְלֹא סוּמָא, וְלֹא פִסֵּחַ, וְעוֹשֶׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּאַחַד מֵהֶם, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז) צֶדֶק צֶדֶק תִּרְדֹּף. וְכָל דַּיָּן שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד וּמַטֶּה אֶת הַדִּין, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁעֵינָיו כֵּהוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) וְשֹׁחַד לֹא תִקָּח כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר פִּקְחִים וְגוֹ': br סְלִיק מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָה", 1.6. "He may always give peah and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. One who gives [to the poor] as ownerless [produce] and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may feed cattle, wild animals and birds and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may take from the threshing floor and use it as seed and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack, the words of Rabbi Akiva. A priest or Levite who purchase [grain of] a threshing floor, the tithes are theirs unless [the owner] has already made a stack. One who dedicated [his crop] and redeems it [afterwards] is obligated to give tithes until the Temple treasurer has made a stack.", 8.7. "They may not give a poor person wandering from place to place less than a loaf worth a pundion at a time when four seahs [of wheat cost] one sela. If he spends the night [at a place], they must give him the cost of what he needs for the night. If he stays over Shabbat they must give him enough food for three meals. He who has the money for two meals, he may not take anything from the charity dish. And if he has enough money for fourteen meals, he may not take any support from the communal fund. The communal fund is collected by two and distributed by three people.", 8.8. "One who possesses two hundred zuz, may not take gleanings” the forgotten sheaf, peah or the poor man’s tithe. If he possesses two hundred minus one denar, then even if a thousand [men] each give him at the same time, he may accept. If he had [two hundred zuz] mortgaged to a creditor or to his wife’s ketubah, he may take. They do not force him to sell his house or his tools.", 8.9. "One who has fifty zuz and he is using them for his business, he must not take. And anyone who does not need to take [charity] and yet takes, will not depart from this world before he actually needs [charity] from others. And anyone who needs to take and does not take, will not die of old age until he supports others with his own money. Concerning him the verse says: “Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord and whose hope is the Lord” (Jeremiah 17:7). And so too a judge who judges in truth according to its truth. And anyone who is not lame or blind but pretends to be as one of these, he will not die of old age before he actually becomes one of these, as it is said, “He who searches for evil, it shall come upon him” (Proverbs 11:27) and it is also said: “Righteousness, righteousness shall you pursue.” And any judge who accepts a bribe or who perverts justice will not die in old age before his eyes have become dim, as it is said: “And you shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of those who have sight.” Congratulations! We have finished Peah! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. You have now finished an entire tractate that is about a subject you probably knew almost nothing about before you began. The tractates of Seder Zeraim are much less learned than those of Moed, Nashim and Nezikin, the seders that we have learned up until now. Neverthless, I, and I hope you, found the tractate to be a fascinating attempt by the rabbis to work out the meaning of many biblical verses, as well as important issues such as fair ownership over property and how to take care of the poor. Along the way we have begun to learn a little about how agriculture worked in the Mishnaic period. This is a topic we will continue to address throughout the seder. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Demai.",
131. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •simeon the tsanua, rabbi Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
5.6. "שְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת חֲשָׁאִים, וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים, לִשְׁכַּת חֲשָׁאִים יִרְאֵי חֵטְא נוֹתְנִים לְתוֹכָה בַּחֲשַׁאי, וַעֲנִיִּים בְּנֵי טוֹבִים מִתְפַּרְנְסִים מִתוֹכָהּ בַּחֲשַׁאי. לִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מִתְנַדֵּב כֶּלִי, זוֹרְקוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. וְאַחַת לִשְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, גִּזְבָּרִין פּוֹתְחִין אוֹתָהּ. וְכָל כְּלִי שֶׁמּוֹצְאִין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ. וְהַשְּׁאָר נִמְכָּרִין בִּדְמֵיהֶן וְנוֹפְלִין לְלִשְׁכַּת בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת: \n", 5.6. "There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple.",
132. Mishnah, Terumot, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 168
6.4. "הַגּוֹנֵב תְּרוּמָה וְלֹא אֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֵפֶל דְּמֵי תְרוּמָה. אֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי קְרָנִים וְחֹמֶשׁ, קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ מִן הַחֻלִּין, וְקֶרֶן דְּמֵי תְרוּמָה. גָּנַב תְּרוּמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ וַאֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי חֳמָשִׁים וְקֶרֶן, שֶׁאֵין בַּהֶקְדֵּשׁ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כָפֶל: \n", 6.4. "If one stole terumah but did not eat it, he must return double-payment at the price of terumah. If he ate it, he must pay twice the value plus a fifth, one principal value and a fifth at the price of hullin, and the other principal at the price of terumah. If one stole terumah of dedicated property and ate it, he must repay two fifths and the principal value, for the laws of double-payment do not apply to dedicated property.",
133. Mishnah, Yevamot, 16.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
16.7. "אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כְּשֶׁיָּרַדְתִּי לִנְהַרְדְּעָא לְעַבֵּר הַשָּׁנָה, מָצָאתִי נְחֶמְיָה אִישׁ בֵּית דְּלִי, אָמַר לִי, שָׁמַעְתִּי שֶׁאֵין מַשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה בְאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד, אֶלָּא רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בָּבָא. וְנוּמֵתִי לוֹ, כֵּן הַדְּבָרִים. אָמַר לִי, אֱמֹר לָהֶם מִשְּׁמִי, אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁהַמְּדִינָה מְשֻׁבֶּשֶׁת בִּגְיָסוֹת, מְקֻבְּלָנִי מֵרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁמַּשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. וּכְשֶׁבָּאתִי וְהִרְצֵיתִי הַדְּבָרִים לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, שָׂמַח לִדְבָרַי, וְאָמַר, מָצָאנוּ חָבֵר לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בָּבָא. מִתּוֹךְ הַדְּבָרִים נִזְכַּר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, שֶׁנֶּהֶרְגוּ הֲרוּגִים בְּתֵל אַרְזָא, וְהִשִּׂיא רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן נְשׁוֹתֵיהֶם עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד, וְהֻחְזְקוּ לִהְיוֹת מַשִּׂיאִין עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. וְהֻחְזְקוּ לִהְיוֹת מַשִּׂיאִין עֵד מִפִּי עֵד, מִפִּי עֶבֶד, מִפִּי אִשָּׁה, מִפִּי שִׁפְחָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַשִּׂיאִין אֶת הָאִשָּׁה עַל פִּי עֵד אֶחָד. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא עַל פִּי אִשָּׁה, וְלֹא עַל פִּי עֶבֶד וְלֹא עַל פִּי שִׁפְחָה, וְלֹא עַל פִּי קְרוֹבִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מַעֲשֶׂה בִבְנֵי לֵוִי שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְצֹעַר עִיר הַתְּמָרִים, וְחָלָה אַחַד מֵהֶם בַּדֶּרֶךְ, וֶהֱבִיאוּהוּ בְפֻנְדָּק, וּבַחֲזָרָתָם אָמְרוּ לַפֻּנְדָּקִית אַיֵּה חֲבֵרֵנוּ, אָמְרָה לָהֶם מֵת וּקְבַרְתִּיו, וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, וְלֹא תְהֵא כֹהֶנֶת כַּפֻּנְדָּקִית. אָמַר לָהֶם, לִכְשֶׁתְּהֵא פֻּנְדָּקִית נֶאֱמֶנֶת. הַפֻּנְדָּקִית הוֹצִיאָה לָהֶם מַקְלוֹ וְתַרְמִילוֹ וְסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה שֶׁהָיָה בְיָדוֹ: \n", 16.7. "Rabbi Akiva said: When I went down to Nehardea to intercalate the year, I met Nehemiah of Bet D’li who said to me, “I heard that in the land of Israel no one, permits a [married] woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, except Rabbi Judah ben Bava”. “That is so”, I told him. He said to me, “Tell them in my name: ‘You know that this country is in confusion because of marauders. I have received a tradition from Rabban Gamaliel the Elder: that they allow a [married] woman to remarry on the evidence of one witness’”. And when I came and recounted the conversation in the presence of Rabban Gamaliel he rejoiced at my words and exclaimed, “We have found a match for Rabbi Judah ben Bava!” As a result of this talk Rabban Gamaliel remembered that some men were once killed at Tel Arza, and that Rabban Gamaliel the Elder had allowed their wives to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and the law was established that they allow a woman to marry again on the evidence of one witness, and on the testimony of one [who states that he has heard] from another witness, from a slave, from a woman or from a female slave. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua say: a woman is not be allowed to remarry on the evidence of one witness. Rabbi Akiva ruled: [a woman is not allowed to marry again] on the evidence of a woman, on that of a slave, on that of a female slave or on that of relatives. They said to him: It once happened that a number of Levites went to Tsoar, the city of palms, and one of them became ill on the way, and they left him in an inn. When they returned they asked the [female] innkeeper, “Where is our friend?” And she replied, “He is dead and I buried him”, and they allowed his wife to remarry. Should not then a priest’s wife [be believed at least as much] as an innkeeper!” He answered them: When she will [give such evidence] as the innkeeper [gave] she will be believed, for the innkeeper had brought out to them [the dead man’s] staff, his bag and the Torah scroll which he had with him.",
134. Mishnah, Tamid, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251
7.4. "הַשִּׁיר שֶׁהָיוּ הַלְוִיִּם אוֹמְרִים בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (תהילים כ״ד:א׳), לַה' הָאָרֶץ וּמְלוֹאָהּ תֵּבֵל וְיֹשְׁבֵי בָהּ. בַּשֵּׁנִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם מח), גָּדוֹל ה' וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַר קָדְשׁוֹ. בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם פב), אֱלֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט. בָּרְבִיעִי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם צד), אֵל נְקָמוֹת ה' אֵל נְקָמוֹת הוֹפִיעַ וְגוֹ'. בַּחֲמִישִׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם פא), הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ, הָרִיעוּ לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב. בַּשִּׁשִּׁי הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם צג), ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ וְגוֹ'. בְּשַׁבָּת הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים (שם צב), מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לֶעָתִיד לָבֹא, לְיוֹם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ שַׁבָּת מְנוּחָה לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָמִים:", 7.4. "The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!).",
135. Suetonius, Tiberius, 26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 188
136. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.231, 1.284, 2.136, 2.142, 3.191, 4.223-4.224, 6.19, 6.24, 6.102, 6.128, 7.367, 11.9, 11.77, 11.134-11.135, 12.55, 13.56, 13.398-13.404, 14.168-14.177, 14.260, 15.21, 15.267-15.276, 18.15, 18.17, 20.112 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •rabbis, the •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, babylonian, the fourth century as a transitional period among •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269, 273, 274; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 133; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 63, 218; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 148, 165, 228; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 28, 169
1.231. but so that he will receive thy soul with prayers and holy offices of religion, and will place thee near to himself, and thou wilt there be to me a succorer and supporter in my old age; on which account I principally brought thee up, and thou wilt thereby procure me God for my Comforter instead of thyself.” 1.284. 3. Such were the predictions which God made to Jacob; whereupon he became very joyful at what he had seen and heard; and he poured oil on the stones, because on them the prediction of such great benefits was made. He also vowed a vow, that he would offer sacrifices upon them, if he lived and returned safe; and if he came again in such a condition, he would give the tithe of what he had gotten to God. He also judged the place to be honorable and gave it the name of Bethel, which, in the Greek, is interpreted, The House of God. 2.136. 8. The horsemen therefore took Benjamin and brought him to Joseph, his brethren also following him; who, when he saw him in custody, and them in the habit of mourners, said, “How came you, vile wretches as you are, to have such a strange notion of my kindness to you, and of God’s providence, as impudently to do thus to your benefactor, who in such an hospitable manner had entertained you?” 2.142. for this is not the first time that thou wilt bestow it on us, but before, when we came to buy corn, thou affordedst us great plenty of food, and gavest us leave to carry so much home to our family as has preserved them from perishing by famine. 3.191. So that he is to put on the vestments which are consecrated to God; he is to have the care of the altars, and to make provision for the sacrifices; and he it is that must put up prayers for you to God, who will readily hear them, not only because he is himself solicitous for your nation, but also because he will receive them as offered by one that he hath himself chosen to this office.” 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 6.19. 1. Now while the city of Kirjathjearim had the ark with them, the whole body of the people betook themselves all that time to offer prayers and sacrifices to God, and appeared greatly concerned and zealous about his worship. So Samuel the prophet, seeing how ready they were to do their duty, thought this a proper time to speak to them, while they were in this good disposition, about the recovery of their liberty, and of the blessings that accompanied the same. Accordingly he used such words to them as he thought were most likely to excite that inclination, and to persuade them to attempt it: 6.24. This thing affrighted the Hebrews, and put them into disorder and terror; so they came running to Samuel, and said that their souls were sunk by their fears, and by the former defeat they had received, and “that thence it was that we lay still, lest we should excite the power of our enemies against us. Now while thou hast brought us hither to offer up our prayers and sacrifices, and take oaths [to be obedient], our enemies are making an expedition against us, while we are naked and unarmed; wherefore we have no other hope of deliverance but that by thy means, and by the assistance God shall afford us upon thy prayers to him, we shall obtain deliverance from the Philistines.” 6.102. But the prophet said he had not done well in disobeying the injunctions he had sent to him, and had not staid till his coming, which being appointed according to the will of God, he had prevented him in offering up those prayers and those sacrifices that he should have made for the multitude, and that he therefore had performed divine offices in an ill manner, and had been rash in performing them. 6.128. Hereupon all the people were very sorry, and greatly afflicted for Jonathan; and they sware that they would not overlook Jonathan, and see him die, who was the author of their victory. By which means they snatched him out of the danger he was in from his father’s curse, while they made their prayers to God also for the young man, that he would remit his sin. 7.367. He also made twenty-four parts of the tribe of Levi; and when they cast lots, they came up in the same manner for their courses of eight days. He also honored the posterity of Moses, and made them the keepers of the treasures of God, and of the donations which the kings dedicated. He also ordained that all the tribe of Levi, as well as the priests, should serve God night and day, as Moses had enjoined them. 11.9. and when they were come thither, all the king’s friends assisted them, and brought in, for the building of the temple, some gold, and some silver, and some a great many cattle and horses. So they performed their vows to God, and offered the sacrifices that had been accustomed of old time; I mean this upon the rebuilding of their city, and the revival of the ancient practices relating to their worship. 11.77. They also celebrated the feast of tabernacles at that time, as the legislator had ordained concerning it; and after they offered sacrifices, and what were called the daily sacrifices, and the oblations proper for the Sabbaths, and for all the holy festivals. Those also that had made vows performed them, and offered their sacrifices from the first day of the seventh month. 11.134. Now there came a great number of priests, and Levites, and porters, and sacred singers, and sacred servants to Esdras. So he gathered those that were in the captivity together beyond Euphrates, and staid there three days, and ordained a fast for them, that they might make their prayers to God for their preservation, that they might suffer no misfortunes by the way, either from their enemies, or from any other ill accident; 11.135. for Esdras had said beforehand that he had told the king how God would preserve them, and so he had not thought fit to request that he would send horsemen to conduct them. So when they had finished their prayers, they removed from Euphrates on the twelfth day of the first month of the seventh year of the reign of Xerxes, and they came to Jerusalem on the fifth month of the same year. 12.55. We immediately, therefore, offered sacrifices for thee and thy sister, with thy children and friends; and the multitude made prayers, that thy affairs may be to thy mind, and that thy kingdom may be preserved in peace, and that the translation of our law may come to the conclusion thou desirest, and be for thy advantage. 13.56. And whosoever shall fly to the temple at Jerusalem, or to the places thereto belonging, or who owe the king money, or are there on any other account, let them be set free, and let their goods be in safety. 13.398. 5. After this, king Alexander, although he fell into a distemper by hard drinking, and had a quartan ague, which held him three years, yet would not leave off going out with his army, till he was quite spent with the labors he had undergone, and died in the bounds of Ragaba, a fortress beyond Jordan. 13.399. But when his queen saw that he was ready to die, and had no longer any hopes of surviving, she came to him weeping and lamenting, and bewailed herself and her sons on the desolate condition they should be left in; and said to him, “To whom dost thou thus leave me and my children, who are destitute of all other supports, and this when thou knowest how much ill-will thy nation bears thee?” 13.400. But he gave her the following advice: That she need but follow what he would suggest to her, in order to retain the kingdom securely, with her children: that she should conceal his death from the soldiers till she should have taken that place; 13.401. after this she should go in triumph, as upon a victory, to Jerusalem, and put some of her authority into the hands of the Pharisees; for that they would commend her for the honor she had done them, and would reconcile the nation to her for he told her they had great authority among the Jews, both to do hurt to such as they hated, and to bring advantages to those to whom they were friendly disposed; 13.402. for that they are then believed best of all by the multitude when they speak any severe thing against others, though it be only out of envy at them. And he said that it was by their means that he had incurred the displeasure of the nation, whom indeed he had injured. 13.403. “Do thou, therefore,” said he, “when thou art come to Jerusalem, send for the leading men among them, and show them my body, and with great appearance of sincerity, give them leave to use it as they themselves please, whether they will dishonor the dead body by refusing it burial, as having severely suffered by my means, or whether in their anger they will offer any other injury to that body. Promise them also that thou wilt do nothing without them in the affairs of the kingdom. 13.404. If thou dost but say this to them, I shall have the honor of a more glorious funeral from them than thou couldst have made for me; and when it is in their power to abuse my dead body, they will do it no injury at all, and thou wilt rule in safety.” So when he had given his wife this advice, he died, after he had reigned twenty-seven years, and lived fifty years within one. 14.168. 4. Upon Hyrcanus hearing this, he complied with them. The mothers also of those that had been slain by Herod raised his indignation; for those women continued every day in the temple, persuading the king and the people that Herod might undergo a trial before the Sanhedrim for what he had done. 14.169. Hyrcanus was so moved by these complaints, that he summoned Herod to come to his trial for what was charged upon him. Accordingly he came; but his father had persuaded him to come not like a private man, but with a guard, for the security of his person; and that when he had settled the affairs of Galilee in the best manner he could for his own advantage, he should come to his trial, but still with a body of men sufficient for his security on his journey, yet so that he should not come with so great a force as might look like terrifying Hyrcanus, but still such a one as might not expose him naked and unguarded [to his enemies.] 14.170. However, Sextus Caesar, president of Syria, wrote to Hyrcanus, and desired him to clear Herod, and dismiss him at his trial, and threatened him beforehand if he did not do it. Which epistle of his was the occasion of Hyrcanus delivering Herod from suffering any harm from the Sanhedrim, for he loved him as his own son. 14.171. But when Herod stood before the Sanhedrim, with his body of men about him, he affrighted them all, and no one of his former accusers durst after that bring any charge against him, but there was a deep silence, and nobody knew what was to be done. 14.172. When affairs stood thus, one whose name was Sameas, a righteous man he was, and for that reason above all fear, rose up, and said, “O you that are assessors with me, and O thou that art our king, I neither have ever myself known such a case, nor do I suppose that any one of you can name its parallel, that one who is called to take his trial by us ever stood in such a manner before us; but every one, whosoever he be, that comes to be tried by this Sanhedrim, presents himself in a submissive manner, and like one that is in fear of himself, and that endeavors to move us to compassion, with his hair dishevelled, and in a black and mourning garment: 14.173. but this admirable man Herod, who is accused of murder, and called to answer so heavy an accusation, stands here clothed in purple, and with the hair of his head finely trimmed, and with his armed men about him, that if we shall condemn him by our law, he may slay us, and by overbearing justice may himself escape death. 14.174. Yet do not I make this complaint against Herod himself; he is to be sure more concerned for himself than for the laws; but my complaint is against yourselves, and your king, who gave him a license so to do. However, take you notice, that God is great, and that this very man, whom you are going to absolve and dismiss, for the sake of Hyrcanus, will one day punish both you and your king himself also.” 14.175. Nor did Sameas mistake in any part of this prediction; for when Herod had received the kingdom, he slew all the members of this Sanhedrim, and Hyrcanus himself also, excepting Sameas, 14.176. for he had a great honor for him on account of his righteousness, and because, when the city was afterward besieged by Herod and Sosius, he persuaded the people to admit Herod into it; and told them that for their sins they would not be able to escape his hands:—which things will be related by us in their proper places. 14.177. 5. But when Hyrcanus saw that the members of the Sanhedrim were ready to pronounce the sentence of death upon Herod, he put off the trial to another day, and sent privately to Herod, and advised him to fly out of the city, for that by this means he might escape. 14.260. and desired of the people, that upon the restitution of their law and their liberty, by the senate and people of Rome, they may assemble together, according to their ancient legal custom, and that we will not bring any suit against them about it; and that a place may be given them where they may have their congregations, with their wives and children, and may offer, as did their forefathers, their prayers and sacrifices to God. 15.21. 4. Accordingly, when Hyrcanus came, full of assurance, by the permission of the king of Parthia, and at the expense of the Jews, who supplied him with money, Herod received him with all possible respect, and gave him the upper place at public meetings, and set him above all the rest at feasts, and thereby deceived him. He called him his father, and endeavored, by all the ways possible, that he might have no suspicion of any treacherous design against him. 15.267. 1. On this account it was that Herod revolted from the laws of his country, and corrupted their ancient constitution, by the introduction of foreign practices, which constitution yet ought to have been preserved inviolable; by which means we became guilty of great wickedness afterward, while those religious observances which used to lead the multitude to piety were now neglected; 15.268. for, in the first place, he appointed solemn games to be celebrated every fifth year, in honor of Caesar, and built a theater at Jerusalem, as also a very great amphitheater in the plain. Both of them were indeed costly works, but opposite to the Jewish customs; for we have had no such shows delivered down to us as fit to be used or exhibited by us; 15.269. yet did he celebrate these games every five years, in the most solemn and splendid manner. He also made proclamation to the neighboring countries, and called men together out of every nation. The wrestlers also, and the rest of those that strove for the prizes in such games, were invited out of every land, both by the hopes of the rewards there to be bestowed, and by the glory of victory to be there gained. So the principal persons that were the most eminent in these sorts of exercises were gotten together, 15.270. for there were very great rewards for victory proposed, not only to those that performed their exercises naked, but to those that played the musicians also, and were called Thymelici; and he spared no pains to induce all persons, the most famous for such exercises, to come to this contest for victory. 15.271. He also proposed no small rewards to those who ran for the prizes in chariot races, when they were drawn by two, or three, or four pair of horses. He also imitated every thing, though never so costly or magnificent, in other nations, out of an ambition that he might give most public demonstration of his grandeur. 15.272. Inscriptions also of the great actions of Caesar, and trophies of those nations which he had conquered in his wars, and all made of the purest gold and silver, encompassed the theater itself; 15.273. nor was there any thing that could be subservient to his design, whether it were precious garments, or precious stones set in order, which was not also exposed to sight in these games. He had also made a great preparation of wild beasts, and of lions themselves in great abundance, and of such other beasts as were either of uncommon strength, or of such a sort as were rarely seen. 15.274. These were prepared either to fight with one another, or that men who were condemned to death were to fight with them. And truly foreigners were greatly surprised and delighted at the vastness of the expenses here exhibited, and at the great dangers that were here seen; but to natural Jews, this was no better than a dissolution of those customs for which they had so great a veneration. 15.275. It appeared also no better than an instance of barefaced impiety, to throw men to wild beasts, for the affording delight to the spectators; and it appeared an instance of no less impiety, to change their own laws for such foreign exercises: 15.276. but, above all the rest, the trophies gave most distaste to the Jews; for as they imagined them to be images, included within the armor that hung round about them, they were sorely displeased at them, because it was not the custom of their country to pay honors to such images. 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them. 20.112. nor indeed was the number fewer than twenty thousand that perished in this tumult. So instead of a festival, they had at last a mournful day of it; and they all of them forgot their prayers and sacrifices, and betook themselves to lamentation and weeping; so great an affliction did the impudent obsceneness of a single soldier bring upon them.
137. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.110, 2.162, 2.313, 2.409-2.410, 2.490-2.492, 2.559-2.561, 5.35-5.36, 7.128, 7.155 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, condemning theater •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 182; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 274; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 216, 228; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 295
1.110. 2. And now the Pharisees joined themselves to her, to assist her in the government. These are a certain sect of the Jews that appear more religious than others, and seem to interpret the laws more accurately. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God, 2.313. Now she dwelt then at Jerusalem, in order to perform a vow which she had made to God; for it is usual with those that had been either afflicted with a distemper, or with any other distresses, to make vows; and for thirty days before they are to offer their sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and to shave the hair of their head. 2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account; 2.410. and when many of the high priests and principal men besought them not to omit the sacrifice, which it was customary for them to offer for their princes, they would not be prevailed upon. These relied much upon their multitude, for the most flourishing part of the innovators assisted them; but they had the chief regard to Eleazar, the governor of the temple. 2.490. but at this time especially, when there were tumults in other places also, the disorders among them were put into a greater flame; for when the Alexandrians had once a public assembly, to deliberate about an embassage they were sending to Nero, a great number of Jews came flocking to the theater; 2.491. but when their adversaries saw them, they immediately cried out, and called them their enemies, and said they came as spies upon them; upon which they rushed out, and laid violent hands upon them; and as for the rest, they were slain as they ran away; but there were three men whom they caught, and hauled them along, in order to have them burnt alive; 2.492. but all the Jews came in a body to defend them, who at first threw stones at the Grecians, but after that they took lamps, and rushed with violence into the theater, and threatened that they would burn the people to a man; and this they had soon done, unless Tiberius Alexander, the governor of the city, had restrained their passions. 2.559. 2. In the meantime, the people of Damascus, when they were informed of the destruction of the Romans, set about the slaughter of those Jews that were among them; 2.560. and as they had them already cooped up together in the place of public exercises, which they had done out of the suspicion they had of them, they thought they should meet with no difficulty in the attempt; yet did they distrust their own wives, which were almost all of them addicted to the Jewish religion; 2.561. on which account it was that their greatest concern was, how they might conceal these things from them; so they came upon the Jews, and cut their throats, as being in a narrow place, in number ten thousand, and all of them unarmed, and this in one hour’s time, without any body to disturb them. 5.35. They, moreover, were still inventing somewhat or other that was pernicious against themselves; and when they had resolved upon anything, they executed it without mercy, and omitted no method of torment or of barbarity. 5.36. Nay, John abused the sacred materials, and employed them in the construction of his engines of war; for the people and the priests had formerly determined to support the temple, and raise the holy house twenty cubits higher; for king Agrippa had at a very great expense, and with very great pains, brought thither such materials as were proper for that purpose, being pieces of timber very well worth seeing, both for their straightness and their largeness; 7.128. And when everybody entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also; 7.155. Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had sent up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities; which when they had finished, they went away to the palace.
138. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.31-1.36, 1.43 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the priests of jericho •rabbis, condemning theater Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 182; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 202
1.31. for he who is partaker of the priesthood must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having any regard to money, or any other dignities; but he is to make a scrutiny, and take his wife’s genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many witnesses to it; 1.32. and this is our practice not only in Judea, but wheresoever any body of men of our nation do live; and even there, an exact catalogue of our priests’ marriages is kept; 1.33. I mean at Egypt and at Babylon, or in any other place of the rest of the habitable earth, whithersoever our priests are scattered; for they send to Jerusalem the ancient names of their parents in writing, as well as those of their remoter ancestors, and signify who are the witnesses also; 1.34. but if any war falls out, such as have fallen out, a great many of them already, when Antiochus Epiphanes made an invasion upon our country, as also when Pompey the Great and Quintilius Varus did so also, and principally in the wars that have happened in our own times, 1.35. those priests that survive them compose new tables of genealogy out of the old records, and examine the circumstances of the women that remain; for still they do not admit of those that have been captives, as suspecting that they had conversation with some foreigners; 1.36. but what is the strongest argument of our exact management in this matter is what I am now going to say, that we have the names of our high priests, from father to son, set down in our records, for the interval of two thousand years; and if any one of these have been transgressors of these rules, they are prohibited to present themselves at the altar, or to be partakers of any other of our purifications; 1.43. For it is no new thing for our captives, many of them in number, and frequently in time, to be seen to endure racks and deaths of all kinds upon the theatres, that they may not be obliged to say one word against our laws and the records that contain them;
139. Josephus Flavius, Life, 277, 279-280, 290-303, 191 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 400
140. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.7, 3.4-3.5, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 179; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 130, 143, 161, 162
1.7. "אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם דֻּבִּין וַאֲרָיוֹת וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ נֵזֶק לָרַבִּים. אֵין בּוֹנִין עִמָּהֶם בָּסִילְקִי, גַּרְדּוֹם, וְאִצְטַדְיָא, וּבִימָה. אֲבָל בּוֹנִים עִמָּהֶם בִּימוֹסְיָאוֹת וּבֵית מֶרְחֲצָאוֹת. הִגִּיעוּ לַכִּפָּה שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אָסוּר לִבְנוֹת: \n", 3.4. "שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:", 3.5. "הַגּוֹיִם הָעוֹבְדִים אֶת הֶהָרִים וְאֶת הַגְּבָעוֹת, הֵן מֻתָּרִין וּמַה שֶּׁעֲלֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז) לֹא תַחְמֹד כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב עֲלֵיהֶם וְלָקַחְתָּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, (שם יב) אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עַל הֶהָרִים, וְלֹא הֶהָרִים אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עַל הַגְּבָעוֹת, וְלֹא הַגְּבָעוֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אֲשֵׁרָה אֲסוּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ תְּפִיסַת יָד אָדָם, וְכֹל שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ תְּפִיסַת יְדֵי אָדָם אָסוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲנִי אוֹבִין וְאָדוּן לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא הַר גָּבוֹהַּ וְגִבְעָה נִשָּׂאָה וְעֵץ רַעֲנָן, דַּע שֶׁיֶּשׁ שָׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:", 3.7. "שְׁלשָׁה בָתִּים הֵן. בַּיִת שֶׁבָּנוּי מִתְּחִלָּה לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. סִיְּדוֹ וְכִיְּרוֹ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְחִדֵּשׁ, נוֹטֵל מַה שֶּׁחִדֵּשׁ. הִכְנִיס לְתוֹכָה עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהוֹצִיאָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. שָׁלשׁ אֲבָנִים הֵן. אֶבֶן שֶׁחֲצָבָהּ מִתְּחִלָּה לְבִימוֹס, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה. סִיְּדָהּ וְכִיְּרָהּ לְשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְחִדֵּשׁ, נוֹטֵל מַה שֶּׁחִדֵּשׁ. הֶעֱמִיד עָלֶיהָ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְסִלְּקָהּ, הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת. שָׁלשׁ אֲשֵׁרוֹת הֵן. אִילָן שֶׁנְּטָעוֹ מִתְּחִלָּה לְשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. גִּדְּעוֹ וּפִסְּלוֹ לְשֵׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְהֶחֱלִיף, נוֹטֵל מַה שֶּׁהֶחֱלִיף. הֶעֱמִיד תַּחְתֶּיהָ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וּבִטְּלָהּ, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר. אֵיזוֹ הִיא אֲשֵׁרָה, כֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ תַּחְתֶּיהָ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, כֹּל שֶׁעוֹבְדִין אוֹתָהּ. וּמַעֲשֶׂה בְצַיְדָּן בְּאִילָן שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹבְדִין אוֹתוֹ, וּמָצְאוּ תַחְתָּיו גָּל. אָמַר לָהֶן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, בִּדְקוּ אֶת הַגַּל הַזֶּה, וּבְדָקוּהוּ וּמָצְאוּ בוֹ צוּרָה. אָמַר לָהֶן, הוֹאִיל וְלַצּוּרָה הֵן עוֹבְדִין, נַתִּיר לָהֶן אֶת הָאִילָן:", 1.7. "One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build.", 3.4. "Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.", 3.5. "If idolaters worship mountains and hills these are permitted; but what is upon them is prohibited, as it is says, “you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them and take them” (Deut. 7:25). Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [it says] “their gods on the mountains” (Deut. 12:, not their mountains which are their gods; “their gods on the hills” (ibid.), not their hills which are their gods. And why is an asherah prohibited? Because there was manual labour connected with it, and whatever has manual labour connected with it is prohibited. Rabbi Akiba said: let me expound and decide [the interpretation] before you: wherever you find a high mountain or elevated hill or green tree, know that an idolatrous object is there.", 3.7. "There are three types of shrines: A shrine originally built for idolatrous worship behold this is prohibited. If one plastered and tiled [an ordinary house] for idolatry and renovated it, one may remove the renovations. If he had only brought an idol into it and taken it out again, [the house] is permitted. There are three kinds of [idolatrous] stones: A stone which a man hewed originally to serve as a pedestal [for an idol] behold this is prohibited. If one plastered and tiled [a stone] for idolatry, one may remove the plaster and tile, and it is then permitted. If he set an idol upon it and took it off, behold [the stone] is permitted. There are three kinds of asherah: a tree which has originally been planted for idolatry behold this is prohibited. If he chopped and trimmed [a tree] for idolatry, and its sprouted afresh, he removes the new growth. If he only set [an idol] under it and took it away, behold the tree is permitted. What is an asherah? Any [tree] beneath which there is an idol. Rabbi Shimon says: any [tree] which is worshipped. It happened at Sidon that there was a tree which was worshipped and they found a heap of stones beneath it. Rabbi Shimon said to them, “examine this heap.” They examined it and discovered an image in it. He said to them, “since it is the image that they worship, we permit the tree for you.”",
141. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.12, 4.5, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 215, 216
3.12. "בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה לוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שִׁבְעָה, וּבַמְּדִינָה יוֹם אֶחָד. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי שֶׁיְּהֵא לוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמְּדִינָה שִׁבְעָה, זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָשׁ. וְשֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר: \n", 4.5. "מִצְוַת עֲרָבָה כֵּיצַד, מָקוֹם הָיָה לְמַטָּה מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְנִקְרָא מוֹצָא. יוֹרְדִין לְשָׁם וּמְלַקְּטִין מִשָּׁם מֻרְבִּיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרָבָה, וּבָאִין וְזוֹקְפִין אוֹתָן בְּצִדֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְרָאשֵׁיהֶן כְּפוּפִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. בְּכָל יוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ פַּעַם אַחַת, וְאוֹמְרִים, אָנָּא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא, אָנָּא ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָּא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲנִי וָהוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא. וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים. בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתָן, מָה הֵן אוֹמְרִים, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ. לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ: \n", 4.9. "נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן: \n", 3.12. "In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce].", 4.5. "The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”", 4.9. "How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.",
142. Mishnah, Shevuot, 4.1, 4.10, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, shared with the aramaic magic bowls Found in books: Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 139; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
4.1. "שְׁבוּעַת הָעֵדוּת נוֹהֶגֶת בַּאֲנָשִׁים וְלֹא בְנָשִׁים, בִּרְחוֹקִין וְלֹא בִקְרוֹבִין, בִּכְשֵׁרִים וְלֹא בִפְסוּלִין. וְאֵינָהּ נוֹהֶגֶת אֶלָּא בָרְאוּיִין לְהָעִיד, בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין, מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ, וּמִפִּי אֲחֵרִים, אֵין חַיָּבִין עַד שֶׁיִּכְפְּרוּ בָהֶן בְּבֵית דִּין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בֵּין מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ וּבֵין מִפִּי אֲחֵרִים, אֵינָן חַיָּבִין עַד שֶׁיִּכְפְּרוּ בָהֶן בְּבֵית דִּין: \n", 4.10. "עָמַד בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאָמַר, מַשְׁבִּיעַ אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם שֶׁאִם אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִים לִי עֵדוּת שֶׁתָּבֹאוּ וּתְעִידוּנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מִתְכַּוֵּן לָהֶם: \n", 4.13. "מַשְׁבִּיעַ אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, מְצַוֶּה אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, אוֹסֶרְכֶם אָנִי, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין. בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְטוּרִין. בְּאל\"ף דל\"ת, בְּיו\"ד ה\"א, בְּשַׁדַּי, בִּצְבָאוֹת, בְּחַנּוּן וְרַחוּם, בְּאֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב חֶסֶד, וּבְכָל הַכִּנּוּיִין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ חַיָּבִין. הַמְקַלֵּל בְּכֻלָּן, חַיָּב, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַמְקַלֵּל אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ בְּכֻלָּן, חַיָּב, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַמְקַלֵּל עַצְמוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּכֻלָּן, עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. יַכְּכָה אֱלֹהִים, וְכֵן יַכְּכָה אֱלֹהִים, זוֹ הִיא אָלָה הַכְּתוּבָה בַתּוֹרָה. אַל יַכְּךָ, וִיבָרֶכְךָ, וְיֵיטִיב לְ ךָ, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְחַיֵּב וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין: \n", 4.1. "The oath of testimony applies to men and not to women, to non-relatives and not to relatives, to those qualified [to bear witness] and not to those unqualified. And it applies only to those eligible to bear witness. Whether [uttered] in front of the court or not in front of the court, if [uttered] with his own mouth; [but if adjured] by the mouth of others he is not liable unless he denies it before the court, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “Whether [uttered] with his own mouth or [adjured] by the mouth of others he is not liable unless he denies it before the court.”", 4.10. "[If] he stood in the synagogue and said, “I adjure you that if you know any testimony for me you should come and bear testimony for me”, they are exempt unless he directs himself to them.", 4.13. "[If he said]: \"I adjure you\"; \"I command you\"; \"I bind you\"; they are liable. \"By heaven and earth!\", they are exempt. \"By Alef Daleth\"; \"By Yod He\"; \"By God Almighty\"; \"By The Lord of Hosts; \"By the Merciful and Gracious one\"; \"By the Long Suffering One\"; \"By the One Abounding in Kindness\"; or by any of the substitutes [for the name], they are liable. He who blasphemes by any of them is liable, according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses his father or mother by any of them is liable according to the words of Rabbi Meir. And the Sages exempt him. He who curses himself or his neighbor by any of them transgresses a negative precept. [If he said,] \"May God smite you\"; or \"Yea, may God smite you\"; this is the curse written in the Torah. \"May [God] not smite you\"; or \"May he bless you\"; Or \"May he do good unto you [if you bear testimony for me]\": Rabbi Meir makes [them] liable, and the Sages exempt [them].",
143. Mishnah, Shabbat, 10.5, 22.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 72; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 52
10.5. "הַמּוֹצִיא כִכָּר לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, חַיָּב. הוֹצִיאוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם, פְּטוּרִין. לֹא יָכֹל אֶחָד לְהוֹצִיאוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוּהוּ שְׁנַיִם, חַיָּבִים. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר. הַמּוֹצִיא אֳכָלִין פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר בִּכְלִי, פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַכְּלִי, שֶׁהַכְּלִי טְפֵלָה לוֹ. אֶת הַחַי בַּמִּטָּה, פָּטוּר אַף עַל הַמִּטָּה, שֶׁהַמִּטָּה טְפֵלָה לוֹ. אֶת הַמֵּת בַּמִּטָּה, חַיָּב. וְכֵן כַּזַּיִת מִן הַמֵּת וְכַזַּיִת מִן הַנְּבֵלָה וְכָעֲדָשָׁה מִן הַשֶּׁרֶץ, חַיָּב. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר:", 22.6. "סָכִין וּמְמַשְׁמְשִׁין בִּבְנֵי מֵעַיִם, אֲבָל לֹא מִתְעַמְּלִין וְלֹא מִתְגָּרְדִין. אֵין יוֹרְדִין לְקוֹרְדִּימָה, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין אַפִּקְטְוִזִין, וְאֵין מְעַצְּבִין אֶת הַקָּטָן, וְאֵין מַחֲזִירִין אֶת הַשֶּׁבֶר. מִי שֶׁנִּפְרְקָה יָדוֹ וְרַגְלוֹ, לֹא יִטְרְפֵם בְּצוֹנֵן, אֲבָל רוֹחֵץ הוּא כְדַרְכּוֹ, וְאִם נִתְרַפָּא נִתְרַפָּא: \n", 10.5. "If one carries out a loaf into the public domain, he is liable. If two carry it out, both are exempt. If one could not carry it out and two carry it out, they are liable; But Rabbi Shimon exempts [them]. If one carries out less than the standard quantity of food in a utensil, he is not liable for the utensil, because the utensil is secondary to the [food]. [If one carries out] a living person on a bed, he is not liable even in respect of the bed, because the bed is secondary to him. A corpse in a bed, he is liable. And similarly [if one carries out] the size of an olive of a corpse, the size of an olive of a nevelah, or the size of a lentil of a [dead] creeping thing, he is liable. But Rabbi Shimon exempts him.", 22.6. "One may oil and [lightly] massage [the body] but not step on [the body] or scrape [the skin]. One may not go down to a piloma, And one may not drink an epiktvizin [to induce vomiting]; And one may not straighten an infant[‘s limbs]. And one may not set a broken bone. If one's hand or foot is dislocated, he must not agitate it violently in cold water but he may bathe it in the usual way, and if it heals, it heals.",
144. Juvenal, Satires, 1.138-1.147, 7.232-7.236, 11.150-11.161 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 214, 224, 232
145. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, 4.5, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 155, 167; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 28; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 171; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59, 128
1.3. "סְמִיכַת זְקֵנִים וַעֲרִיפַת עֶגְלָה, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה. הַחֲלִיצָה וְהַמֵּאוּנִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. נֶטַע רְבָעִי וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין דָּמָיו יְדוּעִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. הָעֲרָכִין הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד מֵהֶן כֹּהֵן. וְהַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן: \n", 2.2. "הַמֶּלֶךְ לֹא דָן וְלֹא דָנִין אוֹתוֹ, לֹא מֵעִיד וְלֹא מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ, לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. לֹא מְיַבֵּם וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם רָצָה לַחֲלֹץ אוֹ לְיַבֵּם, זָכוּר לָטוֹב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אַלְמָנָתוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נוֹשֵׂא הַמֶּלֶךְ אַלְמָנָתוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְדָוִד שֶׁנָּשָׂא אַלְמָנָתוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב יב) וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ: \n", 3.1. "דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. זֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד וְזֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד, וּשְׁנֵיהֶן בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי דַיָּנִין בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד. זֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמֵּבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִין אוֹ פְסוּלִין, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים אוֹ מֻמְחִין, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן. זֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִים אוֹ פְסוּלִים. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן: \n", 4.5. "כֵּיצַד מְאַיְּמִין אֶת הָעֵדִים עַל עֵדֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן וּמְאַיְּמִין עֲלֵיהֶן. שֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מֵאֹמֶד, וּמִשְּׁמוּעָה, עֵד מִפִּי עֵד וּמִפִּי אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שָׁמַעְנוּ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אִי אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִין שֶׁסּוֹפֵנוּ לִבְדֹּק אֶתְכֶם בִּדְרִישָׁה וּבַחֲקִירָה. הֱווּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁלֹּא כְדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, אָדָם נוֹתֵן מָמוֹן וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ. דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְקַיִן שֶׁהָרַג אֶת אָחִיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד) דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר דַּם אָחִיךָ אֶלָּא דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, שֶׁהָיָה דָמוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הָאֲבָנִים. לְפִיכָךְ נִבְרָא אָדָם יְחִידִי, לְלַמֶּדְךָ, שֶׁכָּל הַמְאַבֵּד נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ אִבֵּד עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וְכָל הַמְקַיֵּם נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ קִיֵּם עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וּמִפְּנֵי שְׁלוֹם הַבְּרִיּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַבָּא גָדוֹל מֵאָבִיךָ. וְשֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מִינִין אוֹמְרִים, הַרְבֵּה רָשֻׁיּוֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם. וּלְהַגִּיד גְּדֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁאָדָם טוֹבֵעַ כַּמָּה מַטְבְּעוֹת בְּחוֹתָם אֶחָד וְכֻלָּן דּוֹמִין זֶה לָזֶה, וּמֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא טָבַע כָּל אָדָם בְּחוֹתָמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן דּוֹמֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד חַיָּב לוֹמַר, בִּשְׁבִילִי נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ וְלַצָּרָה הַזֹּאת, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא ה) וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם לוֹא יַגִּיד וְגוֹ'. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ לָחוּב בְּדָמוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (משלי יא) וּבַאֲבֹד רְשָׁעִים רִנָּה: \n", 8.1. "בֵּן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה, מֵאֵימָתַי נַעֲשֶׂה בֵן סוֹרֵר וּמוֹרֶה, מִשֶּׁיָּבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת וְעַד שֶׁיַּקִּיף זָקָן, הַתַּחְתּוֹן וְלֹא הָעֶלְיוֹן, אֶלָּא שֶׁדִּבְּרוּ חֲכָמִים בְּלָשׁוֹן נְקִיָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כא), כִּי יִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ בֵּן, בֵּן וְלֹא בַת, בֵּן וְלֹא אִישׁ. הַקָּטָן פָּטוּר, שֶׁלֹּא בָא לִכְלָל מִצְוֹת: \n", 1.3. "The laying on of the elders’ hands and the breaking of the heifer’s neck [are decided upon] by three, according to Rabbi Shimon. But Rabbi Judah says: “By five.” The rites of halitzah and “refusal” [are performed] before three. The fruit of fourth year plantings and Second Tithes whose value is not known [are redeemed] before three. Things dedicated to the Temple [are redeemed] before three. Vows of evaluation to be redeemed with movable property, [are evaluated] before three. Rabbi Judah says: “One must be a priest.” [Vows of evaluation], [to be redeemed] with land [are evaluated] before nine and a priest. And similarly [for the evaluation] of a man.", 2.2. "The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8).", 3.1. "Cases concerning property [are decided] by three [judges].This [litigant] chooses one and this [litigant] chooses one and then the two of them choose another, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “The two judges choose the other judge.” This [litigant] can invalidate this one’s judge, and this [litigant] can invalidate this one’s judge, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “When is this so? When they bring proof against them that they are relatives or otherwise invalid; but if they are valid and experts, he cannot invalidate them. This [litigant] may invalidate this one’s witnesses and this [litigant] may invalidate this one’s witnesses, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “When is this so? When they bring proof against them that they are relatives or otherwise invalid; but if they are valid, he cannot invalidate them.", 4.5. "How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]", 8.1. "A wayward and rebellious son: at what age does he become liable [to be stoned]? From the time that he produces two hairs until the beard is full by which is meant the hair of the genitals, not that of the face, but the Sages used euphemisms , for it says, “If a man has a son” (Deut. 21:18) a son, but not a daughter; ‘a son’, but not an adult man. The minor is exempt, since he does not come within the scope of the commandments.",
146. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.8, 3.6, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, the Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 251
1.8. "אֵלּוּ הֵן הַפְּסוּלִין, הַמְשַׂחֵק בְּקֻבְיָא, וּמַלְוֵי בְרִבִּית, וּמַפְרִיחֵי יוֹנִים, וְסוֹחֲרֵי שְׁבִיעִית, וַעֲבָדִים. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל עֵדוּת שֶׁאֵין הָאִשָּׁה כְשֵׁרָה לָהּ, אַף הֵן אֵינָן כְּשֵׁרִים לָהּ: \n", 3.6. "שׁוֹפָר שֶׁנִּסְדַּק וְדִבְּקוֹ, פָּסוּל. דִּבֵּק שִׁבְרֵי שׁוֹפָרוֹת, פָּסוּל. נִקַּב וּסְתָמוֹ, אִם מְעַכֵּב אֶת הַתְּקִיעָה, פָּסוּל. וְאִם לָאו, כָּשֵׁר: \n", 4.1. "יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ תוֹקְעִים, אֲבָל לֹא בַמְּדִינָה. מְשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהוּ תּוֹקְעִין בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, לֹא הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי אֶלָּא בְיַבְנֶה בִּלְבָד. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֶחָד יַבְנֶה וְאֶחָד כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ בֵית דִּין: \n", 4.3. "בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיָה הַלּוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ שִׁבְעָה, וּבַמְּדִינָה יוֹם אֶחָד. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי שֶׁיְהֵא לוּלָב נִטָּל בַּמְּדִינָה שִׁבְעָה זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְשֶׁיְּהֵא יוֹם הָנֵף כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר: \n", 4.4. "בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ כָּל הַיּוֹם. פַּעַם אַחַת נִשְׁתַּהוּ הָעֵדִים מִלָּבֹא, וְנִתְקַלְקְלוּ הַלְוִיִּם בַּשִּׁיר. הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְקַבְּלִין אֶלָּא עַד הַמִּנְחָה. וְאִם בָּאוּ עֵדִים מִן הַמִּנְחָה וּלְמַעְלָה, נוֹהֲגִין אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וּלְמָחָר קֹדֶשׁ. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁיְּהוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ כָּל הַיּוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן קָרְחָה, וְעוֹד זֹאת הִתְקִין רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רֹאשׁ בֵּית דִּין בְּכָל מָקוֹם, שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ הָעֵדִים הוֹלְכִין אֶלָּא לִמְקוֹם הַוָּעַד: \n", 1.8. "And these are they which are not qualified [to be witnesses or judges]: A dice player, a usurer, pigeon racers, or traffickers in Seventh Year produce, and slaves. This is the general rule: any testimony for which a woman is not qualified, they too are not qualified.", 3.6. "A shofar which has split and then he stuck it together is not valid. If he stuck together fragments of shofars, it is not valid. If there was a hole in a shofar and he closed it up, if it interferes with the blowing it is not valid, but if it does not it is valid.", 4.1. "If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court.", 4.3. "In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce].", 4.4. "Originally they used to accept testimony with regard to the new moon during the whole day. On one occasion the witnesses were late in arriving, and the Levites went wrong in the daily hymn. They therefore decreed that testimony should be accepted only until the afternoon [sacrifice]. If witnesses came after the afternoon sacrifice that day should be kept as holy and also the next day. After the destruction of the temple Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that testimony with regard to the new moon should be received during the whole day. Rabbi Joshua ben Korha said: this further did Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decree, that not matter where the head of the court might be, the witnesses should have to go only to the place of the assembly.",
147. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 1.10, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •conversion court, rabbi yehudah and the Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 53
148. Mishnah, Pesahim, 3.8, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) •rabbis, and the grafting of branches onto sacred trees •rabbis, and the priests of jericho Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 144; Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201, 221, 222
3.8. "וְכֵן מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִירוּשָׁלַיִם וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ, אִם עָבַר צוֹפִים, שׂוֹרְפוֹ בִמְקוֹמוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, חוֹזֵר וְשׂוֹרְפוֹ לִפְנֵי הַבִּירָה מֵעֲצֵי הַמַּעֲרָכָה. וְעַד כַּמָּה הֵן חוֹזְרִין, רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, זֶה וָזֶה בְכַבֵּיצָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, זֶה וָזֶה בְכַזָּיִת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ בְּכַזַּיִת, וְחָמֵץ בְּכַבֵּיצָה: \n", 4.8. "שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ, עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה מִחוּ בְיָדָם, וְעַל שְׁלֹשָׁה לֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן שֶׁלֹּא מִחוּ בְיָדָם, מַרְכִּיבִין דְּקָלִים כָּל הַיּוֹם, וְכוֹרְכִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְקוֹצְרִין וְגוֹדְשִׁין לִפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּחוּ בְיָדָם, מַתִּירִין גִּמְזִיּוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְאוֹכְלִין מִתַּחַת הַנְּשָׁרִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְנוֹתְנִים פֵּאָה לַיָּרָק, וּמִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים: \n", 3.8. "Similarly, he who went out of Jerusalem and remembered that he had holy meat with him: If he has passed Scopus, he burns it where he is; but if not, he returns and burns it in front of the Temple with the wood of the [altar] pile. And for what [quantity] must they return? Rabbi Meir says: for both when there is as much as an egg; Rabbi Judah says: for both, when there is as much as an olive; But the sages say: holy meat, when there is as much as an olive and chametz, when there is as much as an egg.", 4.8. "Six things the inhabitants of Jericho did: against three they [the sages] protested, and against three [they] did not protest.And these are those against which they did not protest: They grafted palm trees all day [on the eve of Pesah]; They ‘wrapped up’ the Shema; And they harvested and stacked [their produce] before [the bringing of] the ‘omer. And [for these] they did not protest. And these are those against which they did protest: They permitted [for use] the small branches [of sycamore trees] belonging to sacred property, And they ate the fallen fruit from beneath [trees] on Shabbat, and they gave pe’ah from vegetables; And [for these] they did protest.",
149. Martial, Epigrams, 1.59, 2.14, 3.25, 3.44, 10.48, 12.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, and other jews Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 212, 224, 230, 232
150. Martial, Epigrams, 1.59, 2.14, 3.25, 3.44, 10.48, 12.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, and other jews Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 212, 224, 230, 232
151. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.8, 9.12, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the •rabbis, and the masses Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 290; Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 218, 251
7.8. "פָּרָשַׁת הַמֶּלֶךְ כֵּיצַד. מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג, בַּשְּׁמִינִי בְּמוֹצָאֵי שְׁבִיעִית, עוֹשִׂין לוֹ בִימָה שֶׁל עֵץ בָּעֲזָרָה, וְהוּא יוֹשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לא) מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים בְּמֹעֵד וְגוֹ'. חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹטֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְנוֹתְנָהּ לְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹתְנָהּ לַסְּגָן, וְהַסְּגָן נוֹתְנָהּ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל נוֹתְנָהּ לַמֶּלֶךְ, וְהַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד וּמְקַבֵּל וְקוֹרֵא יוֹשֵׁב. אַגְרִיפָּס הַמֶּלֶךְ עָמַד וְקִבֵּל וְקָרָא עוֹמֵד, וְשִׁבְּחוּהוּ חֲכָמִים. וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ (שם יז) לְלֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי, זָלְגוּ עֵינָיו דְּמָעוֹת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַל תִּתְיָרֵא אַגְרִיפָּס, אָחִינוּ אָתָּה, אָחִינוּ אָתָּה, אָחִינוּ אָתָּה. וְקוֹרֵא מִתְּחִלַּת אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים (דברים א׳:א׳) עַד שְׁמַע, וּשְׁמַע (שם ו), וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ (שם יא), עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר (שם יד), כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר (שם כו), וּפָרָשַׁת הַמֶּלֶךְ (שם יז), וּבְרָכוֹת וּקְלָלוֹת (שם כח), עַד שֶׁגּוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה. בְּרָכוֹת שֶׁכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָן, הַמֶּלֶךְ מְבָרֵךְ אוֹתָן, אֶלָּא שֶׁנּוֹתֵן שֶׁל רְגָלִים תַּחַת מְחִילַת הֶעָוֹן: \n", 9.12. "מִשֶּׁמֵּתוּ נְבִיאִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים, בָּטְלוּ אוּרִים וְתֻמִּים. מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בָּטַל הַשָּׁמִיר וְנֹפֶת צוּפִים, וּפָסְקוּ אַנְשֵׁי אֲמָנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יב) הוֹשִׁיעָה ה' כִּי גָמַר חָסִיד וְגוֹ'. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אֵין יוֹם שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ קְלָלָה, וְלֹא יָרַד הַטַּל לִבְרָכָה, וְנִטַּל טַעַם הַפֵּרוֹת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף נִטַּל שֹׁמֶן הַפֵּרוֹת: \n", 9.15. "מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי מֵאִיר, בָּטְלוּ מוֹשְׁלֵי מְשָׁלִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן עַזַּאי, בָּטְלוּ הַשַּׁקְדָּנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן זוֹמָא, בָּטְלוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, פָּסְקָה טוֹבָה מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בָּא גוֹבַי וְרַבּוּ צָרוֹת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, פָּסַק הָעשֶׁר מִן הַחֲכָמִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, בָּטְלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי קַטְנוּתָא, פָּסְקוּ חֲסִידִים. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ קַטְנוּתָא, שֶׁהָיָה קַטְנוּתָן שֶׁל חֲסִידִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, בָּטַל זִיו הַחָכְמָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה וּמֵתָה טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פָּאבִי, בָּטַל זִיו הַכְּהֻנָּה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי, בָּטְלָה עֲנָוָה וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בּוֹשׁוּ חֲבֵרִים וּבְנֵי חוֹרִין, וְחָפוּ רֹאשָׁם, וְנִדַּלְדְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגָבְרוּ בַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּבַעֲלֵי לָשׁוֹן, וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, וְאֵין שׁוֹאֵל, עַל מִי לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שָׁרוּ חַכִּימַיָּא לְמֶהֱוֵי כְסָפְרַיָּא, וְסָפְרַיָּא כְּחַזָּנָא, וְחַזָּנָא כְּעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא, וְעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא אָזְלָא וְדַלְדְּלָה, וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. בְּעִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחָא חֻצְפָּא יִסְגֵּא, וְיֹקֶר יַאֲמִיר, הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר, וְהַמַּלְכוּת תֵּהָפֵךְ לְמִינוּת, וְאֵין תּוֹכֵחָה, בֵּית וַעַד יִהְיֶה לִזְנוּת, וְהַגָּלִיל יֶחֱרַב, וְהַגַּבְלָן יִשּׁוֹם, וְאַנְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל יְסוֹבְבוּ מֵעִיר לְעִיר וְלֹא יְחוֹנָּנוּ, וְחָכְמַת סוֹפְרִים תִּסְרַח, וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא יִמָּאֲסוּ, וְהָאֱמֶת תְּהֵא נֶעְדֶּרֶת. נְעָרִים פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים יַלְבִּינוּ, זְקֵנִים יַעַמְדוּ מִפְּנֵי קְטַנִּים. (מיכה ז) בֵּן מְנַבֵּל אָב, בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ, כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ, אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ. פְּנֵי הַדּוֹר כִּפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב, הַבֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָבִיו. וְעַל מִי יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת, וּנְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טָהֳרָה, וְטָהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי פְרִישׁוּת, וּפְרִישׁוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדֻשָּׁה, וּקְדֻשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה, וַעֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא, וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת, וַחֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְבִיאָה לִידֵי תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, וּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים בָּא עַל יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב, אָמֵן: \n", 7.8. "How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin.", 9.12. "When the former prophets died, the Urim and Thummim ceased. When Temple was destroyed, the shamir and nopheth zufim ceased. And people of faith ceased, as it says, “Help, O Lord, for the faithful are no more” (Psalms 12:2). Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel in the name of Rabbi Joshua: from the day the Temple was destroyed, there is no day without a curse, the dew has not descended for a blessing, and the flavor has departed from produce. Rabbi Yose says: the fatness was also removed from produce.", 9.15. "When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”",
152. Tosefta, Kippurim, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •simeon the tsanua, rabbi Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
2.7. "אמר ר\"ע [סח לי שמעון בן ליגא] אני ותינוק אחד מבני בניהם [היינו מלקטים עשבים בשדה ראיתיו] ששחק ובכה אמרתי לו [על] מה בכית אמר לי על כבוד בית אבא שגלה [אמרתי לו על] מה שחקת אמר לסוף שעתיד הקב\"ה [לשמח את בניו אמרתי לו מה] ראית אמר מעלה עשן כנגדי אמרתי לו [הראו] לי אמר לי שבועה היא בידינו שאין מראין אותו לכל אדם. אמר רבי יוחנן בן נורי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך [מצאני זקן אחד ואמר לי משל בית אבטינס אני בתחלה כשהיו בית אבא צנועין היו מוסרין מגילותיהן זה לזה עכשיו הילך מגילה זו והזהר בה שהיא מגילת סמנים] וכשבאתי והרצתי [דברים] לפני ר' עקיבה אמר לי מעתה אסור לספר בגנותן של אלו מכאן אמר בן עזאי משלך יתנו לך בשמך יקראוך ובמקומך יושיבוך [אין שכחה לפני המקום אין] אדם נוגע במוכן לחבירו.",
153. Mishnah, Negaim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, the Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 202
3.1. "הַכֹּל מִטַּמְּאִין בַּנְּגָעִים, חוּץ מִן הַנָּכְרִים וְגֵר תּוֹשָׁב. הַכֹּל כְּשֵׁרִים לִרְאוֹת אֶת הַנְּגָעִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַטֻּמְאָה וְהַטָּהֳרָה בִידֵי כֹהֵן. אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אֱמֹר טָמֵא, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טָמֵא. אֱמֹר טָהוֹר, וְהוּא אוֹמֵר טָהוֹר. אֵין רוֹאִים שְׁנֵי נְגָעִים כְּאֶחָד, בֵּין בְּאִישׁ אֶחָד וּבֵין בִּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים, אֶלָּא רוֹאֶה אֶת הָאֶחָד וּמַסְגִּירוֹ וּמַחְלִיטוֹ וּפוֹטְרוֹ, וְחוֹזֵר לַשֵּׁנִי. אֵין מַסְגִּירִין אֶת הַמֻּסְגָּר וְלֹא מַחְלִיטִין אֶת הַמֻּחְלָט. אֵין מַסְגִּירִין אֶת הַמֻּחְלָט, וְלֹא מַחְלִיטִין אֶת הַמֻּסְגָּר. אֲבָל בַּתְּחִלָּה, בְּסוֹף שָׁבוּעַ, הַמַּסְגִּיר מַסְגִּיר, וְהַמַּחְלִיט מַחְלִיט, מַסְגִּיר וּפוֹטֵר, מַחְלִיט וּפוֹטֵר: \n", 3.1. "Everyone can become impure from negaim, except for a non-Jew and a resident alien. All are qualified to inspect negaim, but only a priest may declare them unclean or clean. He is told, \"Say: 'unclean,'\" and he repeats \"unclean,\" or \"Say: 'clean,'\" and he repeats \"clean.\" Two negaim may not be inspected simultaneously whether in one man or in two men; rather he inspects one first and isolates him, certifies him as unclean or pronounces him clean, and then he inspects the second. One who is isolated may not be isolated again nor may one who is certified unclean be certified unclean again. One who is certified unclean may not be isolated nor may one who is isolated be certified unclean. But in the beginning, or at the end of a week, he may isolate on account of the one nega and isolate him on account of another one; he may certify him unclean on account of one sign and also certify him unclean on account of another sign; he may isolated the one sign and declare the other clean, or certify the one unclean and declare the other clean.",
154. Tosefta, Toharot, 8.7-8.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 73
8.7. "הלוקח כלים מאומני ע\"ה והמוסר כלים לאומני ע\"ה טמאין מדרס וטמאי טמא מת הניח כליו בפני ע\"ה וא\"ל שמור לי את אלו טמאין מדרס וטמאות טמא מת. הניחן על כתיפו טמאין מדרס וטמא מת א\"ר דוסתאי בר' ינאי לא נחלקו ב\"ש וב\"ה על המוסר ליחיד שהן טמאין ועל המניח בפני רבים שהן טהורים על מה נחלקו על המוסר לרבים ועל המניח ליחיד שב\"ש מטמאין וב\"ה מטהרין. מעשה באחד ששכח כלים בביהכ\"נ ובא מעשה לפני חכמים וטיהרו שאינה רה\"י גמורה.", 8.8. "הניח כליו [בבית] המרחץ ובא ומצאן כל שהן הרי אלו טהורין ומלמדין אותו שלא יעשה כן <בטהרות>. הניח גיתו ובורו ונכנס לעיר אע\"פ שבא ומצא ע\"ה בצידן טהורין וכן בעובד כוכבים אינו חושש משום יי\"נ. ע\"ה שבא להזות אין מזין עליו ועל כליו אלא לאחר ג' ימים אבל חבר שבא להזות מזין עליו ועל כליו מיד א\"ר יהודה בד\"א שהיה בחזקת חולין אבל היה בחזקת אוכלי תרומה מזין עליו מיד ועל כליו משישתמר.",
155. Seneca The Younger, On Anger, 32.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 237
156. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, views of the romans Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
157. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 56.1-56.2, 86.4-86.13, 107.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, as provincial residents of the roman world •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, views of the romans Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 211, 235
158. Mishnah, Temurah, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the consecration of land •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167, 168, 210, 211
7.1. "יֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ מַה שֶׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת. וְיֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ. שֶׁקָּדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה, וְחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל, נוֹתָר, וְטָמֵא, וְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן אָסוּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָם, וְהַשׁוֹחֲטָם בַּחוּץ חַיָּב, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין מֵהֶם לָאֻמָּנִים בִּשְׂכָרָן, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבָּיִת: \n", 7.2. "יֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ, שֶׁסְּתָם הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת לְבֶדֶק הַבָּיִת. הֶקְדֵּשׁ בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת חָל עַל הַכֹּל, וּמוֹעֲלִין בְּגִדּוּלֵיהֶן, וְאֵין בָּהֶם הֲנָאָה לְכֹהֲנִים: \n", 7.3. "אֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ וְאֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, אֵין מְשַׁנִּין אוֹתָן מִקְּדֻשָּׁה לִקְדֻשָּׁה, וּמַקְדִּישִׁין אוֹתָן הֶקְדֵּשׁ עִלּוּי, וּמַחֲרִימִין אוֹתָן. וְאִם מֵתוּ, יִקָּבְרוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, אִם מֵתוּ, יִפָּדוּ: \n", 7.1. "There are [laws] which apply to dedications for the altar which do not apply to dedications for repairs of the Temple, and there are [laws] which apply to dedications for the repairs of the Temple which do not apply to dedications for the altar.Dedications for the altar effect a substitute; They are subject to the laws of piggul, remt and ritual uncleanness; Their offspring and milk are forbidden [even] after their redemption; If one kills them outside [the Temple] he is guilty; And wages are not paid from them to artisans, Which is not the case with dedications for temple repairs.", 7.2. "There are [laws] which apply to dedications for the repairs of the Temple which don’t apply to dedications to the altar.Unspecified dedications go to the repairs of the Temple. Dedication for the repairs of the temple can have an effect on all things, The law of sacrilege applies to things that grow from them. And there is no benefit to be derived from them for the priest.", 7.3. "Both dedications for the altar and dedications for the repairs of the Temple may not be changed from one holiness to another. One may dedicate them with a value-dedication, and one may conscribe them. If they die, they are buried. Rabbi Shimon says: dedications for the repairs of the temple, if they died, they are redeemed.",
159. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi yehudah the patriarch Found in books: Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 84, 127
160. Tosefta, Shevi It, 1.7, 2.18, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •akiva, rabbi, and r. yishmael/two-schools hypothesis •yishmael, rabbi, and r. akiva/two-schools hypothesis •simeon the tsanua, rabbi •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 144; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 127; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
1.7. "ומכוונין את הנטיעות עד ראש השנה רבי יהודה אומר אם היו מבורכות לפני שביעית נוטלן אף בשביעית אלו הן עוגיות אלו בדידין שבעיקרי אילנות מוותרין [ומשמשין] בקנים מקום שנהגו לוותר ולשמש לפני החג מוותרין ומשמשין לפני החג לאחר החג מותרין ומשמשין לאחר החג.", 5.1. "פירות שביעית שיצאו לחוצה לארץ מבערן במקומן דברי רבי ר\"ש בן אלעזר אומר מביאן לארץ ומוכרן בארץ שנאמר (ויקרא כ״ה:ז׳) בארצך תהיה כל תבואתה לאכול.", 5.1. "רבי אליעזר אומר חבילי איזוב והפיאה והקורנית שהכניסן לעצים אין מסיקין בהן למאכל בהמה מסיקין בהן ר' שמעון אומר אף קלחין של בית השלחין שיבשו אסורין בהנאה.",
161. Tosefta, Terumot, 2.13, 7.14, 10.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293, 295; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 72
2.13. "אבל ערלה וכלאי הכרם שוין לנכרים בארץ ישראל בסוריא ובחוצה לארץ אלא שר' יהודה אומר אין לנכרי כרם רבעי בסוריא וחכ\"א יש לו אמר ר' יהודה מעשה בשביון ראש בית הכנסת של כזיב שלקח נכרי רבעי בסוריא ונתן לו דמיו ובא ושאל את רבן גמליאל שהיה עובר ממקום למקום ואמר לו המתן עד שנהיה בהלכה אמר לו משם ראיה אף הוא שלח לו ביד שליח חרש מה שעשית עשית אבל לא [תשנה] לעשות כן.", 7.14. "משמרת אסורה משום גלוי רבי נחמיה אומר אם היתה תחתונה מכוסה אע\"פ שעליונה מגולה הרי זו מותרת מפני שארס של נחש דומה לספוג ועומד במקומו.",
162. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 143, 231
163. Palestinian Talmud, Maaser Sheni, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the patriarch (rabbi) •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Balberg (2023), Fractured Tablets: Forgetfulness and Fallibility in Late Ancient Rabbinic Culture, 133; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 73
164. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 8.7-8.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289, 295
165. Palestinian Talmud, Makkot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, views of the romans Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 42
166. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 2.4, 8.1, 8.9, 9.13, 14.5, 20.6, 22.6, 23.6, 26.7, 33.3, 34.10, 37.4, 47.7, 48.4, 51.3, 56.2, 56.6, 63.8, 65.5, 67.3, 74.2, 75.9, 76.6, 78.5, 79.6, 80.1, 81.2, 87.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Allen and Dunne (2022), Ancient Readers and their Scriptures: Engaging the Hebrew Bible in Early Judaism and Christianity, 228, 229; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 178, 179, 181; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289, 292, 293, 444; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 143, 214, 224, 235; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 788, 793, 794, 795; Kanarek (2014), Biblical narrative and formation rabbinic law, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 60, 61, 65; Katzoff (2019), On Jews in the Roman World: Collected Studies. 278; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 51; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 158, 244, 247; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 264; Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 71
2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ (בראשית א, כו), רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן פָּתַח (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִם זָכָה אָדָם, אוֹכֵל שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי, וְאִם לָאו הוּא בָּא לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס בְּרָאוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ה, ב): זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, דְּיוּ פַּרְצוּפִים בְּרָאוֹ, וְנִסְּרוֹ וַעֲשָׂאוֹ גַּבִּים, גַּב לְכָאן וְגַב לְכָאן. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית ב, כא): וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו, אֲמַר לְהוֹן מִתְּרֵין סִטְרוֹהִי, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כו, כ): וּלְצֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן, דִּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן וְלִסְטַר מַשְׁכְּנָא וגו'. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בְּנָיָה וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן גֹּלֶם בְּרָאוֹ, וְהָיָה מוּטָל מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ, הֲדָא הוא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קלט, טז): גָּלְמִי רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר נְחֶמְיָה וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר מְלֹא כָל הָעוֹלָם בְּרָאוֹ, מִן הַמִּזְרָח לַמַּעֲרָב מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, ה): אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וגו'. מִצָּפוֹן לַדָּרוֹם מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם. וּמִנַּיִן אַף בַּחֲלָלוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלט, טז): וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (איוב יג, כא): כַּפְּךָ מֵעָלַי הַרְחַק. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן. הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר דְּאָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר (בראשית א, כד): תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, אָחוֹר לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָאַחֲרוֹן, וָקֶדֶם לְמַעֲשֵׂה יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, דְּאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (בראשית א, ב): וְרוּחַ אֱלֹקִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמֵר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', אִם זָכָה אָדָם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ אַתָּה קָדַמְתָּ לְמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת, וְאִם לָאו אוֹמְרִים לוֹ זְבוּב קְדָמְךָ, יַתּוּשׁ קְדָמְךָ, שִׁלְשׁוּל זֶה קְדָמְךָ. אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן אָחוֹר לְכָל הַמַּעֲשִׂים, וָקֶדֶם לְכָל עֳנָשִׁין. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אַף בְּקִלּוּס אֵינוֹ בָּא אֶלָּא בָּאַחֲרוֹנָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, א): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וגו', וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (תהלים קמח, ז): הַלְּלוּ אֶת ה' מִן הָאָרֶץ וגו' וְאוֹמֵר כָּל הַפָּרָשָׁה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קמח, יא): מַלְכֵי אֶרֶץ וְכָל לְאֻמִּים (תהלים קמח, יב): בַּחוּרִים וְגַם בְּתוּלוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי כְּשֵׁם שֶׁקִּלּוּסוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף, כָּךְ בְּרִיָּתוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא אַחַר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, מַה טַּעְמֵיהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, כ): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כד): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ וגו', וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית א, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וגו'. 8.1. אָמַר רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן טָעוּ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ וְאִפַּרְכוֹס שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקָרוּכִין, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה מְבַקְּשִׁין לוֹמַר לַמֶּלֶךְ דּוֹמִינוֹ, וְלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין אֵיזֶהוּ, מֶה עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּחָפוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ חוּץ לַקָּרוּכִין, וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אִפַּרְכוֹס. כָּךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, טָעוּ בּוֹ מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וּבִקְּשׁוּ לוֹמַר לְפָנָיו קָדוֹשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הִפִּיל עָלָיו תַּרְדֵּמָה וְיָדְעוּ הַכֹּל שֶׁהוּא אָדָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (ישעיה ב, כב): חִדְלוּ לָכֶם מִן הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר נְשָׁמָה בְּאַפּוֹ כִּי בַּמֶּה נֶחְשָׁב הוּא. 8.9. שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא. 9.13. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, הִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זוֹ מַלְכוּת שָׁמַיִם, וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרוֹמִיִּים. וְכִי מַלְכוּת הָרוֹמִיִּים טוֹב מְאֹד, אֶתְמְהָא. אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא תּוֹבַעַת דִּיקָיוֹן שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מה, יב): אָנֹכִי עָשִׂיתִי אֶרֶץ וְאָדָם עָלֶיהָ בָרָאתִי. 14.5. וַיִּיצֶר ב' יְצִירוֹת, יְצִירָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וִיצִירָה לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים לֹא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגוֹמֵר בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר, שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל (יחזקאל לז, ח): רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אֵין לְמֵדִין מִמֵּתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל. וּלְמָה הָיוּ מֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל דּוֹמִים, לְזֶה שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְמֶרְחָץ מַה שֶּׁהוּא פּוֹשֵׁט רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לוֹבֵשׁ אַחֲרוֹן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶה, כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, כָּךְ אַף לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן אִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, י): הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי. הִתַּכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּתִּיכֵנִי. וְכַגְּבִנָּה הִקְפֵּאתַנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי. (איוב י, יא): עוֹר וּבָשָׂר הִלְבַּשְׁתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תַּלְבִּישֵׁנִי. וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגִידִים סוֹכַכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תְּשׂכְכֵנִי, לִקְעָרָה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה חָלָב עַד שֶׁלֹא נָתַן מְסוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ, הֶחָלָב רוֹפֵף, מִשֶּׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָהּ מְסוֹ, הֲרֵי הֶחָלָב קָפוּי וְעוֹמֵד, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אָמַר: הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי וגו' עוֹר וּבָשָׂר וגו' (איוב י, יב): חַיִּים וָחֶסֶד עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי וּפְקֻדָּתְךָ שָׁמְרָה רוּחִי. 20.6. אֶל הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ (בראשית ג, טז), רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, מֵעוֹלָם לֹא נִזְקַק הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהָשִׂיחַ עִם אִשָּׁה, אֶלָּא עִם אוֹתָהּ הַצַּדֶּקֶת וְאַף הִיא עַל יְדֵי עִלָּה. רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר כַּמָּה כִּרְכּוּרִין כִּרְכֵּר בִּשְׁבִיל לְהָשִׂיחַ עִמָּהּ (בראשית יח, טו): וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית טז, יג): וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם ה' הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּר רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אִידֵי אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ, וְהָכְתִיב (בראשית כה, כג): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' לָהּ, רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי מַלְאָךְ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זִמְרָא אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֵׁם. הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אוֹמֵר כָּל שֶׁהוּא הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה, כָּל שֶׁהוּא בְּמָאתַיִם וּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר יוֹם, חָי. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר נוֹצָר לְתִשְׁעָה וְנוֹלַד לְשִׁבְעָה אֵינוֹ חַי, לִשְׁמוֹנָה אֵינוֹ חַי, נוֹצָר לְשִׁבְעָה וְנוֹלַד לִשְׁמוֹנָה, חַי, קַל וָחֹמֶר לְתִשְׁעָה. בָּעוֹן קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מִנַּיִן שֶׁהַנּוֹלַד לְשִׁבְעָה חַי, אָמַר לָהֶן מִן דִּידְכוֹן אֲנָא מַמְטֵי לְכוֹן, זיט"ה אפט"א, איט"א אוכט"א. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר לְעוֹלָם אֵין הָאִשָּׁה יוֹלֶדֶת אוֹ לְמָאתַים וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד, אוֹ לְמָאתַיִם שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנַיִם, אוֹ לְמָאתַיִם שִׁבְעִים וְשָׁלשׁ, לְתִשְׁעָה הֵן וְעִבּוּרֵיהֶן. חִיָּא בַּר אַדָּא הֲוָה יָתִיב קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַב הֲוָה מַסְבַּר לֵיהּ וְלָא סָבַר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה לֵית אַתְּ סָבוֹר, אֲמַר לֵיהּ דְּהָא חֲמָרָתִי בָּעֵי לְמֵילַד וַאֲנִי מִתְיָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תִּיצוֹן וְתָמוּת, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אִיכְפַּת לָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ פְּעָמִים שֶׁהִיא פּוֹחֶתֶת, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁהִיא מוֹסֶפֶת, פּוֹחֶתֶת אֵינָהּ פּוֹחֶתֶת מִימוֹת הַלְּבָנָה, מוֹסֶפֶת אֵינָהּ מוֹסֶפֶת עַל יְמוֹת הַחַמָּה, אָמַר לֵיהּ וְהָכְתִיב (איוב לט, א ב): הֲיָדַעְתָּ עֵת לֶדֶת יַעֲלֵי סָלַע, תִּסְפֹּר יְרָחִים תְּמַלֶּאנָה, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְהַלָּן בְּדַקָּה וְכָאן בְּגַסָּה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְהָא בַּקְרוּת שֶׁל אַנְטוֹנִינוּס הָיְתָה רוֹבַעַת, וְהִרְבִּיעוּ מִמֶּנָּהּ בַּקְרוּת שֶׁל רַבִּי, יֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁיָּלְדוּ עַכְשָׁיו, וְיֵשׁ מֵהֶם שֶׁיָּלְדוּ לְאַחַר זְמַן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְהַלָּן בִּטְהוֹרָה וְכָאן בִּטְמֵאָה. עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ, זֶה צַעַר הָעִבּוּר. וְהֵרֹנֵךְ, זֶה צַעַר הָעִדּוּי. בְּעֶצֶב, זֶה צַעַר הַנְּפָלִים. תֵּלְדִי, זֶה צַעַר הַלֵּדָה. בָּנִים, זֶה צַעַר גִּדּוּל בָּנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּר"ש נוֹחַ לוֹ לְאָדָם לְגַדֵּל לִגְיוֹן אֶחָד מִשֶּׁל זֵיתִים בַּגָּלִיל, וְלֹא לְגַדֵּל תִּינוֹק אֶחָד בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל. 22.6. וַיִּשַׁע ה' אֶל הֶבֶל וְאֶל מִנְחָתוֹ (בראשית ד, ד), נִתְפַּיֵּס מִמֶּנּוּ. (בראשית ד, ה): וְאֶל קַיִן וְאֶל מִנְחָתוֹ לֹא שָׁעָה, לֹא נִתְפַּיֵּס מִמֶּנּוּ. (בראשית ד, ה): וַיִּחַר לְקַיִן מְאֹד וַיִּפְּלוּ פָנָיו, נַעֲשׂוּ כָּאוּר. (בראשית ד, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל קָיִן לָמָּה חָרָה לָךְ וְלָמָּה נָפְלוּ פָנֶיךָ, (בראשית ד, ז): הֲלוֹא אִם תֵּיטִיב שְׂאֵת, בְּרָכָה, כְּמָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (ויקרא ט, כב): וַיִּשָֹּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם. וְאִם לֹא תֵיטִיב שְׂאֵת, קְלָלָה, דִּכְתִיב (ויקרא כב, טז): וְהִשִֹּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֹן אַשְׁמָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם תֵּיטִיב אֲנִי מוֹחֵל לְךָ עַל עֲוֹנוֹתֶיךָ, וְאִם לָאו חֶטְאוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ גָּדוּשׁ וּמְגֻדָּשׁ, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בַּר אַמֵּי אָמַר (תהלים לב, ט): לְדָוִד מַשְׂכִּיל אַשְׁרֵי נְשׂוּי פֶּשַׁע כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה, אַשְׁרָיו לְאָדָם שֶׁהוּא גָּבוֹהַּ מִפִּשְׁעוֹ וְלֹא פִּשְׁעוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד, ז): לַפֶּתַח חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ, חַטָּאת רוֹבֶצֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא חַטָּאת רֹבֵץ, בַּתְּחִלָּה הוּא תַּשׁ כִּנְקֵבָה, אַחַר כָּךְ הוּא מִתְגַּבֵּר כְּזָכָר. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בַּתְּחִלָּה דּוֹמֶה לְחוּט שֶׁל עַכָּבִישׁ, וּלְבַסּוֹף נַעֲשָׂה כַּקֶּלַע הַזּוֹ שֶׁל סְפִינָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה ה, יח): הוֹי משְׁכֵי הֶעָוֹן בְּחַבְלֵי הַשָּׁוְא וְכַעֲבוֹת הָעֲגָלָה חַטָּאָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּתְּחִלָּה הוּא נַעֲשָׂה אוֹרֵחַ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוּא נַעֲשָׂה בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב יב, ד): וַיַּחְמֹל לָקַחַת מִצֹּאנוֹ וּמִבְּקָרוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָאֹרֵחַ הַבָּא לוֹ, הֲרֵי אוֹרֵחַ, וַיִּקַּח אֶת כִּבְשַׂת הָאִישׁ הָרָאשׁ וַיַּעֲשֶׂהָ לָאִישׁ הַבָּא אֵלָיו, הֲרֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר מֶרְיוֹן אִית כַּלְבִּין בְּרוֹמִי דְּיָדְעִין לְמִשְׁתַּדְּלָא, אָזֵיל וְיָתֵיב קַמֵּי פְּלָטֵירָא, וַעֲבֵיד גַּרְמֵיהּ מִתְנַמְנֵם וּמָרֵי פְּלָטֵירָא מִתְנַמְנֵם, וְהוּא שָׁמוּט עִגּוּלָא אַאַרְעָא עַד דְּהַוְיָא מְצַמֵּית לוֹן הוּא מִשְׂתַּכֵּר עִגּוּלָא וּמְהַלֵּךְ בֵּיהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא הַיֵּצֶר הַזֶּה דּוֹמֶה לְלִסְטִים שָׁפוּף שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב בְּפָרָשַׁת דְּרָכִים, כָּל מַאן דְעָבַר הֲוָה אָמַר הַב מַה דְּעַלָּךְ, עָבַר פִּקֵּחַ אֶחָד וְרָאָה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ תּוֹחֶלֶת לִגְזֹל לוֹ כְּלוּם, הִתְחִיל מְכַתְּתוֹ. כָּךְ כַּמָּה דּוֹרוֹת אִבֵּד יֵצֶר הָרָע, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ, וְדוֹר הַפְלָגָה, וְדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָמַד אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ וְרָאָה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ תּוֹחֶלֶת, הִתְחִיל מְכַתְּתוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פט, כד): וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף. אָמַר רַבִּי אָמֵי אֵין יֵצֶר הָרָע מְהַלֵּךְ לִצְדָדִים אֶלָּא בְּאֶמְצַע פְּלַטְיָא, וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹאֶה אָדָם מְמַשְׁמֵשׁ בְּעֵינָיו, מְתַקֵּן בְּשַׂעֲרוֹ, מִתְלָא בַּעֲקֵבוֹ, הוּא אוֹמֵר הָדֵין דִּידִי, מַאי טַעְמֵיהּ (משלי כו, יב): רָאִיתָ אִישׁ חָכָם בְּעֵינָיו תִּקְוָה לַכְּסִיל מִמֶּנוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין כָּל מִי שֶׁמְפַנֵּק אֶת יִצְרוֹ בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ, סוֹפוֹ לִהְיוֹת מָנוֹן עָלָיו בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ, מַאי טַעְמָא (משלי כט, כא): מְפַנֵּק מִנֹעַר עַבְדּוֹ וְאַחֲרִיתוֹ יִהְיֶה מָנוֹן. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא אָמַר אִם בָּא יִצְרְךָ לְהַשְׂחִיקְךָ, דָּחֵהוּ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, אִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ בָּרָאתָ אֶת הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כו, ג): יֵצֶר סָמוּךְ תִּצֹּר שָׁלוֹם, וְאִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ בָּרָאתָ אֶת הַשָּׁלוֹם, שָׁלוֹם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם. וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתְךָ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ישעיה כו, ג): כִּי בְךָ בָּטוּחַ, וּכְבָר הִכְתַּבְתִּי לְךָ בַּתּוֹרָה (בראשית ד, ז): וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וְאַתָּה תִּמְשָׁל בּוֹ. רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר אִם בָּא יִצְרְךָ לְהַשְׂחִיקְךָ, שַׂמְּחֵהוּ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כו, ג): יֵצֶר סָמוּךְ תִּצֹּר שָׁלוֹם, וְאִם עָשִׂיתָ כֵּן מַעֲלֶה אֲנִי עָלֶיךָ כְּאִלּוּ בָּרָאתָ אֶת שְׁנֵי הָעוֹלָמוֹת. תִּצֹּר שָׁלוֹם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא שָׁלוֹם שָׁלוֹם. וְאִם תֹּאמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתְךָ כְּבָר הִכְתַּבְתִּי בַּתּוֹרָה (בראשית ד, ז): וְאֵלֶיךָ תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ וגו'. 23.6. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם הוּא יֻלַּד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ (בראשית ד, כו), בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי אַבָּא כֹּהֵן בַּרְדְּלָא אָדָם שֵׁת אֱנוֹשׁ, וְשָׁתַק, אָמַר עַד כָּאן בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ נִתְקַלְקְלוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת וְנִבְרְאוּ קִנְטוּרִין. אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים נִשְׁתַּנּוּ בִּימֵי אֱנוֹשׁ בֶּן שֵׁת, הֶהָרִים נַעֲשׂוּ טְרָשִׁים, וְהִתְחִיל הַמֵּת מַרְחִישׁ, וְנַעֲשׂוּ פְּנֵיהֶם כְּקוֹפוֹת, וְנַעֲשׂוּ חֻלִּין לַמַּזִּיקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הֵן הֵן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ לְעַצְמָן לִהְיוֹת חֻלִּין לַמַּזִּיקִין, מַה בֵּין דְּגָחֵין לְצַלְמָא לְמַאן דְּגָחֵין לְבַר נָשׁ. 26.7. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם (בראשית ו, ד), שִׁבְעָה שֵׁמוֹת נִקְרְאוּ לָהֶם, אֵימִים, רְפָאִים, גִּבּוֹרִים, זַמְזֻמִּים, עֲנָקִים, עַוִּים, נְפִלִים. אֵימִים, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן הָיְתָה אֵימָתָן נוֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו. רְפָאִים, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן הָיָה לִבּוֹ רָפֶה כְּשַׁעֲוָה. גִּבּוֹרִים, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר מֹחַ קוּלִיתוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶם הָיְתָה נִמְדֶדֶת י"ח אַמָּה. זַמְזֻמִּים, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא מְנַטְרוֹמִין מְגִיסְטֵי מִלְחָמָה. עֲנָקִים, רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי אַחָא, רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ שֶׁהָיוּ מַרְבִּים עֲנָקִים עַל גַּבֵּי עֲנָקִים [פרוש תכשיטיז], רַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹנְקִים גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, וְאוֹמְרִים הוֹרֵד לָנוּ גְשָׁמִים. עַוִּים, שֶׁצָּדוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם וְשֶׁהֻצְדוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁגָּרְמוּ לָעוֹלָם שֶׁיִּצּוֹד, הֵיךְ מַה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (יחזקאל כא, לב): עַוָּה עַוָּה עַוָּה אֲשִׂימֶנָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקִיאִים בַּעֲפָרוֹת כִּנְחָשִׁים. בְּגָלִילָא צָוְחִין לְחִוְיָא אִוְיָא. נְפִלִים, שֶׁהִפִּילוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁנָּפְלוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם וְשֶׁמִּלְּאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם נְפָלִים בַּזְנוּת שֶׁלָּהֶם. (בראשית ו, ד): וְגַם אַחֲרֵי כֵן, יְהוּדָה בַּר רַבִּי אַמֵּי אָמַר, אַחֲרָאֵי לָא יִלְּפוּן מִן קֳדָמָאֵי, דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל לֹא לָקְחוּ מוּסָר מִדּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ, וְדוֹר הַפְלָגָה מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. (בראשית ו, ד): וְגַם אַחֲרֵי כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הָיְתָה אִשָּׁה יוֹצֵאת בַּשּׁוּק וְהָיְתָה רוֹאָה בָּחוּר וּמִתְאַוָּה לוֹ וְהָיְתָה הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת מִטָּתָהּ וְהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בָּחוּר כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם (בראשית ו, ד), אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחָא (איוב ל, ח): בְּנֵי נָבָל גַּם בְּנֵי בְלִי שֵׁם, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִשִּׁימוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁהוּשַׁמּוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁגָּרְמוּ לָעוֹלָם שֶׁיִּשֹּׁוֹם. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְשׁוּ שְׁמוֹתָן לְמַעְלָן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כָּל הַשֵּׁמוֹת הַלָּלוּ לָשׁוֹן מַרְדּוּת הֵן, עִירָד, עוֹרְדָּן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מְחוּיָאֵל, מוֹחָן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מְתוּשָׁאֵל, מַתִּישָׁן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מַה לִּי לְלֶמֶךְ וּלְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, וּמִי פֵּרַשׁ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן, אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי, וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי, וְצוֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר אִלּוּ לֹא בָּא אִיּוֹב לָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא לְפָרֵשׁ לָנוּ מַעֲשֶׂה הַמַּבּוּל, דַּיּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין אִלּוּ לֹא בָּא אֱלִיהוּא אֶלָּא לְפָרֵשׁ לָנוּ מַעֲשֵׂה יְרִידַת הַגְּשָׁמִים, דַּיּוֹ, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל אוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בֶּאֱלִיהוּא אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּירִידַת גְּשָׁמִים. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה אָמַר אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בְּמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ו, כג): כִּי נֵר מִצְוָה וְתוֹרָה אוֹר. רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, קָשָׁה הִיא הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת כְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר טז, ב): קְרִאֵי מוֹעֵד אַנְשֵׁי שֵׁם, מַה אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן מַחֲלֹקֶת אַף אַנְשֵׁי שֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן מַחֲלֹקֶת. 33.3. טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו (תהלים קמה, ט), אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל, עַל הַכֹּל, שֶׁהוּא מַעֲשָׂיו. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וְרַחֲמָיו עַל הַכֹּל שֶׁהֵן מִדּוֹתָיו הוּא מְרַחֵם. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל, וּמֵרַחֲמָיו הוּא נוֹתֵן לִבְרִיּוֹתָיו. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְרַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר אָבִין בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא לְמָחָר שְׁנַת בַּצֹּרֶת בָּאָה וְהַבְּרִיּוֹת מְרַחֲמִין אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶן רַחֲמִים. בְּיוֹמֵי דְּרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הָיוּ צְרִיכִין יִשְׂרָאֵל לְתַעֲנִית, אָתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ אָמְרִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי גְּזָר תַּעֲנִיתָא, גָּזַר תַּעֲנִיתָא יוֹם קַדְמָאי יוֹם ב' יוֹם ג' וְלָא נְחַת מִטְרָא, עָאל וְדָרַשׁ לְהוֹן אֲמַר לְהוֹן בָּנַי הִתְמַלְּאוּ רַחֲמִים אֵלּוּ עַל אֵלּוּ וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיכֶם רַחֲמִים. עַד שֶׁהֵן מְחַלְּקִין צְדָקָה לַעֲנִיֵּיהֶם רָאוּ אָדָם אֶחָד נוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לִגְרוּשָׁתוֹ, אָתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ וַאֲמַרוּ לֵיהּ, רַבִּי מָה אֲנַן יָתְבִין הָכָא וַעֲבֵרְתָּא הָכָא. אֲמַר לָהֶן מָה רְאִיתֶם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ רָאִינוּ אָדָם פְּלוֹנִי נוֹתֵן מָעוֹת לִגְרוּשָׁתוֹ, שְׁלַח בַּתְרֵיהוֹן וְאַיְיתִינוֹן לְגוֹ צִבּוּרָא. אָמַר לֵיהּ מָה הִיא לָךְ זוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ גְּרוּשָׁתִי הִיא. אָמַר לוֹ מִפְּנֵי מָה נָתַתָּ לָהּ מָעוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי רָאִיתִי אוֹתָהּ בְּצָרָה וְהִתְמַלֵּאתִי עָלֶיהָ רַחֲמִים. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה הִגְבִּיהַּ רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא פָּנָיו כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה וְאָמַר רִבּוֹן כָּל הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁאֵין לָהּ עָלָיו מְזוֹנוֹת רָאָה אוֹתָהּ בְּצָרָה וְנִתְמַלֵּא עָלֶיהָ רַחֲמִים, אַתָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּךָ (תהלים קמה, ח): חַנּוּן וְרַחוּם, וְאָנוּ בְּנֵי יְדִידֶיךָ בְּנֵי אַבְרָהָם יִצְחָק וְיַעֲקֹב עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה שֶׁתִּתְמַלֵּא עָלֵינוּ רַחֲמִים, מִיָּד יָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים וְנִתְרַוָּה הָעוֹלָם. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה יָתֵיב לָעֵי בְּאוֹרַיְתָא קַמֵּי כְּנִשְׁתָּא דְּבַבְלָאי בְּצִפּוֹרִין, עֲבַר חַד עֵגֶל קוֹדָמוֹי, אָזֵל לְמִתְנְכָסָה וְשָׁרֵי גָּעֵי כְּמֵימַר שֵׁיזִבְנִי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אֲנִי יָכוֹל לְמֶעְבַּד לָךְ לְכָךְ נוֹצַרְתָּ, וְחָשַׁשׁ רַבִּי אֶת שִׁנָּיו שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר אָבִין כָּל אוֹתָן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה שֶׁהָיָה חוֹשֵׁשׁ רַבִּי אֶת שִׁנָּיו, לֹא הִפִּילָה עֻבָּרָה בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְלֹא נִצְטַעֲרוּ הַיּוֹלְדוֹת, בָּתַר יוֹמִין עֲבַר חַד שֶׁרֶץ קַמֵּי בְּרַתֵּיהּ וּבְעָא לְמִקְטְלָא, אֲמַר לָהּ בְּרַתִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ, דִּכְתִיב: וְרַחֲמָיו עַל כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה עִנְוָתָן סַגֵּי, וַהֲוָה אֲמַר כָּל מַה דְּיֹאמַר לִי בַּר נַשׁ אֲנָא עָבֵיד חוּץ מִמַּה שֶּׁעָשׂוּ בְּנֵי בְתֵירָא לִזְקֵנִי, שֶׁיָּרְדוּ מִגְדֻלָּתָן וְהֶעֱלוּ אוֹתוֹ, וְאִין סָלֵיק רַב הוּנָא רֵישׁ גָּלוּתָא לְהָכָא, אֲנָא קָאֵים לִי מִן קֳדָמוֹהִי, לָמָּה דְּהוּא מִן יְהוּדָה וַאֲנָא מִן בִּנְיָמִין, וְהוּא מִן דִּכְרַיָא דִּיהוּדָה וַאֲנָא מִן נֻקְבְתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה וַהֲרֵי הוּא עוֹמֵד בַּחוּץ, נִתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָּנָיו שֶׁל רַבִּי וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁנִּתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָּנָיו אָמַר לוֹ אֲרוֹנוֹ הוּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ פּוֹק חֲזֵי מַאן בָּעֵי לָךְ לְבָרָא, נָפַק וְלָא אַשְׁכַּח בַּר נָשׁ, וְיָדַע דְּהוּא נָזוּף וְאֵין נְזִיפָה פְּחוּתָה מִשְּׁלשִׁים יוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר רַבִּי אָבִין כָּל אוֹתָן שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם שֶׁהָיָה רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה נָזוּף מֵרַבֵּנוּ, אַלֵּיף לְרַב בַּר אֲחָתֵיהּ כָּל כְּלָלֵי דְאוֹרַיְתָא, וְאִלֵּין אִינוּן כְּלָלַיָיא דְאוֹרַיְתָא הִלְכְתָא דְּבַבְלָאֵי. לְסוֹף תְּלָתִין יוֹמִין אָתָא אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב בִּדְמוּתֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה אֵצֶל רַבֵּנוּ וִיְהַב יְדֵיהּ עַל שִׁנֵּיהּ וְאִתְּסֵי, כֵּיוָן דְּאָתָא רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה לְגַבֵּי רַבֵּנוּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עֲבַדְתְּ בְּשִׁנָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן עוֹנָתָא דִּיהַבְתְּ יְדָךְ עִלּוֹהִי אִתְנְשֵׁימַת, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית אֲנָא הֲוָה יָדַע מָה הוּא. כֵּיוָן דְּשָׁמַע כֵּן שָׁרֵי נָהֵיג בֵּיהּ יְקָרָא, וְקָרַב תַּלְמִידִים וּמְעַיֵּיל לֵיהּ מִלְּגַאו. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְלִפְנִים מִמֶּנִּי, אָמַר לֵיהּ חַס וְשָׁלוֹם לֹא יֵעָשֶׂה כֵן בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. רַבֵּנוּ הֲוָה מְתַנֵּי שִׁבְחֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה קַמֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמַר לֵיהּ אָדָם גָּדוֹל, אָדָם קָדוֹשׁ. חַד זְמַן חֲמִיתֵיהּ בֵּי בָנֵי וְלָא אִתְכְּנַע מִנֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ הַהוּא תַּלְמִידָךְ דַּהֲוַת מִשְׁתַּבַּח בֵּיהּ חֲמִיתֵּיהּ בֵּי בָנֵי וְלָא אִתְכְּנַע מִנָּאי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְלָמָּה לָא אִתְכְּנָעַת מִנֵּיהּ, אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי חִיָּא מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּאַגָּדַת תְּהִלִּים, כֵּיוָן דְּשָׁמַע כֵּן מְסַר לֵיהּ תְּרֵין תַּלְמִידוֹי וַהֲווֹ עָיְילִין עִמֵּיהּ לַאֲשׁוּנָה, דְּלָא יִשְׁהֵי וְתִזְעַר נַפְשֵׁיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל וגו', וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמֵנִי אוֹי לָהֶם לָרְשָׁעִים שֶׁהֵם הוֹפְכִים מִדַּת רַחֲמִים לְמִדַּת הַדִין, בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר ה', מִדַּת רַחֲמִים, (שמות לד, ו): ה' ה' אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן, וּכְתִיב (בראשית ו, ה): וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ, (בראשית ו, ו): וַיִּנָּחֶם ה' כִּי עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם (בראשית ו, ז): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶמְחֶה וגו', אַשְׁרֵיהֶם הַצַּדִּיקִים שֶׁהֵן הוֹפְכִים מִדַּת הַדִּין לְמִדַּת רַחֲמִים. בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר אֱלֹהִים הוּא מִדַּת הַדִּין (שמות כב, כז): אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל, (שמות כב, ח): עַד הָאֱלֹהִים יָבֹא דְּבַר שְׁנֵיהֶם, וּכְתִיב (שמות ב, כד): וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת בְּרִיתוֹ וגו' (בראשית ל, כב): וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת רָחֵל וגו', וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ, מַה זְּכִירָה נִזְכַּר לוֹ שֶׁזָּן וּפִרְנֵס אוֹתָם כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ בַּתֵּבָה, וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת נֹחַ, וְהַדִּין נוֹתֵן מִזְּכוּת הַטְּהוֹרִים שֶׁהִכְנִיס עִמּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר לְשֵׁם קָרְבָּנוֹ נִקְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ח, כא): וַיָּרַח ה' אֶת רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא לְשֵׁם נַחַת הַתֵּבָה נִקְרָא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ח, ד): וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי וגו'. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר (בראשית ח, כב): לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ, מִכְּלַל שֶׁשָּׁבָתוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לֹא שִׁמְשׁוּ מַזָּלוֹת כָּל שְׁנֵים עָשָׂר חֹדֶשׁ, אָמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן שִׁמְשׁוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹא הָיָה רִשּׁוּמָן נִכָּר. 37.4. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה (בראשית י, י), חֶרֶן וּנְצִיבִין וְקַטּוֹסְפִין. בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר, זוֹ בָּבֶל, לָמָה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שִׁנְעָר אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקֵישׁ שֶׁשָּׁם נִנְעֲרוּ מֵתֵי דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהִיא מְנֹעֶרֶת מִן הַמִּצְווֹת, בְּלֹא תְּרוּמָה וּבְלֹא מַעַשְׂרוֹת וּבְלֹא שְׁבִיעִית. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהֵם מֵתִים בְּתַשְׁנִיק, בְּלֹא נֵר וּבְלֹא מֶרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר שֶׁשָֹּׂרֶיהָ מֵתִים נְעָרִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁשָֹּׂרֶיהָ מַבִּיטִין בַּתּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁהֵם נְעָרִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה שׂוֹנֵא וְעָר לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְאֵי זֶה זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַר. (בראשית י, יא): מִן הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר, מִן הָעֵצָה הַהִיא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן בָּאִים לַחְלֹק עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא פָּנָה מֵאַרְצוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתְּ יָצָאתָה לְךָ מֵאַרְבַּע, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ וְנוֹתֵן לְךָ אַרְבַּע, וַיִּבֶן אֶת נִינְוֵה וְאֶת רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת כָּלַח וְאֶת רֶסֶן, תְּלַתְסַר, וְלֹא עָשָׂה, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא וְנִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמָּהֶן. בְּחֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶתְמוֹל אֶפְרוֹחַ עַכְשָׁו בֵּיצָה, אֶתְמוֹל מַפְרִיחַ מִצְווֹת וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, עַכְשָׁו מְכוֹנָן כַּבֵּיצָה, אֶתְמְהָא, לְפִיכָךְ (תהלים פג, ט): הָיוּ זְרוֹעַ לִבְנֵי לוֹט סֶלָה, לִלְוָט. (בראשית י, יב): וְאֶת רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח וגו', אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים אִם רֶסֶן הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה וְאִם נִינְוֵה הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה, מִן מַה דִּכְתִיב (יונה ג, ג): וְנִינְוֵה הָיְתָה עִיר גְּדוֹלָה לֵאלֹהִים מַהֲלַךְ שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים, הֱוֵי נִינְוֵה הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה. 47.7. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ וְאֵת כָּל יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ (בראשית יז, כג), אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְּבוּ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמָּל אַבְרָהָם אוֹתָן יְלִידֵי בֵּיתוֹ, הֶעֱמִידָן גִּבְעָה עֲרָלוֹת וְזָרְחָה עֲלֵיהֶם חַמָּה וְהִתְלִיעוּ וְעָלָה רֵיחָן לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כִּקְטֹרֶת סַמִּים וּכְעוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא כָלִיל לָאִשִּׁים, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ בָנָיו שֶׁל זֶה בָּאִים לִידֵי עֲבֵרוֹת וְלִידֵי מַעֲשִׂים רָעִים אֲנִי נִזְכַּר לָהֶם הָרֵיחַ הַזֶּה וּמִתְמַלֵּא עֲלֵיהֶם רַחֲמִים וּמְרַחֵם עֲלֵיהֶם. 48.4. רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (שמות כ, כא): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי וגו', אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁבָּנָה מִזְבֵּחַ לִשְׁמִי הֲרֵינִי נִגְלָה עָלָיו וּמְבָרְכוֹ, אַבְרָהָם שֶׁמָּל עַצְמוֹ לִשְׁמִי עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו ה' בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא. 51.3. גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים יא, ו): יַמְטֵר עַל רְשָׁעִים פַּחִים אֵשׁ וְגָפְרִית וגו', פַּחִים, גּוּמְרִים וּמְצוּדִין. אֵשׁ וְגָפְרִית, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן מִפְּנֵי מָה אָדָם מֵרִיחַ רֵיחַ גָּפְרִית וְנַפְשׁוֹ סוֹלֶדֶת עָלָיו, לָמָּה שֶׁהִיא יוֹדַעַת שֶׁהִיא נִידוֹנֵת בָּהּ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יא, ו): מְנָת כּוֹסָם, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן, כִּפְיָלִי פִיטְרִין לְאַחַר הַמֶּרְחָץ. אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אֵין דָּבָר רַע יוֹרֵד מִלְּמַעְלָה, אֲתִיבוּן וְהָכְתִיב (תהלים קמח, ח): אֵשׁ וּבָרָד שֶׁלֶג וְקִיטוֹר, אָמַר לָהֶם (תהלים קמח, ח): רוּחַ סְעָרָה הִיא שֶׁהִיא עוֹשָׂה דְבָרוֹ. מִלְּתָא דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פְּלִיגָא אֲהָא דְּאָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן פָּזִי, (דברים כח, יב): יִפְתַּח ה' לְךָ אֶת אוֹצָרוֹ הַטּוֹב, מִכָּאן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אוֹצָרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, מֵאֵת ה' מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, כִּמַרְתָּק מִן גִּבָּר. 56.2. אָמַר לְיִצְחָק, בְּנִי, רוֹאֶה אַתָּה מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אָמַר לִשְׁנֵי נְעָרָיו, רוֹאִים אַתֶּם מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ לַאו. אָמַר הוֹאִיל וַחֲמוֹר אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה וְאַתֶּם אֵין אַתֶּם רוֹאִים (בראשית כב, ה): שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר. וּמִנַּיִין שֶׁהָעֲבָדִים דּוֹמִין לִבְהֵמָה, מֵהָכָא, שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר, עַם הַחֲמוֹר. רַבָּנָן מַיְתֵי לֵיהּ מֵהָכָא מִמַּתַּן תּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ט י): שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל מְלַאכְתֶּךָ וגו' אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק עָתִיד הַמָּקוֹם לִרָחֵק מִבְּעָלָיו, וּלְעוֹלָם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (תהלים קלב, יד): זֹאת מְנוּחָתִי עֲדֵי עַד פֹּה אֵשֵׁב, לִכְשֶׁיָּבוֹא אוֹתוֹ שֶׁכָּתוּב בּוֹ (זכריה ט, ט): עָנִי וְרֹכֵב עַל חֲמוֹר. (בראשית כב, ה): וַאֲנִי וְהַנַּעַר נֵלְכָה עַד כֹּה, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי נֵלֵךְ וְנִרְאֶה מַה יִּהְיֶה בְּסוֹפוֹ שֶׁל כֹּה. (בראשית כב, ה): וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם, בִּשְֹּׂרוֹ שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָה בְּשָׁלוֹם. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הַכֹּל בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְאַבְרָהָם לֹא חָזַר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה בְּשָׁלוֹם אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, וְנִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם. יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא נִגְאֲלוּ אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ד, לא): וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וגו' וַיִקְדּוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ. הַתּוֹרָה לֹא נִתְּנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כד, א): וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם מֵרָחֹק. חַנָּה לֹא נִפְקְדָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א א, כח): וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ שָׁם לַה': הַגָּלֻיּוֹת אֵינָן מִתְכַּנְסוֹת אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כז, יג): וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וגו' וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַה' בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם. בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא נִבְנָה אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צט, ט): רוֹמְמוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לְהַר קָדְשׁוֹ. הַמֵּתִים אֵינָן חַיִּין אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צה, ו): בֹּאוּ נִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה וְנִכְרָעָה נִבְרְכָה לִפְנֵי ה' עֹשֵׂנוּ. 56.6. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת (בראשית כב, י), רַב בְּעָא קוֹמֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא רַבָּה מִנַּיִן לִשְׁחִיטָה שֶׁהִיא בְּדָבָר הַמִּטַּלְטֵל, מִן הָכָא, וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת יָדוֹ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין מִן הַהַגָּדָה אֲמַר לָךְ, חָזַר הוּא בֵּיהּ, וְאִין מִן אוּלְפָּן אֲמַר לָךְ, לֵית הוּא חָזַר בֵּיהּ, דְּתָנֵי לֵוִי הָיוּ נְעוּצִים מִתְּחִלָּתָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ פְּסוּלִים, תְּלוּשִׁין וּנְעָצָן הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כְּשֵׁרִים, דִּתְנַן הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר וּבְצֹר וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְּשֵׁרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בִּקְרוּמִיּוֹת שֶׁל קָנֶה, אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין מוֹהֲלִין בָּהּ, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין בָּהּ בָּשָׂר, וְאֵין מְקַנְחִין בָּהּ אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְלֹא מְחַצִּין בָּהּ אֶת הַשִּׁנַּיִם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁרוּחַ רָעָה שׁוֹכֶנֶת עָלָיו. 63.8. וַיִּמְלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ לָלֶדֶת (בראשית כה, כד), לְהַלָּן חֲסֵרִים וְכָאן מְלֵאִים, לְהַלָּן כְּתִיב (בראשית לח, כז): תְאוֹמִים, פֶּרֶץ וְזֶרַח שְׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים, וְכָאן תוֹמִם, יַעֲקֹב צַדִּיק וְעֵשָׂו רָשָׁע. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק בִּזְכוּת (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲנִי נִגְלֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן, וּפוֹרֵעַ לָכֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, זֶה עֵשָׂו, דִּכְתִיב: וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבוֹנֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן, וְאָבִיא לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ישעיה מא, כז): רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן הִנֵּה הִנָּם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, לָמָה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ כְּהָדֵין פָּרָבִיטָא שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁטֵּף אֶת בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַרְחִיץ בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, כָּךְ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ. מַטְרוֹנָא שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא אָמְרָה לֵיהּ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהּ, טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחוּ שְׁתֵּי מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת אַחַת, לֹא זוֹ שֶׁאַתְּ נוֹתְנָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצְאָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כָּךְ טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה. אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת דָּוִד אַדְמוֹנִי, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א טז, יב): וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי, נִתְיָרֵא וְאָמַר אַף זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים כְּעֵשָׂו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (שמואל א טז, יב): עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם, עֵשָׂו מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא הוֹרֵג אֲבָל זֶה מִדַּעַת סַנְהֶדְרִין הוּא הוֹרֵג. דִּקְלִיטְיָינוֹס מַלְכָּא הֲוָה רָעֵי חֲזִירִין בַּהֲדָא טְבֶרְיָה, וְכֵיוָן דַּהֲוָה מָטֵי סִדְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי הֲוֵי מֵינוֹקָא נָפְקִין וּמָחֲיִין לֵיהּ, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אִיתְעֲבֵד מֶלֶךְ, נְחַת וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ בַּהֲדָא פַּנְיָיס נ"א: פַּמְיָיס, וּשְׁלַח כְּתָבִים לִטְבֶרְיָא מִפְּנֵי רַמְשָׁא דַעֲרוֹבְתָה, אֲמַר אֲנָא יָהֵיב קֵלֶווֹן דְּיֶהֱווֹן רַבְרְבָנֵי דִּיהוּדָאֵי קָיְימִין קֳדָמִי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבָּא. פַּקְדֵּיהּ לִשְׁלִיחָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא תִתֵּן יָתְהוֹן לְהוֹן אֶלָּא עִם מַטְעֲמֵי יוֹמָא דַעֲרוֹבְתָא. נְחַת רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן לְמִיסְחֵי, חַמְתֵי לְרַבִּי דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים קוֹמֵי סִדְרָא רַבָּה רָאָה פָּנָיו חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אֲמַר כֵּן וְכֵן אִשְׁתַּדַּר לִי כְּתָבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִיתָא סְחֵי דְּבָרְיָיךְ עֲבֵיד לָנָא נִסִּין. עָלוֹן לְמִסְחֵי וַאֲתָא הָדֵין אַרְגִּינִיטוֹן מְגַחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד קֳדָמֵיהוֹן. בְּעָא רַבִּי דְּיִזְעוֹף בֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן רַבִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ דְּזִמְנִין עַל נִסִּין הוּא מִתְחֲמָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָרָיךְ בְּעָקָא וְאַתְּ קָאֵים גָּחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲזַלוּן וְאַכְלוּן וּשְׁתוֹן וְעַבְדוּן שַׁבָּא טָבָא דְּמָרֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין וַאֲנָא מְקִים לְכוֹן קֳדָמוֹי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבְּתָא. בַּאֲפוּקֵי שַׁבְּתָא בָּתַר סִידְרָא, נְסַבוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי דְּפַנְיָיס. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ הָא קָיְימִין קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי. אֲמַר סִגְרוּן פְּיָילִי. נְסַבוּהוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן עַל מְטַכְּסָא דִּמְדִינְתָּא. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ, אֲמַר אֲנָא קֵלֶווֹן אֲנָא דְּיִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמֵי וְיַעֲלוּן וְיִסְחוּן וְיֶאֱתוֹן לְגַבָּאי, אֲזַלוּן וְאִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין וְעָאל חַד אַרְגִינִיטוֹן וּמוֹזְגָהּ קֳדָמֵיהוֹן וְעָלוּ וּסְחוּן וַאֲתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן בְּגִין דְּאַתּוּן יָדְעִין דֵּאלָהֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין אַתּוּן מְקִילִין לְמַלְכָּא. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוֹס רָעֵי חֲזִירִין אֲקֵילֵינַן, בְּרַם לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוּס מַלְכָּא אֲנַן מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲפִלּוּ כֵּן לָא תִבְזוֹן לָא בְּרוֹמִי זְעֵיר וְלָא בְּגוּלְיָיר זְעֵיר. (בראשית כה, כה): כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַדֶּרֶת שֵׂעָר, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָה כֻּלּוֹ רָאוּי לְאַדֶּרֶת. רַבָּנָן דָּרוֹמָאֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי וְרַחֲבָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר יָצָא כֻּלּוֹ מְפֹזָר וּמְפֹרָד כְּאַדֶּרֶת, לִזְרוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹץ וּכְקַשׁ מֵאִדְּרָא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ב, לה): בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא וגו' וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר מִי גָרַם לָהֶם לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּעוּר, מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, עַל שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בָּאַדִּירִים. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיִּקְרְאוּ שְׁמוֹ עֵשָׂו, הֵא שָׁוְא שֶׁבָּרָאתִי בְּעוֹלָמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַתּוּן קְרֵיתוּן לַחֲזִירַתְכוֹן שֵׁם, אַף אֲנָא קוֹרֵא לִבְנִי בְכוֹרִי שֵׁם, (שמות ד, כב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' בְּנִי בְּכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 65.5. וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק (בראשית כז, א), רַבִּי יִצְחָק פָּתַח (ישעיה ה, כג): מַצְדִּיקֵי רָשָׁע עֵקֶב שֹׁחַד, כָּל מִי שֶׁנּוֹטֵל שֹׁחַד וּמַצְדִּיק אֶת הָרָשָׁע בְּעֵקֶב, (ישעיה ה, כג): וְצִדְקַת צַדִּיקִים יָסִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, וְצִדְקַת צַדִּיקִים, זֶה משֶׁה. יָסִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, זֶה יִצְחָק, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהִצְדִּיק אֶת הָרָשָׁע כָּהוּ עֵינָיו, וַיְהִי כִּי זָקֵן יִצְחָק וגו'. 67.3. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק בָּא לְקַלְּלוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הִזָּהֵר שֶׁאִם אַתְּ מְקַלְּלוֹ לְנַפְשְׁךָ אַתְּ מְקַלֵּל, דַּאֲמַרְתְּ (בראשית כז, כט): אֹרְרֶיךָ אָרוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים מְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָאָדָם, שְׁלשָׁה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הָעַיִן וְהָאֹזֶן וְחֹטֶם, שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, חָמֵי מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, שְׁמַע מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי, מְרִיחַ מַה דְּלָא בָעֵי. הַפֶּה וְהַיָּד וְהָרֶגֶל, בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא לָעֵי בְּאוֹרָיְיתָא, אִין בָּעֵי לִשָּׁנָא בִישָׁא, אִין בָּעֵי מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף. הַיָּד אִין בָּעֵי הוּא עָבֵיד מִצְוָתָא, אִין בָּעֵי הוּא גָנֵב, וְאִי בָּעֵי הוּא קָטֵיל. הָרֶגֶל אִי בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְסִיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קִרְקַסְיָאוֹת, וְאִין בָּעֵי הוּא אָזֵיל לְבָתֵּי כְנֵסִיּוֹת וּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת. וּבְשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא זוֹכֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָן שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, הַיָּד (מלכים א יג, ד): וַתִּיבַשׁ יָדוֹ אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַח עָלָיו. הַפֶּה, (בראשית כז, לג): גַּם בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה. הָרֶגֶל (משלי א, טו טז): בְּנִי אַל תֵּלֵךְ בַּדֶּרֶךְ אִתָּם, כִּי רַגְלֵיהֶם לָרַע יָרוּצוּ: 74.2. וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב וַיִּקְרָא לְרָחֵל וּלְלֵאָה וגו' (בראשית לא, ד), אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים אֲנִי אוֹהֵב אֶת בְּנֵי הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁאֵינָן נוֹשְׁכִין וְאוֹכְלִין אֶלָּא חוֹתְכִין וְאוֹכְלִין, וְאֵין חוֹתְכִין בָּשָׂר אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי הַשֻּׁלְחָן, וְאֵין נוֹשְׁקִין אֶלָּא בַּיָּד, וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין עֵצָה אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם רוֹוֵחַ, כָּעִנְיָן שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב וַיִּקְרָא לְרָחֵל וּלְלֵאָה, בְּמָקוֹם רוֹוֵחַ. מַתְלָא אוֹמֵר בַּחֲקַל דְּאִית בָּהּ אִזְגָּרִין לָא תֵימַר מִלָּה דְמִסְטִירִין. 75.9. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (בראשית לב, ד): וַיִּשְׁלַח יַעֲקֹב, (תהלים קמ, ט): אַל תִּתֵּן ה' מַאֲוַיֵּי רָשָׁע זְמָמוֹ אַל תָּפֵק יָרוּמוּ סֶלָה, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים אַל תִּתֵּן לְעֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע מַחְשְׁבוֹת לִבּוֹ, מַהוּ זְמָמוֹ אַל תָּפֵק, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם עֲשֵׂה לוֹ זָמָם לְעֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא תְּהֵא לוֹ נַחַת רוּחַ שְׁלֵמָה. וּמַה זָּמָם עָשָׂה לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְעֵשָׂו הָרָשָׁע, אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא אֵלּוּ בְּנֵי בַּרְבַּרְיָא וּבְנֵי גֵּרְמַאנְיָאה שֶׁאֲדוֹמִיִּים מִתְיָרְאִין מֵהֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר אַל תִּתֵּן ה' מַאֲוַיֵּי רָשָׁע, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁל לָבָן לַעֲשׂוֹת עִמִּי רָעָה וְלֹא עֲזַבְתּוֹ, אַף מַחְשָׁבוֹת שֶׁל עֵשָׂו אָחִי שֶׁמְּחַשֵּׁב עָלַי לְהָרְגֵנִי הָפֵר רָעָתוֹ. זֶה אֶחָד מִשְּׁלשָׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁחָשְׁבוּ רָעוֹת וְלֹא עָמְדוּ בְּיָדָן, עֵשָׂו וְיָרָבְעָם וְהָמָן, עֵשָׂו שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כז, מא): וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו בְּלִבּוֹ. בְּיָרָבְעָם כְּתִיב (מלכים א יב, כו): וַיֹּאמֶר יָרָבְעָם בְּלִבּוֹ. בְּהָמָן כְּתִיב (אסתר ו, ו): וַיֹּאמֶר הָמָן בְּלִבּוֹ. מַהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו בְּלִבּוֹ, אָמַר, קַיִן הָרַג אֶת אָחִיו וְלֹא עָשָׂה לוֹ הַמָּקוֹם כְּלוּם וְסוֹף שֶׁהוֹלִיד בָּנִים אֲחֵרִים וְיָרְשׁוּ עִמּוֹ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, אֲבָל אֲנִי אֶהֱרֹג אֶת יִצְחָק אָבִי תְּחִלָה, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֶהֱרֹג אֶת יַעֲקֹב אָחִי וְאִירַשׁ אֶת הָעוֹלָם לְבַדִּי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כז, מא): יִקְרְבוּ יְמֵי אֵבֶל אָבִי, אָמַר אֲקָרֵב אֶבְלוֹ שֶׁל אַבָּא קֹדֶם וְאַחַר כָּךְ (בראשית כז, מא): וְאֶהֶרְגָה אֶת יַעֲקֹב אָחִי, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּיָדוֹ, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: אַל תִּתֵּן ה' מַאֲוַיֵּי רָשָׁע. 76.6. הַצִּילֵנִי נָא מִיַּד אָחִי מִיַּד עֵשָׂו (בראשית לב, יב), הַצֵּל אֶת בָּנַי לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מִיַּד בְּנֵי בָנָיו שֶׁבָּאוּ עֲלֵיהֶן מִכֹּחוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ח): מִסְתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת בֵּינֵיהֵן, זֶה בֶּן נֵצֶר. (דניאל ז, ח): וּתְלָת מִן קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אֶתְעֲקַרָה מִן קָדָמַהּ, זוֹ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לָהֶם מַלְכוּתָם, מַקְדִּין וּקְרוֹס וְקַרְדִידוֹסִי. (דניאל ז, ח): וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא דָא וּפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא מַכְתֶּבֶת טִירוֹנְיָא מִכָּל אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כְּתִיב עַל קַרְנַיָא עֲשַׂר מִנַּהּ מַלְכוּתָא עַשְׂרָא מַלְכִין יְקֻמוּן מִן אַרְעָא, כּוּלְּהוֹן בְּיוֹצְאֵי יְרֵכוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר, אֶלָּא: מְִתַּכַּל הֲוֵית בְּקַרְנַיָּא וַאֲלוּ קֶרֶן אָחֳרִי זְעֵירָה סִלְקָת בֵּינֵיהֵן, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה. וּתְלָת מִן קַרְנַיָּא קַדְמָיָתָא אֶתְעֲקַרָה מִן קָדָמַהּ, אֵלּוּ שְׁלשָׁה מַלְכֻיּוֹת הָרִאשׁוֹנוֹת. וַאֲלוּ עַיְנִין כְּעַיְנֵי אֲנָשָׁא בְּקַרְנָא דָא, זוֹ מַלְכוּת הָרְשָׁעָה שֶׁהִיא מַכְנֶסֶת עַיִן רָעָה בְּמָמוֹנוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, פְּלַן עַתִּיר נַעַבְדִּינֵיהּ אַרְכוֹנוֹנוּס, פְּלַן עַתִּיר נַעַבְדֵיהּ בַּלְיוֹטוֹס. (בראשית לב, יב): פֶּן יָבוֹא וְהִכַּנִי אֵם עַל בָּנִים, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ (דברים כב, ו): לֹא תִקַּח הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פֶּן יָבוֹא וְהִכַּנִּי אֵם עַל בָּנִים, וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ (ויקרא כב, כח): וְשׁוֹר וָשֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד. 78.5. וַיִּזְרַח לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וגו' (בראשית לב, לב), אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וּלְמִי לֹא זָרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, אֶלָּא לוֹ לִרְפוּאָתוֹ, אֲבָל לַאֲחֵרִים אוֹרָה. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אָמַר, כָּךְ הָיְתָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מַרְפֵּא בְּאָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב וּמְלַהֶטֶת בְּעֵשָׂו וּבְאַלּוּפָיו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתְּ סִימָן לְבָנֶיךָ, מַה אַתְּ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מַרְפֵּא בְךָ וּמְלַהֶטֶת בְּעֵשָׂו וּבְאַלּוּפָיו, כָּךְ בָּנֶיךָ תְּהֵא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מַרְפֵּא בָהֶן וּמְלַהֶטֶת בְּעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים, מַרְפֵּא בָהֶן (מלאכי ג, כ): וְזָרְחָה לָכֶם יִרְאֵי שְׁמִי שֶׁמֶשׁ צְדָקָה וּמַרְפֵּא בִּכְנָפֶיהָ, וּמְלַהֶטֶת בְּעוֹבְדֵי כּוֹכָבִים (מלאכי ג, יט): הִנֵּה הַיּוֹם בָּא בֹּעֵר כַּתַּנּוּר וגו'. (בראשית לב, לב): וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל יְרֵכוֹ, רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי הֲוָה סָלֵיק לְרוֹמִי, וְכֵיוָן דַּאֲתָא לְעַכּוֹ נְפַק רַבִּי חֲנִינָא לְקַדְמוּתֵיהּ, אַשְׁכְּחֵיהּ מַטְלַע עַל יְרֵכוֹ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַתְּ דָּמֵי לְסָבָךְ וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל יְרֵכוֹ. 79.6. וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר (בראשית לג, יח), חָנַן אֶת הַפָּנִים שֶׁבָּעִיר, הִתְחִיל מְשַׁלֵּחַ לָהֶם דּוֹרוֹנוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, הִתְחִיל מַעֲמִיד הַטְּלִיסִין וּמוֹכֵר בְּזוֹל, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנּוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרֵיהּ הֲווֹ טְמִירִין בִּמְעָרְתָא י"ג שָׁנָה בְּיוֹמֵי דִּשְׁמָדָא, וְהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין חֲרוּבִין שֶׁל גָּרוֹדָא עַד שֶׁהֶעֱלָה גּוּפָן חֲלוּדָה. לְסוֹף שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שְׁנִין נְפַק יְתֵיב עַל תְּרַע מְעָרְתָא, חֲמָא חַד צַיָּד קָאֵים וְצָיֵד צִיפֳּרִין, וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַת קָלָא אָמְרָה מִן שְׁמַיָא דִּימוֹס דִּימוֹס, פַּסְגָּא. וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע בְּרַת קָלָא אֲמָרַת סְפֶקוּלָא, הֲוַת מִתָּצְדָה וְנִלְכָּדָה. אָמַר, צִפּוֹר מִבַּלְעֲדֵי שְׁמַיָא לָא מִתָּצְדָא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה נֶפֶשׁ דְּבַר נָשׁ, נְפַק וְאַשְׁכַּח מִלַּיָא מְשַׁדְּכָן, וְנִתְבַּטְּלָה הַגְּזֵרָה. אֲתוֹן וְאַסְחוֹן בַּהֲדָא בֵּי בָּנֵי דְּבֵית מוֹקֵד דִּטְבֶרְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרֵיהּ כָּל הֲדָא טַבְתָא עֲבָדַת לָן טְבֶרְיָא וְלֵית אֲנַן מְדַכָּן יָתָהּ מִן קָטוֹלַיָא, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹבָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂים אִיטְלוּסִין וּמוֹכְרִין בְּזוֹל, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְדַכָּיָא טְבֶרְיָא, מָה עֲבַד, נְסַב תֻּרְמוּסָא וַהֲוָה מְקַצֵּץ תֻּרְמוּסָא וְשַׁדֵּי קְצוֹצוּתֵיהּ וּמְקַלֵּק בַּשּׁוּק, וְכָל אַתְרָא דַּהֲוָה קְטִילָא סָלֵיק וְאִינוּן מַפְקוּן וְנָפְקִין, וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה שָׁמָּה טֻמְאָה תֻּרְמְסָא עוֹמֶדֶת, וְהוּא מְצַיֵּן אֵיזֶה מְקוֹם טֻמְאָה וּמְקוֹם טָהֳרָה, עַד זְמַן דְּדַכֵּי יָתָהּ מִן קָטִילַיָא. חֲמְתֵיהּ חַד כּוּתִי עַם דְאַרַע, אֲמַר לֵית אֲנָא אָזֵיל וּמַדְחַךְ בַּהֲדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּגַרְגִּינָא וְאִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּסַקָּאֵי, נְסַב קְטִיל וּטְמָרֵיהּ בְּשׁוּקָא דַּהֲווֹ מְדַכֵּי, בְּצַפְרָא אֲזַל אֲמַר לְהוֹן אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בֶּן יוֹחָאי טְבֶרְיָא אֲתוֹן חֲמוּן הָדֵין קְטִילָא [נסח אחר: אזל לגביה אמר ליה לא דכיתא שוק פלן, אמר ליה הין, אמר ליה ואין אפיקת לך מיתין מן בתרך, אמר ליה גוד חמי ליה], צָפָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא נְתָנוֹ שָׁם, אָמַר גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיֵּרֵד וְעַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, וַהֲוָה כֵן. וּסְלֵיק וּשְׁבַת בְּבֵיתֵיהּ, וַעֲבַר בְּהָדֵין מִגְדְּלָא דְּצַבָּעַיָא שְׁמַע קָלָא דְּנַקָּאי סַפְרָא, אָמַר לָא אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בַּר יוֹחָאי לִטְבֶרְיָה, אָמְרִין אַשְׁכְּחוּן חַד קְטִילָא, אָמַר יָבוֹא עָלַי אִם אֵין בְּיָדִי הֲלָכוֹת כִּשְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי עַל טְבֶרְיָה שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה חוּץ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הָיִיתָ בַּמִּנְיָן עִמָּנוּ שֶׁנִּטְהֲרָה, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים, וְעָלֶיךָ נֶאֱמַר (קהלת י, ח): וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, מִיָּד נַעֲשָׂה גַּל שֶׁל עֲצָמוֹת. עָבַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת דְּבֵית נְטוֹפָא, חֲמָא חַד בַּר נָשׁ קָאֵים וּמְלַקֵּט סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית הֵן, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁהִתַּרְתָּ, לֹא כָךְ תְּנֵינַן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל הַסְּפִיחִין מֻתָּרִין חוּץ מִסְּפִיחֵי כְּרוּב שֶׁאֵין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם בְּיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲלוֹא חֲבֵרַי חוֹלְקִים עָלַי, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, נִכְנַס בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם דִּמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְקָבַע תְּחוּמִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁשָּׁמַר יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתַּן. 80.1. וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה (בראשית לד, א), (יחזקאל טז, מד): הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךְ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה תִּרְגֵּם בִּכְנִישָׁתְהוֹן דִּמְעוֹנָא, (הושע ה, א): שִׁמְעוּ זֹאת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ, אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִטֹּל אֶת הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְהַעֲמִידָן בַּדִּין וְלֵאמֹר לָהֶם לָמָּה לֹא יְגַעְתֶּם בַּתּוֹרָה, לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נֶהֱנִים מֵאַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לָא יָהֲבִין לָן כְּלוּם. וְהַקְשִׁיבוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, לָמָּה לֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִים לַכֹּהֲנִים אַרְבַּע וְעֶשְׂרִים מַתְּנוֹת כְּהֻנָּה שֶׁכָּתַבְתִּי לָכֶם בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאִינוּן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַל אִלֵּין דְּבֵי נְשִׂיאָה דַּהֲווֹ נָסְבִין כּוֹלָּא. בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ הַאֲזִינוּ כִּי לָכֶם הַמִּשְׁפָּט, שֶׁלָּכֶם הָיָה, (דברים יח, ג): וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים, לְפִיכָךְ לָכֶם וַעֲלֵיכֶם מִדַּת הַדִּין נֶהְפָּכֶת. שָׁמַע רַבִּי וְכָעַס, בְּפַתֵּי רַמְשָׁא סְלֵיק רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שָׁאֵיל שְׁלָמֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי וּפַיְּסֵי עֲלוֹהִי דְּיוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה, אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי, צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֵן מַכְנִיסִין מוּמָסִין לְבָתֵּי טְרַטְיָאוֹת וּלְבָתֵּי קַרְקְסָאוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן וּמְשַׂחֲקִין בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִהְיוּ מְשִׂיחִין אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי קְטָטָה בְּטֵלָה, יוֹסֵי מְעוֹנָאָה אָמַר מִלָּה דְּאוֹרָיְיתָא וְאַקְפַּדְתְּ עֲלוֹהִי, אָמַר לוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ הוּא בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כְּלוּם, אָמַר לוֹ הֵן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאוּלְפַן קַבֵּיל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין. וְאִי שָׁאֵלְנָא לֵיהּ מְגִיִּיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין, אִם כֵּן יִסַּק לְהָכָא, וּסְלֵיק לְגַבֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַהוּ דִּכְתִיב: הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל עָלַיִךָ יִמְשֹׁל לֵאמֹר כְּאִמָּה בִּתָּהּ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כַּבַּת כֵּן אִמָּהּ, כַּדּוֹר כֵּן נָשִׂיא, כַּמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן כֹּהֲנָיו. הָכָא אָמְרֵי לְפוּם גִּנְּתָא גַּנָּנָא. אָמַר לוֹ רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ עַד כַּדּוּן לָא חֲסֵלִית מִן מְפַיְּסֵיהּ עַל הָדָא וְאַתָּה מַיְיתֵי לָן אוֹחֲרִי, עִקָּרוֹ שֶׁל דָּבָר הִנֵּה כָּל הַמּשֵׁל מַהוּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית תּוֹרְתָא עֲנִישָׁא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ בְּעִיטָא, לֵית אִתְּתָא זָנְיָא עַד דִּבְרַתָּהּ זָנְיָא. אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ אִם כֵּן לֵאָה אִמֵּנוּ זוֹנָה הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהֶם (בראשית ל, טז): וַתֵּצֵא לִקְרָאתוֹ וגו', יָצָאת מְקֻשֶּׁטֶת כְּזוֹנָה, לְפִיכָךְ וַתֵּצֵא דִינָה בַּת לֵאָה. 80.1. וַיִּקְּחוּ שְׁנֵי בְנֵי יַעֲקֹב שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי (בראשית לד, כה), מִמַּשְׁמַע שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, יָדַעְנוּ שֶׁבְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב הֵם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹא נָטְלוּ עֵצָה מִיַּעֲקֹב. שִׁמְעוֹן וְלֵוִי, שֶׁנָטְלוּ עֵצָה זֶה מִזֶּה. אֲחֵי דִינָה, וְכִי אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת כָּל הַשְּׁבָטִים הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנוּ אֵלּוּ נַפְשָׁם עָלֶיהָ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמָם, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמות טו, כ): וַתִּקַּח מִרְיָם הַנְּבִיאָה אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן, וְכִי אֲחוֹת אַהֲרֹן הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא אֲחוֹת שְׁנֵיהֶם הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתַן אַהֲרֹן נַפְשׁוֹ עָלֶיהָ לְפִיכָךְ נִקְרֵאת עַל שְׁמוֹ, וְדִכְוָתָהּ (במדבר כה, יח): וְעַל דְּבַר כָּזְבִּי בַת נְשִׂיא מִדְיָן אֲחֹתָם, וְכִי אֲחוֹתָם הָיְתָה וַהֲלוֹא בַּת אֻמָּתָן הָיְתָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁנָּתְנָה נַפְשָׁהּ עַל אֻמָּתָהּ נִקְרֵאת אֻמָּתָהּ לִשְׁמָהּ. (בראשית לד, כה): אִישׁ חַרְבּוֹ, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיוּ. שְׁמוּאֵל שָׁאַל לְלֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי אָמַר לוֹ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לד, כה): וַיָּבֹאוּ עַל הָעִיר בֶּטַח, אָמַר לוֹ בְּטוּחִים הָיוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן, וְלֹא הָיָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב רוֹצֶה שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ בָנָיו אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר מָה אֲנִי מַנִּיחַ אֶת בָּנַי לִפֹּל בְּיַד אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, מֶה עָשָׂה נָטַל חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ וְעָמַד לוֹ עַל פִּתְחָהּ שֶׁל שְׁכֶם וְאָמַר אִם יָבוֹאוּ אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לְהִזְדַּוֵּג לָהֶם לְבָנַי אֲנִי נִלְחַם כְּנֶגְדָן, הוּא דְּהוּא אוֹמֵר לוֹ לְיוֹסֵף (בראשית מח, כב): וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ שְׁכֶם אַחַד עַל אַחֶיךָ וגו', וְהֵיכָן מָצִינוּ שֶׁנָּטַל אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב חַרְבּוֹ וְקַשְׁתּוֹ בִּשְׁכֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כב): אֲשֶׁר לָקַחְתִּי מִיַּד הָאֱמֹרִי בְּחַרְבִּי וּבְקַשְׁתִּי. (בראשית לד, כו): וְאֶת חֲמוֹר וְאֶת שְׁכֶם בְּנוֹ. 81.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב קוּם עֲלֵה בֵּית אֵל (בראשית לה, א), (משלי ל, לב): אִם נָבַלְתָּ בְהִתְנַשֵֹּׂא וְאִם זַמּוֹתָ יָד לְפֶה, בֶּן עַזַּאי וְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בֶּן עַזַּאי אוֹמֵר אִם נִבַלְתָּ עַצְמְךָ בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה סוֹפְךָ לְהִתְנַשֵֹּׂא בָהֶם, וְאִם זַמּוֹתָ יָד לְפֶה, אִם נִזְדַּמְּמוּ אַחֲרֶיךָ דְּבָרִים יָד לְפֶה, חַד יָדַע תְּרֵין לָא יָדְעִין. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אָמַר מִי גָרַם לְךָ לְהִתְנַבֵּל בְּדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּשֵֹּׂאתָ אֶת עַצְמְךָ בְּהוֹן. רַבֵּינוּ הֲוָה עָבַר עַל סֵימוֹנְיָא וְיָצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי סֵימוֹנְיָא לִקְרָאתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ רַבִּי תֵּן לָנוּ אָדָם אֶחָד שֶׁיְהֵא מַקְרֵא אוֹתָנוּ וְשׁוֹנֶה אוֹתָנוּ וְדָן אֶת דִּינֵנוּ, נָתַן לָהֶם רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּר סִיסִי וְעָשׂוּ לוֹ בִּימָה גְדוֹלָה וְהוֹשִׁיבוּ אוֹתוֹ לְמַעְלָה מִמֶּנָּהּ, נִתְעַלְּמָה דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מִפִּיו, שָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ שְׁלשָׁה שְׁאֵלוֹת, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, גִּדֶּמֶת יְבָמָה הֵיאךְ חוֹלֶצֶת, וְלֹא הֱשִׁיבָן, רָקְקָה דַּם מַהוּ, וְלֹא הֱשִׁיבָן כְּלוּם, אָמְרוּ דִּלְמָא דְּלֵית בַּר אוּלְפַן בַּר אַגָדָה הוּא, נִשְׁאֲלֵיהּ קְרָאֵי, אֲמָרוּן לֵיהּ מַהוּ דֵין דִּכְתִיב (דניאל י, כא): אֶת הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתָב אֱמֶת, אִם אֱמֶת לָמָּה רָשׁוּם וְאִם רָשׁוּם לָמָּה אֱמֶת, וְלֹא הֱשִׁיבָן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שֶׁצָּרָתוֹ צָרָה הִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְהָלַךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל רַבֵּנוּ, אָמַר לֵיהּ מָה עֲבָדוּן לָךְ אַנְשֵׁי סֵימוֹנְיָא, אָמַר לוֹ אַל תַּזְכִּירֵנִי צָרָתִי, שְׁלשָׁה שְׁאֵלוֹת שָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתִי וְלֹא יָכֹלְתִּי לַהֲשִׁיבָן. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אִינוּן, אָמַר לוֹ גִּדֶּמֶת בַּמֶּה הִיא חוֹלֶצֶת, אָמַר לוֹ וְהָא לֹא הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ לְהָשִׁיב, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֵין אֲפִלּוּ בְּשִׁנֶּיהָ אֲפִלּוּ בְּגוּפָהּ. רָקְקָה דַם מַהוּ, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ מַה לְּהָשִׁיב, אָמַר לוֹ אִם הָיָה בּוֹ צַחְצוּחִית שֶׁל רֹק הֲרֵי הוּא כָּשֵׁר וְאִם לָאו הֲרֵי זֶה פָּסוּל. אֲבָל אַגִּיד לְךָ אֶת הָרָשׁוּם בִּכְתַב אֱמֶת, אִם אֱמֶת לָמָּה רָשׁוּם וְאִם רָשׁוּם לָמָּה אֱמֶת, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ לְהָשִׁיב, אָמַר לוֹ רָשׁוּם עַד שֶׁלֹא נִגְזְרָה גְזֵרָה, אֱמֶת מִשֶּׁנִּגְזְרָה גְזֵרָה, וּמָה הוּא, חוֹתָמוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבֵּנוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי רְאוּבֵן אָמַר אֱמֶת, מַהוּ אֱמֶת, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָלֶ"ף בְּרֹאשָׁן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת, מ"ם בָּאֶמְצַע, תי"ו בַּסּוֹף, וְעַל שֵׁם (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וגו'. אָמַר לוֹ וְלָמָּה לֹא הֲשִׁיבוֹתָ אוֹתָן כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהֲשִׁיבוֹתָ אוֹתִי, אָמַר לֵיהּ עָשׂוּ לִי בִּימָה גְדוֹלָה וְהוֹשִׁיבוּ אוֹתִי עָלֶיהָ לְמַעְלָה הֵימֶנָּהּ, וּטְפַת רוּחִי עָלַי וְנִתְעַלְּמוּ מִמֶּנִּי דִבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְקָרָא עָלָיו הַמִּקְרָא הַזֶּה: אִם נָבַלְתָּ בְהִתְנַשֵֹּׂא. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אִם חָשַׁבְתָּ בְּלִבְּךָ דְּבַר מִצְוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת וְלֹא עָשִׂיתָ נוֹחַ לְךָ לִתֵּן זָמָם עַל פִּיךָ וְלֹא לִפְסֹק. אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן מַה יָּדְךָ סְמוּכָה לְפִיךָ כֵּן יִהְיֶה נִדְרְךָ סָמוּךְ לְפִיךָ. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה יָּדְךָ קֹדֶם לְפִיךָ כֵּן יִהְיֶה נִדְרְךָ קֹדֶם לְפִיךָ. תֵּדַע לְךָ שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁהֲרֵי אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב עַל יְדֵי שֶׁאִחֵר נִדְרוֹ נִתְבַּקְּרָה פִּנְקָסוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל יַעֲקֹב קוּם עֲלֵה בֵּית אֵל וְשֶׁב שָׁם וַעֲשֵׂה שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בִּשְׁעַת עָקְתָא נִדְרָא בִּשְׁעַת רַוְחָא שִׁטְפָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מְהוּלְתָךְ חַרְשָׁה אַקֵּשׁ עֲלָהּ. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, יַעֲקֹב, שָׁכַחְתָּ נִדְרְךָ, קוּם עֲלֵה בֵית אֵל, לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אֵל, וַעֲשֵׂה שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ לָאֵל הַנִּרְאֶה אֵלֶיךָ, וְאִם אֵין אַתְּ עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן הֲרֵי אַתְּ כְּעֵשָׂו, מַה עֵשָׂו נוֹדֵר וְאֵינוֹ מְקַיֵּם אַף אַתְּ נוֹדֵר וְאֵינְךָ מְקַיֵּם. 87.7. וַיְהִי כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וַיָּבֹא וגו' וְאֵין אִישׁ מֵאַנְשֵׁי הַבַּיִת (בראשית לט, יא), אֶפְשָׁר בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ מִשְׁתַּיֵּר בְּלֹא אִישׁ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר יוֹם נִבּוּל שֶׁל נִילוּס הָיָה וְהָלְכוּ הַכֹּל לִרְאוֹת וְהוּא לֹא הָלַךְ. וְרַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר יוֹם תֵּיאַטִּירוֹן הָיָה, וְהָלְכוּ הַכֹּל לִרְאוֹתוֹ, וְהוּא לֹא הָלַךְ, אֶלָּא וַיָּבֹא הַבַּיְתָה לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ, לַחְשֹׁב חֶשְׁבּוֹנוֹת שֶׁל רַבּוֹ. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלַאכְתּוֹ וַדַּאי, אֶלָּא וְאֵין אִישׁ, בָּדַק אֶת עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא מָצָא עַצְמוֹ אִישׁ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר נִמְתְּחָה הַקֶּשֶׁת וְחָזְרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית מט, כד): וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּאֵיתָן קַשְׁתּוֹ, קַשְׁיוּתוֹ. רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר נִתְפַּזֵּר זַרְעוֹ וְיָצָא דֶּרֶךְ צִפָּרְנָיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מט, כד): וַיָּפֹזּוּ זְרֹעֵי יָדָיו. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מַתְנָא אָמַר אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל אָבִיו רָאָה וְצָנַן דָּמוֹ, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית מט, כד): מִשָּׁם רֹעֶה אֶבֶן יִשְׂרָאֵל, מִי עָשָׂה כֵן, (בראשית מט, כה): מֵאֵל אָבִיךָ וְיַעַזְרֶךָּ וגו' בִּרְכֹת שָׁדַיִם וָרָחַם, בִּרְכָתָא דַּאֲבוּךְ וּדְאִמָּךְ. 8.1. "... Said R’ Yirmiyah ben Elazar: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created him [as] an androgyne/androginos, as it is said, “male and female He created them”. Said R’ Shmuel bar Nachmani: In the hour when the Holy One created the first human, He created [for] him a double-face/di-prosopon/ du-par’tsufin, and sawed him and made him backs, a back here and a back [t]here, as it is said, “Back/achor and before/qedem You formed me” [Ps 139:5]. They objected to him: But it says, “He took one of his ribs/ts’la`ot . . . ” [Gn 2:21]! He said to them: [It means] “[one] of his sides/sit’rohi”, just as you would say, “And for the side/tsela` of the Tabernacle/ mishkan” [Ex 26:20], which they translate [in Aramaic] “for the side/seter”. R’ Tanchuma in the name of R’ Banayah and R’ B’rakhyah in the name of R’ Elazar said: In the time that the Holy One created Adam Harishon, [as] a golem He created him and he was set up from [one] end of the world and unto its [other] end – that’s what is written: “Your eyes saw my golem” [Ps 139:16]. R’ Yehoshua bar Nechemyah and R’ Yehudah bar Simon in R’ Elazar’s name said: He created him filling the whole world. From where [do we know he extended] from the East to West? That it’s said: “Back/achor (i.e., after, the place of sunset) and before/East/qedem You formed/enclosed me /tsartani” [Ps 139:5]. From where [that he went] from North to South? That it’s said: “and from the edge of the heavens and until the edge of the heavens” [Dt 4:32]. And from where [that he filled] even the world’s hollow-space? That it’s said: “. . . and You laid Your palm upon me” [Ps 139:5]...", 8.9. "... [R’ Simlai] said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence).", 22.6. "'And Ad-nai paid heed to Hevel and his offering' (Gen. 4:4) - He was pacified because of him. 'And to Kayin and his offering He did not pay heed' - He was not pacified because of him. 'And Kayin was very angry, and his face fell' (Gen. 4:5) - his face became dark/repulsive/like fire. 'And Ad-nai said to Kayin: why are you so angry, and why is your face fallen? (Gen. 4:7) is it not that, when you do good, you rise up [se'et] ? [this is] blessing, just as you say 'and Aharon lift [vayisa'] up his hands to the people and blessed them' (Lev. 9:22). 'And if you don't do good, lift' [this is] curse, as it is written 'and cause them to carry [lift on shoulders] the iniquity of guilt' (Lev. 22:16). Another interpretation: if you do goof I forgive all your sins, and if not, the sin of that same man is heaped to excess. Rabbi Berachia in the name of Rabbi Shime'on the son of Ami said: of David, a maskil, happy is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is pardoned.' (Ps. 22:1) - Happy is the person who is higher/greater from his sin, and whose sin is not higher/greater than him,as it says 'sin crouches at the door'. It is not written here 'she crouches' [chatat is feminine] but 'he crouches' - in the beginning the sin is weak like a lady, and after it strengthens as a male. Said rabbi Akiva: in the beginning it looks like a thread of a spider, and at the end it becomes like the rope of a boat, since it is written: 'Oy to those who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and as the ropes of a cart, sin' (Isaiah 5:18). Said Rabbi Itzchak: at first it makes itself a guest, and later becomes the master of the house, since it is written: '[And there came a traveler to the rich man] and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man' - here is the guest - 'that had come to him, but took the poor man's lamb, and dressed it for the man that had come to him. '(II Sam. 12:4) - this is the master of the house. Rabbi Tanchum bar Merion said: there are dogs in Rome that know how to insinuate themselves, [the dog] goes and sits in front of a shop, and he pretends to take a nap, and the shopkeeper takes a nap, and the dog lets a bread roll fall near the ground, and and as onlookers are collecting [the scattered pile] the dog gets a bread roll for himself. Said Rabbi Aba: this impulse is similar to robbers, [such as] a person bent over, who was sitting at crossroads who would say to to everyone who passed 'give me what you have!' A smart one passed and saw that there was nothing he could do to rob him, and began to hit him. So too, the impulse for evil [yetzer hara] destroyed a few generations, the generation of Enosh, and the generation of the tower [dor haplagah] and the generation of the flood, when Avraham Avinu stood up and saw that [the yetzer hara] had nothing, began hitting him, since it is written 'And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, and smite them that hate him.' (Ps. 89:24). Said Rabbi Ami: The yetzer hara does not walk by the sides, rather, he walks by the middle of the square, and the moment he sees a man rolling his eyes, fixing his hair, and lifting his heel, he says: 'this one is mine!' What is the reason? 'Do you see a man wise in his own eyes? Sin has hope in him' (Prov. 26:12). Said Rabbi Avin: whoever indulges his yetzer [impulse to evil] in his youth, his end will be to be to managed by him. Rabbi Chanina bar Papa said: if your yetzer came to tempt you [lit. to make you desire] send him away with words of Torah, if you do so I rise you up as if you created peace itself, as it says: 'The yetzer near you, go out in battle of perfect peace [shalom shalom]' (Isaiah 26:3) if you do so I rise you up as if you created peace itself since not only peace is written here, but peace, peace. And if you say that it is not in your power to do so, the text says: 'because in you/You He/he trusts' (Isaiah 26:3). And I already told [lit. honored] you through Torah, 'Its urge is toward you, yet you can be its master.' (Gen. 4:7)", 33.3. " b God is good to all and His mercies are upon all of His works (Psalms 145:9): /b Rabbi Levi said, \"'God is good to all,' upon all, that He is their maker.\" Rabbi Shmuel said, \"'God is good to all and His mercies' - upon all that are His traits, He has mercy.” Rabbi Yehoshua of Sakhnin said in the name of Rabbi Levi, \"'God is good to all' and His merciful ones He give to His creatures.\" Rabbi Tanchuma and Rabbi Abba bar Avin [said] in the name of Rav Acha, “Tomorrow a famine will arrive and the creatures will have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on them.” In the days of Rabbi Tanchuma, Israel required a fast (to bring about rain). They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma and] said to him, “Rabbi, decree a fast.” [So] he decreed a fast on the first day, on the second day, on the third day and rain did not fall. He got up and expounded to them. He said to them, \"My children, have mercy, these upon those, and the Holy One, blessed be He, will be filled with mercy on you.\" While they were still distributing charity to the poor, they saw a man giving money to his ex-wife. They came to [Rabbi Tanchuma] and said to him, \"Rabbi, how are we sitting here [while] there is a sin here.\" He said [back] to them, \"What did you see?\" They said to him, \"We saw Mr. x give money to his ex-wife.\" They sent for them and they brought them in front of the community. [Rabbi Tanchuma] said to him, \"What is she to you?\" He said [back] to him, \"She is my ex-wife.\" He said to him, \"Why did you give her money?\" He said to him, \"Rabbi, I saw her in distress and I was filled with mercy on her.\" At that time, Rabbi Tanchuma lifted his head towards above and said, \"Master over the worlds, just like this one that does not have an obligation to sustain [her] saw her in distress and he was filled with mercy for her, all the more so, You, that it is written about You, 'Compassionate and Merciful' and we are the children of Your friends, Avraham, Yitschak and Yaakov, will You be filled with mercy on us.\" Immediately, rains fell and the world was irrigated. Our rabbi (Yehuda Hanassi) was sitting, involved in Torah in front of the synagogue of the Babylonian [Jews] in Tzippori [when] a calf passed in front of him [and] was going to be slaughtered and started to yell out as if to say, \"Save me.\" He said to it, \"And what can I do for you? That is what you were created for.\" [As a result, Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi] had toothaches for thirteen years. Rabbi Yoss bar Avin said, \"[During] those entire thirteen years that [he] had toothaches, no pregt woman had a miscarriage in the Land of Israel and no birthing mother had pain. After some time, a crawling animal passed in front of his daughter and she wanted to kill it. He said to her, \"My daughter, let it go, as it is written, \"and His mercies are upon all of his works.\" Our rabbi had great modesty and said, \"I will do anything that people tell me except what the sons of Batira did to my forefather - that they came down from their greatness (office) and brought him up; and [even] if Rabbi Huna, the Exilarch, came here, I would get up in front of him. Why? As he is from [the tribe of] Yehuda and I am from Binyamin, and he is from the males of Yehuda and I am from the females.\" Rabbi Chiya the Great said to him, \"And behold, he is [waiting] outside.\" [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi]'s face changed colors. And when he saw that his face changed colors, [Rabbi Chiya] said to him, \"It is [Rabbi Huna]'s coffin.\" He said [back] to [Rabbi Chiya], \"Go out and see who needs you outside.\" He went out and did not find a person and he knew that he was excommunicated - and there is no excommunication less than thirty days. Rabbi Yossi bar Avin said, \"[During] the entire thirty days that Rabbi Chiya the Great was excommunicated from our rabbi, he taught Rav, the son of his sister, the principles of the Torah.\" And what are the principles of the Torah? They are the laws of the Babylonians. At the end of thirty days, Eliyahu - may he be remembered for good - came in the likeness of Rabbi Chiya the Great to our rabbi and put his hand on his teeth and he became healed. When Rabbi Chiya the Great came to our rabbi, he said to him, \"What did you do to your teeth?\" He said [back] to him, \"From the time that you put your hand on them, they became better. He said, \"I do not know what this is.\" When he heard this, he began to treat him with respect and he brought close the students and brought up [Rabbi Chiya] to the top. Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose said, \"And [should he] come closer than I?\" He said [back] to him, \"God forbid, such should not be done in Israel.\" Our rabbi was teaching the praises of Rabbi Chiya the Great in front of Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose - he said, \"He is a great man, he is a holy man.\" One time, [Rabbi Yishmael bar Yose] saw [Rabbi Chiya] in the bathhouse and [the latter] did not humble himself before him. He said to [Rabbi Yehuda Hanassi], \"Is this your student that you have been praising? I saw him in the bathhouse and he did not humble himself before me.\" He said to him, \"Why did you not humble yourself before him?\" Rabbi Chiya said [back], I was looking at the homilies (aggadot) of Psalms.\" Once [Rabbi Yehudah Hanassi] heard this, he gave him two students to go with him to the dark places, that he not get confounded and lose himself. Another explanation: \"God is good to all, etc.\" \"And God remembered Noach, etc.\" - Rabbi Shmuel bar Nachmani said, \"Woe to the evildoers who switch the [Divine] trait of mercy to the [Divine] trait of [strict] justice. In every place that it states 'the Lord,' it is the trait of mercy: 'The Lord, the Lord, merciful and compassionate God' (Exodus 34:6). And [yet] it is written (Genesis 6:5-6), 'And the Lord saw that the evil of man on the earth was very great[...] And the Lord regretted that He had made man on the earth, and the Lord said, \"I will erase, etc.\"' Happy are the righteous who switch the trait of [Divine] justice to the [divine] trait of mercy. In every place that it states ' i Elohim /i ,' it is the trait of mercy: 'Judges ( i Elohim /i ) you shall not curse' (Exodus 22:27); 'to the judges ( i elohim /i ) the matter of both of them will come' (Exodus 22:8). And [yet] it is written (Exodus 2:24), 'And God heard their cries and God remembered His covet'; '(Genesis 30:22), 'And God remembered Rachel'; 'And God remembered Noach.' And what memory did He remember for him? That he fed and sustained them all of the twelve months in the ark.\" \"And God remembered Noach\" - and justice requires it, from the merit of the pure ones that he brought with him into the ark. Rabbi Eliezer says, \"[Noach] was named corresponding to his sacrifice, as it states, 'And the Lord smelled the pleasant ( i nichoach /i ) fragrance.'\" Rabbi Yose bar Chaninah [says], \"He was named corresponding to the resting of the ark, as it states, 'And the ark rested ( i tanach /i ) on the seventh month, etc.'\" Rabbi Yehoshua says, \"'Will not cease' (Genesis 8:22) implies that they ceased.\"", 34.10. "And Ad-nai said to his heart (Gen. 8:21) - The wicked are under control of their heart: 'The fool has said in his heart' (Ps. 14:1); 'And Esav said in his heart' (Gen.27:41); 'And Yerovoam said in his heart' (I Kings 12:25); 'Now Haman said in his heart' (Est. 6:6). But the righteous have their hearts under their control since it is written 'Now Hannah, she spoke at her heart' (I Sam. 1:13); 'And David said to his heart' (I Sam. 27:1); 'But Daniel put to his heart' (Dan. 1:8); [so too] 'And the Lord said to his heart: I will not again/add curse to the ground' (Gen. 8:21): He did not add to it, and let that indeed suffice. The Rabbis interpreted: I will not add [curse] to the children of Noah; I will not add [curse] to future generations. 'Because the devisings of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil'. Rabbi Hiyya the Elder said: How terrible must be the dough when the baker himself testifies it to be bad! 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth' Abba Jose the potter said: How terrible must be the leaven when he who created it testifies that it is bad, as it is written 'For He knows our inclinations, it is remembered that we are dust' (Ps. 103:14). The Rabbis said: How terrible must be the plant when the planter himself testifies that it is bad as it is written 'For the Lord of hosts, that planted you, has spoken evil of you (Jer. 1:17). Antoninus asked our teacher: ‘When is the evil inclination placed in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ ‘Before one comes out of the womb of one's mother’ he replied. [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be, if [the yetzer] is put before one comes out from the womb, one would dig through the womb and emerge! Rabbi agreed with him, because his view corresponds with that of Scripture: 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth [mine'urav]'. Rabbi Yudan said: This is written mine'urav (from his awakening), which means, from when he awakes [nin'ar] to the world. Antoninus asked our Teacher further: “When is the soul [neshama] put in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ He answered: ‘When one comes out of the womb of one's mother.’ [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be! This is comparable to meat left without salt for three days - will it not putrefy?' Our Teacher agreed with him, for Scripture supports him: 'You bestowed on me life and care; Your providence watched over my spirit[ruach].' (Job 10:12) - hence, when did You place the spirit in me? When You gave me Your providence.", 56.2. "He then said to him [Itzchak]: ‘Itzchak, my son do you what I see?’ ‘Yes,’ he replied. He said to his two servants: ‘Do you see what I see?’ ‘No,’ they answered. ‘Since you do not see it, “stay here with the donkey,” (Gen. 22:5), he bade them, because you are like the donkey, it follows that slaves are like cattle. The Rabbis proved [it from this verse spoken at] the Revelation: Six days you shall labor, and do all your work … you, nor your daughter, nor your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle (Ex. 20:10). R. Itzchak said: This place shall one day be alienated from its Owner. For ever? [No], for it is stated, “This is My resting-place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Ps. 132:14) — when he comes of whom it is written, “Lowly, and riding upon a donkey” (Zech. 1:9). “And I and the lad will go just there” — Ad Koh. Said R. Joshua b. Levi: We will go and see what is to be the eventual outcome of Koh. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” He informed him [through these words] that he [Itzchak] would return safely from Mount Moriah. R. Itzchak said: Everything happened as a reward for worshipping. Abraham returned in peace from Mount Moriah only as a reward for worshipping. “And we will worship, and we will come back to you.” Israel were redeemed only as a reward for worshipping: “And the people believed … then they bowed their heads and worshipped” (Ex. 4:31). The Torah was given only as a reward for worshipping: “And worship y’all afar off” (Ex. 24:1). Hannah was remembered only as a reward for worshipping: “And they worshipped before the Lord” (I Sam. 1:19). The exiles will be reassembled only as a reward for worshipping: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great horn shall be blown; and they shall come that were lost … and that were dispersed … and they shall worship Ad-nai in the holy mountain at Jerusalem” (Isa. 27:13). The Temple was built only as a reward for worshipping: “Exalt y’all Ad-nai our God, and worship at His holy mountain” (Ps. 99:9). The dead will come to life again only as a reward for worshipping: “O come, let us worship and bend the knee; let us kneel before Ad-nai our Maker (Ps 95:6).", 56.6. "And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife (Gen. 22:10). Rav asked R. Hiyya the Elder: How do we know that ritual slaughtering must be with a movable object? From here: \"And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife\" — he said: if he told you this from a Haggadah, he might retract; and if he stated it as a tradition, he cannot not retract from it, since Levi taught: If they [sharp flints] were attached [to the ground or rocks] from the very beginning, they are unfit; but if they had been originally detached but subsequently fixed in the ground, they are fit, since we learned: \"If one slaughters with a hand-sickle, a harvest sickle, a flint, or a reed, the slaughtering is fit.\" Said Rabbi Yosei: Five things were said of a reed stalk: You may not slaughter, circumcise, cut meat, wipe your hands, nor pick your teeth with it, because an evil spirit rests upon it.", 63.8. "“And her days to give birth were completed…” (Genesis 25:24) Below they were lacking, here they were full. Below where the word twins is written full, with the letter aleph, Peretz and Zerach were both righteous. Here it is written without an aleph, Yaakov was righteous and Esau was wicked. “And the first one emerged ruddy…” (Genesis 25:25) R’ Chaggai said in the name of R’ Yitzchak: in the merit of “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day…” (Leviticus 23:40) I will be revealed to you first, as it says “I am first and I am last” (Isaiah 44:6) and I will exact retribution on your behalf from the first who is Esau, as it is written “And the first one emerged” and I will build the first for you, which is the Holy Temple of which it is written “As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning…” (Jeremiah 17:12) and I will bring for you the first who is the King Messiah of whom it is written “The first one to Zion, behold, behold them…” (Isaiah 41:27)", 67.3. "Rabbi Isaac said: He [Isaac] was going to curse him [Jacob], but the Holy One, blessed be He, cautioned: \"Beware, for if you curse him, you curse your own soul, for you said: 'Cursed be they who curse you' (Genesis 27:29).\" Rabbi Levi said: six things serve a human - three are under one's control, and three are not under one's control. The eye, the ear and the nose are not under one's control, as one sees what is not wished for, one hears what is not desired, and one smells what is not wanted. The mouth, the hand, and the foot are under one's control. If one wishes to, one studies Torah, while if one wants to one speaks badly, and if one wants to one blasphemes and reviles. Regarding the hand, if one wishes one can offer charity, while if one wants one can rob, and if one desires one can murder. Regarding the feet, if one wishes one can go to the houses of theatre and the houses of circus, while if one wants one can go to the houses of assembly [synagogues] and the houses of study. And in the moment that one merits, the Holy One, blessed be He, makes those which one usually controls, no longer in one's control. The hand: \"but the hand that [Jeroboam] stretched out against him withered\" (Kings 13:4); The mouth: \"now he [Jacob] must remain blessed\" (Genesis 27:33); The foot: \"My son, do not set out with them...for their feet run to evil\" (Proverbs 1:15-6). ", 87.7. "\"One such day, he [Yosef] came into the house to do his work and none of the men of the household were there\" (Genesis 39:11). Is it possible that in the house of such a man it was deserted with no man there? Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Nechemyah [explain this]. Rabbi Yehuda says, it was a Nile festival and all had gone to see it, and he did not go. Rabbi Nechemyah says, it was a day of the theatre [ i teiatiron /i ] and all had gone to see it, and he did not go. Rather, \"he came into the house to do his work\", to calculate his master's calculations. Rabbi Shmuel son of Nachman says, \"to do his work literally\", except there was no man there -- he searched himself, and he did not find himself to be a man. Another explanation, Rabbi Shmuel says, the bow is stretched and returned. For is it not written: (Genesis 49:24) \"Yet his bow [קשתו] remained taut\" -- his hardness [קשיותו]. Rabbi Yitzchak says, his seed [זרע] was scattered and went out by way of his fingernails, as it says (Genesis 49:24) \"and the arms of his hands [זרעי ידיו] were made firm\". Rav Huna in the name of Rabbi Matna says, images of his father appeared and chilled his blood, as it is written (Genesis 49:24) \"From there, the Shepherd, the Rock of Yisrael\". Who does such? (Genesis 49:25) \"The God of your father who helps you [...] blessings of breast and womb\" -- (Onkelos Genesis 49:25) \"blessings of father and mother.\"",
167. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 15.9, 20.2, 22.3, 23.4, 26.1, 29.2, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 42, 132, 174, 214; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 794, 795; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 244
15.9. שְׂאֵת זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שׁוּם (ישעיה יד, ד): וְנָשָׂאתָ הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאָמָרְתָּ אֵיךְ שָׁבַת נֹגֵשׂ שָׁבְתָה מַדְהֵבָה, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר שָׁבְתָה מַדְהֵבָה, מַלְכוּת שֶׁהִיא אוֹמֶרֶת מְדֹד וְהָבֵא. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר מַלְכוּת שֶׁהִיא מַדְהֶבֶת פָּנִים שֶׁל אָדָם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּא אֶצְלָהּ. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עַל שׁוּם רֵישֵׁיהּ דִּדְהַב (דניאל ב, לח): אַנְתְּ הוּא רֵאשָׁה דִּי דַהֲבָא. סַפַּחַת זוֹ מָדַי שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁשָּׁף כְּנָחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. בַּהֶרֶת זוֹ יָוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה מַבְהֶרֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶן כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. נֶגַע צָרַעַת זוֹ אֱדוֹם, שֶׁבָּאתָה מִכֹּחָהּ שֶׁל זָקֵן. (ויקרא יג, ב): וְהָיָה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה הַכֹּהֵן רוֹאֶה אֶת הַנְּגָעִים, אֲבָל לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי מְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל לו, כה): וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם. 20.2. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אַחֲרֵי מוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי פָּתַח (תהלים עה, ה): אָמַרְתִּי לַהוֹלְלִים אַל תָּהוֹלוּ, לַהוֹלְלִים, לִמְעַרְבְּבַיָּא, אֵלּוּ שֶׁלִּבָּם מָלֵא עֲלֵיהֶם חַלְחוֹלִיּוֹת רָעוֹת, רַבִּי לֵוִי הֲוָה צָוַח לְהוֹן אַלְלַיָיא, שֶׁמְבִיאִין אַלְלַי לָעוֹלָם. (תהלים עה, ה): וְלָרְשָׁעִים אַל תָּרִימוּ קָרֶן, אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לָרְשָׁעִים, הַצַּדִּיקִים לֹא שָׂמְחוּ בְּעוֹלָמִי וְאַתֶּם מְבַקְּשִׁין לִשְׂמֹחַ. רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן מְנַסְיָא אָמַר תַּפּוּחַ עֲקֵבוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן הָיָה מַכְּהֶה גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, קְלַסְתֵּר פָּנָיו עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, וְאַל תִּתְמַהּ, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם אָדָם עוֹשֶׂה דִיסְקָרִי, אֶחָד לוֹ וְאֶחָד לְבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁל מִי עוֹשֶׂה נָאֶה לֹא אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ, כָּךְ אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִבְרָא לְתַשְׁמִישׁ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְגַלְגַּל חַמָּה לְתַשְׁמִישָׁן שֶׁל בְּרִיּוֹת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר חֲנִינָא, שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה חֻפּוֹת קָשַׁר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּגַן עֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כח, יג): בְּעֵדֶן גַּן אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיַהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר חַד עֲשַׂר, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עֲשַׂר, וְלָא פְּלִיגֵי מַאן דַעֲבַד לְהוֹן תְּלַת עֲשַׂר עָבֵיד כָּל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ תְּלַת, מַאן דַּעֲבַד לְהוֹן חַד סַר, עֲבֵיד לְהוּ חָדָא, מַאן דַעֲבַד לְהוֹן עֲשָׂרָה לָא עֲבֵיד חַד מִנְהוֹן, וְאַחַר כָּל הַשֶּׁבַח הַזֶּה (בראשית ג, יט): כִּי עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל עָפָר תָּשׁוּב. אַבְרָהָם לֹא שָׂמַח בְּעוֹלָמִי וְאַתֶּם מְבַקְּשִׁים לִשְמֹחַ. נוֹלַד לוֹ בֵּן לְמֵאָה שָׁנָה וּבַסּוֹף אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (בראשית כב, ב): קַח נָא אֶת בִּנְךָ, וְהָלַךְ אַבְרָהָם מַהֲלַךְ שְׁלשֶׁת יָמִים, לְאַחַר שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים רָאָה עָנָן קָשׁוּר עַל גַּב הָהָר, אָמַר לוֹ בְּנִי רוֹאֶה אַתָּה מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמַר לֵיהּ הֵן, מָה אַתָּה רוֹאֶה אָמַר לֵיהּ עָנָן קָשׁוּר עַל גַּב הָהָר אֲנִי רוֹאֶה, אָמַר לְיִשְׁמָעֵאל וְלֶאֱלִיעֶזֶר רוֹאִים אַתֶּם כְּלוּם, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ לָאו, אָמַר לָהֶם הוֹאִיל וְאֵינְכֶם רוֹאִים כְּלוּם וַחֲמוֹר זֶה אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה (בראשית כב, ה): שְׁבוּ לָכֶם פֹּה עִם הַחֲמוֹר, עַם הַדּוֹמִים לַחֲמוֹר. נָטַל אֶת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ וְהֶעֱלָהוּ הָרִים וְהוֹרִידוֹ גְּבָעוֹת, הֶעֱלָהוּ עַל אֶחָד מִן הֶהָרִים וּבָנָה מִזְבֵּחַ וְסִדֵּר עֵצִים וְעָרַךְ מַעֲרָכָה וְנָטַל אֶת הַסַּכִּין לְשָׁחֲטוֹ, וְאִלּוּלֵי שֶׁקְּרָאוֹ מַלְאָךְ מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם כְּבָר הָיָה נִשְׁחָט. תֵּדַע שֶׁכֵּן, שֶׁחָזַר יִצְחָק אֵצֶל אִמּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה לוֹ אָן הָיִיתָ בְּרִי, אָמַר לָהּ נְטָלַנִּי אָבִי וְהֶעֱלַנִי הָרִים וְהוֹרִידַנִּי גְבָעוֹת וכו', אָמְרָה וַוי עַל בְּרִי דְרֵיוָתָא, אִלּוּלֵי הַמַּלְאָךְ כְּבָר הָיִיתָ שָׁחוּט, אָמַר לָהּ אִין. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה צָוְחָה שִׁשָּׁה קוֹלוֹת כְּנֶגֶד שִׁשָּׁה תְּקִיעוֹת, אָמְרוּ לֹא הִסְפִּיקָה אֶת הַדָּבָר עַד שֶׁמֵּתָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית כג, ב): וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ, וּמֵהֵיכָן בָּא, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר מֵהַר הַמּוֹרִיָה בָּא, וְהָיָה אַבְרָהָם מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאוֹמֵר שֶׁמָּא חַס וְשָׁלוֹם נִמְצָא בּוֹ פְּסוּל וְלֹא נִתְקַבֵּל קָרְבָּנוֹ, יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאוֹמֶרֶת לוֹ (קהלת ט, ז): לֵךְ אֱכֹל בְּשִׂמְחָה לַחְמֶךָ. יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא שָׂמְחוּ בְּעוֹלָמִי, שָׂמַח יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֹשָׂיו אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר אֶלָּא (תהלים קמט, ב): יִשְׂמַח, עֲתִידִין הֵן לִשְׂמֹחַ בְּמַעֲשָׂיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. כִּבְיָכוֹל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא שָׂמַח בְּעוֹלָמוֹ, שָׂמַח ה' בְּמַעֲשָׂיו אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר, אֶלָּא (תהלים קד, לא): יִשְׂמַח, עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִשְׂמֹחַ בְּמַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. אֱלִישֶׁבַע בַּת עֲמִינָדָב לֹא שָׂמְחָה בָּעוֹלָם, שֶׁרָאֲתָה חֲמִשָּׁה כְּתָרִים בְּיוֹם אֶחָד, יְבָמָהּ מֶלֶךְ, אָחִיהָ נָשִׂיא, בַּעֲלָהּ כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, שְׁנֵי בָּנֶיהָ שְׁנֵי סְגָנֵי כְּהֻנָּה, פִּנְחָס בֶּן בְּנָהּ מְשׁוּחַ מִלְחָמָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ בָּנֶיהָ לְהַקְרִיב וְנִשְׂרְפוּ, נֶהְפְּכָה שִׂמְחָתָהּ לְאֵבֶל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אַחֲרֵי מוֹת שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן. 22.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַנְּבִיאִים אִם אֵין אַתֶּם עוֹשִׂין שְׁלִיחוּתִי יֵשׁ לִי שְׁלוּחִין, הֱוֵי: וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ וגו', בַּכֹּל אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתִי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בַּכֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָחָשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵּעַ וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי עַקְרָב וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יַתּוּשׁ, טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס לְבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְיָדוֹ וְגִדֵּר אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת, וְנָטַל שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וְהִצִּיעַ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶן וּבְעָלָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְיָצְאָה חַרְבּוֹ מְלֵאָה דָּם. מַאן דְּאָמַר מִדַּם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר מִן דַם פָּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. הִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה, אָמַר לָא דָמֵי הַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בַּמִּדְבָּר וְנָצַח לֵיהּ, לְהַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בְּגוֹ פָּלָטִין דִּידֵיהּ וְנָצַח לֵיהּ. מֶה עָשָׂה כִּנֵּס כָּל כְּלֵי בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנָתַן לְתוֹךְ גַּרְגּוּתְנִי אַחַת וְיָרַד לוֹ לַסְּפִינָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד מָחָא נַחְשׁוֹלָא בְּיַמָּא, אָמַר דּוֹמֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אֱלוֹהַּ זֶה אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶם אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, וְכֵן דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, וְכֵן פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ, אַף אֲנִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיִיתִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּבִרְשׁוּתוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בִּי וְעַכְשָׁיו לְכָאן קְדָמָנִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רָשָׁע, חַיֶּיךָ בִּבְרִיָה פְּחוּתָה מִמַּה שֶּׁבָּרָאתִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית אֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ מִמְךָ, מִיָּד רָמַז הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַיָּם וְעָמַד מִזַעְפּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְרוֹמִי יָצְאוּ כָּל בְּנֵי רוֹמִי וְקִלְסוּהוּ, נְקִיטָא בַּרְבָּרַיָיא, מִיָּד הֵסִיקוּ לוֹ אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ וְנִכְנַס וְרָחַץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא מָזְגוּ לוֹ כַּסָּא דְחַמְרָא וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד וְנִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ חָטְמוֹ, וְהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְמֹחוֹ, הִתְחִיל מְנַקֵּר אֶת מֹחוֹ, אָמַר קִרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וִיפַצְעוּ מֹחוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וּדְעוּ בַּמֶּה אֱלוֹהַּ שֶׁל אֻמָּה זוֹ נִפְרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ, מִיָּד קָרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וּפָצְעוּ אֶת מֹחוֹ וּמָצְאוּ בוֹ כְּמוֹ גּוֹזָל בֶּן יוֹנָה, וְהָיָה בּוֹ מִשְׁקַל שְׁתֵּי לִטְרָאוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַַבִּי יוֹסֵי תַּמָּן הֲוֵינָא וְיַהֲבִין גּוֹזָלָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתַרְתֵּין לִיטְרַיָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתָקַל חַד כָּל קֳבֵל חַד, וּנְטָלוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּתוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחַת, כָּל מַאן דַּהֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי הֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי, פָרַח יַתּוּשָׁא פָּרַח נִשְׁמָתָא דְּטִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע. 23.4. רַב חָנָן דְּצִפּוֹרִי פָּתַר קְרָיָא בִּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הֶאָבֵל וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְתֹּחַ אֶת פִּיו וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ פִּיו וּמְבָרֵךְ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע וְלַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹדֵעַ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם, אָמְרִין דֵּין הוּא רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, דֵּין הוּא דְּאַתּוּן מִתְגַּלְגְּלִין בֵּיהּ, עַל מַגָּן צָוְוחִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי. נִתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָנָיו וְהָלַךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא רַבּוֹ, אָמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, תָּנֵי לֵיהּ עוֹבָדָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ צָבֵי מָרִי דְּיֵלִיף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, אִלְפֵיהּ. לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אָזַל לְהַהוּא אַתְרָא, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, פָּרַס. עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, עָבַר. אָמְרִין אִתְחַסַּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, וְקוֹרִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא. רַבִּי יוֹנָה הֲוָה מַלֵּיף לְתַלְמִידוֹי בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, אֲמַר יֶהֱווֹן גַּבְרִין בְּכָל מִלָּה. 26.1. אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן (ויקרא כא, א), רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בְּרַבִּי חֲנִילָאי פָּתַח (תהלים יב, ז): אִמְרוֹת ה' אֲמָרוֹת טְהֹרוֹת, אִמְרוֹת ה' אֲמָרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת אִמְרוֹת בָּשָׂר וָדָם אֵינָן אֲמָרוֹת טְהוֹרוֹת, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם נִכְנַס לִמְדִינָה כָּל בְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה מְקַלְּסִין אוֹתוֹ וְעָרַב לוֹ קִלּוּסָן, אָמַר לָהֶם לְמָחָר אֲנִי בּוֹנֶה לָכֶם דִּימוֹסִיאוֹת וּמֶרְחֲצָאוֹת, לְמָחָר אֲנִי מַכְנִיס לָכֶם אַמָּה שֶׁל מַיִם, יָשַׁן לוֹ וְלֹא עָמַד, הֵיכָן הוּא וְהֵיכָן אִמְרוֹתָיו, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֶלָּא (ירמיה י, י): וַה' אֱלֹהִים אֱמֶת, לָמָּה הוּא אֱמֶת אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין (ירמיה י, י): שֶׁהוּא אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים וּמֶלֶךְ עוֹלָם, אֲמָרוֹת טְהֹרוֹת רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, וְרַבִּי יַעֲקֹב דִּכְפַר חָנִין, וְאָמְרִין לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי, מָצִינוּ שֶׁעִקֵּם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁמוֹנֶה אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא הוֹצִיא דָּבָר מְגֻנֶּה מִפִּיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ז, ח): מִן הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּמִן הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנָּה טְהֹרָה, וּבְמָקוֹם אַחֵר עִקֵּם שְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ תֵּבוֹת בַּתּוֹרָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹצִיא דָּבָר שֶׁל טֻמְאָה מִתּוֹךְ פִּיו, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ז, ב): מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא טְהֹרָה, [הטמאה] [אשר טמאה היא] אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר לֹא טְהֹרָה הִוא, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן בֶּן מְנַשֶּׁה אַף כְּשֶׁבָּא לִפְתֹּחַ לָהֶם בְּסִימָנֵי בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, לֹא פָּתַח אֶלָּא בְּטַהֲרָה, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל כִּי לֹא מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה, (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן כִּי לֹא מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר, אֶלָּא כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה, וְכֵן הָאַרְנֶבֶת וְכֵן הַחֲזִיר. 29.2. רַבִּי נַחְמָן פָּתַח (ירמיה ל, י): וְאַתָּה אַל תִּירָא עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב, מְדַבֵּר בְּיַעֲקֹב, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית כח, יב): וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אֵלּוּ שָׂרֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶרְאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ שָׂרָהּ שֶׁל בָּבֶל עוֹלֶה שִׁבְעִים עֲוָקִים, וְשֶׁל מָדַי חֲמִשִּׁים וּשְׁנַיִם, וְשֶׁל יָוָן מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וְשֶׁל אֱדוֹם עוֹלֶה וְלֹא יוֹדֵעַ כַּמָּה, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְיָרֵא יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ, אָמַר אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאֵין לָזֶה יְרִידָה, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: וְאַתָּה אַל תִּירָא עַבְדִּי יַעֲקֹב, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עוֹלֶה וְיוֹשֵׁב אֶצְלִי מִשָּׁם אֲנִי מוֹרִידוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, ד): אִם תַּגְבִּיהַּ כַּנֶּשֶׁר וְאִם בֵּין כּוֹכָבִים שִׂים קִנֶּךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהֶרְאָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב שָׂרָהּ שֶׁל בָּבֶל עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, שֶׁל מָדַי עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, וְשֶׁל יָוָן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, וְשֶׁל אֱדוֹם עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיַעֲקֹב אַף אַתָּה עוֹלֶה, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְיָרֵא יַעֲקֹב אָבִינוּ וְאָמַר שֶׁמָּא חַס וְשָׁלוֹם כְּשֵׁם שֶׁלְּאֵלּוּ יְרִידָה אַף לִי כֵן, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא: וְאַתָּה אַל תִּירָא, אִם אַתָּה עוֹלֶה אֵין לְךָ יְרִידָה עוֹלָמִית, לֹא הֶאֱמִין וְלֹא עָלָה. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי, רַבִּי מֵאִיר הָיָה דוֹרֵשׁ (תהלים עח, לב): בְּכָל זֹאת חָטְאוּ עוֹד וְלֹא הֶאֱמִינוּ בְּנִפְלְאוֹתָיו, זֶה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב שֶׁלֹּא הֶאֱמִין וְלֹא עָלָה, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִלּוּ הֶאֱמַנְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ עוֹד לֹא יָרַדְתָּ, וְעַכְשָׁיו שֶׁלֹּא הֶאֱמַנְתָּ וְלֹא עָלִיתָ עֲתִידִין בָּנֶיךָ שֶׁיְהוּ מִשְׁתַּעְבְּדִין בְּאַרְבַּע מַלְכֻיּוֹת בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה בְּמִסִּים וּבְאַרְנוֹנִיּוֹת וּבְזִימִיּוֹת וּבְגֻלְגָלִיּוֹת, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה נִתְיָרֵא יַעֲקֹב, אָמַר לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם יָכוֹל לְעוֹלָם, אָמַר לוֹ (ירמיה ל, י): וְאַל תֵּחַת יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי הִנְנִי מוֹשִׁיעֲךָ מֵרָחוֹק, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה לט, ג): מֵאֶרֶץ רְחוֹקָה בָּאוּ אֵלַי מִבָּבֶל, (ירמיה ל, י): וְאֶת זַרְעֲךָ מֵאֶרֶץ שִׁבְיָם, מִגַּלְיָא וּמֵאַסְפַּמְיָא וּמֵחַבְרוֹתֶיהָ. (ירמיה ל, י): וְשָׁב יַעֲקֹב מִבָּבֶל, (ירמיה ל, י): וְשָׁקַט מִמָּדַי, (ירמיה ל, י): וְשַׁאֲנָן מִיָּוָן, (ירמיה ל, י): וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד מֵאֱדוֹם, (ירמיה ל, יא): כִּי אֶעֱשֶׂה כָלָה בְּכָל הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר הִדַּחְתִּיךָ שָׁמָּה, אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם שֶׁהֵן מְכַלִּין אֶת שְׂדוֹתֵיהֶן אֶעֱשֶׂה כָלָה, (ירמיה ל, יא): וְאוֹתָךְ לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה כָלָה, אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאֵין מְכַלִּים שְׂדוֹתֵיהֶם כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ויקרא כג, כב): לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ, לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה כָלָה. (ירמיה ל, יא): וְיִסַּרְתִּיךָ לַמִּשְׁפָּט, מְיַסֶּרְךָ בְּיִסּוּרִין בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כְּדֵי לְנַקּוֹתְךָ מֵעֲוֹנוֹתֶיךָ לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, אֵימָתַי בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי. 34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 22.3. "...The wicked Titus entered the sanctum of the Holy of Holies, and with his sword brandished in his hand he slashed the two curtains, and taking two whores he spread out a scroll of the Law beneath them and ravished them on top of the altar, and his sword came out full of blood, and some say from the blood of Yom Kippur [sprinkled by the Kohen Gadol on the curtains]. He [Titus] began to revile and blaspheme saying, “He who wages battle with a king in the desert and triumphs is different from him who wages battle in the king's own palace and vanquishes him.” What did he [Titus] do? He gathered all of the Temple vessels and put them in a sack and descended to a ship. At sea, a wave rose up to drown him. He said, “It would appear that this nation's god has power only on water. He [God] only punished the generation of Enosh with water, likewise He could only punish the generation of the flood with water, the generation of the Dispersal and Pharaoh and his army were only punished with water. So I, when I was in His house and domain He had no power to stand against me, and now he opposes me here!” The Holy One said, “By your life, I will punish you with the most insignificant of my creatures.” Immediately God hinted to the sea and it stayed its anger. When he arrived in Rome, all of the citizens came out and acclaimed him: “Conqueror of the Barbarians.” Immediately they heated the bath-house and he entered and washed himself. When he came out they poured for him the double glass for after the bath, and God appointed a mosquito for him and it entered his nose and gnawed its way up until it reached his brain. He said, “Call for the doctors to split open the head of that man [Titus] so I can know with what the God of that nation has punished him.” Forthwith they summoned the doctors, and they split open his brain and found in it the likeness of a young dove and its weight was two litras. R. Elazar son of R. Yosi said: I was there, and they put the young bird on one side [of the scales], and two litras on the other, and they balances one another. They took it and put it in a bowl, and as the mosquito withered so Titus deteriorated. The mosquito flew away, and away flew the soul of the wicked Titus....", 34.3. "Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!...",
168. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
169. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 101
170. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 181; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 135; Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 794; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 191; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 191
1.13. חַד מֵאַתֵּינַס אֲזַל לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וַהֲוָה מְפַלֵּי בִּבְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלָיִם סַגִּיא, אָמְרִין מָאן יֵיזֵיל וּמַיְיתֵי לֵיהּ גַּבָּן, אֲמַר לוֹן חַד אֲנָא אֵיזֵיל וְאַיְיתֵי לֵיהּ וְרֵישֵׁיהּ גְּרִיעַ, אֲזַל יְרוּשַׁלְמִי לְאַתֵּינַס אִתְקַבֵּל גַּבֵּי הַהוּא גַבְרָא, לְצַפְרָא נַפְקִין תַּרְוֵיהוֹן לְטַיָּילָא בְּשׁוּקָא, אִפְסִיק חַד סַנְדְּלֵיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לְאוּמָנָא סַב לָךְ טְרִימִיסָא הָדֵין וְעַבְדֵיהּ לִי הָדֵין סַנְדְּלָא, עֲבַדֵיהּ לֵיהּ. לִמְחַר נָפְקִין תַּרְוֵיהוֹן לְטַיָּילָא בְּשׁוּקָא אִיפְסִיק סַנְדְּלָא חוֹרִיתָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ סַב לָךְ הָדֵין טְרִימִיסָא וְזִיל וְעַבְדֵיהּ לֵיהּ בְּאוּמָנָא לְהָדֵין סַנְדְּלָא דִילִי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְכָל הָדֵין יְקִירִין סַנְדְּלַיָא גַבֵּיכוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִכַּמָּה דִּינָרִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִתִּשְׁעָה וּמֵעֲשָׂרָה דִּינָרִין, וְכַד אִינוּן זִילִין מִשִּׁבְעָה וּמִשְׁמֹנָה דִּינָרִים. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִי אֲתֵינָא לְגַבֵּיכוֹן בַּהֲדָא סְחוֹרָתָא מַזְבַּנְתְּ יָתֵיהּ לִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, אֶלָּא דְּלָא תֵיעוֹל לִמְדִינְתָּא בַּר מִדַּעְתִּי. כְּמָה דַּעֲבִיד עֲבִידָא וּזְבִין סְחוֹרָתָא דְסַנְדָּלַיָא אֲזַל לֵיהּ סְלֵיק לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וִיתֵיב עַל תְּרַע פִּילֵי דִמְדִינְתָּא, שְׁלַח בַּתְרֵיהּ וַאֲתָא, כֵּיוָן דַּאֲתָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַבְדִינַן בֵּינֵינַן דְּלָא יֵיעוֹל בַּר נָשׁ לְמִזְבְּנָא זְבִינוֹהִי אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן רֵישֵׁיהּ גְּרִיעַ וְשִׁיחְרוּר אַפּוֹי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אֲנָא מִנְזַק דַּאֲנָא גָּרַע רֹאשִׁי וְאַזְבֵּין עֲבִידְתִּי. מִן דִּגְרַע רֵישֵׁיהּ נַסְבֵיהּ וְאוֹתְבֵיהּ בְּמִיסְוָון דְּשׁוּקָא, וְכַד הֲוָה בַּר נָשׁ אָתֵי לְמִיזְבַּן מִינֵיהּ סַנְדְּלָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ הָדֵין סַנְדְּלָא זוּגָא בְּכַמָּה הֲוָה, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִן עַשְׂרָה דִּינָרִין אוֹ מִן תִּשְׁעָה דִּינָרִין, בְּרַם לֵית אֲנָא פָּחֵית מִתְּמַנְיָא דִּינָרִין, וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע הֲוָה טָפַח לֵיהּ עַל רֵישֵׁיהּ בְּסַנְדְּלָא וְאָזֵיל לֵיהּ וְלָא זָבִין. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּל הֲדָא בִּישָׁתָא שַׁלְמִית לָךְ כַּד הֲוֵית בְּאַתְרָאי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִכָּאן וּלְהַבָּא לָא תְּפַלֵּי בִּבְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם [תפלי, לשון בדיקה הוא, לא תפאר אחריך, תרגומו לא תפלי בתרך]. 1.41. מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי, רַבִּי אַמֵּי שָׁאַל אֶת רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָנִי אָמַר לוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁשָּׁמַעְתִּי עָלֶיךָ שֶׁאַתָּה בַּעַל אַגָּדָה מַהוּ זֶה שֶׁכָּתוּב (תהלים עא, יט): וְצִדְקָתְךָ אֱלֹהִים עַד מָרוֹם, אָמַר לוֹ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים צְרִיכִין לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ, כָּךְ עֶלְיוֹנִים צְרִיכִין לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיֹּאמֶר וַיֹּאמֶר, לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא לְהִדָּרֵשׁ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל י, ב): וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל. מַהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, אֶלָּא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אָמַר לַמַּלְאָךְ, וּמַלְאָךְ אָמַר לִכְרוּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגָּזַר עָלַי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִקַּח הַגֶּחָלִים אֵינִי יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לִפְנִים מִמְּחִיצָתְךָ, אֶלָּא עֲשֵׂה עִמִּי צְדָקָה וְתֵן לִי שְׁתֵּי גֶחָלִים מִשֶּׁלְּךָ שֶׁלֹא אִכָּוֶה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל י, ז): וַיִּשָֹּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל חָפְנֵי לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים, מַהוּ וַיִּשָֹּׂא וַיִּתֵּן, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הִפְשִׁירָן וּנְתָנָן בְּכַפּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ דְּסִכְנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים הָיוּ הַגֶּחָלִים עֲמוּמוֹת בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל גַּבְרִיאֵל, סָבוּר שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין תְּשׁוּבָה, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹא עָשׂוּ תְּשׁוּבָה בִּקֵּשׁ לְזָרְקָן עֲלֵיהֶם בְּחֵמָה, קָרָא לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וְאָמַר לוֹ גַּבְרִיאֵל גַבְרִיאֵל לְהוֹנְךָ לְהוֹנְךָ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בַּעֲלֵי צְדָקוֹת אֵלּוּ עִם אֵלּוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל י, ח): וַיֵּרָא לַכְּרֻבִים תַּבְנִית יַד אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם. רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי מִי מַעֲמִיד הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים צְדָקָה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹשִׂין בַּיָּד, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים עא, יט): וְצִדְקָתְךָ אֱלֹהִים עַד מָרוֹם. וְדִכְוָותֵהּ (מלכים א כ, כח): וַיִּגַּשׁ אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה אָמַר ה', מַהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, אֶלָּא בָּאֲמִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אָמַר לוֹ אִם יָבֹא בֶּן הֲדַד תַּחַת יָדְךָ אַל תָּחוֹס עָלָיו, וּבַאֲמִירָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה אָמַר לוֹ כַּמָּה מְצוּדוֹת עָשִׂיתִי כַמָּה רְמִיזוֹת עָשִׂיתִי כַּמָּה רְפָשִׁים עָשִׂיתִי עַד שֶׁרְפַשְׁתִּיו בְּיָדֶיךָ וְעַכְשָׁיו הוֹצֵאתוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם, לָכֵן (מלכים א כ, מב): וְהָיְתָה נַפְשְׁךָ תַּחַת נַפְשׁוֹ וְעַמְּךָ תַּחַת עַמּוֹ. וְדִכְוָותֵהּ (אסתר ז, ה): וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה, מַהוּ וַיֹּאמֶר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים, אָמַר רַב בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר עַד שֶׁלֹא הִרְגִּישׁ שֶׁהִיא יְהוּדִית הָיָה מְדַבֵּר עִמָּהּ בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִרְגִּישׁ בָּהּ שֶׁהִיא יְהוּדִית וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ לַמְתֻרְגְּמָן, וַיֹּאמֶר הַמְתֻרְגְּמָן לְאֶסְתֵּר הַמַּלְכָּה. וְדִכְוָתָהּ (ויקרא כא, א): וַיֹּאמֶר ה' אֶל משֶׁה אֱמֹר אֶל הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן וְאָמַרְתָּ, שְׁתֵּי אֲמִירוֹת הַלָּלוּ לָמָּה לִי, אֶלָּא בָּאֲמִירָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אָמַר לוֹ לְנֶפֶשׁ לֹא יִטַּמָּא בְּעַמָּיו. וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה אָמַר לוֹ אִם בָּא מֵת מִצְוָה עַל יָדְךָ הִטַּמֵּא לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה אַתֶּם מִטַּמְּאִין לְמֵת מִצְוָה, לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא אֵין אַתֶּם מִטַּמְּאִין לְמֵת כָּל עִקָּר, שֶׁאֵין מִיתָה לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כה, ח): בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְצִדְקָתְךָ אֱלֹהִים עַד מָרוֹם, אֵלּוּ שְׁנֵי הַמְּאוֹרוֹת. אֱלֹהִים מִי כָמוֹךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה כּוֹבֵשׁ עַל מִדַּת הַדִּין. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה קָפְצָה קָטֵיגוֹרְיָא לִפְנֵי כִסֵּא הַכָּבוֹד אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, כָּךְ יְהֵא רָשָׁע זֶה מִתְגָּאֶה וְאוֹמֵר אֲנִי חָרַבְתִּי בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל אֱלֹהִים וְשָׂרַפְתִּי מִקְדָּשׁוֹ, אִם כֵּן הוּא תֵּרֵד אֵשׁ מִלְּמַעְלָה וְתִשְֹּׂרֹף, מִיָּד, מַה כְּתִיב: מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הוּא שֶׁהַנָּבִיא מְקַנְתְּרָהּ וְאָמַר לָהּ (ישעיה מז, ב): קְחִי רֵחַיִם וְטַחֲנִי קָמַח, הָא כָּל עַמָּא טָחֲנִין חִטִּין וְאַתְּ אוֹמֵר וְטַחֲנִי קֶמַח, אֶלָּא אָמְרָה יְרוּשָׁלָיִם לְבַת בָּבֶל, אִלּוּ מִמָּרוֹם לֹא עָשׂוּ בִי מִלְחָמָה אַתְּ הָיִית יְכוֹלָה לְהִלָּחֵם בִּי, אִלּוּ מִמָּרוֹם לֹא שָׁלְחוּ בִי אֵשׁ אַתְּ הָיִית יְכוֹלָה לִי, אֶלָּא אַרְיָא קְטִילָא קְטַלְתְּ, קִמְחָא טְחִינָא טְחַנְתְּ, קַרְתָּא יָקִידְתָּא אוֹקִידְתָּא, לְכָךְ אָמַר: מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, מַהוּ וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, נִסְּחָא, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שופטים יד, ט): וַיִּרְדֵּהוּ אֶל כַּפָּיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, נִצְּחָהּ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים עב, ח): וְיֵרְדְּ מִיָּם עַד יָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, שָׁלְטַהּ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (מלכים א ה, ד): כִּי הוּא רֹדֶה בְּכָל עֵבֶר הַנָּהָר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, רִדְיָא, כִּדְתַנְיָא חָרַשׁ רוֹפֵשׁ אֶת הַהֵיכָל. רַבִּי בֵּיבָא מֵרַנְגַּיָּא אָמַר: וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה, רָאָה שֶׁמִּדַּת הַדִּין פּוֹגַעַת בָּהּ. פָּרַשׂ רֶשֶׁת לְרַגְלַי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא, אִם רָאִיתָ סַפְסָלִין מְלֵאִים בַּבְלִיִּים מֻנָּחֵי בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, צַפֵּה לְרַגְלָיו שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, מַה טַּעַם, פָּרַשׂ רֶשֶׁת לְרַגְלַי. תָּנֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי אִם רָאִיתָ סוּס פַּרְסִי קָשׁוּר בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, צַפֵּה לְרַגְלָיו שֶׁל מָשִׁיחַ, מַה טַּעַם (מיכה ה, ד): וְהָיָה זֶה שָׁלוֹם אַשּׁוּר וגו'. הֱשִׁיבַנִּי אָחוֹר, אָחוֹר מִן הַכְּהֻנָה וּמִן הַמַּלְכוּת. נְתָנַנִי שֹׁמֵמָה, לְצָדוּ. כָּל הַיּוֹם דָּוָה, לְגַרְדּוֹם. 3.14. נַחְפְּשָׂה דְּרָכֵינוּ וְנַחְקֹרָה וְנָשׁוּבָה עַד ה', נִשָֹּׂא לְבָבֵנוּ אֶל כַּפָּיִם אֶל אֵל בַּשָּׁמָיִם, רַבִּי בֵּיבָא בַּר זַבְדָּאי וְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר חֲנִילָאי וְרַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה נְפַקִין לְתַעֲנִיתָא, דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי בֵּיבָא בַּר זַבְדָּאי וַאֲמַר אֶפְשָׁר דְּלִיבֵּיהּ דְּבַר נָשׁ נְסֵיב מִינֵיהּ וְחָזַר עֲלֵיהּ, אֶלָא נְשַׁוֵּוי לִבֵּינָן לְגַבֵּי יְדֵינָן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ אֶל אֵל בַּשָּׁמָיִם, אִם יֵשׁ שֶׁרֶץ בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אֲפִלּוּ טוֹבֵל בְּכָל מֵימֵי בְּרֵאשִׁית אֵינוֹ טָהוֹר לְעוֹלָם, הִשְׁלִיךְ הַשֶּׁרֶץ מִיָּדוֹ, עָלְתָה לוֹ טְבִילָה בְּאַרְבָּעִים סְאָה. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא (דברי הימים ב יב, ו): וַיִּכָּנְעוּ שָׂרֵי יְהוּדָה וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ צַדִּיק ה'. וּכְתִיב: וּבִרְאוֹת ה' כִּי נִכְנָעוּ וַיְהִי דְבַר ה' אֶל שְׁמַעְיָה לֵאמֹר נִכְנְעוּ לֹא אַשְׁחִיתֵם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם כִּמְעַט לִפְלֵיטָה וְלֹא תִתַּךְ חֲמָתִי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם בְּיַד שִׁישָׁק. וְכִרְאוֹת ה' כִּי נִתְעַנּוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא כִּי נִכְנָעוּ, דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה 40(צפניה ב, א): הִתְקוֹשְׁשׁוּ וָקוֹשׁוּ, נְקַשֵּׁט עַצְמָן וְאַחַר כָּךְ נְקַשֵּׁט אֲחֵרִים, מִבְּגִין דְּאִית הָכָא בַּר נָשׁ דַּאֲמַר עֲלַי לִישָׁן בִּישָׁא קֳדָם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אֶלָּא כָּל עַמָּא לְדִינָא אֲמָרוּן, הֲוָה תַּמָּן רַבִּי חִיָּא וְרַבִּי אַמֵּי וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי קָמוּן וּנְפָקוּן לְהוֹן. נַחְנוּ פָשַׁעְנוּ וּמָרִינוּ, רַבָּנָן דְהָתָם אָמְרֵי אִית כַּרְנְכֵי מְרִירָן בְּסִימָא דְּסִימָא חֲמִיעַ, רַבָּנָן דְּהָכָא אָמְרִין אִין דְּעוֹבָדִין בִּישִׁין לְמָרֵיהוֹן קַשְׁיָן. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר: נַחְנוּ פָשַׁעְנוּ וּמָרִינוּ כְּמִדָּתֵנוּ, אַתָּה לֹא סָלָחְתָּ, כְּמִדּוֹתֶיךָ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי: נַחְנוּ פָשַׁעְנוּ וּמָרִינוּ וְהֶחֱרַבְתָּ מִקְדָּשֶׁיךָ. 3.17. עֵינִי נִגְּרָה וְלֹא תִדְמֶה וגו' עַד יַשְׁקִיף וְיֵרֶא ה' מִשָּׁמָיִם, רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר בִּשְׁלשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת מָצִינוּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ סָמוּךְ לַגְּאֻלָּה, מַאי טַעְמָא (ישעיה לב, יד): מְשׂוֹשׂ פְּרָאִים מִרְעֵה עֲדָרִים, מַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו (ישעיה לב, טו): עַד יֵעָרֶה עָלֵינוּ רוּחַ מִמָּרוֹם וְהָיָה מִדְבָּר לַכַּרְמֶל וְהַכַּרְמֶל לַיַּעַר יֵחָשֵׁב. וְדִכְוָותֵיהּ (ישעיה ס, כב): הַקָּטֹן יִהְיֶה לָאֶלֶף וְהַצָּעִיר וגו', וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ (ישעיה סא, א): רוּחַ ה' אֱלֹהִים עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח ה' אֹתִי, וְהָדֵין: עֵינִי נִגְּרָה, וּכְתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: עַד יַשְׁקִיף וְיֵרֶא ה' מִשָּׁמָיִם. עֵינִי עוֹלְלָה לְנַפְשִׁי, אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת בָּתֵּי סוֹפְרִים הָיוּ בְּבֵיתָר, וְהַקָּטָן שֶׁבָּהֶם לֹא הָיָה פָּחוֹת מִשְּׁלשׁ מֵאוֹת תִּינוֹקוֹת, וְהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים אִם יָבוֹאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים עָלֵינוּ בַּמַּכְתְּבִים הַלָּלוּ אָנוּ יוֹצְאִין וְדוֹקְרִין אוֹתָן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ הָעֲוֹנוֹת וּבָאוּ הַשֹּׂוֹנְאִים, כָּרְכוּ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בְּסִפְרוֹ וְשָׂרְפוּ אוֹתָם, וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּיר מֵהֶם אֶלָּא אֲנִי, וְקָרָאתִי עַל עַצְמִי עֵינִי עוֹלְלָה לְנַפְשִׁי מִכֹּל בְּנוֹת עִירִי.
171. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
172. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
173. Palestinian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 224
174. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, 23-24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 180
175. Tosefta, Temurah, 1.6, 4.12-4.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the protection of derivatives of agricultural consecrations Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 210, 211
1.6. "המקדיש בעל מום למזבח עובר בחמשה לאוין בל תקדיש בל תשחט בל תזרוק את הדם ובל תקטיר חלבו ובל תקטיר מקצתו שנאמר (ויקרא כ״ב:כ״א) תמים יהיה לרצון כל מום וגו' רבי יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אף משום בל תקבל את דמו. הקדישו ולא שחטו אינו חייב אלא אחת הקדישו ושחטו וזרק את דמו חייב על כל אחת ואחת המקדיש רובע ונרבע מוקצה ונעבד אתנן ומחיר שרוע וקלוט עובר משום שמות הללו והרי הן כבעלי מומין שקדם הקדשם את מומם ואין יוצאין לחולין אלא על מום קבוע בלבד. המקדיש תמימים לבדק הבית חייב בעשה ולא תעשה דברי ר' יהודה וחכמים אומרים אין חייב אלא משם אחד בלבד. המקדיש תמימים לבדק הבית. אין פודין אותו אלא למזבח בלבד. המקדיש בעל מום למזבח. רצה לפדותו להקדש בדק הבית הרשות בידו. הולד אין עושה תמורה ואין צריך לומר ולד הולד ר' יהודה אומר הולד עושה תמורה הצבור אין עושה תמורה בהמת צבור אין עושין תמורה השותפין אין עושין תמורה ובהמת השותפין אין עושין תמורה. בהמה שחציה קודש וחציה חול לא עושה ולא נעשית ולא הזבח הבא מחמת תמורה עושה תמורה.",
176. Anon., Targum Onqelos, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, shared with the aramaic magic bowls Found in books: Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 142
177. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 185
178. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112, 118, 127, 92, 140 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 271
179. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 122, 153-154, 16, 160, 258, 306, 311, 343-344, 347, 41, 329 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 422
180. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
181. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 793
182. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 137.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient synagogue, pharisees/rabbis as leaders of, passages indicative of, in matthew •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 269; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 419
183. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.5.31-3.5.32 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 134, 212, 218
184. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 7.7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •authority, of the rabbis •role of the rabbis Found in books: Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 13
185. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 235
186. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Metsia, 2.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 73
187. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Qamma, 2.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 72
188. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
189. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 795
190. Tertullian, Against The Jews, 13, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 13
3. But Abraham, (you say,) was circumcised. Yes, but he pleased God before his circumcision; nor yet did he observe the Sabbath. For he had accepted circumcision; but such as was to be for a sign of that time, not for a prerogative title to salvation. In fact, subsequent patriarchs were uncircumcised, like Melchizedek, who, uncircumcised, offered to Abraham himself, already circumcised, on his return from battle, bread and wine. But again, (you say) the son of Moses would upon one occasion have been choked by an angel, if Zipporah, had not circumcised the foreskin of the infant with a pebble; whence, there is the greatest peril if any fail to circumcise the foreskin of his flesh. Nay, but if circumcision altogether brought salvation, even Moses himself, in the case of his own son, would not have omitted to circumcise him on the eighth day; whereas it is agreed that Zipporah did it on the journey, at the compulsion of the angel. Consider we, accordingly, that one single infant's compulsory circumcision cannot have prescribed to every people, and founded, as it were, a law for keeping this precept. For God, foreseeing that He was about to give this circumcision to the people of Israel for a sign, not for salvation, urges the circumcision of the son of Moses, their future leader, for this reason; that, since He had begun, through him, to give the People the precept of circumcision, the people should not despise it, from seeing this example (of neglect) already exhibited conspicuously in their leader's son. For circumcision had to be given; but as a sign, whence Israel in the last time would have to be distinguished, when, in accordance with their deserts, they should be prohibited from entering the holy city, as we see through the words of the prophets, saying, Your land is desert; your cities utterly burnt with fire; your country, in your sight, strangers shall eat up; and, deserted and subverted by strange peoples, the daughter of Zion shall be derelict, like a shed in a vineyard, and like a watchhouse in a cucumber-field, and as it were a city which is being stormed. Why so? Because the subsequent discourse of the prophet reproaches them, saying, Sons have I begotten and upraised, but they have reprobated me; and again, And if you shall have outstretched hands, I will avert my face from you; and if you shall have multiplied prayers, I will not hear you: for your hands are full of blood; Isaiah 1:15 and again, Woe! sinful nation; a people full of sins; wicked sons; you have quite forsaken God, and have provoked unto indignation the Holy One of Israel. Isaiah 1:4 This, therefore, was God's foresight - that of giving circumcision to Israel, for a sign whence they might be distinguished when the time should arrive wherein their above-mentioned deserts should prohibit their admission into Jerusalem: which circumstance, because it was to be, used to be announced; and, because we see it accomplished, is recognised by us. For, as the carnal circumcision, which was temporary, was in wrought for a sign in a contumacious people, so the spiritual has been given for salvation to an obedient people; while the prophet Jeremiah says, Make a renewal for you, and sow not in thorns; be circumcised to God, and circumcise the foreskin of your heart: and in another place he says, Behold, days shall come, says the Lord, and I will draw up, for the house of Judah and for the house of Jacob, a new testament; not such as I once gave their fathers in the day wherein I led them out from the land of Egypt. Whence we understand that the coming cessation of the former circumcision then given, and the coming procession of a new law (not such as He had already given to the fathers), are announced: just as Isaiah foretold, saying that in the last days the mount of the Lord and the house of God were to be manifest above the tops of the mounts: And it shall be exalted, he says, above the hills; and there shall come over it all nations; and many shall walk, and say, Come, ascend we unto the mount of the Lord, and unto the house of the God of Jacob, Isaiah 2:2-3 - not of Esau, the former son, but of Jacob, the second; that is, of our people, whose mount is Christ, pr cised without concisors' hands, filling every land, shown in the book of Daniel. In short, the coming procession of a new law out of this house of the God of Jacob Isaiah in the ensuing words announces, saying, For from Zion shall go out a law, and the word of the Lord out of Jerusalem, and shall judge among the nations,- that is, among us, who have been called out of the nations -and they shall join to beat their glaives into ploughs, and their lances into sickles; and nations shall not take up glaive against nation, and they shall no more learn to fight. Isaiah 2:3-4 Who else, therefore, are understood but we, who, fully taught by the new law, observe these practices - the old law being obliterated, the coming of whose abolition the action itself demonstrates? For the wont of the old law was to avenge itself by the vengeance of the glaive, and to pluck out eye for eye, and to inflict retaliatory revenge for injury. But the new law's wont was to point to clemency, and to convert to tranquillity the pristine ferocity of glaives and lances, and to remodel the pristine execution of war upon the rivals and foes of the law into the pacific actions of ploughing and tilling the land. Therefore as we have shown above that the coming cessation of the old law and of the carnal circumcision was declared, so, too, the observance of the new law and the spiritual circumcision has shone out into the voluntary obediences of peace. For a people, he says, whom I knew not has served me; in obedience of the ear it has obeyed me. Prophets made the announcement. But what is the people which was ignorant of God, but ours, who in days bygone knew not God? And who, in the hearing of the ear, gave heed to Him, but we, who, forsaking idols, have been converted to God? For Israel- who had been known to God, and who had by Him been upraised in Egypt, and was transported through the Red Sea, and who in the desert, fed forty years with manna, was wrought to the semblance of eternity, and not contaminated with human passions, or fed on this world's meats, but fed on angel's loaves - the manna - and sufficiently bound to God by His benefits - forgot his Lord and God, saying to Aaron: Make us gods, to go before us: for that Moses, who ejected us from the land of Egypt, has quite forsaken us; and what has befallen him we know not. And accordingly we, who were not the people of God in days bygone, have been made His people, by accepting the new law above mentioned, and the new circumcision before foretold.
191. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 72.5, 78.41.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbi judah the prince •messiah, speculation among rabbis about the coming of Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 795; Price, Finkelberg and Shahar (2021), Rome: An Empire of Many Nations: New Perspectives on Ethnic Diversity and Cultural Identity, 262
192. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths •role of the rabbis Found in books: Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 157; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 189
8. There are also other species of very many arts which, although they extend not to the making of idols, yet, with the same criminality, furnish the adjuncts without which idols have no power. For it matters not whether you erect or equip: if you have embellished his temple, altar, or niche; if you have pressed out gold-leaf, or have wrought his insignia, or even his house: work of that kind, which confers not shape, but authority, is more important. If the necessity of maintece is urged so much, the arts have other species withal to afford means of livelihood, without outstepping the path of discipline, that is, without the confiction of an idol. The plasterer knows both how to mend roofs, and lay on stuccoes, and polish a cistern, and trace ogives, and draw in relief on party-walls many other ornaments beside likenesses. The painter, too, the marble mason, the bronze-worker, and every graver whatever, knows expansions of his own art, of course much easier of execution. For how much more easily does he who delineates a statue overlay a sideboard! How much sooner does he who carves a Mars out of a lime-tree, fasten together a chest! No art but is either mother or kinswoman of some neighbour art: nothing is independent of its neighbour. The veins of the arts are many as are the concupiscences of men. But there is difference in wages and the rewards of handicraft; therefore there is difference, too, in the labour required. Smaller wages are compensated by more frequent earning. How many are the party-walls which require statues? How many the temples and shrines which are built for idols? But houses, and official residences, and baths, and tenements, how many are they? Shoe- and slipper-gilding is daily work; not so the gilding of Mercury and Serapis. Let that suffice for the gain of handicrafts. Luxury and ostentation have more votaries than all superstition. Ostentation will require dishes and cups more easily than superstition. Luxury deals in wreaths, also, more than ceremony. When, therefore, we urge men generally to such kinds of handicrafts as do not come in contact with an idol indeed and with the things which are appropriate to an idol; since, moreover, the things which are common to idols are often common to men too; of this also we ought to beware that nothing be, with our knowledge, demanded by any person from our idols' service. For if we shall have made that concession, and shall not have had recourse to the remedies so often used, I think we are not free of the contagion of idolatry, we whose (not unwitting) hands are found busied in the tendence, or in the honour and service, of demons.
193. Palestinian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 234
194. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.7, 2.8, 5.8-5.9, 5.11, 7.8.1, 7.23.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, attending the baths •rabbis, babylonian, culture of, as infl uenced by the persian world Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 179; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 132, 135, 147, 214, 215, 216, 217; Mokhtarian (2021), Rabbis, Sorcerers, Kings, and Priests: The Culture of the Talmud in Ancient Iran. 51, 53, 54, 55
7.8.1. טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁיתוֹ, רַבִּי מֵאִיר הֲוָה יָתֵיב וְדָרִישׁ בְּבֵי מִדְרְשָׁא דִּטְבֶרְיָה וַהֲוָה אֱלִישָׁע רַבֵּיהּ גָּיֵּיז בְּשׁוּקָא אַרְכֵּיב עַל סוּסְיָא בְּשַׁבַּתָּא, אָמְרוּן לְרַבִּי מֵאִיר הָא אֱלִישָׁע רַבָּךְ אָתֵי גָּיֵּיז בְּשַׁבַּתָּא בְּשׁוּקָא, נָפַק לְגַבֵּיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ בַּמֶּה הֲוֵיתָא עָסֵיק, אָמַר לֵיהּ (איוב מב, יב): וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בֵּרַךְ, שֶׁהִכְפִּיל אֶת מָמוֹנוֹ. אָמַר לֵיהּ עֲקִיבָא רַבָּךְ לָא הֲוָה אָמַר כֵּן, אֶלָּא: וַה' בֵּרַךְ אַחֲרִית אִיּוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, בִּזְכוּת תְּשׁוּבָה וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים שֶׁהָיָה בְּיָדוֹ מֵרֵאשִׁיתוֹ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ שׁוּב טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ בֵּיהּ, אָמַר לוֹ יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁהוּא קוֹנֶה סְחוֹרָה בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְהוּא מַפְסִיד, וּבְזִקְנוּתוֹ הוּא מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בָּהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁמּוֹלִיד בָּנִים בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְהֵן מֵתִים, מוֹלִיד בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ וְהֵן מִתְקַיְּמִין. דָּבָר אַחֵר, טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשִׂים רָעִים בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וּבְזִקְנוּתוֹ עוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, יֵשׁ לְךָ אָדָם שֶׁהוּא לָמֵד תּוֹרָה בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וּמְשַׁכְּחָהּ, וּבְזִקְנוּתוֹ הוּא חוֹזֵר עָלֶיהָ, הֱוֵי: טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא רַבָּךְ לֹא כָךְ אָמַר, אֶלָּא: טוֹב אַחֲרִית דָּבָר כְּשֶׁהוּא טוֹב מֵרֵאשִׁתוֹ, וְכֵן הָיָה מַעֲשֶׂה אֲבוּיָה אָבִי מִגְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר, וּכְשֶׁבָּא לְמוּלֵנִי קָרָא לְכָל גְּדוֹלֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, וְקָרָא לְכָל גְּדוֹלֵי הַדּוֹר, וְקָרָא לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וּלְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עִמָּהֶם, וּכְשֶׁאָכְלוּ וְשָׁתוּ שָׁרוֹן אִילֵּין אָמְרִין מִזְמוֹרִין, וְאִילֵּין אָמְרִין אַלְפָבֵּתָרִין, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר לְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אִילֵּין עָסְקִין בְּדִידְהוֹן, וַאֲנַן לֵית אֲנַן עָסְקִין בְּדִידָן, וְהִתְחִילוּ בַּתּוֹרָה וּמִן הַתּוֹרָה לַנְּבִיאִים, וּמִן הַנְבִיאִים לַכְּתוּבִים, וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים שְׂמֵחִין כִּנְתִינָתָן מִסִּינַי וְהָאֵשׁ מְלַהֶטֶת סְבִיבוֹתֵיהֶן, עִקַּר נְתִינָתָן לֹא מִסִּינַי נִתְּנוּ בָּאֵשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ד, יא): וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ עַד לֵב הַשָּׁמַיִם, אָמַר הוֹאִיל וְכָךְ הוּא גָּדוֹל כֹּחָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, הַבֵּן הַזֶּה אִם מִתְקַיֵם לִי הֲרֵינִי נוֹתְנוֹ לַתּוֹרָה, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה כַּוָּנַת מַחְשַׁבְתּוֹ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם לֹא נִתְקַיְמָה בִּי תּוֹרָתִי. וּמָה אַתְּ אָמַר תּוּבָן (איוב כח, יז): לֹא יַעַרְכֶנָּה זָהָב וּזְכוּכִית. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וּמָה אֲמַרְתְּ בֵּיהּ, אָמַר לוֹ אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁקָּשִׁין לִקְנוֹת כִּכְלֵי זָהָב וּזְכוּכִית, אָמַר לוֹ עֲקִיבָא רַבְּךָ לֹא אָמַר כֵּן, אֶלָּא מַה כְּלֵי זָהָב וּזְכוּכִית אִם נִשְׁבְּרוּ יֵשׁ לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה, אַף תַּלְמִיד חָכָם שֶׁאִבֵּד מִשְׁנָתוֹ יָכוֹל הוּא לַחֲזֹר עָלֶיהָ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲזוֹר עוֹל לָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה, עַד כָּאן תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מְנָּן אַתְּ יָדַע, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מִטַּלְפֵי סוּסִי, שֶׁכְּבָר הָלַךְ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה. אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְכָל הֲדָא חָכְמְתָא אִית בָּךְ וְלֵית אַתְּ חוֹזֵר בָּךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לֵית בְּחֵילִי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רוֹכֵב הָיִיתִי עַל הַסּוּס וּמְטַיֵּל אֲחוֹרֵי בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְשָׁמַעְתִּי בַּת קוֹל מְצַפְצֶפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (ירמיה ג, כב): שׁוּבוּ בָּנִים שׁוֹבָבִים, (מלאכי ג, ז): שׁוּבוּ אֵלַי וְאָשׁוּבָה אֲלֵיכֶם, חוּץ מֵאֱלִישָׁע בֶּן אֲבוּיָה, שֶׁהָיָה יוֹדֵעַ כֹּחִי וּמָרַד בִּי. וּמֵהֵיכָן הָיָה לוֹ, רָאָה אָדָם אֶחָד עָלָה לְרֹאשׁ הַדֶּקֶל בְּשַׁבָּת וְנָטַל הָאֵם עַל הַבָּנִים וְיָרַד בְּשָׁלוֹם, וּבְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת רָאָה אָדָם אֶחָד עָלָה לְרֹאשׁ הַדֶּקֶל וְנָטַל הַבָּנִים וְשִׁלַּח אֶת הָאֵם, וְיָרַד וְהִכִּישׁוֹ נָחָשׁ וָמֵת, אָמַר כְּתִיב (דברים כב, ז): שַׁלֵּחַ תְּשַׁלַּח אֶת הָאֵם וְאֶת הַבָּנִים תִּקַּח לָךְ לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים, הֵיכָן טוּבוֹ שֶׁל זֶה וְהֵיכָן אֲרִיכוּת יָמָיו שֶׁל זֶה, וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁדְּרָשָׁהּ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ בָּעוֹלָם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ טוֹב, וְהַאֲרַכְתָּ יָמִים לָעוֹלָם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ אָרֹךְ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים עַל יְדֵי שֶׁרָאָה לְשׁוֹנוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי יְהוּדָה הַנַּחְתּוֹם נָתוּן בְּפִי הַכֶּלֶב, אָמַר מָה הַלָּשׁוֹן שֶׁיָּגַע בַּתּוֹרָה כָּל יָמָיו כָּךְ, לָשׁוֹן שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ וְיָגֵעַ בַּתּוֹרָה עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר אִם כֵּן לֹא מַתַּן שָׂכָר לַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים עַל יְדֵי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהָיְתָה אִמּוֹ מְעֻבֶּרֶת בּוֹ עָבְרָה עַל בָּתֵּי עֲבוֹדַת כּוֹכָבִים וְהֵרִיחָה וְנָתְנוּ לוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ הַמִּין וְאָכְלָה, וְהָיָה מְפַעְפֵּעַ בִּכְרֵיסָהּ כַּאֲרִיסָה שֶׁל חֲכִינָה. לְאַחַר יָמִים חָלָה אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן אֲבוּיָה, אֲתוֹן אָמְרִין לְרַבִּי מֵאִיר אֱלִישָׁע חוֹלֶה, אֲזַל לְגַבֵּיהּ אֲמַר לֵיהּ חֲזוֹר בָּךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְעַד כַּדּוּן מְקַבְּלִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְלָא כְתִיב (תהלים צ, ג): תָּשֵׁב אֱנוֹשׁ עַד דַּכָּא, עַד דִּכְדּוּכָהּ שֶׁל נֶפֶשׁ. בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בָּכָה אֱלִישָׁע בֶּן אֲבוּיָה וָמֵת, וְהָיָה רַבִּי מֵאִיר שָׂמֵחַ וְאוֹמֵר דּוֹמֶה שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ תְּשׁוּבָה נִסְתַּלֵּק רַבִּי. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁקְּבָרוּהוּ בָּאתָה הָאוּר לִשְׂרֹף אֶת קִבְרוֹ, אֲתוֹן אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לְרַבִּי מֵאִיר קֶבֶר רַבְּךָ נִשְׂרַף, יָצָא וּפָרַשׂ טַלִּיתוֹ עָלֶיהָ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ (רות ג, יג): לִינִי הַלַּיְלָה, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ לַיְלָה, וְהָיָה בַבֹּקֶר אִם יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב יִגְאָל, מַהוּ וְהָיָה בַבֹּקֶר, בָּעוֹלָם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ טוֹב, אִם יִגְאָלֵךְ טוֹב זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קמה, ט): טוֹב ה' לַכֹּל. וְאִם לֹא יַחְפֹּץ לְגָאֳלֵךְ וּגְאַלְתִּיךְ אָנֹכִי חַי ה' שִׁכְבִי עַד הַבֹּקֶר. וּדְמָכַת לֵיהּ. אָמְרוּן לֵיהּ רַבִּי לְעָלְמִין דְּאָתֵי אִין אָמְרִין לָךְ מָה אַתְּ בָּעֵי אָבִיךְ אוֹ רַבָּךְ מַה תֵּימַר, אֲמַר אַבָּא וּבָתַר כֵּן רַבִּי. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ וְשָׁמְעֵי לָךְ אִינוּן, אֲמַר לְהוֹן וְלָאו מַתְנִיתָּא הִיא, מַצִּילִין תִּיק הַסֵּפֶר עִם הַסֵּפֶר וְתִיק הַתְּפִלִּין עִם הַתְּפִלִּין, מַצִּילִין אֱלִישָׁע בִּזְכוּת תּוֹרָתוֹ. לְבַסּוֹף בָּאוּ בְנוֹתָיו וְתוֹבְעוֹת צְדָקָה אֵצֶל רַבֵּנוּ, אָמַר (תהלים קט, יב): אַל יְהִי לוֹ משֵׁךְ חָסֶד וְאַל יְהִי חוֹנֵן לִיתוֹמָיו. אָמְרִין, רַבִּי לָא תִסְתַּכַּל בְּעוֹבָדוֹהִי אִסְתַּכַּל לְאוֹרָיְיתֵיהּ, בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה בָּכָה רַבִּי וְגָזַר עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיִתְפַּרְנְסוּ, אָמַר מַה מִּי שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה תּוֹרָתוֹ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם כָּךְ הֶעֱמִיד, מִי שֶׁתּוֹרָתוֹ לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. טוֹב אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ מִגְּבַהּ רוּחַ, חַד פַּרְסִי אֲתָא גַּבֵּי רַב אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַלְפֵנִי אוֹרָיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֱמֹר אָלֶ״ף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן דְּיֵימַר דְּהוּא אָלֶ״ף, יֵמְרוּן דְּאֵינוֹ כֵן. אֱמֹר בֵּי״ת, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן אֲמַר דְּהוּא בֵּי״ת, גָּעַר בּוֹ וְהוֹצִיאוֹ בִּנְזִיפָה, אֲזַל לְגַבֵּי שְׁמוּאֵל, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אַלְפֵנִי אוֹרָיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֱמֹר אָלֶ״ף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן דְּיֵימַר דְּהוּא אָלֶ״ף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֱמֹר בֵּי״ת, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַאן אֲמַר דְּהוּא בֵּי״ת, אַחֲדֵיהּ בְּאוּדְנֵיהּ וַאֲמַר אוּדְנִי אוּדְנִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ שְׁמוּאֵל מַאן אֲמַר דְּהוּא אוּדְנִיךְ. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כּוּלֵּי עָלְמָא יָדְעִין דְּהוּא אוּדְנִי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אוֹף הָכָא כּוּלֵּי עַלְמָא יָדְעִין דְּהוּא אל״ף וּדְהוּא בי״ת, מִיָּד נִשְׁתַּתֵּק הַפַּרְסִי וְקַבֵּיל עֲלוֹי, הֱוֵי: טוֹב אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ מִגְּבַהּ רוּחַ, טוֹבָה הִיא הָאֲרִיכָה שֶׁהֶאֱרִיךְ שְׁמוּאֵל עִם הַפַּרְסִי מֵהַקְפָּדָה שֶׁהִקְפִּיד עֲלֵיהּ רַב, אִלּוּלֵי כֵן חָזַר הַפַּרְסִי לְסִיאוּרוֹ, וְקָרָא עָלָיו: טוֹב אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ. וְעוֹד, עֲקִילַס הַגֵּר שָׁאַל לְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, אָמַר לוֹ הֲרֵי חִבָּה שֶׁחִבֵּב הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת הַגֵּר בְּלֶחֶם וּבְשִׂמְלָה בִּלְבָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים י, יח): וְאֹהֵב גֵּר לָתֶת לוֹ לֶחֶם וְשִׂמְלָה, כַּמָּה טַוָּוסִין וְכַמָּה פַּסְיוֹנִין אִית לִי וַאֲפִלּוּ עֲבָדַי לָא מַשְׁגִּיחִין עֲלֵיהוֹן. אָמַר לֵיהּ וְכִי קַלָּה הִיא בְּעֵינֶיךָ דָּבָר שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ בּוֹ אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב מִתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כח, כ): וְנָתַן לִי לֶחֶם לֶאֱכֹל וּבֶגֶד לִלְבּשׁ, דָּבָר קַל הוּא. אֲתָא לְגַבֵּי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וּשְׁאֵיל לֵיהּ כָּךְ, אָמַר לוֹ גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר לְשֵׁם שָׁמַיִם זָכָה וּמַשִֹּׂיאִין מִבְּנוֹתָיו לִכְהֻנָּה. לֶחֶם זוֹ לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. וּבֶגֶד אֵלּוּ בִּגְדֵי כְּהֻנָּה. צִמְצְמוֹ בִּדְבָרִים, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו וְכִי קַלָּה הִיא בְּעֵינֶיךָ דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּחְבַּט בּוֹ הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כח, כ): וְנָתַן לִי לֶחֶם, וְלָמָּה אַתְּ מוֹשִׁיטוֹ בְּקָנֶה, הִתְחִיל מְפַיְּסוֹ בִּדְבָרִים, לֶחֶם זוֹ הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, ה): לְכוּ לַחֲמוּ בְלַחְמִי. וּבֶגֶד זֶה הַכָּבוֹד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ח, טו): בִּי מְלָכִים יִמְלֹכוּ. הֱוֵי: טוֹב אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ טוֹבָה הִיא הָאֲרִיכָה שֶׁהֶאֱרִיךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עִם עֲקִילַס הַגֵּר, מֵהַקְפָּדָה שֶׁהִקְפִּיד בּוֹ רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, שֶׁאִלּוּלֵי כֵן חָזַר לְסִיאוּרוֹ, וְקָרָא עָלָיו: טוֹב אֶרֶךְ רוּחַ מִגְבַהּ רוּח. 7.23.1. כָּל זֹה נִסִּיתִי בַחָכְמָה, כְּתִיב (מלכים א ה, ט): וַיִּתֵּן אֱלֹהִים חָכְמָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה, רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי לֵוִי, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי כַּחוֹל, מַהוּ כַּחוֹל, נִתַּן לוֹ חָכְמָה כְּנֶגֶד כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְרַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר מָה הַחוֹל הַזֶּה גָּדֵר לַיָּם, כָּךְ הָיְתָה חָכְמָה גָּדֵר לִשְׁלֹמֹה, מַתְלָא אָמַר דַּעַת חָסַרְתָּ מַה קָּנִיתָ, דַּעַת קָנִיתָ מֶה חָסַרְתָּ. כְּתִיב (מלכים א ה, ט): וַתֵּרֶב חָכְמַת שְׁלֹמֹה מֵחָכְמַת כָּל בְּנֵי קֶדֶם וּמִכֹּל חָכְמַת מִצְרָיִם, וּמָה הָיְתָה חָכְמָתָן שֶׁל בְּנֵי קֶדֶם, שֶׁהָיוּ יוֹדְעִין בַּמַּזָּל, וְקוֹסְמִין בָּעוֹפוֹת, וּבְקִיאִין בַּטְּיָיר. אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים אֲנִי מְשַׁבֵּחַ אֶת בְּנֵי הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁאֵין נוֹשְׁקִין בַּפֶּה אֶלָּא בַּיָּד, וְאֵין נוֹשְׁכִין בַּפֶּה אֶלָּא חוֹתְכִים בַּסַּכִּין, וְאֵין נוֹטְלִין עֵצָה אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם מְרֻוָּח, שֶׁאֵין יוֹעֲצִין אֶלָּא בַּשָֹּׂדֶה. מָה הָיְתָה חָכְמָתָן שֶׁל מִצְרַיִם, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ שְׁלֹמֹה לִבְנוֹת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ שָׁלַח אֵצֶל פַּרְעֹה נְכֹה וְאָמַר שְׁלַח לִי אֻמָּנִים בִּשְׂכָרָן, שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לִבְנוֹת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. מֶה עָשָׂה כָּנַס כָּל אִסְטְרוֹלוֹגִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְצָפוּ וְרָאוּ בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהֵן עֲתִידִין לָמוּת בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה וּשְׁלָחָן לוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁבָּאוּ אֵצֶל שְׁלֹמֹה צָפָה בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהֵם עֲתִידִין לָמוּת בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁנָה, וְנָתַן לָהֶם תַּכְרִיכִין וּשְׁלָחָן לוֹ, וְאָמַר לוֹ, אִם לֹא הָיָה לְךָ תַּכְרִיכִין לְצֹרֶךְ מֵתֶיךָ אֵלּוּ, הֲרֵי הֵם וְתַכְרִיכֵיהוֹן קוּם קְבֹר אוֹתָם. (מלכים א ה, יא): וַיֶּחְכַּם מִכָּל הָאָדָם, מֵאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּמֶה הָיְתָה חָכְמָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא כְּשֶׁבִּקֵּשׁ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת וְאָמַר לָהֶם, נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם, אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם (תהלים ח, ה): מָה אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם, אָדָם שֶׁאֲנִי רוֹצֶה לִבְרֹאתוֹ חָכְמָתוֹ מְרֻבָּה מִשֶּׁלָּכֶם, מֶה עָשָׂה כָּנַס כָּל בְּהֵמָה חַיָה וָעוֹף וְהֶעֱמִידָן לִפְנֵיהֶם, וְאָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּ לָהֶם שֵׁמוֹת, עָמְדוּ וְלֹא יָדְעוּ. הָלַךְ אֵצֶל אָדָם אָמַר לוֹ מַה שְּׁמוֹתָן שֶׁל אֵלּוּ, אָמַר רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים לָזֶה נָאֶה לִקְרוֹתוֹ שׁוֹר, וְלָזֶה אֲרִי, וְלָזֶה סוּס, וְלָזֶה גָּמָל, וְלָזֶה נֶשֶׁר, וְכֵן לְכֻלָּן. וְאָמַר לוֹ אַתָּה מַה שִּׁמְךָ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו, אָדָם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי מִן הָאֲדָמָה. וַאֲנִי מַה שְּׁמִי, אָמַר לְפָנָיו, אֲדֹנָי, מִפְּנֵי מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה אָדוֹן עַל בְּרִיּוֹתֶיךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מב, ח): אֲנִי ה' הוּא שְׁמִי, הוּא שְׁמִי שֶׁקָּרָא לִי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, הוּא שְׁמִי שֶׁהִתְנֵיתִי בֵּינִי לְבֵין עַצְמִי, הוּא שְׁמִי שֶׁהִתְנֵיתִי בֵּינִי לְבֵין בְּרִיּוֹתַי וּבֵין מַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. מֵאֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, דִּכְתִיב (תהלים פט, ל): מַשְׂכִּיל לְאֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי. וְהֵימָן, זֶה משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יב, ז): בְּכָל בֵּיתִי נֶאֱמָן הוּא. וְכַלְכֹּל, זֶה יוֹסֵף, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית מז, יב): וַיְכַלְכֵּל יוֹסֵף, אָמְרוּ מִצְרַיִם כְּלוּם עֶבֶד זֶה מֶלֶךְ עָלֵינוּ אֶלָּא בְּחָכְמָתוֹ, נָטְלוּ שִׁבְעִים פִּיתְקִין וְהָיוּ מַשְׁלִיכִין לְפָנָיו וְהָיָה קוֹרֵא כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בִּלְשׁוֹנוֹ, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה מְדַבֵּר בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ, שֶׁלֹא הָיוּ יוֹדְעִין וּמַכִּירִין בּוֹ וְאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בּוֹ, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים פא, ו): עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ. וְדַרְדַּע, זֶה דּוֹר הַמִּדְבָּר, שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ דֵּעָה. בְּנֵי מָחוֹל, אֵלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁמָּחַל לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל מַעֲשֵׂה הָעֵגֶל.
195. Anon., Didascalia Apostolorum, 21 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 119
196. Anon., Deuteronomy Rabbah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, views of the romans Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 42
197. Palestinian Talmud, Pesahim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 126
198. Palestinian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 143, 231
199. Palestinian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, 1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, impact of judah the patriarch Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
200. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 788
201. Tertullian, Apology, 38.4, 42.2.4, 42.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, condemning theater •rabbis, and other jews •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 180; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 130, 134, 189
38.4. offendimus, si alias praesumimus voluptates? Si obiectari novisse nolumus, nostra iniuria est, si forte, non vestra. Sed reprobamus quae placent vobis. Nec vos nostra delectant. 42.4. possum.
202. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 292
203. Palestinian Talmud, Shevuot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
204. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 151, 158
205. Palestinian Talmud, Yevamot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
206. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
207. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
208. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 788
209. Tertullian, On The Games, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 189
8. To follow out my plan in regard to places: the circus is chiefly consecrated to the Sun, whose temple stands in the middle of it, and whose image shines forth from its temple summit; for they have not thought it proper to pay sacred honours underneath a roof to an object they have itself in open space. Those who assert that the first spectacle was exhibited by Circe, and in honour of the Sun her father, as they will have it, maintain also the name of circus was derived from her. Plainly, then, the enchantress did this in the name of the parties whose priestess she was - I mean the demons and spirits of evil. What an aggregation of idolatries you see, accordingly, in the decoration of the place! Every ornament of the circus is a temple by itself. The eggs are regarded as sacred to the Castors, by men who are not ashamed to profess faith in their production from the egg of a swan, which was no other than Jupiter himself. The Dolphins vomit forth in honour of Neptune. Images of Sessia, so called as the goddess of sowing; of Messia, so called as the goddess of reaping; of Tutulina, so called as the fruit-protecting deity - load the pillars. In front of these you have three altars to these three gods - Great, Mighty, Victorious. They reckon these of Samo-Thrace. The huge Obelisk, as Hermeteles affirms, is set up in public to the Sun; its inscription, like its origin, belongs to Egyptian superstition. Cheerless were the demon-gathering without their Mater Magna; and so she presides there over the Euripus. Consus, as we have mentioned, lies hidden under ground at the Murcian Goals. These two sprang from an idol. For they will have it that Murcia is the goddess of love; and to her, at that spot, they have consecrated a temple. See, Christian, how many impure names have taken possession of the circus! You have nothing to do with a sacred place which is teted by such multitudes of diabolic spirits. And speaking of places, this is the suitable occasion for some remarks in anticipation of a point that some will raise. What, then, you say; shall I be in danger of pollution if I go to the circus when the games are not being celebrated? There is no law forbidding the mere places to us. For not only the places for show-gatherings, but even the temples, may be entered without any peril of his religion by the servant of God, if he has only some honest reason for it, unconnected with their proper business and official duties. Why, even the streets and the market-place, and the baths, and the taverns, and our very dwelling-places, are not altogether free from idols. Satan and his angels have filled the whole world. It is not by merely being in the world, however, that we lapse from God, but by touching and tainting ourselves with the world's sins. I shall break with my Maker, that is, by going to the Capitol or the temple of Serapis to sacrifice or adore, as I shall also do by going as a spectator to the circus and the theatre. The places in themselves do not contaminate, but what is done in them; from this even the places themselves, we maintain, become defiled. The polluted things pollute us. It is on this account that we set before you to whom places of the kind are dedicated, that we may prove the things which are done in them to belong to the idol-patrons to whom the very places are sacred.
210. Palestinian Talmud, Betzah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 230
211. Palestinian Talmud, Terumot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 788
212. Palestinian Talmud, Bikkurim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yehuda the son of rabbi hiiyya Found in books: Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 123
213. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, attending the baths Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 132, 147, 224, 235
214. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 123
62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the i tanna /i taught us a i halakha /i b with regard to all of them, /b not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: b But /b with regard to a sailor b it said /b that the set interval for conjugal relations is b six months; /b why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that b one who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. /b On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., b Rabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driver /b who is already married wants to b become a camel driver, what /b is the i halakha /i ? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? b He answered him: A woman prefers a i kav /i , /b i.e., modest means, b with conjugal relations to ten i kav /i with abstinence. /b Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For b sailors, /b the set interval for conjugal relations is b once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona said /b that b Rav said: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava said /b that b Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leave /b their homes b to study Torah /b for as long as b two or three years without permission /b from their wives. b Rava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’s /b opinion b and performed an action /b like this b themselves, /b but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is b as /b it is related b about Rav Reḥumi, who would commonly /b study b before Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to come /b back b to his home every /b year on the b eve of Yom Kippur. One day he was /b particularly b engrossed in /b the b i halakha /i /b he was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. b His wife was expecting him /b that day and continually said to herself: b Now he is coming, now he is coming. /b But in the end, b he did not come. She was distressed /b by this and b a tear fell from her eye. /b At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi b was sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died. /b This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ b When /b is b the /b ideal b time for Torah scholars /b to fulfill their conjugal obligations? b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b The appropriate time for them is b from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve, /b i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b “that brings forth its fruit in its season” /b (Psalms 1:3): b Rav Yehuda said, and some say /b that it was b Rav Huna, and some say /b that it was b Rav Naḥman: This /b is referring to one b who engages in marital relations, /b bringing forth his fruit, b from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b ,It is related further that b Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya /b and b son-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and every /b Shabbat eve b at twilight he would come to his house. When he would come, /b Rabbi Yannai b would see a pillar of fire preceding him /b due to his sanctity. b One day he was engrossed in /b the b i halakha /i /b he was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. b When Rabbi Yannai did not see that sign /b preceding him, b he said to /b the family: b Turn his bed over, /b as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that b if Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set interval /b for conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said b became “like an error that proceeds from a ruler” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:5), b and /b Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, b died. /b ,It is related further that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b arranged for his son /b to marry a daughter of b the household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualification /b in these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? b They sat and looked into the families’ /b ancestry and found that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b was descended from Shefatya ben Avital, /b the wife of David, whereas b Rabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b , b He went and arranged for his son /b to marry a daughter b of the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for him /b that they would support him for b twelve years to go to study in the study hall. /b It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. b They passed /b the girl b in front of /b the groom and when he saw her b he said: Let it be /b just b six years. They passed her in front of him /b again and b he said to them: I will marry her /b now b and then go /b to study. b He was /b then b ashamed /b to see b his father, /b as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and b said to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception, /b meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that b initially it is written: “You bring them and plant them /b in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. b And ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” /b (Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding b he went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile, /b as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: What /b should we b do? If he will divorce her, /b people b will say: This poor woman waited /b and hoped b for naught. If he will marry another woman /b to beget children, people b will say: This one, /b who bears him children, b is his wife and that one, /b who lives with him, b is his mistress. /b Therefore, her husband b pleaded /b with God b to have mercy on her and she was cured. /b , b Rabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast. /b Rabbi Shimon b said to him: Wait for me until I /b can b come with you, /b after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, b he did not wait /b and b went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b , b He went /b and b sat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter, /b meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. b He followed her /b to his house. b His wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw him /b and recognized him, b and her heart fluttered /b with agitation and b she passed away /b from the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya b said before /b God: b Master of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b , b Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came /b back to his house, b he said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai, /b who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, b did. He went and sat in the study hall /b in his hometown, b and sent /b a message b to his house /b that he had arrived. While he was sitting there b his son Rabbi Oshaya, /b whom he did not recognize, b came and sat before him. /b Rabbi Oshaya b asked him /b questions about b i halakha /i , and /b Rabbi Ḥama b saw that the i halakhot /i of /b Rabbi Oshaya b were incisive, /b i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama b was distressed and said: If I had been here /b and had taught my son b I would have had a child like this. /b ,Rabbi Ḥama b went in to his house /b and b his son went in /b with him. Rabbi Ḥama then b stood up before him /b to honor a Torah scholar, since b he thought /b that b he wanted to ask him a matter of i halakha /i . His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son? /b The Gemara comments: b Rami bar Ḥama read /b the verse b about him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken” /b (Ecclesiastes 4:12). b This /b is referring to b Rabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa, /b as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: b Rabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua, /b one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The b daughter /b of Ben Kalba Savua b saw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hall /b to learn Torah? b He said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent him /b off to study. b Her father heard /b this and became angry. b He removed her from his house /b and took a b vow /b prohibiting her from b benefiting from his property. /b Rabbi Akiva b went /b and b sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came /b back to his house b he brought twelve thousand students /b with him, and as he approached b he heard an old man saying to /b his wife: b For how long /b
215. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
71a. b purifies /b the b tribes, /b i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will b purify /b that of b the tribe of Levi first, as it is stated /b with regard to the angel sent forth by God: b “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness” /b (Malachi 3:3)., b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies i mamzerim /i . /b Money causes rich i mamzerim /i to become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as i mamzerim /i , b as it is stated: “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,” /b which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. b What, /b then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: b “They that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performed /b an act of b righteousness with the Jewish people /b by establishing b that a family that has become assimilated /b with Jews of unflawed lineage remains b assimilated. /b They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.,§ With regard to b the /b matter b itself /b that was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b The lineage of residents of b all lands is muddled /b compared b to /b that of the residents of b Eretz Yisrael, and /b the lineage of residents of b Eretz Yisrael is muddled /b compared b to /b that of b Babylonia. /b The Gemara relates: b In the days of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b they sought to establish /b the lineage of the Jews in b Babylonia /b as b muddled /b relative b to /b that of b Eretz Yisrael. /b In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so b he said to /b those who put forth this suggestion: b Are you placing thorns between my eyes? /b Do you wish to insult me? b If you wish, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama will join you /b and explain it to you., b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama joined them /b and b said to them: This /b is the tradition that b I received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father, /b who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of b all lands is muddled /b compared b to /b that of b Eretz Yisrael, and /b the lineage of residents of b Eretz Yisrael is muddled /b compared b to /b that of b Babylonia. /b ,The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: b In the days of Rabbi Pineḥas, they sought to establish /b the lineage of b Babylonia /b as b muddled /b relative b to /b that of b Eretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run, /b so that I will not be attacked for my statements. b When he entered /b the house of study b he said to /b those studying there: b Slaughter of a bird is not /b obligatory b by Torah law. /b , b While they were sitting and scrutinizing this /b novel i halakha /i , b he said to them: /b The lineage of residents of b all lands is muddled /b compared b to /b that of b Eretz Yisrael, and /b the lineage of residents of b Eretz Yisrael is muddled /b compared b to /b that of b Babylonia. /b His servants b picked him up on a stretcher and ran. /b Those that were in the house of study b pursued him but could not catch him. /b Nevertheless, b they sat and examined /b the lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, b until they reached /b powerful families. It was b dangerous /b to accuse them of flaws due to their power, b and they withdrew /b from their inspections., b Rabbi Yoḥa says /b as an oath: By the b Sanctuary! It is in our power /b to reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, b but what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it? /b Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoḥa b holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A family that has become assimilated /b remains b assimilated, /b and one should not reveal their flawed status., b Abaye said: We too learn /b in the mishna ( i Eduyyot /i 8:7): b There was a family /b known as b Beit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, and /b a person called b ben Tziyyon forcefully distanced it /b and proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. b There was another /b one b that ben Tzion forcefully drew near, /b although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families b such as these, Elijah comes to /b declare b impure and to /b declare b pure, to distance and to draw near. /b Abaye continues: When the mishna states: b Such as these, /b it means those b whose /b status b we know. But a family that has become assimilated, /b whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, b has /b already b become assimilated, /b and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.,The Sage b taught /b ( i Tosefta /i , i Eduyyot /i 3:4): b There was another /b family with flawed lineage, b but the Sages did not want to reveal its /b identity to all. b But the Sages transmit its /b name b to their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years, /b to prevent them from marrying into their family. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says /b that they transmit it b once every seven years, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Nazir /i 1:2): One who says: b I am hereby a nazirite if I do not reveal /b the names of b families /b of flawed lineage among the Jewish people, b he should be a nazirite and not reveal /b the identity of such b families. /b This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.,§ The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar i halakha /i : b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Sages transmit /b the correct pronunciation of b the four-letter name /b of God b to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who says /b that they transmit it b once every seven years, as it is written: “This is My name forever [ i le’olam /i ]” /b (Exodus 3:15), which is b written /b so that it can be read b i le’alem /i , /b to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: b Rava planned to expound /b and explain the proper way to say the name b in /b a public b discourse. A certain elder said to him: It is written /b so that it can be read b i le’alem /i , /b indicating that it must stay hidden., b Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: “This is My name,” /b indicating that the name as written is that of God; b and it is written: “This is My remembrance” /b (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not God’s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written with /b the letters b i yod /i , i heh /i , /b i vav /i , i heh /i , b while /b My name is b pronounced with /b the letters b i alef /i , i dalet /i , /b i nun /i , i yod /i ., b The Sages taught: Initially, /b the Sages b would transmit the twelve-letter name /b of God b to any person. When the uninhibited ones /b who used the name disrespectfully b increased, they would transmit it /b only b to discreet /b members b of the priesthood, and the discreet /b members b of the priesthood /b would pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would b conceal it /b by saying it b during the sweet /b melody b of their priestly brothers, /b so that it would not become publicly known. b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Tarfon, /b who was himself a priest, b said: /b On b one occasion I ascended after my mother’s brother to the platform /b to give the Priestly Benediction, b and I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweet /b melody b of his priestly brothers. /b , b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: The forty-two-letter name /b of God b may be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands at /b at least b half his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rights /b but is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. b And anyone who knows /b this name b and is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come. /b ,§ The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: b Shmuel says in the name of /b a certain b elder: /b A family in b Babylonia has a presumptive status of unflawed /b lineage b until it becomes known to you in what way it was /b rendered of b flawed /b lineage. Conversely, a family from b other lands has a presumptive status of flawed /b lineage b until it becomes known to you in what way it was /b rendered b unflawed. /b As for families in b Eretz Yisrael, /b one who b has a presumptive status of flawed /b lineage is of b flawed /b lineage, whereas one who b has presumptive status of unflawed /b lineage is of b unflawed /b lineage.,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: b This matter itself is difficult: /b First, b you said /b that a family that b has a presumptive status of flawed /b lineage is of b flawed /b lineage, indicating that a family with b unspecified /b status is of b unflawed /b lineage. b And then /b you b teach: /b A family that b has a presumptive status of unflawed /b lineage is of b unflawed /b lineage, indicating that a family with b unspecified /b status is of b flawed /b lineage. b Rav Huna bar Taḥalifa said in the name of Rav: /b This is b not difficult. /b
216. Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •akiva, rabbi, and r. yishmael/two-schools hypothesis •yishmael, rabbi, and r. akiva/two-schools hypothesis Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 129
14a. כדאמרינן מעיקרא שאם עשו תשובה ב"ד של מעלה מוחלין להן מאי אמרת הא לא עבוד תשובה לא פסיקא מילתא לכרת,רבי יצחק אומר חייבי כריתות בכלל היו ולמה יצאת כרת באחותו לדונו בכרת ולא במלקות,ורבנן כרת באחותו למה לי לחלק וכדרבי יוחנן דאמר רבי יוחנן שאם עשאן כולם בהעלם אחד חייב על כל אחת ואחת,ורבי יצחק לחלק מנא ליה נפקא ליה (ויקרא יח, יט) מואל אשה בנדת טומאתה לחייב על כל אשה ואשה,ורבנן נמי תיפוק ליה מהא אין הכי נמי ואלא כרת דאחותו למה לי לחייבו על אחותו ועל אחות אביו ועל אחות אמו,פשיטא הרי גופין מוחלקין הרי שמות מוחלקין אלא לחייבו על אחותו שהיא אחות אביו שהיא אחות אמו והיכי משכחת לה ברשיעא בר רשיעא,ור' יצחק הא מנא ליה נפקא ליה מק"ו דתניא אמר ר"ע שאלתי את רבן גמליאל ורבי יהושע באיטליז של עימאום שהלכו ליקח בהמה למשתה בנו של ר"ג הבא על אחותו שהיא אחות אביו שהיא אחות אמו מהו [אינו] חייב על כולן אלא אחת או חייב על כל אחת ואחת,אמרו לו זו לא שמענו אבל שמענו הבא על חמש נשים נדות בהעלם אחד שחייב על כל אחת ואחת ונראין דברים מק"ו ומה נדה שהיא שם אחד חייב על כל אחת ואחת כאן ששלשה שמות לא כל שכן,ואידך ק"ו פריכא הוא מה לנדה שכן גופין מוחלקין,ולאידך נמי האי ודאי ק"ו פריכא הוא אלא נפקא ליה (ויקרא כ, יז) מאחותו דסיפא,ואידך אחותו דסיפא למה לי לחייבו על אחותו בת אביו ובת אמו לומר שאין עונשין מן הדין,ואידך איבעית אימא גמר עונש מאזהרה ואיבעית אימא נפקא ליה 14a. b as we stated initially, that if they repented the heavenly court absolves them /b of the punishment of i karet /i , and therefore this is not a case of two punishments for one transgression, and there is no exemption from lashes. b What do you say /b in response, b that they did not /b yet b repent? /b Nevertheless, since b the matter is not clear-cut with regard to i karet /i , /b as perhaps they repented, they are therefore not exempt from lashes.,§ It is taught in the i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Those liable /b to receive b i karet /i /b in cases of incest b were included in /b the principle: “For anyone who performs any of these abominations, the souls who do so shall be excised from among their people” (Leviticus 18:29). b And why was /b the punishment of b i karet /i , /b when administered to one who engages in intercourse b with his sister, excluded /b from this verse and mentioned independently (Leviticus 20:17)? It is b to sentence him /b to be punished b with i karet /i and not to /b be punished b with lashes. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b the Rabbis, /b i.e., Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, who maintain that those liable to receive i karet /i are flogged, b why do I /b need b i karet /i /b to be written in the case of one who engages in intercourse b with his sister; /b what does it teach? The Gemara answers: It teaches b to divide /b the various prohibitions of sexual intercourse with forbidden relatives, b and is in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says that if one performed all /b the transgressions described in the passage in the Torah enumerating forbidden relatives b during one lapse of awareness, /b he is b liable /b to bring a separate sin-offering b for each and every one, /b as one is liable to receive i karet /i for each and every one.,The Gemara asks: b And /b concerning b Rabbi Yitzḥak, /b who derives the i halakha /i that one who is liable to receive i karet /i is not flogged from the fact that i karet /i for one who engages in intercourse with his sister emerged from the generalization, b from where /b does b he /b derive the concept b to divide /b the various prohibitions? The Gemara answers: b He derives it from /b the verse written with regard to a menstruating woman: b “And to a woman in the separation of her impurity /b you shall not approach” (Leviticus 18:19). From the superfluous expression “and to a woman,” Rabbi Yitzḥak derives b that one is liable for /b intercourse with b each and every /b forbidden b woman. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b the Rabbis as well, let them derive /b the division of the prohibitions b from this /b verse, rather than from the fact that i karet /i for one who engages in intercourse with his sister emerged from the generalization. The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b it b is indeed so, /b they derive division from the verse with regard to a menstruating woman; b but rather, /b the question again arises: b Why do I /b need b i karet /i /b to be written in the case of one who engages in intercourse b with his sister; /b what does it teach? The Gemara answers: It teaches b to render him liable /b to bring three separate sin-offerings for engaging in intercourse b with his sister, and with his father’s sister, and with his mother’s sister, /b during a single lapse of awareness.,The Gemara asks: Isn’t the fact that he is liable to bring three sin-offerings b obvious? /b The actions were performed with b separate bodies, /b i.e., three different women, and those actions violated the b names /b of three b separate /b prohibitions; no derivation is required. b Rather, /b it is b to render him liable /b to bring three separate sin-offerings for engaging in intercourse b with his sister who is /b also b his father’s sister /b and b who is /b also b his mother’s sister. /b The Gemara inquires: b And how can you find these /b circumstances? The Gemara answers: It is found b in /b the case of b a wicked person, son of a wicked person. /b How so? If a man engages in intercourse with his mother, and she bears him two daughters, and he then engages in intercourse with one of the daughters and fathers a son, that son could engage in intercourse with the other daughter, who is his half sister through his father, as well as being his father’s half sister and his mother’s half sister.,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b Rabbi Yitzḥak, from where does he /b derive this? b He derives it by means of an i a fortiori /i /b inference, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Akiva says: I asked Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua /b a question b in the meat market [ i itliz /i ] of /b the town of b Emmaus, where they went to purchase an animal for the /b wedding b feast of Rabban Gamliel’s son. /b Rabbi Akiva asked: In the case of b one who engages in intercourse with his sister who is /b also b his father’s sister /b and b who is /b also b his mother’s sister, what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to bringing a sin-offering? Is b he liable /b to bring b only one /b sin-offering b for /b engaging in intercourse that violated b all of /b the prohibitions, b or /b is b he liable /b to bring a sin-offering b for each and every /b prohibition that he violated when he engaged in intercourse with that woman?,Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua b said to him: We did not hear /b the i halakha /i in b that /b case. b But we heard /b the i halakha /i in a similar case: b One who engages in intercourse with five menstruating women during one lapse of awareness /b is b liable /b to bring a sin-offering b for each and every one /b of the women with whom he engaged in intercourse, b and it appears /b with regard to the b matter /b of your inquiry that he is liable to bring a sin-offering for each and every prohibition, b by means of an i a fortiori /i /b inference. How so? b If /b in the case of b a menstruating woman, which /b involves violation of the b name of one /b prohibition, he is b liable for /b intercourse with b each and every one, here, where /b the woman is forbidden due to the b names /b of b three /b prohibitions, is it b not all the more so /b logical that he is liable to bring three sin-offerings?,The Gemara explains: b And /b according to b the other /b opinion of the Rabbis, who maintain that liability for intercourse with each and every one is derived from an explicit verse, b it is a refuted i a fortiori /i /b inference: b What /b is notable b about /b the case of b a menstruating woman? /b It is notable b in that /b the actions were performed with b separate bodies, /b i.e., different women, while in the case in question, the person engaged in intercourse with one woman.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according b to the other /b opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak b too, this is certainly a refuted i a fortiori /i /b inference, from which no i halakha /i can be derived. b Rather, /b as for the i halakha /i that a person is liable to bring three sin-offerings for engaging in intercourse with his sister who is also his father’s sister and who is also his mother’s sister, Rabbi Yitzḥak b derives it from /b the phrase b “his sister” /b written b in the latter clause /b of that verse. The verse begins: “And a man who takes his sister, the daughter of his father or the daughter of his mother…and they shall be excised…the nakedness of his sister he has revealed, he shall bear his transgression” (Leviticus 20:17). From the repetition of the term sister, it is derived that he is liable to bring a sin-offering for each and every prohibition that he violated.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b the other /b opinion of the Rabbis, who derive this i halakha /i from the term “sister” at the beginning of the verse, b why do I /b need the phrase b “his sister” /b to be written b in the latter clause /b of that verse; what does it teach? The Gemara answers: It teaches b to render him liable for /b engaging in intercourse with b his sister /b who is also b the daughter of his father and the daughter of his mother, /b which comes b to say that one does not administer punishment based on /b an i a fortiori /i b inference. /b Although the Torah specified liability for one who engaged in intercourse with his paternal sister and for one who engaged in intercourse with his maternal sister, an independent derivation is necessary for liability for one who engaged in intercourse with a woman who is both his paternal and his maternal sister.,The Gemara asks: b And /b according to b the other /b opinion of Rabbi Yitzḥak, who derives another matter from the term “sister” in the latter verse, from where does he derive liability for one who engaged in intercourse with a woman who is both his paternal and his maternal sister? The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say he derives /b the b punishment from the prohibition; /b just as the prohibition includes intercourse with a woman who is both his paternal and his maternal sister, the same applies to the punishment. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b he derives it /b
217. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 16
16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. b he /b himself b should stumble /b by showing favoritism to Benjamin? b As Rava bar Meḥaseyya said /b that b Rav Ḥama bar Gurya said /b that b Rav said: Due to /b the weight of b two sela of fine wool that Jacob /b gave to Joseph, which he b added to /b what he gave b Joseph beyond /b what he gave b the rest of his brothers, /b as he made him his special coat, b the story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt. /b How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? b Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: He /b was not showing favoritism. Rather, he b intimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the king /b wearing b five royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forth /b from the presence of the king b in royal apparel of sky blue /b and white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b “And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ i tzavarei /i /b ] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word i tzavarei /i is plural, meaning necks: b How many necks did Benjamin have, /b such that the verse should use the plural i tzavarei /i rather than the singular i tzavar /i ? b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This intimates b that /b Joseph b cried over the two Temples that were destined to be in the /b tribal b territory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed. /b The same verse continues: b “And Benjamin wept on his neck” /b (Genesis 45:14); b he cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in the /b tribal b territory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b ,The verse states: b “And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin” /b (Genesis 45:12). b Rabbi Elazar said: /b Joseph b said to /b his brothers as follows: b Just as I /b certainly b harbor no /b resentment b in my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was not /b even b present when I was sold, so too, I harbor no /b resentment b toward you. /b The verse continues: b “That it is my mouth [ i ki fi /i ] that speaks to you” /b (Genesis 45:12), i.e., b As my mouth [ i kefi /i ] is, so is my heart. /b ,The verse states: b “And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt” /b (Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: b What are “the good things of Egypt” /b that are mentioned but not specified here? b Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b ,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b “And his brothers even went and fell down before him” /b (Genesis 50:18). b Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: This /b explains the folk saying b that people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it, /b i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph b a fox? What, was he inferior to his brothers /b such that in relation to them you call him a fox? b Rather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows, /b not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b “And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed” /b (Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, b Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it, /b as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b “And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts” /b (Genesis 50:21). b Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This b teaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart, /b and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: b If ten lights could not put out one light, /b as all of you were unable to do me harm, b how can one light put out ten lights? /b ,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b “The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor” /b (Esther 8:16). b Rav Yehuda said: “Light”; this /b is referring to the b Torah /b that they once again studied. b And similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light” /b (Proverbs 6:23). b “Gladness” [ i simḥa /i ]; this /b is referring to b the Festivals /b that they once again observed. b And similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ i vesamakhta /i ] on your Festival” /b (Deuteronomy 16:14). b “Joy” [ i sasson /i ]; this /b is referring to b circumcision, /b as they once again circumcised their sons. b And similarly it says: “I rejoice [ i sas /i ] at Your word” /b (Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b “Honor”; this is /b referring to b phylacteries, /b which they once again donned. b And similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you” /b (Deuteronomy 28:10). b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Eliezer the Great said: This /b is referring to b the phylacteries worn on the head. /b Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. b And Parshandatha… /b and Vaizatha, b the ten sons of Haman” /b (Esther 9:6–10). b Rav Adda from Jaffa said: /b When reading the Megilla, the names of b the ten sons of Haman and /b the word b “ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reason /b for this? It is that b their souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b The letter b i vav /i in /b the name b “Vaizatha” /b is a lengthened i vav /i and b must be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ i liberot /i ]. What is the reason /b for this? To indicate that b they were all hanged on one pole. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said /b that b Rabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: All /b of b the songs /b in the Bible b are written /b in the form of b a half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick, /b i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. b This is the principle for all songs in the Bible except /b for b this song, /b referring to the list of Haman’s sons, b and /b the song listing b the kings of Canaan /b who were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of b a half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick, /b i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. b What is the reason /b that these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? b So that they should never rise from their downfall. /b Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b “And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slain /b and destroyed five hundred men b in Shushan the capital, /b and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). b Rabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth, /b so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b “But when she came before the king, he said with a letter” /b (Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b “He said”? It should have said: “She said,” /b as it was Esther who changed the decree. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: She said to /b Ahasuerus: b Let it be said by /b word of b mouth, /b indicating that b that which is written in the letter /b should also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b “Words of peace and truth” /b (Esther 9:30), b Rabbi Tanḥum said, and some say /b that b Rabbi Asi /b said: This b teaches that /b a Megilla scroll b requires scoring, /b i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, b as the Torah itself, /b i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. b And the decree of Esther confirmed /b these matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b “the decree of Esther” indeed /b confirmed these matters of Purim, but b “the matters of the fasts” /b did b not? /b But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b These two verses, b “The matters of the fasts /b and their cry. b And the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,” /b should be read as one.,The verse states: b “For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren” /b (Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b “By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren. /b This b teaches that some /b members b of the Sanhedrin parted from him, /b because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., b Rav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially, /b when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, b Mordecai was mentioned after four /b other people, b but at the end /b he was listed b after five. /b This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: b At first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan” /b (Ezra 2:2); b but in the end /b in a later list b it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan” /b (Nehemiah 7:7)., b Rav said, and some say /b that b Rav Shmuel bar Marta /b said: b Studying Torah is greater /b and more important b than building the Temple. /b A proof of this is that b for as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alive /b in Babylonia, b Ezra, /b who was his disciple, b did not leave him and go up /b to Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., b Rabba said /b that b Rav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah is /b greater and b more /b important b than honoring one’s father and mother, /b and a proof of this is b that for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eber /b and studied Torah there b he was not punished /b for having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. b As the Master said: /b
218. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 32, 159, 160
87a. b the flour- /b like white scum that floats on the surface, b nor from /b the wine at b bottom of /b the cask b due to the sediment /b that collects there. b Rather, one brings from /b the wine in b its middle third. /b , b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b the wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? b The treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. When he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum b [ i hagir /i ], he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed., b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine b in which there is flour- /b like white scum is b unfit /b for libations, b as it is stated /b with regard to animal offerings: b “Unblemished they shall be for you…and their meal offering /b shall be fine flour mixed with b oil…unblemished they shall be for you, and their libations” /b (Numbers 28:19–20, 31). This indicates that animal offerings, meal offerings, and libations must all be brought from flawless products. Therefore, the presence of flour-like white scum in wine renders it unfit., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b libations from b sweet /b wine, b nor /b from b boiled /b wine, b nor /b from wine produced from b smoked /b grapes, b and if one did bring /b a libation from such wine, it is b not valid. /b The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t the first clause teach: One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring /b a libation from such wine it is b valid? /b How can one clause teach that a libation of one type of sweet wine is valid, and the other clause teach that a libation of another type of sweet wine is not valid?, b Ravina said: /b The text of the mishna is corrupt. To correct it, b combine /b the two clauses into one b and teach /b with regard to all the wines mentioned that they are unfit to be used for libations. b Rav Ashi said: /b The text of the mishna is correct. The reason for the difference between the two wines is that b the sweetness /b of grapes sweetended b by the sun is not objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are valid, while b sweetness /b that results from the sugars b of the fruit /b itself b is objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are not valid.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine b aged /b for one year; this is b the statement of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b but the Rabbis deem it valid. /b The Gemara provides the source for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s ruling. b Rabbi Ḥizkiyya said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi? b The verse states /b with regard to the libations that accompany the New Moon offering: “And their libations: Half a i hin /i for a bull, a third of a i hin /i for a ram, and a quarter of a i hin /i b for a lamb, of wine” /b (Numbers 28:14). The juxtaposition of the terms lamb and wine teaches that b just as a lamb /b is fit to be used as an offering only if brought b in its /b first b year, so too wine /b is fit to be used as a libation only if it is b in its /b first b year. /b ,The Gemara ask: b If /b so, take the analogy further and conclude that b just as /b if one offers b a lamb in /b its b second year, /b it is b not valid, so too /b a libation of b wine in /b its b second year /b is b not valid. And if you would say /b that this is b indeed /b the i halakha /i , that is difficult: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b wine in /b its b second year may not be brought /b i ab initio /i , but b if one did bring it /b as a libation, it is b valid? /b That i baraita /i certainly expresses the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as b whom did you hear who said /b that aged wine b may not be brought? /b Only b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, who explicitly states this opinion in the mishna. b And yet he says /b in the i baraita /i : b If one did bring /b a libation of aged wine, it is b valid. /b According to Rabbi Ḥizkiyya’s explanation of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, such an opinion is illogical., b Rather, Rava said: This is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b As it is written /b in the verse exhorting a person not to be enticed by fine wines: b “Look not upon the wine when it is red” /b (Proverbs 23:31). Evidently, the redness of wine is indicative of its quality. After a year, wine begins to lose its redness and so it should not be used, i ab initio /i . Nevertheless, it is still of a sufficient quality to be acceptable, after the fact.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine produced from b grapes suspended /b on stakes or trees; rather, one brings wine produced from grapes at foot height and from vineyards that are cultivated. The definition of vineyards that are cultivated is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: Vineyards that are cultivated twice a year. /b This is done by hoeing the earth underneath the vines.,The Gemara relates the efficacy of cultivating the land twice a year: b Rav Yosef had a tract /b of land b that was /b used b an orchard [ i depardeisa /i ] /b to b which he /b used to b give an extra hoeing, and /b consequently b it produced wine /b of such superior quality that when preparing the wine for drinking it required b a dilution using twice /b the amount b of water /b than that which is usually used to dilute wine.,§ The mishna teaches: When people produced wine for libations b they would not collect /b the wine b into large barrels, /b as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it would be placed in small casks. The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : The b casks /b referred to by the mishna are b flasks /b that are made in b Lod and /b that b are medium-sized. /b ,The Gemara adds another i halakha /i : When storing casks containing wine for libations, b they should not be placed in twos, /b i.e., one atop the other, but b rather singly, /b i.e., each one should be placed separately.,§ The mishna teaches: b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The b treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. If he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, b he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed. The precise point at which he knocks is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: /b If the wine b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, which comes b from the sediment, he knocks with the reed. /b ,The Gemara challenges: Why does the treasurer knock with the reed; b let him /b simply b speak. /b The Gemara explains: This b supports /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: Just as speech is beneficial to the /b incense b spices, so is speech detrimental to wine, /b and so the treasurer avoids speaking.,§ The mishna teaches: b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations. b Rabbi Yoḥa raises a dilemma /b concerning such wine: If b one consecrated it /b to be used as a libation, b what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether b he should be flogged for /b consecrating b it due to /b the prohibition against consecrating b a flawed /b item as an offering? Does one say that b since it /b is b unfit, it is comparable to a blemished /b animal? b Or perhaps, /b the prohibition to consecrate b a flawed /b item b applies only to an animal. /b The Gemara concludes: The dilemma b shall stand /b unresolved.,§ Having discussed which flours, oils, and wine are fit to be offered in the Temple, the Gemara considers which animals are of sufficient quality to be used as offerings. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The choicest b rams /b are those b from Moab; /b the choicest b lambs /b are those b from Hebron; /b the choicest b calves /b are those b from Sharon; /b and the choicest b fledglings, /b i.e., doves and pigeons, are those b from the King’s Mountain. /b , b Rabbi Yehuda says: One should bring lambs whose height is like their width, /b i.e., they are so robust that they are as wide as they are tall. b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: /b “And He will give the rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground, and bread of the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and bountiful; b your cattle shall graze in wide pastures [ i kar nirḥav /i ] on that day” /b (Isaiah 30:23). The word “ i kar /i ” can also mean a lamb, and “ i nirḥav /i ” means wide. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehuda interprets this verse, on a homiletical level, to be alluding to robust sheep.,The chapter concludes by quoting an additional prophecy of Isaiah concerning the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael: It b is written: “I have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem; they shall never be silent day nor night; those who remind the Lord, take no rest” /b (Isaiah 62:6). This is referring to the angels appointed by God to bring the redemption. The Gemara asks: b What /b do these watchmen b say /b to remind the Lord? b This /b is what b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: /b They recite the verse: b “You will arise and have compassion upon Zion; /b for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has come” (Psalms 102:14)., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: /b They recite the verse: b “The Lord builds up Jerusalem, /b He gathers together the dispersed of Israel” (Psalms 147:2). The Gemara asks: b And initially, /b when the Temple still stood and the Jewish people were gathered together in Eretz Yisrael, b what would /b the watchmen b say? Rava bar Rav Sheila says: /b They would say: b “For the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His habitation. /b This is My resting place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Psalms 132:13–14).,, strong MISHNA: /strong b Two /b sizes of b measuring vessels for dry /b substances b were /b used b in the Temple /b for measuring flour for the meal offerings. One held b a tenth /b of an ephah b and /b the other held b one-half of a tenth /b of an ephah. b Rabbi Meir says: /b There were three measuring vessels; one that held b a tenth /b of an ephah, another one that also held b a tenth /b of an ephah, b and /b a third one that held b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah., b What /b purpose b did /b the b tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b flour b for all the meal offerings. One would not measure /b the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that held the entire volume of flour required at once, i.e., b neither with /b a vessel of b three- /b tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a bull, nor with /b a vessel of b two /b -tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a ram. Rather, one measures /b the flour for b them /b by repeatedly using the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel to measure the required number of b tenths. /b , b What /b purpose b did /b the b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour for the b High Priest’s griddle-cake /b offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed b half /b of it b in the morning and /b the other b half /b of it b in the afternoon. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a i baraita /i that clarifies Rabbi Meir’s opinion. It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say: What /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “A tenth, a tenth, for every lamb” /b (Numbers 28:29)? The fact the word “tenth” appears twice b teaches that there were two /b measuring vessels that each held b a tenth /b of an ephah b in the Temple. One /b of them held that volume when it was b heaped, and /b the other b one /b was slightly larger and held that same volume when the flour was b leveled /b with the rim.,The one that held a tenth of an ephah when b heaped /b was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour b for all the meal offerings. /b
219. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 5.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 293
220. Lactantius, Deaths of The Persecutors, 12.4-12.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •church fathers, rabbis and synagogue Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 193
221. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 128
113a. גזייתא נינהו דשמטי סוסיא ואתו דברי להו,(וא"ל) רב לרב אסי לא תדור במתא דלא צניף בה סוסיא ולא נבח בה כלבא ואל תדור בעיר דריש מתא אסיא ולא תנסיב תרתי אי נסבת תרתי נסיב תלת,א"ל רב לרב כהנא הפוך בנבילתא ולא תיפוך במילי פשוט נבילתא בשוקא ושקיל אגרא ולא תימא כהנא אנא וגברא רבא אנא וסניא בי מלתא סלקת לאיגרא שירותך בהדך מאה קרי במתא בזוזא תותי כנפיך ניהוו,א"ל רב לחייא בריה לא תשתי סמא ולא תשוור ניגרא ולא תעקר ככא ולא תקנא בחיויא ולא תקנא בארמאה,תנו רבנן ג' אין מתקנאין בהן ואלו הן נכרי קטן ונחש קטן ותלמיד קטן מ"ט דמלכותייהו אחורי אודנייהו קאי,א"ל רב לאיבו בריה טרחי בך בשמעתא ולא מסתייע מילתא תא אגמרך מילי דעלמא אדחלא אכרעיך זבינך זבין כל מילי זבין ותחרט בר מחמרא דזבין ולא תחרט,שרי כיסיך פתח שקיך קבא מארעא ולא כורא מאיגרא,תמרא בחלוזך לבית סודנא רהיט ועד כמה אמר רבא עד תלתא סאה אמר רב פפא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי א"ד אמר רב חסדא אי לא דרמאי שכרא לא איעתרי מאי סודנא אמר רב חסדא סוד נאה וגמילות חסדים,אמר רב פפא כל אגב גביא בעי כל אשראי ספק אתי ספק לא אתי ודאתי מעות רעות נינהו,ג' דברים א"ר יוחנן משום אנשי ירושלים כשאתה יוצא למלחמה אל תצא בראשונה אלא תצא באחרונה כדי שתכנס בראשונה ועשה שבתך חול ואל תצטרך לבריות והוי משתדל עם מי שהשעה משחקת לו,(א"ר) שלשה דברים א"ר יהושע בן לוי משום אנשי ירושלים אל תרבה בגנות משום מעשה שהיה בתך בגרה שחרר עבדך ותן לה והוי זהיר באשתך מחתנה הראשון מ"ט רב חסדא אמר משום ערוה רב כהנא אמר משום ממון הא והא איתנהו,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה מנוחלי העוה"ב אלו הן הדר בא"י והמגדל בניו לתלמוד תורה והמבדיל על היין במוצאי שבתות מאי היא דמשייר מקידושא לאבדלתא,א"ר יוחנן שלשה מכריז עליהן הקב"ה בכל יום על רווק הדר בכרך ואינו חוטא ועל עני המחזיר אבידה לבעליה ועל עשיר המעשר פירותיו בצינעה רב ספרא רווק הדר בכרך הוה 113a. b are /b found b on the paths [ i gazyata /i ] /b near the city, b as horses /b belonging to the demons b flee /b along those paths, b and /b the demons b come to lead them /b away. Generally, however, demons do not enter inhabited places., b And /b Rav b said to Rav Asi: Do not live in a city where horses do not neigh and where dogs do not bark, /b as these animals provide security and protection. b And do not live in a city where the mayor is a doctor, /b as he will be too busy working to govern properly. b And do not marry two /b women, as they will likely join forces against you. And b if you /b do b marry two, marry a third /b as well. If two of your wives plot against you, the third will inform you of their plans., b Rav said to Rav Kahana: /b It is better for one b to turn over a carcass than to turn over his word, /b i.e., to break his promise. Rav further said: b Skin a carcass in the market and take payment, but do not say: I am a priest, or: I am a great man, and this matter disgusts me. /b It is preferable for one to work, even in menial labor, than to be dependent on others. Rav also advised Rav Kahana: If b you ascend to the roof, /b carry b your food with you. /b One should always carry his sustece with him, even if he goes only on a short trip. If b one hundred pumpkins in the city /b cost b a i zuz /i , place /b them carefully under b the corners /b of your clothes. Treat food respectfully even if it is inexpensive., b Rav said to Ḥiyya, his son: Do not /b get into the habit of b drinking medications, /b lest you develop an addiction. b And do not leap over a ditch, /b as you might hurt yourself in the process. b And do not pull out a tooth, /b but try to heal it if possible. b And do not provoke a snake /b in your house to try to kill it or chase it away. b And do not provoke a gentile, /b as this too is dangerous.,Similarly, b the Sages taught: /b There are b three /b beings b one /b should b not provoke: A small gentile, and a small snake, and a small /b Torah b scholar. What is the reason? Because their authority stands behind their ears. /b They will eventually grow up, assume power, each in his own way, and avenge those who have harassed them., b Rav said to Ayvu, his son: I struggled /b to teach b you i halakha /i but /b my efforts b did not succeed, /b as you did not become a great scholar. b Come /b and b I will teach you /b about b mundane matters: Sell your merchandise while the dust /b from the road is still b on your feet. /b As soon you return from your travels, sell your wares, lest the prices fall in the meantime. Furthermore, it is possible that b anything you sell /b might later cause you to b regret /b the sale, b except for wine, which you /b can b sell without regret. /b Since wine might go bad and be entirely lost, its sale is always advisable.,Rav further advised his son: b Open your purse /b to accept payment, and only then b open your sack /b to deliver the goods, to ensure you will receive payment for your merchandise. It is better to earn b a i kav /i from the ground than a i kor /i from the roof. /b A i kor /i is one hundred and eighty times larger than a i kav /i . This proverb means that it is preferable to earn a small amount from a local, safe transaction than to attempt to earn more through a distant, risky venture.,Rav continued: If there are b dates in your storeroom, run to the brewery /b to sell them. If you wait, there is a good chance the dates will go bad. The Gemara asks: b And how many /b dates should one keep for himself? b Rava said: Up to three i se’a /i . Rav Pappa said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. Some say /b that it was b Rav Ḥisda who said: If I were not a beer manufacturer I would not have become wealthy. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of the word b i sudana /i , /b the Aramaic term for a brewer? b Rav Ḥisda said: A pleasant secret [ i sod na’e /i ] and acts of loving kindness, /b as brewing is a good way to make money and also enables one to perform good deeds.,The Gemara continues to offer advice about mundane matters. b Rav Pappa said: Anything /b you acquire with a document b by means /b of which ownership is transferred, i.e., a bill of acquisition or obligation, b requires collection, /b despite the fact that you are the legal owner. b Any sale on credit is uncertain whether or not /b it b will come /b to fruition. b And /b even b if it /b does b come /b to fruition, b the money is bad. /b These funds are difficult to collect, and they are generally not paid on time., b Rabbi Yoḥa said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: When you go to war do not go out first, but go out last. /b The reason is b so that /b if your side is defeated and you need to flee for your life, b you will enter /b the refuge of the city b first. And /b it is better to b make your Shabbat /b like an ordinary b weekday and do not be beholden to /b other b beings. And exert yourself /b to join together b with one upon whom the hour smiles. /b , b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said three matters, citing the people of Jerusalem: Do not indulge in a shameful act /b in public, b because of the incident that occurred /b involving David and Bathsheba (see II Samuel 11–12). If b your daughter has grown up, /b it is better to b free your /b Canaanite b slave and give /b him b to her /b than to leave her to find a husband on her own. b And be careful with your wife with regard to her first son-in-law, /b as she is especially fond of him. b What is the reason /b for this warning? b Rav Ḥisda said: Due to /b the possibility of b licentiousness. Rav Kahana said: Due to /b the fact that she might give him all your b money /b and leave you impoverished. The Gemara comments: Since b either of these /b could b happen, /b it is best to be prudent., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Three /b people are b among those who inherit the World-to-Come: One who lives in Eretz Yisrael; one who raises his sons to /b engage b in Torah study; and one who recites i havdala /i over wine at the conclusion of Shabbat. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the special importance of b that /b mitzva, to recite i havdala /i over wine? The Gemara answers: This is referring to an individual with only a small amount of wine, b who /b nevertheless b leaves some of /b his kiddush wine b for i havdala /i . /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa /b further b said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, proclaims about /b the goodness of b three /b kinds b of people every day, /b as exceptional and noteworthy individuals: b About a bachelor who lives in a city and does not sin /b with women; b about a poor person who returns a lost object to its owners /b despite his poverty; b and about a wealthy person who tithes his produce in private, /b without publicizing his behavior. The Gemara reports: b Rav Safra was a bachelor living in a city. /b
222. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 186
223. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 293
22a. מעשה שעברו יותר מארבעים זוג ועיכבן ר"ע כו': תניא אמר רבי יהודה ח"ו שר"ע עיכבן אלא שזפר ראשה של גדר עיכבן ושלח רבן גמליאל והורידוהו מגדולתו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אב ובנו שראו את החדש ילכו לא שמצטרפין זה עם זה אלא שאם יפסל אחד מהן יצטרף השני עם אחר ר"ש אומר אב ובנו וכל הקרובין כשרין לעדות החדש,א"ר יוסי מעשה בטוביה הרופא שראה את החדש בירושלים הוא ובנו ועבדו משוחרר וקבלו הכהנים אותו ואת בנו ופסלו את עבדו וכשבאו לפני בית דין קבלו אותו ואת עבדו ופסלו את בנו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big א"ר לוי מאי טעמא דר"ש דכתיב (שמות יב, א) ויאמר ה' אל משה ואל אהרן בארץ מצרים לאמר החדש הזה לכם עדות זו תהא כשרה בכם,ורבנן עדות זו תהא מסורה לכם:,א"ר יוסי מעשה בטוביה הרופא כו': אמר רב חנן בר רבא הלכתא כר"ש א"ל רב הונא לרב חנן בר רבא רבי יוסי ומעשה ואת אמרת הלכתא כר"ש,אמר לו והא זמנין סגיאין אמרית קמיה דרב הלכתא כר"ש ולא אמר לי ולא מידי א"ל היכי תנית א"ל אפכא א"ל משום הכי לא אמר לך ולא מידי אמר טבי בריה דמרי טבי אמר מר עוקבא אמר שמואל הלכתא כר"ש:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אלו הן הפסולין המשחק בקוביא ומלוי ברבית ומפריחי יונים וסוחרי שביעית ועבדים זה הכלל כל עדות שאין האשה כשירה לה אף הן אינן כשירין לה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הא אשה כשירה לה אף הן כשירין לה אמר רב אשי זאת אומרת גזלן דדבריהם כשירין לעדות אשה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מי שראה את החדש ואינו יכול להלך מוליכים אותו על החמור אפי' במטה ואם צודה להם לוקחין בידן מקלות,ואם היתה דרך רחוקה לוקחין בידם מזונות שעל מהלך לילה ויום מחללין את השבת ויוצאין לעדות החדש שנאמר (ויקרא כג, לז) אלה מועדי ה' אשר תקראו אותם במועדם:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ארבעה ראשי שנים /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongאם /strong /big אינן מכירין אותו משלחין עמו אחר להעידו בראשונה היו מקבלין עדות החדש מכל אדם משקלקלו הבייתוסים התקינו שלא יהו מקבלין אלא מן המכירין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי אחר חד 22a. § It was taught in the mishna: There was once b an incident where more than forty pairs /b of witnesses b were passing /b through on their way to Jerusalem to testify about the new moon, b and Rabbi Akiva detained them /b in Lod, telling them that there was no need for them to desecrate Shabbat for this purpose. b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda said: Heaven forbid that Rabbi Akiva detained them, /b for he would certainly not have made such an error. b Rather, /b it was b that Zefer, the head of /b the city of b Geder, detained them. And Rabban Gamliel sent and they removed him from his high /b office because he had acted inappropriately., strong MISHNA: /strong If b a father and his son saw the new /b moon, b they should /b both b go /b to the court in Jerusalem. It is b not that /b they can b join together /b to give testimony, for close relatives are disqualified from testifying together, b but /b they both go b so that if one of them is disqualified, the second may join together with another /b witness to testify about the new moon. b Rabbi Shimon says: A father and his son and all /b their b relatives are fit /b to combine together as witnesses b for testimony /b to determine the start of b the month. /b , b Rabbi Yosei said: /b There was b an incident with Toviyya the doctor. When he saw the /b new b moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave /b all went to testify. b The priests accepted him and his son /b as witnesses b and disqualified his slave, /b for they ruled stringently that the month may be sanctified only on the basis of the testimony of those of Jewish lineage. b And when they came before the court, they accepted him and his slave /b as witnesses b and disqualified his son, /b due to the familial relationship., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rabbi Levi said: What is the reason /b for b Rabbi Shimon’s /b opinion permitting relatives to jointly testify about the new moon, despite the fact that relatives are generally disqualified from testifying together? It is b as it is written: “And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying: This month shall be to you /b the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you” (Exodus 12:1–2). The words “to you” come to teach that b this testimony /b concerning the new moon b will be valid /b even when it is given b by you /b two, i.e., Moses and Aaron, who are brothers and could not ordinarily testify together.,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b the Rabbis, /b who disagree with Rabbi Shimon and prohibit relatives from testifying together about the new moon, how do they understand this verse? The Gemara answers: They interpret the verse as follows: b This testimony is given over to you /b and others like you. That is to say, the months are to be established by the most outstanding authorities of each generation.,§ The mishna taught: b Rabbi Yosei said: /b There was b an incident with Toviyya the doctor. /b When he saw the new moon in Jerusalem, he and his son and his freed slave all went to testify. b Rav Ḥa bar Rava said: The i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon. /b Relatives are permitted to testify together about the new moon. b Rav Huna said to Rav Ḥa bar Rava: /b But b Rabbi Yosei, /b whose position is usually accepted over those of his colleagues, ruled otherwise, b and /b also, there was b an incident /b in which the court actually ruled against Rabbi Shimon, b and /b yet b you say /b that b the i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon? /b ,Rav Ḥa bar Rava b said to him: But many times I said before Rav /b that b the i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon /b on this matter, b and never did he say anything to me /b to indicate that he disagreed. Rav Huna b said to him: How did you teach /b the mishna? Rav Ḥa bar Rava b said to him: /b With b the opposite /b attributions, that is say, the position that is attributed in the mishna to Rabbi Yosei, I would teach in the name of Rabbi Shimon. Rav Huna b said to him: Due to that /b reason, b he never said anything to you, /b for according to your version you ruled correctly. b Tavi, son of Mari Tavi, said /b that b Mar Ukva said /b that b Shmuel said: The i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b The following are unfit /b to give testimony, as they are considered thieves and robbers: b One who plays with dice [ i kubbiyya /i ] /b or other games of chance for money; b and those who lend /b money b with interest; and those who race pigeons /b and place wagers on the outcome; and b merchants /b who deal in produce of b the Sabbatical Year, /b which may be eaten, but may not be an object of commerce; b and slaves. This is the principle: Any testimony for which a woman is unfit, these too are unfit. /b Although in certain cases a woman’s testimony is accepted, e.g., to testify to the death of someone’s husband, in the majority of cases her testimony is not valid., strong GEMARA: /strong b This /b implies that any testimony b for which a woman is fit, these too are fit. Rav Ashi said: That is to say, /b one who is regarded as b a robber by rabbinic law, /b i.e., one who illegally came into possession of money but did not actually steal it from another, is like those mentioned in the mishna. Although they are generally unfit to give testimony, b they are fit /b to give b testimony /b to enable b a woman /b to remarry., strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to b one who saw the /b new b moon but is unable to go /b to Jerusalem by foot because he is sick or has difficulty walking, others b may bring him on a donkey or even in a bed, /b even on Shabbat if necessary. b And if /b the witnesses are concerned that bandits may be b lying in wait for them /b along the road, b they may take clubs /b or other weapons b in their hands, /b even on Shabbat., b And if it was a long journey /b to Jerusalem, b they may take sustece with them, /b although it is ordinarily prohibited to carry on Shabbat, b since for /b a distance of b a walk of a night and a day, /b the witnesses b may desecrate Shabbat and go out to /b give b testimony /b to determine the start of b the month. /b This is b as it is stated: “These are the Festivals of the Lord, /b sacred gatherings, b which you shall declare in their seasons” /b (Leviticus 23:4). This teaches that, in all cases, the Festivals must be fixed at their proper times, even if it entails the transgression of Torah prohibitions.,, strong MISHNA: /strong b If /b the members of the Great Sanhedrin in Jerusalem b are not familiar with that /b one who saw the new moon, i.e., that he is a valid witness, the members of his local court of twenty-three b send another with him to testify /b about b him. /b The mishna adds: b Initially, /b the court b would accept testimony /b to determine the start b of the month from any person, /b as all are presumed to be qualified witnesses, absent any disqualifying factors. However, b when the Boethusians, /b a sect whose members had their own opinions with regard to the establishment of the Festivals, b corrupted /b the process by sending false witnesses to testify about the new moon, the Sages b instituted that they would accept /b this testimony b only from those /b men b familiar /b to the Sanhedrin as valid witnesses., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the statement in the mishna that b another /b would be sent along to testify with regard to the qualification of the witness to the new moon? If it means that b one /b other individual would be sent,
224. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 291
16a. זו עשירית האיפה שלו דברי רבי יהודה,ר"ש אומר (יחזקאל מד, כז) בבאו יקריב בזמן שראוי לביאה ראוי להקרבה בזמן שאינו ראוי לביאה אינו ראוי להקרבה,אמר רבא מנלן דמשדרין שליחא דבי דינא ומזמנינן ליה לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יב) וישלח משה לקרא לדתן ולאבירם בני אליאב ומנלן דמזמנינן לדינא דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) ויאמר משה אל קרח אתה וכל עדתך,לקמי גברא רבה דכתיב (במדבר טז, טז) לפני ה' את ופלניא דכתיב אתה והם ואהרן דקבעינן זימנא דכתיב מחר זימנא בתר זימנא דכתיב (ירמיהו מו, יז) קראו שם פרעה מלך מצרים שאון העביר המועד,ומנלן דאי מתפקר בשליחא דבי דינא ואתי ואמר לא מיתחזי כלישנא בישא דכתיב (במדבר טז, יד) העיני האנשים ההם תנקר,ומנלן דמשמתינן דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אורו מרוז דהכי סברא דגברא רבה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) אמר מלאך ה' ומנלן דמחרמינן דכתיב אורו ארור,דאכיל ושתי בהדיה וקאי בארבע אמות דידיה דכתיב יושביה ומנלן דפרטינן חטאיה בציבורא דכתיב (שופטים ה, כג) כי לא באו לעזרת ה',ואמר עולא בד' מאה שיפורי שמתיה ברק למרוז איכא דאמרי גברא רבה הוה ואיכא דאמרי כוכבא הוה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כ) מן שמים נלחמו הכוכבים,ומנלן דמפקרינן נכסיה דכתיב (עזרא י, ח) וכל אשר לא יבא לשלשת הימים בעצת השרים והזקנים יחרם כל רכושו והוא יבדל מקהל הגולה,ומנלן דנצינן ולייטינן ומחינן ותלשינן שיער ומשבעינן דכתיב (נחמיה יג, כה) ואריב עמם ואקללם ואכה מהם אנשים ואמרטם ואשביעם,ומנלן דכפתינן ואסרינן ועבדינן הרדפה דכתיב (עזרא ז, כו) הן למות הן לשרושי הן לענש נכסין ולאסורין מאי לשרושי אמר אדא מרי אמר נחמיה בר ברוך אמר רב חייא בר אבין אמר רב יהודה הרדפה מאי הרדפה אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב מנדין לאלתר ושונין לאחר ל' ומחרימין לאחר ששים,א"ל רב הונא בר חיננא הכי אמר רב חסדא מתרין ביה שני וחמישי ושני ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא לאלתר,ההוא טבחא דאיתפקר ברב טובי בר מתנה אימנו עליה אביי ורבא ושמתוהו לסוף אזל פייסיה לבעל דיניה אמר אביי היכי ליעביד לישרי ליה לא חל שמתא עליה תלתין יומין לא לישרי ליה קא בעו רבנן למיעל,א"ל לרב אידי בר אבין מידי שמיע לך בהא א"ל הכי אמר רב תחליפא בר אבימי אמר שמואל טוט אסר וטוט שרי אמר ליה ה"מ לממונא אבל לאפקירותא עד דחיילא שמתא עליה תלתין יומין,אלמא קסבר אביי הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,דאיבעיא להו הני בי תלתא דשמיתו מהו למיתי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה ת"ש מנודה לרב מנודה לתלמיד מנודה לתלמיד אינו מנודה לרב,מנודה לעירו מנודה לעיר אחרת מנודה לעיר אחרת אינו מנודה לעירו מנודה לנשיא מנודה לכל ישראל מנודה לכל ישראל אינו מנודה לנשיא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר,ש"מ תלת שמע מינה תלמיד שנידה לכבודו נידויו נידוי ושמע מינה כל אחד ואחד מיפר חלקו וש"מ הני בי תלתא דשמיתו לא אתו תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,אמר אמימר הלכתא הני בי תלתא דשמיתו אתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה א"ל רב אשי לאמימר והא תניא רשב"ג אומר אחד מן התלמידים שנידה ומת חלקו אינו מופר מאי לאו אינו מופר כלל לא עד דאתו בי תלתא אחריני ושרו ליה,ת"ר אין נידוי פחות מל' יום ואין נזיפה פחות מז' ימים ואף על פי שאין ראיה לדבר זכר לדבר שנאמר (במדבר יב, יד) ואביה ירק ירק בפניה הלא תכלם שבעת ימים,אמר רב חסדא נידוי שלנו כנזיפה שלהן ונזיפה דידהו שבעה ותו לא והא ר"ש בר רבי ובר קפרא הוו יתבי וקא גרסי קשיא להו שמעתא א"ל ר"ש לבר קפרא דבר זה צריך רבי א"ל בר קפרא לר"ש ומה רבי אומר בדבר זה,אזל א"ל לאבוה איקפד אתא בר קפרא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל בר קפרא איני מכירך מעולם ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,שוב פעם אחד גזר רבי שלא ישנו לתלמידים בשוק מאי דרש (שיר השירים ז, ב) חמוקי ירכיך כמו חלאים מה ירך בסתר 16a. b this is /b the meal-offering of b a tenth of an ephah /b of flour, which every priest would bring on the day he began serving in the Temple. But as long as he is ritually impure, whether because he had come into contact with a corpse or due to leprosy, he may not send his offerings to the Temple; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b , b Rabbi Shimon says: /b The verse states: “And on the day that b he goes into /b the Sanctuary, into the inner court, to minister in the Sanctuary b he shall sacrifice /b his sin offering.” This teaches that b when he is fit to enter /b the Sanctuary, b he is fit to sacrifice /b an offering. But b when he is not fit to go into /b the Sanctuary, i.e., when he is ritually impure, b he is not fit to sacrifice /b an offering. This implies that a leper may not send his offerings to the Temple to be sacrificed on the altar, as he himself is not fit to enter the Temple.,§ Having discussed some of the restrictions applying to a person who was ostracized, the Gemara explains some of the basic principles relating to ostracism: b Rava said: From where do we /b derive b that a court agent is sent to summon /b the defendant b to /b appear before the b court /b before he is ostracized? b As it is written: “And Moses sent to call Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab” /b (Numbers 16:12). b And from where do we /b derive b that we summon /b the defendant, that he himself must appear before the b court? As it is written: “And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregation /b before the Lord, you and they, and Aaron, tomorrow” (Numbers 16:16).,From where is it derived that the defendant must be told that he is being summoned to appear b before a great man? As it is written: /b “And Moses said to Korah: Be you and all your congregation b before the Lord” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that the summons must mention the names of both parties: b You and so-and-so, /b the plaintiff? b As it is written: “You, and they, and Aaron” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived b that we set a date /b for the court proceedings? b As it is written: “Tomorrow” /b (Numbers 16:16). From where is it derived that a second b date /b must be set b after /b the first b date, /b if the defendant did not heed the first summons? b As it is written: “They did cry there, Pharaoh, king of Egypt is but a noise; he has passed the time appointed… /b Surely as Tabor is among the mountains, and as Carmel by the sea, so shall he come” (Jeremiah 46:17). Although a time had been appointed and it had passed, it was not canceled entirely but pushed off to a later date., b And from where do we /b derive b that if /b the summoned person b behaves disrespectfully toward the agent of the court, and /b the agent b comes /b back b and reports /b his conduct, that b this is not considered slander? As it is written: “Will you put out the eyes of these men?” /b (Numbers 16:14). Dathan and Abiram spoke these words to the messenger that Moses had sent to them, and the messenger reported them back to Moses., b And from where do we /b derive b that we ostracize /b one who does not obey a court summons? b As it is written: “Curse Meroz” /b (Judges 5:23), who was ostracized for not coming to battle after having been summoned. From where is it derived that the ostracized person must be told b that it /b was b the decision of a great man /b to ostracized him? b As it is written: /b “Curse Meroz, b said the messenger of the Lord” /b (Judges 5:23). b And from where do we /b derive b that, /b if he fails to mend his ways, b we excommunicate /b such a person more harshly, putting him under the most severe form of excommunication? b As it is written: /b “Curse Meroz… b curse bitterly /b its inhabitants” (Judges 5:23), implying that one curse is followed by another, i.e., lesser ostracism is followed by harsh excommunication.,From where is it derived b that /b the curse applies to anyone who b eats or drinks with, or stands within, four cubits of /b the ostracized person? b As it is written: /b “Curse bitterly b its inhabitants” /b (Judges 5:23), in reference to all those sitting together with Meroz. b And from where do we /b derive b that we detail his sin in public? As it is written: /b “Curse bitterly its inhabitants, b because they did not come to the help of the Lord” /b (Judges 5:23)., b And Ulla said: Barak ostracized Meroz with /b the blowing of b four hundred i shofarot /i /b due to his failure to come. As for the identification of Meroz, b some say /b that b he was a great man /b and that he was ostracized because he did not join in the war effort. b And others say /b that the reference is to b a star /b and not a human being, and that it did not aid the Jewish people in their battle, b as it is stated: “The stars fought from heaven; /b in their courses they fought against Sisera,” (Judges 5:20). This star, which did not help the Jewish people, was cursed., b And from where do we /b derive b that /b the court b may declare the property of /b one who does not obey its orders b as ownerless? As it is written: “And that whoever would not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the Elders, all his substance shall be forfeited [ i yaḥoram /i ] and himself separated from the congregation of the exiles” /b (Ezra 10:8). “Shall be forfeited” is referring to excommunication., b And from where do we /b derive b that we may contend with /b such a person, b and curse /b him, b and beat /b him, b and pull out /b his b hair, and make /b him b take an oath /b in order to prevent him from sinning? b As it is written: “And I contended with them, and cursed them, and beat some of them, and pulled out their hair, and made them take oath /b by God” (Nehemiah 13:25)., b And from where do we /b derive b that we may shackle /b his hands and feet, b chain /b him, b and apply pressure? As it is written: “Whether it be for death, or for banishment [ i lishroshi /i ], or for confiscation of goods, or for imprisonment” /b (Ezra 7:26). The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the word b “ i lishroshi /i ,” /b translated here as banishment? b Adda Mari said /b that b Neḥemya bar Baruch said /b that b Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said /b that b Rav Yehuda said: /b This is b pressure. /b Since this expression is also unclear, the Gemara asks: b What /b is b pressure? Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav /b that this term refers to the following series of actions: b They ostracize /b him b immediately, and /b then once b again after thirty /b days, and if he still does not repent, b they excommunicate him after sixty /b days., b Rav Huna bar Ḥina said to him: Rav Ḥisda said as follows: /b Before excommunicating a person, the court b warns him /b three times, on b Monday, Thursday, and /b the following b Monday. /b The Gemara notes: b This applies /b in a case where one ignores b a monetary judgment /b that was issued against him. He is warned three times that he must repay his debt. b But /b in a case where one b behaves disrespectfully /b toward a Torah scholar, he is b immediately /b ostracized.,§ The Gemara relates that b a certain butcher behaved disrespectfully toward Rav Tuvi bar Mattana. Abaye and Rava were appointed /b to the case b and ostracized him. In the end /b the butcher b went and appeased his disputant, /b Rav Tuvi. b Abaye said: What should we do /b in this case? Shall b he be released /b from his decree of ostracism? b His /b decree of b ostracism has not /b yet b been in effect for /b the usual b thirty days. /b On the other hand, b shall he not be released /b from ostracism? But b the Sages wish to enter /b his shop and purchase meat, and they are presently unable to do so. What, then, is the most appropriate course of action?, b He said to Rav Idi bar Avin: /b Have b you heard anything with regard to such /b a case? Rav Idi bar Avin b said to /b Abaye: b Rav Taḥlifa bar Avimi said /b that b Shmuel said as follows: /b A i shofar /i b blast /b at the time of the ostracism b makes /b it b binding, and /b a i shofar /i b blast releases /b it. In other words, the i shofar /i should be sounded now, as it had been sounded when the decree of ostracism was pronounced, and it should be canceled, although thirty days have not passed. Abaye b said to him: This applies /b in a case where one ignores b a monetary judgment /b that was issued against him; b but /b in a case where one b behaves disrespectfully, /b there must be no release b until the /b decree of b ostracism has been in effect for thirty days. /b ,The Gemara comments: b Apparently, Abaye maintains /b that if b three /b people b ostracized /b one, b three others may not come and release him. /b This is derived from the fact that Abaye was concerned about releasing the butcher from ostracism and did not delegate the task to someone else., b As a dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If b three /b people b ostracized /b someone, b what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to b three others coming and releasing him /b from his decree of ostracism? The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from that which is taught in a i baraita /i : b One who was ostracized by the teacher /b of Torah for having acted disrespectfully toward him b is /b considered b ostracized with regard to the student, /b and the latter must keep his distance from him. However, b one who was ostracized by the student is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to the teacher. /b , b One who was ostracized by his /b own b city is /b considered b ostracized with regard to another city. /b However, b one who was ostracized by another city is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to his /b own b city. One who was ostracized by the i Nasi /i /b of the Sanhedrin b is /b considered b ostracized with regard to all the Jewish people; /b but b one who was ostracized by all the Jewish people is not /b considered b ostracized with regard to the i Nasi /i /b of the Sanhedrin. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b If b one of the students /b sitting as a judge on the court b had ostracized /b someone, b and he died /b before releasing him from the decree of ostracism, b his portion /b of the decree of ostracism b is not nullified. /b ,The Gemara says: b Learn three /b i halakhot /i b from this /b i baraita /i . b Learn from this /b that in the case of b a student who ostracizes /b someone b due to /b an insult to b his dignity /b and not because the ostracized person was guilty of some transgression, b his /b decree of b ostracism is valid. /b Were the case one where one was ostracized due to sin, everyone is required to respect the decree of ostracism, even the student’s teacher. b And learn from this /b that b each and every one /b who participated in the decree of ostracism b nullifies his /b own b portion /b of the decree of ostracism, as the i baraita /i speaks of: His portion. b And learn from this /b that if b three /b people b ostracized /b another person, b three other /b people b may not come and nullify /b the decree of ostracism. Were this not the case, it wouldn’t matter if a certain person’s portion was not nullified. His portion could be nullified by someone else., b Ameimar said: The i halakha /i is /b that if b three /b people b ostracize /b another person, b three others may come and nullify /b the decree of ostracism. b Rav Ashi said to Ameimar: But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b If b one of the students had ostracized /b another person, b and he died /b before releasing him from the decree of ostracism, b his portion is not nullified? What, is it not /b that b it is not nullified at all, /b i.e., it cannot be nullified by another person? The Gemara rejects this argument: b No, /b this means that the decree of ostracism remains in force b until three other people come and nullify /b it.,§ b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : b Ostracism does not /b apply b for less than /b a period of b thirty days, and admonition, /b which is less severe than ostracism, b does not /b apply b for less than /b a period of b seven days. And although there is no proof with regard to the matter, /b i.e., the standard duration of admonition, there is b an allusion to the matter, as it is stated: “If her father had but spit in her face, should she not be ashamed for seven days?” /b (Numbers 12:14). This implies that admonition lasts for seven days., b Rav Ḥisda said: Our /b decree of b ostracism /b in Babylonia has the power b of their admonition /b in Eretz Yisrael. Since the authorities in Eretz Yisrael are ordained with the title Rabbi, their admonition carries more weight than a decree of ostracism issued in Babylonia. The Gemara asks: Is b their admonition /b in Eretz Yisrael only b seven /b days b and no more? But isn’t /b it related that b Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and bar Kappara were sitting and studying, /b and they posed b a difficulty with /b a certain b i halakha /i . Rabbi Shimon said to bar Kappara: This issue requires /b my father, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, to explain it. b Bar Kappara said to Rabbi Shimon, /b somewhat mockingly: b And what can /b your father, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b say about this /b issue? What can he add and teach us about it?,Rabbi Shimon b went and told his father, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what bar Kappara had said, and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b became angry /b with him. When b bar Kappara came /b at some later point b to visit, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Bar Kappara, I do not know you at all. /b Bar Kappara b understood that /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b had taken /b his b statement to heart, /b i.e., was insulted. He subsequently b behaved /b as if he had been b admonished, /b as a self-imposed punishment, b for thirty days. /b , b Once again, on another occasion, Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b decreed that students not be taught in the marketplace /b but only in a study hall. b What /b verse did he b expound /b to serve as the basis for this decree? The verse states: b “Your rounded thighs are like jewels, /b the work of the hands of an artist” (Song of Songs 7:2). b Just /b as b a thigh is /b ordinarily b hidden /b and kept covered with clothes,
225. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •yose, rabbi, on resemblance to mother Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 244
17a. ומשתין מים ערום לפני מטתו והמשמש מטתו בפני כל חי אמר ליה רב יהודה לשמואל ואפי' לפני עכברים א"ל שיננא לא אלא כגון של בית פלוני שמשמשין מטותיהן בפני עבדיהם ושפחותיהם,ואינהו מאי דרוש (בראשית כב, ה) שבו לכם פה עם החמור עם הדומה לחמור,רבה בר רב הונא מקרקש זגי דכילתא אביי באלי דידבי רבא באלי פרוחי,אמר ר"ש בן יוחי ה' דברים הן שהעושה אותן מתחייב בנפשו ודמו בראשו האוכל שום קלוף ובצל קלוף וביצה קלופה והשותה משקין מזוגין שעבר עליהן הלילה והלן בבית הקברות והנוטל צפרניו וזורקן לרה"ר והמקיז דם ומשמש מטתו,האוכל שום קלוף כו' ואע"ג דמנחי בסילתא ומציירי וחתימי רוח רעה שורה עליהן ולא אמרן אלא דלא שייר בהן עיקרן או קליפתן אבל שייר בהן עיקרן או קליפתן לית לן בה,והשותה משקין מזוגין שעבר עליהן הלילה אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל והוא שלנו בכלי מתכות אמר רב פפא וכלי נתר ככלי מתכות דמו וכן אמר רבי יוחנן והוא שלנו בכלי מתכות וכלי נתר ככלי מתכות דמו,והלן בבית הקברות כדי שתשרה עליו רוח טומאה זימנין דמסכנין ליה,והנוטל צפרניו וזורקן לרשות הרבים מפני שאשה מעוברת עוברת עליהן ומפלת ולא אמרן אלא דשקיל בגנוסטרי ולא אמרן אלא דשקיל דידיה ודכרעיה ולא אמרן אלא דלא גז מידי בתרייהו אבל גז מידי בתרייהו לית לן בה ולא היא לכולה מילתא חיישינן,ת"ר ג' דברים נאמרו בצפרנים שורפן חסיד קוברן צדיק זורקן רשע,והמקיז דם ומשמש מטתו דאמר מר מקיז דם ומשמש מטתו הויין לו בנים ויתקין הקיזו שניהם ושמשו הויין לו בנים בעלי ראתן אמר רב ולא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי אבל טעים מידי לית לן בה,אמר רב חסדא אסור לו לאדם שישמש מטתו ביום שנאמר (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך מאי משמע אמר אביי שמא יראה בה דבר מגונה ותתגנה עליו אמר רב הונא ישראל קדושים הם ואין משמשין מטותיהן ביום,אמר רבא ואם היה בית אפל מותר ות"ח מאפיל בכסותו ומשמש,תנן או תשמש לאור הנר אימא תבדוק לאור הנר,ת"ש אע"פ שאמרו המשמש מטתו לאור הנר הרי זה מגונה אימא הבודק מטתו לאור הנר הרי זה מגונה,תא שמע ושל בית מונבז המלך היו עושין ג' דברים ומזכירין אותן לשבח היו משמשין מטותיהם ביום ובודקין מטותיהם במילא פרהבא ונוהגין טומאה וטהרה בשלגים קתני מיהא משמשין מטותיהן ביום,אימא בודקין מטותיהם ביום הכי נמי מסתברא דאי ס"ד משמשין מזכירין אותן לשבח אין ה"נ דאגב דאיכא אונס שינה מגניא באפיה,ובודקין מטותיהן במילא פרהבא מסייע ליה לשמואל דאמר שמואל אין בודקין את המטה אלא בפקולין או בצמר נקי ורך אמר רב היינו דכי הואי התם בערבי שבתות הוו אמרי מאן בעי פקולי בנהמא ולא ידענא מאי קאמרי,אמר רבא הני שחקי דכיתנא מעלי לבדיקה איני והא תנא דבי מנשה אין בודקין את המטה לא בעד אדום ולא בעד שחור ולא בפשתן אלא בפקולין או בצמר נקי ורך,לא קשיא הא בכיתנא הא במאני דכיתנא ואיבעית אימא הא והא במאני דכיתנא הא בחדתי הא בשחקי,נוהגין טומאה וטהרה בשלגין תנן התם שלג אינו לא אוכל ולא משקה חישב עליו לאכילה אינו מטמא טומאת אוכלין למשקה מטמא טומאת משקין,נטמא מקצתו לא נטמא כולו נטהר מקצתו נטהר כולו,הא גופא קשיא אמרת נטמא מקצתו לא נטמא כולו והדר תני נטהר מקצתו נטהר כולו למימרא דנטמא כולו,אמר אביי כגון שהעבירו על אויר תנור דהתורה העידה על כלי חרס 17a. b and /b a man who b urinates naked next to his bed; and one who engages in intercourse in the presence of any living being. Rav Yehuda said to Shmuel: /b Does the phrase: In the presence of any living being, mean b even in the presence of mice? /b Shmuel b said to him: i Shina /i , /b that is b not /b the case. b Rather, /b it is referring to a situation b such as in so-and-so’s house, where they engage in intercourse in the presence of their /b Canaanite b slaves and maidservants. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And those /b members of that household, who act in that manner, b what /b verse b do they interpret /b in a manner that allows them to do so? The Gemara answers: They reference the verse in which Abraham said to his two servants: b “Remain here with [ i im /i ] the donkey” /b (Genesis 22:5). This verse is interpreted as meaning that they are b a nation [ i am /i ] comparable to a donkey. /b The members of the aforementioned household thought that it is permitted to engage in intercourse in the presence of animals, and therefore one can do so in the presence of his Canaanite slaves and maidservants.,The Gemara cites practices of modesty observed by the Sages. b Rabba bar Rav Huna /b would b sound the bells [ i zagei /i ] of the canopy /b above his bed when engaging in intercourse, so that people would know to keep away. b Abaye /b would even b drive away flies [ i didevei /i ] /b from around his bed, so that he would not engage in intercourse in their presence, and b Rava /b would b drive away gnats [ i peruḥei /i ]. /b , b Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai /b further b says: /b There are b five /b actions with regard to b which one who performs them /b is held b liable for his /b own b life, and his blood is upon his /b own b head, /b i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. They are as follows: b One who eats peeled garlic or a peeled onion or a peeled egg, and one who drinks diluted drinks; /b all these are referring to items only b when they were left overnight. And one who sleeps /b at night b in a cemetery, and one who removes his nails and throws them into a public area, and one who lets blood and /b immediately afterward b engages in intercourse. /b ,The Gemara analyzes this statement of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai, beginning with the case of b one who eats peeled garlic, /b a peeled onion, or a peeled egg, when they were left overnight. The Gemara notes: b And /b these peeled foods are dangerous b even if they are placed in a basket and they are tied and sealed /b in that basket throughout the night, as b an evil spirit rests upon them. And we said /b that eating them is dangerous b only if one did not leave on them their roots or their shells. But /b if b one left on them their roots or their shells, we have no /b problem b with it. /b ,Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai further mentions b one who drinks diluted drinks that were left overnight. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: And /b that b is /b dangerous only b when they were left overnight in metal vessels. Rav Pappa says: And natron vessels are considered like metal vessels /b in this regard. b And Rabbi Yoḥa likewise says: And /b that b is /b dangerous only b when they were left overnight in metal vessels, and natron vessels are considered like metal vessels /b in this regard.,Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai also says: b And one who sleeps in a cemetery /b places himself in danger. The Gemara notes that this is the case if he does so b in order that a spirit of impurity will rest upon him, /b as b sometimes /b the evil spirits in the cemetery b endanger /b the one who sleeps there.,The next case is b one who removes his nails and throws them into a public area. /b The Gemara explains that this is dangerous b because a pregt woman /b might b pass over them, and /b this can cause her to b miscarry. And we said /b this i halakha /i b only when one removes /b his nails b with scissors [ i bigenosteri /i ]. And /b furthermore, b we said /b this i halakha /i b only when one removes /b the nails b of his hand and his foot /b together. b And we said /b this i halakha /i b only when he did not cut anything /b else b after /b his nails, b but /b if b he cut something /b else b after them, we have no /b problem b with it. /b The Gemara comments: b And /b that b is not so; /b rather, b we are concerned with regard to the entire matter, /b i.e., in all cases.,With regard to removing one’s nails, b the Sages taught: Three matters were stated with regard to /b removing b nails: /b One who b burns them /b is b pious, /b as he eradicates them entirely; one who b buries them /b is on the slightly lower level of b a righteous /b individual, as they might be dug up; and one who simply b throws them /b where a person might step upon them is b wicked. /b ,The Gemara discusses the final clause of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s statement: b And one who lets blood and /b immediately afterward b engages in intercourse. /b This is b as the Master said: /b With regard to one who b lets blood and /b afterward b engages in intercourse, he will have weak [ i vittakin /i ] children /b conceived from this act of intercourse. If b both of them, /b husband and wife, b let blood and engaged in intercourse, he will have children afflicted with /b a disease known as b i ra’atan /i . Rav says: And we said /b this b only /b in a case b when he did not taste anything /b after letting blood, b but /b if b he tasted something /b then b we have no /b problem b with it. /b ,§ b Rav Ḥisda says: /b It is b prohibited for a person to engage in intercourse by day, as it is stated: “And you shall love your fellow as yourself” /b (Leviticus 19:18). The Gemara asks: b From where /b is this b inferred? Abaye says: /b If one engages in intercourse by day, b perhaps /b the husband b will see some repulsive matter in /b his wife b and she will become repugt to him, /b which will cause him to hate her, and he will thereby violate this mitzva. b Rav Huna says: Jews are holy, and they do not engage in intercourse by day. /b , b Rava says: And if /b the b house is dark, /b it is b permitted /b to engage in intercourse by day there. b And /b in the case of b a Torah scholar, he may cause darkness with his garment and engage in intercourse /b even during the daytime, as he will certainly do so with modesty.,The Gemara challenges: b We learned /b in the mishna: b Or /b she must b engage in intercourse by the light of a lamp. /b This indicates that one may engage in intercourse in the light. The Gemara answers: b Say /b that the mishna reads: b She must examine /b the cloth b by the light of a lamp, /b but not engage in intercourse in this manner.,The Gemara cites a relevant source. b Come /b and b hear /b a i baraita /i : b Even though /b the Sages b said /b that b one who engages in intercourse by the light of a lamp is repulsive, /b nevertheless Beit Shammai say: Or she must engage in intercourse by the light of a lamp and inspect the cloths before and after each act of intercourse. The Gemara similarly explains: b Say /b that the i baraita /i reads: b One who examines /b herself before or after b intercourse by the light of a lamp is repulsive, /b as this examination would not be conducted properly, since the light of the lamp may not be sufficient. Nevertheless Beit Shammai say that a woman who engages in many acts of intercourse in one night must examine the cloth by the light of a lamp.,The Gemara further suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a i baraita /i : b And the household of King Munbaz would perform three matters, and /b the Sages b would mention them favorably /b for their behavior in this regard. b They would engage in intercourse by day; and they /b would b examine /b before and after b intercourse with wool [ i bemeila /i ] of Parhava, /b which is very white and would show any stain; b and they /b would b practice ritual impurity and purity with regard to snow. /b Regardless of the meaning of the last two matters, b in any event /b this i baraita /i b teaches /b that they would b engage in intercourse by day, /b which indicates that this practice is not prohibited.,The Gemara answers: b Say /b that they would b examine their beds, /b i.e., check the examination cloths, b by day. /b The Gemara adds: b So too, it is reasonable /b that this is the correct explanation, b as if /b it should b enter your mind /b that it means that they would b engage in intercourse /b by day, even if it is permitted, would the Sages have b mentioned them favorably /b for this practice? The Gemara refutes this proof: b Yes, /b it b is indeed so. /b There is a praiseworthy aspect to engaging in intercourse by day, b as /b at night b there is /b a risk of being b overcome by sleep, /b because the husband might be too tired after the exertions of the day, and b consequently /b his wife who desires sexual intercourse might b be repulsive to him. /b ,The Gemara further analyzes the i baraita /i , which teaches: b And /b the household of King Munbaz would b examine /b before and after b intercourse, with wool of Parhava. /b The Gemara notes: This statement b supports /b the opinion b of Shmuel, as Shmuel said: One may examine a bed, /b i.e., use an examination cloth for intercourse, b only with /b a cloth made of b linen [ i befakolin /i ], or with /b one made of b clean and soft wool. Rav says: This is /b the explanation of b that /b which I heard b when I was there, /b in Eretz Yisrael, b on Shabbat evenings, /b which is the time when Torah scholars engage in intercourse with their wives; people b would /b offer and b say: Who needs linen /b cloths b for /b eating b bread [ i benahama /i ], /b a euphemism for intercourse. b And I did not know what they were saying /b until now., b Rava says: Those worn-out flax /b clothes are b good for examination. /b The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t the school of Menashe teach: One may not examine a bed with a red cloth, nor with a black cloth, nor with flax, but with /b a cloth made of b linen, or with /b one made of b clean and soft wool? /b ,The Gemara answers that this is b not difficult, /b as b this /b statement that one may not examine with flax is referring b to flax /b itself, whereas b that /b statement of Rava, that flax is good for an examination, is referring b to flax garments. And if you wish, say /b instead that both b this /b statement b and that /b statement are referring b to flax garments, /b and the difference is that b this /b ruling that one may not use flax is referring b to new /b garments, whereas b that /b ruling of Rava is referring specifically b to worn-out /b garments, which are brighter.,It was further stated that the household of King Munbaz was praised by the Sages because its members would b practice ritual impurity and purity with regard to snow. /b The Gemara comments: b We learned /b in a i baraita /i b there /b (see i Tosefta /i , i Teharot /i 2:5): b Snow is neither food nor drink /b with regard to ritual impurity. If b one designated it for consumption, /b his intention is disregarded, and b it does not impart the ritual impurity of food. /b But if one planned to use it as b a drink, it imparts the ritual impurity of liquid. /b ,If b part of /b the snow b became impure, it does not all become impure, /b but only the area that came into contact with the item of ritual impurity, as a pile of snow is not considered a single unit. If impure snow in a vessel is lowered into a ritual bath, even if the waters of the ritual bath touched only the snow on the mouth of the vessel, since b part of /b the snow b is purified, all of it is purified. /b ,The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i : b This /b i baraita /i b itself /b is b difficult. You /b initially b said /b that if b part of /b the snow b became impure, it does not all become impure, and then /b the i baraita /i b teaches /b that if b part of /b the snow b is purified, all of it is purified, /b which is b to say that all of it became impure. /b In other words, the last clause of the i baraita /i is dealing with a lump of snow all of which is ritually impure, whereas according to the previous clause this is impossible: How could the source of the impurity have touched all of the snow?, b Abaye says: /b It is possible for all the snow to become impure, in a case b where one passed /b the snow b within the airspace of /b an earthenware vessel, such as b an oven, /b in which the source of impurity was located. This renders the entire lump of snow impure, b as the Torah testifies with regard to an earthenware vessel /b that contains a source of impurity that all items inside its airspace are rendered impure, as the verse states: “Whatever is in it shall be impure” (Leviticus 11:33).
226. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 294
10a. ואח"כ חטא מביא פר חטא ואח"כ עבר ממשיחותו צריכא למימר משום דקתני גבי נשיא דכי עבר מנשיאותו ואח"כ חטא כהדיוט מייתי אהכי תני גבי משיח [חטא ואח"כ עבר] מביא פר,מנא ה"מ דתנו רבנן (ויקרא ד, ג) והקריב על חטאתו מלמד שמביא חטאתו משעבר,שיכול והלא דין הוא ומה נשיא שמביא בשגגת מעשה אין מביא חטאתו משעבר משיח שאין מביא בשגגת מעשה אלא על העלם דבר עם שגגת מעשה [לא] כ"ש תלמוד לומר והקריב על חטאתו מלמד שמביא על חטאתו משעבר,ונייתי נמי נשיא מק"ו ומה משיח שאין מביא בשגגת מעשה מביא חטאת משעבר נשיא שמביא חטאת בשגגת מעשה אינו דין שמביא חטאתו משעבר תלמוד לומר (ויקרא ד, כב) אשר נשיא יחטא כשהוא נשיא אין כשהוא הדיוט לא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חטאו עד שלא נתמנו ואח"כ נתמנו הרי אלו כהדיוטות ר"ש אומר אם נודע להם עד שלא נתמנו חייבים ומשנתמנו פטורים,איזהו נשיא זה מלך שנאמר (ויקרא ד, כב) מכל מצות ה' אלהיו שאין על גביו אלא ה' אלהיו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ דתנו רבנן (ויקרא ד, ג) אם הכהן המשיח יחטא (לאשמת) פרט לקודמות,שיכול והלא דין הוא ומה נשיא שמביא בשגגת מעשה אין מביא על הקודמות משיח שאין מביא אלא על העלם דבר עם שגגת מעשה אינו דין שלא יביא על הקודמות,לא אם אמרת בנשיא שכן אין מביא חטאתו משעבר תאמר במשיח שמביא חטאתו משעבר הואיל ומביא חטאתו משעבר יביא על הקודמות תלמוד לומר המשיח יחטא חטא כשהוא משיח מביא כשהוא הדיוט אינו מביא,ותניא נמי גבי נשיא כה"ג (ויקרא ד, כב) אשר נשיא יחטא פרט לקודמות,שיכול והלא דין הוא ומה משיח שמביא חטאתו משעבר אינו מביא על הקודמות נשיא שאין מביא חטאתו משעבר אינו דין שלא יביא על הקודמות,מה למשיח שכן אין מביא בשגגת מעשה תאמר בנשיא שמביא בשגגת מעשה הואיל ומביא בשגגת מעשה יביא על הקודמות תלמוד לומר אשר נשיא יחטא שחטא והרי הוא נשיא ולא שחטא ועודהו הדיוט:,ת"ר אשר נשיא יחטא יכול גזרה ת"ל אם הכהן המשיח יחטא מה להלן לכשיחטא אף כאן לכשיחטא,אמר מר יכול גזרה גזרה מהיכא תיתי,אמרי אין אשכחן דכתיב (ויקרא יד, לד) ונתתי נגע צרעת בבית ארץ אחוזתכם בשורה היא להם שנגעים באים עליהם דברי רבי יהודה רבי שמעון אומר פרט לנגעי אונסין לאו אמר רבי יהודה בשורה הכא נמי אימא גזרה היא הלכך כתיב אם,ולרבי שמעון נגעי אונסין מי לא מטמו והא תניא (ויקרא יג, ב) אדם כי יהיה מן הדבור ואילך והלא דין הוא טמא בזב וטמא בנגעים מה זב מן הדבור ואילך אף נגעים מן הדבור ואילך,לא אם אמרת בזב שכן אין מטמא באונס תאמר בנגעים שמטמאין באונס תלמוד לומר אדם כי יהיה מן הדבור ואילך רבא אמר פרט לנגעי רוחות רב פפא אמר פרט לנגעי כשפים,תנו רבנן אשר נשיא יחטא פרט לחולה משום דהוה ליה חולה אידחי ליה מנשיאותיה אמר רב אבדימי בר חמא פרט לנשיא שנצטרע שנאמר (מלכים ב טו, ה) וינגע ה' את המלך ויהי מצורע עד יום מותו וישב בבית החפשית ויותם בן המלך על הבית מדקאמר בבית החפשית מכלל דעד השתא עבד הוה,כי הא דר' גמליאל ורבי יהושע הוו אזלי בספינתא בהדי דר' גמליאל הוה פיתא בהדי רבי יהושע הוה פיתא וסולתא שלים פיתיה דר' גמליאל סמך אסולתיה דרבי יהושע אמר ליה מי הוה ידעת דהוה לן עכובא כולי האי דאיתית סולתא אמר ליה כוכב אחד לשבעים שנה עולה ומתעה את (הספינות) [הספנים] ואמרתי שמא יעלה ויתעה [אותנו],אמר ליה כל כך בידך ואתה עולה בספינה א"ל עד שאתה תמה עלי תמה על שני תלמידים שיש לך ביבשה רבי אלעזר חסמא ורבי יוחנן בן גודגדא שיודעין לשער כמה טפות יש בים ואין להם פת לאכול ולא בגד ללבוש נתן דעתו להושיבם בראש,כשעלה שלח להם ולא באו חזר ושלח ובאו אמר להם כמדומין אתם ששררה אני נותן לכם 10a. b and thereafter sinned brings a bull. /b Does the case of one who b sinned and thereafter moved on from his anointment need to be said? /b It is obvious that he is liable to bring a bull. The Gemara answers: b Due to /b the fact b that /b the i tanna /i b teaches /b the i halakha /i b with regard to a king, that when he moved on from his sovereignty and thereafter sinned he brings. /b an offering b like /b that of b a commoner; therefore, he teaches /b the corresponding i halakha /i b with regard to an anointed /b priest: If b he sinned and thereafter moved on /b from his priesthood, b he brings a bull. /b ,§ With regard to the statement in the mishna concerning an anointed priest who sinned after he was removed from his position, the Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? The Gemara answers: It is b as the Sages taught: /b It is written with regard to the High Priest: b “And he shall sacrifice for his sin [ i ḥattato /i ] /b that he sinned” (Leviticus 4:3); this b teaches that he brings his sin-offering [ i ḥattato /i ] /b even b after he has moved on /b from his priesthood.,This derivation is necessary, as one b might /b have thought: b Could this not /b be derived through an i a fortiori /i b inference? And if a king, who brings /b a goat as his sin-offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action, does not bring /b a goat as b his sin-offering from /b the moment b that he has moved on /b from his sovereignty, b an anointed /b priest, b who does not bring /b a sin-offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action /b alone; b rather, /b he is liable b only for absence /b of awareness b of the matter /b by the court together b with unwitting /b performance b of an action, /b is it b not all the more so /b that he will not bring a bull for his sin-offering once he has moved on from the High Priesthood? Therefore, b the verse states: “And he shall sacrifice for his sin [ i ḥattato /i ] /b that he sinned”; this b teaches that he brings his sin-offering [ i ḥattato /i ] /b even b after he has moved on /b from his priesthood.,The Gemara asks: b And let a king /b who is no longer king, b too, bring /b a goat as a sin-offering b based on an i a fortiori /i /b inference: b And if an anointed /b priest, b who does not bring /b an offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action, brings a sin-offering after he has moved on /b from the priesthood, then with regard to b a king, who brings a sin-offering for the unwitting /b performance b of an action, is it not logical that he /b still b brings his sin-offering once he has moved on /b from his sovereignty? To counter this, b the verse states: “When a king sins” /b (Leviticus 4:22), from which it is derived: If he sins b when he is king, yes, /b he brings his sin-offering; if he sins b when he is a commoner, no, /b he does not bring his sin-offering., strong MISHNA: /strong If a king or High Priest b sinned before they were appointed, and thereafter they were appointed, /b the status of b these /b people is b like /b that of b commoners; /b they bring the sin-offering of an individual. b Rabbi Shimon says: If it became known to them, before they were appointed /b as king or High Priest, that they had sinned, b they are liable /b to bring the sin-offering of an individual, b but /b if it became known to them b after they were appointed /b as king or High Priest b they are /b completely b exempt. /b , b Who is /b the b i nasi /i ? This is a king, as it is stated: /b “When a i nasi /i sins, and performs any one b of all the mitzvot of the Lord his God /b that shall not be performed, unwittingly, and he is guilty” (Leviticus 4:22), referring to one b who has only the Lord his God over him /b and no other authority. That is only the king., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: If a king or High Priest sinned before they were appointed, and thereafter they were appointed, the status of these people is like that of commoners. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? The Gemara answers: It is b as the Sages taught /b with regard to the verse: b “If the anointed priest shall sin to bring guilt” /b (Leviticus 4:3); this serves to b exclude the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his installation as High Priest., b As /b one b might /b have thought: b Could this not /b be derived through an i a fortiori /i b inference? And if a king, who brings /b a goat as his sin-offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action, does not bring /b a sin-offering b for the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his coronation, then with regard to b an anointed /b priest, b who brings /b his sin-offering b only for absence /b of awareness b of the matter /b by the court b with the unwitting /b performance b of an action, is it not logical that he will not bring /b his sin-offering b for the prior /b transgressions?,The Gemara rejects this: b No, if you said /b this b with regard to a king, /b that is reasonable, b as he does not bring his /b goat for a b sin-offering once he has moved on /b from his sovereignty, and instead brings the sin-offering of a commoner. b Shall you /b also b say /b this b with regard to an anointed /b priest, b who brings /b a bull for b his sin-offering once he has moved on /b from his priesthood? b Since he brings /b a bull for b his sin-offering /b even b once he has moved on /b from his priesthood, perhaps b he shall bring /b a bull as a sin-offering b for the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his installation as High Priest? Therefore, b the verse states: /b “If b the anointed priest shall sin,” /b from which it is derived: If b he sins when he is /b serving as b an anointed priest he brings /b a bull as his sin-offering; if he sins b when he is an ordinary /b priest b he does not bring /b a bull as his sin-offering., b And it is also taught in this way /b in a i baraita /i b with regard to a king: “When a king sins” /b (Leviticus 4:22); this serves to b exclude the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his coronation as king., b As /b one b might /b have thought: b Could this not /b be derived through an i a fortiori /i b inference? If an anointed /b priest, b who brings /b a bull for b his sin-offering /b even b once he has moved on /b from his priesthood, b does not bring /b his sin-offering b for the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his installation, then with regard to b a king, who does not bring his /b goat for a b sin-offering once he has moved on /b from his sovereignty, b is it not logical that he will not bring /b his sin-offering b for the prior /b transgressions? Apparently, there is no need for the derivation from the verse.,The Gemara notes that this inference can be rejected. b What /b is notable b about an anointed /b priest? He is notable b in that he does not bring /b a sin-offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action /b unless it was performed on the basis of an erroneous ruling. b Shall you say /b the same b with regard to a king, who brings /b an offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action /b alone, even without an erroneous ruling? b Since he brings /b an offering b for the unwitting /b performance b of an action /b alone, b shall he bring /b a bull as a sin-offering b for the /b unwitting transgressions he performed b prior /b to his coronation? Therefore, b the verse states: “When a king sins,” /b from which it is derived: In a case b where he sins and he is king, /b he brings a bull as his sin-offering, b and not /b in a case b where he sins and he is still a commoner. /b ,§ Apropos a king, b the Sages taught: /b In contrast to other cases where the verse states: If he will sin, it states concerning a king: b “When [ i asher /i ] a king sins.” /b One b might /b have thought that this is b a decree, /b i.e., that it is a given that the king will sin. Therefore, b the verse states: “If the anointed priest shall sin” /b (Leviticus 4:3). b Just as there /b the meaning is: b In the event that /b the priest b shall sin, so too here, /b the meaning is: b In the event that /b the king b shall sin. /b ,The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i . b The Master said: /b One b might /b have thought that this is b a decree. /b The Gemara asks: b A decree? From where would this be derived? /b Why would it enter one’s mind that there would be a decree that the king must sin?,The Sages b say: Yes, /b there is a basis for that understanding, as b we find /b that type of interpretation elsewhere; b as it is written: /b “When you come into the land of Canaan, which I give to you for a possession, b and I shall place the mark of leprosy in a house of the land of your possession” /b (Leviticus 14:34). b These are tidings /b informing b them, /b i.e., the Jewish people, b that leprous marks /b will b come upon them /b when they enter Eretz Yisrael; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: /b This verse serves to teach that leprosy causes ritual impurity only when its origins are divine, b to the exclusion of leprosy /b that results from b circumstances beyond one’s control, /b i.e., those that have a clear physical cause. b Didn’t Rabbi Yehuda say /b that leprosy could be b tidings, /b i.e., that there will definitely be leprosy? b Here too, /b with regard to the king, b say /b that b it is a decree /b that he will sin. b Therefore, it is written: “If /b the anointed priest shall sin,” meaning that the sin is not a given.,The Gemara asks with regard to the i baraita /i : b And according to Rabbi Shimon, do /b leprous b marks /b that result from b circumstances beyond one’s control not cause ritual impurity? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “When a person shall have /b in the skin of his flesh a wool-white leprous mark or a scab” (Leviticus 13:2); these i halakhot /i apply b from /b this b statement onward, /b i.e., from the time that God gave this mitzva to the Jewish people, and these i halakhot /i do not apply to leprosy that preceded the giving of the mitzva? b And could this not /b be derived through b logical inference: /b The Torah b deemed /b one b impure in /b the case of b a i zav /i , and /b the Torah b deemed /b one b impure in /b the case of leprous b marks. Just as a i zav /i /b is ritually impure only b from the statement onward, so too, /b with regard to leprous b marks, /b there is impurity only b from that statement onward. /b There is no need for a derivation from the verse Leviticus 13:2.,The i baraita /i continues: This inference can be rejected: b No, if you said /b that b with regard to a i zav /i , /b this is reasonable, b as he does not become impure /b if his condition was caused b by circumstances beyond his control. Shall you say /b the same b with regard to /b leprous b marks, which impart ritual impurity /b when caused b by circumstances beyond one’s control? /b Therefore, b the verse states: “When a person shall have,” /b indicating that there is impurity only b from /b that b statement onward. /b In any case, it is clear that leprosy causes impurity even if it was caused by circumstances beyond his control. b Rava says /b in explanation: The phrase “and I shall place the mark of leprosy” serves b to exclude /b leprous b marks /b caused b by /b evil b spirits. Rav Pappa says /b in explanation: That phrase serves b to exclude /b leprous b marks /b caused b by sorcery. /b ,§ Apropos a king, b the Sages taught /b that when the verse states: b “When a king sins” /b (Leviticus 4:22), this serves b to exclude /b a king who is b ill. /b The Gemara asks: b Due to /b the fact b that he is ill, is he removed from his sovereignty? Rav Avdimi bar Ḥama said: /b The reference is not to all illnesses; rather, it is b to exclude a king who is afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated /b concerning King Azariah: b “And the Lord afflicted the king, so that he was a leper until the day of his death, and dwelt in an independent house. And Jotham, son of the king, was over the household, /b judging the people of the land” (II Kings 15:5). Azariah was removed from his sovereignty when he was afflicted with leprosy. The Gemara comments: b From /b the fact b that /b the verse b states: “In an independent house,” by inference /b it may be understood b that until now he was a servant, /b i.e., he was in servitude to the people.,The Gemara notes: This is b similar /b to b that /b incident b where Rabban Gamliel and Rabbi Yehoshua were traveling /b together b on a ship. Rabban Gamliel had /b sufficient b bread /b for the journey. b Rabbi Yehoshua /b also b had /b sufficient b bread, and /b additionally he had b flour. /b The journey lasted longer than expected, and b Rabban Gamliel’s bread was finished. He relied on Rabbi Yehoshua’s flour /b for nourishment. Rabban Gamliel b said to /b Rabbi Yehoshua: b Did you know /b from the outset b that we would have so substantial a delay? /b Is that the reason b that you brought flour /b with you? Rabbi Yehoshua b said to /b Rabban Gamliel: b There is one star that rises once in seventy years and misleads sailors /b at sea, causing their journeys to be extended. b And I said: Perhaps /b that star b will rise /b during our journey b and mislead us. /b ,Rabban Gamliel b said to him: So much /b wisdom is b at your /b disposal, b and you board a ship /b to earn your livelihood? Rabbi Yehoshua b said to him: Before you wonder about me, wonder about two students that you have on dry land, Rabbi Elazar Ḥisma and Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, who /b are so wise that they b know /b how b to calculate how many drops /b of water b there are in the sea, and /b yet b they have neither bread to eat nor a garment to wear. /b Rabban Gamliel b made up his mind to seat them at the head /b of the academy., b When /b Rabban Gamliel b ascended /b to dry land, b he sent /b a messenger b to them /b to tell them to come so that he could appoint them b and they did not come. He again sent /b a messenger to them b and they came. /b Rabban Gamliel b said to them: Do you imagine that I am granting you authority, /b and since you did not want to accept the honor you did not come when I sent for you?
227. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
24b. (דברי הימים ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד:,עד שיזקין עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר ר' חנינא עד שירתת,תנן התם בעל קרי שטבל ולא הטיל מים לכשיטיל טמא ר' יוסי אומר בחולה ובזקן טמא בילד ובבריא טהור,ילד עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר רבי חנינא כל שעומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמרו עליו על רבי חנינא שהיה בן שמונים שנה והיה עומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמר רבי חנינא חמין ושמן שסכתני אמי בילדותי הן עמדו לי בעת זקנותי,ת"ר נתמלא זקנו ראוי ליעשות שליח ציבור ולירד לפני התיבה ולישא את כפיו מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות רבי אומר אומר אני עד שיהא בן עשרים,א"ר חסדא מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (עזרא ג, ח) ויעמידו [את] הלוים מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה לנצח על מלאכת בית ה' ואידך לנצח שאני,והא האי קרא בלוים כתיב כדר' יהושע בן לוי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בעשרים וארבעה מקומות נקראו כהנים לוים וזה אחד מהן (יחזקאל מד, טו) והכהנים הלוים בני צדוק,ת"ר (ויקרא כא, יז) איש מזרעך לדורותם מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר קטן פסול לעבודה ואפי' תם מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות אבל אחיו הכהנים אין מניחין אותו לעבוד עד שיהא בן כ',איכא דאמרי הא רבי היא ואפי' פסול דרבנן לית ליה ואיכא דאמרי רבי אית ליה פסול מדרבנן והא רבנן היא ולכתחלה הוא דלא אבל דיעבד עבודתו כשרה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אויר כלי חרש טמא וגבו טהור אויר כל הכלים טהור וגבן טמא נמצא טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש,מנהני מילי דת"ר תוכו ואע"פ שלא נגע,אתה אומר אע"פ שלא נגע או אינו אלא אם כן נגע רבי יונתן בן אבטולמוס אומר נאמר (ויקרא יא, לג) תוכו לטמא ונאמר תוכו ליטמא מה תוכו האמור לטמא אע"פ שלא נגע אף תוכו האמור ליטמא אע"פ שלא נגע,והתם מנלן אמר רבי יונתן התורה העידה על כלי חרס 24b. b “It came to pass, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard” /b (II Chronicles 5:13). This indicates that the Levites must be capable of singing in one voice, and one who is unable to do so is unfit for service.,The i baraita /i teaches that the priest is eligible for service b until he ages. /b The Gemara asks: b Until when, /b i.e., what is the definition of aging in this context? b Rabbi Ela says /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina says: Until /b his hands and feet begin to b tremble. /b , b We learned /b in a mishna b there /b ( i Mikvaot /i 8:4): With regard to b one who experienced a seminal emission who /b then b immersed /b in a ritual bath b and did not urinate /b before immersing, b when he urinates he is ritually impure, /b because residue of the semen remain in his body and was discharged with the urine, rendering him impure. b Rabbi Yosei says: In /b the case of b an ill /b person b and an elderly /b person, he is b ritually impure; in /b the case of b a young /b person b and a healthy /b person, he is b ritually pure, /b as the semen was presumably discharged in its entirety at the outset., b Until when /b is one considered b a young /b person? b Rabbi Ela says /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina says: Anyone who /b is able to b stand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoe /b is considered young. b They said about Rabbi Ḥanina that he was eighty years old and would stand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoe. Rabbi Ḥanina says: /b The b hot water and oil that my mother smeared on me in my youth benefited me in my old age. /b , b The Sages taught: /b If b one’s beard /b is b fully /b grown, b he is fit to be appointed an emissary of the community /b for various matters, b and to descend before the ark /b as a prayer leader, b and to lift his hands /b for the Priestly Benediction. b From when /b is a priest b fit for /b Temple b service? /b It is b from /b the time he reaches puberty and b grows two /b pubic b hairs. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: I say /b that he is not fit for Temple service b until he is twenty /b years of b age. /b , b Rav Ḥisda said: What is the reason /b for the opinion b of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi? The reason is b as it is written: “And appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to oversee of the work of the House of the Lord” /b (Ezra 3:8). b And /b what does b the other /b i tanna /i hold? He holds that b to oversee is different /b and requires an older priest.,The Gemara asks: b But /b what proof can be cited from this verse with regard to priests; b isn’t that verse written with regard to Levites? /b The Gemara answers: It is understood b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: In twenty-four places /b in the Bible the b priests are called Levites. And this is one of those /b verses: b “And the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok” /b (Ezekiel 44:15). The verse in Ezra is another one of the verses., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: b “Any man of your descendants throughout their generations /b that has a blemish shall not approach to offer the bread of his God” (Leviticus 21:17); b from here Rabbi Elazar says: A minor /b priest is b unfit for /b Temple b service, even /b if he is b unblemished, /b as he is not a man. b From when /b is b he fit for service? From /b the time he reaches puberty and b grows two /b pubic b hairs. But his brethren the priests do not allow him to perform the service until he is twenty /b years of b age. /b , b There are /b those b who say: This is /b the opinion of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and he is /b of the opinion that there is b no disqualification /b for one between puberty and twenty years of age b even by rabbinic law. /b The other priests simply do not allow priests of that age to perform the Temple service i ab initio /i . b And there are /b those b who say: Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b is of /b the opinion that there is b disqualification by rabbinic law /b in that case, b and this /b statement in the i baraita /i b is /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, and /b they hold that b it is i ab initio /i that /b one may b not /b perform the service, b but after the fact, his service is valid. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong That which is b ritually pure in an earthenware vessel /b is b ritually impure in all the /b other types of b vessels; /b that which is b ritually pure in all the /b other types of b vessels /b is b ritually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i explaining the mishna: If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the b airspace of an earthenware vessel /b the vessel is b ritually impure, and /b if it fell on b its outer side, /b the vessel is b ritually pure. /b If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the b airspace of all the /b other types of b vessels, /b the vessels are b ritually pure, and /b if it fell on b their outer side, /b they are b ritually impure. It is found /b that that which is b ritually pure in an earthenware vessel /b is b ritually impure in all the /b other b vessels, /b and that which is b ritually pure in all the /b other b vessels /b is b ritually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b ,The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? It is b as the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i based on the verse: “And every earthenware vessel into which [ i tokho /i ] any of them falls, whatever is in it [ i tokho /i ] shall be impure, and it you shall break” (Leviticus 11:33); if an impure item fell b “in it [ i tokho /i ],” and even /b in a case b where /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, the vessel becomes impure.,The i baraita /i continues: b Do you say /b that it is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, b or /b perhaps b it is /b impure b only if it did come into contact /b with the vessel? b Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos says: i Tokho /i is stated /b with regard b to transmitting impurity /b to food in its airspace, as it is stated: “Whatever is in it [ i tokho /i ] shall be impure,” b and i tokho /i is stated /b with regard b to becoming impure, /b as it is stated: “Into which [ i tokho /i ] any of them falls”; b just as /b in the case of b i tokho /i that is stated /b with regard b to transmitting impurity /b to food in its airspace, the food is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, b so too, /b in the case of b i tokho /i that is stated /b with regard b to /b the vessel b becoming impure, /b the vessel is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with it.,The Gemara asks: b And there, /b with regard to rendering food impure in its airspace, b from where do we /b derive that the food becomes impure even if it did not come into contact with the impure vessel? b Rabbi Yonatan said: The Torah testified about an earthenware vessel /b
228. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Feldman (2006), Judaism and Hellenism Reconsidered, 793; Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 81, 191; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 81, 191
98a. מלכים יראו וקמו שרים וישתחוו,אמר לו רבי אליעזר והלא כבר נאמר (ירמיהו ד, א) אם תשוב ישראל נאום ה' אלי תשוב אמר לו רבי יהושע והלא כבר נאמר (דניאל יב, ז) ואשמע את האיש לבוש הבדים אשר ממעל למימי היאור וירם ימינו ושמאלו אל השמים וישבע בחי העולם כי למועד מועדים וחצי וככלות נפץ יד עם קדש תכלינה כל אלה וגו' ושתק רבי אליעזר,ואמר רבי אבא אין לך קץ מגולה מזה שנאמר (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל וגו' רבי (אליעזר) אומר אף מזה שנאמר (זכריה ח, י) כי לפני הימים (האלה) [ההם] שכר האדם לא נהיה ושכר הבהמה איננה וליוצא ולבא אין שלום מן הצר,מאי ליוצא ולבא אין שלום מן הצר רב אמר אף תלמידי חכמים שכתוב בהם שלום דכתיב (תהלים קיט, קסה) שלום רב לאהבי תורתך אין שלום מפני צר ושמואל אמר עד שיהיו כל השערים כולן שקולין,אמר רבי חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שיתבקש דג לחולה ולא ימצא שנאמר (יחזקאל לב, יד) אז אשקיע מימיהם ונהרותם כשמן אוליך וכתב (בתריה) (יחזקאל כט, כא) ביום ההוא אצמיח קרן לבית ישראל,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שתכלה מלכות הזלה מישראל שנאמר (ישעיהו יח, ה) וכרת הזלזלים במזמרות וכתיב בתריה בעת ההיא יובל שי לה' צבאות עם ממשך ומורט,אמר זעירי אמר רבי חנינא אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו גסי הרוח מישראל שנאמר (צפניה ג, יא) כי אז אסיר מקרבך עליזי גאותך וכתיב (צפניה ג, יב) והשארתי בקרבך עם עני ודל וחסו בשם ה',אמר רבי שמלאי משום רבי אלעזר בר"ש אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל שופטים ושוטרים מישראל שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כה) ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סיגיך וגו' ואשיבה שופטיך,אמר עולא אין ירושלים נפדית אלא בצדקה שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כז) ציון במשפט תפדה ושביה בצדקה אמר רב פפא אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי אי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי אי בטלי יהירי בטלי אמגושי דכתיב (ישעיהו א, כה) ואצרוף כבור סיגיך ואסירה כל בדיליך ואי בטלי דייני בטלי גזירפטי דכתיב (צפניה ג, טו) הסיר ה' משפטיך פנה אויבך,אמר ר' יוחנן אם ראית דור שמתמעט והולך חכה לו שנאמר (שמואל ב כב, כח) ואת עם עני תושיע וגו' אמר רבי יוחנן אם ראית דור שצרות רבות באות עליו כנהר חכה לו שנאמר (ישעיהו נט, יט) כי יבא כנהר צר (ו) רוח ה' נוססה בו וסמיך ליה ובא לציון גואל,ואמר רבי יוחנן אין בן דוד בא אלא בדור שכולו זכאי או כולו חייב בדור שכולו זכאי דכתיב (ישעיהו ס, כא) ועמך כולם צדיקים לעולם יירשו ארץ בדור שכולו חייב דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, טז) וירא כי אין איש וישתומם כי אין מפגיע וכתיב (ישעיהו מח, יא) למעני אעשה,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי רבי יהושע בן לוי רמי כתיב (ישעיהו ס, כב) בעתה וכתיב אחישנה זכו אחישנה לא זכו בעתה,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי רבי יהושע בן לוי רמי כתיב (דניאל ז, יג) וארו עם ענני שמיא כבר אינש אתה וכתיב (זכריה ט, ט) עני ורוכב על חמור זכו עם ענני שמיא לא זכו עני רוכב על חמור,אמר ליה שבור מלכא לשמואל אמריתו משיח על חמרא אתי אישדר ליה סוסיא ברקא דאית לי אמר ליה מי אית לך בר חיור גווני,ר' יהושע בן לוי אשכח לאליהו דהוי קיימי אפיתחא דמערתא דרבי שמעון בן יוחאי אמר ליה אתינא לעלמא דאתי אמר ליה אם ירצה אדון הזה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי שנים ראיתי וקול ג' שמעתי,אמר ליה אימת אתי משיח אמר ליה זיל שייליה לדידיה והיכא יתיב אפיתחא דקרתא ומאי סימניה יתיב ביני עניי סובלי חלאים וכולן שרו ואסירי בחד זימנא איהו שרי חד ואסיר חד אמר דילמא מבעינא דלא איעכב,אזל לגביה אמר ליה שלום עליך רבי ומורי אמר ליה שלום עליך בר ליואי א"ל לאימת אתי מר א"ל היום אתא לגבי אליהו א"ל מאי אמר לך א"ל שלום עליך בר ליואי א"ל אבטחך לך ולאבוך לעלמא דאתי א"ל שקורי קא שקר בי דאמר לי היום אתינא ולא אתא א"ל הכי אמר לך (תהלים צה, ז) היום אם בקולו תשמעו,שאלו תלמידיו את רבי יוסי בן קיסמא אימתי בן דוד בא אמר מתיירא אני שמא תבקשו ממני אות אמרו לו אין אנו מבקשין ממך אות,א"ל לכשיפול השער הזה ויבנה ויפול ויבנה ויפול ואין מספיקין לבנותו עד שבן דוד בא אמרו לו רבינו תן לנו אות אמר להם ולא כך אמרתם לי שאין אתם מבקשין ממני אות,אמרו לו ואף על פי כן אמר להם אם כך יהפכו מי מערת פמייס לדם ונהפכו לדם,בשעת פטירתו אמר להן העמיקו לי ארוני 98a. b Kings shall see and arise, princes shall prostrate themselves, /b because of the Lord, Who is faithful, and the Holy One of Israel, Who has chosen you” (Isaiah 49:7), indicating that redemption will come independent of repentance?, b Rabbi Eliezer said to him: But isn’t it already stated: “If you will return, Israel, says the Lord, return to Me” /b (Jeremiah 4:1), indicating that redemption is contingent upon repentance? b Rabbi Yehoshua said to him: But isn’t it already stated: “And I heard the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, when he lifted up his right hand and his left hand to heaven and swore by the One Who lives forever that it shall be for a period, periods, and a half; when the crushing of the power of the holy people shall have been completed, all these /b things shall be finished” (Daniel 12:7), indicating that the time for redemption is set and unrelated to repentance? b And Rabbi Eliezer was silent, /b unable to refute the proof from that verse.,§ b And Rabbi Abba says: You have no /b more b explicit /b manifestation of the b end /b of days b than this /b following phenomenon, b as it is stated: “But you, mountains of Israel, you shall give your branches, and yield your fruit to My people of Israel, /b for they will soon be coming” (Ezekiel 36:8). When produce will grow in abundance in Eretz Yisrael, it is an indication that the Messiah will be coming soon. b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b You have no greater manifestation of the end of days b than this /b following phenomenon b as well, as it is stated: “For before these days there was no hire for man, nor any hire for beast; nor was there peace from the oppressor to him who exits and to him who enters” /b (Zechariah 8:10). When there are no wages for work and no rent paid for use of one’s animal, that is an indication that the coming of the Messiah is at hand.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the phrase: b “Nor was there peace from the oppressor to him who exits and to him who enters”? Rav says: /b It means that b even /b for b Torah scholars, with regard to whom /b the promise of b peace is written, as it is written: “Great peace have they who love Your Torah; /b and there is no obstacle for them” (Psalms 119:165), b there will be no peace from the oppressor. And Shmuel says: /b It means that the Messiah will not come b until all the prices are equal. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until a fish will be sought for an ill person and will not be found, as it is stated /b with regard to the downfall of Egypt: b “Then I will make their waters clear and cause their rivers to run like oil” /b (Ezekiel 32:14), meaning that the current in the rivers will come to a virtual standstill. b And it is written thereafter: “On that day I will cause the glory of the house of Israel to flourish” /b (Ezekiel 29:21)., b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until the contemptuous [ i hazalla /i ] kingdom /b of Rome b will cease from the Jewish people, as it is stated: “And He shall sever the sprigs [ i hazalzallim /i ] with pruning hooks” /b (Isaiah 18:5). b And it is written thereafter: “At that time shall a present be brought to the Lord of hosts, by a people scattered and hairless” /b (Isaiah 18:7)., b Ze’eiri says /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina says: The son of David will not come until the arrogant will cease /b to exist b from /b among b the Jewish people, as it is stated: “For then I will remove from your midst your proudly exulting ones” /b (Zephaniah 3:11), b and it is written /b afterward: b “And I will leave in your midst a poor and lowly people, and they shall take refuge in the name of the Lord” /b (Zephaniah 3:12)., b Rabbi Simlai says in the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon: The son of David will not come until all the judges and officers will cease /b to exist b from /b among b the Jewish people, /b and there will be no more autonomous government in Eretz Yisrael, b as it is stated: “And I will turn My hand against you and purge away your dross as with lye /b and take away your base alloy. b And I will restore your judges /b as at the first” (Isaiah 1:25–26)., b Ulla says: Jerusalem is redeemed only by means of righteousness, as it is stated: “Zion shall be redeemed with justice and those who return to it with righteousness” /b (Isaiah 1:27). b Rav Pappa says: If the arrogant will cease /b to exist, b the /b Persian b sorcerers will cease /b to exist as well. b If the /b deceitful b judges /b will b cease /b to exist, b the royal officers [ i gazirpatei /i ] /b and taskmasters b will cease /b to exist. Rav Pappa elaborates: b If the arrogant will cease, the /b Persian b sorcerers will cease, as it is written: “And I will purge away your dross [ i sigayikh /i ] as with lye, and I will remove all your alloy [ i bedilayikh /i ].” /b When the arrogant [ i sigim /i ] are purged, the sorcerers, who are separated [ i muvdalim /i ] from the fear of God, will also cease. b And if the /b deceitful b judges cease /b to exist, b the royal officers /b and taskmasters b will cease /b to exist, b as it is written: “The Lord has removed your judgments; cast out your enemy” /b (Zephaniah 3:15)., b Rabbi Yoḥa says: If you saw a generation whose /b wisdom and Torah study b is steadily diminishing, await /b the coming of the Messiah, b as it is stated: “And the afflicted people You will redeem” /b (II Samuel 22:28). b Rabbi Yoḥa says: If you saw a generation /b whose b troubles inundate it like a river, await /b the coming of the Messiah, b as it is stated: “When distress will come like a river that the breath of the Lord drives” /b (Isaiah 59:19). b And juxtaposed to it /b is the verse: b “And a redeemer will come to Zion” /b (Isaiah 59:20)., b And Rabbi Yoḥa says: The son of David will come only in a generation that is entirely innocent, /b in which case they will be deserving of redemption, b or /b in a generation that is b entirely guilty, /b in which case there will be no alternative to redemption. He may come b in a generation that is entirely innocent, as it is written: “And your people also shall be all righteous; they shall inherit the land forever” /b (Isaiah 60:21). He may come b in a generation that is entirely guilty, as it is written: “And He saw that there was no man, and was astonished that there was no intercessor; /b therefore His arm brought salvation to Him, and His righteousness, it sustained Him” (Isaiah 59:16). b And it is written: /b “For My own sake, b for My own sake will I do it; /b for how should it be profaned? And My glory I will not give it to another” (Isaiah 48:11).,§ b Rabbi Alexandri says: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi raises a contradiction /b in a verse addressing God’s commitment to redeem the Jewish people. In the verse: “I the Lord in its time I will hasten it” (Isaiah 60:22), b it is written: “In its time,” /b indicating that there is a designated time for the redemption, b and it is written: “I will hasten it,” /b indicating that there is no set time for the redemption. Rabbi Alexandri explains: b If they merit /b redemption through repentance and good deeds b I will hasten /b the coming of the Messiah. b If they do not merit /b redemption, the coming of the Messiah will be b in its /b designated b time. /b , b Rabbi Alexandri says: Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi raises a contradiction /b between two depictions of the coming of the Messiah. b It is written: “There came with the clouds of heaven, one like unto a son of man… /b and there was given him dominion and glory and a kingdom…his dominion is an everlasting dominion” (Daniel 7:13–14). b And it is written: /b “Behold, your king will come to you; he is just and victorious; b lowly and riding upon a donkey /b and upon a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9). Rabbi Alexandri explains: b If /b the Jewish people b merit /b redemption, the Messiah will come in a miraculous manner b with the clouds of heaven. If they do not merit /b redemption, the Messiah will come b lowly and riding upon a donkey. /b , b King Shapur /b of Persia b said to Shmuel /b mockingly: b You say /b that the b Messiah /b will b come on a donkey; I will send him the riding [ i barka /i ] horse that I have. /b Shmuel b said to him: Do you have /b a horse b with one thousand colors [ i bar ḥivar gavanei /i ] /b like the donkey of the Messiah? Certainly his donkey will be miraculous., b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi found Elijah /b the prophet, b who was standing at the entrance of the /b burial b cave of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b said to him: Will I /b be privileged to b come to the World-to-Come? /b Elijah b said to him: If this Master, /b the Holy One, Blessed be He, b will wish /b it so. b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Two I saw, /b Elijah and me, b and the voice of three I heard, /b as the Divine Presence was also there, and it was in reference to Him that Elijah said: If this Master will wish it so.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b said to /b Elijah: b When /b will the b Messiah come? /b Elijah b said to him: Go ask him. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: b And where is he sitting? /b Elijah said to him: b At the entrance of /b the city of b Rome. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked him: b And what is his /b identifying b sign /b by means of which I can recognize him? Elijah answered: b He sits among the poor who suffer from illnesses. And all of them untie /b their bandages b and tie /b them all b at once, /b but the Messiah b unties one /b bandage b and ties one /b at a time. b He says: Perhaps I will be needed /b to serve to bring about the redemption. Therefore, I will never tie more than one bandage, so b that I will not be delayed. /b ,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b went to /b the Messiah. b He said to /b the Messiah: b Greetings to you, my rabbi and my teacher. /b The Messiah b said to him: Greetings to you, bar Leva’i. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b said to him: When will the Master come? /b The Messiah b said to him: Today. /b Sometime later, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b came to Elijah. /b Elijah b said to him: What did /b the Messiah b say to you? He said to /b Elijah that the Messiah said: b Greetings [ i shalom /i ] to you, bar Leva’i. /b Elijah b said to him: /b He thereby b guaranteed /b that b you and your father /b will enter b the World-to-Come, /b as he greeted you with i shalom /i . Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b said to /b Elijah: The Messiah b lied to me, as he said to me: I am coming today, and he did not come. /b Elijah b said to him /b that b this /b is what b he said to you: /b He said that he will come b “today, if you will listen to his voice” /b (Psalms 95:7).,§ b Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma’s students asked him: When will the son of David come? /b Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said: I am hesitant /b to answer you, b lest you request from me a sign /b to corroborate my statement. b They said to him: We are not asking you for a sign. /b ,Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to them: /b You will see b when this /b existing b gate /b of Rome b falls and will be rebuilt, and will fall /b a second time b and will be rebuilt, and will fall /b a third time. b And they will not manage to rebuild it until the son of David comes. /b The students b said to him: Our rabbi, give us a sign. /b Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to them: But didn’t you say to me that you are not asking me for a sign? /b , b They said to him: And nevertheless, /b provide us with a sign. Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to them: If it is /b as I say, b the water of the Cave of Pamyas will be transformed into blood. /b The Gemara relates: b And /b it b was transformed into blood. /b , b At the time of his death, /b Rabbi Yosei ben Kisma b said to /b his students: b Place my coffin deep /b in the ground,
229. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.33, 7.130 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, and the masses •rabbis, babylonian, and the value of torah study Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 289; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 218
1.33. The oracle which the Coans received was on this wise:Hephaestus cast the tripod in the sea;Until it quit the city there will beNo end to strife, until it reach the seerWhose wisdom makes past, present, future clear.That of the Milesians beginning Who shall possess the tripod? has been quoted above. So much for this version of the story.Hermippus in his Lives refers to Thales the story which is told by some of Socrates, namely, that he used to say there were three blessings for which he was grateful to Fortune: first, that I was born a human being and not one of the brutes; next, that I was born a man and not a woman; thirdly, a Greek and not a barbarian. 7.130. Their definition of love is an effort toward friendliness due to visible beauty appearing, its sole end being friendship, not bodily enjoyment. At all events, they allege that Thrasonides, although he had his mistress in his power, abstained from her because she hated him. By which it is shown, they think, that love depends upon regard, as Chrysippus says in his treatise of Love, and is not sent by the gods. And beauty they describe as the bloom or flower of virtue.of the three kinds of life, the contemplative, the practical, and the rational, they declare that we ought to choose the last, for that a rational being is expressly produced by nature for contemplation and for action. They tell us that the wise man will for reasonable cause make his own exit from life, on his country's behalf or for the sake of his friends, or if he suffer intolerable pain, mutilation, or incurable disease.
230. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 211
12a. השתא דנפקא ליה מלמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ למה לי,כדר' אלעזר דאמר רבי אלעזר אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ וכיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידיו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפך,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר ותשת עלי כפך,אי הכי קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חד שיעורא הוא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב עשרה דברים נבראו ביום ראשון ואלו הן שמים וארץ תהו ובהו אור וחשך רוח ומים מדת יום ומדת לילה,שמים וארץ דכתיב (בראשית א, א) בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ תהו ובהו דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) והארץ היתה תהו ובהו אור וחשך חשך דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) וחשך על פני תהום אור דכתיב (בראשית א, ג) ויאמר אלהים יהי אור רוח ומים דכתיב (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים מדת יום ומדת לילה דכתיב (בראשית א, ה) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד,תנא תהו קו ירוק שמקיף את כל העולם כולו שממנו יצא חשך שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו בהו אלו אבנים המפולמות המשוקעות בתהום שמהן יוצאין מים שנאמר (ישעיהו לד, יא) ונטה עליה קו תהו ואבני בהו,ואור ביום ראשון איברי והכתיב ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים וכתיב ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום רביעי,כדר' אלעזר דא"ר אלעזר אור שברא הקב"ה ביום ראשון אדם צופה בו מסוף העולם ועד סופו כיון שנסתכל הקב"ה בדור המבול ובדור הפלגה וראה שמעשיהם מקולקלים עמד וגנזו מהן שנאמר (איוב לח, טו) וימנע מרשעים אורם,ולמי גנזו לצדיקים לעתיד לבא שנאמר וירא אלהים את האור כי טוב ואין טוב אלא צדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב,כיון שראה אור שגנזו לצדיקים שמח שנאמר (משלי יג, ט) אור צדיקים ישמח,כתנאי אור שברא הקב"ה ביום ראשון אדם צופה ומביט בו מסוף העולם ועד סופו דברי רבי יעקב וחכ"א הן הן מאורות שנבראו ביום ראשון ולא נתלו עד יום רביעי,אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביא אמר רב בעשרה דברים נברא העולם בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת ובכח ובגערה ובגבורה בצדק ובמשפט בחסד וברחמים,בחכמה ובתבונה דכתיב (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה בדעת דכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו בכח וגבורה דכתיב (תהלים סה, ז) מכין הרים בכחו נאזר בגבורה בגערה דכתיב (איוב כו, יא) עמודי שמים ירופפו ויתמהו מגערתו בצדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך בחסד ורחמים דכתיב (תהלים כה, ו) זכר רחמיך ה' וחסדיך כי מעולם המה,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שברא הקב"ה את העולם היה מרחיב והולך כשתי פקעיות של שתי עד שגער בו הקב"ה והעמידו שנאמר עמודי שמים ירופפו ויתמהו מגערתו והיינו דאמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (בראשית לה, יא) אני אל שדי אני הוא שאמרתי לעולם די אמר ר"ל בשעה שברא הקב"ה את הים היה מרחיב והולך עד שגער בו הקב"ה ויבשו שנאמר (נחום א, ד) גוער בים ויבשהו וכל הנהרות החריב,ת"ר ב"ש אומרים שמים נבראו תחלה ואח"כ נבראת הארץ שנאמר בראשית ברא אלהים את השמים ואת הארץ וב"ה אומרים ארץ נבראת תחלה ואח"כ שמים שנאמר (בראשית ב, ד) ביום עשות ה' אלהים ארץ ושמים,אמר להם ב"ה לב"ש לדבריכם אדם בונה עלייה ואח"כ בונה בית שנאמר (עמוס ט, ו) הבונה בשמים מעלותיו ואגודתו על ארץ יסדה אמר להם ב"ש לב"ה לדבריכם אדם עושה שרפרף ואח"כ עושה כסא שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי וחכ"א זה וזה כאחת נבראו שנאמר (ישעיהו מח, יג) אף ידי יסדה ארץ וימיני טפחה שמים קורא אני אליהם יעמדו יחדו,ואידך מאי יחדו דלא משתלפי מהדדי קשו קראי אהדדי אמר ר"ל כשנבראו ברא שמים ואח"כ ברא הארץ וכשנטה נטה הארץ ואחר כך נטה שמים,מאי שמים א"ר יוסי בר חנינא ששם מים במתניתא תנא אש ומים מלמד שהביאן הקב"ה וטרפן זה בזה ועשה מהן רקיע,שאל רבי ישמעאל את ר"ע כשהיו מהלכין בדרך א"ל אתה ששימשת את נחום איש גם זו כ"ב שנה שהיה דורש כל אתין שבתורה את השמים ואת הארץ מה היה דורש בהן א"ל אילו נאמר שמים וארץ הייתי אומר שמים שמו של הקב"ה עכשיו שנאמר את השמים ואת הארץ שמים שמים ממש ארץ ארץ ממש 12a. The Gemara poses a question: b Now that it is derived from /b the phrase b “from one end of the heavens to the other,” why do I /b need the phrase b “since the day that God created man upon the earth”? /b ,The Gemara answers that this phrase teaches us something else, b according to Rabbi Elazar. /b As b Rabbi Elazar said: /b The height of b Adam the first man /b reached b from the ground to the skies, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, /b and from one end of the heavens” (Deuteronomy 4:32). b When he sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand upon him and diminished him, as it is stated: “You fashioned me behind and before, and laid Your hand upon me” /b (Psalms 139:5)., b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: The /b size of b Adam the first man was from one end of the world to the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from one end of the heavens to the other,” /b which indicates that he spanned the entire length of the world. b Once he sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand upon him and diminished him, as it states: “And laid Your hand upon me.” /b ,The Gemara asks: b If so, the /b two parts of the b verse contradict each other, /b since one indicates that his height reached the heavens while the other says it reached the end of the earth. The Gemara answers: Both b this and that are one, /b the same, b measure. /b ,§ The Gemara continues to discuss Creation: b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: Ten things were created on the first day /b of Creation, b and they are /b as follows: b Heaven and earth; i tohu /i and i vohu /i , /b i.e., unformed and void; b light and darkness; wind and water; the length of day and the length of night. /b ,All of these are derived from the Torah: b Heaven and earth, as it is written: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” /b (Genesis 1:1). b i Tohu /i and i vohu /i , as it is written: “And the earth was unformed and void [ i tohu vavohu /i ]” /b (Genesis 1:2). b Light and darkness; darkness, as it is written: “And darkness was upon the face of the deep” /b (Genesis 1:2); b light, as it is written: “And God said: Let there be light” /b (Genesis 1:3). b Wind and water, as it is written: “And the wind of God hovered over the face of the waters” /b (Genesis 1:2). b The length of day and the length of night, as it is written: “And there was evening, and there was morning, one day” /b (Genesis 1:5)., b It was taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b i Tohu /i /b is b a green line that encompasses the entire world, and from which darkness emerges, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place round about Him” /b (Psalms 18:12), indicating that a line of darkness surrounds the world. b i Vohu /i ; these are damp stones submerged in the depths, from which water emerges, as it is stated: “And He shall stretch over it the line of i tohu /i and stones of i vohu /i ” /b (Isaiah 34:11), which demonstrates that i tohu /i is a line and that i vohu /i is referring to stones.,The Gemara poses a question: b And /b was b light created on the first day? But isn’t it written: “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven” /b (Genesis 1:17), b and it is /b also b written: “And there was evening, and there was morning, a fourth day” /b (Genesis 1:19), indicating that light was created on the fourth day.,The Gemara answers: This should be understood b in accordance with Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said: /b The b light that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on the first day /b was not that of the sun but a different kind of light, b through which man could observe from one end of the world to the other. But when the Holy One, Blessed be He, looked upon the generation of the Flood and the generation of the Dispersion and saw that their ways were corrupt /b and that they might misuse this light for evil, b He arose and concealed it from them, as it is stated: “And from the wicked their light is withheld” /b (Job 38:15)., b And for whom did He conceal it? For the righteous people in the future, as it is stated: “And God saw the light, that it was good” /b (Genesis 1:4), b and “good” is referring to none /b other than the b righteous, as it is stated: “Say /b of b the righteous that it shall be good /b for them, for they shall eat the fruit of their actions” (Isaiah 3:10)., b When the light saw that it had been concealed for the righteous, it rejoiced, as it is stated: “The light for the righteous shall rejoice” /b (Proverbs 13:9).,The Gemara comments: This is b like /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i : /b The b light that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created on /b the b first day /b was so profound that b man could observe through it from one end of the world to the other; /b this is  b the statement of Rabbi Ya’akov. And the Rabbis say: /b This light b is the very same as the lights created on the first day, but they were not suspended /b in their designated places in the firmament b until the fourth day. /b ,§ b Rav Zutra bar Tuvya said /b that b Rav said: The world was created through ten attributes: Through wisdom, through understanding, through knowledge, through strength, through rebuke, through might, through righteousness, through justice, through kindness, and through mercy. /b ,Scriptural proof is provided for this statement as follows: It was created b through wisdom and through understanding, as it is written: “The Lord founded earth with wisdom, and established the heavens with understanding” /b (Proverbs 3:19); b through knowledge, as it is written: “With His knowledge the depths were broken up” /b (Proverbs 3:20); b through strength and through might, as it is written: “Who by Your strength sets fast the mountains, who is girded about with might” /b (Psalms 65:7); b through rebuke, as it is written: “The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke” /b (Job 26:11); b through righteousness and justice, as it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne” /b (Psalms 89:15); b through kindness and mercy, as it is written: “Remember Your mercies, O Lord, and Your kindnesses, for they are from times of old” /b (Psalms 25:6)., b And Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said, /b with regard to the same matter: b When the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the world, it continued to expand like two balls of a warp, /b whose cord lengthens as they unravel, b until the Holy One, Blessed be He, rebuked it and made it stand still, as it is stated: “The pillars of heaven tremble and are astonished at His rebuke” /b (Job 26:11). b And this is /b the same as that which b Reish Lakish said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “I am the Almighty God /b [ b i El Shaddai /i /b ]” (Genesis 17:1)? It means: b I am He Who said to the world “enough [dai],” /b instructing it to stop expanding. Similarly, b Reish Lakish said: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, created the sea, it continued to expand until the Holy One, Blessed be He, rebuked it and made it dry, as it is stated: “He rebukes the sea and makes it dry, and desiccates all the rivers” /b (Nahum 1:4).,§ Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel dispute the order of Creation, as b the Sages taught: Beit Shammai say: The heavens were created first and afterward the earth was created, as it is stated: “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” /b (Genesis 1:1), which indicates that heaven came first. b And Beit Hillel say: /b The b earth was created first, and heaven after it, as it is stated: “On the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven” /b (Genesis 2:4)., b Beit Hillel said to Beit Shammai: According to your words, /b does b a person build a second floor and build /b the first floor of b the house afterward? As it is stated: “It is He Who builds His upper chambers in the heaven, and has founded His vault upon the earth” /b (Amos 9:6), indicating that the upper floor, heaven, was built above the earth. b Beit Shammai said to Beit Hillel: According to your words, /b does b a person make a stool /b for his feet, b and make a seat afterward? As it is stated: “So said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool” /b (Isaiah 66:1). b But the Rabbis say: /b Both b this and that were created as one, for it is stated: “Indeed, My hand has laid the foundation of the earth, and My right hand has spread out the heavens; when I call to them, they stand up together” /b (Isaiah 48:13), implying that they were created as one.,The Gemara asks: b And the others, /b Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel, b what, /b in their opinion, b is /b the meaning of b “together”? /b The Gemara responds: It means b that they do not separate from each other. /b In other words, the term “together” is referring not to the moment of their creation but to the manner of their positioning. The Gemara comments: In any case, b the verses contradict each other, /b as heaven is sometimes mentioned first, while on other occasions earth is listed beforehand. b Reish Lakish said: When they were created, He /b first b created /b the b heavens and afterward created the earth, but when He spread them /b out and fixed them in their places, b He spread /b out b the earth and afterward He spread /b out b the heavens. /b ,Incidental to the above, the Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning and source of the word b “heaven” [ i shamayim /i ]? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: /b It is an acronym, b i shesham mayim /i , /b meaning: That water is there. b It was taught in a i baraita /i : /b i Shamayim /i means b i esh umayim /i , /b fire and water, which b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, brought them /b both b and combined them together, and made /b the b firmament from them. /b ,§ The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Yishmael asked Rabbi Akiva /b a question b when they were walking along the way. He said to him: You who served Naḥum of Gam Zu for twenty-two years, who would expound /b and learn that b every /b appearance of the word b i et /i in the Torah /b is meant to teach something, b what would he expound from /b the phrase: b “The heaven and the earth” /b [ b i et hashamayim ve’et ha’aretz /i /b ] (Genesis 1:1)? b He said to him: /b These words should be expounded as follows: b Had it stated: /b In the beginning God created i hashamayim veha’aretz /i , i.e., the heaven and the earth, without the word i et /i , b I would have said: i Shamayim /i is the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b and the same goes for i aretz /i , and the verse would sound as if it meant that God, whose name is i Shamayim /i and i Aretz /i , created the world. b Since it states “ i et hashamayim ve’et ha’aretz /i ,” /b it is clear that these are created objects and that b i shamayim /i /b means the b actual heaven /b and b i aretz /i /b is the b actual earth. /b It is for this reason that the word i et /i is necessary.
231. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •rabbis, babylonian, emphasis of their own importance Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 106
232. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Jaffee (2001), Torah in the Mouth: Writing and Oral Tradition in Palestinian Judaism 200 BCE - 400 CE, 4
54b. כל זמן שאדם ממשמש בה מוצא בה תאנים אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני מאי דכתיב (משלי ה, יט) אילת אהבים ויעלת חן וגו' למה נמשלו דברי תורה לאילת לומר לך מה אילה רחמה צר וחביבה על בועלה כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה אף דברי תורה חביבין על לומדיהן כל שעה ושעה כשעה ראשונה,ויעלת חן שמעלת חן על לומדיה דדיה ירווך בכל עת למה נמשלו דברי תורה כדד מה דד זה כל זמן שהתינוק ממשמש בו מוצא בו חלב אף דברי תורה כל זמן שאדם הוגה בהן מוצא בהן טעם,באהבתה תשגה תמיד כגון רבי (אליעזר) בן פדת אמרו עליו על רבי (אליעזר) שהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה בשוק התחתון של ציפורי וסדינו מוטל בשוק העליון של ציפורי (תניא) א"ר יצחק בן אלעזר פעם אחת בא אדם ליטלו ומצא בו שרף,תנא דבי רב ענן מאי דכתיב (שופטים ה, י) רוכבי אתונות צחורות יושבי על מדין [והולכי על דרך שיחו] רוכבי אתונות אלו תלמידי חכמים שמהלכין מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד (בו) תורה צחורות שעושין אותה כצהרים יושבי על מדין שדנין דין אמת לאמיתו והולכי אלו בעלי מקרא על דרך אלו בעלי משנה שיחו אלו בעלי תלמוד שכל שיחתן דברי תורה,אמר רב שיזבי משום רבי אלעזר בן עזריה מאי דכתיב (משלי יב, כז) לא יחרוך רמיה צידו לא יחיה ולא יאריך ימים צייד הרמאי,רב ששת אמר צייד הרמאי יחרוך,כי אתא רב דימי אמר משל לצייד שצד צפרים אם ראשון ראשון משבר כנפיו משתמר ואם לאו אין משתמר,אמר (רבה) אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא מאי דכתיב (משלי יג, יא) הון מהבל ימעט וקובץ על יד ירבה אם עושה אדם תורתו חבילות חבילות מתמעט ואם לאו קובץ על יד ירבה,אמר (רבה) ידעי רבנן להא מלתא ועברי עלה אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא עבדתה ואיקיים בידאי:,ת"ר כיצד סדר משנה משה למד מפי הגבורה נכנס אהרן ושנה לו משה פירקו נסתלק אהרן וישב לשמאל משה נכנסו בניו ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו בניו אלעזר ישב לימין משה ואיתמר לשמאל אהרן רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר נכנסו זקנים ושנה להן משה פירקן נסתלקו זקנים נכנסו כל העם ושנה להן משה פירקן נמצאו ביד אהרן ארבעה ביד בניו שלשה וביד הזקנים שנים וביד כל העם אחד,נסתלק משה ושנה להן אהרן פירקו נסתלק אהרן שנו להן בניו פירקן נסתלקו בניו שנו להן זקנים פירקן נמצא ביד הכל ארבעה,מכאן א"ר אליעזר חייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו ארבעה פעמים וקל וחומר ומה אהרן שלמד מפי משה ומשה מפי הגבורה כך הדיוט מפי הדיוט על אחת כמה וכמה,ר"ע אומר מניין שחייב אדם לשנות לתלמידו עד שילמדנו שנאמר (דברים לא, יט) ולמדה את בני ישראל ומניין עד שתהא סדורה בפיהם שנאמר שימה בפיהם,ומניין שחייב להראות לו פנים שנאמר (שמות כא, א) ואלה המשפטים אשר תשים לפניהם,וליגמרו כולהו ממשה כדי לחלוק כבוד לאהרן ובניו וכבוד לזקנים,וניעול אהרן וניגמר ממשה וליעיילו בניו וליגמרו מאהרן וליעיילו זקנים ולילפו מבניו וליזלו וליגמרינהו לכולהו ישראל כיון דמשה מפי הגבורה גמר מסתייעא מלתיה,אמר מר רבי יהודה אומר לעולם אהרן לימין משה חוזר כמאן אזלא הא דתניא שלשה שהיו מהלכין בדרך הרב באמצע וגדול בימינו וקטן בשמאלו לימא רבי יהודה היא ולא רבנן,אפילו תימא רבנן משום טירחא דאהרן,רבי פרידא הוה ליה ההוא תלמידא דהוה תני ליה ארבע מאה זימני וגמר יומא חד בעיוה למלתא דמצוה תנא ליה ולא גמר,א"ל האידנא מאי שנא א"ל מדההיא שעתא דא"ל למר איכא מילתא דמצוה אסחאי לדעתאי וכל שעתא אמינא השתא קאי מר השתא קאי מר א"ל הב דעתיך ואתני ליך הדר תנא ליה ד' מאה זימני [אחריני],נפקא בת קלא וא"ל ניחא ליך דליספו לך ד' מאה שני או דתיזכו את ודרך לעלמא דאתי אמר דניזכו אנא ודריי לעלמא דאתי אמר להן הקב"ה תנו לו זו וזו,אמר רב חסדא אין תורה נקנית אלא בסימנין שנאמר שימה בפיהם אל תקרי שימה אלא סימנה,שמעה רב תחליפא ממערבא אזל אמרה קמיה דר' אבהו אמר אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה (ירמיהו לא, כא) הציבי לך ציונים שימי לך וגו' עשו ציונים לתורה ומאי משמע דהאי ציון לישנא דסימנא הוא דכתיב (יחזקאל לט, טו) וראה עצם אדם ובנה אצלו ציון,ר' אליעזר אמר מהכא (משלי ז, ד) אמור לחכמה אחותי את ומודע לבינה תקרא עשה מודעים לתורה רבא אמר עשה מועדים לתורה 54b. b whenever a person searches it /b for figs to eat, b he finds figs in it, /b as the figs on a tree do not ripen all at once, so that one can always find a recently ripened fig, b so /b too, with b matters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds in them /b new b meaning. /b , b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “A loving hind and a graceful roe, /b let her breasts satisfy you at all times, and be you ravished always with her love” (Proverbs 5:19)? b Why were matters of Torah compared to a hind? To tell you /b that b just as /b with b a hind, its womb is narrow and it is cherished by its mate each and every hour like the first hour, so /b too, b matters of Torah are cherished by those who study them each and every hour like the first hour. /b , b “And a graceful roe” /b is expounded as follows: b That /b the Torah b bestows grace upon those who study it. “Let her breasts satisfy you at all times”; why were matters of Torah compared to a breast? Just as /b with b a breast, whenever a baby searches it /b for milk to suckle, b he finds milk in it, so /b too, with b matters of Torah. Whenever a person meditates upon them, he finds /b new b meaning in them. /b , b “And be you ravished always with her love”; /b your love for Torah should always distract you from worldly matters, b as was /b the case with b Rabbi Elazar ben Pedat. They said of him, of Rabbi Elazar, that he would sit and engage in Torah /b study b in the lower marketplace of Tzippori, and his cloak was lying in the upper marketplace of Tzippori. /b His mind was so focused on Torah study that he would act in this unusual manner. In this regard, the Gemara relates that b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yitzḥak ben Elazar said: One time a person came to take /b this cloak for himself b and found a serpent on it /b guarding it.,In further praise of the Torah and those who study it, a Sage b of the school of Rav A taught: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “You that ride on white donkeys, you that sit on rich cloths, and you that walk by the way, tell of it” /b (Judges 5:10)? b “You that ride on white donkeys”; these are Torah scholars, who travel from city to city and from province to province to study Torah. “White [ i tzeḥorot /i ]” /b are those b who make it /b clear b as noon /b [ b i tzahorayim /i /b ], i.e., who make the Torah comprehensible. b “You that sit on couches [ i midin /i ]” /b refers to those b who judge [ i danin /i ] an absolutely true judgment. “And you that walk”; these are the masters of Bible, /b who are the least important of the scholars. b “By the way”; these are the /b more important b masters of Mishna. “Tell of it”; these are the masters of Talmud, /b the most important of all, b as all their conversation is /b about b matters of Torah. /b ,The Gemara continues with this topic: b Rav Sheizvi said in the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “The slothful man [ i remiyya /i ] will not roast [ i yaḥarokh /i ] his catch” /b (Proverbs 12:27)? b The deceitful [ i rammai /i ] hunter will not live [ i yiḥyeh /i ] a long life [ i ya’arikh /i ]. /b A deceitful hunter continues to hunt more and more animals without holding on to the animals he has already caught. Similarly, someone who continues to study new material without reviewing what he has already learned will not be successful., b Rav Sheshet said: /b Will b a deceitful hunter /b have something to b roast? /b One who acts in this way is a fool, but it is hard to describe him as deceitful., b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: This is comparable to a hunter who is hunting birds; if he breaks /b the b wings /b of the birds b one by one /b as he captures them so that they will be unable to fly off again, his prey b will be secured, and if not, /b they b will not be secured. /b According to this explanation, the word i rammai /i is interpreted as cunning rather than deceitful. A cunning hunter secures his prey; similarly, a cunning student reviews each lesson and thereby retains that which he learns.,Similarly, b Rabba said that Rav Seḥora said that Rav Huna said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “Wealth gotten through vanity /b [ b i hevel /i /b ] b shall be diminished; but he that gathers little by little shall increase” /b (Proverbs 13:11)? b If a person turns his Torah into bundles /b [ b i ḥavilot /i , /b derived from the word i hevel /i by replacing the i heh /i with a i ḥet /i ], studying large amounts at the same time, his Torah b will diminish. And if not, /b i.e., if he learns little by little and reviews what he has learned, b he that gathers little by little shall increase. /b , b Rabba said: The Sages know this, but /b nevertheless b transgress it, /b i.e., they fail to heed this advice. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I did this, /b learning little by little and regularly reviewing what I had learned, b and /b my learning b has /b indeed b endured. /b ,The Gemara continues to discuss methods of Torah study. b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : b What was the order of teaching /b the Oral Law? How was the Oral Law first taught? b Moses learned /b directly b from the mouth of the Almighty. Aaron entered /b and sat before him, b and Moses taught him his lesson /b as he had learned it from God. b Aaron moved /b aside b and sat to the left of Moses. /b Aaron’s b sons entered, and Moses taught them their lesson /b while Aaron listened. Aaron’s b sons moved /b aside; b Elazar sat to the right of Moses and Itamar /b sat b to the left of Aaron. Rabbi Yehuda /b disagreed with the first i tanna /i with regard to the seating arrangements and b said: Actually, Aaron would return to /b sit to b the right of Moses. The elders entered and Moses taught them their lesson. The elders moved /b aside, and b the entire nation entered and Moses taught them their lesson. Therefore, Aaron had /b heard the lesson b four times, his sons /b heard it b three /b times, b the elders /b heard it b twice, and the entire nation /b heard it b once. /b , b Moses /b then b departed /b to his tent, b and Aaron taught /b the others b his lesson /b as he had learned it from Moses. b Aaron /b then b departed /b and b his sons taught /b the others b their lesson. His sons /b then b departed /b and b the elders taught /b the rest of the people b their lesson. Hence everyone, /b Aaron, his sons, the elders and all the people, heard the lesson taught by God b four times. /b , b From here Rabbi Eliezer said: A person is obligated to teach his student /b his lesson b four times. And /b it follows by way of b an i a fortiori /i inference: If Aaron, who learned from Moses /b himself, b and Moses /b had received the Torah directly b from the mouth of the Almighty, /b needed b this /b regimen; b an ordinary /b student learning b from the mouth of an ordinary /b teacher, b how much more so /b must he review his studies four times., b Rabbi Akiva says: From where /b do we derive b that a person is obligated to teach his student until he learns /b the material and understands it? b As it is stated: /b “Now therefore write this song for you, b and teach it to the children of Israel; /b put it in their mouths, that this song may be a witness for me against the children of Israel” (Deuteronomy 31:19). This verse indicates that one must teach Torah to others. b And from where /b do we derive that one must teach his students b until /b the material b is organized in their mouths? As it is stated: “Put it in their mouths,” /b so that they should be capable of teaching it to others., b And from where /b do we derive b that /b a teacher b must show /b his students b the reasons /b for the teachings? b As it is stated: “Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them” /b (Exodus 21:1), which indicates that the lesson must be set out in logical fashion for the students.,With regard to the manner in which the Oral Law was taught, the Gemara asks: b They should all have studied from Moses /b himself four times. The Gemara answers: The teaching was divided in this manner b in order to give honor to Aaron and his sons, and /b also to give b honor to the elders. /b ,The Gemara asks why a different method was not a