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103 results for "priests"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6-1.8 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 109
1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 13.17, 14.24-14.26, 16.18-16.19, 17.8-17.13, 18.1-18.8, 23.20-23.24, 24.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as land appraisers •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •priests, in judea, benefactors of •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 25, 41, 59, 76, 77, 78, 98, 103, 106, 108, 109, 135, 195
13.17. "וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל־תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד׃", 14.24. "וְכִי־יִרְבֶּה מִמְּךָ הַדֶּרֶךְ כִּי לֹא תוּכַל שְׂאֵתוֹ כִּי־יִרְחַק מִמְּךָ הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לָשׂוּם שְׁמוֹ שָׁם כִּי יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 14.25. "וְנָתַתָּה בַּכָּסֶף וְצַרְתָּ הַכֶּסֶף בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃", 14.26. "וְנָתַתָּה הַכֶּסֶף בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשְׁךָ בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן וּבַיַּיִן וּבַשֵּׁכָר וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁאָלְךָ נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָכַלְתָּ שָּׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׂמַחְתָּ אַתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ׃", 16.18. "שֹׁפְטִים וְשֹׁטְרִים תִּתֶּן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לִשְׁבָטֶיךָ וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם מִשְׁפַּט־צֶדֶק׃", 16.19. "לֹא־תַטֶּה מִשְׁפָּט לֹא תַכִּיר פָּנִים וְלֹא־תִקַּח שֹׁחַד כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר עֵינֵי חֲכָמִים וִיסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי צַדִּיקִם׃", 17.8. "כִּי יִפָּלֵא מִמְּךָ דָבָר לַמִּשְׁפָּט בֵּין־דָּם לְדָם בֵּין־דִּין לְדִין וּבֵין נֶגַע לָנֶגַע דִּבְרֵי רִיבֹת בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְקַמְתָּ וְעָלִיתָ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ׃", 17.9. "וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְאֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְהִגִּידוּ לְךָ אֵת דְּבַר הַמִּשְׁפָּט׃", 17.11. "עַל־פִּי הַתּוֹרָה אֲשֶׁר יוֹרוּךָ וְעַל־הַמִּשְׁפָּט אֲשֶׁר־יֹאמְרוּ לְךָ תַּעֲשֶׂה לֹא תָסוּר מִן־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־יַגִּידוּ לְךָ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל׃", 17.12. "וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן הָעֹמֵד לְשָׁרֶת שָׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט וּמֵת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.13. "וְכָל־הָעָם יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּ וְלֹא יְזִידוּן עוֹד׃", 18.1. "לֹא־יִהְיֶה לַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם כָּל־שֵׁבֶט לֵוִי חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְנַחֲלָתוֹ יֹאכֵלוּן׃", 18.1. "לֹא־יִמָּצֵא בְךָ מַעֲבִיר בְּנוֹ־וּבִתּוֹ בָּאֵשׁ קֹסֵם קְסָמִים מְעוֹנֵן וּמְנַחֵשׁ וּמְכַשֵּׁף׃", 18.2. "אַךְ הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר יָזִיד לְדַבֵּר דָּבָר בִּשְׁמִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִיו לְדַבֵּר וַאֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר בְּשֵׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וּמֵת הַנָּבִיא הַהוּא׃", 18.2. "וְנַחֲלָה לֹא־יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו יְהוָה הוּא נַחֲלָתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר־לוֹ׃", 18.3. "וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃", 18.4. "רֵאשִׁית דְּגָנְךָ תִּירֹשְׁךָ וְיִצְהָרֶךָ וְרֵאשִׁית גֵּז צֹאנְךָ תִּתֶּן־לּוֹ׃", 18.5. "כִּי בוֹ בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִכָּל־שְׁבָטֶיךָ לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת בְּשֵׁם־יְהוָה הוּא וּבָנָיו כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃", 18.6. "וְכִי־יָבֹא הַלֵּוִי מֵאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ מִכָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־הוּא גָּר שָׁם וּבָא בְּכָל־אַוַּת נַפְשׁוֹ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִבְחַר יְהוָה׃", 18.7. "וְשֵׁרֵת בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו כְּכָל־אֶחָיו הַלְוִיִּם הָעֹמְדִים שָׁם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃", 18.8. "חֵלֶק כְּחֵלֶק יֹאכֵלוּ לְבַד מִמְכָּרָיו עַל־הָאָבוֹת׃", 23.21. "לַנָּכְרִי תַשִּׁיךְ וּלְאָחִיךָ לֹא תַשִּׁיךְ לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃", 23.22. "כִּי־תִדֹּר נֶדֶר לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תְאַחֵר לְשַׁלְּמוֹ כִּי־דָּרֹשׁ יִדְרְשֶׁנּוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מֵעִמָּךְ וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃", 23.23. "וְכִי תֶחְדַּל לִנְדֹּר לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְךָ חֵטְא׃", 23.24. "מוֹצָא שְׂפָתֶיךָ תִּשְׁמֹר וְעָשִׂיתָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נְדָבָה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ בְּפִיךָ׃", 24.11. "בַּחוּץ תַּעֲמֹד וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה נֹשֶׁה בוֹ יוֹצִיא אֵלֶיךָ אֶת־הַעֲבוֹט הַחוּצָה׃", 13.17. "And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the broad place thereof, and shall burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, unto the LORD thy God; and it shall be a heap for ever; it shall not be built again.", 14.24. "And if the way be too long for thee, so that thou art not able to carry it, because the place is too far from thee, which the LORD thy God shall choose to set His name there, when the LORD thy God shall bless thee;", 14.25. "then shalt thou turn it into money, and bind up the money in thy hand, and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose.", 14.26. "And thou shalt bestow the money for whatsoever thy soul desireth, for oxen, or for sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul asketh of thee; and thou shalt eat there before the LORD thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou and thy household.", 16.18. "Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, tribe by tribe; and they shall judge the people with righteous judgment.", 16.19. "Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons; neither shalt thou take a gift; for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.", 17.8. "If there arise a matter too hard for thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between plea and plea, and between stroke and stroke, even matters of controversy within thy gates; then shalt thou arise, and get thee up unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose.", 17.9. "And thou shall come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days; and thou shalt inquire; and they shall declare unto thee the sentence of judgment.", 17.10. "And thou shalt do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare unto thee from that place which the LORD shall choose; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they shall teach thee.", 17.11. "According to the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do; thou shalt not turn aside from the sentence which they shall declare unto thee, to the right hand, nor to the left.", 17.12. "And the man that doeth presumptuously, in not hearkening unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; and thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel.", 17.13. "And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.", 18.1. "The priests the Levites, even all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor inheritance with Israel; they shall eat the offerings of the LORD made by fire, and His inheritance.", 18.2. "And they shall have no inheritance among their brethren; the LORD is their inheritance, as He hath spoken unto them.", 18.3. "And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.", 18.4. "The first-fruits of thy corn, of thy wine, and of thine oil, and the first of the fleece of thy sheep, shalt thou give him.", 18.5. "For the LORD thy God hath chosen him out of all thy tribes, to stand to minister in the name of the LORD, him and his sons for ever.", 18.6. "And if a Levite come from any of thy gates out of all Israel, where he sojourneth, and come with all the desire of his soul unto the place which the LORD shall choose;", 18.7. "then he shall minister in the name of the LORD his God, as all his brethren the Levites do, who stand there before the LORD.", 18.8. "They shall have like portions to eat, beside that which is his due according to the fathers’houses. .", 23.20. "Thou shalt not lend upon interest to thy brother: interest of money, interest of victuals, interest of any thing that is lent upon interest.", 23.21. "Unto a foreigner thou mayest lend upon interest; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon interest; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all that thou puttest thy hand unto, in the land whither thou goest in to possess it.", 23.22. "When thou shalt vow a vow unto the LORD thy God, thou shalt not be slack to pay it; for the LORD thy God will surely require it of thee; and it will be sin in thee.", 23.23. "But if thou shalt forbear to vow, it shall be no sin in thee.", 23.24. "That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt observe and do; according as thou hast vowed freely unto the LORD thy God, even that which thou hast promised with thy mouth.", 24.11. "Thou shalt stand without, and the man to whom thou dost lend shall bring forth the pledge without unto thee.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.4, 20.33, 21.1-23.19, 22.24, 22.29, 23.19, 30.11, 30.12, 30.13, 30.14, 30.15, 30.16, 32.29, 34.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 77
32.29. "וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מִלְאוּ יֶדְכֶם הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה כִּי אִישׁ בִּבְנוֹ וּבְאָחִיו וְלָתֵת עֲלֵיכֶם הַיּוֹם בְּרָכָה׃", 32.29. "And Moses said: ‘Consecrate yourselves to-day to the LORD, for every man hath been against his son and against his brother; that He may also bestow upon you a blessing this day.’",
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 38.18, 41.45, 47.13-47.26, 49.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as creditors •priests, outside judea, in egypt •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 63, 68, 69, 77, 102, 128
38.18. "וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן־לָּךְ וַתֹּאמֶר חֹתָמְךָ וּפְתִילֶךָ וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר בְּיָדֶךָ וַיִּתֶּן־לָּהּ וַיָּבֹא אֵלֶיהָ וַתַּהַר לוֹ׃", 41.45. "וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 47.13. "וְלֶחֶם אֵין בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב מְאֹד וַתֵּלַהּ אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן מִפְּנֵי הָרָעָב׃", 47.14. "וַיְלַקֵּט יוֹסֵף אֶת־כָּל־הַכֶּסֶף הַנִּמְצָא בְאֶרֶץ־מִצְרַיִם וּבְאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בַּשֶּׁבֶר אֲשֶׁר־הֵם שֹׁבְרִים וַיָּבֵא יוֹסֵף אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף בֵּיתָה פַרְעֹה׃", 47.15. "וַיִּתֹּם הַכֶּסֶף מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וּמֵאֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ כָל־מִצְרַיִם אֶל־יוֹסֵף לֵאמֹר הָבָה־לָּנוּ לֶחֶם וְלָמָּה נָמוּת נֶגְדֶּךָ כִּי אָפֵס כָּסֶף׃", 47.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף הָבוּ מִקְנֵיכֶם וְאֶתְּנָה לָכֶם בְּמִקְנֵיכֶם אִם־אָפֵס כָּסֶף׃", 47.17. "וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־מִקְנֵיהֶם אֶל־יוֹסֵף וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם יוֹסֵף לֶחֶם בַּסּוּסִים וּבְמִקְנֵה הַצֹּאן וּבְמִקְנֵה הַבָּקָר וּבַחֲמֹרִים וַיְנַהֲלֵם בַּלֶּחֶם בְּכָל־מִקְנֵהֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִוא׃", 47.18. "וַתִּתֹּם הַשָּׁנָה הַהִוא וַיָּבֹאוּ אֵלָיו בַּשָּׁנָה הַשֵּׁנִית וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ לֹא־נְכַחֵד מֵאֲדֹנִי כִּי אִם־תַּם הַכֶּסֶף וּמִקְנֵה הַבְּהֵמָה אֶל־אֲדֹנִי לֹא נִשְׁאַר לִפְנֵי אֲדֹנִי בִּלְתִּי אִם־גְּוִיָּתֵנוּ וְאַדְמָתֵנוּ׃", 47.19. "לָמָּה נָמוּת לְעֵינֶיךָ גַּם־אֲנַחְנוּ גַּם אַדְמָתֵנוּ קְנֵה־אֹתָנוּ וְאֶת־אַדְמָתֵנוּ בַּלָּחֶם וְנִהְיֶה אֲנַחְנוּ וְאַדְמָתֵנוּ עֲבָדִים לְפַרְעֹה וְתֶן־זֶרַע וְנִחְיֶה וְלֹא נָמוּת וְהָאֲדָמָה לֹא תֵשָׁם׃", 47.21. "וְאֶת־הָעָם הֶעֱבִיר אֹתוֹ לֶעָרִים מִקְצֵה גְבוּל־מִצְרַיִם וְעַד־קָצֵהוּ׃", 47.22. "רַק אַדְמַת הַכֹּהֲנִים לֹא קָנָה כִּי חֹק לַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת פַּרְעֹה וְאָכְלוּ אֶת־חֻקָּם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן לָהֶם פַּרְעֹה עַל־כֵּן לֹא מָכְרוּ אֶת־אַדְמָתָם׃", 47.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר יוֹסֵף אֶל־הָעָם הֵן קָנִיתִי אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־אַדְמַתְכֶם לְפַרְעֹה הֵא־לָכֶם זֶרַע וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה׃", 47.24. "וְהָיָה בַּתְּבוּאֹת וּנְתַתֶּם חֲמִישִׁית לְפַרְעֹה וְאַרְבַּע הַיָּדֹת יִהְיֶה לָכֶם לְזֶרַע הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָכְלְכֶם וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּבָתֵּיכֶם וְלֶאֱכֹל לְטַפְּכֶם׃", 47.25. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ הֶחֱיִתָנוּ נִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינֵי אֲדֹנִי וְהָיִינוּ עֲבָדִים לְפַרְעֹה׃", 47.26. "וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ יוֹסֵף לְחֹק עַד־הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה עַל־אַדְמַת מִצְרַיִם לְפַרְעֹה לַחֹמֶשׁ רַק אַדְמַת הַכֹּהֲנִים לְבַדָּם לֹא הָיְתָה לְפַרְעֹה׃", 49.6. "בְּסֹדָם אַל־תָּבֹא נַפְשִׁי בִּקְהָלָם אַל־תֵּחַד כְּבֹדִי כִּי בְאַפָּם הָרְגוּ אִישׁ וּבִרְצֹנָם עִקְּרוּ־שׁוֹר׃", 38.18. "And he said: ‘What pledge shall I give thee?’ And she said: ‘Thy signet and thy cord, and thy staff that is in thy hand.’ And he gave them to her, and came in unto her, and she conceived by him.", 41.45. "And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—", 47.13. "And there was no bread in all the land; for the famine was very sore, so that the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan languished by reason of the famine.", 47.14. "And Joseph gathered up all the money that was found in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, for the corn which they bought; and Joseph brought the money into Pharaoh’s house.", 47.15. "And when the money was all spent in the land of Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said: ‘Give us bread; for why should we die in thy presence? for our money faileth.’", 47.16. "And Joseph said: ‘Give your cattle, and I will give you [bread] for your cattle, if money fail.’", 47.17. "And they brought their cattle unto Joseph. And Joseph gave them bread in exchange for the horses, and for the flocks, and for the herds, and for the asses; and he fed them with bread in exchange for all their cattle for that year.", 47.18. "And when that year was ended, they came unto him the second year, and said unto him: ‘We will not hide from my lord, how that our money is all spent; and the herds of cattle are my lord’s; there is nought left in the sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our lands.", 47.19. "Wherefore should we die before thine eyes, both we and our land? buy us and our land for bread, and we and our land will be bondmen unto Pharaoh; and give us seed, that we may live, and not die, and that the land be not desolate.’", 47.20. "So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold every man his field, because the famine was sore upon them; and the land became Pharaoh’s.", 47.21. "And as for the people, he removed them city by city, from one end of the border of Egypt even to the other end thereof.", 47.22. "Only the land of the priests bought he not, for the priests had a portion from Pharaoh, and did eat their portion which Pharaoh gave them; wherefore they sold not their land.", 47.23. "Then Joseph said unto the people: ‘Behold, I have bought you this day and your land for Pharaoh. Lo, here is seed for you, and ye shall sow the land.", 47.24. "And it shall come to pass at the ingatherings, that ye shall give a fifth unto Pharaoh, and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food, and for them of your households, and for food for your little ones.’", 47.25. "And they said: ‘Thou hast saved our lives. Let us find favour in the sight of my lord, and we will be Pharaoh’s bondmen.’", 47.26. "And Joseph made it a statute concerning the land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh should have the fifth; only the land of the priests alone became not Pharaoh’s.", 49.6. "Let my soul not come into their council; Unto their assembly let my glory not be not united; For in their anger they slew men, And in their self-will they houghed oxen.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 2.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 75
2.10. "But I will sacrifice unto Thee With the voice of thanksgiving; That which I have vowed I will pay. Salvation is of the LORD.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 2.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 72
2.18. "וְהָיָה בַיּוֹם־הַהוּא נְאֻם־יְהוָה תִּקְרְאִי אִישִׁי וְלֹא־תִקְרְאִי־לִי עוֹד בַּעְלִי׃", 2.18. "And it shall be at that day, saith the LORD, That thou shalt call Me Ishi, And shalt call Me no more Baali.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 3.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 78
3.11. "רָאשֶׁיהָ בְּשֹׁחַד יִשְׁפֹּטוּ וְכֹהֲנֶיהָ בִּמְחִיר יוֹרוּ וּנְבִיאֶיהָ בְּכֶסֶף יִקְסֹמוּ וְעַל־יְהוָה יִשָּׁעֵנוּ לֵאמֹר הֲלוֹא יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ לֹא־תָבוֹא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה׃", 3.11. "The heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach for hire, and the prophets thereof divine for money; yet will they lean upon the LORD, and say: ‘Is not the LORD in the midst of us? No evil shall come upon us’?",
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.9-5.10, 15.18-15.21, 18.8, 18.14, 18.19-18.20, 18.24, 21.1-21.3, 25.6-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, benefactors of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •priests, in judea •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, as an empowered class Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 25, 73, 74, 75, 77, 98, 106, 107, 108, 109, 185, 188, 189, 195, 208, 230
5.9. "וְכָל־תְּרוּמָה לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃", 15.18. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מֵבִיא אֶתְכֶם שָׁמָּה׃", 15.19. "וְהָיָה בַּאֲכָלְכֶם מִלֶּחֶם הָאָרֶץ תָּרִימוּ תְרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃", 15.21. "מֵרֵאשִׁית עֲרִסֹתֵיכֶם תִּתְּנוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃", 18.8. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃", 18.14. "כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃", 18.19. "כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃", 18.24. "כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃", 21.1. "וַיִּשְׁמַע הַכְּנַעֲנִי מֶלֶךְ־עֲרָד יֹשֵׁב הַנֶּגֶב כִּי בָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל דֶּרֶךְ הָאֲתָרִים וַיִּלָּחֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁבְּ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁבִי׃", 21.1. "וַיִּסְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּחֲנוּ בְּאֹבֹת׃", 21.2. "וַיִּדַּר יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶדֶר לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמַר אִם־נָתֹן תִּתֵּן אֶת־הָעָם הַזֶּה בְּיָדִי וְהַחֲרַמְתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיהֶם׃", 21.2. "וּמִבָּמוֹת הַגַּיְא אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׂדֵה מוֹאָב רֹאשׁ הַפִּסְגָּה וְנִשְׁקָפָה עַל־פְּנֵי הַיְשִׁימֹן׃", 21.3. "וַנִּירָם אָבַד חֶשְׁבּוֹן עַד־דִּיבוֹן וַנַּשִּׁים עַד־נֹפַח אֲשֶׁר עַד־מֵידְבָא׃", 21.3. "וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה בְּקוֹל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי וַיַּחֲרֵם אֶתְהֶם וְאֶת־עָרֵיהֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם חָרְמָה׃", 25.6. "וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 25.7. "וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃", 25.8. "וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.9. "וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃", 25.11. "פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃", 25.12. "לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃", 25.13. "וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 5.9. "And every heave-offering of all the holy things of the children of Israel, which they present unto the priest, shall be his.", 5.10. "And every man’s hallowed things shall be his: whatsoever any man giveth the priest, it shall be his.", 15.18. "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye come into the land whither I bring you,", 15.19. "then it shall be, that, when ye eat of the bread of the land, ye shall set apart a portion for a gift unto the LORD.", 15.20. "of the first of your dough ye shall set apart a cake for a gift; as that which is set apart of the threshing-floor, so shall ye set it apart.", 15.21. "of the first of your dough ye shall give unto the LORD a portion for a gift throughout your generations.", 18.8. "And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever.", 18.14. "Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine.", 18.19. "All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’", 18.20. "And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.", 18.24. "For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’", 21.1. "And the Canaanite, the king of Arad, who dwelt in the South, heard tell that Israel came by the way of Atharim; and he fought against Israel, and took some of them captive.", 21.2. "And Israel vowed a vow unto the LORD, and said: ‘If Thou wilt indeed deliver this people into my hand, then I will utterly destroy their cities.’", 21.3. "And the LORD hearkened to the voice of Israel, and delivered up the Canaanites; and they utterly destroyed them and their cities; and the name of the place was called Hormah.", 25.6. "And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting.", 25.7. "And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand.", 25.8. "And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel.", 25.9. "And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand.", 25.10. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 25.11. "’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy.", 25.12. "Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;", 25.13. "and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’",
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 28.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 57
28.8. "מַרְבֶּה הוֹנוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ ובתרבית [וְתַרְבִּית] לְחוֹנֵן דַּלִּים יִקְבְּצֶנּוּ׃", 28.8. "He that augmenteth his substance by interest and increase, Gathereth it for him that is gracious to the poor.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 15.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 57
15.5. "כַּסְפּוֹ לֹא־נָתַן בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וְשֹׁחַד עַל־נָקִי לֹא לָקָח עֹשֵׂה־אֵלֶּה לֹא יִמּוֹט לְעוֹלָם׃", 15.5. "He that putteth not out his money on interest, Nor taketh a bribe against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 2.8-2.10, 6.7-6.9, 6.19, 7.6-7.10, 7.14, 7.28-7.33, 19.9, 19.20, 19.23-19.25, 22.11-22.13, 22.15, 23.17, 23.22, 25.25-25.46, 27.2-27.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 25, 38, 39, 40, 41, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 66, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 81, 82, 98, 106, 108, 167, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 204, 208, 230
2.8. "וְהֵבֵאתָ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה אֲשֶׁר יֵעָשֶׂה מֵאֵלֶּה לַיהוָה וְהִקְרִיבָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִגִּישָׁהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 2.9. "וְהֵרִים הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃", 6.7. "וְזֹאת תּוֹרַת הַמִּנְחָה הַקְרֵב אֹתָהּ בְּנֵי־אַהֲרֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶל־פְּנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 6.8. "וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ מִסֹּלֶת הַמִּנְחָה וּמִשַּׁמְנָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־הַלְּבֹנָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמִּנְחָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אַזְכָּרָתָהּ לַיהוָה׃", 6.9. "וְהַנּוֹתֶרֶת מִמֶּנָּה יֹאכְלוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מַצּוֹת תֵּאָכֵל בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד יֹאכְלוּהָ׃", 6.19. "הַכֹּהֵן הַמְחַטֵּא אֹתָהּ יֹאכֲלֶנָּה בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ תֵּאָכֵל בַּחֲצַר אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 7.6. "כָּל־זָכָר בַּכֹּהֲנִים יֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּמָקוֹם קָדוֹשׁ יֵאָכֵל קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים הוּא׃", 7.7. "כַּחַטָּאת כָּאָשָׁם תּוֹרָה אַחַת לָהֶם הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃", 7.8. "וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃", 7.9. "וְכָל־מִנְחָה אֲשֶׁר תֵּאָפֶה בַּתַּנּוּר וְכָל־נַעֲשָׂה בַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת וְעַל־מַחֲבַת לַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֹתָהּ לוֹ תִהְיֶה׃", 7.14. "וְהִקְרִיב מִמֶּנּוּ אֶחָד מִכָּל־קָרְבָּן תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן הַזֹּרֵק אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃", 7.28. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 7.29. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו לַיהוָה יָבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה מִזֶּבַח שְׁלָמָיו׃", 7.31. "וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְהָיָה הֶחָזֶה לְאַהֲרֹן וּלְבָנָיו׃", 7.32. "וְאֵת שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין תִּתְּנוּ תְרוּמָה לַכֹּהֵן מִזִּבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵיכֶם׃", 7.33. "הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לוֹ תִהְיֶה שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה׃", 19.9. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃", 19.23. "וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃", 19.24. "וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃", 19.25. "וּבַשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁת תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ לְהוֹסִיף לָכֶם תְּבוּאָתוֹ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 22.11. "וְכֹהֵן כִּי־יִקְנֶה נֶפֶשׁ קִנְיַן כַּסְפּוֹ הוּא יֹאכַל בּוֹ וִילִיד בֵּיתוֹ הֵם יֹאכְלוּ בְלַחְמוֹ׃", 22.12. "וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃", 22.13. "וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 22.15. "וְלֹא יְחַלְּלוּ אֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה׃", 23.17. "מִמּוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם תָּבִיאּוּ לֶחֶם תְּנוּפָה שְׁתַּיִם שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת תִּהְיֶינָה חָמֵץ תֵּאָפֶינָה בִּכּוּרִים לַיהוָה׃", 23.22. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא־תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ בְּקֻצְרֶךָ וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 25.25. "כִּי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ וּבָא גֹאֲלוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִיו׃", 25.26. "וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־לּוֹ גֹּאֵל וְהִשִּׂיגָה יָדוֹ וּמָצָא כְּדֵי גְאֻלָּתוֹ׃", 25.27. "וְחִשַּׁב אֶת־שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרוֹ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הָעֹדֵף לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר־לוֹ וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃", 25.28. "וְאִם לֹא־מָצְאָה יָדוֹ דֵּי הָשִׁיב לוֹ וְהָיָה מִמְכָּרוֹ בְּיַד הַקֹּנֶה אֹתוֹ עַד שְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל וְיָצָא בַּיֹּבֵל וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃", 25.29. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִמְכֹּר בֵּית־מוֹשַׁב עִיר חוֹמָה וְהָיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתוֹ עַד־תֹּם שְׁנַת מִמְכָּרוֹ יָמִים תִּהְיֶה גְאֻלָּתוֹ׃", 25.31. "וּבָתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם חֹמָה סָבִיב עַל־שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵחָשֵׁב גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה־לּוֹ וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵא׃", 25.32. "וְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם בָּתֵּי עָרֵי אֲחֻזָּתָם גְּאֻלַּת עוֹלָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם׃", 25.33. "וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר־בַּיִת וְעִיר אֲחֻזָּתוֹ בַּיֹּבֵל כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.34. "וּשְׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר כִּי־אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם׃", 25.35. "וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָטָה יָדוֹ עִמָּךְ וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בּוֹ גֵּר וְתוֹשָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ׃", 25.36. "אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתּוֹ נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ׃", 25.37. "אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃", 25.38. "אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃", 25.39. "וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בּוֹ עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד׃", 25.41. "וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמּוֹ וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתּוֹ וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב׃", 25.42. "כִּי־עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הוֹצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד׃", 25.43. "לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 25.44. "וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ־לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה׃", 25.45. "וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתּוֹשָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִמָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִמָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה׃", 25.46. "וְהִתְנַחֲלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בוֹ בְּפָרֶךְ׃", 27.2. "וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה וְאִם־מָכַר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגָּאֵל עוֹד׃", 27.2. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יַפְלִא נֶדֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת לַיהוָה׃", 27.3. "וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃", 27.3. "וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃", 27.4. "וְאִם־נְקֵבָה הִוא וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁקֶל׃", 27.5. "וְאִם מִבֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְעַד בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר עֶשְׂרִים שְׁקָלִים וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשֶׂרֶת שְׁקָלִים׃", 27.6. "וְאִם מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר חֲמִשָּׁה שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף׃", 27.7. "וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה אִם־זָכָר וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שָׁקֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשָׂרָה שְׁקָלִים׃", 27.8. "וְאִם־מָךְ הוּא מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן עַל־פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יַד הַנֹּדֵר יַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן׃", 27.9. "וְאִם־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יַקְרִיבוּ מִמֶּנָּה קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ לַיהוָה יִהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ׃", 27.11. "וְאִם כָּל־בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יַקְרִיבוּ מִמֶּנָּה קָרְבָּן לַיהוָה וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן׃", 27.12. "וְהֶעֱרִיךְ הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָהּ בֵּין טוֹב וּבֵין רָע כְּעֶרְכְּךָ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יִהְיֶה׃", 27.13. "וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאָלֶנָּה וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁתוֹ עַל־עֶרְכֶּךָ׃", 27.14. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יַקְדִּשׁ אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה וְהֶעֱרִיכוֹ הַכֹּהֵן בֵּין טוֹב וּבֵין רָע כַּאֲשֶׁר יַעֲרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן כֵּן יָקוּם׃", 27.15. "וְאִם־הַמַּקְדִּישׁ יִגְאַל אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִישִׁית כֶּסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ עָלָיו וְהָיָה לוֹ׃", 27.16. "וְאִם מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ לַיהוָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ לְפִי זַרְעוֹ זֶרַע חֹמֶר שְׂעֹרִים בַּחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כָּסֶף׃", 27.17. "אִם־מִשְּׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ כְּעֶרְכְּךָ יָקוּם׃", 27.18. "וְאִם־אַחַר הַיֹּבֵל יַקְדִּישׁ שָׂדֵהוּ וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף עַל־פִּי הַשָּׁנִים הַנּוֹתָרֹת עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנִגְרַע מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ׃", 27.19. "וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה הַמַּקְדִּישׁ אֹתוֹ וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁית כֶּסֶף־עֶרְכְּךָ עָלָיו וְקָם לוֹ׃", 27.21. "וְהָיָה הַשָּׂדֶה בְּצֵאתוֹ בַיֹּבֵל קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה כִּשְׂדֵה הַחֵרֶם לַכֹּהֵן תִּהְיֶה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃", 27.22. "וְאִם אֶת־שְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ יַקְדִּישׁ לַיהוָה׃", 27.23. "וְחִשַּׁב־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת מִכְסַת הָעֶרְכְּךָ עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְנָתַן אֶת־הָעֶרְכְּךָ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃", 27.24. "בִּשְׁנַת הַיּוֹבֵל יָשׁוּב הַשָּׂדֶה לַאֲשֶׁר קָנָהוּ מֵאִתּוֹ לַאֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אֲחֻזַּת הָאָרֶץ׃", 27.25. "וְכָל־עֶרְכְּךָ יִהְיֶה בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁקֶל׃", 27.26. "אַךְ־בְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר־יְבֻכַּר לַיהוָה בִּבְהֵמָה לֹא־יַקְדִּישׁ אִישׁ אֹתוֹ אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה לַיהוָה הוּא׃", 27.27. "וְאִם בַּבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה וּפָדָה בְעֶרְכֶּךָ וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁתוֹ עָלָיו וְאִם־לֹא יִגָּאֵל וְנִמְכַּר בְּעֶרְכֶּךָ׃", 27.28. "אַךְ־כָּל־חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יַחֲרִם אִישׁ לַיהוָה מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ מֵאָדָם וּבְהֵמָה וּמִשְּׂדֵה אֲחֻזָּתוֹ לֹא יִמָּכֵר וְלֹא יִגָּאֵל כָּל־חֵרֶם קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה׃", 27.29. "כָּל־חֵרֶם אֲשֶׁר יָחֳרַם מִן־הָאָדָם לֹא יִפָּדֶה מוֹת יוּמָת׃", 27.31. "וְאִם־גָּאֹל יִגְאַל אִישׁ מִמַּעַשְׂרוֹ חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו׃", 27.32. "וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲבֹר תַּחַת הַשָּׁבֶט הָעֲשִׂירִי יִהְיֶה־קֹּדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃", 2.8. "And thou shalt bring the meal-offering that is made of these things unto the LORD; and it shall be presented unto the priest, and he shall bring it unto the altar.", 2.9. "And the priest shall take off from the meal-offering the memorial-part thereof, and shall make it smoke upon the altar—an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the LORD.", 2.10. "But that which is left of the meal-offering shall be Aaron’s and his sons’; it is a thing most holy of the offerings of the LORD made by fire.", 6.7. "And this is the law of the meal-offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it before the LORD, in front of the altar.", 6.8. "And he shall take up therefrom his handful, of the fine flour of the meal-offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meal-offering, and shall make the memorial-part thereof smoke upon the altar for a sweet savour unto the LORD.", 6.9. "And that which is left thereof shall Aaron and his sons eat; it shall be eaten without leaven in a holy place; in the court of the tent of meeting they shall eat it.", 6.19. "The priest that offereth it for sin shall eat it; in a holy place shall it be eaten, in the court of the tent of meeting.", 7.6. "Every male among the priests may eat thereof; it shall be eaten in a holy place; it is most holy.", 7.7. "As is the sin-offering, so is the guilt-offering; there is one law for them; the priest that maketh atonement therewith, he shall have it.", 7.8. "And the priest that offereth any man’s burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered.", 7.9. "And every meal-offering that is baked in the oven, and all that is dressed in the stewing-pan, and on the griddle, shall be the priest’s that offereth it.", 7.10. "And every meal-offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another.", 7.14. "And of it he shall present one out of each offering for a gift unto the LORD; it shall be the priest’s that dasheth the blood of the peace-offerings against the altar.", 7.28. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 7.29. "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: He that offereth his sacrifice of peace-offerings unto the LORD shall bring his offering unto the LORD out of his sacrifice of peace-offerings.", 7.30. "His own hands shall bring the offerings of the LORD made by fire: the fat with the breast shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave-offering before the LORD.", 7.31. "And the priest shall make the fat smoke upon the altar; but the breast shall be Aaron’s and his sons’.", 7.32. "And the right thigh shall ye give unto the priest for a heave-offering out of your sacrifices of peace-offerings.", 7.33. "He among the sons of Aaron, that offereth the blood of the peace-offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion.", 19.9. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest.", 19.20. "And whosoever lieth carnally with a woman, that is a bondmaid, designated for a man, and not at all redeemed, nor was freedom given her; there shall be inquisition; they shall not be put to death, because she was not free.", 19.23. "And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten.", 19.24. "And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.", 19.25. "But in the fifth year may ye eat of the fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you more richly the increase thereof: I am the LORD your God.", 22.11. "But if a priest buy any soul, the purchase of his money, he may eat of it; and such as are born in his house, they may eat of his bread.", 22.12. "And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things.", 22.13. "But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man", 22.15. "And they shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, which they set apart unto the LORD;", 23.17. "Ye shall bring out of your dwellings two wave-loaves of two tenth parts of an ephah; they shall be of fine flour, they shall be baked with leaven, for first-fruits unto the LORD.", 23.22. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest; thou shalt leave them for the poor, and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.", 25.25. "If thy brother be waxen poor, and sell some of his possession, then shall his kinsman that is next unto him come, and shall redeem that which his brother hath sold.", 25.26. "And if a man have no one to redeem it, and he be waxen rich and find sufficient means to redeem it;", 25.27. "then let him count the years of the sale thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man to whom he sold it; and he shall return unto his possession.", 25.28. "But if he have not sufficient means to get it back for himself, then that which he hath sold shall remain in the hand of him that hath bought it until the year of jubilee; and in the jubilee it shall go out, and he shall return unto his possession.", 25.29. "And if a man sell a dwelling-house in a walled city, then he may redeem it within a whole year after it is sold; for a full year shall he have the right of redemption.", 25.30. "And if it be not redeemed within the space of a full year, then the house that is in the walled city shall be made sure in perpetuity to him that bought it, throughout his generations; it shall not go out in the jubilee.", 25.31. "But the houses of the villages which have no wall round about them shall be reckoned with the fields of the country; they may be redeemed, and they shall go out in the jubilee.", 25.32. "But as for the cities of the Levites, the houses of the cities of their possession, the Levites shall have a perpetual right of redemption.", 25.33. "And if a man purchase of the Levites, then the house that was sold in the city of his possession, shall go out in the jubilee; for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children of Israel.", 25.34. "But the fields of the open land about their cities may not be sold; for that is their perpetual possession.", 25.35. "And if thy brother be waxen poor, and his means fail with thee; then thou shalt uphold him: as a stranger and a settler shall he live with thee.", 25.36. "Take thou no interest of him or increase; but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.", 25.37. "Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase.", 25.38. "I am the LORD your God, who brought you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you the land of Canaan, to be your God.", 25.39. "And if thy brother be waxen poor with thee, and sell himself unto thee, thou shalt not make him to serve as a bondservant.", 25.40. "As a hired servant, and as a settler, he shall be with thee; he shall serve with thee unto the year of jubilee.", 25.41. "Then shall he go out from thee, he and his children with him, and shall return unto his own family, and unto the possession of his fathers shall he return.", 25.42. "For they are My servants, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt; they shall not be sold as bondmen.", 25.43. "Thou shalt not rule over him with rigour; but shalt fear thy God.", 25.44. "And as for thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, whom thou mayest have: of the nations that are round about you, of them shall ye buy bondmen and bondmaids.", 25.45. "Moreover of the children of the strangers that do sojourn among you, of them may ye buy, and of their families that are with you, which they have begotten in your land; and they may be your possession.", 25.46. "And ye may make them an inheritance for your children after you, to hold for a possession: of them may ye take your bondmen for ever; but over your brethren the children of Israel ye shall not rule, one over another, with rigour.", 27.2. "Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When a man shall clearly utter a vow of persons unto the LORD, according to thy valuation,", 27.3. "then thy valuation shall be for the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary.", 27.4. "And if it be a female, then thy valuation shall be thirty shekels.", 27.5. "And if it be from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels.", 27.6. "And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy valuation shall be three shekels of silver.", 27.7. "And if it be from sixty years old and upward: if it be a male, then thy valuation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels.", 27.8. "But if he be too poor for thy valuation, then he shall be set before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to the means of him that vowed shall the priest value him.", 27.9. "And if it be a beast, whereof men bring an offering unto the LORD, all that any man giveth of such unto the LORD shall be holy.", 27.10. "He shall not alter it, nor change it, a good for a bad, or a bad for a good; and if he shall at all change beast for beast, then both it and that for which it is changed shall be holy.", 27.11. "And if it be any unclean beast, of which they may not bring an offering unto the LORD, then he shall set the beast before the priest.", 27.12. "And the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad; as thou the priest valuest it, so shall it be.", 27.13. "But if he will indeed redeem it, then he shall add the fifth part thereof unto thy valuation.", 27.14. "And when a man shall sanctify his house to be holy unto the LORD, then the priest shall value it, whether it be good or bad; as the priest shall value it, so shall it stand.", 27.15. "And if he that sanctified it will redeem his house, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy valuation unto it, and it shall be his.", 27.16. "And if a man shall sanctify unto the LORD part of the field of his possession, then thy valuation shall be according to the sowing thereof; the sowing of a homer of barley shall be valued at fifty shekels of silver.", 27.17. "If he sanctify his field from the year of jubilee, according to thy valuation it shall stand.", 27.18. "But if he sanctify his field after the jubilee, then the priest shall reckon unto him the money according to the years that remain unto the year of jubilee, and an abatement shall be made from thy valuation.", 27.19. "And if he that sanctified the field will indeed redeem it, then he shall add the fifth part of the money of thy valuation unto it, and it shall be assured to him.", 27.20. "And if he will not redeem the field, or if he have sold the field to another man, it shall not be redeemed any more.", 27.21. "But the field, when it goeth out in the jubilee, shall be holy unto the LORD, as a field devoted; the possession thereof shall be the priest’s.", 27.22. "And if he sanctify unto the LORD a field which he hath bought, which is not of the field of his possession;", 27.23. "then the priest shall reckon unto him the worth of thy valuation unto the year of jubilee; and he shall give thy valuation in that day, as a holy thing unto the LORD.", 27.24. "In the year of jubilee the field shall return unto him of whom it was bought, even to him to whom the possession of the land belongeth.", 27.25. "And all thy valuations shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary; twenty gerahs shall be the shekel.", 27.26. "Howbeit the firstling among beasts, which is born as a firstling to the LORD, no man shall sanctify it; whether it be ox or sheep, it is the LORD’S.", 27.27. "And if it be of an unclean beast, then he shall ransom it according to thy valuation, and shall add unto it the fifth part thereof; or if it be not redeemed, then it shall be sold according to thy valuation.", 27.28. "Notwithstanding, no devoted thing, that a man may devote unto the LORD of all that he hath, whether of man or beast, or of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed; every devoted thing is most holy unto the LORD.", 27.29. "None devoted, that may be devoted of men, shall be ransomed; he shall surely be put to death.", 27.30. "And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD’S; it is holy unto the LORD.", 27.31. "And if a man will redeem aught of his tithe, he shall add unto it the fifth part thereof.", 27.32. "And all the tithe of the herd or the flock, whatsoever passeth under the rod, the tenth shall be holy unto the LORD.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 1.1, 11.30-11.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 75
1.1. "וַיֵּלֶךְ יְהוּדָה אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הַיּוֹשֵׁב בְּחֶבְרוֹן וְשֵׁם־חֶבְרוֹן לְפָנִים קִרְיַת אַרְבַּע וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־שֵׁשַׁי וְאֶת־אֲחִימַן וְאֶת־תַּלְמָי׃", 1.1. "וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי מוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיִּשְׁאֲלוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ אֶל־הַכְּנַעֲנִי בַּתְּחִלָּה לְהִלָּחֶם בּוֹ׃", 11.31. "וְהָיָה הַיּוֹצֵא אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִדַּלְתֵי בֵיתִי לִקְרָאתִי בְּשׁוּבִי בְשָׁלוֹם מִבְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וְהָיָה לַיהוָה וְהַעֲלִיתִהוּ עוֹלָה׃", 1.1. "Now after the death of Yehoshua it came to pass, that the children of Yisra᾽el asked the Lord, saying, Who shall go up for us against the Kena῾ani first, to fight against them?", 11.30. "And Yiftaĥ vowed a vow to the Lord, and said, If Thou shalt deliver the children of ῾Ammon into my hands,", 11.31. "then whatever comes out of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of ῾Ammon, shall surely be the Lord’s, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 25.9, 50.21, 51.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 22
25.9. "הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחוֹת צָפוֹן נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְאֶל־נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל עַבְדִּי וַהֲבִאֹתִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְעַל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ וְעַל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם הָאֵלֶּה סָבִיב וְהַחֲרַמְתִּים וְשַׂמְתִּים לְשַׁמָּה וְלִשְׁרֵקָה וּלְחָרְבוֹת עוֹלָם׃", 50.21. "עַל־הָאָרֶץ מְרָתַיִם עֲלֵה עָלֶיהָ וְאֶל־יוֹשְׁבֵי פְּקוֹד חֲרֹב וְהַחֲרֵם אַחֲרֵיהֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה וַעֲשֵׂה כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ׃", 51.3. "חָדְלוּ גִבּוֹרֵי בָבֶל לְהִלָּחֵם יָשְׁבוּ בַּמְּצָדוֹת נָשְׁתָה גְבוּרָתָם הָיוּ לְנָשִׁים הִצִּיתוּ מִשְׁכְּנֹתֶיהָ נִשְׁבְּרוּ בְרִיחֶיהָ׃", 51.3. "אֶל־יִדְרֹךְ ידרך הַדֹּרֵךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶל־יִתְעַל בְּסִרְיֹנוֹ וְאַל־תַּחְמְלוּ אֶל־בַּחֻרֶיהָ הַחֲרִימוּ כָּל־צְבָאָהּ׃", 25.9. "behold, I will send and take all the families of the north, saith the LORD, and I will send unto Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon, My servant, and will bring them against this land, and against the inhabitants thereof, and against all these nations round about; and I will utterly destroy them, and make them an astonishment, and a hissing, and perpetual desolations.", 50.21. "Go up against the land of Merathaim, even against it, And against the inhabitants of Pekod; Waste and utterly destroy after them, saith the LORD, And do according to all that I have commanded thee.", 51.3. "Let the archer bend his bow against her, And let him lift himself up against her in his coat of mail; And spare ye not her young men, Destroy ye utterly all her host.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.10, 19.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as land appraisers •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 38, 75
19.21. "וְנוֹדַע יְהוָה לְמִצְרַיִם וְיָדְעוּ מִצְרַיִם אֶת־יְהוָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְעָבְדוּ זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְנָדְרוּ־נֵדֶר לַיהוָה וְשִׁלֵּמוּ׃", 5.10. "For ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath, And the seed of a homer shall yield an ephah.", 19.21. "And the LORD shall make Himself known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day; yea, they shall worship with sacrifice and offering, and shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and shall perform it.",
15. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.12-2.17, 22.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, benefactors of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3, 106
2.12. "וּבְנֵי עֵלִי בְּנֵי בְלִיָּעַל לֹא יָדְעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה׃", 2.13. "וּמִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הָעָם כָּל־אִישׁ זֹבֵחַ זֶבַח וּבָא נַעַר הַכֹּהֵן כְּבַשֵּׁל הַבָּשָׂר וְהַמַּזְלֵג שְׁלֹשׁ־הַשִּׁנַּיִם בְּיָדוֹ׃", 2.14. "וְהִכָּה בַכִּיּוֹר אוֹ בַדּוּד אוֹ בַקַּלַּחַת אוֹ בַפָּרוּר כֹּל אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה הַמַּזְלֵג יִקַּח הַכֹּהֵן בּוֹ כָּכָה יַעֲשׂוּ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּאִים שָׁם בְּשִׁלֹה׃", 2.15. "גַּם בְּטֶרֶם יַקְטִרוּן אֶת־הַחֵלֶב וּבָא נַעַר הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר לָאִישׁ הַזֹּבֵחַ תְּנָה בָשָׂר לִצְלוֹת לַכֹּהֵן וְלֹא־יִקַּח מִמְּךָ בָּשָׂר מְבֻשָּׁל כִּי אִם־חָי׃", 2.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הָאִישׁ קַטֵּר יַקְטִירוּן כַּיּוֹם הַחֵלֶב וְקַח־לְךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר תְּאַוֶּה נַפְשֶׁךָ וְאָמַר לו [לֹא] כִּי עַתָּה תִתֵּן וְאִם־לֹא לָקַחְתִּי בְחָזְקָה׃", 2.17. "וַתְּהִי חַטַּאת הַנְּעָרִים גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה כִּי נִאֲצוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים אֵת מִנְחַת יְהוָה׃", 22.11. "וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹא אֶת־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב הַכֹּהֵן וְאֵת כָּל־בֵּית אָבִיו הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר בְּנֹב וַיָּבֹאוּ כֻלָּם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 2.12. "Now the sons of ῾Eli were worthless men; they knew not the Lord.", 2.13. "And the priest’s custom with the people was, that, when any man offered sacrifice, the priest’s lad came, while the meat was cooking, with a fork having three teeth in his hand;", 2.14. "and he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or cauldron, or pot; all that the fork brought up the priest took for himself. So they did in Shilo to all the people of Yisra᾽el who came there.", 2.15. "Also before they burnt the fat, the priest’s lad came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give some roasting meat for the priest; for he will not have boiled meat of thee, but raw.", 2.16. "And if any man said to him, Let them first burn the fat, and then take as much as thy soul desires; then he would answer him, No; but thou shalt give it me now: and if not, I will take it by force.", 2.17. "Wherefore the sin of the lads was very great before the Lord: for the men dishonoured the offering of the Lord.", 22.11. "Then the king sent to call Aĥimelekh the priest, the son of Aĥituv, and all his father’s house, the priests that were in Nov: and they came all of them to the king.",
16. Hebrew Bible, Habakkuk, 2.7 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 57
2.7. "הֲלוֹא פֶתַע יָקוּמוּ נֹשְׁכֶיךָ וְיִקְצוּ מְזַעְזְעֶיךָ וְהָיִיתָ לִמְשִׁסּוֹת לָמוֹ׃", 2.7. "Shall they not rise up suddenly that shall exact interest of thee, And awake that shall violently shake thee, And thou shalt be for booties unto them?",
17. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 7.17, 8.3 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, as creditors Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 72, 100
7.17. "לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אִשְׁתְּךָ בָּעִיר תִּזְנֶה וּבָנֶיךָ וּבְנֹתֶיךָ בַּחֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ וְאַדְמָתְךָ בַּחֶבֶל תְּחֻלָּק וְאַתָּה עַל־אֲדָמָה טְמֵאָה תָּמוּת וְיִשְׂרָאֵל גָּלֹה יִגְלֶה מֵעַל אַדְמָתוֹ׃", 8.3. "וְהֵילִילוּ שִׁירוֹת הֵיכָל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה רַב הַפֶּגֶר בְּכָל־מָקוֹם הִשְׁלִיךְ הָס׃", 7.17. "Therefore thus saith the LORD: Thy wife shall be a harlot in the city, And thy sons and thy daughters shall fall by the sword, And thy land shall be divided by line; And thou thyself shalt die in an unclean land, And Israel shall surely be led away captive out of his land.’", 8.3. "And the songs of the palace shall be wailings in that day, Saith the Lord GOD; The dead bodies shall be many; In every place silence shall be cast.",
18. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 15.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 75
15.7. "וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵלֲכָה נָּא וַאֲשַׁלֵּם אֶת־נִדְרִי אֲשֶׁר־נָדַרְתִּי לַיהוָה בְּחֶבְרוֹן׃", 15.7. "And it came to pass after forty years, that Avshalom said to the king, I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Ĥevron.",
19. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 12.3, 12.5-12.6, 12.17, 23.21-23.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 76, 107, 108, 111
12.3. "וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹאָשׁ הַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה כָּל־יָמָיו אֲשֶׁר הוֹרָהוּ יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן׃", 12.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹאָשׁ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים כֹּל כֶּסֶף הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־יוּבָא בֵית־יְהוָה כֶּסֶף עוֹבֵר אִישׁ כֶּסֶף נַפְשׁוֹת עֶרְכּוֹ כָּל־כֶּסֶף אֲשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה עַל לֶב־אִישׁ לְהָבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה׃", 12.6. "יִקְחוּ לָהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים אִישׁ מֵאֵת מַכָּרוֹ וְהֵם יְחַזְּקוּ אֶת־בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵא שָׁם בָּדֶק׃", 12.17. "כֶּסֶף אָשָׁם וְכֶסֶף חַטָּאוֹת לֹא יוּבָא בֵּית יְהוָה לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ׃", 23.21. "וַיְצַו הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת־כָּל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר עֲשׂוּ פֶסַח לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּכָּתוּב עַל סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַזֶּה׃", 23.22. "כִּי לֹא נַעֲשָׂה כַּפֶּסַח הַזֶּה מִימֵי הַשֹּׁפְטִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁפְטוּ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכֹל יְמֵי מַלְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה׃", 23.23. "כִּי אִם־בִּשְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה לַמֶּלֶךְ יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ נַעֲשָׂה הַפֶּסַח הַזֶּה לַיהוָה בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 12.3. "And Jehoash did that which was right in the eyes of the LORD all his days wherein Jehoiada the priest instructed him.", 12.5. "And Jehoash said to the priests: ‘All the money of the hallowed things that is brought into the house of the LORD, in current money, the money of the persons for whom each man is rated, all the money that cometh into any man’s heart to bring into the house of the LORD,", 12.6. "let the priests take it to them, every man from him that bestoweth it upon him; and they shall repair the breaches of the house, wheresoever any breach shall be found.’", 12.17. "The forfeit money, and the sin money, was not brought into the house of the LORD; it was the priests.", 23.21. "And the king commanded all the people, saying: ‘Keep the passover unto the LORD your God, as it is written in this book of the covet.’", 23.22. "For there was not kept such a passover from the days of the judges that judged Israel, nor in all the days of the kings of Israel, nor of the kings of Judah;", 23.23. "but in the eighteenth year of king Josiah was this passover kept to the LORD in Jerusalem.",
20. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 2.26, 18.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, as land appraisers Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 38, 100
2.26. "וּלְאֶבְיָתָר הַכֹּהֵן אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ עֲנָתֹת לֵךְ עַל־שָׂדֶיךָ כִּי אִישׁ מָוֶת אָתָּה וּבַיּוֹם הַזֶּה לֹא אֲמִיתֶךָ כִּי־נָשָׂאתָ אֶת־אֲרוֹן אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה לִפְנֵי דָּוִד אָבִי וְכִי הִתְעַנִּיתָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְעַנָּה אָבִי׃", 18.32. "וַיִּבְנֶה אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים מִזְבֵּחַ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וַיַּעַשׂ תְּעָלָה כְּבֵית סָאתַיִם זֶרַע סָבִיב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 2.26. "And unto Abiathar the priest said the king: ‘Get thee to Anathoth, unto thine own fields; for thou art deserving of death; but I will not at this time put thee to death, because thou didst bear the ark of the Lord GOD before David my father, and because thou wast afflicted in all wherein my father was afflicted.’", 18.32. "And with the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD; and he made a trench about the altar, as great as would contain two measures of seed.",
21. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 2.10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 77
2.10. "In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in the second year of Darius, came the word of the LORD by Haggai the prophet, saying:",
22. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 18.13, 18.17, 22.12, 40, 40.1, 40.3, 40.5, 40.48-41.26, 41, 41.8, 42, 43, 43.17, 44, 44.9, 44.10, 44.11, 44.12, 44.13, 44.14, 44.15, 44.16, 44.20, 44.28, 44.29, 44.30, 45, 45.1, 45.2, 45.3, 45.4, 45.5, 45.6, 45.7, 45.8, 45.9, 45.10, 45.11, 45.12, 45.13, 45.14, 45.15, 45.16, 45.17, 46, 46.2, 46.3, 46.4, 46.5, 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, 46.10, 46.16, 46.17, 46.18, 47, 48, 48.8, 48.9, 48.10, 48.11, 48.12, 48.13, 48.14, 48.15, 48.19, 48.21, 48.22, 48.35 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 73, 109, 188, 230
44.29. "הַמִּנְחָה וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם הֵמָּה יֹאכְלוּם וְכָל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָהֶם יִהְיֶה׃", 44.29. "The meal-offering, and the sin-offering, and the guilt-offering, they, even they, shall eat; and every devoted thing in Israel shall be theirs.",
23. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 19.8, 23.1-26.2, 23.1-26.32, 23.4, 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.4, 24.5, 24.6, 24.7, 24.8, 24.9, 24.10, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 26.23, 26.24, 26.25, 26.26, 26.27, 26.28, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 35.7, 35.8, 35.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3
24.4. "וַיִּמָּצְאוּ בְנֵי־אֶלְעָזָר רַבִּים לְרָאשֵׁי הַגְּבָרִים מִן־בְּנֵי אִיתָמָר וַיַּחְלְקוּם לִבְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר רָאשִׁים לְבֵית־אָבוֹת שִׁשָּׁה עָשָׂר וְלִבְנֵי אִיתָמָר לְבֵית אֲבוֹתָם שְׁמוֹנָה׃", 24.4. "And there were more chief men found of the sons of Eleazar than of the sons of Ithamar; and thus were they divided: of the sons of Eleazar there were sixteen, heads of fathers’houses; and of the sons of Ithamar, according to their fathers’houses, eight.",
24. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.1, 3.7-3.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 77, 85
3.1. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת תִּקְרְאוּ אִישׁ לְרֵעֵהוּ אֶל־תַּחַת גֶּפֶן וְאֶל־תַּחַת תְּאֵנָה׃", 3.1. "וַיַּרְאֵנִי אֶת־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה וְהַשָּׂטָן עֹמֵד עַל־יְמִינוֹ לְשִׂטְנוֹ׃", 3.7. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־בִּדְרָכַי תֵּלֵךְ וְאִם אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי תִשְׁמֹר וְגַם־אַתָּה תָּדִין אֶת־בֵּיתִי וְגַם תִּשְׁמֹר אֶת־חֲצֵרָי וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ מַהְלְכִים בֵּין הָעֹמְדִים הָאֵלֶּה׃", 3.8. "שְׁמַע־נָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל אַתָּה וְרֵעֶיךָ הַיֹּשְׁבִים לְפָנֶיךָ כִּי־אַנְשֵׁי מוֹפֵת הֵמָּה כִּי־הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־עַבְדִּי צֶמַח׃", 3.1. "And he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.", 3.7. "’Thus saith the LORD of hosts: If thou wilt walk in My ways, and if thou wilt keep My charge, and wilt also judge My house, and wilt also keep My courts, then I will give thee free access among these that stand by.", 3.8. "Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, thou and thy fellows that sit before thee; for they are men that are a sign; for, behold, I will bring forth My servant the Shoot.",
25. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 23.7, 23.12-23.15, 31.4-31.19 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 77, 111
23.7. "וְהִקִּיפוּ הַלְוִיִּם אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ סָבִיב אִישׁ וְכֵלָיו בְּיָדוֹ וְהַבָּא אֶל־הַבַּיִת יוּמָת וִהְיוּ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּבֹאוֹ וּבְצֵאתוֹ׃", 23.12. "וַתִּשְׁמַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־קוֹל הָעָם הָרָצִים וְהַמְהַלְלִים אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא אֶל־הָעָם בֵּית יְהוָה׃", 23.13. "וַתֵּרֶא וְהִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ עוֹמֵד עַל־עַמּוּדוֹ בַּמָּבוֹא וְהַשָּׂרִים וְהַחֲצֹצְרוֹת עַל־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עַם הָאָרֶץ שָׂמֵחַ וְתוֹקֵעַ בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת וְהַמְשׁוֹרֲרִים בִּכְלֵי הַשִּׁיר וּמוֹדִיעִים לְהַלֵּל וַתִּקְרַע עֲתַלְיָהוּ אֶת־בְּגָדֶיהָ וַתֹּאמֶר קֶשֶׁר קָשֶׁר׃", 23.14. "וַיּוֹצֵא יְהוֹיָדָע הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־שָׂרֵי הַמֵּאוֹת פְּקוּדֵי הַחַיִל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם הוֹצִיאוּהָ אֶל־מִבֵּית הַשְּׂדֵרוֹת וְהַבָּא אַחֲרֶיהָ יוּמַת בֶּחָרֶב כִּי אָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לֹא תְמִיתוּהָ בֵּית יְהוָה׃", 23.15. "וַיָּשִׂימוּ לָהּ יָדַיִם וַתָּבוֹא אֶל־מְבוֹא שַׁעַר־הַסּוּסִים בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיְמִיתוּהָ שָׁם׃", 31.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר לָעָם לְיוֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לָתֵת מְנָת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם לְמַעַן יֶחֶזְקוּ בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה׃", 31.5. "וְכִפְרֹץ הַדָּבָר הִרְבּוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל רֵאשִׁית דָּגָן תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר וּדְבַשׁ וְכֹל תְּבוּאַת שָׂדֶה וּמַעְשַׂר הַכֹּל לָרֹב הֵבִיאוּ׃", 31.6. "וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה הַיּוֹשְׁבִים בְּעָרֵי יְהוּדָה גַּם־הֵם מַעְשַׂר בָּקָר וָצֹאן וּמַעְשַׂר קָדָשִׁים הַמְקֻדָּשִׁים לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם הֵבִיאוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עֲרֵמוֹת עֲרֵמוֹת׃", 31.7. "בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִשִׁי הֵחֵלּוּ הָעֲרֵמוֹת לְיִסּוֹד וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי כִּלּוּ׃", 31.8. "וַיָּבֹאוּ יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ וְהַשָּׂרִים וַיִּרְאוּ אֶת־הָעֲרֵמוֹת וַיְבָרֲכוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וְאֵת עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 31.9. "וַיִּדְרֹשׁ יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ עַל־הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם עַל־הָעֲרֵמוֹת׃", 31.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ לְהָכִין לְשָׁכוֹת בְּבֵית יְהוָה וַיָּכִינוּ׃", 31.12. "וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶת־הַתְּרוּמָה וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַקֳּדָשִׁים בֶּאֱמוּנָה וַעֲלֵיהֶם נָגִיד כונניהו [כָּנַנְיָהוּ] הַלֵּוִי וְשִׁמְעִי אָחִיהוּ מִשְׁנֶה׃", 31.13. "וִיחִיאֵל וַעֲזַזְיָהוּ וְנַחַת וַעֲשָׂהאֵל וִירִימוֹת וְיוֹזָבָד וֶאֱלִיאֵל וְיִסְמַכְיָהוּ וּמַחַת וּבְנָיָהוּ פְּקִידִים מִיַּד כונניהו [כָּנַנְיָהוּ] וְשִׁמְעִי אָחִיו בְּמִפְקַד יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וַעֲזַרְיָהוּ נְגִיד בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 31.14. "וְקוֹרֵא בֶן־יִמְנָה הַלֵּוִי הַשּׁוֹעֵר לַמִּזְרָחָה עַל נִדְבוֹת הָאֱלֹהִים לָתֵת תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה וְקָדְשֵׁי הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃", 31.15. "וְעַל־יָדוֹ עֵדֶן וּמִנְיָמִן וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּשְׁמַעְיָהוּ אֲמַרְיָהוּ וּשְׁכַנְיָהוּ בְּעָרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בֶּאֱמוּנָה לָתֵת לַאֲחֵיהֶם בְּמַחְלְקוֹת כַּגָּדוֹל כַּקָּטָן׃", 31.16. "מִלְּבַד הִתְיַחְשָׂם לִזְכָרִים מִבֶּן שָׁלוֹשׁ שָׁנִים וּלְמַעְלָה לְכָל־הַבָּא לְבֵית־יְהוָה לִדְבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לַעֲבוֹדָתָם בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתָם כְּמַחְלְקוֹתֵיהֶם׃", 31.17. "וְאֵת הִתְיַחֵשׂ הַכֹּהֲנִים לְבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְהַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וּלְמָעְלָה בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם בְּמַחְלְקוֹתֵיהֶם׃", 31.18. "וּלְהִתְיַחֵשׂ בְּכָל־טַפָּם נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיהֶם לְכָל־קָהָל כִּי בֶאֱמוּנָתָם יִתְקַדְּשׁוּ־קֹדֶשׁ׃", 31.19. "וְלִבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים בִּשְׂדֵי מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם בְּכָל־עִיר וָעִיר אֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר נִקְּבוּ בְּשֵׁמוֹת לָתֵת מָנוֹת לְכָל־זָכָר בַּכֹּהֲנִים וּלְכָל־הִתְיַחֵשׂ בַּלְוִיִּם׃", 23.7. "And the Levites shall compass the king round about, every man with his weapons in his hand; and whosoever cometh into the house, let him be slain; and be ye with the king when he cometh in, and when he goeth out.’", 23.12. "And when Athaliah heard the noise of the people running and praising the king, she came to the people into the house of the LORD;", 23.13. "and she looked, and, behold, the king stood on his platform at the entrance, and the captains and the trumpets by the king; and all the people of the land rejoiced, and blew with trumpets; the singers also [played] on instruments of music, and led the singing of praise. Then Athaliah rent her clothes, and said: ‘Treason, treason.’", 23.14. "And Jehoiada the priest brought out the captains of hundreds that were set over the host, and said unto them: ‘Have her forth between the ranks; and whoso followeth her, let him be slain with the sword’; for the priest said: ‘Slay her not in the house of the LORD.’", 23.15. "So they made way for her; and she went to the entry of the horse gate to the king’s house; and they slew her there.", 31.4. "Moreover he commanded the people that dwelt in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and the Levites, that they might give themselves to the law of the LORD.", 31.5. "And as soon as the commandment came abroad, the children of Israel gave in abundance the first-fruits of corn, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the field; and the tithe of all things brought they in abundantly.", 31.6. "And the children of Israel and Judah, that dwelt in the cities of Judah, they also brought in the tithe of oxen and sheep, and the tithe of hallowed things which were hallowed unto the LORD their God, and laid them by heaps.", 31.7. "In the third month they began to lay the foundation of the heaps, and finished them in the seventh month.", 31.8. "And when Hezekiah and the princes came and saw the heaps, they blessed the LORD, and His people Israel.", 31.9. "Then Hezekiah questioned the priests and the Levites concerning the heaps.", 31.10. "And Azariah the chief priest, of the house of Zadok, answered him and said: ‘Since the people began to bring the offerings into the house of the LORD, we have eaten and had enough, and have left plenty; for the LORD hath blessed His people; and that which is left is this great store.’", 31.11. "Then Hezekiah commanded to prepare chambers in the house of the LORD; and they prepared them.", 31.12. "And they brought in the offerings and the tithes and the hallowed things faithfully; and over them Coiah the Levite was ruler, and Shimei his brother was second.", 31.13. "And Jehiel, and Azaziah, and Nahath, and Asahel, and Jerimoth, and Jozabad, and Eliel, and Ismachiah, and Mahath, and Benaiah, were overseers under the hand of Coiah and Shimei his brother, by the appointment of Hezekiah the king, and Azariah the ruler of the house of God.", 31.14. "And Kore the son of Imnah the Levite, the porter at the east gate, was over the freewill-offerings of God, to distribute the offerings of the LORD, and the most holy things.", 31.15. "And under him were Eden, and Miniamin, and Jeshua, and Shemaiah, Amariah, and Shecaniah, in the cities of the priests, in their office of trust, to give to their brethren by courses, as well to the great as to the small;", 31.16. "beside them that were reckoned by genealogy of males, from three years old and upward, even every one that entered into the house of the LORD, for his daily portion, for their service in their charges according to their courses;", 31.17. "and them that were reckoned by genealogy of the priests by their fathers’houses, and the Levites from twenty years old and upward, in their charges by their courses;", 31.18. "even to give to them that were reckoned by genealogy of all their little ones, their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, through all the congregation; for in their office of trust they administered the sacred gifts;", 31.19. "also for the sons of Aaron the priests, that were in the fields of the open land about their cities, in every city, there were men that were mentioned by name, to give portions to all the males among the priests, and to all that were reckoned by genealogy among the Levites.",
26. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 1.7-1.11, 2.36-2.42, 2.61, 5.14, 6.5, 6.11, 7.24, 8.33, 10.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •priests, in judea, as creditors •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, outside judea, in babylonia Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3, 22, 81, 96, 99, 101, 187, 201, 230
1.7. "וְהַמֶּלֶךְ כּוֹרֶשׁ הוֹצִיא אֶת־כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצִיא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מִירוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּתְּנֵם בְּבֵית אֱלֹהָיו׃", 1.8. "וַיּוֹצִיאֵם כּוֹרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס עַל־יַד מִתְרְדָת הַגִּזְבָּר וַיִּסְפְּרֵם לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר הַנָּשִׂיא לִיהוּדָה׃", 1.9. "וְאֵלֶּה מִסְפָּרָם אֲגַרְטְלֵי זָהָב שְׁלֹשִׁים אֲגַרְטְלֵי־כֶסֶף אָלֶף מַחֲלָפִים תִּשְׁעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים׃", 1.11. "כָּל־כֵּלִים לַזָּהָב וְלַכֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת הַכֹּל הֶעֱלָה שֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר עִם הֵעָלוֹת הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל לִירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 2.36. "הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי יְדַעְיָה לְבֵית יֵשׁוּעַ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה׃", 2.37. "בְּנֵי אִמֵּר אֶלֶף חֲמִשִּׁים וּשְׁנָיִם׃", 2.38. "בְּנֵי פַשְׁחוּר אֶלֶף מָאתַיִם אַרְבָּעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃", 2.39. "בְּנֵי חָרִם אֶלֶף וְשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר׃", 2.41. "הַמְשֹׁרְרִים בְּנֵי אָסָף מֵאָה עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁמֹנָה׃", 2.42. "בְּנֵי הַשֹּׁעֲרִים בְּנֵי־שַׁלּוּם בְּנֵי־אָטֵר בְּנֵי־טַלְמוֹן בְּנֵי־עַקּוּב בְּנֵי חֲטִיטָא בְּנֵי שֹׁבָי הַכֹּל מֵאָה שְׁלֹשִׁים וְתִשְׁעָה׃", 2.61. "וּמִבְּנֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי חֳבַיָּה בְּנֵי הַקּוֹץ בְּנֵי בַרְזִלַּי אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מִבְּנוֹת בַּרְזִלַּי הַגִּלְעָדִי אִשָּׁה וַיִּקָּרֵא עַל־שְׁמָם׃", 5.14. "וְאַף מָאנַיָּא דִי־בֵית־אֱלָהָא דִּי דַהֲבָה וְכַסְפָּא דִּי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הַנְפֵּק מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְהֵיבֵל הִמּוֹ לְהֵיכְלָא דִּי בָבֶל הַנְפֵּק הִמּוֹ כּוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִּי בָבֶל וִיהִיבוּ לְשֵׁשְׁבַּצַּר שְׁמֵהּ דִּי פֶחָה שָׂמֵהּ׃", 6.5. "וְאַף מָאנֵי בֵית־אֱלָהָא דִּי דַהֲבָה וְכַסְפָּא דִּי נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הַנְפֵּק מִן־הֵיכְלָא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם וְהֵיבֵל לְבָבֶל יַהֲתִיבוּן וִיהָךְ לְהֵיכְלָא דִי־בִירוּשְׁלֶם לְאַתְרֵהּ וְתַחֵת בְּבֵית אֱלָהָא׃", 6.11. "וּמִנִּי שִׂים טְעֵם דִּי כָל־אֱנָשׁ דִּי יְהַשְׁנֵא פִּתְגָמָא דְנָה יִתְנְסַח אָע מִן־בַּיְתֵהּ וּזְקִיף יִתְמְחֵא עֲלֹהִי וּבַיְתֵהּ נְוָלוּ יִתְעֲבֵד עַל־דְּנָה׃", 7.24. "וּלְכֹם מְהוֹדְעִין דִּי כָל־כָּהֲנַיָּא וְלֵוָיֵא זַמָּרַיָּא תָרָעַיָּא נְתִינַיָּא וּפָלְחֵי בֵּית אֱלָהָא דְנָה מִנְדָּה בְלוֹ וַהֲלָךְ לָא שַׁלִּיט לְמִרְמֵא עֲלֵיהֹם׃", 8.33. "וּבַיּוֹם הָרְבִיעִי נִשְׁקַל הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב וְהַכֵּלִים בְּבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ עַל יַד־מְרֵמוֹת בֶּן־אוּרִיָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְעִמּוֹ אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־פִּינְחָס וְעִמָּהֶם יוֹזָבָד בֶּן־יֵשׁוּעַ וְנוֹעַדְיָה בֶן־בִּנּוּי הַלְוִיִּם׃", 10.8. "וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבוֹא לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת הַיָּמִים כַּעֲצַת הַשָּׂרִים וְהַזְּקֵנִים יָחֳרַם כָּל־רְכוּשׁוֹ וְהוּא יִבָּדֵל מִקְּהַל הַגּוֹלָה׃", 1.7. "Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods;", 1.8. "even those did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah.", 1.9. "And this is the number of them: thirty basins of gold, a thousand basins of silver, nine and twenty knives;", 1.10. "thirty bowls of gold, silver bowls of a second sort four hundred and ten, and other vessels a thousand.", 1.11. "All the vessels of gold and of silver were five thousand and four hundred. All these did Sheshbazzar bring up, when they of the captivity were brought up from Babylon unto Jerusalem.", 2.36. "The priests: The children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three.", 2.37. "The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two.", 2.38. "The children of Pashhur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven. .", 2.39. "The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen.", 2.40. "The Levites: the children of Jeshua and Kadmiel, of the children of Hodaviah, seventy and four.", 2.41. "The singers: the children of Asaph, a hundred twenty and eight.", 2.42. "The children of the porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, in all a hundred thirty and nine.", 2.61. "And of the children of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Hakkoz, the children of Barzillai, who took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name.", 5.14. "And the gold and silver vessels also of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that was in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor;", 6.5. "and also let the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took forth out of the temple which is at Jerusalem, and brought unto Babylon, be restored, and brought back unto the temple which is at Jerusalem, every one to its place, and thou shalt put them in the house of God.’", 6.11. "Also I have made a decree, that whosoever shall alter this word, let a beam be pulled out from his house, and let him be lifted up and fastened thereon; and let his house be made a dunghill for this;", 7.24. "Also we announce to you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, the singers, porters, Nethinim, or servants of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose tribute, impost, or toll, upon them.", 8.33. "And on the fourth day was the silver and the gold and the vessels weighed in the house of our God into the hand of Meremoth the son of Uriah the priest; and with him was Eleazar the son of Phinehas; and with them was Jozabad the son of Jeshua, and Noadiah the son of Binnui, the Levites;", 10.8. "and that whosoever came not within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the elders, all his substance should be forfeited, and himself separated from the congregation of the captivity.",
27. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 3.3, 3.21, 5.1-5.12, 7.39-7.45, 7.63, 10.1-10.40, 11.1-11.3, 11.10-11.22, 12.1-12.26, 13.10-13.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3, 66, 96, 101, 106, 108, 109, 110, 129, 187, 201
3.3. "אחרי [אַחֲרָיו] הֶחֱזִיק חֲנַנְיָה בֶן־שֶׁלֶמְיָה וְחָנוּן בֶּן־צָלָף הַשִּׁשִּׁי מִדָּה שֵׁנִי אַחֲרָיו הֶחֱזִיק מְשֻׁלָּם בֶּן־בֶּרֶכְיָה נֶגֶד נִשְׁכָּתוֹ׃", 3.3. "וְאֵת שַׁעַר הַדָּגִים בָּנוּ בְּנֵי הַסְּנָאָה הֵמָּה קֵרוּהוּ וַיַּעֲמִידוּ דַּלְתֹתָיו מַנְעוּלָיו וּבְרִיחָיו׃", 3.21. "אַחֲרָיו הֶחֱזִיק מְרֵמוֹת בֶּן־אוּרִיָּה בֶּן־הַקּוֹץ מִדָּה שֵׁנִית מִפֶּתַח בֵּית אֶלְיָשִׁיב וְעַד־תַּכְלִית בֵּית אֶלְיָשִׁיב׃", 5.1. "וַתְּהִי צַעֲקַת הָעָם וּנְשֵׁיהֶם גְּדוֹלָה אֶל־אֲחֵיהֶם הַיְּהוּדִים׃", 5.1. "וְגַם־אֲנִי אַחַי וּנְעָרַי נֹשִׁים בָּהֶם כֶּסֶף וְדָגָן נַעַזְבָה־נָּא אֶת־הַמַּשָּׁא הַזֶּה׃", 5.2. "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים בָּנֵינוּ וּבְנֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ רַבִּים וְנִקְחָה דָגָן וְנֹאכְלָה וְנִחְיֶה׃", 5.3. "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים שְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ וּבָתֵּינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ עֹרְבִים וְנִקְחָה דָגָן בָּרָעָב׃", 5.4. "וְיֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר אֹמְרִים לָוִינוּ כֶסֶף לְמִדַּת הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ׃", 5.5. "וְעַתָּה כִּבְשַׂר אַחֵינוּ בְּשָׂרֵנוּ כִּבְנֵיהֶם בָּנֵינוּ וְהִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ כֹבְשִׁים אֶת־בָּנֵינוּ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵינוּ לַעֲבָדִים וְיֵשׁ מִבְּנֹתֵינוּ נִכְבָּשׁוֹת וְאֵין לְאֵל יָדֵנוּ וּשְׂדֹתֵינוּ וּכְרָמֵינוּ לַאֲחֵרִים׃", 5.6. "וַיִּחַר לִי מְאֹד כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־זַעֲקָתָם וְאֵת הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃", 5.7. "וַיִּמָּלֵךְ לִבִּי עָלַי וָאָרִיבָה אֶת־הַחֹרִים וְאֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם מַשָּׁא אִישׁ־בְּאָחִיו אַתֶּם נשאים [נֹשִׁים] וָאֶתֵּן עֲלֵיהֶם קְהִלָּה גְדוֹלָה׃", 5.8. "וָאֹמְרָה לָהֶם אֲנַחְנוּ קָנִינוּ אֶת־אַחֵינוּ הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְכָּרִים לַגּוֹיִם כְּדֵי בָנוּ וְגַם־אַתֶּם תִּמְכְּרוּ אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם וְנִמְכְּרוּ־לָנוּ וַיַּחֲרִישׁוּ וְלֹא מָצְאוּ דָּבָר׃", 5.9. "ויאמר [וָאוֹמַר] לֹא־טוֹב הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם עֹשִׂים הֲלוֹא בְּיִרְאַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ תֵּלֵכוּ מֵחֶרְפַּת הַגּוֹיִם אוֹיְבֵינוּ׃", 5.11. "הָשִׁיבוּ נָא לָהֶם כְּהַיּוֹם שְׂדֹתֵיהֶם כַּרְמֵיהֶם זֵיתֵיהֶם וּבָתֵּיהֶם וּמְאַת הַכֶּסֶף וְהַדָּגָן הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם נֹשִׁים בָּהֶם׃", 5.12. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ נָשִׁיב וּמֵהֶם לֹא נְבַקֵּשׁ כֵּן נַעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר אַתָּה אוֹמֵר וָאֶקְרָא אֶת־הַכֹּהֲנִים וָאַשְׁבִּיעֵם לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃", 7.39. "הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי יְדַעְיָה לְבֵית יֵשׁוּעַ תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה׃", 7.41. "בְּנֵי פַשְׁחוּר אֶלֶף מָאתַיִם אַרְבָּעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃", 7.42. "בְּנֵי חָרִם אֶלֶף שִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר׃", 7.43. "הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי־יֵשׁוּעַ לְקַדְמִיאֵל לִבְנֵי לְהוֹדְוָה שִׁבְעִים וְאַרְבָּעָה׃", 7.44. "הַמְשֹׁרְרִים בְּנֵי אָסָף מֵאָה אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁמֹנָה׃", 7.45. "הַשֹּׁעֲרִים בְּנֵי־שַׁלּוּם בְּנֵי־אָטֵר בְּנֵי־טַלְמֹן בְּנֵי־עַקּוּב בְּנֵי חֲטִיטָא בְּנֵי שֹׁבָי מֵאָה שְׁלֹשִׁים וּשְׁמֹנָה׃", 7.63. "וּמִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי חֳבַיָּה בְּנֵי הַקּוֹץ בְּנֵי בַרְזִלַּי אֲשֶׁר לָקַח מִבְּנוֹת בַּרְזִלַּי הַגִּלְעָדִי אִשָּׁה וַיִּקָּרֵא עַל־שְׁמָם׃", 10.1. "וְהַלְוִיִּם וְיֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־אֲזַנְיָה בִּנּוּי מִבְּנֵי חֵנָדָד קַדְמִיאֵל׃", 10.1. "וּבְכָל־זֹאת אֲנַחְנוּ כֹּרְתִים אֲמָנָה וְכֹתְבִים וְעַל הֶחָתוּם שָׂרֵינוּ לְוִיֵּנוּ כֹּהֲנֵינוּ׃", 10.2. "חָרִיף עֲנָתוֹת נובי [נֵיבָי׃]", 10.2. "וְעַל הַחֲתוּמִים נְחֶמְיָה הַתִּרְשָׁתָא בֶּן־חֲכַלְיָה וְצִדְקִיָּה׃", 10.3. "שְׂרָיָה עֲזַרְיָה יִרְמְיָה׃", 10.3. "מַחֲזִיקִים עַל־אֲחֵיהֶם אַדִּירֵיהֶם וּבָאִים בְּאָלָה וּבִשְׁבוּעָה לָלֶכֶת בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר נִתְּנָה בְּיַד מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־הָאֱלֹהִים וְלִשְׁמוֹר וְלַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲדֹנֵינוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וְחֻקָּיו׃", 10.4. "כִּי אֶל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת יָבִיאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבְנֵי הַלֵּוִי אֶת־תְּרוּמַת הַדָּגָן הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר וְשָׁם כְּלֵי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים וְהַשּׁוֹעֲרִים וְהַמְשֹׁרְרִים וְלֹא נַעֲזֹב אֶת־בֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃", 10.4. "פַּשְׁחוּר אֲמַרְיָה מַלְכִּיָּה׃", 10.5. "חַטּוּשׁ שְׁבַנְיָה מַלּוּךְ׃", 10.6. "חָרִם מְרֵמוֹת עֹבַדְיָה׃", 10.7. "דָּנִיֵּאל גִּנְּתוֹן בָּרוּךְ׃", 10.8. "מְשֻׁלָּם אֲבִיָּה מִיָּמִן׃", 10.9. "מַעַזְיָה בִלְגַּי שְׁמַעְיָה אֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֲנִים׃", 10.11. "וַאֲחֵיהֶם שְׁבַנְיָה הוֹדִיָּה קְלִיטָא פְּלָאיָה חָנָן׃", 10.12. "מִיכָא רְחוֹב חֲשַׁבְיָה׃", 10.13. "זַכּוּר שֵׁרֵבְיָה שְׁבַנְיָה׃", 10.14. "הוֹדִיָּה בָנִי בְּנִינוּ׃", 10.15. "רָאשֵׁי הָעָם פַּרְעֹשׁ פַּחַת מוֹאָב עֵילָם זַתּוּא בָּנִי׃", 10.16. "בֻּנִּי עַזְגָּד בֵּבָי׃", 10.17. "אֲדֹנִיָּה בִגְוַי עָדִין׃", 10.18. "אָטֵר חִזְקִיָּה עַזּוּר׃", 10.19. "הוֹדִיָּה חָשֻׁם בֵּצָי׃", 10.21. "מַגְפִּיעָשׁ מְשֻׁלָּם חֵזִיר׃", 10.22. "מְשֵׁיזַבְאֵל צָדוֹק יַדּוּעַ׃", 10.23. "פְּלַטְיָה חָנָן עֲנָיָה׃", 10.24. "הוֹשֵׁעַ חֲנַנְיָה חַשּׁוּב׃", 10.25. "הַלּוֹחֵשׁ פִּלְחָא שׁוֹבֵק׃", 10.26. "רְחוּם חֲשַׁבְנָה מַעֲשֵׂיָה׃", 10.27. "וַאֲחִיָּה חָנָן עָנָן׃", 10.28. "מַלּוּךְ חָרִם בַּעֲנָה׃", 10.29. "וּשְׁאָר הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם הַשּׁוֹעֲרִים הַמְשֹׁרְרִים הַנְּתִינִים וְכָל־הַנִּבְדָּל מֵעַמֵּי הָאֲרָצוֹת אֶל־תּוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים נְשֵׁיהֶם בְּנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם כֹּל יוֹדֵעַ מֵבִין׃", 10.31. "וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִתֵּן בְּנֹתֵינוּ לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ וְאֶת־בְּנֹתֵיהֶם לֹא נִקַּח לְבָנֵינוּ׃", 10.32. "וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃", 10.33. "וְהֶעֱמַדְנוּ עָלֵינוּ מִצְוֺת לָתֵת עָלֵינוּ שְׁלִשִׁית הַשֶּׁקֶל בַּשָּׁנָה לַעֲבֹדַת בֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃", 10.34. "לְלֶחֶם הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת וּמִנְחַת הַתָּמִיד וּלְעוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת הֶחֳדָשִׁים לַמּוֹעֲדִים וְלַקֳּדָשִׁים וְלַחַטָּאוֹת לְכַפֵּר עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכֹל מְלֶאכֶת בֵּית־אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃", 10.35. "וְהַגּוֹרָלוֹת הִפַּלְנוּ עַל־קֻרְבַּן הָעֵצִים הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם וְהָעָם לְהָבִיא לְבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְבֵית־אֲבֹתֵינוּ לְעִתִּים מְזֻמָּנִים שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה לְבַעֵר עַל־מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כַּכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה׃", 10.36. "וּלְהָבִיא אֶת־בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתֵנוּ וּבִכּוּרֵי כָּל־פְּרִי כָל־עֵץ שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה לְבֵית יְהוָה׃", 10.37. "וְאֶת־בְּכֹרוֹת בָּנֵינוּ וּבְהֶמְתֵּינוּ כַּכָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָה וְאֶת־בְּכוֹרֵי בְקָרֵינוּ וְצֹאנֵינוּ לְהָבִיא לְבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ לַכֹּהֲנִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים בְּבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃", 10.38. "וְאֶת־רֵאשִׁית עֲרִיסֹתֵינוּ וּתְרוּמֹתֵינוּ וּפְרִי כָל־עֵץ תִּירוֹשׁ וְיִצְהָר נָבִיא לַכֹּהֲנִים אֶל־לִשְׁכוֹת בֵּית־אֱלֹהֵינוּ וּמַעְשַׂר אַדְמָתֵנוּ לַלְוִיִּם וְהֵם הַלְוִיִּם הַמְעַשְּׂרִים בְּכֹל עָרֵי עֲבֹדָתֵנוּ׃", 10.39. "וְהָיָה הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן עִם־הַלְוִיִּם בַּעְשֵׂר הַלְוִיִּם וְהַלְוִיִּם יַעֲלוּ אֶת־מַעֲשַׂר הַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְבֵית אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת לְבֵית הָאוֹצָר׃", 11.1. "מִן־הַכֹּהֲנִים יְדַעְיָה בֶן־יוֹיָרִיב יָכִין׃", 11.1. "וַיֵּשְׁבוּ שָׂרֵי־הָעָם בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וּשְׁאָר הָעָם הִפִּילוּ גוֹרָלוֹת לְהָבִיא אֶחָד מִן־הָעֲשָׂרָה לָשֶׁבֶת בִּירוּשָׁלִַם עִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְתֵשַׁע הַיָּדוֹת בֶּעָרִים׃", 11.2. "וּשְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל הַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּכָל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה אִישׁ בְּנַחֲלָתוֹ׃", 11.2. "וַיְבָרֲכוּ הָעָם לְכֹל הָאֲנָשִׁים הַמִּתְנַדְּבִים לָשֶׁבֶת בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 11.3. "וְאֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי הַמְּדִינָה אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם וּבְעָרֵי יְהוּדָה יָשְׁבוּ אִישׁ בַּאֲחֻזָּתוֹ בְּעָרֵיהֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וְהַנְּתִינִים וּבְנֵי עַבְדֵי שְׁלֹמֹה׃", 11.3. "זָנֹחַ עֲדֻלָּם וְחַצְרֵיהֶם לָכִישׁ וּשְׂדֹתֶיהָ עֲזֵקָה וּבְנֹתֶיהָ וַיַּחֲנוּ מִבְּאֵר־שֶׁבַע עַד־גֵּיא־הִנֹּם׃", 11.11. "שְׂרָיָה בֶן־חִלְקִיָּה בֶּן־מְשֻׁלָּם בֶּן־צָדוֹק בֶּן־מְרָיוֹת בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב נְגִד בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 11.12. "וַאֲחֵיהֶם עֹשֵׂי הַמְּלָאכָה לַבַּיִת שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁנָיִם וַעֲדָיָה בֶּן־יְרֹחָם בֶּן־פְּלַלְיָה בֶּן־אַמְצִי בֶן־זְכַרְיָה בֶּן־פַּשְׁחוּר בֶּן־מַלְכִּיָּה׃", 11.13. "וְאֶחָיו רָאשִׁים לְאָבוֹת מָאתַיִם אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁנָיִם וַעֲמַשְׁסַי בֶּן־עֲזַרְאֵל בֶּן־אַחְזַי בֶּן־מְשִׁלֵּמוֹת בֶּן־אִמֵּר׃", 11.14. "וַאֲחֵיהֶם גִּבּוֹרֵי חַיִל מֵאָה עֶשְׂרִים וּשְׁמֹנָה וּפָקִיד עֲלֵיהֶם זַבְדִּיאֵל בֶּן־הַגְּדוֹלִים׃", 11.15. "וּמִן־הַלְוִיִּם שְׁמַעְיָה בֶן־חַשּׁוּב בֶּן־עַזְרִיקָם בֶּן־חֲשַׁבְיָה בֶּן־בּוּנִּי׃", 11.16. "וְשַׁבְּתַי וְיוֹזָבָד עַל־הַמְּלָאכָה הַחִיצֹנָה לְבֵית הָאֱלֹהִים מֵרָאשֵׁי הַלְוִיִּם׃", 11.17. "וּמַתַּנְיָה בֶן־מִיכָה בֶּן־זַבְדִּי בֶן־אָסָף רֹאשׁ הַתְּחִלָּה יְהוֹדֶה לַתְּפִלָּה וּבַקְבֻּקְיָה מִשְׁנֶה מֵאֶחָיו וְעַבְדָּא בֶּן־שַׁמּוּעַ בֶּן־גָּלָל בֶּן־ידיתון [יְדוּתוּן׃]", 11.18. "כָּל־הַלְוִיִּם בְּעִיר הַקֹּדֶשׁ מָאתַיִם שְׁמֹנִים וְאַרְבָּעָה׃", 11.19. "וְהַשּׁוֹעֲרִים עַקּוּב טַלְמוֹן וַאֲחֵיהֶם הַשֹּׁמְרִים בַּשְּׁעָרִים מֵאָה שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנָיִם׃", 11.21. "וְהַנְּתִינִים יֹשְׁבִים בָּעֹפֶל וְצִיחָא וְגִשְׁפָּא עַל־הַנְּתִינִים׃", 11.22. "וּפְקִיד הַלְוִיִּם בִּירוּשָׁלִַם עֻזִּי בֶן־בָּנִי בֶּן־חֲשַׁבְיָה בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה בֶּן־מִיכָא מִבְּנֵי אָסָף הַמְשֹׁרְרִים לְנֶגֶד מְלֶאכֶת בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 12.1. "וְיֵשׁוּעַ הוֹלִיד אֶת־יוֹיָקִים וְיוֹיָקִים הוֹלִיד אֶת־אֶלְיָשִׁיב וְאֶלְיָשִׁיב אֶת־יוֹיָדָע׃", 12.1. "וְאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם אֲשֶׁר עָלוּ עִם־זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שְׁאַלְתִּיאֵל וְיֵשׁוּעַ שְׂרָיָה יִרְמְיָה עֶזְרָא׃", 12.2. "אֲמַרְיָה מַלּוּךְ חַטּוּשׁ׃", 12.2. "לְסַלַּי קַלָּי לְעָמוֹק עֵבֶר׃", 12.3. "וַיִּטַּהֲרוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וַיְטַהֲרוּ אֶת־הָעָם וְאֶת־הַשְּׁעָרִים וְאֶת־הַחוֹמָה׃", 12.3. "שְׁכַנְיָה רְחֻם מְרֵמֹת׃", 12.4. "וַתַּעֲמֹדְנָה שְׁתֵּי הַתּוֹדֹת בְּבֵית הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲנִי וַחֲצִי הַסְּגָנִים עִמִּי׃", 12.4. "עִדּוֹא גִנְּתוֹי אֲבִיָּה׃", 12.5. "מִיָּמִין מַעַדְיָה בִּלְגָּה׃", 12.6. "שְׁמַעְיָה וְיוֹיָרִיב יְדַעְיָה׃", 12.7. "סַלּוּ עָמוֹק חִלְקִיָּה יְדַעְיָה אֵלֶּה רָאשֵׁי הַכֹּהֲנִים וַאֲחֵיהֶם בִּימֵי יֵשׁוּעַ׃", 12.8. "וְהַלְוִיִּם יֵשׁוּעַ בִּנּוּי קַדְמִיאֵל שֵׁרֵבְיָה יְהוּדָה מַתַּנְיָה עַל־הֻיְּדוֹת הוּא וְאֶחָיו׃", 12.9. "וּבַקְבֻּקְיָה וענו [וְעֻנִּי] אֲחֵיהֶם לְנֶגְדָּם לְמִשְׁמָרוֹת׃", 12.11. "וְיוֹיָדָע הוֹלִיד אֶת־יוֹנָתָן וְיוֹנָתָן הוֹלִיד אֶת־יַדּוּעַ׃", 12.12. "וּבִימֵי יוֹיָקִים הָיוּ כֹהֲנִים רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לִשְׂרָיָה מְרָיָה לְיִרְמְיָה חֲנַנְיָה׃", 12.13. "לְעֶזְרָא מְשֻׁלָּם לַאֲמַרְיָה יְהוֹחָנָן׃", 12.14. "למלוכי [לִמְלִיכוּ] יוֹנָתָן לִשְׁבַנְיָה יוֹסֵף׃", 12.15. "לְחָרִם עַדְנָא לִמְרָיוֹת חֶלְקָי׃", 12.16. "לעדיא [לְעִדּוֹא] זְכַרְיָה לְגִנְּתוֹן מְשֻׁלָּם׃", 12.17. "לַאֲבִיָּה זִכְרִי לְמִנְיָמִין לְמוֹעַדְיָה פִּלְטָי׃", 12.18. "לְבִלְגָּה שַׁמּוּעַ לִשְׁמַעְיָה יְהוֹנָתָן׃", 12.19. "וּלְיוֹיָרִיב מַתְּנַי לִידַעְיָה עֻזִּי׃", 12.21. "לְחִלְקִיָּה חֲשַׁבְיָה לִידַעְיָה נְתַנְאֵל׃", 12.22. "הַלְוִיִּם בִּימֵי אֶלְיָשִׁיב יוֹיָדָע וְיוֹחָנָן וְיַדּוּעַ כְּתוּבִים רָאשֵׁי אָבוֹת וְהַכֹּהֲנִים עַל־מַלְכוּת דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הַפָּרְסִי׃", 12.23. "בְּנֵי לֵוִי רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת כְּתוּבִים עַל־סֵפֶר דִּבְרֵי הַיָּמִים וְעַד־יְמֵי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן־אֶלְיָשִׁיב׃", 12.24. "וְרָאשֵׁי הַלְוִיִּם חֲשַׁבְיָה שֵׁרֵבְיָה וְיֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־קַדְמִיאֵל וַאֲחֵיהֶם לְנֶגְדָּם לְהַלֵּל לְהוֹדוֹת בְּמִצְוַת דָּוִיד אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים מִשְׁמָר לְעֻמַּת מִשְׁמָר׃", 12.25. "מַתַּנְיָה וּבַקְבֻּקְיָה עֹבַדְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם טַלְמוֹן עַקּוּב שֹׁמְרִים שׁוֹעֲרִים מִשְׁמָר בַּאֲסֻפֵּי הַשְּׁעָרִים׃", 12.26. "אֵלֶּה בִּימֵי יוֹיָקִים בֶּן־יֵשׁוּעַ בֶּן־יוֹצָדָק וּבִימֵי נְחֶמְיָה הַפֶּחָה וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסּוֹפֵר׃", 13.11. "וָאָרִיבָה אֶת־הַסְּגָנִים וָאֹמְרָה מַדּוּעַ נֶעֱזַב בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים וָאֶקְבְּצֵם וָאַעֲמִדֵם עַל־עָמְדָם׃", 13.12. "וְכָל־יְהוּדָה הֵבִיאוּ מַעְשַׂר הַדָּגָן וְהַתִּירוֹשׁ וְהַיִּצְהָר לָאוֹצָרוֹת׃", 13.13. "וָאוֹצְרָה עַל־אוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁלֶמְיָה הַכֹּהֵן וְצָדוֹק הַסּוֹפֵר וּפְדָיָה מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְעַל־יָדָם חָנָן בֶּן־זַכּוּר בֶּן־מַתַּנְיָה כִּי נֶאֱמָנִים נֶחְשָׁבוּ וַעֲלֵיהֶם לַחֲלֹק לַאֲחֵיהֶם׃", 13.14. "זָכְרָה־לִּי אֱלֹהַי עַל־זֹאת וְאַל־תֶּמַח חֲסָדַי אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי וּבְמִשְׁמָרָיו׃", 3.3. "And the fish gate did the sons of Hassenaah build; they laid the beams thereof, and set up the doors thereof, the bolts thereof, and the bars thereof.", 3.21. "After him repaired Meremoth the son of Uriah the son of Hakkoz another portion, from the door of the house of Eliashib even to the end of the house of Eliashib.", 5.1. "Then there arose a great cry of the people and of their wives against their brethren the Jews.", 5.2. "For there were that said: ‘We, our sons and our daughters, are many; let us get for them corn, that we may eat and live.’", 5.3. "Some also there were that said: ‘We are mortgaging our fields, and our vineyards, and our houses; let us get corn, because of the dearth.’", 5.4. "There were also that said: ‘We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute upon our fields and our vineyards.", 5.5. "Yet now our flesh is as the flesh of our brethren, our children as their children; and, lo, we bring into bondage our sons and our daughters to be servants, and some of our daughters are brought into bondage already; neither is it in our power to help it; for other men have our fields and our vineyards.’", 5.6. "And I was very angry when I heard their cry and these words.", 5.7. "Then I consulted with myself, and contended with the nobles and the rulers, and said unto them: ‘Ye lend upon pledge, every one to his brother.’ And I held a great assembly against them.", 5.8. "And I said unto them: ‘We after our ability have redeemed our brethren the Jews, that sold themselves unto the heathen; and would ye nevertheless sell your brethren, and should they sell themselves unto us?’ Then held they their peace, and found never a word.", 5.9. "Also I said: ‘The thing that ye do is not good; ought ye not to walk in the fear of our God, because of the reproach of the heathen our enemies?", 5.10. "And I likewise, my brethren and my servants, have lent them money and corn. I pray you, let us leave off this exaction.", 5.11. "Restore, I pray you, to them, even this day, their fields, their vineyards, their oliveyards, and their houses, also the hundred pieces of silver, and the corn, the wine, and the oil, that ye exact of them.’", 5.12. "Then said they: ‘We will restore them, and will require nothing of them; so will we do, even as thou sayest.’ Then I called the priests, and took an oath of them, that they should do according to this promise.", 7.39. "The priests: The children of Jedaiah, of the house of Jeshua, nine hundred seventy and three.", 7.40. "The children of Immer, a thousand fifty and two.", 7.41. "The children of Pashhur, a thousand two hundred forty and seven.", 7.42. "The children of Harim, a thousand and seventeen.", 7.43. "The Levites: the children of Jeshua, of Kadmiel, of the children of Hodeiah, seventy and four.", 7.44. "The singers: the children of Asaph, a hundred forty and eight.", 7.45. "The porters: the children of Shallum, the children of Ater, the children of Talmon, the children of Akkub, the children of Hatita, the children of Shobai, a hundred thirty and eight.", 7.63. "And of the priests: the children of Habaiah, the children of Hakkoz, the children of Barzillai, who took a wife of the daughters of Barzillai the Gileadite, and was called after their name.", 10.1. "And yet for all this we make a sure covet, and subscribe it; and our princes, our Levites, and our priests, set their seal unto it.", 10.2. "Now those that set their seal were: Nehemiah the Tirshatha, the son of Hachaliah, and Zedekiah;", 10.3. "Seraiah, Azariah, Jeremiah;", 10.4. "Pashhur, Amariah, Malchijah;", 10.5. "Hattush, Shebaniah, Malluch;", 10.6. "Harim, Meremoth, Obadiah;", 10.7. "Daniel, Ginnethon, Baruch;", 10.8. "Meshullam, Abijah, Mijamin;", 10.9. "Maaziah, Bilgai, Shemaiah. These were the priests.", 10.10. "And the Levites: Jeshua the son of Azaniah, Binnui of the sons of Henadad, Kadmiel;", 10.11. "and their brethren, Shebaniah, Hodiah, Kelita, Pelaiah, Ha;", 10.12. "Mica, Rehob, Hashabiah;", 10.13. "Zaccur, Sherebiah, Shebaniah;", 10.14. "Hodiah, Bani, Beninu. .", 10.15. "The chiefs of the people: Parosh, Pahath-moab, Elam, Zattu, Bani;", 10.16. "Bunni, Azgad, Bebai;", 10.17. "Adonijah, Bigvai, Adin;", 10.18. "Ater, Hezekiah, Azzur;", 10.19. "Hodiah, Hashum, Bezai;", 10.20. "Hariph, Anathoth, Nebai;", 10.21. "Magpiash, Meshullam, Hezir;", 10.22. "Meshezabel, Zadok, Jaddua;", 10.23. "Pelatiah, Ha, Anaiah;", 10.24. "Hoshea, Haiah, Hasshub;", 10.25. "Hallohesh, Pilha, Shobek;", 10.26. "Rehum, Hashabnah, Maaseiah;", 10.27. "and Ahiah, Ha, A;", 10.28. "Malluch, Harim, Baanah.", 10.29. "And the rest of the people, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinim, and all they that had separated themselves from the peoples of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one that had knowledge and understanding;", 10.30. "they cleaved to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God’s law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the LORD our Lord, and His ordices and His statutes;", 10.31. "and that we would not give our daughters unto the peoples of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons;", 10.32. "and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt.", 10.33. "Also we made ordices for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God;", 10.34. "for the showbread, and for the continual meal-offering, and for the continual burnt-offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the appointed seasons, and for the holy things, and for the sin-offerings to make atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God.", 10.35. "And we cast lots, the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood-offering, to bring it into the house of our God, according to our fathers’houses, at times appointed, year by year, to burn upon the altar of the LORD our God, as it is written in the Law;", 10.36. "and to bring the first-fruits of our land, and the first-fruits of all fruit of all manner of trees, year by year, unto the house of the LORD;", 10.37. "also the first-born of our sons, and of our cattle, as it is written in the Law, and the firstlings of our herds and of our flocks, to bring to the house of our God, unto the priests that minister in the house of our God;", 10.38. "and that we should bring the first of our dough, and our heave-offerings, and the fruit of all manner of trees, the wine and the oil, unto the priests, to the chambers of the house of our God; and the tithes of our land unto the Levites; for they, the Levites, take the tithes in all the cities of our tillage.", 10.39. "And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes; and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure-house. .", 10.40. "For the children of Israel and the children of Levi shall bring the heave-offering of the corn, of the wine, and of the oil, unto the chambers, where are the vessels of the sanctuary, and the priests that minister, and the porters, and the singers; and we will not forsake the house of our God.", 11.1. "And the princes of the people dwelt in Jerusalem; the rest of the people also cast lots, to bring one of ten to dwell in Jerusalem the holy city, and nine parts in the other cities.", 11.2. "And the people blessed all the men that willingly offered themselves to dwell in Jerusalem.", 11.3. "Now these are the chiefs of the province that dwelt in Jerusalem; but in the cities of Judah dwelt every one in his possession in their cities, to wit, Israelites, the priests, and the Levites, and the Nethinim, and the children of Solomon’s servants.", 11.10. "of the priests: Jedaiah the son of Joiarib, Jachin,", 11.11. "Seraiah the son of Hilkiah, the son of Meshullam, the son of Zadok, the son of Meraioth, the son of Ahitub, the ruler of the house of God,", 11.12. "and their brethren that did the work of the house, eight hundred twenty and two; and Adaiah the son of Jeroham, the son of Pelaliah, the son of Amzi, the son of Zechariah, the son of Pashhur, the son of Malchijah,", 11.13. "and his brethren, chiefs of fathers’houses, two hundred forty and two; and Amashsai the son of Azarel, the son of Ahzai, the son of Meshillemoth, the son of Immer,", 11.14. "and their brethren, mighty men of valour, a hundred twenty and eight; and their overseer was Zabdiel, the son of Haggedolim.", 11.15. "And of the Levites: Shemaiah the son of Hasshub, the son of Azrikam, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Bunni;", 11.16. "and Shabbethai and Jozabad, of the chiefs of the Levites, who had the oversight of the outward business of the house of God;", 11.17. "and Mattaniah the son of Mica, the son of Zabdi, the son of Asaph, who was the chief to begin the thanksgiving in prayer, and Bakbukiah, the second among his brethren; and Abda the son of Shammua, the son of Galal, the son of Jeduthun.", 11.18. "All the Levites in the holy city were two hundred fourscore and four.", 11.19. "Moreover the porters, Akkub, Talmon, and their brethren, that kept watch at the gates, were a hundred seventy and two.", 11.20. "And the residue of Israel, of the priests, the Levites, were in all the cities of Judah, every one in his inheritance.", 11.21. "But the Nethinim dwelt in Ophel; and Ziha and Gishpa were over the Nethinim.", 11.22. "The overseer also of the Levites at Jerusalem was Uzzi the son of Bani, the son of Hashabiah, the son of Mattaniah, the son of Mica, of the sons of Asaph, the singers, over the business of the house of God.", 12.1. "Now these are the priests and the Levites that went up with Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua: Seraiah, Jeremiah, Ezra;", 12.2. "Amariah, Malluch, Hattush;", 12.3. "Shecaniah, Rehum, Meremoth;", 12.4. "Iddo, Ginnethoi, Abijah;", 12.5. "Mijamin, Maadiah, Bilgah;", 12.6. "Shemaiah, and Joiarib, Jedaiah;", 12.7. "Sallu, Amok, Hilkiah, Jedaiah. These were the chiefs of the priests and their brethren in the days of Jeshua.", 12.8. "Moreover the Levites: Jeshua, Binnui, Kadmiel, Sherebiah, Judah, and Mattaniah, who was over the thanksgiving, he and his brethren.", 12.9. "Also Bakbukiah and Unni, their brethren, were over against them in wards.", 12.10. "And Jeshua begot Joiakim, and Joiakim begot Eliashib, and Eliashib begot Joiada,", 12.11. "and Joiada begot Jonathan and Jonathan begot Jaddua.", 12.12. "And in the days of Joiakim were priests, heads of fathers’houses: of Seraiah, Meraiah; of Jeremiah, Haiah;", 12.13. "of Ezra, Meshullam; of Amariah, Jehoha;", 12.14. "of Melicu, Jonathan; of Shebaniah, Joseph;", 12.15. "of Harim, Adna; of Meraioth, Helkai;", 12.16. "of Iddo, Zechariah; of Ginnethon, Meshullam;", 12.17. "of Abijah, Zichri; of Miniamin; of Moadiah, Piltai;", 12.18. "of Bilgah, Shammua; of Shemaiah, Jehonathan;", 12.19. "and of Joiarib, Mattenai; of Jedaiah, Uzzi;", 12.20. "of Sallai, Kallai; of Amok, Eber;", 12.21. "of Hilkiah, Hashabiah; of Jedaiah, Nethanel.", 12.22. "The Levites in the days of Eliashib, Joiada, and Joha, and Jaddua, were recorded heads of fathers’houses; also the priests, in the reign of Darius the Persian.", 12.23. "The sons of Levi, heads of fathers’houses, were written in the book of the chronicles, even until the days of Joha the son of Eliashib.", 12.24. "And the chiefs of the Levites: Hashabiah, Sherebiah, and Jeshua the son of Kadmiel, with their brethren over against them, to praise and give thanks, according to the commandment of David the man of God, ward against ward.", 12.25. "Mattaniah, and Bakbukiah, Obadiah, Meshullam, Talmon, Akkub, were porters keeping the ward at the store-houses of the gates.", 12.26. "These were in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua, the son of Jozadak, and in the days of Nehemiah the governor, and of Ezra the priest the scribe.", 13.10. "And I perceived that the portions of the Levites had not been given them; so that the Levites and the singers, that did the work, were fled every one to his field.", 13.11. "Then contended I with the rulers, and said: ‘Why is the house of God forsaken?’ And I gathered them together, and set them in their place.", 13.12. "Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the wine and the oil unto the treasuries.", 13.13. "And I made treasurers over the treasuries, Shelemiah the priest, and Zadok the scribe, and of the Levites, Pedaiah; and next to them was Ha the son of Zaccur, the son of Mattaniah; for they were counted faithful, and their office was to distribute unto their brethren.", 13.14. "Remember me, O my God, concerning this, and wipe not out my good deeds that I have done for the house of my God, and for the wards thereof.",
28. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 8.10 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 198
8.10. "And so I saw the wicked buried, and they entered into their rest; but they that had done right went away from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity.",
29. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.6-1.8 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 109
1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father.
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qmmt, 62-64 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 190
31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Habakkuk, 8.6-8.13, 12.9-12.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 198
32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 191
33. Dead Sea Scrolls, Copper Scroll, 9.14-9.16, 11.4-11.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 187, 209
34. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 6.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 78, 197
35. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.18-16.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, outside judea, in egypt Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 127
36. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.1, 2.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 136, 196
2.1. In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein. 2.28. And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city.
37. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.19-57.21, 60.1, 60.3-60.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 135, 184, 189, 195, 197
38. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.12, 17.9-17.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 195, 198
17.9. Therefore shall they be taken captive and become a prey, and their land and their substance shall be destroyed.
39. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 6.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 78, 197
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.74-1.78, 1.117, 1.122-1.123, 1.126, 1.131-1.132, 1.154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, outside judea, in egypt •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of •priests, in judea Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3, 27, 127, 163, 191, 208
1.74. But there is no grove of plantation in the space which surrounds it, in accordance with the prohibitions of the law, which for many reasons forbid this. In the first place, because a building which is truly a temple does not aim at pleasure and seductive allurements, but at a rigid and austere sanctity. Secondly, because it is not proper that those things which conduce to the verdure of trees should be introduced, such as the dung of irrational animals and of men. Thirdly, because those trees which do not admit of cultivation are of no use, but are as the poets say, the burden of the earth; while those which do admit of cultivation, and which are productive of wholesome fruit, draw off the attention of the fickle-minded from the thoughts of the respect due to the holy place itself, and to the ceremonies in which they are engaged. 1.75. And besides these reasons, shady places and dense thickets are places of refuge for evil doers, since by their enveloping them in darkness they give them safety and enable them, as from an ambuscade, suddenly to fall upon any whom they choose to attack. But wide spaces, open and uncovered in every direction, where there is nothing which can hinder the sight, are the most suitable for the distinct sight of all those who enter and remain in the temple.XIV. 1.76. But the temple has for its revenues not only portions of land, but also other possessions of much greater extent and importance, which will never be destroyed or diminished; for as long as the race of mankind shall last, the revenues likewise of the temple will always be preserved, being coeval in their duration with the universal world. 1.77. For it is commanded that all men shall every year bring their first fruits to the temple, from twenty years old and upwards; and this contribution is called their ransom. On which account they bring in the first fruits with exceeding cheerfulness, being joyful and delighted, inasmuch as simultaneously with their making the offering they are sure to find either a relaxation from slavery, or a relief from disease, and to receive in all respects a most sure freedom and safety for the future. 1.78. And since the nation is the most numerous of all peoples, it follows naturally that the first fruits contributed by them must also be most abundant. Accordingly there is in almost every city a storehouse for the sacred things to which it is customary for the people to come and there to deposit their first fruits, and at certain seasons there are sacred ambassadors selected on account of their virtue, who convey the offerings to the temple. And the most eminent men of each tribe are elected to this office, that they may conduct the hopes of each individual safe to their destination; for in the lawful offering of the first fruits are the hopes of the pious.XV. 1.117. After he has said this, he immediately proceeds to lay down laws, concerning those who are to use the first fruits, "If therefore, any One,"{13}{#le 21:17.} says he, "should mutilate the priests as to their eyes, or their feet, or any part of their bodies, or if he should have received any blemish, let him not partake of the sacred ministrations by reason of the defects which exist in him, but still let him enjoy those honours which are common to all the priests, because of his irreproachable nobility of birth." 1.122. On which account one must not give the honours of the priests to sojourners, just as one must not give them to any one else, who in that case, because of their proximity, would be meddling with what they have no business; for the honour does not belong to the house, but to the race.XXV. 1.123. In like manner, no one must give this sacred honour to a hireling, as his wages, or as a recompense for his service; for sometimes he who receives it being unholy will employ it for illegitimate purposes, making the honours due to purity of birth common, and profaning all the sacred ceremonies and observances relating to the temple; 1.126. But, he proceeds, let the priest who is his master give to the slave who is born in his house, and to him who has been purchased with money, a share of meat and drink from the first fruits. In the first place, because the master is the only source of supply to the servant, and the inheritance of the master are the sacred offices of humanity, by which the slave must necessarily be supported. 1.131. The law did not allot any share of the land to the priests, in order that they like others might derive revenues from the land, and so possess a sufficiency of necessary things; but admitting them to an excessive degree of honour, he said that God was their inheritance, having a reference to the things offered to God; for the sake of two objects, both that of doing them the highest honour, since they are thus made partners in those things which are offered up by pious men, out of gratitude to God; and also in order that they might have no business about which to trouble themselves except the offices of religion, as they would have had, if they were forced to take care of their inheritance. And the following are the rewards and preeminent honours which he assigns to them; 1.132. in the first place, that the necessary food for their support shall at all times be provided for them without any labour or toil of their own; for God commands those who are making bread, to take of all the fat and of all the dough, a loaf as first fruits for the use of the priests, making thus, by this legitimate instruction, a provision for those men who put aside these first fruits, proceeding in the way that leads to piety; 1.154. And if ever at any subsequent time the tribe of the priests is found to be blessed with a great abundance of all the necessaries and luxuries of life, this will be a great proof of their common holiness, and of their accurate observance of the laws and ordices in every particular. But the neglect of some persons (for it is not safe to blame every one
41. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 34.2-34.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, outside judea, in egypt Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 127
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 278 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judea (jewish palestine), triple government of, praefecti, high priest and priestly aristocracy, and jewish king Found in books: Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 126
278. And I am, as you know, a Jew; and Jerusalem is my country, in which there is erected the holy temple of the most high God. And I have kings for my grandfathers and for my ancestors, the greater part of whom have been called high priests, looking upon their royal power as inferior to their office as priests; and thinking that the high priesthood is as much superior to the power of a king, as God is superior to man; for that the one is occupied in rendering service to God, and the other has only the care of governing them.
43. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 168
3.1. "כֵּיצַד מַפְרִישִׁין הַבִּכּוּרִים. יוֹרֵד אָדָם בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ וְרוֹאֶה תְּאֵנָה שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, אֶשְׁכּוֹל שֶׁבִּכֵּר, רִמּוֹן שֶׁבִּכֵּר, קוֹשְׁרוֹ בְגֶמִי, וְאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ בִּכּוּרִים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חוֹזֵר וְקוֹרֵא אוֹתָם בִּכּוּרִים מֵאַחַר שֶׁיִּתָּלְשׁוּ מִן הַקַּרְקָע: \n", 3.1. "How does one set aside bikkurim? A man goes down into his field, he sees a fig that ripened, or a cluster of grapes that ripened, or a pomegranate that ripened, he ties a reed-rope around it and says: “Let these be bikkurim.” Rabbi Shimon says: even so, he must again designate them as bikkurim after they have been plucked from the soil.",
44. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as land appraisers Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 38
7.2. בֵּית כּוֹר עָפָר אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ מִדָּה בַחֶבֶל, פִּחֵת כָּל שֶׁהוּא, יְנַכֶּה. הוֹתִיר כָּל שֶׁהוּא, יַחֲזִיר. אִם אָמַר, הֵן חָסֵר הֵן יָתֵר, אֲפִלּוּ פִחֵת רֹבַע לַסְּאָה אוֹ הוֹתִיר רֹבַע לַסְּאָה, הִגִּיעוֹ. יוֹתֵר מִכָּאן, יַעֲשֶׂה חֶשְׁבּוֹן. מַה הוּא מַחֲזִיר לוֹ, מָעוֹת. וְאִם רָצָה, מַחֲזִיר לוֹ קַרְקַע. וְלָמָּה אָמְרוּ מַחֲזִיר לוֹ מָעוֹת, לְיַפּוֹת כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל מוֹכֵר, שֶׁאִם שִׁיֵּר בַּשָּׂדֶה בֵּית תִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין וּבַגִּנָּה בֵּית חֲצִי קַב, וּכְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בֵּית רֹבַע, מַחֲזִיר לוֹ אֶת הַקַּרְקַע. וְלֹא אֶת הָרֹבַע בִּלְבַד הוּא מַחֲזִיר, אֶלָּא אֶת כָּל הַמּוֹתָר. 7.2. "[If he said, “I will sell you] a kor’s space of soil as measured by a rope”, and he gave him less, the buyer may reduce the price; and if he gave him more, the buyer must give it back. But if he said, “Whether less or more”, even if he gave the buyer a quarter-kab’s space less in every seah’s space, or a quarter kab’s space more in every seah’s space, it becomes his; if [the error] was more than this, a reckoning must be made. What does he (the buyer) give him back? Its value in money; but if the seller wants, he gives him back the land. And why did they say that he could give back its value in money? To strengthen the power of the seller, for if, in a field [containing a kor’s space] there would still have remained to him nine kab’s space, or, in a garden, a half-kab’s space, or according to Rabbi Akiva a quarter-kab’s space, the buyer must give back to him land. And not only must he give back the quarter-kab’s space, but all of the surplus.",
45. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167
4.3. "אֵין פּוֹרְסִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְאֵין עוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מַעֲמָד וּמוֹשָׁב, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים וּבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים, וְאֵין מְזַמְּנִין בַּשֵּׁם, פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה. וּבַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:", 4.3. "They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings.",
46. Josephus Flavius, Life, 370, 422, 80-81, 7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 196
47. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.31-1.36, 1.199, 1.225, 2.8, 2.14, 2.66, 2.81, 2.86, 2.108, 2.112-2.114, 2.145-2.295 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •priests, outside judea, in egypt •priests, in judea •judea (jewish palestine), triple government of, praefecti, high priest and priestly aristocracy, and jewish king •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 2, 127, 197, 202; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 126
1.31. for he who is partaker of the priesthood must propagate of a wife of the same nation, without having any regard to money, or any other dignities; but he is to make a scrutiny, and take his wife’s genealogy from the ancient tables, and procure many witnesses to it; 1.32. and this is our practice not only in Judea, but wheresoever any body of men of our nation do live; and even there, an exact catalogue of our priests’ marriages is kept; 1.33. I mean at Egypt and at Babylon, or in any other place of the rest of the habitable earth, whithersoever our priests are scattered; for they send to Jerusalem the ancient names of their parents in writing, as well as those of their remoter ancestors, and signify who are the witnesses also; 1.34. but if any war falls out, such as have fallen out, a great many of them already, when Antiochus Epiphanes made an invasion upon our country, as also when Pompey the Great and Quintilius Varus did so also, and principally in the wars that have happened in our own times, 1.35. those priests that survive them compose new tables of genealogy out of the old records, and examine the circumstances of the women that remain; for still they do not admit of those that have been captives, as suspecting that they had conversation with some foreigners; 1.36. but what is the strongest argument of our exact management in this matter is what I am now going to say, that we have the names of our high priests, from father to son, set down in our records, for the interval of two thousand years; and if any one of these have been transgressors of these rules, they are prohibited to present themselves at the altar, or to be partakers of any other of our purifications; 1.199. upon these there is a light that is never extinguished, neither by night nor by day. There is no image, nor any thing, nor any donations therein; nothing at all is there planted, neither grove, nor any thing of that sort. The priests abide therein both nights and days, performing certain purifications, and drinking not the least drop of wine while they are in the temple.” 1.225. for so far they all agree through the whole country, to esteem such animals as gods, although they differ from one another in the peculiar worship they severally pay to them; and certainly men they are entirely of vain and foolish minds, who have thus accustomed themselves from the beginning to have such bad notions concerning their gods, and could not think of imitating that decent form of divine worship which we made use of, though, when they saw our institutions approved of by many others, they could not but envy us on that account; 2.8. 2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly, more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort, 2.14. Now, this [man], grammarian as he was, could not certainly tell which was the poet Homer’s country, no more than he could which was the country of Pythagoras, who lived comparatively but a little while ago; yet does he thus easily determine the age of Moses, who preceded them such a vast number of years, as depending on his ancient men’s relation, which shows how notorious a liar he was. 2.66. At this rate we must not call you all Egyptians, nor indeed in general men, because you breed up with great care beasts of a nature quite contrary to that of men, although the nature of all men seems to be one and the same. 2.81. To this my first answer shall be this, that had there been any such thing among us, an Egyptian ought by no means to have thrown it in our teeth, since an ass is not a more contemptible animal than [...] and goats, and other such creatures, which among them are gods. 2.86. Asses are the same with us which they are with other wise men, viz., creatures that bear the burdens that we lay upon them; 2.108. for although there be four courses of the priests, and every one of them have above five thousand men in them, yet do they officiate on certain days only; and when those days are over, other priests succeed in the performance of their sacrifices, and assemble together at mid-day, and receive the keys of the temple, and the vessels by tale, without any thing relating to food or drink being carried into the temple; 2.112. 10. Nay, this miracle of piety derides us farther, and adds the following pretended facts to his former fable; for he says that this man related how, “while the Jews were once in a long war with the Idumeans, there came a man out of one of the cities of the Idumeans, who there had worshipped Apollo. This man, whose name is said to have been Zabidus, came to the Jews, and promised that he would deliver Apollo, the god of Dora into their hands, and that he would come to our temple, if they would all come up with him, 2.113. and bring the whole multitude of the Jews with them; that Zabidus made him a certain wooden instrument, and put it round about him, and set three rows of lamps therein, and walked after such a manner, that he appeared to those that stood a great way off him, to be a kind of star walking upon the earth: 2.114. that the Jews were terribly frightened at so surprising an appearance, and stood very quiet at a distance; and that Zabidus, while they continued so very quiet, went into the holy house, and carried off that golden head of an ass (for so facetiously does he write), and then went his way back again to Dora in great haste.” 2.145. 15. But now, since Apollonius Molo, and Lysimachus, and some others, write treatises about our lawgiver Moses, and about our laws, which are neither just nor true, and this partly out of ignorance, but chiefly out of ill will to us, while they calumniate Moses as an impostor and deceiver, and pretend that our laws teach us wickedness, but nothing that is virtuous, I have a mind to discourse briefly, according to my ability, about our whole constitution of government, and about the particular branches of it; 2.146. for I suppose it will thence become evident that the laws we have given us are disposed after the best manner for the advancement of piety, for mutual communion with one another, for a general love of mankind, as also for justice, and for sustaining labors with fortitude, and for a contempt of death; 2.147. and I beg of those that shall peruse this writing of mine, to read it without partiality; for it is not my purpose to write an encomium upon ourselves, but I shall esteem this as a most just apology for us, and taken from those our laws, according to which we lead our lives, against the many and the lying objections that have been made against us. 2.148. Moreover, since this Apollonius does not do like Apion, and lay a continued accusation against us, but does it only by starts, and up and down his discourse, while he sometimes reproaches us as atheists, and man-haters, and sometimes hits us in the teeth with our want of courage, and yet sometimes, on the contrary, accuses us of too great boldness, and madness in our conduct; nay, he says that we are the weakest of all the barbarians, and that this is the reason why we are the only people who have made no improvements in human life; 2.149. now I think I shall have then sufficiently disproved all these his allegations, when it shall appear that our laws enjoin the very reverse of what he says, and that we very carefully observe those laws ourselves; 2.150. and if I be compelled to make mention of the laws of other nations, that are contrary to ours, those ought deservedly to thank themselves for it, who have pretended to depreciate our laws in comparison of their own; nor will there, I think, be any room after that for them to pretend, either that we have no such laws ourselves, an epitome of which I will present to the reader, or that we do not, above all men, continue in the observation of them. /p 2.151. 16. To begin then a good way backward, I would advance this, in the first place, that those who have been admirers of good order, and of living under common laws, and who began to introduce them, may well have this testimony that they are better than other men, both for moderation, and such virtue as is agreeable to nature. 2.152. Indeed, their endeavor was to have every thing they ordained believed to be very ancient, that they might not be thought to imitate others, but might appear to have delivered a regular way of living to others after them. 2.153. Since then this is the case, the excellency of a legislator is seen in providing for the people’s living after the best manner, and in prevailing with those that are to use the laws he ordains for them, to have a good opinion of them, and in obliging the multitude to persevere in them, and to make no changes in them, neither in prosperity nor adversity. 2.154. Now I venture to say, that our legislator is the most ancient of all the legislators whom we have any where heard of; for as for the Lycurguses, and Solons, and Zaleucus Locrensis, and all those legislators who are so admired by the Greeks, they seem to be of yesterday, if compared with our legislator, insomuch as the very name of a law was not so much as known in old times among the Grecians. 2.155. Homer is a witness to the truth of this observation, who never uses that term in all his poems; for indeed there was then no such thing among them, but the multitude was governed by wise maxims, and by the injunctions of their king. It was also a long time that they continued in the use of these unwritten customs, although they were always changing them upon several occasions; 2.156. but for our legislator, who was of so much greater antiquity than the rest (as even those that speak against us upon all occasions do always confess), he exhibited himself to the people as their best governor and counsellor, and included in his legislation the entire conduct of their lives, and prevailed with them to receive it, and brought it so to pass, that those that were made acquainted with his laws did most carefully observe them. /p 2.157. 17. But let us consider his first and greatest work: for when it was resolved on by our forefathers to leave Egypt and return to their own country, this Moses took the many ten thousands that were of the people, and saved them out of many desperate distresses, and brought them home in safety. And certainly it was here necessary to travel over a country without water, and full of sand, to overcome their enemies, and, during these battles, to preserve their children and their wives, and their prey; 2.158. on all which occasions he became an excellent general of an army, and a most prudent counsellor, and one that took the truest care of them all: he also so brought it about, that the whole multitude depended upon him; and while he had them always obedient to what he enjoined, he made no manner of use of his authority for his own private advantage, which is the usual time when governors gain great powers to themselves, and pave the way for tyranny, and accustom the multitude to live very dissolutely; 2.159. whereas, when our legislator was in so great authority, he on the contrary, thought he ought to have regard to piety, and to show his great good will to the people; and by this means he thought he might show the great degree of virtue that was in him, and might procure the most lasting security to those who had made him their governor. 2.160. When he had therefore come to such a good resolution, and had performed such wonderful exploits, we had just reason to look upon ourselves as having him for a divine governor and counsellor; and when he had first persuaded himself that his actions and designs were agreeable to God’s will, he thought it his duty to impress, above all things, that notion upon the multitude; for those who have once believed that God is the inspector of their lives, will not permit themselves in any sin; 2.161. and this is the character of our legislator; he was no impostor, no deceiver, as his revilers say, though unjustly, but such a one as they brag Minos to have been among the Greeks, and other legislators after him; 2.162. for some of them suppose that they had their laws from Jupiter, while Minos said that the revelation of his laws was to be referred to Apollo, and his oracle at Delphi, whether they really thought they were so derived, or supposed, however, that they could persuade the people easily that so it was; 2.163. but which of these it was who made the best laws, and which had the greatest reason to believe that God was their author, it will be easy, upon comparing those laws themselves together, to determine; for it is time that we come to that point. 2.164. Now there are innumerable differences in the particular customs and laws that are among all mankind, which a man may briefly reduce under the following heads:—Some legislators have permitted their governments to be under monarchies, others put them under oligarchies, and others under a republican form; 2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God, 2.166. and by persuading all the people to have a regard to him, as the author of all the good things that were enjoyed either in common by all mankind, or by each one in particular, and of all that they themselves obtained by praying to him in their greatest difficulties. He informed them that it was impossible to escape God’s observation, even in any of our outward actions, or in any of our inward thoughts. 2.167. Moreover, he represented God as unbegotten, and immutable, through all eternity, superior to all mortal conceptions in pulchritude; and, though known to us by his power, yet unknown to us as to his essence. 2.168. I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wisest among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they testify, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the Stoic philosophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God; 2.169. yet durst not these men disclose those true notions to more than a few, because the body of the people were prejudiced with other opinions beforehand. But our legislator, who made his actions agree to his laws, did not only prevail with those that were his contemporaries to agree with these his notions, but so firmly imprinted this faith in God upon all their posterity, that it never could be removed. 2.170. The reason why the constitution of this legislation was ever better directed to the utility of all than other legislations were, is this, that Moses did not make religion a part of virtue, but he saw and he ordained other virtues to be parts of religion; I mean justice, and fortitude, and temperance, and a universal agreement of the members of the community with one another; 2.171. for all our actions and studies, and all our words [in Moses’s settlement] have a reference to piety towards God; for he hath left none of these in suspense, or undetermined; for there are two ways of coming at any sort of learning and a moral conduct of life; the one is by instruction in words, the other by practical exercises. 2.172. Now, other lawgivers have separated these two ways in their opinions, and choosing one of those ways of instruction, or that which best pleased every one of them, neglected the other. Thus did the Lacedemonians and the Cretans teach by practical exercises, but not by words: while the Athenians, and almost all the other Grecians, made laws about what was to be done, or left undone, but had no regard to the exercising them thereto in practice. /p 2.173. 18. But for our legislator, he very carefully joined these two methods of instruction together; for he neither left these practical exercises to go on without verbal instruction, nor did he permit the hearing of the law to proceed without the exercises for practice; but beginning immediately from the earliest infancy, and the appointment of every one’s diet, he left nothing of the very smallest consequence to be done at the pleasure and disposal of the person himself. 2.174. Accordingly, he made a fixed rule of law what sorts of food they should abstain from, and what sorts they should make use of; as also, what communion they should have with others, what great diligence they should use in their occupations, and what times of rest should be interposed, that, by living under that law as under a father and a master, we might be guilty of no sin, neither voluntary nor out of ignorance; 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p 2.176. 19. And indeed, the greatest part of mankind are so far from living according to their own laws, that they hardly know them; but when they have sinned they learn from others that they have transgressed the law. 2.177. Those also who are in the highest and principal posts of the government, confess they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take such persons for their assessors in public administrations as profess to have skill in those laws; 2.178. but for our people, if any body do but ask any one of them about our laws, he will more readily tell them all than he will tell his own name, and this in consequence of our having learned them immediately as soon as ever we became sensible of any thing, and of our having them, as it were engraven on our souls. Our transgressors of them are but few; and it is impossible, when any do offend, to escape punishment. /p 2.179. 20. And this very thing it is that principally creates such a wonderful agreement of minds amongst us all; for this entire agreement of ours in all our notions concerning God, and our having no difference in our course of life and manners, procures among us the most excellent concord of these our manners that is any where among mankind; 2.180. for no other people but we Jews have avoided all discourses about God that any way contradict one another, which yet are frequent among other nations; and this is true not only among ordinary persons, according as every one is affected, but some of the philosophers have been insolent enough to indulge such contradictions, while some of them have undertaken to use such words as entirely take away the nature of God, as others of them have taken away his providence over mankind. 2.181. Nor can any one perceive amongst us any difference in the conduct of our lives; but all our works are common to us all. We have one sort of discourse concerning God, which is conformable to our law, and affirms that he sees all things; as also, we have but one way of speaking concerning the conduct of our lives, that all other things ought to have piety for their end; and this any body may hear from our women, and servants themselves. 2.182. 21. And indeed, hence hath arisen that accusation which some make against us, that we have not produced men that have been the inventors of new operations, or of new ways of speaking; for others think it a fine thing to persevere in nothing that has been delivered down from their forefathers, and these testify it to be an instance of the sharpest wisdom when these men venture to transgress those traditions; 2.183. whereas we, on the contrary, suppose it to be our only wisdom and virtue to admit no actions nor supposals that are contrary to our original laws; which procedure of ours is a just and sure sign that our law is admirably constituted; for such laws as are not thus well made, are convicted upon trial to want amendment. /p 2.184. 22. But while we are ourselves persuaded that our law was made agreeably to the will of God, it would be impious for us not to observe the same, for what is there in it that any body would change! and what can be invented that is better! or what can we take out of other people’s laws that will exceed it? Perhaps some would have the entire settlement of our government altered. 2.185. And where shall we find a better or more righteous constitution than ours, while this makes us esteem God to be the governor of the universe, and permits the priests in general to be the administrators of the principal affairs, and withal intrusts the government over the other priests to the chief high priest himself! 2.186. which priests our legislator, at their first appointment, did not advance to that dignity for their riches, or any abundance of other possessions, or any plenty they had as the gifts of fortune; but he intrusted the principal management of divine worship to those that exceeded others in an ability to persuade men, and in prudence of conduct. 2.187. These men had the main care of the law and of the other parts of the people’s conduct committed to them; for they were the priests who were ordained to be the inspectors of all, and the judges in doubtful cases, and the punishers of those that were condemned to suffer punishment. /p 2.188. 23. What form of government then can be more holy than this! what more worthy kind of worship can be paid to God than we pay, where the entire body of the people are prepared for religion, where an extraordinary degree of care is required in the priests, and where the whole polity is so ordered as if it were a certain religious solemnity! 2.189. For what things foreigners, when they solemnize such festivals, are not able to observe for a few days’ time, and call them Mysteries and Sacred Ceremonies, we observe with great pleasure and an unshaken resolution during our whole lives. 2.190. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden?—They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and affirms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and supplying all other beings; the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things. He is manifest in his works and benefits, and more conspicuous than any other being whatsoever, but as to his form and magnitude, he is most obscure. 2.191. All materials, let them be ever so costly, are unworthy to compose an image for him; and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is it agreeable to piety to form a resemblance of him. 2.192. We see his works, the light, the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the waters, the generations of animals, the productions of fruits. These things hath God made, not with hands, nor with labor, nor as wanting the assistance of any to cooperate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good also, they were made, and became good immediately. All men ought to follow this Being, and to worship him in the exercise of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most holy of all others. /p 2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually. 2.194. His business must be to offer sacrifices to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controversies, and to punish those that are convicted of injustice; while he that does not submit to him shall be subject to the same punishment, as if he had been guilty of impiety towards God himself. 2.195. When we offer sacrifices to him we do it not in order to surfeit ourselves, or to be drunken; for such excesses are against the will of God, and would be an occasion of injuries and of luxury: but by keeping ourselves sober, orderly, and ready for our other occupations, and being more temperate than others. 2.196. And for our duty at the sacrifices themselves, we ought in the first place to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that our own; for we are made for fellowship one with another; and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself, is above all acceptable to God. 2.197. And let our prayers and supplications be made humbly to God, not [so much] that he would give us what is good (for he hath already given that of his own accord, and hath proposed the same publicly to all), as that we may duly receive it, and when we have received it, may preserve it. 2.198. Now the law has appointed several purifications at our sacrifices, whereby we are cleansed after a funeral after what sometimes happens to us in bed, and after accompanying with our wives, and upon many other occasions, which it would be too long now to set down. And this is our doctrine concerning God and his worship, and is the same that the law appoints for our practice. /p 2.199. 25. But then, what are our laws about marriage? That law owns no other mixture of sexes but that which nature hath appointed, of a man with his wife, and that this be used only for the procreation of children. But it abhors the mixture of a male with a male; and if any one do that, death is his punishment. 2.200. It commands us also, when we marry, not to have regard to portion, nor to take a woman by violence, nor to persuade her deceitfully and knavishly; but to demand her in marriage of him who hath power to dispose of her, and is fit to give her away by the nearness of his kindred; 2.201. for (says the scripture) “A woman is inferior to her husband in all things.” Let her, therefore, be obedient to him; not so, that he should abuse her, but that she may acknowledge her duty to her husband; for God hath given the authority to the husband. A husband, therefore, is to lie only with his wife whom he hath married; but to have to do with another man’s wife is a wicked thing; which, if any one ventures upon, death is inevitably his punishment: no more can he avoid the same who forces a virgin betrothed to another man, or entices another man’s wife. 2.202. The law, moreover enjoins us to bring up all our offspring, and forbids women to cause abortion of what is begotten, or to destroy it afterward; and if any woman appears to have so done, she will be a murderer of her child, by destroying a living creature, and diminishing human kind: if any one, therefore, proceeds to such fornication or murder, he cannot be clean. 2.203. Moreover, the law enjoins, that after the man and wife have lain together in a regular way, they shall bathe themselves; for there is a defilement contracted thereby, both in soul and body, as if they had gone into another country; for indeed the soul, by being united to the body, is subject to miseries, and is not freed therefrom again but by death; on which account the law requires this purification to be entirely performed. 26. 2.204. Nay, indeed, the law does not permit us to make festivals at the births of our children, and thereby afford occasion of drinking to excess; but it ordains that the very beginning of our education should be immediately directed to sobriety. It also commands us to bring those children up in learning and to exercise them in the laws, and make them acquainted with the acts of their predecessors, in order to their imitation of them, and that they might be nourished up in the laws from their infancy, and might neither transgress them, nor have any pretense for their ignorance of them. /p 2.205. 27. Our law hath also taken care of the decent burial of the dead, but without any extravagant expenses for their funerals, and without the erection of any illustrious monuments for them; but hath ordered that their nearest relations should perform their obsequies; and hath shown it to be regular, that all who pass by when any one is buried, should accompany the funeral, and join in the lamentation. It also ordains, that the house and its inhabitants should be purified after the funeral is over, that every one may thence learn to keep at a great distance from the thoughts of being pure, if he hath been once guilty of murder. /p 2.206. 28. The law ordains also, that parents should be honored immediately after God himself, and delivers that son who does not requite them for the benefits he hath received from them, but is deficient on any such occasion, to be stoned. It also says, that the young men should pay due respect to every elder, since God is the eldest of all beings. 2.207. It does not give leave to conceal any thing from our friends, because that is not true friendship which will not commit all things to their fidelity: it also forbids the revelation of secrets even though an enmity arise between them. If any judge takes bribes, his punishment is death: he that overlooks one that offers him a petition, and this when he is able to relieve him, he is a guilty person. 2.208. What is not by any one intrusted to another, ought not to be required back again. No one is to touch another’s goods. He that lends money must not demand usury for its loan. These, and many more of the like sort, are the rules that unite us in the bands of society one with another. /p 2.209. 29. It will be also worth our while to see what equity our legislator would have us exercise in our intercourse with strangers; for it will thence appear that he made the best provision he possibly could, both that we should not dissolve our own constitution, nor show any envious mind towards those that would cultivate a friendship with us. 2.210. Accordingly our legislator admits all those that have a mind to observe our laws, so to do; and this after a friendly manner, as esteeming that a true union, which not only extends to our own stock, but to those that would live after the same manner with us; yet does he not allow those that come to us by accident only to be admitted into communion with us. /p 2.211. 30. However, there are other things which our legislator ordained for us beforehand, which of necessity we ought to do in common to all men; as to afford fire, and water, and food to such as want it; to show them the roads; nor to let any one lie unburied. He also would have us treat those that are esteemed our enemies with moderation: 2.212. for he doth not allow us to set their country on fire, nor permit us to cut down those trees that bear fruit: nay, farther, he forbids us to spoil those that have been slain in war. He hath also provided for such as are taken captive, that they may not be injured, and especially that the women may not be abused. 2.213. Indeed he hath taught us gentleness and humanity so effectually, that he hath not despised the care of brute beasts, by permitting no other than a regular use of them, and forbidding any other; and if any of them come to our houses, like supplicants, we are forbidden to slay them: nor may we kill the dams, together with their young ones; but we are obliged, even in an enemy’s country, to spare and not kill those creatures that labor for mankind. 2.214. Thus hath our lawgiver contrived to teach us an equitable conduct every way, by using us to such laws as instruct us therein; while at the same time he hath ordained, that such as break these laws should be punished, without the allowance of any excuse whatsoever. /p 2.215. 31. Now the greatest part of offenses with us are capital, as if any one be guilty of adultery; if any one force a virgin; if any one be so impudent as to attempt sodomy with a male; or if, upon another’s making an attempt upon him, he submits to be so used. There is also a law for slaves of the like nature that can never be avoided. 2.216. Moreover, if any one cheats another in measures or weights, or makes a knavish bargain and sale, in order to cheat another; if any one steals what belongs to another, and takes what he never deposited; all these have punishments allotted them, not such as are met with among other nations, but more severe ones. 2.217. And as for attempts of unjust behavior towards parents, or for impiety against God, though they be not actually accomplished, the offenders are destroyed immediately. However, the reward for such as live exactly according to the laws, is not silver or gold; it is not a garland of olive branches or of small age, nor any such public sign of commendation; 2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. 2.219. Nor would I venture to write thus at this time, were it not well known to all by our actions that many of our people have many a time bravely resolved to endure any sufferings, rather than speak one word against our law. /p 2.220. 32. Nay, indeed, in case it had so fallen out, that our nation had not been so thoroughly known among all men as they are, and our voluntary submission to our laws had not been so open and manifest as it is 2.221. but that somebody had pretended to have written these laws himself, and had read them to the Greeks, or had pretended that he had met with men out of the limits of the known world, that had such reverent notions of God, and had continued a long time in the firm observance of such laws as ours, I cannot but suppose that all men would admire them on a reflection upon the frequent changes they had therein been themselves subject to; 2.222. and this while those that have attempted to write somewhat of the same kind for politic government, and for laws, are accused as composing monstrous things, and are said to have undertaken an impossible task upon them. And here I will say nothing of those other philosophers who have undertaken any thing of this nature in their writings. 2.223. But even Plato himself, who is so admired by the Greeks on account of that gravity in his manners, and force in his words, and that ability he had to persuade men beyond all other philosophers, is little better than laughed at and exposed to ridicule on that account, by those that pretend to sagacity in political affairs; 2.224. although he that shall diligently peruse his writings, will find his precepts to be somewhat gentle, and pretty near to the customs of the generality of mankind. Nay, Plato himself confesseth that it is not safe to publish the true notion concerning God among the ignorant multitude. 2.225. Yet do some men look upon Plato’s discourses as no better than certain idle words set off with great artifice. However, they admire Lycurgus as the principal lawgiver; and all men celebrate Sparta for having continued in the firm observance of his laws for a very long time. 2.226. So far then we have gained, that it is to be confessed a mark of virtue to submit to laws. But then let such as admire this in the Lacedemonians compare that duration of theirs with more than two thousand years which our political government hath continued; 2.227. and let them farther consider, that though the Lacedemonians did seem to observe their laws exactly while they enjoyed their liberty, yet that when they underwent a change of their fortune, they forgot almost all those laws; 2.228. while we, having been under ten thousand changes in our fortune by the changes that happened among the kings of Asia, have never betrayed our laws under the most pressing distresses we have been in; nor have we neglected them either out of sloth or for a livelihood. Nay, if any one will consider it, the difficulties and labors laid upon us have been greater than what appears to have been borne by the Lacedemonian fortitude, 2.229. while they neither ploughed their land nor exercised any trades, but lived in their own city, free from all such painstaking, in the enjoyment of plenty, and using such exercises as might improve their bodies, 2.230. while they made use of other men as their servants for all the necessaries of life, and had their food prepared for them by the others: and these good and humane actions they do for no other purpose but this, that by their actions and their sufferings they may be able to conquer all those against whom they make war. 2.231. I need not add this, that they have not been fully able to observe their laws; for not only a few single persons, but multitudes of them, have in heaps neglected those laws, and have delivered themselves, together with their arms, into the hands of their enemies. /p 2.232. 33. Now as for ourselves, I venture to say, that no one can tell of so many; nay, not of more than one or two that have betrayed our laws, no, not out of fear of death itself; I do not mean such an easy death as happens in battles, but that which comes with bodily torments, and seems to be the severest kind of death of all others. 2.233. Now I think, those that have conquered us have put us to such deaths, not out of their hatred to us when they had subdued us, but rather out of their desire of seeing a surprising sight, which is this, whether there be such men in the world who believe that no evil is to them so great as to be compelled to do or to speak any thing contrary to their own laws. 2.234. Nor ought men to wonder at us, if we are more courageous in dying for our laws than all other men are; for other men do not easily submit to the easier things in which we are instituted; I mean, working with our hands, and eating but little, and being contented to eat and drink, not at random, or at every one’s pleasure, or being under inviolable rules in lying with our wives, in magnificent furniture, and again in the observation of our times of rest; 2.235. while those that can use their swords in war, and can put their enemies to flight when they attack them, cannot bear to submit to such laws about their way of living: whereas our being accustomed willingly to submit to laws in these instances, renders us fit to show our fortitude upon other occasions also. /p 2.236. 34. Yet do the Lysimachi and the Molones, and some other writers (unskilful sophists as they are, and the deceivers of young men) reproach us as the vilest of all mankind. 2.237. Now I have no mind to make an inquiry into the laws of other nations; for the custom of our country is to keep our own laws, but not to bring accusations against the laws of others. And indeed, our legislator hath expressly forbidden us to laugh at and revile those that are esteemed gods by other people, on account of the very name of God ascribed to them. 2.238. But since our antagonists think to run us down upon the comparison of their religion and ours, it is not possible to keep silence here, especially while what I shall say to confute these men will not be now first said, but hath been already said by many, and these of the highest reputation also; 2.239. for who is there among those that have been admired among the Greeks for wisdom, who hath not greatly blamed both the most famous poets and most celebrated legislators, for spreading such notions originally among the body of the people concerning the gods? 2.240. uch as these, that they may be allowed to be as numerous as they have a mind to have them; that they are begotten one by another, and that after all the kinds of generation you can imagine. They also distinguish them in their places and ways of living, as they would distinguish several sorts of animals: as some to be under the earth; as some to be in the sea; and the ancientest of them all to be bound in hell; 2.241. and for those to whom they have allotted heaven, they have set over them one, who in title is their father, but in his actions a tyrant and a lord; whence it came to pass that his wife, and brother, and daughter (which daughter he brought forth from his own head), made a conspiracy against him to seize upon him and confine him, as he had himself seized upon and confined his own father before. /p 2.242. 35. And justly have the wisest men thought these notions deserved severe rebukes; they also laugh at them for determining that we ought to believe some of the gods to be beardless and young, and others of them to be old, and to have beards accordingly; that some are set to trades; that one god is a smith, and another goddess is a weaver; that one god is a warrior, and fights with men; 2.243. that some of them are harpers, or delight in archery; and besides, that mutual seditions arise among them, and that they quarrel about men, and this so far that they not only lay hands upon one another, but that they are wounded by men, and lament, and take on for such their afflictions; 2.244. but what is the grossest of all in point of lasciviousness, are those unbounded lusts ascribed to almost all of them, and their amours; which how can it be other than a most absurd supposal, especially when it reaches to the male gods, and to the female goddesses also? 2.245. Moreover, the chief of all their gods, and their first father himself, overlooks those goddesses whom he hath deluded and begotten with child, and suffers them to be kept in prison, or drowned in the sea. He is also so bound up by fate, that he cannot save his own offspring, nor can he bear their deaths without shedding of tears.— 2.246. These are fine things indeed! as are the rest that follow. Adulteries truly are so impudently looked on in heaven by the gods, that some of them have confessed they envied those that were found in the very act; and why should they not do so, when the eldest of them, who is their king also, hath not been able to restrain himself in the violence of his lust, from lying with his wife, so long as they might get into their bed-chamber? 2.247. Now, some of the gods are servants to men, and will sometimes be builders for a reward, and sometimes will be shepherds; while others of them, like malefactors, are bound in a prison of brass; and what sober person is there who would not be provoked at such stories, and rebuke those that forged them, and condemn the great silliness of those that admit them for true! 2.248. Nay, others there are that have advanced a certain timorousness and fear, as also madness and fraud, and any other of the vilest passions, into the nature and form of gods, and have persuaded whole cities to offer sacrifices to the better sort of them; 2.249. on which account they have been absolutely forced to esteem some gods as the givers of good things, and to call others of them averters of evil. They also endeavor to move them, as they would the vilest of men, by gifts and presents, as looking for nothing else than to receive some great mischief from them, unless they pay them such wages. /p 2.250. 36. Wherefore it deserves our inquiry what should be the occasion of this unjust management, and of these scandals about the Deity. And truly I suppose it to be derived from the imperfect knowledge the heathen legislators had at first of the true nature of God; nor did they explain to the people even so far as they did comprehend of it: nor did they compose the other parts of their political settlements according to it, 2.251. but omitted it as a thing of very little consequence, and gave leave both to the poets to introduce what gods they pleased, and those subject to all sorts of passions, and to the orators to procure political decrees from the people for the admission of such foreign gods as they thought proper. 2.252. The painters also, and statuaries of Greece, had herein great power, as each of them could contrive a shape [proper for a god]; the one to be formed out of clay, and the other by making a bare picture of such a one; but those workmen that were principally admired, had the use of ivory and of gold as the constant materials for their new statues; 2.253. [whereby it comes to pass that some temples are quite deserted, while others are in great esteem, and adorned with all the rites of all kinds of purification]. Besides this, the first gods, who have long flourished in the honors done them, are now grown old [while those that flourished after them are come in their room as a second rank, that I may speak the most honorably of them that I can]: 2.254. nay, certain other gods there are who are newly introduced, and newly worshipped [as we, by way of digression have said already, and yet have left their places of worship desolate]; and for their temples, some of them are already left desolate, and others are built anew, according to the pleasure of men; whereas they ought to have preserved their opinion about God, and that worship which is due to him, always and immutably the same. /p 2.255. 37. But now, this Apollonius Molo was one of these foolish and proud men. However, nothing that I have said was unknown to those that were real philosophers among the Greeks, nor were they unacquainted with those frigid pretenses of allegories [which had been alleged for such things]: on which account they justly despised them, but have still agreed with us as to the true and becoming notions of God; 2.256. whence it was that Plato would not have political settlements admit of any one of the other poets, and dismisses even Homer himself, with a garland on his head, and with ointment poured upon him, and this because he should not destroy the right notions of God with his fables. 2.257. Nay, Plato principally imitated our legislator in this point, that he enjoined his citizens to have the main regard to this precept, “That every one of them should learn their laws accurately.” He also ordained, that they should not admit of foreigners intermixing with their own people at random; and provided that the commonwealth should keep itself pure, and consist of such only as persevered in their own laws. 2.258. Apollonius Molo did no way consider this, when he made it one branch of his accusation against us, that we do not admit of such as have different notions about God, nor will we have fellowship with those that choose to observe a way of living different from ourselves; 2.259. yet is not this method peculiar to us, but common to all other men; not among the ordinary Grecians only, but among such of those Grecians as are of the greatest reputation among them. Moreover, the Lacedemonians continued in their way of expelling foreigners, and would not, indeed, give leave to their own people to travel abroad, as suspecting that those two things would introduce a dissolution of their own laws: 2.260. and perhaps there may be some reason to blame the rigid severity of the Lacedemonians, for they bestowed the privilege of their city on no foreigners, nor indeed would give leave to them to stay among them; 2.261. whereas we, though we do not think fit to imitate other institutions, yet do we willingly admit of those that desire to partake of ours, which I think I may reckon to be a plain indication of our humanity, and at the same time of our magimity also. /p 2.262. 38. But I shall say no more of the Lacedemonians. As for the Athenians, who glory in having made their city to be common to all men, what their behavior was, Apollonius did not know, while they punished those that did but speak one word contrary to their laws about the gods, without any mercy; 2.263. for on what other account was it that Socrates was put to death by them? For certainly, he neither betrayed their city to its enemies, nor was he guilty of any sacrilege with regard to any of their temples; but it was on this account, that he swore certain new oaths, and that he affirmed, either in earnest, or, as some say, only in jest, that a certain demon used to make signs to him [what he should not do]. For these reasons he was condemned to drink poison, and kill himself. 2.264. His accuser also complained that he corrupted the young men, by inducing them to despise the political settlement and laws of their city: and thus was Socrates, the citizen of Athens, punished. 2.265. There was also Anaxagoras, who although he was of Clazomenae, was within a few suffrages of being condemned to die, because he said the sun, which the Athenians thought to be a god, was a ball of fire. 2.266. They also made this public proclamation, that they would give a talent to any one who would kill Diagoras of Melos, because it was reported of him that he laughed at their mysteries. Portagoras also, who was thought to have written somewhat that was not owned for truth by the Athenians about the gods, had been seized upon, and put to death, if he had not fled immediately away. 2.267. Nor need we at all wonder that they thus treated such considerable men, when they did not spare even women also; for they very lately slew a certain priestess, because she was accused by somebody that she initiated people into the worship of strange gods, it having been forbidden so to do by one of their laws; and a capital punishment had been decreed to such as introduced a strange god; 2.268. it being manifest, that they who make use of such a law do not believe those of other nations to be really gods, otherwise they had not envied themselves the advantage of more gods than they already had; 2.269. and this was the happy administration of the affairs of the Athenians? Now, as to the Scythians, they take a pleasure in killing men, and differ little from brute beasts; yet do they think it reasonable to have their institutions observed. They also slew Anacharsis a person greatly admired for his wisdom among the Greeks, when he returned to them, because he appeared to come fraught with Grecian customs; One may also find many to have been punished among the Persians, on the very same account. 2.270. And to be sure Apollonius was greatly pleased with the laws of the Persians, and was an admirer of them, because the Greeks enjoyed the advantage of their courage, and had the very same opinion about the gods which they had. This last was exemplified in the temples which they burnt, and their courage in coming, and almost entirely enslaving the Grecians. However, Apollonius has imitated all the Persian institutions, and that by his offering violence to other men’s wives, and castrating his own sons. 2.271. Now, with us, it is a capital crime, if any one does thus abuse even a brute beast; and as for us, neither hath the fear of our governors, nor a desire of following what other nations have in so great esteem, been able to withdraw us from our own laws; 2.272. nor have we exerted our courage in raising up wars to increase our wealth, but only for the observation of our laws; and when we with patience bear other losses, yet when any persons would compel us to break our laws, then it is that we choose to go to war, though it be beyond our ability to pursue it, and bear the greatest calamities to the last with much fortitude. 2.273. And, indeed, what reason can there be why we should desire to imitate the laws of other nations, while we see they are not observed by their own legislators? And why do not the Lacedemonians think of abolishing that form of their government which suffers them not to associate with any others, as well as their contempt of matrimony? And why do not the Eleans and Thebans abolish that unnatural and impudent lust, which makes them lie with males? 2.274. For they will not show a sufficient sign of their repentance of what they of old thought to be very excellent, and very advantageous in their practices, unless they entirely avoid all such actions for the time to come: 2.275. nay, such things are inserted into the body of their laws, and had once such a power among the Greeks, that they ascribed these sodomitical practices to the gods themselves, as a part of their good character; and indeed it was according to the same manner that the gods married their own sisters. This the Greeks contrived as an apology for their own absurd and unnatural pleasures. /p 2.276. 39. I omit to speak concerning punishments, and how many ways of escaping them the greatest part of the legislators have afforded malefactors, by ordaining that, for adulteries, fines in money should be allowed, and for corrupting [virgins] they need only marry them; as also what excuses they may have in denying the facts, if any one attempts to inquire into them; for amongst most other nations it is a studied art how men may transgress their laws; 2.277. but no such thing is permitted amongst us; for though we be deprived of our wealth, of our cities, or of the other advantages we have, our law continues immortal; nor can any Jew go so far from his own country, nor be so affrighted at the severest lord, as not to be more affrighted at the law than at him. 2.278. If, therefore, this be the disposition we are under, with regard to the excellency of our laws, let our enemies make us this concession, that our laws are most excellent; and if still they imagine that though we so firmly adhere to them, yet are they bad laws notwithstanding, what penalties then do they deserve to undergo who do not observe their own laws, which they esteem so far superior to them? 2.279. Whereas, therefore, length of time is esteemed to be the truest touchstone in all cases. I would make that a testimonial of the excellency of our laws, and of that belief thereby delivered to us concerning God; for as there hath been a very long time for this comparison, if any one will but compare its duration with the duration of the laws made by other legislators, he will find our legislator to have been the ancientest of them all. /p 2.280. 40. We have already demonstrated that our laws have been such as have always inspired admiration and imitation into all other men; 2.281. nay, the earliest Grecian philosophers, though in appearance they observed the laws of their own countries, yet did they, in their actions and their philosophic doctrines, follow our legislator, and instructed men to live sparingly, and to have friendly communication one with another. 2.282. Nay, farther, the multitude of mankind itself have had a great inclination of a long time to follow our religious observances; for there is not any city of the Grecians, nor any of the barbarians, nor any nation whatsoever, whither our custom of resting on the seventh day hath not come, and by which our fasts and lighting up lamps, and many of our prohibitions as to our food, are not observed; 2.283. they also endeavor to imitate our mutual concord with one another, and the charitable distribution of our goods, and our diligence in our trades, and our fortitude in undergoing the distresses we are in, on account of our laws; 2.284. and, what is here matter of the greatest admiration, our law hath no bait of pleasure to allure men to it, but it prevails by its own force; and as God himself pervades all the world, so hath our law passed through all the world also. So that if any one will but reflect on his own country, and his own family, he will have reason to give credit to what I say. 2.285. It is therefore but just, either to condemn all mankind of indulging a wicked disposition, when they have been so desirous of imitating laws that are to them foreign and evil in themselves, rather than following laws of their own that are of a better character, or else our accusers must leave off their spite against us; 2.286. nor are we guilty of any envious behavior towards them, when we honor our own legislator, and believe what he, by his prophetic authority, hath taught us concerning God; for though we should not be able ourselves to understand the excellency of our own laws, yet would the great multitude of those that desire to imitate them, justify us, in greatly valuing ourselves upon them. /p 2.287. 41. But, as for the [distinct] political laws by which we are governed, I have delivered them accurately in my books of Antiquities: and have only mentioned them now, so far as was necessary to my present purpose, without proposing to myself either to blame the laws of other nations, or to make an encomium upon our own,—but in order to convict those that have written about us unjustly, and in an impudent affectation of disguising the truth:— 2.288. and now I think I have sufficiently completed what I proposed in writing these books; for whereas our accusers have pretended that our nation are a people of very late original, I have demonstrated that they are exceeding ancient; for I have produced as witnesses thereto many ancient writers, who have made mention of us in their books, while they had said no such writer had so done. 2.289. Moreover, they had said that we were sprung from the Egyptians, while I have proved that we came from another country into Egypt: while they had told lies of us, as if we were expelled thence on account of diseases on our bodies, it has appeared on the contrary, that we returned to our country by our own choice, and with sound and strong bodies. 2.290. Those accusers reproached our legislator as a vile fellow; whereas God in old time bare witness to his virtuous conduct; and since that testimony of God, time itself hath been discovered to have borne witness to the same thing. /p 2.291. 42. As to the laws themselves, more words are unnecessary, for they are visible in their own nature, and appear to teach not impiety, but the truest piety in the world. They do not make men hate one another, but encourage people to communicate what they have to one another freely; they are enemies to injustice, they take care of righteousness, they banish idleness and expensive living, and instruct men to be content with what they have and to be laborious in their callings; 2.292. they forbid men to make war from a desire of getting more, but make men courageous in defending the laws; they are inexorable in punishing malefactors; they admit no sophistry of words, but are always established by actions themselves, which actions we ever propose as surer demonstrations than what is contained in writing only; 2.293. on which account I am so bold as to say that we are become the teachers of other men, in the greatest number of things, and those of the most excellent nature only; for what is more excellent than inviolable piety? what is more just than submission to laws? 2.294. and what is more advantageous than mutual love and concord? and this so far that we are to be neither divided by calamities, nor to become injurious and seditious in prosperity; but to condemn death when we are in war, and in peace to apply ourselves to our mechanical occupations, or to our tillage of the ground; while we in all things and all ways are satisfied that God is the inspector and governor of our actions. 2.295. If these precepts had either been written at first, or more exactly kept by any others before us, we should have owed them thanks as disciples owe to their masters; but if it be visible that we have made use of them more than any other men, and if we have demonstrated that the original invention of them is our own, let the Apions, and the Molones, with all the rest of those that delight in lies and reproaches, stand confuted;
48. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.153, 1.169-1.170, 2.80-2.91, 2.117, 2.405, 4.552, 6.113-6.117 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judea (jewish palestine), triple government of, praefecti, high priest and priestly aristocracy, and jewish king •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 196, 200; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 125, 126
1.153. Yet did not he touch that money, nor any thing else that was there reposited; but he commanded the ministers about the temple, the very next day after he had taken it, to cleanse it, and to perform their accustomed sacrifices. Moreover, he made Hyrcanus high priest, as one that not only in other respects had showed great alacrity, on his side, during the siege, but as he had been the means of hindering the multitude that was in the country from fighting for Aristobulus, which they were otherwise very ready to have done; by which means he acted the part of a good general, and reconciled the people to him more by benevolence than by terror. 1.169. After this Gabinius brought Hyrcanus to Jerusalem, and committed the care of the temple to him; but ordained the other political government to be by an aristocracy. 1.170. He also parted the whole nation into five conventions, assigning one portion to Jerusalem, another to Gadara, that another should belong to Amathus, a fourth to Jericho, and to the fifth division was allotted Sepphoris, a city of Galilee. So the people were glad to be thus freed from monarchical government, and were governed for the future by an aristocracy. 2.80. 1. But now came another accusation from the Jews against Archelaus at Rome, which he was to answer to. It was made by those ambassadors who, before the revolt, had come, by Varus’s permission, to plead for the liberty of their country; those that came were fifty in number, but there were more than eight thousand of the Jews at Rome who supported them. 2.81. And when Caesar had assembled a council of the principal Romans in Apollo’s temple, that was in the palace (this was what he had himself built and adorned, at a vast expense), the multitude of the Jews stood with the ambassadors, and on the other side stood Archelaus, with his friends; 2.82. but as for the kindred of Archelaus, they stood on neither side; for to stand on Archelaus’s side, their hatred to him, and envy at him, would not give them leave, while yet they were afraid to be seen by Caesar with his accusers. 2.83. Besides these, there were present Archelaus’ brother Philip, being sent thither beforehand, out of kindness by Varus, for two reasons: the one was this, that he might be assisting to Archelaus; and the other was this, that in case Caesar should make a distribution of what Herod possessed among his posterity, he might obtain some share of it. 2.84. 2. And now, upon the permission that was given the accusers to speak, they, in the first place, went over Herod’s breaches of their law, and said that he was not a king, but the most barbarous of all tyrants, and that they had found him to be such by the sufferings they underwent from him; that when a very great number had been slain by him, those that were left had endured such miseries, that they called those that were dead happy men; 2.85. that he had not only tortured the bodies of his subjects, but entire cities, and had done much harm to the cities of his own country, while he adorned those that belonged to foreigners; and he shed the blood of Jews, in order to do kindnesses to those people who were out of their bounds; 2.86. that he had filled the nation full of poverty, and of the greatest iniquity, instead of that happiness and those laws which they had anciently enjoyed; that, in short, the Jews had borne more calamities from Herod, in a few years, than had their forefathers during all that interval of time that had passed since they had come out of Babylon, and returned home, in the reign of Xerxes: 2.87. that, however, the nation was come to so low a condition, by being inured to hardships, that they submitted to his successor of their own accord, though he brought them into bitter slavery; 2.88. that accordingly they readily called Archelaus, though he was the son of so great a tyrant, king, after the decease of his father, and joined with him in mourning for the death of Herod, and in wishing him good success in that his succession; 2.89. while yet this Archelaus, lest he should be in danger of not being thought the genuine son of Herod, began his reign with the murder of three thousand citizens; as if he had a mind to offer so many bloody sacrifices to God for his government, and to fill the temple with the like number of dead bodies at that festival: 2.90. that, however, those that were left after so many miseries, had just reason to consider now at last the calamities they had undergone, and to oppose themselves, like soldiers in war, to receive those stripes upon their faces [but not upon their backs, as hitherto]. Whereupon they prayed that the Romans would have compassion upon the [poor] remains of Judea, and not expose what was left of them to such as barbarously tore them to pieces, 2.91. and that they would join their country to Syria, and administer the government by their own commanders, whereby it would [soon] be demonstrated that those who are now under the calumny of seditious persons, and lovers of war, know how to bear governors that are set over them, if they be but tolerable ones. 2.117. 1. And now Archelaus’s part of Judea was reduced into a province, and Coponius, one of the equestrian order among the Romans, was sent as a procurator, having the power of [life and] death put into his hands by Caesar. 2.405. 1. This advice the people hearkened to, and went up into the temple with the king and Bernice, and began to rebuild the cloisters; the rulers also and senators divided themselves into the villages, and collected the tributes, and soon got together forty talents, which was the sum that was deficient. 4.552. but Cerealis, one of his commanders, took a body of horsemen and footmen, and laid waste that part of Idumea which was called the Upper Idumea, and attacked Caphethra, which pretended to be a small city, and took it at the first onset, and burnt it down. He also attacked Capharabim, and laid siege to it, 6.113. yet did that discourse influence a great many of the better sort; and truly some of them were so afraid of the guards sent by the seditious, that they tarried where they were, but still were satisfied that both they and the city were doomed to destruction. Some also there were who, watching for a proper opportunity when they might quietly get away, fled to the Romans, 6.114. of whom were the high priests Joseph and Jesus, and of the sons of high priests three, whose father was Ishmael, who was beheaded in Cyrene, and four sons of Matthias, as also one son of the other Matthias, who ran away after his father’s death, and whose father was slain by Simon the son of Gioras, with three of his sons, as I have already related; many also of the other nobility went over to the Romans, together with the high priests. 6.115. Now Caesar not only received these men very kindly in other respects, but, knowing they would not willingly live after the customs of other nations, he sent them to Gophna, and desired them to remain there for the present, and told them, that when he was gotten clear of this war, he would restore each of them to their possessions again; 6.116. o they cheerfully retired to that small city which was allotted them, without fear of any danger. But as they did not appear, the seditious gave out again that these deserters were slain by the Romans,—which was done in order to deter the rest from running away, by fear of the like treatment. 6.117. This trick of theirs succeeded now for a while, as did the like trick before; for the rest were hereby deterred from deserting, by fear of the like treatment.
49. Mishnah, Demai, 6.3-6.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 197
6.3. "כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ שָׂדֶה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בַּחֻלִּין כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בַּתְּרוּמָה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶן, שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן בָּאוּ:", 6.4. "יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִכֹּהֵן וּמִלֵּוִי, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת לַבְּעָלִים. רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, הַקַּרְתָּנִי שֶׁקִּבֵּל שָׂדֶה מִירוּשַׁלְמִי, מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁל יְרוּשַׁלְמִי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יָכוֹל הוּא הַקַּרְתָּנִי לַעֲלוֹת וּלְאָכְלוֹ בִירוּשָׁלָיִם:", 6.5. "הַמְקַבֵּל זֵיתִים לְשֶׁמֶן, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁחוֹלְקִין בַּחֻלִּין כָּךְ חוֹלְקִין בַּתְּרוּמָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִכֹּהֵן וּמִלֵּוִי זֵיתִים לְשֶׁמֶן לְמַחֲצִית שָׂכָר, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת לַבְּעָלִים:", 6.3. "A priest or a Levite who rented a field from an Israelite [for a share in the produce], just as they divide the non-sacred produce, so they divide the terumah. Rabbi Eliezer says: the tithes belong to them (the tets), for they entered the field with this expectation.", 6.4. "If an Israelite rented a field from a priest or from a Levite [for a share in the produce] the tithes belong to the owners [of the field]. Rabbi Ishmael says: if a city dweller [from outside of Jerusalem] rented a field from a Jerusalemite, the second tithe belongs to the inhabitant of Jerusalem. But the sages say: the city dweller may go up and eat the second tithe in Jerusalem.", 6.5. "[An Israelite] who rents olive trees [from a priest or a Levite] for [a share in the] oil: just as they divide the non-sacred produce, so they divide the terumah. Rabbi Judah says: an Israelite who rented [olive trees] from a priest or a levite for the oil for a share of half the profit, the tithes belong to the owner.",
50. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.71, 4.196-4.301, 11.111-11.113, 11.181-11.183, 11.312, 12.138-12.144, 12.271, 12.360, 12.389, 13.66-13.71, 13.113, 13.301, 14.41, 14.73, 14.78, 14.91, 17.227, 17.273, 17.280-17.281, 17.355, 18.1-18.2, 18.237, 20.179-20.181, 20.205-20.207, 20.241-20.242, 20.251 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •judea (jewish palestine), triple government of, praefecti, high priest and priestly aristocracy, and jewish king •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, outside judea, in egypt •priests, in judea •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 3, 127, 128, 129, 135, 136, 196, 199, 208; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 126
4.71. but that the owners of those first-born which are not appointed for sacrifices in the laws of our country, should bring a shekel and a half in their stead: but for the first-born of a man, five shekels: that they should also have the first-fruits out of the shearing of the sheep; and that when any baked breadcorn, and made loaves of it, they should give somewhat of what they had baked to them. 4.196. 4. Accordingly, I shall now first describe this form of government which was agreeable to the dignity and virtue of Moses; and shall thereby inform those that read these Antiquities, what our original settlements were, and shall then proceed to the remaining histories. Now those settlements are all still in writing, as he left them; and we shall add nothing by way of ornament, nor any thing besides what Moses left us; 4.197. only we shall so far innovate, as to digest the several kinds of laws into a regular system; for they were by him left in writing as they were accidentally scattered in their delivery, and as he upon inquiry had learned them of God. On which account I have thought it necessary to premise this observation beforehand, lest any of my own countrymen should blame me, as having been guilty of an offense herein. 4.198. Now part of our constitution will include the laws that belong to our political state. As for those laws which Moses left concerning our common conversation and intercourse one with another, I have reserved that for a discourse concerning our manner of life, and the occasions of those laws; which I propose to myself, with God’s assistance, to write, after I have finished the work I am now upon. 4.199. 5. When you have possessed yourselves of the land of Canaan, and have leisure to enjoy the good things of it, and when you have afterward determined to build cities, if you will do what is pleasing to God, you will have a secure state of happiness. 4.200. Let there be then one city of the land of Canaan, and this situate in the most agreeable place for its goodness, and very eminent in itself, and let it be that which God shall choose for himself by prophetic revelation. Let there also be one temple therein, and one altar, not reared of hewn stones, but of such as you gather together at random; which stones, when they are whited over with mortar, will have a handsome appearance, and be beautiful to the sight. 4.201. Let the ascent to it be not by steps but by an acclivity of raised earth. And let there be neither an altar nor a temple in any other city; for God is but one, and the nation of the Hebrews is but one. 4.202. 6. He that blasphemeth God, let him be stoned; and let him hang upon a tree all that day, and then let him be buried in an ignominious and obscure manner. 4.203. 7. Let those that live as remote as the bounds of the land which the Hebrews shall possess, come to that city where the temple shall be, and this three times in a year, that they may give thanks to God for his former benefits, and may entreat him for those they shall want hereafter; and let them, by this means, maintain a friendly correspondence with one another by such meetings and feastings together, 4.204. for it is a good thing for those that are of the same stock, and under the same institution of laws, not to be unacquainted with each other; which acquaintance will be maintained by thus conversing together, and by seeing and talking with one another, and so renewing the memorials of this union; for if they do not thus converse together continually, they will appear like mere strangers to one another. 4.205. 8. Let there be taken out of your fruits a tenth, besides that which you have allotted to give to the priests and Levites. This you may indeed sell in the country, but it is to be used in those feasts and sacrifices that are to be celebrated in the holy city; for it is fit that you should enjoy those fruits of the earth which God gives you to possess, so as may be to the honor of the donor. 4.206. 9. You are not to offer sacrifices out of the hire of a woman who is a harlot for the Deity is not pleased with any thing that arises from such abuses of nature; of which sort none can be worse than this prostitution of the body. In like manner no one may take the price of the covering of a bitch, either of one that is used in hunting, or in keeping of sheep, and thence sacrifice to God. 4.207. 10. Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such; nor may any one steal what belongs to strange temples, nor take away the gifts that are dedicated to any god. 4.208. 11. Let not any one of you wear a garment made of woolen and linen, for that is appointed to be for the priests alone. 4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither; 4.210. for it is a good thing that those laws should be engraven in their souls, and preserved in their memories, that so it may not be possible to blot them out; for by this means they will not be guilty of sin, when they cannot plead ignorance of what the laws have enjoined them. The laws also will have a greater authority among them, as foretelling what they will suffer if they break them; and imprinting in their souls by this hearing what they command them to do, 4.211. that so there may always be within their minds that intention of the laws which they have despised and broken, and have thereby been the causes of their own mischief. Let the children also learn the laws, as the first thing they are taught, which will be the best thing they can be taught, and will be the cause of their future felicity. 4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 4.213. They are also to inscribe the principal blessings they have received from God upon their doors, and show the same remembrance of them upon their arms; as also they are to bear on their forehead and their arm those wonders which declare the power of God, and his good-will towards them, that God’s readiness to bless them may appear every where conspicuous about them. 4.214. 14. Let there be seven men to judge in every city, and these such as have been before most zealous in the exercise of virtue and righteousness. Let every judge have two officers allotted him out of the tribe of Levi. 4.215. Let those that are chosen to judge in the several cities be had in great honor; and let none be permitted to revile any others when these are present, nor to carry themselves in an insolent manner to them; it being natural that reverence towards those in high offices among men should procure men’s fear and reverence towards God. 4.216. Let those that judge be permitted to determine according as they think to be right, unless any one can show that they have taken bribes, to the perversion of justice, or can allege any other accusation against them, whereby it may appear that they have passed an unjust sentence; for it is not fit that causes should be openly determined out of regard to gain, or to the dignity of the suitors, but that the judges should esteem what is right before all other things, 4.217. otherwise God will by that means be despised, and esteemed inferior to those, the dread of whose power has occasioned the unjust sentence; for justice is the power of God. He therefore that gratifies those in great dignity, supposes them more potent than God himself. 4.218. But if these judges be unable to give a just sentence about the causes that come before them, (which case is not unfrequent in human affairs,) let them send the cause undetermined to the holy city, and there let the high priest, the prophet, and the sanhedrim, determine as it shall seem good to them. 4.219. 15. But let not a single witness be credited, but three, or two at the least, and those such whose testimony is confirmed by their good lives. But let not the testimony of women be admitted, on account of the levity and boldness of their sex Nor let servants be admitted to give testimony, on account of the ignobility of their soul; since it is probable that they may not speak truth, either out of hope of gain, or fear of punishment. But if any one be believed to have borne false witness, let him, when he is convicted, suffer all the very same punishments which he against whom he bore witness was to have suffered. 4.220. 16. If a murder be committed in any place, and he that did it be not found, nor is there any suspicion upon one as if he had hated the man, and so had killed him, let there be a very diligent inquiry made after the man, and rewards proposed to any one who will discover him; but if still no information can be procured, let the magistrates and senate of those cities that lie near the place in which the murder was committed, assemble together, and measure the distance from the place where the dead body lies; 4.221. then let the magistrates of the nearest city thereto purchase a heifer, and bring it to a valley, and to a place therein where there is no land ploughed or trees planted, and let them cut the sinews of the heifer; 4.222. then the priests and Levites, and the senate of that city, shall take water and wash their hands over the head of the heifer; and they shall openly declare that their hands are innocent of this murder, and that they have neither done it themselves, nor been assisting to any that did it. They shall also beseech God to be merciful to them, that no such horrid act may any more be done in that land. 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 4.225. 18. Let it not be esteemed lawful to remove boundaries, neither our own, nor of those with whom we are at peace. Have a care you do not take those landmarks away which are, as it were, a divine and unshaken limitation of rights made by God himself, to last for ever; since this going beyond limits, and gaining ground upon others, is the occasion of wars and seditions; for those that remove boundaries are not far off an attempt to subvert the laws. 4.226. 19. He that plants a piece of land, the trees of which produce fruits before the fourth year, is not to bring thence any first-fruits to God, nor is he to make use of that fruit himself, for it is not produced in its proper season; for when nature has a force put upon her at an unseasonable time, the fruit is not proper for God, nor for the master’s use; 4.227. but let the owner gather all that is grown on the fourth year, for then it is in its proper season. And let him that has gathered it carry it to the holy city, and spend that, together with the tithe of his other fruits, in feasting with his friends, with the orphans, and the widows. But on the fifth year the fruit is his own, and he may use it as he pleases. 4.228. 20. You are not to sow with seed a piece of land which is planted with vines, for it is enough that it supply nourishment to that plant, and be not harassed by ploughing also. You are to plough your land with oxen, and not to oblige other animals to come under the same yoke with them; but to till your land with those beasts that are of the same kind with each other. The seeds are also to be pure, and without mixture, and not to be compounded of two or three sorts, since nature does not rejoice in the union of things that are not in their own nature alike; 4.229. nor are you to permit beasts of different kinds to gender together, for there is reason to fear that this unnatural abuse may extend from beasts of different kinds to men, though it takes its first rise from evil practices about such smaller things. 4.230. Nor is any thing to be allowed, by imitation whereof any degree of subversion may creep into the constitution. Nor do the laws neglect small matters, but provide that even those may be managed after an unblamable manner. 4.231. 21. Let not those that reap, and gather in the corn that is reaped, gather in the gleanings also; but let them rather leave some handfuls for those that are in want of the necessaries of life, that it may be a support and a supply to them, in order to their subsistence. In like manner when they gather their grapes, let them leave some smaller bunches for the poor, and let them pass over some of the fruits of the olive-trees, when they gather them, and leave them to be partaken of by those that have none of their own; 4.232. for the advantage arising from the exact collection of all, will not be so considerable to the owners as will arise from the gratitude of the poor. And God will provide that the land shall more willingly produce what shall be for the nourishment of its fruits, in case you do not merely take care of your own advantage, but have regard to the support of others also. 4.233. Nor are you to muzzle the mouths of the oxen when they tread the ears of corn in the thrashing-floor; for it is not just to restrain our fellow-laboring animals, and those that work in order to its production, of this fruit of their labors. 4.234. Nor are you to prohibit those that pass by at the time when your fruits are ripe to touch them, but to give them leave to fill themselves full of what you have; and this whether they be of your own country or strangers,—as being glad of the opportunity of giving them some part of your fruits when they are ripe; but let it not be esteemed lawful for them to carry any away. 4.235. Nor let those that gather the grapes, and carry them to the wine-presses, restrain those whom they meet from eating of them; for it is unjust, out of envy, to hinder those that desire it, to partake of the good things that come into the world according to God’s will, and this while the season is at the height, and is hastening away as it pleases God. 4.236. Nay, if some, out of bashfulness, are unwilling to touch these fruits, let them be encouraged to take of them (I mean, those that are Israelites) as if they were themselves the owners and lords, on account of the kindred there is between them. Nay, let them desire men that come from other countries, to partake of these tokens of friendship which God has given in their proper season; 4.237. for that is not to be deemed as idly spent, which any one out of kindness communicates to another, since God bestows plenty of good things on men, not only for themselves to reap the advantage, but also to give to others in a way of generosity; and he is desirous, by this means, to make known to others his peculiar kindness to the people of Israel, and how freely he communicates happiness to them, while they abundantly communicate out of their great superfluities to even these foreigners also. 4.238. But for him that acts contrary to this law, let him be beaten with forty stripes save one by the public executioner; let him undergo this punishment, which is a most ignominious one for a free-man, and this because he was such a slave to gain as to lay a blot upon his dignity; 4.239. for it is proper for you who have had the experience of the afflictions in Egypt, and of those in the wilderness, to make provision for those that are in the like circumstances; and while you have now obtained plenty yourselves, through the mercy and providence of God, to distribute of the same plenty, by the like sympathy, to such as stand in need of it. 4.240. 22. Besides those two tithes, which I have already said you are to pay every year, the one for the Levites, the other for the festivals, you are to bring every third year a third tithe to be distributed to those that want; to women also that are widows, and to children that are orphans. 4.241. But as to the ripe fruits, let them carry that which is ripe first of all into the temple; and when they have blessed God for that land which bare them, and which he had given them for a possession, when they have also offered those sacrifices which the law has commanded them to bring, let them give the first-fruits to the priests. 4.242. But when any one hath done this, and hath brought the tithe of all that he hath, together with those first-fruits that are for the Levites, and for the festivals, and when he is about to go home, let him stand before the holy house, and return thanks to God, that he hath delivered them from the injurious treatment they had in Egypt, and hath given them a good land, and a large, and lets them enjoy the fruits thereof; and when he hath openly testified that he hath fully paid the tithes [and other dues] according to the laws of Moses, 4.243. let him entreat God that he will be ever merciful and gracious to him, and continue so to be to all the Hebrews, both by preserving the good things which he hath already given them, and by adding what it is still in his power to bestow upon them. 4.244. 23. Let the Hebrews marry, at the age fit for it, virgins that are free, and born of good parents. And he that does not marry a virgin, let him not corrupt another man’s wife, and marry her, nor grieve her former husband. Nor let free men marry slaves, although their affections should strongly bias any of them so to do; for it is decent, and for the dignity of the persons themselves, to govern those their affections. 4.245. And further, no one ought to marry a harlot, whose matrimonial oblations, arising from the prostitution of her body, God will not receive; for by these means the dispositions of the children will be liberal and virtuous; I mean, when they are not born of base parents, and of the lustful conjunction of such as marry women that are not free. 4.246. If any one has been espoused to a woman as to a virgin, and does not afterward find her so to be, let him bring his action, and accuse her, and let him make use of such indications to prove his accusation as he is furnished withal; and let the father or the brother of the damsel, or some one that is after them nearest of kin to her, defend her. 4.247. If the damsel obtain a sentence in her favor, that she had not been guilty, let her live with her husband that accused her; and let him not have any further power at all to put her away, unless she give him very great occasions of suspicion, and such as can be no way contradicted. 4.248. But for him that brings an accusation and calumny against his wife in an impudent and rash manner, let him be punished by receiving forty stripes save one, and let him pay fifty shekels to her father: but if the damsel be convicted, as having been corrupted, and is one of the common people, let her be stoned, because she did not preserve her virginity till she were lawfully married; but if she were the daughter of a priest, let her be burnt alive. 4.249. If any one has two wives, and if he greatly respect and be kind to one of them, either out of his affection to her, or for her beauty, or for some other reason, while the other is of less esteem with him; and if the son of her that is beloved be the younger by birth than another born of the other wife, but endeavors to obtain the right of primogeniture from his father’s kindness to his mother, and would thereby obtain a double portion of his father’s substance, for that double portion is what I have allotted him in the laws,—let not this be permitted; 4.250. for it is unjust that he who is the elder by birth should be deprived of what is due to him, on the father’s disposition of his estate, because his mother was not equally regarded by him. 4.251. He that hath corrupted a damsel espoused to another man, in case he had her consent, let both him and her be put to death, for they are both equally guilty; the man, because he persuaded the woman willingly to submit to a most impure action, and to prefer it to lawful wedlock; the woman, because she was persuaded to yield herself to be corrupted, either for pleasure or for gain. 4.252. However, if a man light on a woman when she is alone, and forces her, where nobody was present to come to her assistance, let him only be put to death. Let him that hath corrupted a virgin not yet espoused marry her; but if the father of the damsel be not willing that she should be his wife, let him pay fifty shekels as the price of her prostitution. 4.253. He that desires to be divorced from his wife for any cause whatsoever, (and many such causes happen among men,) let him in writing give assurance that he will never use her as his wife any more; for by this means she may be at liberty to marry another husband, although before this bill of divorce be given, she is not to be permitted so to do: but if she be misused by him also, or if, when he is dead, her first husband would marry her again, it shall not be lawful for her to return to him. 4.254. If a woman’s husband die, and leave her without children, let his brother marry her, and let him call the son that is born to him by his brother’s name, and educate him as the heir of his inheritance, for this procedure will be for the benefit of the public, because thereby families will not fail, and the estate will continue among the kindred; and this will be for the solace of wives under their affliction, that they are to be married to the next relation of their former husbands. 4.255. But if the brother will not marry her, let the woman come before the senate, and protest openly that this brother will not admit her for his wife, but will injure the memory of his deceased brother, while she is willing to continue in the family, and to hear him children. And when the senate have inquired of him for what reason it is that he is averse to this marriage, whether he gives a bad or a good reason, the matter must come to this issue, 4.256. That the woman shall loose the sandals of the brother, and shall spit in his face, and say, He deserves this reproachful treatment from her, as having injured the memory of the deceased. And then let him go away out of the senate, and bear this reproach upon him all his life long; and let her marry to whom she pleases, of such as seek her in marriage. 4.257. But now, if any man take captive, either a virgin, or one that hath been married, and has a mind to marry her, let him not be allowed to bring her to bed to him, or to live with her as his wife, before she hath her head shaven, and hath put on her mourning habit, and lamented her relations and friends that were slain in the battle, 4.258. that by this means she may give vent to her sorrow for them, and after that may betake herself to feasting and matrimony; for it is good for him that takes a woman, in order to have children by her, to be complaisant to her inclinations, and not merely to pursue his own pleasure, while he hath no regard to what is agreeable to her. 4.259. But when thirty days are past, as the time of mourning, for so many are sufficient to prudent persons for lamenting the dearest friends, then let them proceed to the marriage; but in case when he hath satisfied his lust, he be too proud to retain her for his wife, let him not have it in his power to make her a slave, but let her go away whither she pleases, and have that privilege of a free woman. 4.260. 24. As to those young men that despise their parents, and do not pay them honor, but offer them affronts, either because they are ashamed of them or think themselves wiser than they,—in the first place, let their parents admonish them in words, (for they are by nature of authority sufficient for becoming their judges,) 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 4.265. And thus it is that we bury all whom the laws condemn to die, upon any account whatsoever. Let our enemies that fall in battle be also buried; nor let any one dead body lie above the ground, or suffer a punishment beyond what justice requires. 4.266. 25. Let no one lend to any one of the Hebrews upon usury, neither usury of what is eaten or what is drunken, for it is not just to make advantage of the misfortunes of one of thy own countrymen; but when thou hast been assistant to his necessities, think it thy gain if thou obtainest their gratitude to thee; and withal that reward which will come to thee from God, for thy humanity towards him. 4.267. 26. Those who have borrowed either silver or any sort of fruits, whether dry or wet, (I mean this, when the Jewish affairs shall, by the blessing of God, be to their own mind,) let the borrowers bring them again, and restore them with pleasure to those who lent them, laying them up, as it were, in their own treasuries, and justly expecting to receive them thence, if they shall want them again. 4.268. But if they be without shame, and do not restore it, let not the lender go to the borrower’s house, and take a pledge himself, before judgment be given concerning it; but let him require the pledge, and let the debtor bring it of himself, without the least opposition to him that comes upon him under the protection of the law. 4.269. And if he that gave the pledge be rich, let the creditor retain it till what he lent be paid him again; but if he be poor, let him that takes it return it before the going down of the sun, especially if the pledge be a garment, that the debtor may have it for a covering in his sleep, God himself naturally showing mercy to the poor. 4.270. It is also not lawful to take a millstone, nor any utensil thereto belonging, for a pledge, that the debtor, may not be deprived of instruments to get their food withal, and lest they be undone by their necessity. 4.271. 27. Let death be the punishment for stealing a man; but he that hath purloined gold or silver, let him pay double. If any one kill a man that is stealing something out of his house, let him be esteemed guiltless, although the man were only breaking in at the wall. 4.272. Let him that hath stolen cattle pay fourfold what is lost, excepting the case of an ox, for which let the thief pay fivefold. Let him that is so poor that he cannot pay what mulct is laid upon him, be his servant to whom he was adjudged to pay it. 4.273. 28. If any one be sold to one of his own nation, let him serve him six years, and on the seventh let him go free. But if he have a son by a womanservant in his purchaser’s house, and if, on account of his good-will to his master, and his natural affection to his wife and children, he will be his servant still, let him be set free only at the coming of the year of jubilee, which is the fiftieth year, and let him then take away with him his children and wife, and let them be free also. 4.274. 29. If any one find gold or silver on the road, let him inquire after him that lost it, and make proclamation of the place where he found it, and then restore it to him again, as not thinking it right to make his own profit by the loss of another. And the same rule is to be observed in cattle found to have wandered away into a lonely place. If the owner be not presently discovered, let him that is the finder keep it with himself, and appeal to God that he has not purloined what belongs to another. 4.275. 30. It is not lawful to pass by any beast that is in distress, when in a storm it is fallen down in the mire, but to endeavor to preserve it, as having a sympathy with it in its pain. 4.276. 31. It is also a duty to show the roads to those who do not know them, and not to esteem it a matter for sport, when we hinder others’ advantages, by setting them in a wrong way. /p 32. In like manner, let no one revile a person blind or dumb. 4.277. 33. If men strive together, and there be no instrument of iron, let him that is smitten be avenged immediately, by inflicting the same punishment on him that smote him: but if when he is carried home he lie sick many days, and then die, let him that smote him escape punishment; but if he that is smitten escape death, and yet be at great expense for his cure, the smiter shall pay for all that has been expended during the time of his sickness, and for all that he has paid the physician. 4.278. He that kicks a woman with child, so that the woman miscarry, let him pay a fine in money, as the judges shall determine, as having diminished the multitude by the destruction of what was in her womb; and let money also be given the woman’s husband by him that kicked her; but if she die of the stroke, let him also be put to death, the law judging it equitable that life should go for life. 4.279. 34. Let no one of the Israelites keep any poison that may cause death, or any other harm; but if he be caught with it, let him be put to death, and suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought upon them for whom the poison was prepared. 4.280. 35. He that maimeth any one, let him undergo the like himself, and be deprived of the same member of which he hath deprived the other, unless he that is maimed will accept of money instead of it for the law makes the sufferer the judge of the value of what he hath suffered, and permits him to estimate it, unless he will be more severe. 4.281. 36. Let him that is the owner of an ox which pusheth with his horn, kill him: but if he pushes and gores any one in the thrashing-floor, let him be put to death by stoning, and let him not be thought fit for food: but if his owner be convicted as having known what his nature was, and hath not kept him up, let him also be put to death, as being the occasion of the ox’s having killed a man. 4.282. But if the ox have killed a man-servant, or a maid-servant, let him be stoned; and let the owner of the ox pay thirty shekels to the master of him that was slain; but if it be an ox that is thus smitten and killed, let both the oxen, that which smote the other and that which was killed, be sold, and let the owners of them divide their price between them. 4.283. 37. Let those that dig a well or a pit be careful to lay planks over them, and so keep them shut up, not in order to hinder any persons from drawing water, but that there may be no danger of falling into them. 4.284. But if any one’s beast fall into such a well or pit thus digged, and not shut up, and perish, let the owner pay its price to the owner of the beast. Let there be a battlement round the tops of your houses instead of a wall, that may prevent any persons from rolling down and perishing. 4.285. 38. Let him that has received any thing in trust for another, take care to keep it as a sacred and divine thing; and let no one invent any contrivance whereby to deprive him that hath intrusted it with him of the same, and this whether he be a man or a woman; no, not although he or she were to gain an immense sum of gold, and this where he cannot be convicted of it by any body; 4.286. for it is fit that a man’s own conscience, which knows what he hath, should in all cases oblige him to do well. Let this conscience be his witness, and make him always act so as may procure him commendation from others; but let him chiefly have regard to God, from whom no wicked man can lie concealed: 4.287. but if he in whom the trust was reposed, without any deceit of his own, lose what he was intrusted withal, let him come before the seven judges, and swear by God that nothing hath been lost willingly, or with a wicked intention, and that he hath not made use of any part thereof, and so let him depart without blame; but if he hath made use of the least part of what was committed to him, and it be lost, let him be condemned to repay all that he had received. 4.288. After the same manner as in these trusts it is to be, if any one defraud those that undergo bodily labor for him. And let it be always remembered, that we are not to defraud a poor man of his wages, as being sensible that God has allotted these wages to him instead of land and other possessions; nay, this payment is not at all to be delayed, but to be made that very day, since God is not willing to deprive the laborer of the immediate use of what he hath labored for. 4.289. 39. You are not to punish children for the faults of their parents, but on account of their own virtue rather to vouchsafe them commiseration, because they were born of wicked parents, than hatred, because they were born of bad ones. Nor indeed ought we to impute the sin of children to their fathers, while young persons indulge themselves in many practices different from what they have been instructed in, and this by their proud refusal of such instruction. 4.290. 40. Let those that have made themselves eunuchs be had in detestation; and do you avoid any conversation with them who have deprived themselves of their manhood, and of that fruit of generation which God has given to men for the increase of their kind: let such be driven away, as if they had killed their children, since they beforehand have lost what should procure them; 4.291. for evident it is, that while their soul is become effeminate, they have withal transfused that effeminacy to their body also. In like manner do you treat all that is of a monstrous nature when it is looked on; nor is it lawful to geld men or any other animals. 4.292. 41. Let this be the constitution of your political laws in time of peace, and God will be so merciful as to preserve this excellent settlement free from disturbance: and may that time never come which may innovate any thing, and change it for the contrary. 4.293. But since it must needs happen that mankind fall into troubles and dangers, either undesignedly or intentionally, come let us make a few constitutions concerning them, that so being apprised beforehand what ought to be done, you may have salutary counsels ready when you want them, and may not then be obliged to go to seek what is to be done, and so be unprovided, and fall into dangerous circumstances. 4.294. May you be a laborious people, and exercise your souls in virtuous actions, and thereby possess and inherit the land without wars; while neither any foreigners make war upon it, and so afflict you, nor any internal sedition seize upon it, 4.295. whereby you may do things that are contrary to your fathers, and so lose the laws which they have established. And may you continue in the observation of those laws which God hath approved of, and hath delivered to you. Let all sort of warlike operations, whether they befall you now in your own time, or hereafter in the times of your posterity, be done out of your own borders: 4.296. but when you are about to go to war, send embassages and heralds to those who are your voluntary enemies, for it is a right thing to make use of words to them before you come to your weapons of war; and assure them thereby, that although you have a numerous army, with horses and weapons, and, above these, a God merciful to you, and ready to assist you, you do however desire them not to compel you to fight against them, nor to take from them what they have, which will indeed be our gain, but what they will have no reason to wish we should take to ourselves. 4.297. And if they hearken to you, it will be proper for you to keep peace with them; but if they trust in their own strength, as superior to yours, and will not do you justice, lead your army against them, making use of God as your supreme Commander, but ordaining for a lieutet under him one that is of the greatest courage among you; for these different commanders, besides their being an obstacle to actions that are to be done on the sudden, are a disadvantage to those that make use of them. 4.298. Lead an army pure, and of chosen men, composed of all such as have extraordinary strength of body and hardiness of soul; but do you send away the timorous part, lest they run away in the time of action, and so afford an advantage to your enemies. Do you also give leave to those that have lately built them houses, and have not yet lived in them a year’s time; and to those that have planted them vineyards, and have not yet been partakers of their fruits,—to continue in their own country; as well as those also who have betrothed, or lately married them wives, lest they have such an affection for these things that they be too sparing of their lives, and, by reserving themselves for these enjoyments, they become voluntary cowards, on account of their wives. 4.299. 42. When you have pitched your camp, take care that you do nothing that is cruel. And when you are engaged in a siege; and want timber for the making of warlike engines, do not you render the land naked by cutting down trees that bear fruit, but spare them, as considering that they were made for the benefit of men; and that if they could speak, they would have a just plea against you, because, though they are not occasions of the war, they are unjustly treated, and suffer in it, and would, if they were able, remove themselves into another land. 4.300. When you have beaten your enemies in battle, slay those that have fought against you; but preserve the others alive, that they may pay you tribute, excepting the nation of the Canaanites; for as to that people, you must entirely destroy them. 4.301. 43, Take care, especially in your battles, that no woman use the habit of a man, nor man the garment of a woman. 11.111. So these men offered the largest sacrifices on these accounts, and used great magnificence in the worship of God, and dwelt in Jerusalem, and made use of a form of government that was aristocratical, but mixed with an oligarchy, for the high priests were at the head of their affairs, until the posterity of the Asamoneans set up kingly government; 11.112. for before their captivity, and the dissolution of their polity, they at first had kingly government from Saul and David for five hundred and thirty-two years, six months, and ten days; but before those kings, such rulers governed them as were called judges and monarchs. Under this form of government they continued for more than five hundred years after the death of Moses, and of Joshua their commander. 11.113. And this is the account I had to give of the Jews who had been carried into captivity, but were delivered from it in the times of Cyrus and Darius. 11.181. But when Nehemiah saw that the city was thin of people, he exhorted the priests and the Levites that they would leave the country, and remove themselves to the city, and there continue; and he built them houses at his own expenses; 11.182. and he commanded that part of the people which were employed in cultivating the land to bring the tithes of their fruits to Jerusalem, that the priests and Levites having whereof they might live perpetually, might not leave the divine worship; who willingly hearkened to the constitutions of Nehemiah, by which means the city Jerusalem came to be fuller of people than it was before. 11.183. So when Nehemiah had done many other excellent things, and things worthy of commendation, in a glorious manner, he came to a great age, and then died. He was a man of a good and righteous disposition, and very ambitious to make his own nation happy; and he hath left the walls of Jerusalem as an eternal monument for himself. Now this was done in the days of Xerxes. 11.312. But there was now a great disturbance among the people of Jerusalem, because many of those priests and Levites were entangled in such matches; for they all revolted to Manasseh, and Sanballat afforded them money, and divided among them land for tillage, and habitations also, and all this in order every way to gratify his son-in-law. 12.138. “King Antiochus To Ptolemy, Sendeth Greeting. /p “Since the Jews, upon our first entrance on their country, demonstrated their friendship towards us, and when we came to their city [Jerusalem], received us in a splendid manner, and came to meet us with their senate, and gave abundance of provisions to our soldiers, and to the elephants, and joined with us in ejecting the garrison of the Egyptians that were in the citadel, 12.139. we have thought fit to reward them, and to retrieve the condition of their city, which hath been greatly depopulated by such accidents as have befallen its inhabitants, and to bring those that have been scattered abroad back to the city. 12.140. And, in the first place, we have determined, on account of their piety towards God, to bestow on them, as a pension, for their sacrifices of animals that are fit for sacrifice, for wine, and oil, and frankincense, the value of twenty thousand pieces of silver, and [six] sacred artabrae of fine flour, with one thousand four hundred and sixty medimni of wheat, and three hundred and seventy-five medimni of salt. 12.141. And these payments I would have fully paid them, as I have sent orders to you. I would also have the work about the temple finished, and the cloisters, and if there be any thing else that ought to be rebuilt. And for the materials of wood, let it be brought them out of Judea itself and out of the other countries, and out of Libanus tax free; and the same I would have observed as to those other materials which will be necessary, in order to render the temple more glorious; 12.142. and let all of that nation live according to the laws of their own country; and let the senate, and the priests, and the scribes of the temple, and the sacred singers, be discharged from poll-money and the crown tax and other taxes also. 12.143. And that the city may the sooner recover its inhabitants, I grant a discharge from taxes for three years to its present inhabitants, and to such as shall come to it, until the month Hyperberetus. 12.144. We also discharge them for the future from a third part of their taxes, that the losses they have sustained may be repaired. And all those citizens that have been carried away, and are become slaves, we grant them and their children their freedom, and give order that their substance be restored to them.” 12.271. “If,” said he, “any one be zealous for the laws of his country, and for the worship of God, let him follow me.” And when he had said this, he made haste into the desert with his sons, and left all his substance in the village. 12.360. 2. However, Antiochus, before he died, called for Philip, who was one of his companions, and made him the guardian of his kingdom; and gave him his diadem, and his garment, and his ring, and charged him to carry them, and deliver them to his son Antiochus; and desired him to take care of his education, and to preserve the kingdom for him. 12.389. 1. About the same time Demetrius, the son of Seleucus, fled away from Rome, and took Tripoli, a city of Syria, and set the diadem on his own head. He also gathered certain mercenary soldiers together, and entered into his kingdom, and was joyfully received by all, who delivered themselves up to him. 13.66. where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.68. for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.69. 2. And this was what Onias wrote to king Ptolemy. Now any one may observe his piety, and that of his sister and wife Cleopatra, by that epistle which they wrote in answer to it; for they laid the blame and the transgression of the law upon the head of Onias. And this was their reply: 13.70. “King Ptolemy and queen Cleopatra to Onias, send greeting. We have read thy petition, wherein thou desirest leave to be given thee to purge that temple which is fallen down at Leontopolis, in the Nomus of Heliopolis, and which is named from the country Bubastis; on which account we cannot but wonder that it should be pleasing to God to have a temple erected in a place so unclean, and so full of sacred animals. 13.71. But since thou sayest that Isaiah the prophet foretold this long ago, we give thee leave to do it, if it may be done according to your law, and so that we may not appear to have at all offended God herein.” 13.113. Ptolemy came then to Antioch, and was made king by its inhabitants, and by the army; so that he was forced to put on two diadems, the one of Asia, the other of Egypt: 13.301. 1. Now when their father Hyrcanus was dead, the eldest son Aristobulus, intending to change the government into a kingdom, for so he resolved to do, first of all put a diadem on his head, four hundred eighty and one years and three months after the people had been delivered from the Babylonish slavery, and were returned to their own country again. 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 14.73. The next day he gave order to those that had the charge of the temple to cleanse it, and to bring what offerings the law required to God; and restored the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, both because he had been useful to him in other respects, and because he hindered the Jews in the country from giving Aristobulus any assistance in his war against him. He also cut off those that had been the authors of that war; and bestowed proper rewards on Faustus, and those others that mounted the wall with such alacrity; 14.78. Moreover, the Romans exacted of us, in a little time, above ten thousand talents; and the royal authority, which was a dignity formerly bestowed on those that were high priests, by the right of their family, became the property of private men. But of these matters we shall treat in their proper places. 14.91. and when he had settled matters with her, he brought Hyrcanus to Jerusalem, and committed the care of the temple to him. And when he had ordained five councils, he distributed the nation into the same number of parts. So these councils governed the people; the first was at Jerusalem, the second at Gadara, the third at Amathus, the fourth at Jericho, and the fifth at Sepphoris in Galilee. So the Jews were now freed from monarchic authority, and were governed by an aristocracy. 17.227. And when he was come to Rome, all his relations revolted to him; not out of their good-will to him, but out of their hatred to Archelaus; though indeed they were most of all desirous of gaining their liberty, and to be put under a Roman governor; but if there were too great an opposition made to that, they thought Antipas preferable to Archelaus, and so joined with him, in order to procure the kingdom for him. Sabinus also, by letters, accused Archelaus to Caesar. 17.273. 6. There was also Simon, who had been a slave of Herod the king, but in other respects a comely person, of a tall and robust body; he was one that was much superior to others of his order, and had had great things committed to his care. This man was elevated at the disorderly state of things, and was so bold as to put a diadem on his head, 17.280. They were every one of them also commanders; but when they came to fight, they were subordinate to him, and fought for him, while he put a diadem about his head, and assembled a council to debate about what things should be done, and all things were done according to his pleasure. 17.281. And this man retained his power a great while; he was also called king, and had nothing to hinder him from doing what he pleased. He also, as well as his brethren, slew a great many both of the Romans and of the king’s forces, an managed matters with the like hatred to each of them. The king’s forces they fell upon, because of the licentious conduct they had been allowed under Herod’s government; and they fell upon the Romans, because of the injuries they had so lately received from them. 18.1. 1. Now Cyrenius, a Roman senator, and one who had gone through other magistracies, and had passed through them till he had been consul, and one who, on other accounts, was of great dignity, came at this time into Syria, with a few others, being sent by Caesar to be a judge of that nation, and to take an account of their substance. 18.2. Coponius also, a man of the equestrian order, was sent together with him, to have the supreme power over the Jews. Moreover, Cyrenius came himself into Judea, which was now added to the province of Syria, to take an account of their substance, and to dispose of Archelaus’s money; 18.237. However, there did not many days pass ere he sent for him to his house, and had him shaved, and made him change his raiment; after which he put a diadem upon his head, and appointed him to be king of the tetrarchy of Philip. He also gave him the tetrarchy of Lysanias, and changed his iron chain for a golden one of equal weight. He also sent Marullus to be procurator of Judea. 20.179. 8. About this time king Agrippa gave the high priesthood to Ismael, who was the son of Fabi. 20.180. And now arose a sedition between the high priests and the principal men of the multitude of Jerusalem; each of which got them a company of the boldest sort of men, and of those that loved innovations about them, and became leaders to them; and when they struggled together, they did it by casting reproachful words against one another, and by throwing stones also. And there was nobody to reprove them; but these disorders were done after a licentious manner in the city, as if it had no government over it. 20.181. And such was the impudence and boldness that had seized on the high priests, that they had the hardiness to send their servants into the threshing-floors, to take away those tithes that were due to the priests, insomuch that it so fell out that the poorest sort of the priests died for want. To this degree did the violence of the seditious prevail over all right and justice. 20.205. But as for the high priest, Aias he increased in glory every day, and this to a great degree, and had obtained the favor and esteem of the citizens in a signal manner; for he was a great hoarder up of money: he therefore cultivated the friendship of Albinus, and of the high priest [Jesus], by making them presents; 20.206. he also had servants who were very wicked, who joined themselves to the boldest sort of the people, and went to the thrashing-floors, and took away the tithes that belonged to the priests by violence, and did not refrain from beating such as would not give these tithes to them. 20.207. So the other high priests acted in the like manner, as did those his servants, without any one being able to prohibit them; so that [some of the] priests, that of old were wont to be supported with those tithes, died for want of food. 20.241. whose brother Alexander was his heir; which Judas died of a sore distemper, after he had kept the priesthood, together with the royal authority; for this Judas was the first that put on his head a diadem for one year. 20.242. And when Alexander had been both king and high priest twenty-seven years, he departed this life, and permitted his wife Alexandra to appoint him that should be high priest; so she gave the high priesthood to Hyrcanus, but retained the kingdom herself nine years, and then departed this life. The like duration [and no longer] did her son Hyrcanus enjoy the high priesthood; 20.251. Some of these were the political governors of the people under the reign of Herod, and under the reign of Archelaus his son, although, after their death, the government became an aristocracy, and the high priests were intrusted with a dominion over the nation. And thus much may suffice to be said concerning our high priests.
51. New Testament, Mark, 7.9-7.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, benefactors of •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 76, 191
7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this."
52. Mishnah, Peah, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167
1.6. "לְעוֹלָם הוּא נוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּפוֹדֶה, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ הַגִּזְבָּר:", 1.6. "He may always give peah and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. One who gives [to the poor] as ownerless [produce] and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may feed cattle, wild animals and birds and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may take from the threshing floor and use it as seed and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack, the words of Rabbi Akiva. A priest or Levite who purchase [grain of] a threshing floor, the tithes are theirs unless [the owner] has already made a stack. One who dedicated [his crop] and redeems it [afterwards] is obligated to give tithes until the Temple treasurer has made a stack.",
53. New Testament, Matthew, 15.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 191
15.5. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ὃς ἂν εἴπῃ τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Δῶρον ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 15.5. But you say, 'Whoever may tell his father or his mother, "Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God,"
54. New Testament, Romans, 9.21, 11.16-11.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 207, 208, 209
9.21. ἢ οὐκ ἔχει ἐξουσίανὁ κεραμεὺς τοῦ πηλοῦἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ φυράματος ποιῆσαι ὃ μὲν εἰς τιμὴν σκεῦος, ὃ δὲ εἰς ἀτιμίαν; 11.16. εἰ δὲ ἡ ἀπαρχὴ ἁγία, καὶ τὸ φύραμα· καὶ εἰ ἡ ῥίζα ἁγία, καὶ οἱ κλάδοι. 11.17. Εἰ δέ τινες τῶν κλάδων ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ ἀγριέλαιος ὢν ἐνεκεντρίσθης ἐν αὐτοῖς καὶ συνκοινωνὸς τῆς ῥίζης τῆς πιότητος τῆς ἐλαίας ἐγένου, μὴ κατακαυχῶ τῶν κλάδων· 11.18. εἰ δὲ κατακαυχᾶσαι, οὐ σὺ τὴν ῥίζαν βαστάζεις ἀλλὰ ἡ ῥίζα σέ. 11.19. ἐρεῖς οὖν Ἐξεκλάσθησαν κλάδοι ἵνα ἐγὼ ἐνκεντρισθῶ. καλῶς· 11.20. τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ ἐξεκλάσθησαν, σὺ δὲ τῇ πίστει ἕστηκας. 11.21. μὴ ὑψηλὰ φρόνει, ἀλλὰ φοβοῦ· εἰ γὰρ ὁ θεὸς τῶν κατὰ φύσιν κλάδων οὐκ ἐφείσατο, οὐδὲ σοῦ φείσεται. ἴδε οὖν χρηστότητα καὶ ἀποτομίαν θεοῦ· 11.22. ἐπὶ μὲν τοὺς πεσόντας ἀποτομία, ἐπὶ δὲ σὲ χρηστότης θεοῦ, ἐὰν ἐπιμένῃς τῇ χρηστότητι, ἐπεὶ καὶ σὺ ἐκκοπήσῃ. 11.23. κἀκεῖνοι δέ, ἐὰν μὴ ἐπιμένωσι τῇ ἀπιστίᾳ, ἐνκεντρισθήσονται· δυνατὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ θεὸς πάλιν ἐνκεντρίσαι αὐτούς. 11.24. εἰ γὰρ σὺ ἐκ τῆς κατὰ φύσιν ἐξεκόπης ἀγριελαίου καὶ παρὰ φύσιν ἐνεκεντρίσθης εἰς καλλιέλαιον, πόσῳ μᾶλλον οὗτοι οἱ κατὰ φύσιν ἐνκεντρισθήσονται τῇ ἰδίᾳ ἐλαίᾳ. 9.21. Or hasn't the potter a right over the clay, from the same lump to make one part a vessel for honor, and another for dishonor? 11.16. If the first fruit is holy, so is the lump. If the root is holy, so are the branches. 11.17. But if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and became partaker with them of the root and of the richness of the olive tree; 11.18. don't boast over the branches. But if you boast, it is not you who support the root, but the root supports you. 11.19. You will say then, "Branches were broken off, that I might be grafted in." 11.20. True; by their unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by your faith. Don't be conceited, but fear; 11.21. for if God didn't spare the natural branches, neither will he spare you. 11.22. See then the goodness and severity of God. Toward those who fell, severity; but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise you also will be cut off. 11.23. They also, if they don't continue in their unbelief, will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. 11.24. For if you were cut out of that which is by nature a wild olive tree, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more will these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?
55. New Testament, Galatians, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 209
5.9. μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ. 5.9. A little yeast grows through the wholelump.
56. New Testament, Acts, 23.12-23.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 183; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 126
23.12. Γενομένης δὲ ἡμέρας ποιήσαντες συστροφὴν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀνεθεμάτισαν ἑαυτοὺς λέγοντες μήτε φαγεῖν μήτε πεῖν ἕως οὗ ἀποκτείνωσιν τὸν Παῦλον. 23.13. ἦσαν δὲ πλείους τεσσεράκοντα οἱ ταύτην τὴν συνωμοσίαν ποιησάμενοι· 23.14. οἵτινες προσελθόντες τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις εἶπαν Ἀναθέματι ἀνεθεματίσαμεν ἑαυτοὺς μηδενὸς γεύσασθαι ἕως οὗ ἀποκτείνωμεν τὸν Παῦλον. 23.12. When it was day, some of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul. 23.13. There were more than forty people who had made this conspiracy. 23.14. They came to the chief priests and the elders, and said, "We have bound ourselves under a great curse, to taste nothing until we have killed Paul.
57. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 209
5.6. Οὐ καλὸν τὸ καύχημα ὑμῶν. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι μικρὰ ζύμη ὅλον τὸ φύραμα ζυμοῖ; 5.6. Your boasting is not good. Don't you know that a little yeastleavens the whole lump?
58. Mishnah, Terumot, 3.1-3.2, 5.1-5.9, 6.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 168, 209
3.1. "הַתּוֹרֵם קִשּׁוּת וְנִמְצֵאת מָרָה, אֲבַטִּיחַ וְנִמְצָא סָרוּחַ, תְּרוּמָה, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם. הַתּוֹרֵם חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן וְנִמְצֵאת שֶׁל חֹמֶץ, אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל חֹמֶץ עַד שֶׁלֹּא תְרָמָהּ, אֵינָה תְרוּמָה. אִם מִשֶּׁתְּרָמָהּ הֶחֱמִיצָה, הֲרֵי זוֹ תְרוּמָה. אִם סָפֵק, תְּרוּמָה, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם. הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, אֵינָהּ מְדַמַּעַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ, וְאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חֹמֶשׁ. וְכֵן הַשְּׁנִיָּה: \n", 3.2. "נָפְלָה אַחַת מֵהֶן לְתוֹךְ הַחֻלִּין, אֵינָהּ מְדַמַּעְתָּן. נָפְלָה שְׁנִיָּה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, אֵינָהּ מְדַמַּעְתָּן. נָפְלוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן לְמָקוֹם אֶחָד, מְדַמְּעוֹת כַּקְּטַנָּה שֶׁבִּשְׁתֵּיהֶן: \n", 5.1. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁנָפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה חֻלִּין, אוֹ לְמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן, אוֹ לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי, אוֹ לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ, בֵּין טְמֵאִין בֵּין טְהוֹרִים, יֵרָקֵבוּ. אִם טְהוֹרָה הָיְתָה אוֹתָהּ הַסְּאָה, יִמָּכְרוּ לַכֹּהֲנִים בִּדְמֵי תְרוּמָה, חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אוֹתָהּ סְאָה. וְאִם לְמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן נָפְלָה, יִקְרָא שֵׁם לִתְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר. וְאִם לְמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי אוֹ לְהֶקְדֵּשׁ נָפְלָה, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יִפָּדוּ. וְאִם טְמֵאִים הָיוּ אוֹתָן הַחֻלִּין, יֵאָכְלוּ נִקּוּדִים אוֹ קְלָיוֹת, אוֹ יִלּוֹשׁוּ בְמֵי פֵרוֹת, אוֹ יִתְחַלְּקוּ לְעִסּוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בְמָקוֹם אֶחָד כַּבֵּיצָה: \n", 5.2. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ מֵאָה חֻלִּין טְהוֹרִין, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, תֵּרוֹם וְתִשָּׂרֵף, שֶׁאֲנִי אוֹמֵר, סְאָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה הִיא סְאָה שֶׁעָלְתָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, תַּעֲלֶה וְתֵאָכֵל נִקּוּדִים אוֹ קְלָיוֹת, אוֹ תִלּוֹשׁ בְּמֵי פֵרוֹת, אוֹ תִתְחַלֵּק לְעִסּוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בְמָקוֹם אֶחָד כַּבֵּיצָה: \n", 5.3. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה חֻלִּין טְמֵאִין, תַּעֲלֶה וְתֵאָכֵל נִקּוּדִים אוֹ קְלָיוֹת, אוֹ תִלּוֹשׁ בְּמֵי פֵרוֹת, אוֹ תִתְחַלֵּק לְעִסּוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בְמָקוֹם אֶחָד כַּבֵּיצָה: \n", 5.4. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה טְמֵאָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה סְאָה תְרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹסְרִים, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַתִּירִין. אָמְרוּ בֵית הִלֵּל לְבֵית שַׁמַּאי, הוֹאִיל וּטְהוֹרָה אֲסוּרָה לְזָרִים וּטְמֵאָה אֲסוּרָה לְכֹהֲנִים, מַה טְּהוֹרָה עוֹלָה, אַף טְמֵאָה תַּעֲלֶה. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, לֹא, אִם הֶעֱלוּ הַחֻלִּין הַקַּלִּין הַמֻּתָּרִין לְזָרִים אֶת הַטְּהוֹרָה, תַּעֲלֶה תְרוּמָה הַחֲמוּרָה הָאֲסוּרָה לְזָרִים אֶת הַטְּמֵאָה. לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹדוּ, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, תֵּרוֹם וְתִשָּׂרֵף. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אָבְדָה בְמִעוּטָהּ: \n", 5.5. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה, הִגְבִּיהָהּ וְנָפְלָה לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מְדַמַּעַת כִּתְרוּמָה וַדָּאי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינָה מְדַמַּעַת אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן: \n", 5.6. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה וְנִדַּמְּעוּ, וְנָפַל מִן הַמְדֻמָּע לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, מְדַמַּעַת כִּתְרוּמָה וַדָּאי. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵין הַמְדֻמָּע מְדַמֵּעַ אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן, וְאֵין הַמְחֻמָּץ מַחְמִיץ אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן, וְאֵין הַמַּיִם שְׁאוּבִים פּוֹסְלִים אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן: \n", 5.7. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה, הִגְבִּיהָהּ וְנָפְלָה אַחֶרֶת, הִגְבִּיהָהּ וְנָפְלָה אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי זוֹ מֻתֶּרֶת, עַד שֶׁתִּרְבֶּה תְרוּמָה עַל הַחֻלִּין: \n", 5.8. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה, וְלֹא הִסְפִּיק לְהַגְבִּיהָהּ עַד שֶׁנָּפְלָה אַחֶרֶת, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה. וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַתִּיר: \n", 5.9. "סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמֵאָה, וּטְחָנָן וּפָחֲתוּ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁפָּחֲתוּ הַחֻלִּין, כָּךְ פָּחֲתָה הַתְּרוּמָה, וּמֻתָּר. סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה, וּטְחָנָן וְהוֹתִירוּ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוֹתִירוּ הַחֻלִּין, כָּךּ הוֹתִירָה הַתְּרוּמָה, וְאָסוּר. אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁהַחִטִּים שֶׁל חֻלִּין יָפוֹת מִשֶּׁל תְּרוּמָה, מֻתָּר. סְאָה תְרוּמָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְפָחוֹת מִמֵּאָה, וְאַחַר כֵּן נָפְלוּ שָׁם חֻלִּין, אִם שׁוֹגֵג, מֻתָּר, וְאִם מֵזִיד, אָסוּר: \n", 6.4. "הַגּוֹנֵב תְּרוּמָה וְלֹא אֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כֵפֶל דְּמֵי תְרוּמָה. אֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי קְרָנִים וְחֹמֶשׁ, קֶרֶן וְחֹמֶשׁ מִן הַחֻלִּין, וְקֶרֶן דְּמֵי תְרוּמָה. גָּנַב תְּרוּמַת הֶקְדֵּשׁ וַאֲכָלָהּ, מְשַׁלֵּם שְׁנֵי חֳמָשִׁים וְקֶרֶן, שֶׁאֵין בַּהֶקְדֵּשׁ תַּשְׁלוּמֵי כָפֶל: \n", 3.1. "If one gave a cucumber as terumah and it was found to be bitter, a melon and it was found to be rotten, it is considered terumah, but he must again give terumah. If one gave a jar of wine as terumah and it was found to be vinegar: If prior to his act he knew that it was vinegar, the terumah is not valid; But if it had turned sour after he had given it as terumah, behold it is terumah. In case of doubt, it is terumah but he must again give terumah. The first terumah does not render on its own [produce into which it falls] “doubtful terumah” and it is not subject to the added fifth, and so the second.", 3.2. "If one of them falls into non-sacred produce, it does not make [the mixture] medumma [a mixture into which terumah has fallen]. If the second of them falls [then] into another place, it also does not make it medumma. But if both fall into one place, they do make it medumma, according to the size of the smaller of the two.", 5.1. "If a seah of unclean terumah fell into less than a hundred seahs of hullin, or first tithe, or second tithe, or dedicated property, whether these were unclean or clean, they must all be left to rot. If the seah [of terumah] was clean, [the mixture] must be sold to priests at the price of terumah, excluding the value of that seah itself. If it fell into first tithe, he should declare terumah of tithe. And if it fell into second tithe or dedicated property, they must be redeemed. If the hullin was unclean, it may be eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place.", 5.2. "A seah of unclean terumah which fell into a hundred of clean hullin:Rabbi Eliezer says: [a seah] must be taken out and burnt, for I say that the seah taken out is the one that fell in. But the sages say: it may be taken out and eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place.", 5.3. "A seah of clean terumah fell into a hundred of unclean hullin, it may be eaten in small quantities, or roasted, or kneaded with fruit juice, or divided into pieces of dough so that the size of one egg be not in any one place.", 5.4. "A seah of unclean terumah that falls into one hundred seahs of clean terumah: Bet Shammai prohibits, But Bet Hillel permits. Bet Hillel said to Bet Shammai: since clean [terumah] is forbidden to non-priests and unclean [terumah is forbidden] to priests, then just as clean [terumah] is brought up, so too unclean [terumah] can be brought up. Bet Shammai answered them: No! If hullin which is treated more leniently [in that it is permitted to non-priests] allows us to bring up clean [terumah that falls into it], does terumah [which is more stringent in that it is forbidden to non-priests] also allow us to bring up that which is unclean? After [Bet Shammai] had agreed [with Bet Hillel], Rabbi Eliezer said: it should be taken out and burned. But the sages say: it is gone, on account of its being a tiny [portion of the whole mixture].", 5.5. "A seah of terumah that fell into a hundred [of hullin], and he lifted it out and fell into [hullin] elsewhere:Rabbi Eliezer says: it renders medumma as though it were certainly terumah. But the sages say: it is rendered medumma only according to proportion.", 5.6. "A seah of terumah which fell into less than a hundred [of hullin], and rendered the whole medumma, and part of this mixture fell afterwards into another place: Rabbi Eliezer says: it renders again medumma as if certain terumah [had fallen in]. But the sages say: the [first] mixture renders medumma only according to the proportion. [Similarly], that which is leavened [with terumah] renders other dough leavened [as with terumah] only according to the proportion. And drawn water disqualifies a ritual bath also only according to the proportion.", 5.7. "If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin] and he lifted [a seah] out, and then another fell in, and he lifted another out and another fell in, the pile is permissible as long as the amount of terumah does not exceed that of the hullin.", 5.8. "If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin], and before he could take it out, another fell in, the whole becomes forbidden. Rabbi Shimon permits it.", 5.9. "If a seah of terumah fell into a hundred [of hullin], and they were ground together and reduced in bulk, just as the hullin was reduced so too the terumah was reduced, and it is permitted. If a seah of terumah fell into less than a hundred [of hullin] and they were ground together and increased in bulk, just as the hullin became more, so too the terumah became more, and it is forbidden. If it is known that the kernels of hullin were better than the terumah, it is permitted. If a seah of terumah fell into less than a hundred [of hullin], and more hullin fell in afterwards, if it was accidental it is permissible, but if intentional it is forbidden.", 6.4. "If one stole terumah but did not eat it, he must return double-payment at the price of terumah. If he ate it, he must pay twice the value plus a fifth, one principal value and a fifth at the price of hullin, and the other principal at the price of terumah. If one stole terumah of dedicated property and ate it, he must repay two fifths and the principal value, for the laws of double-payment do not apply to dedicated property.",
59. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 190
5.8. "הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, שְׁחִיטָתָן בְּכָל מָקוֹם בָּעֲזָרָה, וְדָמָן טָעוּן מַתָּנָה אַחַת, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּתֵּן כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד. שִׁנָּה בַאֲכִילָתָן, הַבְּכוֹר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים, וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְכָל אָדָם, וְנֶאֱכָלִין בְּכָל הָעִיר, לְכָל אָדָם, בְּכָל מַאֲכָל, לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד. הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא בַלַּיְלָה, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא עַד חֲצוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא לִמְנוּיָו, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא צָלִי: \n", 5.8. "The first-born animal, tithe and the pesah are sacrifices of lesser sanctity. They are slaughtered in any part of the Temple court, and their blood requires one sprinkling, provided that he applies it against the base [of the altar]. They differ in the [rules governing] their eating: The first-born animal is eaten by priests [only], the tithe is eaten by anyone and they can be eaten in any part of the city, prepared in any manner, during two days and one night. The pesah can be eaten only at night, only until midnight, and it can be eaten only by those registered for it, and it can be eaten only when roasted.",
60. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 74, 167
1.3. "סְמִיכַת זְקֵנִים וַעֲרִיפַת עֶגְלָה, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן. וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה. הַחֲלִיצָה וְהַמֵּאוּנִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. נֶטַע רְבָעִי וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁאֵין דָּמָיו יְדוּעִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. הַהֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. הָעֲרָכִין הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶחָד מֵהֶן כֹּהֵן. וְהַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶן: \n", 1.3. "The laying on of the elders’ hands and the breaking of the heifer’s neck [are decided upon] by three, according to Rabbi Shimon. But Rabbi Judah says: “By five.” The rites of halitzah and “refusal” [are performed] before three. The fruit of fourth year plantings and Second Tithes whose value is not known [are redeemed] before three. Things dedicated to the Temple [are redeemed] before three. Vows of evaluation to be redeemed with movable property, [are evaluated] before three. Rabbi Judah says: “One must be a priest.” [Vows of evaluation], [to be redeemed] with land [are evaluated] before nine and a priest. And similarly [for the evaluation] of a man.",
61. Mishnah, Pesahim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201
4.8. "שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ, עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה מִחוּ בְיָדָם, וְעַל שְׁלֹשָׁה לֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן שֶׁלֹּא מִחוּ בְיָדָם, מַרְכִּיבִין דְּקָלִים כָּל הַיּוֹם, וְכוֹרְכִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְקוֹצְרִין וְגוֹדְשִׁין לִפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּחוּ בְיָדָם, מַתִּירִין גִּמְזִיּוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְאוֹכְלִין מִתַּחַת הַנְּשָׁרִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְנוֹתְנִים פֵּאָה לַיָּרָק, וּמִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים: \n", 4.8. "Six things the inhabitants of Jericho did: against three they [the sages] protested, and against three [they] did not protest.And these are those against which they did not protest: They grafted palm trees all day [on the eve of Pesah]; They ‘wrapped up’ the Shema; And they harvested and stacked [their produce] before [the bringing of] the ‘omer. And [for these] they did not protest. And these are those against which they did protest: They permitted [for use] the small branches [of sycamore trees] belonging to sacred property, And they ate the fallen fruit from beneath [trees] on Shabbat, and they gave pe’ah from vegetables; And [for these] they did protest.",
62. Mishnah, Nedarim, 2.4-2.5, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 183, 188
2.4. "סְתָם נְדָרִים לְהַחְמִיר, וּפֵרוּשָׁם לְהָקֵל. כֵּיצַד, אָמַר הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּבָשָׂר מָלִיחַ, כְּיֵין נֶסֶךְ, אִם שֶׁל שָׁמַיִם נָדַר, אָסוּר. אִם שֶׁל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה נָדַר, מֻתָּר. וְאִם סְתָם, אָסוּר. הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּחֵרֶם, אִם כְּחֵרֶם שֶׁל שָׁמַיִם, אָסוּר. וְאִם כְּחֵרֶם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים, מֻתָּר. וְאִם סְתָם, אָסוּר. הֲרֵי עָלַי כְּמַעֲשֵׂר, אִם כְּמַעְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה נָדַר, אָסוּר. וְאִם שֶׁל גֹּרֶן, מֻתָּר. וְאִם סְתָם, אָסוּר. הֲרֵי עָלַי כִּתְרוּמָה, אִם כִּתְרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה נָדַר, אָסוּר. וְאִם שֶׁל גֹּרֶן, מֻתָּר. וְאִם סְתָם, אָסוּר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, סְתָם תְּרוּמָה בִּיהוּדָה אֲסוּרָה, בַּגָּלִיל מֻתֶּרֶת, שֶׁאֵין אַנְשֵׁי גָלִיל מַכִּירִין אֶת תְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה. סְתָם חֲרָמִים, בִּיהוּדָה מֻתָּרִין, וּבַגָּלִיל אֲסוּרִין, שֶׁאֵין אַנְשֵׁי גָלִיל מַכִּירִין אֶת חֶרְמֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים: \n", 2.5. "נָדַר בְּחֵרֶם וְאָמַר, לֹא נָדַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְחֶרְמוֹ שֶׁל יָם. בְּקָרְבָּן, וְאָמַר, לֹא נָדַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְקָרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁל מְלָכִים. הֲרֵי עַצְמִי קָרְבָּן, וְאָמַר, לֹא נָדַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְעֶצֶם שֶׁהִנַּחְתִּי לִי לִהְיוֹת נוֹדֵר בּוֹ. קוֹנָם אִשְׁתִּי נֶהֱנֵית לִי, וְאָמַר לֹא נָדַרְתִּי אֶלָּא בְאִשְׁתִּי הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁגֵּרַשְׁתִּי, עַל כֻּלָּן אֵין נִשְׁאָלִים לָהֶם. וְאִם נִשְׁאֲלוּ, עוֹנְשִׁין אוֹתָן וּמַחְמִירִין עֲלֵיהֶן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, פּוֹתְחִין לָהֶם פֶּתַח מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר, וּמְלַמְּדִים אוֹתָן כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִנְהֲגוּ קַלּוּת רֹאשׁ בַּנְּדָרִים: \n", 5.4. "הֲרֵינִי עָלֶיךָ חֵרֶם, הַמֻּדָּר אָסוּר. הֲרֵי אַתְּ עָלַי חֵרֶם, הַנּוֹדֵר אָסוּר. הֲרֵינִי עָלֶיךָ וְאַתְּ עָלַי, שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִין. וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מֻתָּרִין בְּדָבָר שֶׁל עוֹלֵי בָבֶל, וַאֲסוּרִין בְּדָבָר שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר: \n", 2.4. "Unspecified vows are interpreted strictly, but if specified [they are interpreted] leniently. How so? If one says, “Behold! This is to me as salted meat”; or “As wine of libation” If he vowed by that which is to Heaven, his vow is valid. If by that which is idolatrous, his vow is invalid. And if it was unspecified, his vow is valid. [If he says], “Behold! This is to me as herem” If as a herem to Heaven, his vow is valid; If as a herem to the priests, his vow is invalid. If it was unspecified, his vow is valid. “Behold! This is to me as a tithe” If he vowed, as tithes of beasts, his vow is valid. If as grain tithes, his vow is invalid. If unspecified, his vow is valid. “Behold! This is to me as terumah” If he vowed, as the terumah of the Temple-chamber, his vow is valid. If as the terumah of the threshing-floor, his vow is invalid. If unspecified, his vow is valid. The words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: An unspecified reference to terumah in Judea is a valid vow, but not in Galilee, because the Galileans are unfamiliar with the terumah of the Temple-chamber. Unspecified references to haramim in Judea are not binding but in Galilee they are, because the Galileans are unfamiliar with priestly haramim.", 2.5. "If one vows by herem, and says, “I vowed only by a herem (a of the sea”; [If he says] “By a korban”, and then says, “I vowed only by korbanot (gifts) of kings”; [If he says] “Behold! I myself (atzmi) am a korban”, and then says, “I vowed only by the etzem (bone) which I keep for the purpose of vowing”; [If he says,] “Konam be any benefit my wife has from me”, and then says, “I spoke only of my first wife, whom I have divorced” Regarding none of these [vows] should they inquire [of a sage in order to break them], but if they inquire about them, they are punished and treated strictly, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: they are given an opening on other grounds, in order that they should not act lightly with vows.", 5.4. "[If a man says to his neighbor] “Behold, I am herem to you” the opposite party is forbidden [to derive benefit from the one who swore]. “Behold, you are herem to me” the one who swore is forbidden. “Behold, I am [herem] to you, and you are [herem] to me”, both are forbidden. Both are permitted [to enjoy the use of] those things which belong to those who came up from Babylonia [to Jerusalem], but are forbidden [the use of] things that belong to that town.",
63. Tacitus, Histories, 5.3-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, outside judea, in egypt Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 127
5.3.  Most authors agree that once during a plague in Egypt which caused bodily disfigurement, King Bocchoris approached the oracle of Ammon and asked for a remedy, whereupon he was told to purge his kingdom and to transport this race into other lands, since it was hateful to the gods. So the Hebrews were searched out and gathered together; then, being abandoned in the desert, while all others lay idle and weeping, one only of the exiles, Moses by name, warned them not to hope for help from gods or men, for they were deserted by both, but to trust to themselves, regarding as a guide sent from heaven the one whose assistance should first give them escape from their present distress. They agreed, and then set out on their journey in utter ignorance, but trusting to chance. Nothing caused them so much distress as scarcity of water, and in fact they had already fallen exhausted over the plain nigh unto death, when a herd of wild asses moved from their pasturage to a rock that was shaded by a grove of trees. Moses followed them, and, conjecturing the truth from the grassy ground, discovered abundant streams of water. This relieved them, and they then marched six days continuously, and on the seventh seized a country, expelling the former inhabitants; there they founded a city and dedicated a temple. 5.4.  To establish his influence over this people for all time, Moses introduced new religious practices, quite opposed to those of all other religions. The Jews regard as profane all that we hold sacred; on the other hand, they permit all that we abhor. They dedicated, in a shrine, a statue of that creature whose guidance enabled them to put an end to their wandering and thirst, sacrificing a ram, apparently in derision of Ammon. They likewise offer the ox, because the Egyptians worship Apis. They abstain from pork, in recollection of a plague, for the scab to which this animal is subject once afflicted them. By frequent fasts even now they bear witness to the long hunger with which they were once distressed, and the unleavened Jewish bread is still employed in memory of the haste with which they seized the grain. They say that they first chose to rest on the seventh day because that day ended their toils; but after a time they were led by the charms of indolence to give over the seventh year as well to inactivity. Others say that this is done in honour of Saturn, whether it be that the primitive elements of their religion were given by the Idaeans, who, according to tradition, were expelled with Saturn and became the founders of the Jewish race, or is due to the fact that, of the seven planets that rule the fortunes of mankind, Saturn moves in the highest orbit and has the greatest potency; and that many of the heavenly bodies traverse their paths and courses in multiples of seven.
64. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 25.2-26.2, 26.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 195, 230
65. Tosefta, Demai, 7.1-7.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 197
7.1. "ישראל שקבל שדה מישראל וכהן מכהן ולוי מלוי חולקין ביניהם ישראל וכהן שקבל שדה מלוי או ישראל ולוי שקבל שדה מכהן רשאין להתנות ביניהן שהמעשר לאמצע.", 7.1. "כהן שמכר שדה לישראל ע\"מ שהמעשרות שלו לעולם ומת אין [לו] במעשרות על מנת שמעשרות [לבני] ומת מעשרות לבנים על מנת שהמעשרות שלי כל זמן ששדה לפניך מכרה לאחר אע\"פ שחזרה ולקחה ממנו אין לו במעשרות כלום.", 7.2. "ישראל שקבל שדה מכהן תרומה לכהן מעשר ראשון ומעשר שני חולקין ביניהם קבל שדה מלוי מעשר ראשון תרומה ומעשר שני חולקים ביניהן לוי שקבל שדה מכהן תרומה לכהן ומעשר ראשון ומעשר שני חולקין ביניהן כהן שקבל שדה מלוי מעשר ראשון ללוי תרומה ומעשר שני חולקין ביניהם ישראל שקבל שדה מכהן אמר לו על מנת שהמעשר שלי על מנת שהמעשרות שלך על מנת שהמעשרות שלי ושלך [אסור] כהן שקבל שדה מישראל על מנת שהמעשרות שלי [מותר] על מנת שהמעשרות שלך [אסור] על מנת שהמעשרות שלי ושלך אם קבל עליו כדרך המקבלים מותר ואם לאו אסור.", 7.3. "ישראל שקבל שדה [מכהן אמר ע\"מ שאטול את המעשרות ואתנם לפלוני אסור ישראל שקבל שדה מכהן אמר על מנת שאטול אני ואתה ונותנם לפלוני מותר] כהן ולוי ששכרו ושחכרו מכהן ומלוי המעשרות לשוכר ולחוכר.", 7.4. "כהן ולוי [שמכרו] פירות שדה [לישראל] במחובר לקרקע מעשרות שלהן בתלוש מן הקרקע עד שלא מירחו מעשרות שלהן משמירחו מעשרות שלו מפריש תרומה ומעשר ונותן לכהן והשאר שלו.", 7.5. "[מכר הוא להן] פירות עד שלא מירחו מעשרות הרי אלו שלו משמירחו מעשרות הרי אלו שלהן מפריש תרומה [ותרומת מעשר] ונותנן לכל כהן שירצה.", 7.6. "ישראל שקבל מעות מכהן ליקח בהן פירות למחצית שכר אמר לו פחתו או הותירו הרי הן שלי מעשרות שלך [אסור] כהן שקבל מעות [מישראל] ליקח בהן פירות למחצית שכר אמר לו פחתו או הותירו הרי הן [שלי מעשרות שלך] אם נתן לו שכרו מותר ואם לאו אסור.", 7.7. "ישראל שקבל שדה מכהן תרומה לכהן מכרה לישראל חולקין ביניהם קבל שדה מישראל חולקין ביניהן מכרה לכהן חולקין קבל שדה מבת ישראל חולקין ביניהן נשאת לכהן חולקין ביניהן קבל שדה מבת כהן תרומה לבת כהן נשאת לישראל חולקין ביניהן נתארמלה או נתגרשה חזרה לתחלתה.", 7.8. "פרתו של כהן שהיתה שומא אצל ישראל וילדה בכור הבכור לכהן דברי רבי יהודה וחכ\"א הבכור לשניהן אמר להן רבי יהודה אי אתם מודים בפירות שדה שהן שלו אמרו לו שדה גופה שלו ופרה גופה לשניהן אף פרה אם היתה גופה שלו בכור לכהן.", 7.9. "הנותן שדהו בקבלה לכותי [ולנכרי ולמי שאינו נאמן על המעשרות] אע\"פ שאינו רשאי לעשות כן אע\"פ שלא בא לעונת המעשרות צריך לעשר על ידו משבאו לעונת מעשר הנותן שדהו בקבלה לעם הארץ עד שלא באו לעונת המעשרות צריך לעשר על ידו משבאו לעונת המעשרות [אין] צריך לעשר [על ידו] כיצד הוא עושה עומד על הגורן ונוטל ואינו חושש [למה] שאכלו שאין אחריות לרמאין.", 7.11. "ישראל שקבל שדה מכהן אמר לו ע\"מ שהמעשרות שלי ארבע או חמש שנים מותר לעולם אסור שאין כהן עושה כהן וכן בן לוי שהיה חייב מעות לישראל לא יהא גובה מאחרים ומפריש עליו שאין לוי עושה לוי.", 7.12. "מפריש ישראל בין ברשות לוי בין ברשות עני ועושה חשבון באחרונה דברי רבי מאיר ר' יהודה ור' יוסי ור' שמעון אוסרין אלא אם כן נותן לו [עישור].", 7.13. "כהן שמכר שדה לישראל אמר לו על מנת שהמעשרות שלי ארבע וחמש שנים אין רשאי ליטע כרם ולזורעה [חטים] ולעשותה שדה קנים לעולם רשאי ליטעה כרם ולזורעה [חטים] ולעשותה שדה קנים.",
66. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 199
67. Tosefta, Pesahim, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201
68. Mishnah, Temurah, 7.1-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 167, 168
7.1. "יֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ מַה שֶׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת. וְיֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ. שֶׁקָּדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה, וְחַיָּבִין עֲלֵיהֶם מִשּׁוּם פִּגּוּל, נוֹתָר, וְטָמֵא, וְלָדָן וַחֲלָבָן אָסוּר לְאַחַר פִּדְיוֹנָם, וְהַשׁוֹחֲטָם בַּחוּץ חַיָּב, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין מֵהֶם לָאֻמָּנִים בִּשְׂכָרָן, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבָּיִת: \n", 7.2. "יֵשׁ בְּקָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ, שֶׁסְּתָם הֶקְדֵּשׁוֹת לְבֶדֶק הַבָּיִת. הֶקְדֵּשׁ בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת חָל עַל הַכֹּל, וּמוֹעֲלִין בְּגִדּוּלֵיהֶן, וְאֵין בָּהֶם הֲנָאָה לְכֹהֲנִים: \n", 7.3. "אֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי מִזְבֵּחַ וְאֶחָד קָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, אֵין מְשַׁנִּין אוֹתָן מִקְּדֻשָּׁה לִקְדֻשָּׁה, וּמַקְדִּישִׁין אוֹתָן הֶקְדֵּשׁ עִלּוּי, וּמַחֲרִימִין אוֹתָן. וְאִם מֵתוּ, יִקָּבְרוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קָדְשֵׁי בֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, אִם מֵתוּ, יִפָּדוּ: \n", 7.1. "There are [laws] which apply to dedications for the altar which do not apply to dedications for repairs of the Temple, and there are [laws] which apply to dedications for the repairs of the Temple which do not apply to dedications for the altar.Dedications for the altar effect a substitute; They are subject to the laws of piggul, remt and ritual uncleanness; Their offspring and milk are forbidden [even] after their redemption; If one kills them outside [the Temple] he is guilty; And wages are not paid from them to artisans, Which is not the case with dedications for temple repairs.", 7.2. "There are [laws] which apply to dedications for the repairs of the Temple which don’t apply to dedications to the altar.Unspecified dedications go to the repairs of the Temple. Dedication for the repairs of the temple can have an effect on all things, The law of sacrilege applies to things that grow from them. And there is no benefit to be derived from them for the priest.", 7.3. "Both dedications for the altar and dedications for the repairs of the Temple may not be changed from one holiness to another. One may dedicate them with a value-dedication, and one may conscribe them. If they die, they are buried. Rabbi Shimon says: dedications for the repairs of the temple, if they died, they are redeemed.",
69. Tosefta, Temurah, 1.5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 187
1.5. "אמר רגלה של זו עולה אין כולה עולה אלא אותה הרגל בלבד מה יעשה לה תמכר לחייבי עולות חוץ מרגלה ודמיה חולין דברי ר' מאיר. רבי יהודה ור' יוסי ורבי שמעון אומרים אין כולה עולה. אמר רבי נראין דברי ר' יהודה בדבר שאין הנשמה תלויה בו ודברי רבי יוסי ורבי שמעון בדבר שהנשמה תלויה בו. רבי יוסי אומר עושין תמורה שלימין באברים עושין תמורה ברובע ונרבע ונרבע במוקצה ובנעבד באתנן ובמחיר וכלאים ובטרפה וביוצא דופן ר' אליעזר אומר הכלאים והטרפה ויוצא דופן וטומטום ואנדרוגינוס לא קדושין ולא מקדישין.",
70. Palestinian Talmud, Hallah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 198, 199
71. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 200
72. Mishna, Challah, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 208
1.9. "הַחַלָּה וְהַתְּרוּמָה, חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ מִיתָה וְחֹמֶשׁ, וַאֲסוּרִים לְזָרִים, וְהֵם נִכְסֵי כֹהֵן, וְעוֹלִין בְּאֶחָד וּמֵאָה, וּטְעוּנִין רְחִיצַת יָדַיִם וְהַעֲרֵב שֶׁמֶשׁ, וְאֵין נִטָּלִין מִן הַטָּהוֹר עַל הַטָּמֵא, אֶלָּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף וּמִן הַדָּבָר הַגָּמוּר. הָאוֹמֵר, כָּל גָּרְנִי תְרוּמָה וְכָל עִסָּתִי חַלָּה, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם, עַד שֶׁיְּשַׁיֵּר מִקְצָת: \n", 1.9. "In the case of hallah and terumah:One is liable for death on account of [having eaten] them death [intentionally], or to [repay] an added fifth [if unwittingly]; They are forbidden to non-priests; They are the property of the priest; They are nullified [in a mixture of] one-hundred-and-one [parts, the rest being non-sacred dough or produce]; They require washing of one’s hands; And [waiting until] the setting of the sun [prior to eating them]; They may not be separated from pure [stuff] for impure; But rather from that which is close, And from that [in a] finished [state]. If one said: “All my threshing-floor is terumah, or all my dough is hallah,” he has not said anything, unless he has left some over.",
73. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 197
35b. מיתיבי (יחזקאל מד, יט) ולבשו בגדים אחרים ולא יקדשו את העם בבגדיהם,מאי לאו אחרים חשובין מהן לא אחרים פחותים מהן,תני רב הונא בר יהודה ואמרי לה רב שמואל בר יהודה אחר שכלתה עבודת ציבור כהן שעשתה לו אמו כתונת לובשה ועובד בה עבודת יחיד ובלבד שימסרנה לציבור פשיטא,מהו דתימא ניחוש שמא לא ימסרנה יפה יפה קמ"ל אמרו עליו על רבי ישמעאל בן פאבי שעשתה לו אמו כתונת של מאה מנה ולובשה ועובד בה עבודת יחיד ומסרה לציבור,אמרו עליו על ר' אלעזר בן חרסום שעשתה לו אמו כתונת משתי ריבוא ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים ללובשה מפני שנראה כערום ומי מתחזי והאמר מר חוטן כפול ששה אמר אביי כחמרא במזגא,ת"ר עני ועשיר ורשע באין לדין לעני אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אומר עני הייתי וטרוד במזונותי אומרים לו כלום עני היית יותר מהלל,אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן שבכל יום ויום היה עושה ומשתכר בטרפעיק חציו היה נותן לשומר בית המדרש וחציו לפרנסתו ולפרנסת אנשי ביתו פעם אחת לא מצא להשתכר ולא הניחו שומר בית המדרש להכנס עלה ונתלה וישב על פי ארובה כדי שישמע דברי אלהים חיים מפי שמעיה ואבטליון,אמרו אותו היום ערב שבת היה ותקופת טבת היתה וירד עליו שלג מן השמים כשעלה עמוד השחר אמר לו שמעיה לאבטליון אבטליון אחי בכל יום הבית מאיר והיום אפל שמא יום המעונן הוא הציצו עיניהן וראו דמות אדם בארובה עלו ומצאו עליו רום שלש אמות שלג פרקוהו והרחיצוהו וסיכוהו והושיבוהו כנגד המדורה אמרו ראוי זה לחלל עליו את השבת,עשיר אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אומר עשיר הייתי וטרוד הייתי בנכסי אומרים לו כלום עשיר היית יותר מרבי אלעזר אמרו עליו על רבי אלעזר בן חרסום שהניח לו אביו אלף עיירות ביבשה וכנגדן אלף ספינות בים ובכל יום ויום נוטל נאד של קמח על כתיפו ומהלך מעיר לעיר וממדינה למדינה ללמוד תורה,פעם אחת מצאוהו עבדיו ועשו בו אנגריא אמר להן בבקשה מכם הניחוני ואלך ללמוד תורה אמרו לו חיי רבי אלעזר בן חרסום שאין מניחין אותך ומימיו לא הלך וראה אותן אלא יושב ועוסק בתורה כל היום וכל הלילה,רשע אומרים לו מפני מה לא עסקת בתורה אם אמר נאה הייתי וטרוד ביצרי הייתי אומרים לו כלום נאה היית מיוסף אמרו עליו על יוסף הצדיק בכל יום ויום היתה אשת פוטיפר משדלתו בדברים בגדים שלבשה לו שחרית לא לבשה לו ערבית בגדים שלבשה לו ערבית לא לבשה לו שחרית,אמרה לו השמע לי אמר לה לאו אמרה לו הריני חובשתך בבית האסורין אמר לה (תהלים קמו, ז) ה' מתיר אסורים הריני כופפת קומתך (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' זוקף כפופים הריני מסמא את עיניך (תהלים קמו, ח) ה' פוקח עורים נתנה לו אלף ככרי כסף לשמוע אליה לשכב אצלה להיות עמה ולא רצה לשמוע אליה,לשכב אצלה בעוה"ז להיות עמה לעוה"ב נמצא הלל מחייב את העניים רבי אלעזר בן חרסום מחייב את העשירים יוסף מחייב את הרשעים, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בא לו אצל פרו ופרו היה עומד בין האולם ולמזבח ראשו לדרום ופניו למערב והכהן עומד במזרח ופניו למערב וסומך שתי ידיו עליו ומתודה,וכך היה אומר אנא השם עויתי פשעתי חטאתי לפניך אני וביתי אנא השם כפר נא לעונות ולפשעים ולחטאים שעויתי ושפשעתי ושחטאתי לפניך אני וביתי ככתוב בתורת משה עבדך (ויקרא טז, ל) כי ביום הזה יכפר וגו' והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד 35b. b The Gemara raises an objection. /b It is stated: “And it shall be that when they enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall be clothed with linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, while they minister in the gates of the inner court, and within” (Ezekiel 44:17). This verse is referring to the Yom Kippur service, as during the year the High Priest performed the service in eight priestly vestments made partially of wool. Two verses later the prophet says: “And when they go forth into the outer court, into the outer court to the people, they shall remove their garments in which they serve, and lay them in the sacred chambers, b and they shall put on other garments, so that they do not sanctify the people with their garments” /b (Ezekiel 44:19).,The Gemara infers: b What, doesn’t “other” /b mean b more important than /b the first set of linen garments? The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b although b “other” /b means different garments, it means garments b inferior to them, /b the first set of linen garments. The High Priest does not don a second set of garments to effect atonement; rather, he dons them in deference to God to remove the spoon and the coal pan from the Holy of Holies., b Rav Huna bar Yehuda, and some say Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, taught: After the public service concluded, a priest whose mother had made him /b a priestly b tunic /b may b wear it and perform an individual service /b while wearing b it, /b such as removal of the spoon and the coal pan, which is not a service in and of itself, b provided he transfers it to /b the possession of b the public. /b All services performed by the priest must be performed while he is wearing sacred garments owned by the public, as all the Temple vessels are. The Gemara asks: This is b obvious; /b once he transfers it to the possession of the public, it is Temple property like any other vessel that an individual donates to the Temple. What is novel in this statement?,The Gemara answers: b Lest you say /b that the concern is that since he is the one wearing it b perhaps /b he will intend to retain ownership b and will not transfer it wholeheartedly; /b therefore, b it teaches us /b that if he transfers possession to the public, that is not a concern. Apropos this i halakha /i , the Gemara relates: b They said about /b the High Priest b Rabbi Yishmael ben Pabi that his mother made him a tunic worth one hundred i maneh /i . He donned it and performed an individual service and transferred /b possession of it b to the public. /b ,And similarly, b they said about /b the High Priest b Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum that his mother made him a tunic /b worth b twenty thousand /b dinars, b but his fellow priests did not allow him to wear it because /b it was transparent and b he appeared as /b one who is b naked. /b The Gemara asks: b And could /b he b be seen /b through a garment made to the specifications of the priestly vestments? b Didn’t the Master say: The threads /b of the priestly vestments b were six-fold? /b Since the clothes were woven from threads that thick, his body could not have been seen through them. b Abaye said: It is like wine in /b a thick b glass /b cup. His flesh could not actually be seen, but since it was very fine linen, it was somewhat translucent and his skin color was discernible.,§ Apropos the great wealth of Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum, the Gemara cites that which b the Sages taught: A poor /b person, b and a wealthy /b person, b and a wicked /b person b come to /b face b judgment /b before the Heavenly court for their conduct in this world. b To the poor /b person, the members of the court b say: Why did you not engage in Torah? If he /b rationalizes his conduct b and says: I was poor and preoccupied with /b earning enough to pay for b my sustece /b and that is why I did not engage in Torah study, b they say to him: Were you any poorer than Hillel, /b who was wretchedly poor and nevertheless attempted to study Torah?, b They said about Hillel the Elder that each and every day he would work and earn a half-dinar, half of which he would give to the guard of the study hall and half of which /b he spent b for his sustece and the sustece of the members of his family. One time he did not find /b employment b to earn /b a wage, b and the guard of the study hall did not allow him to enter. He ascended /b to the roof, b suspended /b himself, b and sat at the edge of the skylight in order to hear the words /b of the Torah b of the living God from the mouths of Shemaya and Avtalyon, /b the spiritual leaders of that generation.,The Sages continued and b said: That day was Shabbat eve and it was the /b winter b season of Tevet, and snow fell upon him from the sky. When it was dawn, Shemaya said to Avtalyon: Avtalyon, my brother, every day /b at this hour b the /b study b hall /b is already b bright /b from the sunlight streaming through the skylight, b and today it is dark; is it perhaps a cloudy day? They focused their eyes and saw the image of a man in the skylight. They ascended and found him /b covered with b snow three cubits high. They extricated him /b from the snow, b and they washed him and smeared /b oil b on him, and they sat him opposite the bonfire /b to warm him. b They said: This /b man b is worthy /b for us b to desecrate Shabbat for him. /b Saving a life overrides Shabbat in any case; however, this great man is especially deserving. Clearly, poverty is no excuse for the failure to attempt to study Torah.,And if b a wealthy /b man comes before the heavenly court, the members of the court b say to him: Why did you not engage in Torah? If he says: I was wealthy and preoccupied with /b managing b my possessions, they say to him: Were you any wealthier than Rabbi Elazar, /b who was exceedingly wealthy and nevertheless studied Torah? b They said about Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum that his father left him /b an inheritance of b one thousand villages on land, and corresponding to them, one thousand ships at sea. And each and every day he takes /b a leather b jug of flour on his shoulder and walks from city to city and from state to state to study Torah /b from the Torah scholars in each of those places., b One time /b as he passed through the villages in his estate and b his servants found him, /b did not recognize him, b and, /b thinking he was a resident of the town, b they pressed him into service [ i angarya /i ] /b for the master of the estate. b He said to them: I beseech you; let me be and I will go study Torah. They said: /b We swear b by the life of Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum that /b we b will not let you be. /b The Gemara comments: b And in all his days, he never went and saw /b all his possessions and his property; b rather, /b he would b sit and engage in /b the study of b Torah all day and all night. /b ,And if a wicked man comes to judgment, the members of the court b say to him: Why did you not engage in Torah? If he said: I was handsome and preoccupied with my /b evil b inclination, /b as I had many temptations, b they say to him: Were you any more handsome than Joseph, /b who did not neglect Torah despite his beauty? b They said about Joseph the righteous: Each and every day, the wife of Potiphar seduced him with words. /b In addition, b the clothes that she wore to /b entice b him in the morning, she did not wear to /b entice b him in the evening. The clothes that she wore to /b entice b him in the evening, she did not wear to /b entice b him in the morning /b of the next day.,One day b she said to him: Submit to me /b and have relations with me. br b He said to her: No. /b br b She said to him: I will incarcerate you in the prison. He said to her: /b I do not fear you, as it is stated: b “God releases prisoners” /b (Psalms 146:7). br b She said to him: I will /b cause you to be b bent over /b with suffering. br He said: b “God straightens those who are bent over” /b (Psalms 146:8). br She said b I will blind your eyes. /b br He said to her b “God opens the eyes of the blind” /b (Psalms 146:8). br b She gave him a thousand talents of silver to submit to her, “to lie with her and be with her” /b (Genesis 39:10), b and he refused. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: Had he submitted to her b to lie with her in this world, /b it would have been decreed in Heaven that he would b be with her in the World-to-Come. /b Therefore, he refused. b Consequently, Hillel obligates the poor /b to study Torah, b Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥarsum obligates the wealthy, /b and b Joseph obligates the wicked. /b For each category of people, there is a role model who overcame his preoccupations and temptations to study Torah., strong MISHNA: /strong The High Priest b comes /b and stands b next to his bull, and his bull was standing between the Entrance Hall and the altar /b with b its head /b facing b to the south and its face to the west. And the priest stands to the east /b of the bull, b and his face /b points b to the west. And /b the priest b places his two hands on /b the bull b and confesses. /b , b And this is what he would say /b in his confession: b Please, God, I have sinned, I have done wrong, /b and b I have rebelled before You, I and my family. Please, God, grant atonement, please, for the sins, and for the wrongs, and for the rebellions that I have sinned, and done wrong, and rebelled before You, I and my family, as it is written in the Torah of Moses your servant: “For on this day atonement shall be made /b for you to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord” (Leviticus 16:30). b And /b the priests and the people who were in the courtyard b respond after he /b recites the name of God: b Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. /b
74. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 200
38b. משלהם תהא והילכתא כוותיה דאביי ולית הילכתא כוותיה דרב חסדא:,(סימן מתאו"ה לברכ"ה דוכ"ן בעבוד"ה כו"ס מכי"ר נהנ"ה בעגל"ה),אמר ר' יהושע בן לוי מנין שהקב"ה מתאוה לברכת כהנים שנאמר (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי על בני ישראל ואני אברכם ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל כהן שמברך מתברך ושאינו מברך אין מתברך שנאמר (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל כהן שאינו עולה לדוכן עובר בשלשה עשה כה תברכו אמור להם ושמו את שמי,רב אמר חוששין שמא בן גרושה או בן חלוצה הוא,ולא פליגי הא דסליק לפרקים הא דלא סליק לפרקים,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי כל כהן שאינו עולה בעבודה שוב אינו עולה שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם וירד מעשות החטאת והעולה והשלמים מה להלן בעבודה אף כאן בעבודה,איני והא ר' אמי ורבי אסי סלקי רבי אמי ורבי אסי מעיקרא הוו עקרי כרעייהו ממטא לא הוה מטו התם וכדתני ר' אושעיא לא שנו אלא שלא עקר את רגליו אבל עקר את רגליו עולה,ותנן נמי אם הבטחתו שנושא את כפיו וחוזר לתפלתו רשאי והוינן בה הא לא עקר אלא דנד פורתא הכא נמי דעקר פורתא,ואמר ריב"ל אין נותנין כוס של ברכה לברך אלא לטוב עין שנאמר (משלי כב, ט) טוב עין הוא יבורך כי נתן מלחמו לדל אל תיקרי יבורך אלא יברך,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי מנין שאפי' עופות מכירין בצרי העין שנאמר (משלי א, יז) כי חנם מזורה הרשת בעיני כל בעל כנף,ואמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל הנהנה מצרי העין עובר בלאו שנאמר (משלי כג, ו) אל תלחם את לחם רע עין וגו' כי כמו שער בנפשו כן הוא אכול ושתה יאמר לך וגו' רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר עובר בשני לאוין אל תלחם ואל תתאו,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי אין עגלה ערופה באה אלא בשביל צרי העין,שנאמר (דברים כא, ז) וענו ואמרו ידינו לא שפכו את הדם הזה וכי על לבנו עלתה שזקני ב"ד שופכי דמים הם אלא לא בא לידינו ופטרנוהו ולא ראינוהו והנחנוהו לא בא לידינו ופטרנוהו בלא מזונות לא ראינוהו והנחנוהו בלא לוייה,אמר אדא א"ר שמלאי בית הכנסת שכולה כהנים כולן עולין לדוכן למי מברכין אמר ר' זירא לאחיהם שבשדות,איני והתני אבא בריה דרב מנימין בר חייא עם שאחורי כהנים אינן בכלל ברכה לא קשיא הא דאניסי הא דלא אניסי,והתני רב שימי מבירתא דשיחורי בית הכנסת שכולה כהנים מקצתן עולין ומקצתן עונין אמן,לא קשיא הא דאישתייר בי עשרה הא דלא אישתייר בי עשרה,גופא תנא אבא בריה דרב מנימין בר חייא עם שאחורי כהנים אינן בכלל ברכה,פשיטא אריכי באפי גוצי לא מפסקי תיבה לא מפסקא מחיצה מאי ת"ש דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אפילו מחיצה של ברזל אינה מפסקת בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים,איבעיא להו צדדין מהו אמר אבא מר בר רב אשי ת"ש דתנן נתכוון להזות לפניו 38b. b should be from them; /b one of the priests themselves should call: Priests. The Gemara concludes: b And the i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion b of Abaye, /b that when only one priest is present, the prayer leader does not call: Priest. b And the i halakha /i is not in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rav Ḥisda, /b as an Israelite may also call: Priests.,§ The Gemara cites b a mnemonic /b device for the statements of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: b Desires the benediction, platform, during the service, cup, recognize, derives benefit, from a heifer. /b , b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where /b is it derived b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, desires the Priestly Benediction? As it is stated: “So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them” /b (Numbers 6:27). This shows that God waits for the priests to bless the people, and only then He Himself blesses them. b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who blesses /b the people b is blessed /b from Heaven, b and one who does not bless /b the people b is not blessed, as it is stated: “And I will bless those who bless you” /b (Genesis 12:3)., b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend the platform /b to recite the Priestly Benediction b violates three positive /b mitzvot: b “So you shall bless,” “And you shall say to them” /b (Numbers 6:23), and b “So shall they put My name” /b (Numbers 6:27)., b Rav says: /b One need be b concerned that /b a priest who does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction b is perhaps the son of /b a priest and b a divorced woman, or the son of /b a priest and b a i yevama /i who has performed i ḥalitza /i [ i ḥalutza /i ]. /b Perhaps he does not ascend to recite the Priestly Benediction because he is disqualified from the priesthood.,The Gemara comments: b And they do not disagree. This /b statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is referring to a case b where he ascends periodically. /b Therefore, there is no reason to believe that he is disqualified from the priesthood, and the assumption is that he violates three positive mitzvot. Whereas b that /b statement of Rav is referring to a case b where one does not ascend /b to recite the Priestly Benediction even b periodically, /b and therefore there is reason to suspect that he is disqualified from the priesthood., b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Any priest who does not ascend /b the platform b during /b the blessing of b the /b Temple b service /b recited in the i Amida /i prayer b may no longer ascend /b to recite the benediction, b as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them; and he came down from offering the sin-offering, and the burnt-offering, and the peace-offerings” /b (Leviticus 9:22). b Just as there, /b in the Tabernacle, Aaron lifted up his hands b during the service, /b as evident from the fact that only after he blessed them does it say that he came down from sacrificing the offerings, b so too here, /b in the i Amida /i prayer, the Priestly Benediction is recited b during /b the blessing of Temple b service. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t /b the priests b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi ascend /b after the blessing of the service? The Gemara answers: b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would begin walking /b to the platform during the blessing of the service, but b they would not arrive there /b until after the conclusion of this blessing. b And /b this is sufficient b in accordance with what Rabbi Oshaya taught: They taught /b that a priest may not recite the benediction if he did not ascend the platform during the blessing of Temple service b only /b in a case b where he did not begin walking. But if he began walking /b before the prayer leader finished the blessing, b he may ascend the platform /b even after he has finished the blessing., b And /b concerning this issue, b we also learned /b in a mishna ( i Berakhot /i 34a): A priest who serves as prayer leader does not recite the Priestly Benediction, but b if he is certain that he can lift his hands /b and recite the benediction, b and /b then b resume his prayer /b without becoming confused, b he is permitted /b to do so. b And we discussed it /b and raised the following difficulty: If b he did not begin /b walking to ascend the platform during the blessing of the service, how is it permitted for him to recite the benediction? b Rather, /b it must be explained b that he moved slightly /b to show that he also wanted to ascend the platform. b Here too, /b the statement of Rabbi Oshaya is referring even to a case b where /b the priest b uprooted /b himself b slightly /b from his place during the blessing of the service., b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: One may give a cup of blessing to recite the blessing /b of Grace after Meals b only to /b someone with b a good eye, /b i.e., a generous person, b as it is stated: “One who has a good eye will be blessed [ i yevorakh /i ], for he gives of his bread to the poor” /b (Proverbs 22:9). b Do not read /b it: “ b Will be blessed.” Rather, /b read it: b Will bless [ i yevarekh /i ]. /b , b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: From where /b is it derived b that even birds recognize miserly /b people and do not eat the food they have set in bird traps? b As it is stated: “For in vain the net is spread in the eyes of any bird” /b (Proverbs 1:17)., b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Anyone who derives benefit from miserly people transgresses a prohibition, as it is stated: “Do not eat the bread of one who has an evil eye, /b and do not desire his delicacies, b for as one that has reckoned within himself, so he is. He says to you: Eat and drink, /b but his heart is not with you” (Proverbs 23:6–7). b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: He transgresses two prohibitions, /b as it says b “do not eat” and /b also b “do not desire.” /b , b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: /b When a person is found slain between two cities and it is not known who killed him, b a heifer whose neck is broken is brought. /b This occurs b only because of miserly people. /b , b As it is stated: “And they shall speak and say: Our hands have not shed this blood” /b (Deuteronomy 21:7). b But did it enter our hearts /b to think b that the Elders of the court are murderers? /b Why it is necessary for them to publicize that they did not kill him? b Rather, /b they must declare: It is b not /b so that this victim b came to us and we dismissed him, and /b it is b not /b so that b we saw him and left him. /b In other words, b he did not come to us and we /b in turn b dismissed him without food, /b and b we did not see him and /b then b leave him without an escort. /b It is miserly people who do not provide others with food and cause them to travel to places where they might be murdered.,§ b Adda said /b that b Rabbi Samlai says: /b In b a synagogue that is /b made up b entirely /b of b priests, everyone ascends the platform /b to recite the Priestly Benediction. The Gemara asks: If the entire congregation is composed of priests, b for whom do they utter the blessing? Rabbi Zeira says: /b They say the blessing b for their brethren who are in the fields. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar Ḥiyya, teach /b that the b people who are /b standing b behind /b the backs of b the priests are not included in the /b Priestly b Benediction? /b The Gemara answers: That is b not difficult. This /b is a case b where /b the people b are compelled /b to be in the fields because of their work, and they are therefore included in the benediction. Whereas b that /b statement is referring to people b who are not compelled /b to be away but still do not stand face-to-face with the priests. Consequently, they are not included in the benediction.,The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Rav Shimi of Birte deShiḥorei teach /b the following i baraita /i : In b a synagogue that is /b made up b entirely /b of b priests, some of them ascend /b to recite the benediction b and some of them answer amen? /b ,The Gemara answers: That is b not difficult. That /b is a case b where, /b if some of the priests recite the benediction, a quorum of b ten /b priests still b remains /b to receive the benediction and answer amen. Therefore, only some of the priests ascend to recite the benediction. By contrast, b this /b case, which Rabbi Simlai was referring to, is a case b where /b a quorum of b ten does not remain /b to answer amen, so it is better for all of the priests to ascend and bless the people working in the fields.,The Gemara returns to b the /b matter b itself /b cited above: b Abba, son of Rav Minyamin bar Ḥiyya, taught: /b The b people who are /b standing b behind the priests are not included in the benediction. /b ,The Gemara raises several questions with regard to this statement: It b is obvious /b that b tall people /b standing b in front of short people do not interpose /b between the priests and the shorter people with regard to the Priestly Benediction. Similarly, b a chest /b or ark containing a Torah scroll b does not interpose /b between the priests and the people. However, b what /b is the i halakha /i with regard to b a partition? Come /b and b hear /b an answer from b what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even an iron partition does not interpose between the Jewish people and their Father in Heaven; /b the people are included in the benediction., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the i halakha /i in the case of people who are standing to b the sides /b of the priests? Are they included in the blessing? b Abba Mar bar Rav Ashi said: Come /b and b hear /b an answer, b as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Para /i 12:2) with regard to the i halakha /i of sprinkling the waters of purification on vessels that contracted ritual impurity imparted by a corpse: If one b intended to sprinkle /b the water b forward /b
75. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 209
46b. לפי שמצינו שהשוה הכתוב הקטן כגדול לזדון שבועה ולאיסר ולבל יחל יכול יהא חייב על הקדשו קרבן,ת"ל (במדבר ל, ב) זה הדבר,קתני מיהת לאיסר ולבל יחל חייב אימא לאיסור בל יחל,איסור בל יחל מה נפשך אי מופלא סמוך לאיש דאורייתא מילקא נמי לילקי ואי מופלא סמוך לאיש לאו דאורייתא איסור נמי ליכא לאותן המוזהרים עליו,שמע מינה קטן אוכל נבלות ב"ד מצווין עליו להפרישו הכא במאי עסקינן כגון שהקדיש הוא ואכלו אחרים,הניחא למ"ד הקדיש הוא ואכלו אחרים לוקין אלא למ"ד אין לוקין מאי איכא למימר דאיתמר הקדיש הוא ואכלו אחרים רב כהנא אמר אין לוקין רבי יוחנן ור"ל דאמרי תרוויהו לוקין,מדרבנן וקרא אסמכתא בעלמא,גופא הקדיש ואכלו אחרים רב כהנא אמר אין לוקין רבי יוחנן ור"ל דאמרי תרוייהו לוקין במאי קמיפלגי מר סבר מופלא סמוך לאיש דאורייתא ומר סבר מופלא סמוך לאיש מדרבנן,מתיב רב ירמיה יתומה שנדרה בעלה מפר לה אי אמרת בשלמא מופלא סמוך לאיש דרבנן אתו נשואין דרבנן ומבטלי נדרא דרבנן אלא אי אמרת דאורייתא אתו נשואין דרבנן ומבטלי נדרא דאורייתא,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל בעלה מפר לה ממה נפשך אי דרבנן דרבנן הוא אי דאורייתא קטן אוכל נבלות הוא ואין ב"ד מצווין עליו להפרישו,והא כי גדלה אכלה בהפרה קמייתא,אמר רבה בר ליואי בעלה מפר לה כל שעה ושעה והוא שבעל,והא אין בעל מפר בקודמין כדרב פינחס משמיה דרבא דאמר רב פנחס משמיה דרבא כל הנודרת על דעת בעלה היא נודרת,אמר אביי ת"ש קטן שלא הביא ב' שערות רבי יהודה אומר אין תרומתו תרומה רבי יוסי אומר עד שלא בא לעונת נדרים אין תרומתו תרומה משבא לעונת נדרים תרומתו תרומה,סברוה קסבר ר' יוסי תרומה בזמן הזה דאורייתא אי אמרת בשלמא מופלא סמוך לאיש דאורייתא אתי גברא דאורייתא ומתקן טבלא דאורייתא אלא אי אמרת דרבנן אתי גברא דרבנן ומתקן טבלא דאורייתא לא קסבר רבי יוסי תרומה בזמן הזה דרבנן,וסבר ר' יוסי תרומה בזמן הזה דרבנן והתניא בסדר עולם (דברים ל, ה) אשר ירשו אבותיך וירשתה,ירושה ראשונה ושניה יש להן שלישית אין להן,וא"ר יוחנן מאן תנא סדר עולם ר' יוסי,ר' יוסי תני לה ולא סבר לה ה"נ מסתברא דתניא עיסה שנדמעה או שנתחמצה בשאור של תרומה 46b. b Since we find that the verse equates a minor, /b i.e., one on the brink of adulthood, b to an adult with regard to an intentional /b violation of b an oath and with regard to /b a vow of b prohibition, /b where one renders an item prohibited to himself through a vow, b and with regard to /b the prohibition of b he shall not profane /b his word, one b might /b have thought that this minor, like an adult, b should /b also b be liable /b to bring b an offering for /b misuse of b his consecrated /b property, e.g., if he ate an item that he consecrated.,Therefore, b the verse states /b with regard to vows: b “This is the matter /b which the Lord has commanded. When a man vows a vow to the Lord, or takes an oath” (Numbers 30:2–3). The emphasis of “this” indicates that it is only with regard to this matter, i.e., prohibitions resulting from vows, that a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood is considered an adult, but he is not rendered liable to bring an offering for his misuse.,The Gemara analyzes the i baraita /i . b In any event, /b the i baraita /i b teaches /b that a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood is considered an adult b with regard to /b a vow of b prohibition and with regard to /b the prohibition of b he shall not profane /b his word, which indicates that he is b liable /b for violating this prohibition. This supports the opinion of Rav Huna that a minor is flogged for eating food he consecrated. The Gemara refutes this proof: There is room to b say /b that the word: And, in the phrase: With regard to a vow of prohibition and with regard to the prohibition of he shall not profane his word, should be omitted, and the i baraita /i is comparing a minor to an adult b with regard to the prohibition /b of b he shall not profane /b his word, but it does not indicate that he is liable to receive lashes for violating this prohibition.,The Gemara asks: Can the i baraita /i actually mean that a minor is compared to an adult with regard to b the prohibition /b of b he shall not profane /b his word, but he is not flogged? b Whichever way you /b look at it, this is problematic: b If a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is considered an adult b by Torah law, he should be flogged too, /b for his violation. b And if a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is b not /b considered an adult b by Torah law, there is no prohibition /b violated here b either. /b The Gemara answers that according to the i baraita /i the prohibition does not apply to the minor himself, but b to those who are warned to /b keep b him /b away from the prohibited item.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If so, one can b conclude from /b the i baraita /i that if b a minor eats /b meat from unslaughtered b animal carcasses /b or violates other prohibitions, b the court is commanded to prevent him /b from doing so. This is problematic, as elsewhere it is stated that this matter is subject to dispute (see i Yevamot /i 114a). The Gemara explains: b Here we are dealing with /b a case b where /b the minor b consecrated /b the food item b and others ate /b it. They are liable to receive lashes for their consumption, but if he ate it he is not liable.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b This works out well according to the one who said /b that if a minor b consecrated /b a food item b and others ate /b it, b they are flogged. But according to the one who said /b that in such a case b they are not flogged, what can be said? As it was stated /b that i amora’im /i disagreed with regard to this issue: If a minor b consecrated /b a food item b and others ate /b it, b Rav Kahana says /b that b they are not flogged; Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish both say /b that b they are flogged. /b ,The Gemara therefore reverts to the interpretation that the i baraita /i is referring to the prohibition of he shall not profane his word, not the punishment for violation of the vow. And the reason lashes are not administered is that the prohibition is b by rabbinic law. And /b as for the b verse /b mentioned in the i baraita /i , when it states that the verse equates a minor to an adult, which indicates that it is dealing with Torah law, this verse is b a mere support /b for a rabbinic law.,§ The Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself, /b i.e., the dispute cited above. If a minor b consecrated /b a food item b and others ate /b it, b Rav Kahana says /b that b they are not flogged; Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish both say /b that b they are flogged. With regard to what /b principle b do /b these Sages b disagree? /b One b Sage, /b i.e., Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish, b holds /b that b a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is considered an adult b by Torah law, /b which is why others are liable for eating an item he consecrated; b and /b one b Sage, /b Rav Kahana, b holds /b that b a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is considered an adult b by rabbinic law. /b , b Rav Yirmeya raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : In the case of a minor girl who is b an orphan /b from her father and her mother or brothers accepted betrothal on her behalf, b who vowed, her husband may nullify her /b vow, like any other husband, despite the fact that this marriage is valid merely by rabbinic law. Rav Yirmeya analyzes this i baraita /i : b Granted, if you say /b that b a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is considered an adult b by rabbinic law, /b one can explain that a husband whose b marriage /b is b by rabbinic law comes and negates a vow /b that also applies b by rabbinic law. But if you say /b that a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood is considered an adult b by Torah law, /b can a husband whose b marriage /b is b by rabbinic law come and negate a vow /b that applies b by Torah law? /b , b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: Her husband may nullify her /b vows, b whichever /b way b you /b look at it: b If /b the validity of the vows of such a minor applies b by rabbinic law, /b the husband may nullify her vows, as the validity of their marriage b is /b likewise b by rabbinic law. /b And b if /b the validity of a vow by a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood is b by Torah law, /b which means she would be violating a Torah prohibition, this b is /b the same as the case of b a minor /b who b may eat /b meat from unslaughtered b animal carcasses /b or violate other prohibitions, b and the court /b or any other adult, including her husband in this case, b is not commanded to prevent him /b from doing so,and it does not matter if his nullification was not effective.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b there is still concern for a violation, as b when she grows /b and becomes an adult b she will eat /b the food that she rendered forbidden to herself, relying b on the initial nullification /b of her vow by her husband, which was not valid. At that stage she is an adult, whom the court is certainly commanded to prevent from violating prohibitions., b Rabba bar Livai said /b that this is not a concern, as b her husband nullifies her /b vows b each and every moment, /b and therefore when she reaches majority he will nullify her vow in a manner that is valid by Torah law. b And /b this b is /b the i halakha /i , that the nullification takes effect by Torah law, only in a case b where /b her husband b engaged in intercourse /b with her after she became an adult, thereby rendering their marriage valid by Torah law.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b But /b there is a principle that b a husband cannot nullify /b vows of his wife that b preceded /b their marriage; and as she is considered his wife by Torah law only when she becomes an adult, her vow when she was a minor preceded their marriage. The Gemara answers that he can still nullify her vow, b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rav Pineḥas in the name of Rava, as Rav Pineḥas said in the name of Rava: Any /b woman b who takes a vow, /b it is from the outset contingent b on her husband’s consent /b that b she takes the vow. /b Since the minor was married by rabbinic law, she vowed on the condition that her husband should agree to her vow, and therefore the nullification is valid by Torah law.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the validity of the vows of a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood. b Abaye said: Come /b and b hear /b a mishna ( i Terumot /i 1:3): With regard to b a minor who has not grown two hairs, Rabbi Yehuda says: His i teruma /i is not /b valid b i teruma /i . Rabbi Yosei says: Until he has reached the age of vows, /b i.e., when he does not yet have the status of a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood, b his i teruma /i is not /b valid b i teruma /i , /b but b once he has reached the age of vows, his i teruma /i is i teruma /i . /b ,The Sages b assumed /b that b Rabbi Yosei holds /b that b i teruma /i in the present /b applies b by Torah law. /b They therefore objected: b Granted, if you say /b that b a discriminating /b minor b on the brink of adulthood /b is an adult b by Torah law, /b one can understand that one who is b a man by Torah law /b with regard to vows b can come and prepare untithed produce [ i tivla /i ] /b for consumption by tithing it, which also applies b by Torah law. But if you say /b that a discriminating minor on the brink of adulthood is an adult b by rabbinic law, /b can one who is b a man by rabbinic law come and prepare untithed produce, /b which is prohibited b by Torah law? /b The Gemara refutes this proof: b No, /b perhaps b Rabbi Yosei holds /b that b i teruma /i in the present /b applies b by rabbinic law, /b and this is why he rules that a minor on the brink of adulthood can set aside i teruma /i .,The Gemara asks: b And does Rabbi Yosei hold /b that b i teruma /i in the present /b applies b by rabbinic law? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i b in /b the anthology called b i Seder Olam /i : /b The verse that states with regard to the Jewish people’s return to Eretz Yisrael following their exile: “And the Lord your God will bring you into the land b that your fathers possessed, and you shall possess it” /b (Deuteronomy 30:5).,These two expressions of possession indicate that the Jewish people had b a first possession /b of Eretz Yisrael in the days of Joshua, when Eretz Yisrael was first sanctified with regard to the obligation of its mitzvot, b and they had a second /b possession at the time of Ezra and the return of the Babylonian exile. In other words, the sanctity of the land lapsed when the First Temple was destroyed and the Jews were exiled to Babylonia, and therefore a second sanctification was necessary when they returned to their land. But b they /b will b not have a third /b possession. That is, it will never be necessary to sanctify the land a third time, as the second sanctification was permanent., b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: Who /b is the i tanna /i that b taught i Seder Olam /i ? Rabbi Yosei. /b Since Rabbi Yosei maintains that the second sanctification of Eretz Yisrael did not lapse even after the destruction of the Second Temple, he must also maintain that i teruma /i in the present applies by Torah law.,The Gemara answers that b Rabbi Yosei taught /b i Seder Olam /i b but he does not maintain /b in accordance with b its /b ruling here. The Gemara adds: b So too, it is reasonable /b that this is so, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to non-sacred b dough that became mixed /b with i teruma /i dough, b or which was leavened with leaven of i teruma /i , /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 200
44a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הביאו לפניו מליח תחלה ופת עמו מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפת שהפת טפלה לו זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ומי איכא מידי דהוי מליח עיקר ופת טפלה אמר רב אחא בריה דרב עוירא אמר רב אשי באוכלי פירות גנוסר שנו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן למיכל פירות גנוסר כי הוינן בי מאה מנקטינן ליה לכל חד וחד עשרה עשרה וכי הוינן בי עשרה מנקטינן ליה כל חד וחד מאה מאה וכל מאה מינייהו הוה מחזיק להו צנא בר תלתא סאוי ואכיל להו ומשתבע דלא טעים זיונא זיונא ס"ד אלא אימא מזונא,רבי אבהו אכיל עד דהוה שריק ליה דודבא מאפותיה ורב אמי ורב אסי הוו אכלי עד דנתור מזייהו רשב"ל הוה אכיל עד דמריד ואמר להו רבי יוחנן לדבי נשיאה והוה משדר ליה רבי יהודה נשיאה באלושי אבתריה ומייתי ליה לביתיה,כי אתא רב דימי אמר עיר אחת היתה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מוציאים ממנה ששים רבוא ספלי טרית לקוצצי תאנים מע"ש לע"ש,כי אתא רבין אמר אילן אחד היה לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך שהיו מורידים ממנו ארבעים סאה גוזלות משלש בריכות בחדש כי אתא ר' יצחק אמר עיר אחת היתה בארץ ישראל וגופנית שמה שהיו בה שמנים זוגות אחים כהנים נשואים לשמנים זוגות אחיות כהנות ובדקו רבנן מסורא ועד נהרדעא ולא אשכחו בר מבנתיה דרב חסדא דהוו נסיבן לרמי בר חמא ולמר עוקבא בר חמא ואע"ג דאינהי הוו כהנתא אינהו לא הוו כהני,אמר רב כל סעודה שאין בה מלח אינה סעודה אמר רבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כל סעודה שאין בה שריף אינה סעודה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אכל ענבים ותאנים ורמונים מברך אחריהם שלש ברכות דברי רבן גמליאל וחכ"א ברכה אחת (מעין שלש) ר"ע אומר אפי' אכל שלק והוא מזונו מברך עליו ג' ברכות השותה מים לצמאו מברך שהכל נהיה בדברו ר' טרפון אומר בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ט דר"ג דכתיב (דברים ח, ח) ארץ חטה ושעורה וגו' וכתיב ארץ אשר לא במסכנות תאכל בה לחם וגו' וכתיב (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך,ורבנן ארץ הפסיק הענין ור"ג נמי ארץ הפסיק הענין ההוא מבעי ליה למעוטי הכוסס את החטה,א"ר יעקב בר אידי א"ר חנינא כל שהוא מחמשת המינין בתחלה מברך עליו במ"מ ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש,אמר רבה בר מרי אריב"ל כל שהוא משבעת המינין בתחלה מברך בורא פרי העץ ולבסוף ברכה אחת מעין שלש,א"ל אביי לרב דימי מאי ניהו ברכה אחת מעין שלש א"ל אפירי דעץ על העץ ועל פרי העץ ועל תנובת השדה ועל ארץ חמדה טובה ורחבה שהנחלת לאבותינו לאכול מפריה ולשבוע מטובה רחם ה' אלהינו על ישראל עמך ועל ירושלים עירך ועל מקדשך ועל מזבחך ותבנה ירושלים עיר קדשך במהרה בימינו והעלנו לתוכה ושמחנו בה כי אתה טוב ומטיב לכל,דחמשת המינין על המחיה ועל הכלכלה ועל תנובת השדה כו' וחותם על הארץ ועל המחיה,מיחתם במאי חתים כי אתא רב דימי אמר רב חתים בר"ח ברוך מקדש ישראל וראשי חדשים הכא מאי,רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה ור' יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות א"ר עמרם ולא פליגי הא לן והא להו,מתקיף לה ר"נ בר יצחק אינהו אכלי ואנן מברכין אלא איפוך רב חסדא אמר על הארץ ועל הפירות ר' יוחנן אמר על הארץ ועל פירותיה 44a. strong MISHNA: /strong If b they brought salted /b food b before him /b to eat b first and bread with it, he recites a blessing over the salted /b food b and /b thereby b exempts the bread, because /b the salted food is primary while b the bread is secondary to it. This is the principle: Any /b food b that is primary and a secondary /b food b is with it, one recites a blessing over the primary and, /b in so doing, b exempts the secondary /b from its own blessing., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b And is there a /b circumstance b where salted food is primary and bread is secondary? /b Generally, no meal has a salted food item as its primary component. b Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Avira, said /b that b Rav Ashi said: /b This i halakha /i b was taught with regard to those who eat fruits of Genosar, /b which are extremely sweet and which would be eaten along with salted foods in order to temper this sweetness. They would eat bread along with those salted foods.,On a related note, the Gemara employs hyperbole in praising the fruits of Genosar. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would go after Rabbi Yoḥa to eat fruits of Genosar, when we were one hundred /b people together, b each and every one of us would bring him ten /b fruits, b and when we were ten /b people together, b each and every one of us would bring him one hundred /b fruits, b and every hundred of /b the fruits b would /b require a b basket of three i se’a /i to hold them. /b Rabbi Yoḥa would b eat them /b all, b and /b was prepared b to swear that he had not tasted /b any b food. /b The Gemara asks: b Does it enter your mind /b that he claimed that b he had not tasted /b any b food? Rather, say /b that he had not tasted any b sustece. /b Due to their delicious taste, he was still not satiated.,The Gemara continues to wax hyperbolic: b Rabbi Abbahu ate /b fruits of Genosar b until /b the sweet, lush fruits made his skin so slippery that b a fly would slip from his forehead. And Rav Ami and Rav Asi would eat /b them b until their hair fell out. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish would eat them until he became confused. And /b then b Rabbi Yoḥa would tell the household of the i Nasi /i /b about his condition b and Rabbi Yehuda Nesia would send the authorities after him and they would take him to his house. /b ,On a similar note, the Gemara relates: b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: King Yannai had a city on the King’s Mountain, from which they would take six-hundred thousand bowls of sardines for those cutting figs /b off the b trees /b during the course of the week b from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b There were so many workers, and the fruit was so sweet, that they needed such a vast quantity of salted fish to enable them to continue with their work.,On the subject of the King’s Mountain and Eretz Yisrael, b when Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: King Yannai had a tree on the King’s Mountain from which they would remove forty i se’a /i of pigeons from three broods each month. When Rabbi Yitzḥak came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: There was a city in Eretz Yisrael named Gufnit, in which there were eighty pairs of brothers who were priests, married to eighty pairs of sisters, who were all from priestly /b families. b And /b to assess the frequency of that phenomenon, the Gemara relates: b The Sages checked from Sura to Neharde’a, and with the exception of the daughters of Rav Ḥisda, who were married to Rami bar Ḥama and /b his brother b Mar Ukva bar Ḥama, they could not find /b a similar case. b And, /b even in the case that they found, b although they, /b the sisters, b were /b the daughters of b a priest, they, /b the brothers b were not priests. /b Throughout virtually the entire country of Babylonia, they could not find a similar circumstance.,On the topic of salted food, b Rav said: Any meal in which there is no salt is not /b considered b a meal. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Any meal in which there is no /b cooked item with b gravy /b (Rashi) b is not /b considered b a meal. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b One who ate /b from the fruit for which Eretz Yisrael was praised, b grapes and figs and pomegranates, recites /b the b three blessings /b of Grace after Meals, as he would after eating bread; this is b the statement of Rabban Gamliel. And the Rabbis say: /b One need only recite b one blessing abridged from /b the b three /b blessings of Grace after Meals. b Rabbi Akiva says: /b The three blessings of Grace after Meals are not restricted to bread; rather, b even /b if b one ate boiled vegetables, but it is his /b primary b sustece, he recites /b the b three blessings /b of Grace after Meals. Additionally: b One who drinks water /b to quench b his thirst recites: By whose word all things came to be. Rabbi Tarfon says: /b He recites: b Who creates the many forms of life and their needs. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for the opinion b of Rabban Gamliel? /b The Gemara responds: b As it is written /b in the verse that deals in praise of Eretz Yisrael: b “A land of wheat and barley, /b vines, figs, and pomegranates, a land of olive oil and honey” (Deuteronomy 8:8), b and it is written: “A land in which you will eat bread without scarcity” /b (Deuteronomy 8:9), b and it is written: “And you will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless the Lord your God /b for the good land He has given you” (Deuteronomy 8:10). Rabban Gamliel concludes from here that the fruits for which Eretz Yisrael was praised are included in the mitzva to recite a blessing after eating. Since that Torah portion alludes to three blessings, fruit also requires three blessings., b And /b what do b the Rabbis /b hold? The verse: b “A land /b in which you will eat bread without scarcity,” b concluded /b discussion of b that matter, /b and the mitzva: “You will eat and be satisfied and then you shall bless,” applies only to bread. b And /b if so, according to b Rabban Gamliel as well, /b doesn’t b “land” conclude /b discussion of b that matter? Rather, that /b verse b is necessary /b in order b to exclude one who chews /b raw b wheat /b from the obligation to recite Grace after Meals. Even according to Rabban Gamliel, it does not have the legal status of bread., b Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi said /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina said: Anything that is from the five species /b of grain, b at the start, one recites over it: Who creates the various kinds of nourishment, and at the end, one blessing abridged from /b the b three /b blessings of Grace after Meals., b Rabba bar Mari said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Anything that is from the seven species /b for which the Eretz Yisrael was praised, b at the start, one recites over it: Who creates fruit of the tree, and afterward and at the end, one blessing abridged from /b the b three /b blessings of Grace after Meals., b Abaye said to Rav Dimi: What is the /b formula of b one blessing abridged from /b the b three /b blessings of Grace after Meals? He said to him: b Over fruits of a tree one recites: /b br b For the tree and the fruit of the tree, /b br b and for the produce of the field, /b br b and for the desirable, good and spacious land that you gave as a heritage to our ancestors /b br b that they might eat of its fruit and be satisfied with its goodness. /b br b Have compassion, Lord our God, /b br b upon Israel Your people and upon Jerusalem Your city, /b br b and upon Your Temple and upon Your altar. /b br b May You rebuild Jerusalem, Your holy city, swiftly in our time, /b br b and may You bring us back there rejoicing in it /b br b as You are good and do good to all. /b ,After eating products baked from one of the b five species /b of grain, one recites: b For the nourishment and sustece and for the produce of the field, and he concludes: For the land and for the nourishment. /b ,However, the question was raised: In terms of b conclusion, with what does he conclude /b the blessing? As one does not conclude a blessing with two themes, with which of the themes should he conclude the blessing? b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: Rav /b would b conclude /b the blessing b on the New Moon: Blessed…Who sanctifies Israel and the New Moons. /b Apparently, one can conclude a blessing with two themes. b What /b does one recite b here? /b , b Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for its fruits. Rabbi Yoḥa said: For the land and for the fruits. Rav Amram said: They do not disagree; /b rather, b this /b blessing, for its fruits, is b for us, /b in Babylonia, b and this /b blessing, for the fruits, is for b them, /b in Eretz Yisrael., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects: They, /b in Eretz Yisrael, b eat and we, /b in Babylonia, b recite a blessing? /b How can we, residents of Babylonia, recite a blessing for the fruits of Eretz Yisrael while eating the fruits of Babylonia? b Rather, reverse /b the opinions: b Rav Ḥisda said: For the land and for the fruits, and Rabbi Yoḥa said: For the land and for its fruits. /b
77. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 199
65a. b And this is as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Shekalim /i 13b): b Petaḥya /b was responsible b for the nests /b of birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a i zav /i , a i zava /i , a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaḥya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. b This /b Sage b is Mordekhai; /b and b why was he called Petaḥya, /b which resembles the word for opening [ i petaḥ /i ]? The reason is b that he would open, /b i.e., elucidate, difficult b topics and interpret them /b to the people, b and /b because b he knew /b all b seventy languages /b known in that region at the time.,The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaḥya? b All /b of the members of the b Sanhedrin also know /b all b seventy languages. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b They b place on the /b Great b Sanhedrin only /b men b of wisdom, and of /b pleasant b appearance, and of /b high b stature, and of /b suitable b age /b so that they will be respected. b And /b they must also be b masters of sorcery, /b i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, b and /b they must b know /b all b seventy languages /b in order b that the Sanhedrin will not /b need to b hear /b testimony b from the mouth of a translator /b in a case where a witness speaks a different language.,The Gemara answers: b Rather, /b Petaḥya was unique b as /b he not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to b combine /b various b languages and interpret /b them. b This is /b the meaning of that b which is written with regard to Mordekhai: “Bilshan” /b (Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [ i balil /i ] languages [ i lashon /i ]., strong MISHNA: /strong b How would they perform /b the rite of the harvest of the i omer /i ? b Emissaries of the court /b would b emerge on the eve of the festival /b of Passover b and fashion /b the stalks of barley into b sheaves while /b the stalks were still b attached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reap /b them. The residents of b all the towns adjacent to /b the site of the harvest b would assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare. /b , b Once it grew dark, /b the court emissary b says to /b those assembled: b Did the sun set? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: b Did the sun set? /b They again b say: Yes. /b The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with b this sickle? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: With b this sickle? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in b this basket? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: In b this basket? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b ,If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs b on Shabbat, /b the court emissary b says to /b the assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: On b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary says to those assembled: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say to him /b in response: b Cut. /b The emissary repeats: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say /b to him: b Cut. /b ,The emissary asks b three times with regard to each and every matter, and /b the assembly b says to him: Yes, yes, yes. /b The mishna asks: b Why do I /b need those involved to publicize each stage of the rite b to that extent? /b The mishna answers: It is b due to the Boethusians, as they /b deny the validity of the Oral Law and b would say: There is no harvest of the i omer /i at the conclusion of the /b first b Festival /b day of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the i omer /i harvest., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited /b as well: b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month, the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. b And /b furthermore, b from the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period.,The Gemara discusses the i baraita /i : b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. The Gemara explains b that the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bring /b the b daily offering, /b in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. b What /b verse did the Sadducees b expound? “The one lamb shall you offer [ i ta’aseh /i ] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoon” /b (Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.,The Gemara asks: b What /b did the Sages b reply /b to refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: b My food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, /b of a pleasing aroma unto Me, b you shall observe [ i tishmeru /i ] /b to offer to Me in its due season” (Numbers 28:2). The term: “You shall observe” is in the plural form, which indicates that b all of the /b daily offerings b should come from collection of the /b Temple treasury b chamber. /b Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.,The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the i baraita /i : b From the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period. b As the Boethusians would say /b that the festival of b i Shavuot /i /b always occurs b after Shabbat, /b on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the i omer /i offering and the festival of i Shavuot /i that follows seven weeks later: “And you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ], from the day that you brought the sheaf [ i omer /i ] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete” (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase “from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ]” literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.,At the time, b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined /b the discussion with the Boethusians b and said to them: Fools! From where /b have b you /b derived this? b And there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [ i mefatpet /i ] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that i Shavuot /i is /b only b one day. /b Therefore, b he arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days. /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b recited this verse /b in response b to /b that old man: b “It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seir” /b (Deuteronomy 1:2).
78. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 197
62a. תנא הוקפלו רוב המקצועות מותרות משום גזל ופטורות מן המעשרות,רבי ורבי יוסי בר רבי יהודה איקלעו לההוא אתרא בזמן שהוקפלו רוב המקצועות רבי הוה קא אכיל רבי יוסי בר ר' יהודה לא אכיל אתא מרהון אמר להו אמאי לא אכלי רבנן הוקפלו רוב המקצועות הוא ואף על פי כן לא אכיל ר' יוסי בר ר' יהודה קסבר משום סניות מילתא הוא דקאמר הדין גברא,רבי חמא בר רבי חנינא איקלע לההוא אתרא בזמן שהוקפלו רוב המקצועות הוה קאכיל יהיב לשמעיה לא אכיל אמר ליה אכול כך אמר לי רבי ישמעאל בר רבי יוסי משום אביו הוקפלו רוב המקצועות מותרות משום גזל ופטורות מן המעשר,ר' טרפון אשכחיה ההוא גברא בזמן שהוקפלו המקצועות דקאכיל אחתיה בשקא ושקליה ואמטייה למשדיה בנהרא אמר לו אוי לו לטרפון שזה הורגו שמע ההוא גברא שבקיה וערק אמר רבי אבהו משום ר' חנניה בן גמליאל כל ימיו של אותו צדיק היה מצטער על דבר זה אמר אוי לי שנשתמשתי בכתרה של תורה,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן כל המשתמש בכתרה של תורה נעקר מן העולם קל וחומר ומה בלשצר שנשתמש בכלי קודש שנעשו כלי חול שנאמר (יחזקאל ז, כב) ובאו בה פריצים וחיללוה כיון שפרצום נעשו חול נעקר מן העולם דכתיב (דניאל ה, ל) בה בליליא קטיל בלשצר המשתמש בכתרה של תורה שהוא חי וקיים לעולם על אחת כמה וכמה,ורבי טרפון כיון דכי אכיל דהוקפלו רוב המקצועות הוה אמאי צעריה ההוא גברא משום דההוא הוו גנבי ליה ענבי כולה שתא וכיון דאשכחיה לר' טרפון סבר היינו דגנבן אי הכי אמאי ציער נפשיה משום דרבי טרפון עשיר גדול הוה והוה ליה לפייסו בדמים,תניא (דברים ל, כ) לאהבה את ה' אלהיך לשמוע בקולו ולדבקה בו שלא יאמר אדם אקרא שיקראוני חכם אשנה שיקראוני רבי אשנן שאהיה זקן ואשב בישיבה,אלא למד מאהבה וסוף הכבוד לבא שנאמר (משלי ז, ג) קשרם על אצבעותיך כתבם על לוח לבך ואומר (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם ואומר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ותומכיה מאושר,רבי אליעזר בר ר' צדוק אומר עשה דברים לשם פעלם ודבר בהם לשמם אל תעשם עטרה להתגדל בהם ואל תעשם קורדום להיות עודר בו וקל וחומר ומה בלשצר שלא נשתמש אלא בכלי קדש שנעשו כלי חול נעקר מן העולם המשתמש בכתרה של תורה על אחת כמה וכמה,אמר רבא שרי ליה לאיניש לאודועי נפשיה באתרא דלא ידעי ליה דכתיב (מלכים א יח, יב) ועבדך ירא את ה' מנעוריו אלא קשיא דר' טרפון דעשיר גדול היה והוה ליה לפייסיה בדמים,רבא רמי כתיב ועבדך ירא את ה' מנעוריו וכתיב (משלי כז, ב) יהללך זר ולא פיך הא באתרא דידעי ליה הא באתרא דלא ידעי ליה,אמר רבא שרי ליה לצורבא מרבנן למימר צורבא מרבנן אנא שרו לי תיגראי ברישא דכתיב (שמואל ב ח, יח) ובני דוד כהנים היו מה כהן נוטל בראש אף תלמיד חכם נוטל בראש וכהן מנא לן דכתיב (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו כי את לחם (ה') אלהיך הוא מקריב ותנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה 62a. The Sages b taught: /b If b most of the knives have been set aside, /b the figs left in the field b are permitted with regard to /b the laws of b stealing and are exempt from tithes, /b since their owners presumably do not want them and the figs are therefore considered ownerless property.,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b and Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b ate /b the figs left in the field, but b Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat. The owner /b of the field b came /b and b said to them: Why are the Sages not eating? It is /b now the period when b most of the knives have been set aside. /b The Gemara notes: b But nevertheless, Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Yehuda did not eat, /b since b he thought /b that it was only b due to embarrassment over the matter /b that b that man said /b his comment, but he did not really mean to declare his figs ownerless.,The Gemara relates another incident: b Rabbi Ḥama bar Rabbi Ḥanina arrived at a certain place at a time when most of the knives had been set aside. He ate /b from the figs that were left in the field, but when b he gave /b some b to his attendant /b the latter b did not eat. /b Rabbi Ḥama b said to him: Eat, /b as b Rabbi Yishmael bar Rabbi Yosei said to me the following /b ruling b in the name of his father: /b If b most of the knives have been set aside, /b the figs b are permitted with regard to /b the laws of b stealing and are exempt from the tithe. /b ,The Gemara relates another incident: b A certain man found Rabbi Tarfon eating /b figs from his field b at the time when most of the knives had been set aside. He placed /b Rabbi Tarfon b in a sack, lifted him up, and carried him to throw him into the river. /b Rabbi Tarfon b said to him: Woe to Tarfon, for this /b man b is killing him. /b When b that man heard /b that he was carrying the great Rabbi Tarfon, b he left him and fled. Rabbi Abbahu said in the name of Rabbi Ḥaya ben Gamliel: All the days of that righteous man, /b Rabbi Tarfon, b he was distressed over this matter, saying: Woe is me, for I made use of the crown of Torah, /b as Rabbi Tarfon was only released out of respect for his Torah learning., b And /b with regard to this statement, b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whoever makes use of the crown of Torah is uprooted from the world. /b This can be derived by means of b an i a fortiori /i /b inference: b If Belshazzar, who made use of the sacred /b Temple b vessels, which had /b already b become non-sacred vessels /b by that time, as after their forcible removal from the Temple the vessels lost their sanctity, b as it is stated /b in the verse: b “And robbers shall enter into it, and profane it” /b (Ezekiel 7:22), showing that b once /b the Temple vessels b have been robbed they become non-sacred, was uprooted from the world /b for his actions, b as it is written: “On that night Belshazzar /b the Chaldean king b was killed” /b (Daniel 5:30); b one who makes use of the crown of Torah, which lives and endures forever /b and whose sanctity cannot be removed, b all the more so /b shall he be uprooted.,The Gemara returns to the incident involving Rabbi Tarfon. b And /b in the case of b Rabbi Tarfon, since he was eating /b during the time b when most of the knives had been set aside, why did that man trouble him? /b The Gemara explains: It was b because /b someone b had been stealing grapes from that /b man b all year, and when he found Rabbi Tarfon he thought: This is /b the one b who stole from me /b the entire year. The Gemara asks: b If so, why did Rabbi Tarfon berate himself? /b Clearly he was justified in saving himself. The Gemara answers: b Since Rabbi Tarfon was very wealthy, he should have /b sought b to appease him with money /b in order to save himself, rather than relying on his status as a Torah scholar.,Apropos the story of Rabbi Tarfon’s regret for gaining personal benefit from his status as a Torah scholar, the Gemara cites similar teachings. It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “To love the Lord your God, to listen to His voice, and to cleave to Him” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20). This verse indicates b that a person should not say: I will read /b the written Torah b so that they will call me a Sage; I will study /b Mishna b so that they will call me Rabbi; I will review /b my studies b so that I will be an Elder and will sit in the academy. /b , b Rather, learn out of love, /b as the verse states: “To love the Lord your God.” b And the honor will eventually come /b of its own accord, b as it is stated: “Bind them upon your fingers; write them on the tablet of your heart” /b (Proverbs 7:3), b and it states: “Its ways are ways of pleasantness, /b and all its paths are peace” (Proverbs 3:17), b and it states: “It is a tree of life to those who grasp it; happy is everyone who holds it fast” /b (Proverbs 3:17). Consequently, one who studies in order to master Torah for its own sake, as reflected in the verse “bind them upon your fingers,” will eventually merit pleasantness, peace, and happiness., b Rabbi Eliezer bar Rabbi Tzadok says: Do things for the sake of their performance, /b not for any ulterior motive, b and speak /b words b of /b Torah b for their own sake. Do not make them a crown with which to become glorified, and do not make them nor make them a dolabra [ i kordom /i ] with which to hoe, /b i.e., do not use Torah study as a means of earning a livelihood. b And /b this is b an i a fortiori /i /b inference: b If Belshazzar, who made use only of sacred vessels that had become non-sacred vessels, was uprooted from the world, one who makes use of the crown of Torah, /b whose sanctity is permanent, b all the more so /b shall he be uprooted from the world., b Rava said: /b In a time of need, b it is permitted for a person to make himself known in a place where /b people b do not know him. /b The proof is from what Obadiah said to Elijah in order to identify himself, b as it is written: “But I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youth” /b (I Kings 18:12). The Gemara asks: b But /b this is b difficult /b with regard to the story about b Rabbi Tarfon, /b who was distraught because he revealed his identity to the man who placed him in the sack. The Gemara answers: The case of Rabbi Tarfon is different, b as he was very wealthy, and /b therefore b he should have /b sought b to appease him with money. /b , b Rava raises a contradiction: It is written /b that Obadiah spoke highly of himself: b “But I, your servant, have feared the Lord from my youth.” And it is written: “Let another praise you, and not your own mouth” /b (Proverbs 27:2). He answers: b This /b verse is referring b to a place where /b people b know him, /b where he should not praise himself, whereas b that /b verse is referring b to a place where /b people b do not know him. /b , b Rava said /b further: b It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a Torah scholar, /b so b resolve my case first, as it is written: “And the sons of David were priests” /b (II Samuel 8:18). The sons of David could not have been actual priests, as David was not a priest. Rather, the verse indicates that b just as a priest takes /b his portion b first, so too, a Torah scholar takes /b his portion b first. And a priest, from where do we /b derive that he takes his portion first? b As it is written: “And you shall sanctify him, for he offers the bread of your God” /b (Leviticus 21:8). b And the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b The phrase b “and you shall sanctify him” /b applies with regard b to every matter of sanctity: /b
79. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qenocha, 3.1-3.3  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 183
80. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 3.5, 4.2  Tagged with subjects: •priests, outside judea, in egypt Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 127, 128
81. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 1.8, 2.3-2.5, 8.11-8.12, 8.22  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 198
82. Philo of Alexandria, Ben Sira, 35.14, 45.20-45.22  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests •priests, in judea, as landholders Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 78, 195
83. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qrule, 1.12  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 78, 186, 197
84. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qdamascus, 3.19  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 208
85. Mishnah, ʿArakin, 6.2-6.3, 7.4, 8.1-8.7  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 24, 74, 167, 183, 187, 188
86. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qapocrjoshuab, 3.6  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 184
87. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qhalakhic, 4.11  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 202
88. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qpaleogen-Exod, 57  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 202
89. Babylonian Talmud, TaʿAnit, None  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 201
91. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qhodayot, 13.1  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 191
92. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qpapaccount, None  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, rights of household members to entitlements of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 191
93. Mishnah, MeʿIlah, 3.6-3.8  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 24, 27
95. Palestinian Talmud, TaʿAnit, None  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as an empowered class •priests, in judea, as landholders •priests, in judea, clan-based organization and divisions of •priests, in judea, collectivization of wealth among •priests, in judea, fragmentation among •priests, in judea, settlement patterns of •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 197, 198, 200, 201
98. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qhalakhah, 5.4, 9.3  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 190, 191, 208, 209
100. Sifra, Behuqotai, 10.10, 12.4-12.5  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements •sacred land, in judea, of priests Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 74, 167, 188
101. Philo of Alexandria, 1 Enoch, 6.4-6.6  Tagged with subjects: •priests, in judea, as recipients of gifts and prebendary entitlements Found in books: Gordon (2020), Land and Temple: Field Sacralization and the Agrarian Priesthood of Second Temple Judaism, 183