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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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56 results for "pseudepigraphic"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.6 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 39
2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept.
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 15.19-15.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 81
15.19. "אֶת־הַקֵּינִי וְאֶת־הַקְּנִזִּי וְאֵת הַקַּדְמֹנִי׃", 15.19. "the Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite,", 15.20. "and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim,",
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.8, 33.2, 34.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 406; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 81
3.8. "וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃", 33.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת־פָּנָי כִּי לֹא־יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי׃", 33.2. "וְשָׁלַחְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ מַלְאָךְ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃", 34.11. "שְׁמָר־לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם הִנְנִי גֹרֵשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃", 3.8. "and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.", 33.2. "and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite—", 34.11. "Observe thou that which I am commanding thee this day; behold, I am driving out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 7.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 406; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 80
7.3. "וְלֹא תִתְחַתֵּן בָּם בִּתְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לִבְנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ לֹא־תִקַּח לִבְנֶךָ׃", 7.3. "neither shalt thou make marriages with them: thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy son.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75
3.22. "זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה עַבְדִּי אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי אוֹתוֹ בְחֹרֵב עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים׃", 3.22. "Remember ye the law of Moses My servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, even statutes and ordices.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.1, 27.1-27.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 81
1.1. "לִבְנֵי יוֹסֵף לְאֶפְרַיִם אֱלִישָׁמָע בֶּן־עַמִּיהוּד לִמְנַשֶּׁה גַּמְלִיאֵל בֶּן־פְּדָהצוּר׃", 1.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לֵאמֹר׃", 27.1. "וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ אַחִים וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לַאֲחֵי אָבִיו׃", 27.1. "וַתִּקְרַבְנָה בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד בֶּן־חֵפֶר בֶּן־גִּלְעָד בֶּן־מָכִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לְמִשְׁפְּחֹת מְנַשֶּׁה בֶן־יוֹסֵף וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת בְּנֹתָיו מַחְלָה נֹעָה וְחָגְלָה וּמִלְכָּה וְתִרְצָה׃", 27.2. "וְנָתַתָּה מֵהוֹדְךָ עָלָיו לְמַעַן יִשְׁמְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 27.2. "וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן וְלִפְנֵי הַנְּשִׂיאִם וְכָל־הָעֵדָה פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃", 27.3. "אָבִינוּ מֵת בַּמִּדְבָּר וְהוּא לֹא־הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵדָה הַנּוֹעָדִים עַל־יְהוָה בַּעֲדַת־קֹרַח כִּי־בְחֶטְאוֹ מֵת וּבָנִים לֹא־הָיוּ לוֹ׃", 27.4. "לָמָּה יִגָּרַע שֵׁם־אָבִינוּ מִתּוֹךְ מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ כִּי אֵין לוֹ בֵּן תְּנָה־לָּנוּ אֲחֻזָּה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אָבִינוּ׃", 27.5. "וַיַּקְרֵב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מִשְׁפָּטָן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃", 27.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 27.7. "כֵּן בְּנוֹת צְלָפְחָד דֹּבְרֹת נָתֹן תִּתֵּן לָהֶם אֲחֻזַּת נַחֲלָה בְּתוֹךְ אֲחֵי אֲבִיהֶם וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ אֶת־נַחֲלַת אֲבִיהֶן לָהֶן׃", 27.8. "וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ כִּי־יָמוּת וּבֵן אֵין לוֹ וְהַעֲבַרְתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְבִתּוֹ׃", 27.9. "וְאִם־אֵין לוֹ בַּת וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לְאֶחָיו׃", 27.11. "וְאִם־אֵין אַחִים לְאָבִיו וּנְתַתֶּם אֶת־נַחֲלָתוֹ לִשְׁאֵרוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְיָרַשׁ אֹתָהּ וְהָיְתָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְחֻקַּת מִשְׁפָּט כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃", 1.1. "AND THE LORD spoke unto Moses in the wilderness of Sinai, in the tent of meeting, on the first day of the second month, in the second year after the were come out of the land of Egypt, saying:", 27.1. "Then drew near the daughters of Zelophehad, the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the families of Manasseh the son of Joseph; and these are the names of his daughters: Mahlah, Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah.", 27.2. "And they stood before Moses, and before Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and all the congregation, at the door of the tent of meeting, saying:", 27.3. "’Our father died in the wilderness, and he was not among the company of them that gathered themselves together against the LORD in the company of Korah, but he died in his own sin; and he had no sons.", 27.4. "Why should the name of our father be done away from among his family, because he had no son? Give unto us a possession among the brethren of our father.’", 27.5. "And Moses brought their cause before the LORD.", 27.6. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 27.7. "’The daughters of Zelophehad speak right: thou shalt surely give them a possession of an inheritance among their father’s brethren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance of their father to pass unto them.", 27.8. "And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a man die, and have no son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass unto his daughter.", 27.9. "And if he have no daughter, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his brethren.", 27.10. "And if he have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his father’s brethren.", 27.11. "And if his father have no brethren, then ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman that is next to him of his family, and he shall possess it. And it shall be unto the children of Israel a statute of judgment, as the LORD commanded Moses.’",
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 79.2-79.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 39
79.2. "נָתְנוּ אֶת־נִבְלַת עֲבָדֶיךָ מַאֲכָל לְעוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּשַׂר חֲסִידֶיךָ לְחַיְתוֹ־אָרֶץ׃", 79.3. "שָׁפְכוּ דָמָם כַּמַּיִם סְבִיבוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֵין קוֹבֵר׃", 79.2. "They have given the dead bodies of Thy servants to be food unto the fowls of the heaven, The flesh of Thy saints unto the beasts of the earth.", 79.3. "They have shed their blood like water Round about Jerusalem, with none to bury them.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 24.10-24.23, 27.34 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183; Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 81
24.11. "וַיִּקֹּב בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַיִּשְׂרְאֵלִית אֶת־הַשֵּׁם וַיְקַלֵּל וַיָּבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְשֵׁם אִמּוֹ שְׁלֹמִית בַּת־דִּבְרִי לְמַטֵּה־דָן׃", 24.12. "וַיַּנִּיחֻהוּ בַּמִּשְׁמָר לִפְרֹשׁ לָהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה׃", 24.13. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 24.14. "הוֹצֵא אֶת־הַמְקַלֵּל אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְסָמְכוּ כָל־הַשֹּׁמְעִים אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ וְרָגְמוּ אֹתוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה׃", 24.15. "וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר אִישׁ אִישׁ כִּי־יְקַלֵּל אֱלֹהָיו וְנָשָׂא חֶטְאוֹ׃", 24.16. "וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם־יְהוָה מוֹת יוּמָת רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁם יוּמָת׃", 24.17. "וְאִישׁ כִּי יַכֶּה כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אָדָם מוֹת יוּמָת׃", 24.18. "וּמַכֵּה נֶפֶשׁ־בְּהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה נֶפֶשׁ תַּחַת נָפֶשׁ׃", 24.19. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִתֵּן מוּם בַּעֲמִיתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה כֵּן יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃", 24.21. "וּמַכֵּה בְהֵמָה יְשַׁלְּמֶנָּה וּמַכֵּה אָדָם יוּמָת׃", 24.22. "מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח יִהְיֶה כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 24.23. "וַיְדַבֵּר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־הַמְקַלֵּל אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיִּרְגְּמוּ אֹתוֹ אָבֶן וּבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָשׂוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה׃", 27.34. "אֵלֶּה הַמִּצְוֺת אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־מֹשֶׁה אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינָי׃", 24.10. "And the son of an Israelitish woman, whose father was an Egyptian, went out among the children of Israel; and the son of the Israelitish woman and a man of Israel strove together in the camp.", 24.11. "And the son of the Israelitish woman blasphemed the Name, and cursed; and they brought him unto Moses. And his mother’s name was Shelomith, the daughter of Dibri, of the tribe of Dan.", 24.12. "And they put him in ward, that it might be declared unto them at the mouth of the LORD.", 24.13. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 24.14. "’Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp; and let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head, and let all the congregation stone him.", 24.15. "And thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel, saying: Whosoever curseth his God shall bear his sin.", 24.16. "And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death.", 24.17. "And he that smiteth any man mortally shall surely be put to death.", 24.18. "And he that smiteth a beast mortally shall make it good: life for life.", 24.19. "And if a man maim his neighbour; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him:", 24.20. "breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he hath maimed a man, so shall it be rendered unto him.", 24.21. "And he that killeth a beast shall make it good; and he that killeth a man shall be put to death.", 24.22. "Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for the home-born; for I am the LORD your God.’", 24.23. "And Moses spoke to the children of Israel, and they brought forth him that had cursed out of the camp, and stoned him with stones. And the children of Israel did as the LORD commanded Moses.", 27.34. "These are the commandments, which the LORD commanded Moses for the children of Israel in mount Sinai.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 8.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 39
8.10. "And I will turn your feasts into mourning, And all your songs into lamentation; And I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, And baldness upon every head; And I will make it as the mourning for an only son, And the end thereof as a bitter day.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 40.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
40.3. "קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃", 40.3. "וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃", 40.3. "Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God.",
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.1-2.4, 14.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75, 76
2.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר הִקְשִׁיתָ לִשְׁאוֹל אִם־תִּרְאֶה אֹתִי לֻקָּח מֵאִתָּךְ יְהִי־לְךָ כֵן וְאִם־אַיִן לֹא יִהְיֶה׃", 2.1. "וַיְהִי בְּהַעֲלוֹת יְהוָה אֶת־אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֵלִיָּהוּ וֶאֱלִישָׁע מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל׃", 2.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי עַד־בֵּית־אֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיֵּרְדוּ בֵּית־אֵל׃", 2.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר קְחוּ־לִי צְלֹחִית חֲדָשָׁה וְשִׂימוּ שָׁם מֶלַח וַיִּקְחוּ אֵלָיו׃", 2.3. "וַיֵּצְאוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בֵּית־אֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃", 2.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי יְרִיחוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיָּבֹאוּ יְרִיחוֹ׃", 14.6. "וְאֶת־בְּנֵי הַמַּכִּים לֹא הֵמִית כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יוּמְתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יוּמְתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִם־אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ ימות [יוּמָת׃]", 2.1. "And it came to pass, when the LORD would take up Elijah by a whirlwind into heaven, that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal.", 2.2. "And Elijah said unto Elisha: ‘Tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me as far as Beth-el.’ And Elisha said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they went down to Beth-el.—", 2.3. "And the sons of the prophets that were at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he said: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’—", 2.4. "And Elijah said unto him: ‘Elisha, tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me to Jericho.’ And he said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they came to Jericho.—", 14.6. "but the children of the murderers he put not to death; according to that which is written in the book of the law of Moses, as the LORD commanded saying: ‘The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, nor the children be put to death for the fathers; but every man shall be put to death for his own sin.’",
12. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 8.30-8.35, 12.7, 18.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75, 77, 79
8.31. "כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים׃", 8.32. "וַיִּכְתָּב־שָׁם עַל־הָאֲבָנִים אֵת מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר כָּתַב לִפְנֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 8.33. "וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּזְקֵנָיו וְשֹׁטְרִים וְשֹׁפְטָיו עֹמְדִים מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה לָאָרוֹן נֶגֶד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם נֹשְׂאֵי אֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח חֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־גְּרִזִים וְהַחֶצְיוֹ אֶל־מוּל הַר־עֵיבָל כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה לְבָרֵךְ אֶת־הָעָם יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּרִאשֹׁנָה׃", 8.34. "וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָרָא אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַבְּרָכָה וְהַקְּלָלָה כְּכָל־הַכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃", 8.35. "לֹא־הָיָה דָבָר מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קָרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ נֶגֶד כָּל־קְהַל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף וְהַגֵּר הַהֹלֵךְ בְּקִרְבָּם׃", 12.7. "וְאֵלֶּה מַלְכֵי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הִכָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן יָמָּה מִבַּעַל גָּד בְּבִקְעַת הַלְּבָנוֹן וְעַד־הָהָר הֶחָלָק הָעֹלֶה שֵׂעִירָה וַיִּתְּנָהּ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְשִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְרֻשָּׁה כְּמַחְלְקֹתָם׃", 8.30. "Then Joshua built an altar unto the LORD, the God of Israel, in mount Ebal,", 8.31. "as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of unhewn stones, upon which no man had lifted up any iron; and they offered thereon burnt-offerings unto the LORD, and sacrificed peace-offerings.", 8.32. "And he wrote there upon the stones a copy of the law of Moses, which he wrote before the children of Israel.", 8.33. "And all Israel, and their elders and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, as well the stranger as the home-born; half of them in front of mount Gerizim and half of them in front of mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded at the first, that they should bless the people of Israel.", 8.34. "And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessing and the curse, according to all that is written in the book of the law.", 8.35. "There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the assembly of Israel, and the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that walked among them.", 12.7. "And these are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the children of Israel smote beyond the Jordan westward, from Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon even unto the bare mountain, that goeth up to Seir; and Joshua gave it unto the tribes of Israel for a possession according to their divisions;", 18.10. "And Joshua cast lots for them in Shiloh before the LORD; and there Joshua divided the land unto the children of Israel according to their divisions.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.29 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 78
44.29. "הַמִּנְחָה וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם הֵמָּה יֹאכְלוּם וְכָל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָהֶם יִהְיֶה׃", 44.29. "The meal-offering, and the sin-offering, and the guilt-offering, they, even they, shall eat; and every devoted thing in Israel shall be theirs.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 2.61-2.62, 3.2-3.5, 3.10-3.12, 6.18, 7.6, 9.3-9.7, 9.12, 10.2-10.5, 10.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75, 78, 79, 80, 81, 236
2.61. "וּמִבְּנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי חֳבַיָּה בְּנֵי הַקּוֹץ בְּנֵי בַרְזִלַּי אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מִבְּנוֹת בַּרְזִלַּי הַגִּלְעָדִי אִשָּׁה וַיִּקָּרֵא עַל־שְׁמָם׃", 2.62. "אֵלֶּה בִּקְשׁוּ כְתָבָם הַמִּתְיַחְשִׂים וְלֹא נִמְצָאוּ וַיְגֹאֲלוּ מִן־הַכְּהֻנָּה׃", 3.2. "וַיָּקָם יֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וְאֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים וּזְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְאֶחָיו וַיִּבְנוּ אֶת־מִזְבַּח אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו עֹלוֹת כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 3.3. "וַיָּכִינוּ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ עַל־מְכוֹנֹתָיו כִּי בְּאֵימָה עֲלֵיהֶם מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת ויעל [וַיַּעֲלוּ] עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה עֹלוֹת לַבֹּקֶר וְלָעָרֶב׃", 3.4. "וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־חַג הַסֻּכּוֹת כַּכָּתוּב וְעֹלַת יוֹם בְּיוֹם בְּמִסְפָּר כְּמִשְׁפַּט דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ׃", 3.5. "וְאַחֲרֵיכֵן עֹלַת תָּמִיד וְלֶחֳדָשִׁים וּלְכָל־מוֹעֲדֵי יְהוָה הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים וּלְכֹל מִתְנַדֵּב נְדָבָה לַיהוָה׃", 3.11. "וַיַּעֲנוּ בְּהַלֵּל וּבְהוֹדֹת לַיהוָה כִּי טוֹב כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכָל־הָעָם הֵרִיעוּ תְרוּעָה גְדוֹלָה בְהַלֵּל לַיהוָה עַל הוּסַד בֵּית־יְהוָה׃", 3.12. "וְרַבִּים מֵהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וְרָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת הַזְּקֵנִים אֲשֶׁר רָאוּ אֶת־הַבַּיִת הָרִאשׁוֹן בְּיָסְדוֹ זֶה הַבַּיִת בְּעֵינֵיהֶם בֹּכִים בְּקוֹל גָּדוֹל וְרַבִּים בִּתְרוּעָה בְשִׂמְחָה לְהָרִים קוֹל׃", 6.18. "וַהֲקִימוּ כָהֲנַיָּא בִּפְלֻגָּתְהוֹן וְלֵוָיֵא בְּמַחְלְקָתְהוֹן עַל־עֲבִידַת אֱלָהָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם כִּכְתָב סְפַר מֹשֶׁה׃", 7.6. "הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃", 9.3. "וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃", 9.4. "וְאֵלַי יֵאָסְפוּ כֹּל חָרֵד בְּדִבְרֵי אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מַעַל הַגּוֹלָה וַאֲנִי יֹשֵׁב מְשׁוֹמֵם עַד לְמִנְחַת הָעָרֶב׃", 9.5. "וּבְמִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב קַמְתִּי מִתַּעֲנִיתִי וּבְקָרְעִי בִגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶכְרְעָה עַל־בִּרְכַּי וָאֶפְרְשָׂה כַפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃", 9.6. "וָאֹמְרָה אֱלֹהַי בֹּשְׁתִּי וְנִכְלַמְתִּי לְהָרִים אֱלֹהַי פָּנַי אֵלֶיךָ כִּי עֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ רָבוּ לְמַעְלָה רֹּאשׁ וְאַשְׁמָתֵנוּ גָדְלָה עַד לַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 9.7. "מִימֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ בְּאַשְׁמָה גְדֹלָה עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וּבַעֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ נִתַּנּוּ אֲנַחְנוּ מְלָכֵינוּ כֹהֲנֵינוּ בְּיַד מַלְכֵי הָאֲרָצוֹת בַּחֶרֶב בַּשְּׁבִי וּבַבִּזָּה וּבְבֹשֶׁת פָּנִים כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 9.12. "וְעַתָּה בְּנוֹתֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְּנוּ לִבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם אַל־תִּשְׂאוּ לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלֹא־תִדְרְשׁוּ שְׁלֹמָם וְטוֹבָתָם עַד־עוֹלָם לְמַעַן תֶּחֶזְקוּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֶת־טוּב הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹרַשְׁתֶּם לִבְנֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 10.2. "וַיַּעַן שְׁכַנְיָה בֶן־יְחִיאֵל מִבְּנֵי עולם [עֵילָם] וַיֹּאמֶר לְעֶזְרָא אֲנַחְנוּ מָעַלְנוּ בֵאלֹהֵינוּ וַנֹּשֶׁב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת מֵעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְעַתָּה יֵשׁ־מִקְוֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־זֹאת׃", 10.2. "וּמִבְּנֵי אִמֵּר חֲנָנִי וּזְבַדְיָה׃", 10.3. "וּמִבְּנֵי פַּחַת מוֹאָב עַדְנָא וּכְלָל בְּנָיָה מַעֲשֵׂיָה מַתַּנְיָה בְצַלְאֵל וּבִנּוּי וּמְנַשֶּׁה׃", 10.3. "וְעַתָּה נִכְרָת־בְּרִית לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְהוֹצִיא כָל־נָשִׁים וְהַנּוֹלָד מֵהֶם בַּעֲצַת אֲדֹנָי וְהַחֲרֵדִים בְּמִצְוַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְכַתּוֹרָה יֵעָשֶׂה׃", 10.4. "מַכְנַדְבַי שָׁשַׁי שָׁרָי׃", 10.4. "קוּם כִּי־עָלֶיךָ הַדָּבָר וַאֲנַחְנוּ עִמָּךְ חֲזַק וַעֲשֵׂה׃", 10.5. "וַיָּקָם עֶזְרָא וַיַּשְׁבַּע אֶת־שָׂרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיִּשָּׁבֵעוּ׃", 2.61. "And of the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Hakkoz, the children of Barzillai, who took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name.", 2.62. "These sought their register, that is, the genealogy, but it was not found; therefore were they deemed polluted and put from the priesthood.", 3.2. "Then stood up Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and his brethren the priests, and Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and his brethren, and builded the altar of the God of Israel, to offer burnt-offerings thereon, as it is written in the Law of Moses the man of God.", 3.3. "And they set the altar upon its bases; for fear was upon them because of the people of the countries, and they offered burnt-offerings thereon unto the LORD, even burnt-offerings morning and evening.", 3.4. "And they kept the feast of tabernacles, as it is written, and offered the daily burnt-offerings by number, according to the ordice, as the duty of every day required;", 3.5. "and afterward the continual burnt-offering, and the offerings of the new moons, and of all the appointed seasons of the LORD that were hallowed, and of every one that willingly offered a freewill-offering unto the LORD.", 3.10. "And when the builders laid the foundation of the temple of the LORD, they set the priests in their apparel with trumpets, and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cymbals, to praise the LORD, according to the direction of David king of Israel.", 3.11. "And they sang one to another in praising and giving thanks unto the LORD: ‘for He is good, for His mercy endureth for ever toward Israel.’ And all the people shouted with a great shout, when they praised the LORD, because the foundation of the house of the LORD was laid.", 3.12. "But many of the priests and Levites and heads of fathers’houses, the old men that had seen the first house standing on its foundation, wept with a loud voice, when this house was before their eyes; and many shouted aloud for joy;", 6.18. "And they set the priests in their divisions, and the Levites in their courses, for the service of God, which is at Jerusalem; as it is written in the book of Moses.", 7.6. "this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him.", 9.3. "And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled.", 9.4. "Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the evening offering.", 9.5. "And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God;", 9.6. "and I said: ‘O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to Thee, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up unto the heavens.", 9.7. "Since the days of our fathers we have been exceeding guilty unto this day; and for our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, and to spoiling, and to confusion of face, as it is this day.", 9.12. "Now therefore give not your daughters unto their sons, neither take their daughters unto your sons, nor seek their peace or their prosperity for ever; that ye may be strong, and eat the good of the land, and leave it for an inheritance to your children for ever.", 10.2. "And Shecaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said unto Ezra: ‘We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this thing.", 10.3. "Now therefore let us make a covet with our God to put away all the wives, and such as are born of them, according to the counsel of the LORD, and of those that tremble at the commandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law.", 10.4. "Arise; for the matter belongeth unto thee, and we are with thee; be of good courage, and do it.’", 10.5. "Then arose Ezra, and made the chiefs of the priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they would do according to this word. So they swore.", 10.10. "And Ezra the priest stood up, and said unto them: ‘Ye have broken faith, and have married foreign women, to increase the guilt of Israel.",
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 8.14, 12.2, 17.9, 23.18, 25.4, 26.1, 26.6, 26.18, 28.19, 28.22, 29.6, 29.19, 30.7, 30.16-30.27, 33.19, 34.14, 35.5, 35.12, 36.14 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75, 79, 81
8.14. "וַיַּעֲמֵד כְּמִשְׁפַּט דָּוִיד־אָבִיו אֶת־מַחְלְקוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים עַל־עֲבֹדָתָם וְהַלְוִיִּם עַל־מִשְׁמְרוֹתָם לְהַלֵּל וּלְשָׁרֵת נֶגֶד הַכֹּהֲנִים לִדְבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ וְהַשּׁוֹעֲרִים בְּמַחְלְקוֹתָם לְשַׁעַר וָשָׁעַר כִּי כֵן מִצְוַת דָּוִיד אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 12.2. "וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁית לַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם עָלָה שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם כִּי מָעֲלוּ בַּיהוָה׃", 17.9. "וַיְלַמְּדוּ בִּיהוּדָה וְעִמָּהֶם סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וַיָּסֹבּוּ בְּכָל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְלַמְּדוּ בָּעָם׃", 23.18. "וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוֹיָדָע פְּקֻדֹּת בֵּית יְהוָה בְּיַד הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק דָּוִיד עַל־בֵּית יְהוָה לְהַעֲלוֹת עֹלוֹת יְהוָה כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשִׁיר עַל יְדֵי דָוִיד׃", 25.4. "וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם לֹא הֵמִית כִּי כַכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֹא־יָמוּתוּ אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וּבָנִים לֹא־יָמוּתוּ עַל־אָבוֹת כִּי אִישׁ בְּחֶטְאוֹ יָמוּתוּ׃", 26.1. "וַיִּקְחוּ כָּל־עַם יְהוּדָה אֶת־עֻזִּיָּהוּ וְהוּא בֶּן־שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו אֲמַצְיָהוּ׃", 26.1. "וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּלִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וַיַּחְצֹב בֹּרוֹת רַבִּים כִּי מִקְנֶה־רַּב הָיָה לוֹ וּבַשְּׁפֵלָה וּבַמִּישׁוֹר אִכָּרִים וְכֹרְמִים בֶּהָרִים וּבַכַּרְמֶל כִּי־אֹהֵב אֲדָמָה הָיָה׃", 26.6. "וַיֵּצֵא וַיִּלָּחֶם בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיִּפְרֹץ אֶת־חוֹמַת גַּת וְאֵת חוֹמַת יַבְנֵה וְאֵת חוֹמַת אַשְׁדּוֹד וַיִּבְנֶה עָרִים בְּאַשְׁדּוֹד וּבַפְּלִשְׁתִּים׃", 26.18. "וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־עֻזִּיָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ לֹא־לְךָ עֻזִּיָּהוּ לְהַקְטִיר לַיהוָה כִּי לַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים לְהַקְטִיר צֵא מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ כִּי מָעַלְתָּ וְלֹא־לְךָ לְכָבוֹד מֵיְהוָה אֱלֹהִים׃", 28.19. "כִּי־הִכְנִיעַ יְהוָה אֶת־יְהוּדָה בַּעֲבוּר אָחָז מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי הִפְרִיעַ בִּיהוּדָה וּמָעוֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה׃", 28.22. "וּבְעֵת הָצֵר לוֹ וַיּוֹסֶף לִמְעוֹל בַּיהוָה הוּא הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז׃", 29.6. "כִּי־מָעֲלוּ אֲבֹתֵינוּ וְעָשׂוּ הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַיַּעַזְבֻהוּ וַיַּסֵּבּוּ פְנֵיהֶם מִמִּשְׁכַּן יְהוָה וַיִּתְּנוּ־עֹרֶף׃", 29.19. "וְאֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר הִזְנִיחַ הַמֶּלֶךְ אָחָז בְּמַלְכוּתוֹ בְּמַעֲלוֹ הֵכַנּוּ וְהִקְדָּשְׁנוּ וְהִנָּם לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה׃", 30.7. "וְאַל־תִּהְיוּ כַּאֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְכַאֲחֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר מָעֲלוּ בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּתְּנֵם לְשַׁמָּה כַּאֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם רֹאִים׃", 30.16. "וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־עָמְדָם כְּמִשְׁפָּטָם כְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים הַכֹּהֲנִים זֹרְקִים אֶת־הַדָּם מִיַּד הַלְוִיִּם׃", 30.17. "כִּי־רַבַּת בַּקָּהָל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הִתְקַדָּשׁוּ וְהַלְוִיִּם עַל־שְׁחִיטַת הַפְּסָחִים לְכֹל לֹא טָהוֹר לְהַקְדִּישׁ לַיהוָה׃", 30.18. "כִּי מַרְבִּית הָעָם רַבַּת מֵאֶפְרַיִם וּמְנַשֶּׁה יִשָּׂשכָר וּזְבֻלוּן לֹא הִטֶּהָרוּ כִּי־אָכְלוּ אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בְּלֹא כַכָּתוּב כִּי הִתְפַּלֵּל יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לֵאמֹר יְהוָה הַטּוֹב יְכַפֵּר בְּעַד׃", 30.19. "כָּל־לְבָבוֹ הֵכִין לִדְרוֹשׁ הָאֱלֹהִים יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתָיו וְלֹא כְּטָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃", 30.21. "וַיַּעֲשׂוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּמְצְאִים בִּירוּשָׁלִַם אֶת־חַג הַמַּצּוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים בְּשִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה וּמְהַלְלִים לַיהוָה יוֹם בְּיוֹם הַלְוִיִּם וְהַכֹּהֲנִים בִּכְלֵי־עֹז לַיהוָה׃", 30.22. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־לֵב כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם הַמַּשְׂכִּילִים שֵׂכֶל־טוֹב לַיהוָה וַיֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־הַמּוֹעֵד שִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים מְזַבְּחִים זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים וּמִתְוַדִּים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם׃" 30.23. "וַיִּוָּעֲצוּ כָּל־הַקָּהָל לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ שִׁבְעַת־יָמִים שִׂמְחָה׃", 30.24. "כִּי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הֵרִים לַקָּהָל אֶלֶף פָּרִים וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים צֹאן וְהַשָּׂרִים הֵרִימוּ לַקָּהָל פָּרִים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וַיִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ כֹהֲנִים לָרֹב׃", 30.25. "וַיִּשְׂמְחוּ כָּל־קְהַל יְהוּדָה וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וְכָל־הַקָּהָל הַבָּאִים מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְהַגֵּרִים הַבָּאִים מֵאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַיּוֹשְׁבִים בִּיהוּדָה׃", 30.26. "וַתְּהִי שִׂמְחָה־גְדוֹלָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם כִּי מִימֵי שְׁלֹמֹה בֶן־דָּוִיד מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא כָזֹאת בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 30.27. "וַיָּקֻמוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וַיְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיִּשָּׁמַע בְּקוֹלָם וַתָּבוֹא תְפִלָּתָם לִמְעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ לַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 33.19. "וּתְפִלָּתוֹ וְהֵעָתֶר־לוֹ וְכָל־חַטָּאתוֹ וּמַעְלוֹ וְהַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר בָּנָה בָהֶם בָּמוֹת וְהֶעֱמִיד הָאֲשֵׁרִים וְהַפְּסִלִים לִפְנֵי הִכָּנְעוֹ הִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל דִּבְרֵי חוֹזָי׃", 34.14. "וּבְהוֹצִיאָם אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף הַמּוּבָא בֵּית יְהוָה מָצָא חִלְקִיָּהוּ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת־יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃", 35.5. "וְעִמְדוּ בַקֹּדֶשׁ לִפְלֻגּוֹת בֵּית הָאָבוֹת לַאֲחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי הָעָם וַחֲלֻקַּת בֵּית־אָב לַלְוִיִּם׃", 35.12. "וַיָּסִירוּ הָעֹלָה לְתִתָּם לְמִפְלַגּוֹת לְבֵית־אָבוֹת לִבְנֵי הָעָם לְהַקְרִיב לַיהוָה כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה וְכֵן לַבָּקָר׃", 36.14. "גַּם כָּל־שָׂרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הִרְבּוּ לִמְעָול־מַעַל כְּכֹל תֹּעֲבוֹת הַגּוֹיִם וַיְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־בֵּית יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 8.14. "And he appointed, according to the ordice of David his father, the courses of the priests to their service, and the Levites to their charges, to praise, and to minister before the priests, as the duty of every day required; the doorkeepers also by their courses at every gate; for so had David the man of God commanded.", 12.2. "And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had dealt treacherously with the LORD,", 17.9. "And they taught in Judah, having the book of the Law of the LORD with them; and they went about throughout all the cities of Judah, and taught among the people.", 23.18. "And Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the LORD under the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the LORD, to offer the burnt-offerings of the LORD, as it is written in the Law of Moses, with rejoicing and with singing, according to the direction of David.", 25.4. "But he put not their children to death, but did according to that which is written in the law in the book of Moses, as the LORD commanded, saying: ‘The fathers shall not die for the children, neither shall the children die for the fathers; but every man shall die for his own sin.’", 26.1. "And all the people of Judah took Uzziah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the room of his father Amaziah.", 26.6. "And he went forth and warred against the Philistines, and broke down the wall of Gath, and the wall of Jabneh, and the wall of Ashdod; and he built cities in [the country of] Ashdod, and among the Philistines.", 26.18. "and they withstood Uzziah the king, and said unto him: ‘It pertaineth not unto thee, Uzziah, to burn incense unto the LORD, but to the priests the sons of Aaron that are consecrated it pertaineth to burn incense; go out of the sanctuary; for thou hast trespassed; neither shall it be for thy honour from the LORD God.’", 28.19. "For the LORD brought Judah low because of Ahaz king of Israel; for he had cast away restraint in Judah, and acted treacherously against the LORD.", 28.22. "And in the time of his distress did he act even more treacherously against the LORD, this same king Ahaz.", 29.6. "For our fathers have acted treacherously, and done that which was evil in the sight of the LORD our God, and have forsaken Him, and have turned away their faces from the habitation of the LORD, and turned their backs.", 29.19. "Moreover all the vessels, which king Ahaz in his reign did cast away when he acted treacherously, have we prepared and sanctified; and, behold, they are before the altar of the LORD.’", 30.7. "And be not ye like your fathers, and like your brethren, who acted treacherously against the LORD, the God of their fathers, so that He delivered them to be an astonishment, as ye see.", 30.16. "And they stood in their place after their order, according to the law of Moses the man of God; the priests dashed the blood, which they received of the hand of the Levites.", 30.17. "For there were many in the congregation that had not sanctified themselves; therefore the Levites had the charge of killing the passover lambs for every one that was not clean, to sanctify them unto the LORD.", 30.18. "For a multitude of the people, even many of Ephraim and Manasseh, Issachar and Zebulun, had not cleansed themselves, yet did they eat the passover otherwise than it is written. For Hezekiah had prayed for them, saying: ‘The good LORD pardon", 30.19. "every one that setteth his heart to seek God, the LORD, the God of his fathers, though [he be] not [cleansed] according to the purification that pertaineth to holy things.’", 30.20. "And the LORD hearkened to Hezekiah, and healed the people.", 30.21. "And the children of Israel that were present at Jerusalem kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with great gladness; and the Levites and the priests praised the LORD day by day, singing with loud instruments unto the LORD.", 30.22. "And Hezekiah spoke encouragingly unto all the Levites that were well skilled in the service of the LORD. So they did eat throughout the feast for the seven days, offering sacrifices of peace-offerings, and giving thanks to the LORD, the God of their fathers." 30.23. "And the whole congregation took counsel to keep other seven days; and they kept other seven days with gladness.", 30.24. "For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation for offerings a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep; and priests sanctified themselves in great numbers.", 30.25. "And all the congregation of Judah, with the priests and the Levites, and all the congregation that came out of Israel, and the strangers that came out of the land of Israel, and that dwelt in Judah, rejoiced.", 30.26. "So there was great joy in Jerusalem; for since the time of Solomon the son of David king of Israel there was not the like in Jerusalem.", 30.27. "Then the priests the Levites arose and blessed the people; and their voice was heard [of the LORD], and their prayer came up to His holy habitation, even unto heaven.", 33.19. "His prayer also, and how [God] was entreated of him, and all his sin and his transgression, and the places wherein he built high places, and set up the Asherim and the graven images, before he humbled himself; behold, they are written in the history of the seers.", 34.14. "And when they brought out the money that was brought into the house of the LORD, Hilkiah the priest found the book of the Law of the LORD given by Moses.", 35.5. "And stand in the holy place according to the divisions of the fathers’houses of your brethren the children of the people, and [let there be for each] a portion of a father’s house of the Levites.", 35.12. "And they removed the portions that were to be burnt, that they might give them to the divisions of the fathers’houses of the children of the people, to present unto the LORD, as it is written in the book of Moses. And so did they with the oxen.", 36.14. "Moreover all the chiefs of the priests, and the people, transgressed very greatly after all the abominations of the nations; and they polluted the house of the LORD which He had hallowed in Jerusalem.",
16. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 2.7, 5.27, 9.1, 23.6, 24.1, 26.1 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 79, 81
2.7. "וּבְנֵי כַּרְמִי עָכָר עוֹכֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מָעַל בַּחֵרֶם׃", 5.27. "בְּנֵי לֵוִי גֵּרְשׁוֹן קְהָת וּמְרָרִי׃", 9.1. "וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הִתְיַחְשׂוּ וְהִנָּם כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הָגְלוּ לְבָבֶל בְּמַעֲלָם׃", 9.1. "וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה וִיהוֹיָרִיב וְיָכִין׃", 23.6. "וַיֶּחָלְקֵם דָּוִיד מַחְלְקוֹת לִבְנֵי לֵוִי לְגֵרְשׁוֹן קְהָת וּמְרָרִי׃", 24.1. "לְהַקּוֹץ הַשְּׁבִעִי לַאֲבִיָּה הַשְּׁמִינִי׃", 24.1. "וְלִבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן מַחְלְקוֹתָם בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא אֶלְעָזָר וְאִיתָמָר׃", 26.1. "לְמַחְלְקוֹת לְשֹׁעֲרִים לַקָּרְחִים מְשֶׁלֶמְיָהוּ בֶן־קֹרֵא מִן־בְּנֵי אָסָף׃", 26.1. "וּלְחֹסָה מִן־בְּנֵי־מְרָרִי בָּנִים שִׁמְרִי הָרֹאשׁ כִּי לֹא־הָיָה בְכוֹר וַיְשִׂימֵהוּ אָבִיהוּ לְרֹאשׁ׃", 2.7. "And the sons of Carmi: Achar, the troubler of Israel, who committed a trespass concerning the devoted thing.", 5.27. "The sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.", 9.1. "So all Israel were reckoned by genealogies; and, behold, they are written in the book of the kings of Israel; and Judah was carried away captive to Babylon because of their transgression.", 23.6. "And David divided them into courses according to the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.", 24.1. "And the courses of the sons of Aaron were these. The sons of Aaron: Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.", 26.1. "For the courses of the doorkeepers: of the Korahites: Meshelemiah the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8, 11.36, 13.1, 13.24-13.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75, 77, 79, 81
8.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃", 8.1. "וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 8.2. "וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃", 8.3. "וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃", 8.4. "וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃", 8.5. "וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃", 8.6. "וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃", 8.7. "וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃", 8.8. "וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃", 11.36. "וּמִן־הַלְוִיִּם מַחְלְקוֹת יְהוּדָה לְבִנְיָמִין׃", 13.1. "וָאֵדְעָה כִּי־מְנָיוֹת הַלְוִיִּם לֹא נִתָּנָה וַיִּבְרְחוּ אִישׁ־לְשָׂדֵהוּ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַמְשֹׁרְרִים עֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה׃", 13.1. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נִקְרָא בְּסֵפֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וְנִמְצָא כָּתוּב בּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבוֹא עַמֹּנִי וּמֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל הָאֱלֹהִים עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 13.24. "וּבְנֵיהֶם חֲצִי מְדַבֵּר אַשְׁדּוֹדִית וְאֵינָם מַכִּירִים לְדַבֵּר יְהוּדִית וְכִלְשׁוֹן עַם וָעָם׃", 13.25. "וָאָרִיב עִמָּם וָאֲקַלְלֵם וָאַכֶּה מֵהֶם אֲנָשִׁים וָאֶמְרְטֵם וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם בֵּאלֹהִים אִם־תִּתְּנוּ בְנֹתֵיכֶם לִבְנֵיהֶם וְאִם־תִּשְׂאוּ מִבְּנֹתֵיהֶם לִבְנֵיכֶם וְלָכֶם׃", 13.26. "הֲלוֹא עַל־אֵלֶּה חָטָא־שְׁלֹמֹה מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבַגּוֹיִם הָרַבִּים לֹא־הָיָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמֹהוּ וְאָהוּב לֵאלֹהָיו הָיָה וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ אֱלֹהִים מֶלֶךְ עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל גַּם־אוֹתוֹ הֶחֱטִיאוּ הַנָּשִׁים הַנָּכְרִיּוֹת׃", 13.27. "וְלָכֶם הֲנִשְׁמַע לַעֲשֹׂת אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַגְּדוֹלָה הַזֹּאת לִמְעֹל בֵּאלֹהֵינוּ לְהֹשִׁיב נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת׃", 8.1. "all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.", 8.2. "And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month.", 8.3. "And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law.", 8.4. "And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam.", 8.5. "And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up.", 8.6. "And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground.", 8.7. "Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place.", 8.8. "And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading.", 11.36. "And of the Levites, certain courses in Judah were joined to Benjamin.", 13.1. "On that day they read in the book of Moses in the hearing of the people; and therein was found written, that an Ammonite and a Moabite should not enter into the assembly of God for ever;", 13.24. "and their children spoke half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews’language, but according to the language of each people.", 13.25. "And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God: ‘Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters for your sons, or for yourselves.", 13.26. "Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, and he was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel; nevertheless even him did the foreign women cause to sin.", 13.27. "Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to break faith with our God in marrying foreign women?’",
18. Septuagint, Tobit, 2.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 39
2.6. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said, "Your feasts shall be turned into mourning, and all your festivities into lamentation." And I wept.
19. Anon., 1 Enoch, 10-11, 6, 8-9, 7 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 410
7. And all the others together with them took unto themselves wives, and each chose for himself one, and they began to go in unto them and to defile themselves with them, and they taught them charms,and enchantments, and the cutting of roots, and made them acquainted with plants. And they,became pregt, and they bare great giants, whose height was three thousand ells: Who consumed,all the acquisitions of men. And when men could no longer sustain them, the giants turned against,them and devoured mankind. And they began to sin against birds, and beasts, and reptiles, and,fish, and to devour one another's flesh, and drink the blood. Then the earth laid accusation against the lawless ones.
20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 9.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 75
9.13. "כַּאֲשֶׁר כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת בָּאָה עָלֵינוּ וְלֹא־חִלִּינוּ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לָשׁוּב מֵעֲוֺנֵנוּ וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל בַּאֲמִתֶּךָ׃", 9.13. "As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us; yet have we not entreated the favour of the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and have discernment in Thy truth.",
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.11, 5.21-6.1, 6.9, 6.10, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 43
22. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 7.16-7.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 39
7.16. So they trusted him; but he seized sixty of them and killed them in one day, in accordance with the word which was written, 7.17. "The flesh of thy saints and their blood they poured out round about Jerusalem,and there was none to bury them."
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 44.5, 51.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 40
24. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 2.7-2.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 43
25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 1.2-1.3, 8.12-8.16, 9.19-9.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
26. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qmmt, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
27. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q216, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
28. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.11, 5.21-6.1, 6.9, 6.10, 20.32, 20.33 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 43
29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Psalms, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 43
30. Anon., Jubilees, 1.2, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
1.2. "Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them." 1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history
31. Mishnah, Eduyot, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
8.7. "אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁשָּׁמַע מֵרַבּוֹ וְרַבּוֹ מֵרַבּוֹ, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, שֶׁאֵין אֵלִיָּהוּ בָא לְטַמֵּא וּלְטַהֵר, לְרַחֵק וּלְקָרֵב, אֶלָּא לְרַחֵק הַמְקֹרָבִין בִּזְרוֹעַ וּלְקָרֵב הַמְרֻחָקִין בִּזְרוֹעַ. מִשְׁפַּחַת בֵּית צְרִיפָה הָיְתָה בְעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן וְרִחֲקָהּ בֶּן צִיּוֹן בִּזְרוֹעַ, וְעוֹד אַחֶרֶת הָיְתָה שָׁם וְקֵרְבָהּ בֶּן צִיּוֹן בִּזְרוֹעַ. כְּגוֹן אֵלּוּ, אֵלִיָּהוּ בָא לְטַמֵּא וּלְטַהֵר, לְרַחֵק וּלְקָרֵב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְקָרֵב, אֲבָל לֹא לְרַחֵק. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לְהַשְׁווֹת הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לֹא לְרַחֵק וְלֹא לְקָרֵב, אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת שָׁלוֹם בָּעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג) הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֵת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא וְגוֹ' וְהֵשִׁיב לֵב אָבוֹת עַל בָּנִים וְלֵב בָּנִים עַל אֲבוֹתָם: \n", 8.7. "Rabbi Joshua said: I have received a tradition from Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai, who heard it from his teacher, and his teacher [heard it] from his teacher, as a halakhah [given] to Moses from Sinai, that Elijah will not come to pronounce unclean or to pronounce clean, to put away or to bring near, but to put away those brought near by force and to bring near those put away by force. The family of Beth Tzriphah was on the other side of the Jordan and Ben Zion put it away by force; and yet another family was there, and Ben Zion brought it near by force. It is such as these that Elijah will come to pronounce unclean or to pronounce clean, to put away or to bring near. Rabbi Judah says: to bring near, but not to put away. Rabbi Shimon says: to conciliate disputes. And the Sages say: neither to put away nor to bring near, but to make peace in the world, for it is said, “Behold I send to you Elijah the prophet”, etc., “and he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children and the heart of the children to their fathers” (Malachi 3:23-2.",
32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.25, 1.192, 3.94, 3.143, 3.205, 3.218, 3.230, 3.257, 3.259, 4.194, 4.197-4.198, 4.302, 20.268 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 383, 406, 410
1.25. However, those that have a mind to know the reasons of every thing, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I now indeed shall wave the explication of; but if God afford me time for it, I will set about writing it after I have finished the present work. 1.192. But he charged him, in order to keep his posterity unmixed with others, that they should be circumcised in the flesh of their foreskin, and that this should be done on the eighth day after they were born: the reason of which circumcision I will explain in another place. 3.94. Accordingly he appointed such laws, and afterwards informed them in what manner they should act in all cases; which laws I shall make mention of in their proper time; but I shall reserve most of those laws for another work, and make there a distinct explication of them. 3.143. and above those loaves were put two vials full of frankincense. Now after seven days other loaves were brought in their stead, on the day which is by us called the Sabbath; for we call the seventh day the Sabbath. But for the occasion of this intention of placing loaves here, we will speak to it in another place. 3.205. Now I shall speak of what we do in our sacred offices in my discourse about sacrifices; and therein shall inform men in what cases Moses bid us offer a whole burnt-offering, and in what cases the law permits us to partake of them as of food. And when Moses had sprinkled Aaron’s vestments, himself, and his sons, with the blood of the beasts that were slain, and had purified them with spring waters and ointment, they became God’s priests. 3.218. Now this breastplate, and this sardonyx, left off shining two hundred years before I composed this book, God having been displeased at the transgressions of his laws. of which things we shall further discourse on a fitter opportunity; but I will now go on with my proposed narration. 3.230. 3. The sacrifices for sins are offered in the same manner as is the thank-offering. But those who are unable to purchase complete sacrifices, offer two pigeons, or turtle doves; the one of which is made a burnt-offering to God, the other they give as food to the priests. But we shall treat more accurately about the oblation of these creatures in our discourse concerning sacrifices. 3.257. The high priest also, of his own charges, offered a sacrifice, and that twice every day. It was made of flour mingled with oil, and gently baked by the fire; the quantity was one tenth deal of flour; he brought the half of it to the fire in the morning, and the other half at night. The account of these sacrifices I shall give more accurately hereafter; but I think I have premised what for the present may be sufficient concerning them. 3.259. 2. He also determined concerning animals; which of them might be used for food, and which they were obliged to abstain from; which matters, when this work shall give me occasion, shall be further explained; and the causes shall be added by which he was moved to allot some of them to be our food, and enjoined us to abstain from others. 4.194. 3. When he had spoken thus, he gave them the laws and the constitution of government written in a book. Upon which the people fell into tears, and appeared already touched with the sense that they should have a great want of their conductor, because they remembered what a number of dangers he had passed through, and what care he had taken of their preservation: they desponded about what would come upon them after he was dead, and thought they should never have another governor like him; and feared that God would then take less care of them when Moses was gone, who used to intercede for them. 4.197. only we shall so far innovate, as to digest the several kinds of laws into a regular system; for they were by him left in writing as they were accidentally scattered in their delivery, and as he upon inquiry had learned them of God. On which account I have thought it necessary to premise this observation beforehand, lest any of my own countrymen should blame me, as having been guilty of an offense herein. 4.198. Now part of our constitution will include the laws that belong to our political state. As for those laws which Moses left concerning our common conversation and intercourse one with another, I have reserved that for a discourse concerning our manner of life, and the occasions of those laws; which I propose to myself, with God’s assistance, to write, after I have finished the work I am now upon. 4.302. 44. This was the form of political government which was left us by Moses. Moreover, he had already delivered laws in writing in the fortieth year [after they came out of Egypt], concerning which we will discourse in another book. But now on the following days (for he called them to assemble continually) he delivered blessings to them, and curses upon those that should not live according to the laws, but should transgress the duties that were determined for them to observe. 20.268. I have also an intention to write three books concerning our Jewish opinions about God and his essence, and about our laws; why, according to them, some things are permitted us to do, and others are prohibited.
33. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.",
34. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
4.3. "בּוֹ בַיּוֹם אָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב, מַה הֵן בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. גָּזַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מַעְשַׂר עָנִי. וְגָזַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל, אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, עָלֶיךָ רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁאַתָּה מַחְמִיר, שֶׁכָּל הַמַּחְמִיר, עָלָיו רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, יִשְׁמָעֵאל אָחִי, אֲנִי לֹא שִׁנִּיתִי מִסֵּדֶר הַשָּׁנִים, טַרְפוֹן אָחִי שִׁנָּה, וְעָלָיו רְאָיָה לְלַמֵּד. הֵשִׁיב רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מִצְרַיִם חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, מַה מִּצְרַיִם מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית. הֵשִׁיב רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, בָּבֶל חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב חוּץ לָאָרֶץ, מַה בָּבֶל מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי בַשְּׁבִיעִית. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מִצְרַיִם שֶׁהִיא קְרוֹבָה, עֲשָׂאוּהָ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִסְמָכִים עָלֶיהָ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, אַף עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב, שֶׁהֵם קְרוֹבִים, נַעֲשִׂים מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ עֲנִיֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל נִסְמָכִים עֲלֵיהֶם בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, הֲרֵי אַתָּה כִמְהַנָּן מָמוֹן, וְאֵין אַתָּה אֶלָּא כְמַפְסִיד נְפָשׁוֹת. קוֹבֵעַ אַתָּה אֶת הַשָּׁמַיִם מִלְּהוֹרִיד טַל וּמָטָר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ג), הֲיִקְבַּע אָדָם אֱלֹהִים כִּי אַתֶּם קֹבְעִים אֹתִי וַאֲמַרְתֶּם בַּמֶּה קְבַעֲנוּךָ הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַתְּרוּמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, הֲרֵינִי כְמֵשִׁיב עַל טַרְפוֹן אָחִי, אֲבָל לֹא לְעִנְיַן דְּבָרָיו. מִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ, וּבָבֶל מַעֲשֶׂה יָשָׁן, וְהַנִּדּוֹן שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ. יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ מִמַּעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ, וְאַל יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֶׂה חָדָשׁ מִמַּעֲשֶׂה יָשָׁן. מִצְרַיִם מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים, וּבָבֶל מַעֲשֵׂה נְבִיאִים, וְהַנִּדּוֹן שֶׁלְּפָנֵינוּ מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים. יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים מִמַּעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים, וְאַל יִדּוֹן מַעֲשֵׂה זְקֵנִים מִמַּעֲשֵׂה נְבִיאִים. נִמְנוּ וְגָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִין מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. וּכְשֶׁבָּא רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן דֻּרְמַסְקִית אֵצֶל רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּלוֹד, אָמַר לוֹ, מַה חִדּוּשׁ הָיָה לָכֶם בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַיּוֹם. אָמַר לוֹ, נִמְנוּ וְגָמְרוּ, עַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִים מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. בָּכָה רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר וְאָמַר, סוֹד ה' לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם (תהלים כה). צֵא וֶאֱמֹר לָהֶם, אַל תָּחֹשּׁוּ לְמִנְיַנְכֶם. מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁשָּׁמַע מֵרַבּוֹ, וְרַבּוֹ מֵרַבּוֹ עַד הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, שֶׁעַמּוֹן וּמוֹאָב מְעַשְּׂרִין מַעְשַׂר עָנִי בַּשְּׁבִיעִית: \n", 4.3. "On that day they said: what is the law applying to Ammon and Moab in the seventh year? Rabbi Tarfon decreed tithe for the poor. And Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah decreed second tithe. Rabbi Ishmael said: Elazar ben Azariah, you must produce your proof because you are expressing the stricter view and whoever expresses a stricter view has the burden to produce the proof. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Ishmael, my brother, I have not deviated from the sequence of years, Tarfon, my brother, has deviated from it and the burden is upon him to produce the proof. Rabbi Tarfon answered: Egypt is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Egypt must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah answered: Babylon is outside the land of Israel, Ammon and Moab are outside the land of Israel: just as Babylon must give second tithe in the seventh year, so must Ammon and Moab give second tithe in the seventh year. Rabbi Tarfon said: on Egypt which is near, they imposed tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel might be supported by it during the seventh year; so on Ammon and Moab which are near, we should impose tithe for the poor so that the poor of Israel may be supported by it during the seventh year. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah said to him: Behold, you are like one who would benefit them with gain, yet you are really as one who causes them to perish. Would you rob the heavens so that dew or rain should not descend? As it is said, \"Will a man rob God? Yet you rob me. But you: How have we robbed You? In tithes and heave-offerings\" (Malakhi 3:8). Rabbi Joshua said: Behold, I shall be as one who replies on behalf of Tarfon, my brother, but not in accordance with the substance of his arguments. The law regarding Egypt is a new act and the law regarding Babylon is an old act, and the law which is being argued before us is a new act. A new act should be argued from [another] new act, but a new act should not be argued from an old act. The law regarding Egypt is the act of the elders and the law regarding Babylon is the act of the prophets, and the law which is being argued before us is the act of the elders. Let one act of the elders be argued from [another] act of the elders, but let not an act of the elders be argued from an act of the prophets. The votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab should give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. And when Rabbi Yose ben Durmaskit visited Rabbi Eliezer in Lod he said to him: what new thing did you have in the house of study today? He said to him: their votes were counted and they decided that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year. Rabbi Eliezer wept and said: \"The counsel of the Lord is with them that fear him: and his covet, to make them know it\" (Psalms 25:14). Go and tell them: Don't worry about your voting. I received a tradition from Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai who heard it from his teacher, and his teacher from his teacher, and so back to a halachah given to Moses from Sinai, that Ammon and Moab must give tithe for the poor in the seventh year.",
35. New Testament, John, 1.23, 1.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
1.23. ἔφη Ἐγὼ φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Εὐθύνατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, καθὼς εἶπεν Ἠσαίας ὁ προφήτης. 1.45. εὑρίσκει Φίλιππος τὸν Ναθαναὴλ καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Ὃν ἔγραψεν Μωυσῆς ἐν τῷ νόμῳ καὶ οἱ προφῆται εὑρήκαμεν, Ἰησοῦν υἱὸν τοῦ Ἰωσὴφ τὸν ἀπὸ Ναζαρέτ. 1.23. He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make straight the way of the Lord,' as Isaiah the prophet said." 1.45. Philip found Nathanael, and said to him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, wrote: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."
36. New Testament, Luke, 3.2-3.6, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
3.2. ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καιάφα, ἐγένετο ῥῆμα θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν Ζαχαρίου υἱὸν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. 3.3. καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς πᾶσαν περίχωρον τοῦ Ἰορδάνου κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν, 3.4. ὡς γέγραπται ἐν βίβλῳ λόγων Ἠσαίου τοῦ προφήτου φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ. 3.5. πᾶσα φάραγξ πληρωθήσεται καὶ πᾶν ὄρος καὶ βουνὸς ταπεινωθήσεται, καὶ ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας καὶ αἱ τραχεῖαι εἰς ὁδοὺς λείας· 3.6. καὶ ὄψεται πᾶσα σὰρξ τὸ σωτήριον τοῦ θεοῦ. 16.16. Ὁ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται μέχρι Ἰωάνου· ἀπὸ τότε ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ εὐαγγελίζεται καὶ πᾶς εἰς αὐτὴν βιάζεται. 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 3.3. He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for remission of sins. 3.4. As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight. 3.5. Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, And the rough ways smooth. 3.6. All flesh will see God's salvation.'" 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it.
37. Mishnah, Kiddushin, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
4.14. "רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא יִרְעֶה רַוָּק בְּהֵמָה, וְלֹא יִישְׁנוּ שְׁנֵי רַוָּקִים בְּטַלִּית אֶחָת. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין. כָּל שֶׁעִסְקוֹ עִם הַנָּשִׁים, לֹא יִתְיַחֵד עִם הַנָּשִׁים. וְלֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת בֵּין הַנָּשִׁים. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ אֻמָּנוּת נְקִיָּה וְקַלָּה, וְיִתְפַּלֵּל לְמִי שֶׁהָעשֶׁר וְהַנְּכָסִים שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ עֲנִיּוּת וַעֲשִׁירוּת, שֶׁלֹּא עֲנִיּוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת וְלֹא עֲשִׁירוּת מִן הָאֻמָּנוּת, אֶלָּא הַכֹּל לְפִי זְכוּתוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר, רָאִיתָ מִיָּמֶיךָ חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם אֻמָּנוּת, וְהֵן מִתְפַּרְנְסִין שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִבְרְאוּ אֶלָּא לְשַׁמְּשֵׁנִי, וַאֲנִי נִבְרֵאתִי לְשַׁמֵּשׁ אֶת קוֹנִי, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֶתְפַּרְנֵס שֶׁלֹּא בְצַעַר. אֶלָּא שֶׁהֲרֵעוֹתִי מַעֲשַׂי וְקִפַּחְתִּי אֶת פַּרְנָסָתִי. אַבָּא גֻרְיָן אִישׁ צַדְיָן אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם אַבָּא גֻרְיָא, לֹא יְלַמֵּד אָדָם אֶת בְּנוֹ, חַמָּר, גַּמָּל, סַפָּר, סַפָּן, רוֹעֶה, וְחֶנְוָנִי, שֶׁאֻמָּנוּתָן אֻמָּנוּת לִסְטִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, הַחַמָּרִין, רֻבָּן רְשָׁעִים, וְהַגַּמָּלִין, רֻבָּן כְּשֵׁרִים. הַסַּפָּנִין, רֻבָּן חֲסִידִים. טוֹב שֶׁבָּרוֹפְאִים, לְגֵיהִנֹּם. וְהַכָּשֵׁר שֶׁבַּטַּבָּחִים, שֻׁתָּפוֹ שֶׁל עֲמָלֵק. רַבִּי נְהוֹרַאי אוֹמֵר, מַנִּיחַ אֲנִי כָּל אֻמָּנוּת שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וְאֵינִי מְלַמֵּד אֶת בְּנִי אֶלָּא תוֹרָה, שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל מִשְּׂכָרָהּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְקֶרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. וּשְׁאָר כָּל אֻמָּנוּת אֵינָן כֵּן. כְּשֶׁאָדָם בָּא לִידֵי חֹלִי אוֹ לִידֵי זִקְנָה אוֹ לִידֵי יִסּוּרִין וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲסֹק בִּמְלַאכְתּוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא מֵת בְּרָעָב. אֲבָל הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ כֵּן, אֶלָּא מְשַׁמַּרְתּוֹ מִכָּל רָע בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ אַחֲרִית וְתִקְוָה בְזִקְנוּתוֹ. בְּנַעֲרוּתוֹ, מַה הוּא אוֹמֵר, (ישעיה מ) וְקֹוֵי ה' יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ. בְּזִקְנוּתוֹ, מַהוּ אוֹמֵר, (תהלים צב) עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּאַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, (בראשית כד) וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן, וַה' בֵּרַךְ אֶת אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל. מָצִינוּ שֶׁעָשָׂה אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ אֶת כָּל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, (שם כו) עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֹתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי: \n", 4.14. "Rabbi Judah said: an unmarried man must not tend cattle, nor may two unmarried men sleep together under the same cover. But the sages permit it. One whose business is with women must not be alone with women. And one should not teach his son a woman’s trade. Rabbi Meir says: one should always teach his son a clean and easy profession, and pray to Him to whom wealth and property belong. For a profession does not contain [the potential for] poverty and wealth, for poverty is not due to one’s profession nor is wealth due to the profession, but all depends on merit. Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: have you ever seen a wild beast or a bird with a profession? Yet they are sustained without trouble. Now, were they not were created only to serve me, while I was created to serve my master: surely then I should make a living without trouble! But my evil acts have done me in and withheld my livelihood. Abba Gurion a man of Sidon says in the name of Abba Guria: one should not teach his son [to be] a donkey-driver, camel-driver, wagon-driver, sailor, shepherd, or shopkeeper, because their profession is the profession of robbers. Rabbi Judah says in his name: most donkey-drivers are wicked, while most camel-drivers are worthy men; and most sailors are pious. The best of doctors are destined for Gehenna, and the worthiest of butchers is Amalek’s partner. Rabbi Nehorai says: I will abandon every profession in the world and I will not teach my son anything but Torah, for a person enjoys its reward in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come. But all other professions are not so; for when a man comes to sickness or old age or suffering and cannot engage in his profession, he must die of starvation, whereas the Torah is not so, for it guards him from all evil in his youth and gives him a future and hope in his old age. of his youth what is said? “But they that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength” (Isaiah 40:31). of his old age what is said? “They shall still bring forth fruit in old age” (Psalms 92:15). And it is also said of our father Abraham, “And Abraham was old … And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1). We find that Abraham our father observed the whole Torah before it was given, for it is said, “Because Abraham obeyed My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws” (Genesis 26:5).",
38. Tosefta, Kiddushin, 5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
39. New Testament, Matthew, 3.3-3.6, 5.17, 7.12, 11.13, 22.40 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
3.3. Οὗτος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ ῥηθεὶς διὰ Ἠσαίου τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ. 3.4. Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ Ἰωάνης εἶχεν τὸ ἔνδυμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τριχῶν καμήλου καὶ ζώνην δερματίνην περὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν αὐτοῦ, ἡ δὲ τροφὴ ἦν αὐτοῦ ἀκρίδες καὶ μέλι ἄγριον. 3.5. Τότε ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν Ἰεροσόλυμα καὶ πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία καὶ πᾶσα ἡ περίχωρος τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, 3.6. καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. 5.17. Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι· 7.12. Πάντα οὖν ὅσα ἐὰν θέλητε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς· οὗτος γάρ ἐστιν ὁ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται. 11.13. πάντες γὰρ οἱ προφῆται καὶ ὁ νόμος ἕως Ἰωάνου ἐπροφήτευσαν· 22.40. ἐν ταύταις ταῖς δυσὶν ἐντολαῖς ὅλος ὁ νόμος κρέμαται καὶ οἱ προφῆται. 3.3. For this is he who was spoken of by Isaiah the prophet, saying, "The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make ready the way of the Lord, Make his paths straight." 3.4. Now John himself wore clothing made of camel's hair, with a leather belt around his waist. His food was locusts and wild honey. 3.5. Then people from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and all the region around the Jordan went out to him. 3.6. They were baptized by him in the Jordan, confessing their sins. 5.17. "Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 7.12. Therefore whatever you desire for men to do to you, you shall also do to them; for this is the law and the prophets. 11.13. For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. 22.40. The whole law and the prophets depend on these two commandments."
40. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
41. New Testament, Mark, 1.3-1.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 44
1.3. Φωνὴ βοῶντος ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ Ἑτοιμάσατε τὴν ὁδὸν Κυρίου, εὐθείας ποιεῖτε τὰς τρίβους αὐτοῦ, 1.4. ἐγένετο Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. 1.5. καὶ ἐξεπορεύετο πρὸς αὐτὸν πᾶσα ἡ Ἰουδαία χώρα καὶ οἱ Ἰεροσολυμεῖται πάντες, καὶ ἐβαπτίζοντο ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ Ἰορδάνῃ ποταμῷ ἐξομολογούμενοι τὰς ἁμαρτίας αὐτῶν. 1.3. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, 'Make ready the way of the Lord! Make his paths straight!'" 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 1.5. All the country of Judea and all those of Jerusalem went out to him. They were baptized by him in the Jordan river, confessing their sins.
42. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 306 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 523
43. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
44. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. b who wagered with each other /b and b said: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillel /b to the point that he reprimands him, b will take four-hundred /b i zuz /i . b One of them said: I will aggravate him. That day /b that he chose to bother Hillel b was Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washing /b the hair on b his head. He went and passed the entrance to /b Hillel’s b house /b and in a demeaning manner b said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Hillel b wrapped himself /b in a dignified garment b and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. /b Hillel b said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked him: b Why are the heads of Babylonians oval? /b He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. b He said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they do not have clever midwives. /b They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man b went and waited one hour, /b a short while, b returned /b to look for Hillel, b and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Again, Hillel b wrapped himself and went out to greet him. /b Hillel b said to him: My son, what do you seek? /b The man b said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked: b Why are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ i terutot /i ]? /b Hillel b said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they live among the sands /b and the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man b went, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Again, b he, /b Hillel, b wrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked: b Why do Africans have wide feet? /b Hillel b said to him: You have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they live in marshlands /b and their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man b said to him: I have many /b more b questions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry. /b Hillel b wrapped himself and sat before him, /b and b he said to him: All of /b the b questions that you have to ask, ask /b them. The man got angry and b said to him: Are you Hillel whom they call /b the b i Nasi /i of Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: If /b it b is you, /b then b may there not be many like you in Israel. /b Hillel b said to him: My son, for what /b reason do you say this? The man b said to him: Because I lost four hundred i zuz /i because of you. /b Hillel b said to him: Be vigilant of your spirit /b and avoid situations of this sort. b Hillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred i zuz /i and /b another b four hundred i zuz /i on his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b , b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. /b The gentile b said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. /b The gentile b said to him: /b With regard to b the Written /b Torah, b I believe you, but /b with regard to b the Oral /b Torah, b I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me /b only the b Written Torah. /b Shammai b scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. /b The same gentile b came before Hillel, /b who b converted him /b and began teaching him Torah. b On the first day, he /b showed him the letters of the alphabet and b said to him: i Alef /i , i bet /i , i gimmel /i , i dalet /i . The next day he reversed /b the order of the letters and told him that an i alef /i is a i tav /i and so on. The convert b said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. /b Hillel b said to him: /b You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. b Didn’t you rely on me? /b Therefore, you should b also rely on me /b with regard to the matter b of the Oral /b Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was b another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai /b and b said to /b Shammai: b Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. /b Shammai b pushed him /b away b with the builder’s cubit in his hand. /b This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile b came before Hillel. He converted him /b and b said to him: /b That b which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b ,There was b another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall /b and b heard the voice of a teacher who was /b teaching Torah to his students and b saying /b the verse: b “And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an i efod, /i /b and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). b The gentile said: These /b garments, b for whom are they /b designated? The students b said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai /b and b said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me /b as High Priest. Shammai b pushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b ,Hillel b said to him, /b to the convert: b Is it not /b the way of the world that b only one who knows the protocols [ i takhsisei /i ] /b of royalty b is appointed king? Go /b and b learn the royal protocols /b by engaging in Torah study. b He went and read /b the Bible. b When he reached /b the verse which says: b “And the common man that draws near shall be put to death” /b (Numbers 1:51), the convert b said to /b Hillel: b With regard to whom is the verse speaking? /b Hillel b said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an i a fortiori /i inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn” /b (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless b it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came /b without merit, b with /b nothing more than b his staff and traveling bag, all the more so /b that this applies to him, as well.,The convert b came before Shammai /b and b told him /b that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: b Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel /b and b said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. /b The Gemara relates: b Eventually, the three /b converts b gathered together /b in b one place, /b and b they said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b ,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that b Reish Lakish said: What /b is the meaning of b that which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge, /b the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? b Faith; that is the order of i Zera /i ’ i im /i , Seeds, /b in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). b Your times; that is the order of i Moed /i , Festival, /b which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. b Strength; that is the order of i Nashim /i , Women. Salvations; that is the order of i Nezikin /i , Damages, /b as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. b Wisdom; that is the order of i Kodashim /i , Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of i Teharot /i , Purity, /b which is particularly difficult to master. b And even /b if a person studies and masters all of these, b “the fear of the Lord is his treasure,” /b it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, b Rava said: /b After departing from this world, b when a person is brought to judgment /b for the life he lived in this world, b they say to him /b in the order of that verse: Did b you conduct business faithfully? /b Did b you designate times for Torah /b study? Did b you engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engage /b in the dialectics of b wisdom /b or understand b one matter from another? And, nevertheless, /b beyond all these, b if the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes, /b he is worthy, and b if not, no, /b none of these accomplishments have any value. There is b a parable /b that illustrates this. b A person who said to his emissary: Bring a i kor /i of wheat up to the attic for me /b to store there. The messenger b went and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary: /b Did b you mix a i kav /i of i ḥomton /i , /b a preservative to keep away worms, b into it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him: /b If so, it would have been b preferable had you not brought it up. /b of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a i halakha /i that was b taught /b in b the school /b of b Rabbi Yishmael: A person /b who sells wheat b may, /b i ab initio /i , b mix a i kav /i of i ḥomton /i into a i kor /i of grain and need not be concerned /b that by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the i kav /i of i ḥomton /i is essential for the preservation of the wheat., b Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b
45. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
24a. ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא (ויקרא ו, כג) בקדש באש תשרף בקדש בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,והאי בקדש באש תשרף להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה לכדרבי שמעון דתניא רבי שמעון אומר בקדש באש תשרף לימד על חטאת ששורפין אותה בקדש ואין לי אלא זו בלבד פסולי קדשי קדשים ואמורי קדשים קלים מנין תלמוד לומר (וכל) בקדש באש תשרף,אמר ליה רבי יונתן רבך מהאי קרא קאמר לה (שמות כט, לד) ואם יותר מבשר המלואים ומן הלחם עד הבקר וגו' שאין תלמוד לומר לא יאכל ומה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל אם אינו ענין לגופיה דהא כתיב (שמות כט, לד) ושרפת את הנותר באש תנהו ענין לשאר איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא ושרפת את הנותר נותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,והאי לא יאכל להכי הוא דאתא האי מיבעי ליה לכדרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר לא יאכל כי קדש הוא כל שבקדש פסול בא הכתוב ליתן לא תעשה על אכילתו,אמר אביי לעולם מקרא קמא ואיפוך דליכתוב באש תשרף ולא בעי לא תאכל מה תלמוד לומר לא תאכל אם אינו ענין לגופו דנפקא ליה מדרבי אלעזר תנהו ענין לכל איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין לאיסור הנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא הנותר הנותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,אמר ליה רב פפא לאביי ואימא ליחודי ליה לאו לגופיה הוא דאתא דאי מדרבי אלעזר אין לוקין על לאו שבכללות,אלא אמר רב פפא מהכא (ויקרא ז, יט) והבשר אשר יגע בכל טמא לא יאכל באש ישרף שאין תלמוד לומר לא יאכל מה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל,אם אינו ענין לגופו דהא נפקא ליה מקל וחומר ממעשר הקל ומה מעשר הקל אמרה תורה (דברים כו, יד) לא בערתי ממנו בטמא בשר קדש חמור לא כל שכן,וכי תימא אין מזהירין מן הדין הקישא הוא דכתיב (דברים יב, יז) לא תוכל לאכול בשעריך מעשר דגנך תירושך ויצהרך ובכורות בקרך וגו',מה תלמוד לומר לא יאכל אם אינו ענין לגופו תנהו ענין לכל איסורין שבתורה ואם אינו ענין לאכילה תנהו ענין להנאה,אי מה כאן בשריפה אף כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה אמר קרא הנותר הנותר בשריפה ואין כל איסורין שבתורה בשריפה,אמר לי' רבינא לרב אשי ואימא לעבור עליו בשני לאוין לאו מי אמר אביי אכל פוטיתא לוקה ארבע,נמלה לוקה חמש 24a. b And if it does not /b apply to b the matter of /b the prohibition against b eating, /b as the prohibition against eating these items has already been mentioned, b apply it to the matter of the prohibition of /b deriving b benefit. /b ,The Gemara continues: b Lest /b one say that the verse indicates that b just as here, /b the sin-offering is disposed of b with burning, so too, all the prohibited /b items b in the Torah /b must be disposed of b with burning, /b therefore b the verse said: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire” /b (Leviticus 6:23). This indicates that only that which is disqualified b in the sacred place /b is disposed of b with burning, but all /b other b prohibited /b items b in the Torah /b need b not /b be disposed of b with burning. /b ,Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani asked: b And did this /b verse: b “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire,” come to /b teach b this /b i halakha /i ? b It is needed /b to teach b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Shimon says: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire”; /b this b taught that one /b must b burn a /b disqualified b sin-offering in the sacred place, /b and not outside the Temple. b And I have only /b derived b this, /b meaning the sin-offering. b From where do I derive that disqualified offerings of the most sacred order and portions consumed /b on the altar, such as the fats b of offerings of minor sanctity /b that become impure, are burned in the Temple courtyard? b The verse states: “In the sacred place…shall be burnt with fire.” /b This indicates that any disqualified offering must be burned in the sacred place.,The Sage who taught this i halakha /i to Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani b said to him: Rabbi Yonatan, your teacher, said that /b same i halakha /i b from this verse: “And if the flesh of the consecration /b offering, b or of the bread, remains until the morning, /b then you shall burn the leftover with fire; it shall not be eaten, because it is sacred” (Exodus 29:34). b As /b there is b no /b need for b the verse to state: “It shall not be eaten,” what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “It shall not be eaten”? If it does not refer to the /b subject b matter itself, as it is /b already b written /b explicitly: b “Then you shall burn the leftover with fire,” /b which indicates that one may not eat it, b refer it to the matter of the other prohibitions in the Torah. And if it does not refer to the matter of /b the prohibition against b eating, /b as eating these items is explicitly prohibited, b refer it to the matter of the prohibition of /b deriving b benefit. /b This indicates that it is prohibited for one to derive benefit from any item that it is prohibited for him to eat.,The Gemara continues: b Lest /b one say that the verse indicates that b just as here, /b the sin-offering is disposed of b with burning, so too, all the prohibited /b items b in the Torah, /b from which one may not benefit, must be disposed of b with burning, /b therefore b the verse said: “You shall burn the leftover,” /b indicating that the b leftover /b sacrificial meat must be disposed of b with burning; however, all /b other b prohibitions in the Torah /b need b not /b be disposed of b with burning, /b despite the fact that it is prohibited to derive benefit from them.,The Gemara challenges: b And did this /b phrase: b “It shall not be eaten,” come /b to teach b this /b prohibition against deriving benefit? b This /b phrase b is needed /b to teach b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar said /b with regard to the statement in the verse: b “It shall not be eaten, because it is sacred,” /b that b the verse comes to place a negative /b mitzva of b eating on whatever has been /b rendered b disqualified in the sacred place. /b In other words, this verse teaches a general i halakha /i that one who eats from offerings that have been disqualified in the Temple transgresses a negative mitzva and is liable to be flogged. It teaches nothing with regard to a prohibition against deriving benefit., b Abaye said: Actually, /b derive this i halakha /i b from the first verse /b cited by Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: “And any sin-offering, of which any of the blood is brought into the tent of meeting to make atonement in the sacred place, shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire” (Leviticus 6:23). b And reverse /b the construct of his exposition. b Let /b the verse b write: “It shall be burnt with fire,” and it /b will b not need /b to write: b “Shall not be eaten.” /b For b what /b purpose then does b the verse state: “It shall not be eaten”? If it does not apply to /b the subject b matter itself, as that was /b already b derived from /b the statement of b Rabbi Elazar /b that whatever has been rendered disqualified in the sacred place may not be eaten, b apply it to all /b other b prohibitions in the Torah, /b including leavened bread on Passover and a stoned ox. b And if it does not /b apply to the prohibition against b eating, /b which is written explicitly, then b apply it to the prohibition of /b deriving b benefit. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Lest /b one say that the verse indicates that b just as here, /b the leftover sacrificial meat is disposed of b with burning, so too, all the prohibited /b items b in the Torah, /b from which one may not benefit, must be disposed of b with burning, /b therefore b the verse said: /b “You shall burn b the leftover,” /b indicating that the b leftover /b sacrificial meat must b be /b disposed of b with burning; however, all /b other b prohibited /b items b in the Torah /b need b not /b be disposed of b with burning. /b , b Rav Pappa said to Abaye: And /b why do you hold that the phrase: “You shall not eat,” describing the sin-offering that was sacrificed inside the Sanctuary, is not needed for other purposes? b Say /b that this expression b comes /b in order b to designate a negative /b mitzva for this prohibition b itself. As, if /b this prohibition were derived only b from /b the source quoted by b Rabbi Elazar, /b there will be a prohibition to eat the meat of the sin-offering whose blood was brought into the sanctuary; however, one would not be liable to be flogged for violating it, because b one is not flogged for /b violating b a negative /b mitzva b stated in general terms. /b One is not flogged for violating a negative mitzva that contains several different prohibitions, such as this one, which refers to all disqualified offerings. This is because the negative mitzva is formulated too broadly. Therefore, it is possible to say that when the Torah states: “You shall not eat” with regard to this issue, it is teaching that there is a particular prohibition here and that one is flogged for violating it. If so, the verse cannot indicate a general prohibition against deriving benefit., b Rather, /b this suggestion should be rejected, and b Rav Pappa said /b that one derives this i halakha /i b from here: “And the flesh that touches any impure thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire. /b And as for the flesh, every one that is pure may eat of it” (Leviticus 7:19). b As /b there is b no /b need for b the verse to state: “It shall not be eaten,” what /b does it mean when b the verse states: “It shall not be eaten”? /b , b If it does not /b refer to the subject b matter itself, as that /b can be b derived by /b means of b an i a fortiori /i /b inference b from /b the second b tithe, /b the i halakhot /i of b which /b are more b lenient /b than those of offerings, then it must refer to something else. As it is possible to say: b If /b with regard to the second b tithe, which is /b more b lenient /b because it does not have the status of an offering, b the Torah said /b that when one recites the confession over the tithes, when destroying the tithes remaining in one’s possession that had not yet been given to the appropriate recipient, he says: “I have not eaten from it in my mourning, b neither have I removed it while impure” /b (Deuteronomy 26:14), indicating that it is prohibited for one to remove tithes while impure, then with regard to b consecrated meat, /b which is more b stringent, all the more so /b is it b not /b clear that it may not be eaten while a person is impure?, b And if you say /b that there is a general principle that b we do not warn, /b i.e., we may not deduce a prohibition, b through logical derivation /b alone, then one could respond that his issue is not only derived through an i a fortiori /i inference; rather, b it is /b also derived from an analogy based on b a juxtaposition. As it is written: “You may not eat within your gates the tithe of your grain, or of your wine, or of your oil, or the firstborn of your herd /b or of your flock, nor any of your vows which you have vowed, nor your voluntary offerings, nor the offering of your hand” (Deuteronomy 12:17). Since the verse itself juxtaposes tithes to offerings, it indicates that there is a prohibition with regard to offerings just as there is with regard to tithes.,The Gemara continues explaining Rav Pappa’s opinion: For b what purpose /b then does b the verse state: “It shall not be eaten” /b with regard to impure consecrated meat? b If it does not /b apply to b the /b subject b matter /b of this verse b itself, /b as that prohibition is derived from the second tithe, then b apply it to the matter of all prohibited /b items b in the Torah. And if it does not /b apply to the prohibition against b eating, /b since that is clear, b apply it to the prohibition of /b deriving b benefit. /b ,And if you say: b Lest /b one say that the verse indicates that b just as here, /b the meat that became impure in the Temple is disposed of b with burning, so too, all the prohibited /b items b in the Torah /b must be disposed of b with burning, /b therefore b the verse said: “The leftover,” /b indicating b that the leftover /b sacrificial meat must be disposed of b with burning; however, all /b other b prohibited /b items b in the Torah /b need b not /b be disposed of b with burning. /b , b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: And say /b that this expression: “It shall not be eaten,” comes to teach not the prohibition against deriving benefit, but rather that one who transgresses this negative mitzva b violates two prohibitions. /b And there is precedent for such an explanation, as b didn’t Abaye say /b with regard to a parallel case: b If one ate a small water creature /b [ b i putita /i /b ], b he is flogged /b with b four /b sets of lashes because one violates four prohibitions when eating such a creature? Two of these prohibitions are found in the verse that discusses all types of creeping animals: “You shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarms, neither shall you make yourselves impure with them, that you should be defiled by them” (Leviticus 11:43). A third prohibition applies to creeping animals that live in the water, as the verses say: “And all that have neither fins nor scales…They shall be a detestable thing unto you; you shall not eat of their flesh” (Leviticus 11:10–11). A fourth prohibition is cited in the verse: “And whatever does not have fins and scales you shall not eat; it is impure unto you” (Deuteronomy 14:10).,Similarly, if one ate b an ant, he is flogged /b with b five /b sets of lashes, two sets for the previously mentioned prohibitions of eating a creeping animal, a third based on the verse: “And every creeping thing that swarms upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten” (Leviticus 11:41), and a fourth based on the verse: “All creeping things that swarm upon the earth, them you shall not eat; for they are a detestable thing” (Leviticus 11:42). A fifth prohibition is stated in the verse: “You shall not make yourselves impure through every creeping thing that swarms upon the earth” (Leviticus 11:44).
46. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
32a. b And he would make a space above and a space below /b the text b and would prepare the passages of /b the i mezuza /i in the b open /b manner, i.e., he would begin the second passage on the line following the end of the first passage. b I said to him: My teacher, /b for b what reason /b do you prepare the passages in the open manner, when in a Torah scroll those same passages are written in the closed manner? b He said to me: Since /b the passages b are not adjacent /b to one another b in the Torah, /b as the first passage is Deuteronomy 6:4–9 and the second is Deuteronomy 11:13–21, I prepare them as open passages.,The Gemara continues: b And Rav Ḥael says /b that b Rav says: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar. What, is it not /b correct that Rav stated this b with regard to /b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar’s opinion that one prepares the passages in the b open /b manner? This would present a difficulty to the opinion of Rav Huna, Rav’s student, who wrote them in the closed manner.,The Gemara answers: b No; /b he meant that the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar b with regard to /b the b space /b that one must leave above and below the text. The Gemara asks: b And how much space /b must one leave? b Rav Menashya bar Ya’akov says, and some say /b it is b Rav Shmuel bar Ya’akov /b who b says: /b The space b of a full scribe’s clip [ i atba /i ], /b with which the sheets of parchment are held., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: And you, do you not hold that when Rav said /b that the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar he was referring b to /b the b space, /b not the manner of writing the passages? b But Rav is of /b the opinion that an established b custom /b must be observed, b and nowadays the general custom /b is to write the passages of the i mezuza /i b in /b the b closed /b manner.,The Gemara provides the source that according to Rav one must observe established customs. i Ḥalitza /i is the ritual that frees the widow of a childless man from the obligation to enter into levirate marriage with her late husband’s brother. This ceremony involves the widow removing her brother-in-law’s sandal from his foot. Rabba spoke of the importance of observing customs in that context, b as Rabba says /b that b Rav Kahana says /b that b Rav says: If Elijah comes and says /b that b one performs i ḥalitza /i with a shoe, /b the Sages b listen to him. /b But if he says that b one may not perform i ḥalitza /i with a sandal, they do not listen to him, as the people are already accustomed /b to performing i ḥalitza /i b with a sandal. /b ,The Gemara presents another version of Rav’s statement: b And Rav Yosef says /b that b Rav Kahana says /b that b Rav says: If Elijah comes and says /b that b one may not perform i ḥalitza /i with a shoe, /b the Sages b listen to him; /b if he says that b one may not perform i ḥalitza /i with a sandal, they do not listen to him, as the people are already accustomed /b to performing i ḥalitza /i b with a sandal. /b ,Abaye continues: b And we say, /b when discussing these versions of his statement: b What /b is the difference b between /b these two versions of his statement? The b difference is /b whether one may use b a shoe i ab initio /i . /b In any case, according to both statements Rav maintains that a custom must be observed, and the custom in this case is to write the passages in a closed manner. b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from it /b that when Rav says that the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar he was speaking b of /b the b space, /b not the manner of preparing the passages? The Gemara affirms: b Conclude from it /b that this is correct.,§ b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b It is b a mitzva /b i ab initio /i b to prepare /b the passages of a i mezuza /i in the b closed /b manner, b but if one prepared them /b in the b open /b manner, it is b permitted /b to use the i mezuza /i . b And what is Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar saying /b when he says that Rabbi Meir would prepare the passages in the b open /b manner? He means that one may prepare them b even /b in the b open /b manner.,The Gemara suggests: b Let us say /b that a i baraita /i b supports his /b opinion: b Similarly, /b just as one may not convert phylacteries of the head into phylacteries of the arm, with regard to b a Torah scroll that became worn and /b parchment of b phylacteries that became worn, one may not fashion them into a i mezuza /i /b by excising the relevant passages, despite the fact that the Torah passages of a i mezuza /i appear in them. This is prohibited b because one does not reduce /b the sanctity of an item b from /b a level of b greater sanctity, /b that of a Torah scroll or phylacteries, b to /b a level of b lesser sanctity, /b that of a i mezuza /i . The Gemara infers from this i baraita /i : If it were permitted to b reduce /b the sanctity of an item from a level of greater sanctity to a level of lesser sanctity, one could b fashion /b a i mezuza /i from a Torah scroll.,The Gemara explains the proof: But b why /b is that the i halakha /i , when b here, /b in a Torah scroll, the passages are prepared in the b closed /b manner, b but there, /b in a i mezuza /i , the passages are prepared in the b open /b manner? Evidently, it is permitted to write a i mezuza /i with the passages prepared in the closed manner. The Gemara refutes this proof: b Perhaps /b one should infer from the i baraita /i that were it not for the fact that it is prohibited to reduce the sanctity of an item from a level of greater sanctity to a level of lesser sanctity, one would be allowed b to complete /b a line or two of a i mezuza /i by sewing to it those lines from a Torah scroll or parchment of phylacteries that became worn, but one may not fashion an entire i mezuza /i from a sheet of a Torah scroll or parchment of phylacteries, as the passages in a Torah scroll and phylacteries are prepared in the closed manner.,The Gemara asks another question: The i baraita /i indicates b that /b if it were permitted to b reduce /b the sanctity of an item from a level of greater sanctity to a level of lesser sanctity, one could b fashion /b a i mezuza /i from phylacteries. b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that it is b a i halakha /i /b transmitted b to Moses from Sinai /b that the passages of b phylacteries /b are written b on parchment, /b the outer layer of an animal’s hide, b and /b the passages of b a i mezuza /i /b are written b on i dokhsostos /i , /b the inner layer, and when writing on b parchment, /b one writes b on the side of /b the hide that faced the b flesh; /b when writing on b i dokhsostos /i , /b one writes b on the side of /b the hide on which there was b hair? /b How, then, can one use the other side of the hide for a i mezuza /i ? The Gemara answers that this requirement is of i dokhsostos /i for a i mezuza /i is stated b as a mitzva, /b but it is not indispensable.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that if one b changed /b between parchment and i dokhsostos /i , the item is b unfit? /b The Gemara responds that this i baraita /i is referring b to phylacteries /b that one wrote on i dokhsostos /i in the manner of a i mezuza /i , not to a i mezuza /i which one wrote on parchment. The Gemara raises a further difficulty: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that if one b changed whether in this /b manner b or in that /b manner, it is b unfit? /b The Gemara explains that this i baraita /i does not mean that one changed either in the case of phylacteries or a i mezuza /i . Rather, both b this /b manner b and that /b manner are referring b to phylacteries, and this /b case is b where one wrote them on parchment /b but b on the side of /b the hide on which there was b hair, /b not on the side that faced the flesh, b and that /b
47. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
24b. הכא נמי איכא נצויי אביו ונצויי רבו:,פוחח פורס על שמע וכו': בעא מיניה עולא בר רב מאביי קטן פוחח מהו שיקרא בתורה,אמר ליה ותיבעי לך ערום ערום מאי טעמא לא משום כבוד צבור הכא נמי משום כבוד צבור:,סומא פורס על שמע וכו': תניא אמרו לו לרבי יהודה הרבה צפו לדרוש במרכבה ולא ראו אותה מימיהם,ור' יהודה התם באבנתא דליבא תליא מילתא והא קא מיכוין וידע הכא משום הנאה הוא והא לית ליה הנאה,ורבנן אית ליה הנאה כרבי יוסי דתניא א"ר יוסי כל ימי הייתי מצטער על מקרא זה (דברים כח, כט) והיית ממשש בצהרים כאשר ימשש העור באפלה וכי מה אכפת ליה לעור בין אפילה לאורה,עד שבא מעשה לידי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך באישון לילה ואפלה וראיתי סומא שהיה מהלך בדרך ואבוקה בידו אמרתי לו בני אבוקה זו למה לך אמר לי כל זמן שאבוקה בידי בני אדם רואין אותי ומצילין אותי מן הפחתין ומן הקוצין ומן הברקנין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן שיש בידיו מומין לא ישא את כפיו ר' יהודה אומר אף מי שהיו ידיו צבועות סטיס לא ישא את כפיו מפני שהעם מסתכלין בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנא מומין שאמרו בפניו ידיו ורגליו אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי ידיו בוהקניות לא ישא את כפיו עקומות עקושות לא ישא את כפיו,אמר רב אסי חיפני (ובשיני) לא ישא את כפיו תניא נמי הכי אין מורידין לפני התיבה לא אנשי בית שאן ולא אנשי בית חיפה ולא אנשי טבעונין מפני שקורין לאלפין עיינין ולעיינין אלפין,אמר ליה רבי חייא לר' שמעון בר רבי אלמלי אתה לוי פסול אתה מן הדוכן משום דעבי קלך אתא אמר ליה לאבוה אמר ליה זיל אימא ליה כשאתה מגיע אצל (ישעיהו ח, יז) וחכיתי לה' לא נמצאת מחרף ומגדף,אמר רב הונא זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרב הונא והוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי זבלגן לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר,א"ר יוחנן סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו והא ההוא דהוה בשיבבותיה דרבי יוחנן דהוה פריס ידיה ההוא דש בעירו הוה תניא נמי הכי סומא באחת מעיניו לא ישא את כפיו ואם היה דש בעירו מותר:,ר"י אומר מי שהיו ידיו צבועות לא ישא את כפיו: תנא אם רוב אנשי העיר מלאכתן בכך מותר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר איני עובר לפני התיבה בצבועין אף בלבנים לא יעבור בסנדל איני עובר אף יחף לא יעבור,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה נתנה על מצחו או על פס ידו הרי זו דרך המינות ציפן זהב ונתנה על בית אונקלי שלו ה"ז דרך החיצונים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט חיישינן שמא מינות נזרקה בו:,העושה תפלתו עגולה סכנה ואין בה מצוה: לימא תנינא להא דתנו רבנן תפלין מרובעות הלכה למשה מסיני ואמר רבא בתפרן ובאלכסונן,אמר רב פפא מתניתין דעבידא כי אמגוזא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big האומר 24b. b Here, also, /b according to Rabba bar Shimi, b it is /b to prevent b his father or teacher /b from b quarreling. /b ,§ We learned in the mishna: b One whose limbs are exposed [ i poḥe’aḥ /i ] may recite the /b introductory prayers and b blessing /b before b i Shema /i /b and translate the Torah reading into Aramaic, but he may not read from the Torah. b Ulla bar Rav raised a dilemma before Abaye: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether b a minor whose limbs are exposed /b may b read from the Torah? /b Can it be argued that a minor’s bare limbs do not fall under the category of nakedness, and therefore it is permitted for him to read the Torah despite the fact that parts of his body are exposed?,Abaye b said to him: And /b according to this reasoning, b raise the dilemma /b with regard to a minor who is totally b naked. What is the reason that /b a minor who is b naked may not /b read the Torah? It is b due to respect for the public. Here, too, /b a i poḥe’aḥ /i may not read from the Torah b due to respect for the public. /b ,The mishna continues: One who is b blind may recite the /b introductory prayers and b blessing /b before b i Shema /i , /b and he may also translate the Torah reading into Aramaic. Rabbi Yehuda says: Anyone who has not seen the luminaries in his life may not recite the first of the blessings before i Shema /i , which is the blessing over the luminaries. b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b they said to Rabbi Yehuda: Many have seen /b enough with their mind b to expound upon the /b Divine b Chariot, although they have never /b actually b seen it. /b Similarly, even one who has never seen the luminaries may recite the blessing., b And /b how does b Rabbi Yehuda /b counter this argument? He can say that b there, /b with regard to the Chariot, b the matter depends upon the heart’s comprehension, and one can concentrate /b his mind b and understand /b the Chariot even if he has never actually seen it. But b here, /b with regard to the luminaries, the blessing is recited b due to the benefit /b one derives from them, b and /b one who is blind b does not derive /b any b benefit /b from them, and therefore he may not recite a blessing over them., b And the Rabbis /b maintain that even a blind man b derives benefit /b from the luminaries, b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yosei said: All of my life I was troubled by this verse, /b which I did not understand: b “And you shall grope at noon as the blind man gropes in the darkness” /b (Deuteronomy 28:29). I was perplexed: b What /b does it b matter to a blind /b person b whether /b it is b dark or light? /b He cannot see in any event, so why does the verse speak about a blind man in the darkness?,I continued to ponder the matter b until /b the following b incident occurred to me. I was once walking in the absolute darkness of the night, and I saw a blind man who was walking on /b his b way with a torch in his hands. I said to him: My son, why do you /b need b this torch /b if you are blind? b He said to me: As long as I have a torch in my hand, people see me and save me from the pits and the thorns and the thistles. /b Even a blind man derives at least indirect benefit from the light, and therefore he may recite the blessing over the heavenly luminaries., strong MISHNA: /strong b A priest who has blemishes on his hands may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. Because of his blemish, people will look at his hands, and it is prohibited to look at the hands of the priests during the Priestly Benediction. b Rabbi Yehuda says: Even one whose hands were colored with i satis /i , /b a blue dye, b may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction b because the congregation will look at him. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong It is b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The blemishes that /b the Sages b said /b disqualify a priest from reciting the Priestly Benediction include any blemishes found b on his face, hands, and feet, /b but not blemishes that are not visible to others. b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: /b If b his hands are spotted /b with white blotches, b he may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara notes that b this is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : If a priest’s b hands are spotted, he may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, if his hands are b curved /b inward b or bent /b sideways, b he may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction.,Apropos the previous discussion, b Rav Asi said: /b A priest b from Haifa or Beit She’an may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction, as he does not know how to properly pronounce the guttural letters. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may not allow the people of Beit She’an, nor the people of Beit Haifa, nor the people of Tivonin to pass before the ark /b in order to lead the service b because they pronounce i alef /i as i ayin /i and i ayin /i as i alef /i , /b and they thereby distort the meaning of the prayers.,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Ḥiyya /b once b said to Rabbi Shimon, son of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b If you were a Levite, you would be disqualified from /b singing on b the platform /b in the Temple courtyard b because your voice is thick. /b offended by this remark, Rabbi Shimon b went and told his father, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, what Rabbi Ḥiyya had said. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Go /b and b say to him: When you /b study and b reach /b the verse: b “And I will wait upon [ i veḥikkiti /i ] the Lord” /b (Isaiah 8:17), b will you not be a maligner and a blasphemer? /b Rabbi Ḥiyya, who was from Babylonia, was unable to differentiate between the letters i ḥet /i and i heh /i , and he would therefore pronounce the word i veḥikkiti /i as i vehikkiti /i , which means: And I will strike., b Rav Huna said: /b A priest b whose eyes /b constantly b run /b with tears b may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: b Wasn’t there a certain /b priest with this condition b in the neighborhood of Rav Huna, and he would spread his hands /b and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: b That /b priest b was a familiar /b figure b in his town. /b Since the other residents were accustomed to seeing him, he would not draw their attention during the Priestly Benediction. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One whose eyes run should not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction, b but if he is a familiar /b figure b in his town, he is permitted /b to do so., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction because people will gaze at him. The Gemara asks: b Wasn’t there a certain /b priest who was blind in one eye b in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yoḥa, and he would lift his hands /b and recite the Priestly Benediction? The Gemara answers: b That /b priest b was a familiar /b figure b in his town, /b and therefore he would not attract attention during the Priestly Benediction. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who is blind in one eye may not lift his hands /b and recite the Priestly Benediction, b but if he is a familiar /b figure b in his town, he is permitted /b to do so.,We learned in the mishna that b Rabbi Yehuda said: One whose hands are colored should not lift his hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. It was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b If most of the townspeople are engaged in this occupation, /b dyeing, b he is permitted /b to recite the Priestly Benediction, as the congregation will not pay attention to his stained hands., strong MISHNA: /strong b One who says: I will not pass before the ark /b to lead the prayer service b in colored /b garments, b may not pass /b before the ark to lead the prayer service b even in white /b garments. There is concern that one who insists on wearing clothing of a specific color during his prayers is a heretic and therefore unfit to lead the service. Similarly, if one says: b I will not pass /b before the ark b wearing sandals, he may not pass /b before it b even barefoot, /b as he is not acting in accordance with the teachings of the Sages., b One who constructs his phylacteries /b in b a round /b shape exposes himself to b danger /b during times of persecution, when foreign governments impose a ban on the mitzva of phylacteries, b and /b yet he does b not /b fulfill the b mitzva /b to don phylacteries, as phylacteries must be square. b If one placed /b the phylacteries worn on the head b on his forehead, /b and not in its proper place above his hairline, b or /b if he placed the phylacteries worn on the arm b on his palm, /b and not on his biceps, b this is the way of the heretics, /b i.e., those who reject the tradition of the Sages with regard to the proper placement of the phylacteries. If b one plated /b his phylacteries b with gold or placed /b the phylacteries worn on the arm b on /b the outside of b his sleeve [ i unkeli /i ], this is the way of the outsiders, /b i.e., those who do not take part in the traditions of the Jewish people., strong GEMARA: /strong b What is the reason /b that one who wishes to pray only with white clothes or barefoot is not permitted to lead the prayer? b We are concerned that perhaps he has been imbued with heresy, /b as these are the practices of idolaters. He is therefore barred from leading the service.,We learned in the mishna: b One who constructs his phylacteries /b in b a round /b shape exposes himself to b danger and /b does b not /b fulfill the b mitzva /b to don phylacteries. The Gemara comments: b Let us say /b that b we /b already b learned /b in this mishna b that which the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The requirement that b phylacteries /b must be b square is a i halakha /i /b transmitted b to Moses from Sinai. And Rava said /b about this: Square means b along their seams and their diagonals [ i alakhso /i ], /b i.e., they must be perfectly square. It would seem that all this was already stated in the mishna, which says that round phylacteries are disqualified., b Rav Pappa said: /b It is possible to understand that b the mishna /b is referring to phylacteries b that one constructed /b to be round b like a nut, /b i.e., in the shape of a ball. However, the mishna does not indicate that the phylacteries must be square, as it does not address the case of phylacteries that are rounded but not a true sphere., strong MISHNA: /strong If b one says /b in his prayers:
48. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 85
3a. חייב בשמחה ואת שאינו לא שומע ולא מדבר ושוטה וקטן פטורין אף מן השמחה הואיל ופטורין מכל מצות האמורות בתורה מאי שנא לענין ראיה דפטירי ומאי שנא לענין שמחה דמחייבי,לענין ראיה גמר ראיה ראיה מהקהל דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף וכתיב (דברים לא, יא) בבא כל ישראל לראות,והתם מנלן דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) למען ישמעו ולמען ילמדו ותניא למען ישמעו פרט למדבר ואינו שומע ולמען ילמדו פרט לשומע ואינו מדבר,למימרא דכי לא משתעי לא גמר והא הנהו תרי אילמי דהוו בשבבותיה דרבי בני ברתיה דרבי יוחנן בן גודגדא ואמרי לה בני אחתיה דרבי יוחנן דכל אימת דהוה עייל רבי לבי מדרשא הוו עיילי ויתבי קמייהו ומניידי ברישייהו ומרחשין שפוותייהו,ובעי רבי רחמי עלייהו ואיתסו ואשתכח דהוו גמירי הלכתא וספרא וספרי וכולה הש"ס,אמר מר זוטרא קרי ביה למען ילמדו רב אשי אמר ודאי למען ילמדו הוא דאי סלקא דעתך למען ילמדו וכיון דלא משתעי לא גמר וכיון דלא שמע לא גמר,האי מלמען ישמעו נפקא אלא ודאי למען ילמדו הוא,אמר ר' תנחום חרש באזנו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר (דברים לא, יא) באזניהם,והאי באזניהם מבעי ליה באזניהם דכולהו ישראל ההוא מנגד כל ישראל נפקא אי מנגד כל ישראל הוה אמינא אע"ג דלא שמעי כתב רחמנא באזניהם והוא דשמעי,ההוא מלמען ישמעו נפקא,אמר רבי תנחום חיגר ברגלו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר רגלים,והא רגלים מבעי ליה פרט לבעלי קבין ההוא מפעמים נפקא דתניא פעמים אין פעמים אלא רגלים וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו כו, ו) תרמסנה רגל רגלי עני פעמי דלים ואומר (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב כמה נאין רגליהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנאמר (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,אמר רב כהנא דרש רב נתן בר מניומי משום ר' תנחום מאי דכתיב (בראשית לז, כד) והבור רק אין בו מים משמע שנאמר והבור רק איני יודע שאין בו מים אלא מים אין בו אבל נחשים ועקרבים יש בו,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יוחנן בן ברוקה ורבי אלעזר (בן) חסמא שהלכו להקביל פני ר' יהושע בפקיעין אמר להם מה חידוש היה בבית המדרש היום אמרו לו תלמידיך אנו ומימיך אנו שותין אמר להם אף על פי כן אי אפשר לבית המדרש בלא חידוש,שבת של מי היתה שבת של ר' אלעזר בן עזריה היתה ובמה היתה הגדה היום אמרו לו בפרשת הקהל ומה דרש בה,(דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף אם אנשים באים ללמוד נשים באות לשמוע טף למה באין כדי ליתן שכר למביאיהן אמר להם מרגלית טובה היתה בידכם ובקשתם לאבדה ממני,ועוד דרש (דברים כו, יז) את ה' האמרת היום וה' האמירך היום,אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם דכתיב (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם שנאמר 3a. they are b obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are /b all b exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. /b The Gemara asks: b What is different with regard to /b the mitzva of b appearance, that /b a deaf person and a mute b are exempt /b from this mitzva? b And what is different with regard to /b the mitzva of b rejoicing, that they are obligated? /b ,The Gemara explains: b With regard to /b their exemption from the obligation of b appearance, /b the i tanna /i b derives /b this i halakha /i by means of a verbal analogy between the term b appearance /b stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term b appearance /b stated with regard to the mitzva b of assembly, /b i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on i Sukkot /i in the year following the Sabbatical Year. b As it is written, /b with regard to the mitzva of assembly: b “Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones” /b (Deuteronomy 31:12), b and it is written /b in that context: b “When all of Israel come to appear” /b (Deuteronomy 31:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.,The Gemara asks: b And there, /b with regard to the mitzva of assembly, b from where do we /b derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? b As it is written /b there: b “That they may hear, and that they may learn” /b (Deuteronomy 31:12), b and it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that the phrase b “that they may hear” excludes one who speaks but does not hear; /b and the phrase b “and that they may learn” excludes one who hears but does not speak, /b as he is unable to learn.,The Gemara asks: b Is that to say that one who /b is b not /b able to b speak /b is b not /b able to b learn? But /b consider the following incident. There were b two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. They were the b sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, and some say /b that they were the b sons of the sister of Rabbi Yoḥa /b ben Gudgeda. b Whenever Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b would enter the study hall they would /b also b enter and sit before /b the Sages, b and they would nod their heads /b as if they understood b and move their lips. /b , b And Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b prayed for /b God to have b mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned /b and were proficient in b i halakha /i , /b i.e., Mishna; b i Sifra /i , /b the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; b i Sifrei /i , /b the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; b and the entire Talmud. /b This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn., b Mar Zutra said /b that one should b read into /b the verse: b That they may teach [ i yelamdu /i ], /b instead of: “That they may learn [ i yilmedu /i ]” (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. b Rav Ashi said /b that the verse b is certainly /b to be read: b That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind /b that one should read: b “That they may learn,” /b as it is written, b and /b you will explain that b since he is not /b able to b speak he /b is b not /b able to b learn, /b and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that b since he is not /b able to b hear he is not /b able to b learn, /b you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: “That they may hear,” not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.,However, this is incorrect, for if so, b this /b exemption of a mute could also be b derived from: “That they may hear,” /b as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. b Rather, /b the verse b is certainly /b to be read as: b “That they may teach,” /b which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others., b Rabbi Tanḥum said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from /b the mitzva of b appearance /b in the Temple, b as it is stated /b with regard to the mitzva of assembly: “When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel b in their ears” /b (Deuteronomy 31:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this i halakha /i applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.,The Gemara asks: b But this /b phrase: b “In their ears,” is necessary /b to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter b the ears of the entire Jewish people. /b Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the i halakha /i concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: b That /b i halakha /i , that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, b is derived from /b the phrase: b “Before all Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 31:11). The Gemara asks: b If /b that i halakha /i were derived b from: “Before all Israel,” I would say /b that the mitzva applies b even though they cannot hear; /b therefore, b the Merciful One writes: “In their ears,” and that /b indicates that b they /b must be able to b hear. /b If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the i halakha /i of someone who is deaf in one ear.,The Gemara answers: b That /b i halakha /i , that the people must hear, b is derived from: “That they may hear” /b (Deuteronomy 31:12). Therefore, the phrase: “In their ears,” is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well., b Rabbi Tanḥum said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from /b the mitzva of b appearance, as it is stated: /b “Three b times [ i regalim /i ] /b shall you keep a feast for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is i raglayim /i , it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of one’s legs.,The Gemara asks: b But /b the term b “ i regalim /i ” is necessary /b to b exclude people with artificial legs. /b Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: b That /b i halakha /i is b derived from: /b “Three b occasions [ i pe’amim /i ] /b in the year all your males will appear before the Lord God” (Exodus 23:17). The term i pe’amim /i can also mean legs, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i , with regard to the term b “ i pe’amim /i ”: i Pe’amim /i means nothing other /b than b legs. And so it says: “The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps [ i pa’amei /i ] of the needy” /b (Isaiah 26:6), b and it says: “How beautiful are your feet [ i fe’amayikh /i ] in sandals, daughter of the prince” /b (Song of Songs 7:2).,With regard to the aforementioned verse, b Rava taught: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “How beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince [ i nadiv /i ]”? How pleasant are the feet [ i raglehen /i ] of the Jewish people when they ascend to /b Jerusalem b on the pilgrimage Festival [ i regel /i ]. “Daughter of the prince”: /b this is referring to b the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham” /b (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only b “the God of Abraham,” and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, /b the verse mentions b “the God of Abraham,” as /b he b was the first of the converts. /b Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called “the princes of the peoples.”,The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tanḥum. b Rav Kahana said /b that b Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tanḥum: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written /b with regard to Joseph: “And they took him, and cast him into the pit; b and the pit was empty, there was no water in it” /b (Genesis 37:24). b By inference from that which is stated: “And the pit was empty,” don’t I know that there was no water in it? Rather, /b this teaches that b there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it. /b ,§ b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Peki’in. /b Rabbi Yehoshua b said to them: What novel /b idea b was /b taught b today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink /b from b your water, /b i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? b He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty. /b ,He asked them: b Whose week was it, /b i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: b It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s week. /b He inquired: b And on what /b subject b was the lecture today? They said to him: /b He spoke b about the portion of /b the mitzva of b assembly. /b Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: b And what /b verse b did he interpret homiletically with regard to /b this mitzva?,They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: b “Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones” /b (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: b If men come to learn, /b and b women, /b who might not understand, b come /b at least b to hear, why do the little ones come? /b They come b in order /b for God to b give a reward to those who bring them, /b i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua b said to them: /b This b good pearl /b of wisdom b was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me? /b ,Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma said to him: b Additionally, /b Rabbi Elazar b interpreted /b the following verses b homiletically: “You have affirmed, this day, /b that b the Lord /b is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordices, and listen to His voice. b And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, /b to be His treasure, as He promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvot” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18).,Rabbi Elazar explained: b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entity in the world, /b as you singled Me out as separate and unique. b And /b therefore b I will make you a single entity in the world, /b as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. b You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One” /b (Deuteronomy 6:4). b And /b therefore b I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated: /b
49. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
5a. אם תלמיד חכם הוא אין צריך אמר אביי אף תלמיד חכם מיבעי ליה למימר חד פסוקא דרחמי כגון (תהלים לא, ו) בידך אפקיד רוחי פדיתה אותי ה' אל אמת:,א"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר"ש בן לקיש לעולם ירגיז אדם יצר טוב על יצר הרע שנא' (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו. אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יעסוק בתורה שנאמר אמרו בלבבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יקרא קריאת שמע שנאמר על משכבכם אם נצחו מוטב ואם לאו יזכור לו יום המיתה שנאמר ודומו סלה.,וא"ר לוי בר חמא אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש מאי דכתיב (שמות כד, יב) ואתנה לך את לוחות האבן והתורה והמצוה אשר כתבתי להורותם לוחות אלו עשרת הדברות תורה זה מקרא והמצוה זו משנה אשר כתבתי אלו נביאים וכתובים להורותם זה גמרא מלמד שכולם נתנו למשה מסיני:,א"ר יצחק כל הקורא ק"ש על מטתו כאלו אוחז חרב של שתי פיות בידו שנאמר (תהלים קמט, ו) רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם מאי משמע אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי מרישא דענינא דכתיב (תהלים קמט, ה) יעלזו חסידים בכבוד ירננו על משכבותם וכתיב בתריה רוממות אל בגרונם וחרב פיפיות בידם.,ואמר רבי יצחק כל הקורא קריאת שמע על מטתו מזיקין בדילין הימנו שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי כג, ה) התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא מזיקין שנאמר (דברים לב, כד) מזי רעב ולחומי רשף וקטב מרירי.,אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש כל העוסק בתורה יסורין בדילין הימנו שנאמר ובני רשף יגביהו עוף ואין עוף אלא תורה שנאמר התעיף עיניך בו ואיננו ואין רשף אלא יסורין שנאמר מזי רעב ולחומי רשף,אמר ליה רבי יוחנן הא אפילו תינוקות של בית רבן יודעין אותו שנאמר (שמות טו, כו) ויאמר אם שמוע תשמע לקול ה' אלהיך והישר בעיניו תעשה והאזנת למצותיו ושמרת כל חקיו כל המחלה אשר שמתי במצרים לא אשים עליך כי אני ה' רופאך אלא כל שאפשר לו לעסוק בתורה ואינו עוסק הקב"ה מביא עליו יסורין מכוערין ועוכרין אותו שנא' (תהלים לט, ג) נאלמתי דומיה החשיתי מטוב וכאבי נעכר ואין טוב אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ד, ב) כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבי זירא ואיתימא רבי חנינא בר פפא בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם מוכר חפץ לחבירו מוכר עצב ולוקח שמח אבל הקב"ה אינו כן נתן להם תורה לישראל ושמח שנא' כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו.,אמר רבא ואיתימא רב חסדא אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו יפשפש במעשיו שנא' (איכה ג, מ) נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ה' פשפש ולא מצא יתלה בבטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ואם תלה ולא מצא בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם שנאמר (משלי ג, יב) כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח.,אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא כל שהקב"ה חפץ בו מדכאו ביסורין שנאמר (ישעיהו נג, י) וה' חפץ דכאו החלי,יכול אפילו לא קבלם מאהבה תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו נג, י) אם תשים אשם נפשו מה אשם לדעת אף יסורין לדעת,ואם קבלם מה שכרו (ישעיהו נג, י) יראה זרע יאריך ימים ולא עוד אלא שתלמודו מתקיים בידו שנא' (ישעיהו נג, י) וחפץ ה' בידו יצלח,פליגי בה רבי יעקב בר אידי ורבי אחא בר חנינא חד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תורה שנאמר (תהלים צד, יב) אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,וחד אמר אלו הם יסורין של אהבה כל שאין בהן בטול תפלה שנאמר (תהלים סו, כ) ברוך אלהים אשר לא הסיר תפלתי וחסדו מאתי,אמר להו רבי אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא הכי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אלו ואלו יסורין של אהבה הן שנאמר כי את אשר יאהב ה' יוכיח,אלא מה ת"ל (תהלים צד, יב) ומתורתך תלמדנו אל תקרי תלמדנו אלא תלמדנו דבר זה מתורתך תלמדנו,ק"ו משן ועין מה שן ועין שהן אחד מאבריו של אדם עבד יוצא בהן לחרות יסורין שממרקין כל גופו של אדם על אחת כמה וכמה,והיינו דרבי שמעון בן לקיש דאמר רשב"ל נאמר ברית במלח ונאמר ברית ביסורין נאמר ברית במלח דכתיב (ויקרא ב, יג) ולא תשבית מלח ברית ונאמר ברית ביסורין דכתיב (דברים כח, סט) אלה דברי הברית מה ברית האמור במלח מלח ממתקת את הבשר אף ברית האמור ביסורין יסורין ממרקין כל עונותיו של אדם:,תניא רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר שלש מתנות טובות נתן הקדוש ברוך הוא לישראל וכולן לא נתנן אלא ע"י יסורין אלו הן תורה וארץ ישראל והעולם הבא,תורה מנין שנאמר אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו יה ומתורתך תלמדנו,ארץ ישראל דכתיב (דברים ח, ה) כי כאשר ייסר איש את בנו ה' אלהיך מיסרך וכתיב בתריה כי ה' אלהיך מביאך אל ארץ טובה,העולם הבא דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר.,תני תנא קמיה דר' יוחנן כל העוסק בתורה ובגמילות חסדים 5a. b If one is a Torah scholar, he need not /b recite i Shema /i on his bed since he is always engaged in the study of Torah and will likely fall asleep engrossed in matters of Torah. b Abaye said: Even a Torah scholar must recite at least one verse of prayer, such as: “Into Your hand I trust my spirit; You have redeemed me, Lord, God of truth” /b (Psalms 31:6).,Incidental to the verse, “Tremble, and do not sin,” the Gemara mentions that b Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: One should always incite his good inclination against his evil inclination, /b i.e., that one must constantly struggle so that his evil inclination does not lead him to transgression, b as it is stated: "Tremble, and do not sin." /b br b If /b one succeeds and b subdues /b his evil inclination, b excellent, /b but b if /b he does b not /b succeed in subduing it, he should b study Torah, /b as alluded to in b the verse: “Say to your heart.” /b br b If /b he b subdues /b his evil inclination, b excellent; if not, he should recite i Shema /i , /b which contains the acceptance of the yoke of God, and the concept of reward and punishment, b as it is stated /b in the verse: b “Upon your bed,” /b which alludes to i Shema /i , where it says: “When you lie down.” br b If /b he b subdues /b his evil inclination, b excellent; if not, he should remind himself of the day of death, /b whose silence is alluded to in the continuation of b the verse: “And be still, Selah.” /b , b And Rabbi Levi bar Ḥama said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: /b God said to Moses, “Ascend to me on the mountain and be there, b and I will give you the stone tablets and the Torah and the mitzva that I have written that you may teach them” /b (Exodus 24:12), meaning that God revealed to Moses not only the Written Torah, but all of Torah, as it would be transmitted through the generations. br b The “tablets” are the ten commandments /b that were written on the tablets of the Covet, br b the “Torah” is the five books of Moses. /b br b The “mitzva” is the Mishna, /b which includes explanations for the mitzvot and how they are to be performed. br b “That I have written” refers to the Prophets and Writings, /b written with divine inspiration. br b “That you may teach them” refers to the Talmud, /b which explains the Mishna. br These explanations are the foundation for the rulings of practical i halakha /i . This verse b teaches /b that b all /b aspects of Torah b were given to /b Moses b from Sinai. /b ,The Gemara continues its treatment of the recitation of i Shema /i upon one’s bed. b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites i Shema /i on his bed, it is as if he holds a double-edged sword, /b guarding him from all evil, b as it is stated: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands” /b (Psalms 149:6). The Gemara asks: b From where is it inferred /b that this verse from Psalms refers to the recitation of i Shema /i ? b Mar Zutra, and some say Rav Ashi, said: /b We derive it b from the preceding /b verse, b as it is written: “Let the pious exult in glory; let them joyously sing upon their beds.” /b The praise of God from one’s bed is the recitation of i Shema /i . b And it is written thereafter: “High praises of God in their mouths, and a double-edged sword in their hands.” /b , b And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who recites i Shema /i upon his bed, demons stay away from him. /b This is alluded to, b as it is stated: /b “But man is born into trouble, b and the sparks [ i reshef /i ] fly [ i uf /i ] upward” /b (Job 5:7). The verse is explained: The word b fly [ i uf /i ] /b means b nothing other than Torah, /b as Torah is difficult to grasp and easy to lose, like something that floats away, b as it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone; /b for riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flies into the heavens” (Proverbs 23:5). The word b “sparks” /b means b nothing other than demons, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks [ i reshef /i ] and bitter destruction [ i ketev meriri /i ], /b and the teeth of beasts I will send upon them, with the venom of crawling things of the dust” (Deuteronomy 32:24). Here we see i reshef /i listed along with i ketev meriri /i , both of which are understood by the Sages to be names of demons.,Regarding this unclear verse, b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: If one engages in Torah /b study, b suffering stays away from him, as it is stated: “And the sparks fly upward.” /b And b fly /b means b nothing other than Torah, b as it is stated: “Will you set your eyes upon it? It is gone; /b and sparks /b means b nothing other than suffering, as it is stated: “Wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the sparks,” /b equating devouring sparks with wasting hunger, as both are types of suffering. From here, we derive that through Torah, fly, one is able to distance himself, upward, from suffering, sparks., b Rabbi Yoḥa said to him: Even schoolchildren, /b who learn only the Written Torah, b know this /b concept b as it is stated: “And He said you shall surely hear the voice of the Lord your God, and what is upright in His eyes you shall do and you shall listen to His mitzvot and guard His statutes; any disease that I have placed upon Egypt I will not place upon you for I am the Lord your healer” /b (Exodus 15:26). b Rather, /b one must interpret the verse: b Anyone who is able to engage in Torah /b study b yet does not engage /b in that study, not only does b the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b fail to protect him, but He b brings upon him hideous afflictions, /b that embarrass him b and trouble him, as it is stated: “I was mute with silence; I was silent from good, and my pain was strong” /b (Psalms 39:3). The word b good /b means b nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it” /b (Proverbs 4:2). The verse should be understood: “I have been silent from the study of Torah, and my pain was strong.”,With regard to the verse: “For I have given you a good portion,” b Rabbi Zeira, and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa, said: Come and see how the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, are unlike the characteristics of flesh and blood. It is characteristic of flesh and blood that when one sells an object to another /b person, b the seller grieves /b the loss of his possession b and the buyer rejoices. With regard to the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b however, b this is not so. He gave the Torah to Israel and rejoiced, as it is stated: “For I have given you a good portion, My Torah, do not abandon it.” /b A good portion is understood as a good purchase; although God sold Torah to Israel, He rejoices in the sale and praises the object before its new owner (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto).,Previously, the Gemara discussed suffering that results from one’s transgressions. The Gemara shifts the focus and discusses suffering that does not result from one’s transgressions and the suffering of the righteous. b Rava, and some say Rav Ḥisda, said: If a person sees that suffering has befallen him, he should examine his actions. /b Generally, suffering comes about as punishment for one’s transgressions, b as it is stated: “We will search and examine our ways, and return to God” /b (Lamentations 3:40). b If he examined /b his ways and b found no /b transgression for which that suffering is appropriate, b he may attribute /b his suffering b to dereliction /b in the study b of Torah. /b God punishes an individual for dereliction in the study of Torah in order to emphasize the gravity of the issue, b as it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You punish, Lord, and teach out of Your law” /b (Psalms 94:12). This verse teaches us that his suffering will cause him to return to Your law., b And if he did attribute /b his suffering to dereliction in the study of Torah, b and did not find /b this to be so, b he may be confident that these are afflictions of love, as it is stated: “For whom the Lord loves, He rebukes, /b as does a father the son in whom he delights” (Proverbs 3:12).,So too, b Rava said /b that b Rav Seḥora said /b that b Rav Huna said: Anyone in whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, delights, He oppresses him with suffering, as it is stated: “Yet in whom the Lord delights, He oppresses him with disease; /b to see if his soul would offer itself in guilt, that he might see his children, lengthen his days, and that the desire of the Lord might prosper by his hand” (Isaiah 53:10). This verse illustrates that in whomever God delights, he afflicts with illness.,I b might /b have thought that God delights in him even b if he does not accept /b his suffering b with love. Therefore the verse teaches: “If his soul would offer itself in guilt.” Just as a guilt-offering is brought knowingly, /b as it is one of the sacrifices offered willingly, without coercion, b so too /b his b suffering /b must be accepted b knowingly. /b , b And if one accepts /b that suffering with love, b what is his reward? /b As the second part of the verse states: b “That he might see his children, lengthen his days.” Moreover, /b in addition to these earthly rewards, b his /b Torah b study will endure /b and his Torah study will be successful, b as it is stated: “The purpose of the Lord,” /b the Torah, the revelation of God’s will, b “might prosper by his hand.” /b ,With regard to the acceptance of affliction with love and what exactly this entails, b Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi and Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina disagree. One /b of them b said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause dereliction /b in the study b of Torah, /b i.e., any which do not afflict his body to the extent that he is unable to study Torah, b as it is stated: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord, and teach from Your Torah.” /b Afflictions of love are when You “teach from Your Torah.”, b And one said: Afflictions of love are any that do not cause dereliction /b in the recitation b of prayer, as it is stated: “Blessed is God Who did not turn away my prayer” /b (Psalms 66:20). Despite his suffering, the afflicted is still capable of praying to God., b Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said: /b My father, b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said as follows: Both, /b even afflictions that cause dereliction in the study of Torah and those that cause dereliction in the recitation of prayer, b are afflictions of love, /b as with regard to one who suffers without transgression b it is stated: “For whom He loves, He rebukes,” /b and inability to study Torah and to pray are among his afflictions., b What then, /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “And teach him from Your Torah”? Do not read and teach /b to mean and b teach him /b , b rather, and teach us /b . b You teach us /b the value of b this /b affliction b from Your Torah. /b ,This is taught through b an i a fortiori /i inference from /b the law concerning b the tooth and eye /b of a slave: b The tooth and eye are /b each b a single limb of a person /b and if his master damages either, b the slave thereby obtains his freedom; suffering that cleanses a person’s entire body all the more so /b that one attains freedom, atonement, from his sins., b And that is /b the statement of b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: /b The word b covet is used with regard to salt, and /b the word b covet is used with regard to afflictions. /b The word b covet is used with regard to salt, as it is written: “The salt of the covet /b with your God b should not be excluded /b from your meal-offering; with all your sacrifices you must offer salt” (Leviticus 2:13). b And /b the word b covet is used with regard to afflictions, as it is written: “These are the words of the covet” /b (Deuteronomy 28:69). b Just as, /b in b the covet mentioned with regard to salt, the salt sweetens /b the taste of b the meat /b and renders it edible, b so too /b in b the covet mentioned with regard to suffering, the suffering cleanses a person’s transgressions, /b purifying him for a more sublime existence.,Additionally, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to affliction: b Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, gave Israel three precious gifts, all of which were given only by means of suffering, /b which purified Israel so that they may merit to receive them. These gifts are: b Torah, Eretz Yisrael, and the World-to-Come. /b , b From where /b is it derived that b Torah /b is only acquired by means of suffering? b As it is said: “Happy is the man whom You afflict, Lord,” /b after which it is said: b “And teach from Your Torah.” /b , b Eretz Yisrael, as it is written: “As a man rebukes his son, so the Lord your God rebukes you” /b (Deuteronomy 8:5), b and it is written thereafter: “For the Lord your God will bring you to a good land.” /b , b The World-to-Come, as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, the Torah is light, and the reproofs of instruction are the way of life” /b (Proverbs 6:23). One may arrive at the lamp of mitzva and the light of Torah that exists in the World-to-Come only by means of the reproofs of instruction in this world., b A i tanna /i taught /b the following i baraita /i b before Rabbi Yoḥa: If one engages in Torah and acts of charity /b
50. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 15 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 82
51. Anon., 4 Ezra, 3.1, 12.10-12.12, 14.3  Tagged with subjects: •pseudonymous/pseudepigraphic, attribution Found in books: Najman (2010), The Significance of Sinai: Traditions about Sinai and Divine Revelation in Judaism and Christianity, 238, 241
3.1. In the thirtieth year after the destruction of our city, I Salathiel, who am also called Ezra, was in Babylon. I was troubled as I lay on my bed, and my thoughts welled up in my heart, 12.10. He said to me, "This is the interpretation of this vision which you have seen: 12.11. The eagle which you saw coming up from the sea is the fourth kingdom which appeared in a vision to your brother Daniel. 12.12. But it was not explained to him as I now explain or have explained it to you. 14.3. Then he said to me, "I revealed myself in a bush and spoke to Moses, when my people were in bondage in Egypt;
52. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q365, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
53. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q367, 3.14  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
54. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q374, None  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
55. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Q22, None  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183
56. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q377, None  Tagged with subjects: •pseudepigraphic attribution Found in books: Fraade (2011), Legal Fictions: Studies of Law and Narrative in the Discursive Worlds of Ancient Jewish Sectarians and Sages, 183, 407