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98 results for "priestly"
1. Septuagint, Baruch, 1.11 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 5.18-5.27, 6.24-6.27, 18.25-18.32, 26.59, 28.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 583; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 190; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158, 172; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 57, 119, 120, 188
5.6. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃", 5.7. "וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃", 5.8. "וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃", 5.18. "וְהֶעֱמִיד הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּפָרַע אֶת־רֹאשׁ הָאִשָּׁה וְנָתַן עַל־כַּפֶּיהָ אֵת מִנְחַת הַזִּכָּרוֹן מִנְחַת קְנָאֹת הִוא וּבְיַד הַכֹּהֵן יִהְיוּ מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים׃", 5.19. "וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ אֹתָהּ הַכֹּהֵן וְאָמַר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אִם־לֹא שָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָךְ וְאִם־לֹא שָׂטִית טֻמְאָה תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ הִנָּקִי מִמֵּי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃", 5.21. "וְהִשְׁבִּיעַ הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה בִּשְׁבֻעַת הָאָלָה וְאָמַר הַכֹּהֵן לָאִשָּׁה יִתֵּן יְהוָה אוֹתָךְ לְאָלָה וְלִשְׁבֻעָה בְּתוֹךְ עַמֵּךְ בְּתֵת יְהוָה אֶת־יְרֵכֵךְ נֹפֶלֶת וְאֶת־בִּטְנֵךְ צָבָה׃", 5.22. "וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃", 5.23. "וְכָתַב אֶת־הָאָלֹת הָאֵלֶּה הַכֹּהֵן בַּסֵּפֶר וּמָחָה אֶל־מֵי הַמָּרִים׃", 5.24. "וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־מֵי הַמָּרִים הַמְאָרֲרִים וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים׃", 5.25. "וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִיַּד הָאִשָּׁה אֵת מִנְחַת הַקְּנָאֹת וְהֵנִיף אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיב אֹתָהּ אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 5.26. "וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַמִּנְחָה אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָהּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְאַחַר יַשְׁקֶה אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶת־הַמָּיִם׃", 5.27. "וְהִשְׁקָהּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם וְהָיְתָה אִם־נִטְמְאָה וַתִּמְעֹל מַעַל בְּאִישָׁהּ וּבָאוּ בָהּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרֲרִים לְמָרִים וְצָבְתָה בִטְנָהּ וְנָפְלָה יְרֵכָהּ וְהָיְתָה הָאִשָּׁה לְאָלָה בְּקֶרֶב עַמָּהּ׃", 6.24. "יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה וְיִשְׁמְרֶךָ׃", 6.25. "יָאֵר יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וִיחֻנֶּךָּ׃", 6.26. "יִשָּׂא יְהוָה פָּנָיו אֵלֶיךָ וְיָשֵׂם לְךָ שָׁלוֹם׃", 6.27. "וְשָׂמוּ אֶת־שְׁמִי עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם׃", 18.25. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 18.26. "וְאֶל־הַלְוִיִּם תְּדַבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי־תִקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֲשֶׁר נָתַתִּי לָכֶם מֵאִתָּם בְּנַחֲלַתְכֶם וַהֲרֵמֹתֶם מִמֶּנּוּ תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂר מִן־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר׃", 18.27. "וְנֶחְשַׁב לָכֶם תְּרוּמַתְכֶם כַּדָּגָן מִן־הַגֹּרֶן וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן־הַיָּקֶב׃", 18.28. "כֵּן תָּרִימוּ גַם־אַתֶּם תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מִכֹּל מַעְשְׂרֹתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר תִּקְחוּ מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְתַתֶּם מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְאַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן׃", 18.29. "מִכֹּל מַתְּנֹתֵיכֶם תָּרִימוּ אֵת כָּל־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה מִכָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ אֶת־מִקְדְּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ׃", 18.31. "וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּכָל־מָקוֹם אַתֶּם וּבֵיתְכֶם כִּי־שָׂכָר הוּא לָכֶם חֵלֶף עֲבֹדַתְכֶם בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 18.32. "וְלֹא־תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ׃", 26.59. "וְשֵׁם אֵשֶׁת עַמְרָם יוֹכֶבֶד בַּת־לֵוִי אֲשֶׁר יָלְדָה אֹתָהּ לְלֵוִי בְּמִצְרָיִם וַתֵּלֶד לְעַמְרָם אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־מֹשֶׁה וְאֵת מִרְיָם אֲחֹתָם׃", 28.2. "וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ׃", 28.2. "צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמוֹעֲדוֹ׃", 5.6. "Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;", 5.7. "then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty.", 5.8. "But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him.", 5.18. "And the priest shall set the woman before the LORD, and let the hair of the woman’s head go loose, and put the meal-offering of memorial in her hands, which is the meal-offering of jealousy; and the priest shall have in his hand the water of bitterness that causeth the curse.", 5.19. "And the priest shall cause her to swear, and shall say unto the woman: ‘If no man have lain with thee, and if thou hast not gone aside to uncleanness, being under thy husband, be thou free from this water of bitterness that causeth the curse;", 5.20. "but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—", 5.21. "then the priest shall cause the woman to swear with the oath of cursing, and the priest shall say unto the woman—the LORD make thee a curse and an oath among thy people, when the LORD doth make thy thigh to fall away, and thy belly to swell;", 5.22. "and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’", 5.23. "And the priest shall write these curses in a scroll, and he shall blot them out into the water of bitterness.", 5.24. "And he shall make the woman drink the water of bitterness that causeth the curse; and the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter.", 5.25. "And the priest shall take the meal-offering of jealousy out of the woman’s hand, and shall wave the meal-offering before the LORD, and bring it unto the altar.", 5.26. "And the priest shall take a handful of the meal-offering, as the memorial-part thereof, and make it smoke upon the altar, and afterward shall make the woman drink the water.", 5.27. "And when he hath made her drink the water, then it shall come to pass, if she be defiled, and have acted unfaithfully against her husband, that the water that causeth the curse shall enter into her and become bitter, and her belly shall swell, and her thigh shall fall away; and the woman shall be a curse among her people.", 6.24. "The LORD bless thee, and keep thee;", 6.25. "The LORD make His face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee;", 6.26. "The LORD lift up His countece upon thee, and give thee peace.", 6.27. "So shall they put My name upon the children of Israel, and I will bless them.’", 18.25. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 18.26. "’Moreover thou shalt speak unto the Levites, and say unto them: When ye take of the children of Israel the tithe which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall set apart of it a gift for the LORD, even a tithe of the tithe.", 18.27. "And the gift which ye set apart shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the threshing-floor, and as the fulness of the wine-press.", 18.28. "Thus ye also shall set apart a gift unto the LORD of all your tithes, which ye receive of the children of Israel; and thereof ye shall give the gift which is set apart unto the LORD to Aaron the priest.", 18.29. "Out of all that is given you ye shall set apart all of that which is due unto the LORD, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof out of it.", 18.30. "Therefore thou shalt say unto them: When ye set apart the best thereof from it, then it shall be counted unto the Levites as the increase of the threshing-floor, and as the increase of the wine-press.", 18.31. "And ye may eat it in every place, ye and your households; for it is your reward in return for your service in the tent of meeting.", 18.32. "And ye shall bear no sin by reason of it, seeing that ye have set apart from it the best thereof; and ye shall not profane the holy things of the children of Israel, that ye die not.’", 26.59. "And the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi in Egypt; and she bore unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam their sister.", 28.2. "Command the children of Israel, and say unto them: My food which is presented unto Me for offerings made by fire, of a sweet savour unto Me, shall ye observe to offer unto Me in its due season.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.7, 22.1-22.3, 25.15-25.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) •priestly blessing Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 555; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 120, 188
6.7. "וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃", 22.1. "לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃", 22.1. "לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃", 22.2. "וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃", 22.2. "וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃]", 22.3. "וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃", 25.15. "אֶבֶן שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אֵיפָה שְׁלֵמָה וָצֶדֶק יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכוּ יָמֶיךָ עַל הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ׃", 25.16. "כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה כֹּל עֹשֵׂה עָוֶל׃", 25.17. "זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃", 25.18. "אֲשֶׁר קָרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחַרֶיךָ וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים׃", 25.19. "וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח׃", 6.7. "and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.", 22.1. "Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother.", 22.2. "And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him.", 22.3. "And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself.", 25.15. "A perfect and just weight shalt thou have; a perfect and just measure shalt thou have; that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.", 25.16. "For all that do such things, even all that do unrighteously, are an abomination unto the LORD thy God.", 25.17. "Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way as ye came forth out of Egypt;", 25.18. "how he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, all that were enfeebled in thy rear, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God.", 25.19. "Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.4, 38.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 190; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
12.4. "וּמוֹשַׁב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָשְׁבוּ בְּמִצְרָיִם שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וְאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃", 12.4. "וְאִם־יִמְעַט הַבַּיִת מִהְיֹת מִשֶּׂה וְלָקַח הוּא וּשְׁכֵנוֹ הַקָּרֹב אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ בְּמִכְסַת נְפָשֹׁת אִישׁ לְפִי אָכְלוֹ תָּכֹסּוּ עַל־הַשֶּׂה׃", 38.8. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֵת הַכִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְאֵת כַּנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת בְּמַרְאֹת הַצֹּבְאֹת אֲשֶׁר צָבְאוּ פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 12.4. "and if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbour next unto his house take one according to the number of the souls; according to every man’s eating ye shall make your count for the lamb.", 38.8. "And he made the laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, of the mirrors of the serving women that did service at the door of the tent of meeting.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 5.29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 188
5.29. "וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ נֹחַ לֵאמֹר זֶה יְנַחֲמֵנוּ מִמַּעֲשֵׂנוּ וּמֵעִצְּבוֹן יָדֵינוּ מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרְרָהּ יְהוָה׃", 5.29. "And he called his name Noah, saying: ‘This same shall comfort us in our work and in the toil of our hands, which cometh from the ground which the LORD hath cursed.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.21-5.26, 22.10-22.14, 24.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 57, 119, 120, 134
5.21. "נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ בְּפִקָּדוֹן אוֹ־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אוֹ בְגָזֵל אוֹ עָשַׁק אֶת־עֲמִיתוֹ׃", 5.22. "אוֹ־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה׃", 5.23. "וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אוֹ אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אוֹ אֶת־הַפִּקָּדוֹן אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא׃", 5.24. "אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃", 5.25. "וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְכְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 5.26. "וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לוֹ עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ׃", 22.11. "וְכֹהֵן כִּי־יִקְנֶה נֶפֶשׁ קִנְיַן כַּסְפּוֹ הוּא יֹאכַל בּוֹ וִילִיד בֵּיתוֹ הֵם יֹאכְלוּ בְלַחְמוֹ׃", 22.12. "וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה לְאִישׁ זָר הִוא בִּתְרוּמַת הַקֳּדָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃", 22.13. "וּבַת־כֹּהֵן כִּי תִהְיֶה אַלְמָנָה וּגְרוּשָׁה וְזֶרַע אֵין לָהּ וְשָׁבָה אֶל־בֵּית אָבִיהָ כִּנְעוּרֶיהָ מִלֶּחֶם אָבִיהָ תֹּאכֵל וְכָל־זָר לֹא־יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 22.14. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יֹאכַל קֹדֶשׁ בִּשְׁגָגָה וְיָסַף חֲמִשִׁיתוֹ עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃", 24.16. "וְנֹקֵב שֵׁם־יְהוָה מוֹת יוּמָת רָגוֹם יִרְגְּמוּ־בוֹ כָּל־הָעֵדָה כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח בְּנָקְבוֹ־שֵׁם יוּמָת׃", 5.21. "If any one sin, and commit a trespass against the LORD, and deal falsely with his neighbour in a matter of deposit, or of pledge, or of robbery, or have oppressed his neighbour;", 5.22. "or have found that which was lost, and deal falsely therein, and swear to a lie; in any of all these that a man doeth, sinning therein;", 5.23. "then it shall be, if he hath sinned, and is guilty, that he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he hath gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was deposited with him, or the lost thing which he found,", 5.24. "or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty.", 5.25. "And he shall bring his forfeit unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy valuation, for a guilt-offering, unto the priest.", 5.26. "And the priest shall make atonement for him before the LORD, and he shall be forgiven, concerning whatsoever he doeth so as to be guilty thereby.", 22.10. "There shall no acommon man eat of the holy thing; a tet of a priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing.", 22.11. "But if a priest buy any soul, the purchase of his money, he may eat of it; and such as are born in his house, they may eat of his bread.", 22.12. "And if a priest’s daughter be married unto a common man, she shall not eat of that which is set apart from the holy things.", 22.13. "But if a priest’s daughter be a widow, or divorced, and have no child, and is returned unto her father’s house, as in her youth, she may eat of her father’s bread; but there shall no common man", 22.14. "And if a man eat of the holy thing through error, then he shall put the fifth part thereof unto it, and shall give unto the priest the holy thing.", 24.16. "And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him; as well the stranger, as the home-born, when he blasphemeth the Name, shall be put to death.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 16.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 172
16.15. "בְּאוֹר־פְּנֵי־מֶלֶךְ חַיִּים וּרְצוֹנוֹ כְּעָב מַלְקוֹשׁ׃", 16.15. "In the light of the king’s countece is life; And his favour is as a cloud of the latter rain.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 9.21, 19.15, 51.17, 67.2, 118.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 156, 172
9.21. "שִׁיתָה יְהוָה מוֹרָה לָהֶם יֵדְעוּ גוֹיִם אֱנוֹשׁ הֵמָּה סֶּלָה׃", 19.15. "יִהְיוּ לְרָצוֹן אִמְרֵי־פִי וְהֶגְיוֹן לִבִּי לְפָנֶיךָ יְהוָה צוּרִי וְגֹאֲלִי׃", 51.17. "אֲדֹנָי שְׂפָתַי תִּפְתָּח וּפִי יַגִּיד תְּהִלָּתֶךָ׃", 67.2. "אֱלֹהִים יְחָנֵּנוּ וִיבָרְכֵנוּ יָאֵר פָּנָיו אִתָּנוּ סֶלָה׃", 118.27. "אֵל יְהוָה וַיָּאֶר לָנוּ אִסְרוּ־חַג בַּעֲבֹתִים עַד־קַרְנוֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃", 9.21. "Set terror over them, O LORD; Let the nations know they are but men. Selah", 19.15. "Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before Thee, O LORD, my Rock, and my Redeemer.", 51.17. "O Lord, open Thou my lips; and my mouth shall declare Thy praise.", 67.2. "God be gracious unto us, and bless us; May He cause His face to shine toward us; Selah", 118.27. "The LORD is God, and hath given us light; Order the festival procession with boughs, even unto the horns of the altar.",
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 190
2.22. "וְעֵלִי זָקֵן מְאֹד וְשָׁמַע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשׂוּן בָּנָיו לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכְּבוּן אֶת־הַנָּשִׁים הַצֹּבְאוֹת פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 2.22. "Now ῾Eli was very old, and heard all that his sons did to all Yisra᾽el; and how they lay with the women that assembled at the door of the Tent of Meeting.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 30.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 163
30.20. "And though the Lord give you sparing bread and scant water, Yet shall not thy Teacher hide Himself any more, But thine eyes shall see thy Teacher;",
11. Xenophon, Ways And Means, 5.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
12. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 6.3, 9.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 190; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 172
6.3. "וָאֶשְׁלְחָה עֲלֵיהֶם מַלְאָכִים לֵאמֹר מְלָאכָה גְדוֹלָה אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה וְלֹא אוּכַל לָרֶדֶת לָמָּה תִשְׁבַּת הַמְּלָאכָה כַּאֲשֶׁר אַרְפֶּהָ וְיָרַדְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם׃", 9.6. "אַתָּה־הוּא יְהוָה לְבַדֶּךָ את [אַתָּה] עָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם שְׁמֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם וְכָל־צְבָאָם הָאָרֶץ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ הַיַּמִּים וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר בָּהֶם וְאַתָּה מְחַיֶּה אֶת־כֻּלָּם וּצְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם לְךָ מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים׃", 6.3. "And I sent messengers unto them, saying: ‘I am doing a great work, so that I cannot come down; why should the work cease, whilst I leave it, and come down to you?’", 9.6. "Thou art the LORD, even Thou alone; Thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth and all things that are thereon, the seas and all that is in them, and Thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth Thee.",
13. Herodotus, Histories, 6.11 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
6.11. Then the Ionians who had gathered at Lade held assemblies; among those whom I suppose to have addressed them was Dionysius, the Phocaean general, who spoke thus: ,“Our affairs, men of Ionia, stand on the edge of a razor, whether to be free men or slaves, and runaway slaves at that. If you now consent to endure hardships, you will have toil for the present time, but it will be in your power to overcome your enemies and gain freedom; but if you will be weak and disorderly, I see nothing that can save you from paying the penalty to the king for your rebellion. ,Believe me and entrust yourselves to me; I promise you that (if the gods deal fairly with us) either our enemies shall not meet us in battle, or if they do they shall be utterly vanquished.”
14. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 5.12, 5.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 583
5.12. "לָהֵן מִן־דִּי הַרְגִּזוּ אֲבָהֳתַנָא לֶאֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא יְהַב הִמּוֹ בְּיַד נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר מֶלֶךְ־בָּבֶל כסדיא [כַּסְדָּאָה] וּבַיְתָה דְנָה סַתְרֵהּ וְעַמָּה הַגְלִי לְבָבֶל׃", 5.17. "וּכְעַן הֵן עַל־מַלְכָּא טָב יִתְבַּקַּר בְּבֵית גִּנְזַיָּא דִּי־מַלְכָּא תַמָּה דִּי בְּבָבֶל הֵן אִיתַי דִּי־מִן־כּוֹרֶשׁ מַלְכָּא שִׂים טְעֵם לְמִבְנֵא בֵּית־אֱלָהָא דֵךְ בִּירוּשְׁלֶם וּרְעוּת מַלְכָּא עַל־דְּנָה יִשְׁלַח עֲלֶינָא׃", 5.12. "But because that our fathers had provoked the God of heaven, He gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house, and carried the people away into Babylon.", 5.17. "Now therefore, if it seem good to the king, let search be made in the king’s treasure-house there, which is at Babylon, whether it be so, that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of God at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.’",
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 29.29, 31.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
29.29. "וּכְכַלּוֹת לְהַעֲלוֹת כָּרְעוּ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־הַנִּמְצְאִים אִתּוֹ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ׃", 31.17. "וְאֵת הִתְיַחֵשׂ הַכֹּהֲנִים לְבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְהַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וּלְמָעְלָה בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם בְּמַחְלְקוֹתֵיהֶם׃", 29.29. "And when they had made an end of offering, the king and all that were present with him bowed themselves and prostrated themselves.", 31.17. "and them that were reckoned by genealogy of the priests by their fathers’houses, and the Levites from twenty years old and upward, in their charges by their courses;",
16. Theopompus of Chios, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
17. Anon., 1 Enoch, 84 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
84. And I lifted up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spake with the breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which God has made for the children of the flesh of men, that they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith:,Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King, Great and mighty in Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven, King of kings and God of the whole world.And Thy power and kingship and greatness abide for ever and ever, And throughout all generations Thy dominion; And all the heavens are Thy throne for ever, And the whole earth Thy footstool for ever and ever.,For Thou hast made and Thou rulest all things, And nothing is too hard for Thee, Wisdom departs not from the place of Thy throne, Nor turns away from Thy presence. And Thou knowest and seest and hearest everything, And there is nothing hidden from Thee [for Thou seest everything].,And now the angels of Thy heavens are guilty of trespass, And upon the flesh of men abideth Thy wrath until the great day of judgement.,And now, O God and Lord and Great King, I implore and beseech Thee to fulfil my prayer, To leave me a posterity on earth, And not destroy all the flesh of man, And make the earth without inhabitant, So that there should be an eternal destruction.,And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which has aroused Thy wrath, But the flesh of righteousness and uprightness establish as a plant of the eternal seed, And hide not Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, O Lord.'
18. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q285, 1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 175
19. Septuagint, Judith, 9.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
9.11. "For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope.
20. Dead Sea Scrolls, of Discipline, 2.5-2.18, 6.3-6.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing •priestly blessing, traditions Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 188, 192
21. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 17.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
22. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.18, 9.17-9.18, 9.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567, 580; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 188
7.18. "וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃", 9.17. "וְעַתָּה שְׁמַע אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶל־תְּפִלַּת עַבְדְּךָ וְאֶל־תַּחֲנוּנָיו וְהָאֵר פָּנֶיךָ עַל־מִקְדָּשְׁךָ הַשָּׁמֵם לְמַעַן אֲדֹנָי׃", 9.18. "הַטֵּה אֱלֹהַי אָזְנְךָ וּשֲׁמָע פקחה [פְּקַח] עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה שֹׁמְמֹתֵינוּ וְהָעִיר אֲשֶׁר־נִקְרָא שִׁמְךָ עָלֶיהָ כִּי לֹא עַל־צִדְקֹתֵינוּ אֲנַחְנוּ מַפִּילִים תַּחֲנוּנֵינוּ לְפָנֶיךָ כִּי עַל־רַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים׃", 7.18. "But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’", 9.17. "Now therefore, O our God, hearken unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplications, and cause Thy face to shine upon Thy sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake.", 9.18. "O my God, incline Thine ear, and hear; open Thine eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city upon which Thy name is called; for we do not present our supplications before Thee because of our righteousness, but because of Thy great compassions.", 9.20. "And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;",
23. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.17, 50.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567, 580
36.17. Hearken, O Lord, to the prayer of thy servants,according to the blessing of Aaron for thy people,and all who are on the earth will know that thou art the Lord, the God of the ages. 50.19. And the people besought the Lord Most High in prayer before him who is merciful,till the order of worship of the Lord was ended;so they completed his service.
24. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.6, 15.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233
1.6. We are now praying for you here." 15.12. What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.'
25. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
12.11. We therefore remember you constantly on every occasion, both in our feasts and on other appropriate days, at the sacrifices which we offer and in our prayers, as it is right and proper to remember brethren.
26. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 13.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 57
27. Anon., Jubilees, 49.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
49.17. And it is not permissible to slay it during any period of the light, but during the period bordering on the evening,
28. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233
29. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 2.2-2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 175
30. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 4.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233
4.8. Their husbands, in the prime of youth, their necks encircled with ropes instead of garlands, spent the remaining days of their marriage festival in lamentations instead of good cheer and youthful revelry, seeing death immediately before them.
31. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 13.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 57
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 75-76, 74 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 69
33. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.393, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 69
1. How long shall we, who are aged men, still be like children, being indeed as to our bodies gray-headed through the length of time that we have lived, but as to our souls utterly infantine through our want of sense and sensibility, looking upon that which is the most unstable of all things, namely, fortune, as most invariable, and that which is of all things in the world the most steadfast, namely, nature, as utterly untrustworthy? For, like people playing at draughts, we make changes, altering the position of actions, and considering the things which are the result of fortune as more durable than those which result from nature, and the things which proceed in accordance with nature as less stable than those which are the result of chance.
35. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128, 5.201-5.205 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 69
2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius.
36. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.196 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 568
2.196. And for our duty at the sacrifices themselves, we ought in the first place to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that our own; for we are made for fellowship one with another; and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself, is above all acceptable to God.
37. Mishnah, Bava Qamma, 9.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, dues (terumot) Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 119
9.12. "נָתַן הַכֶּסֶף לְאַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר, וּמֵת, אֵין הַיּוֹרְשִׁים יְכוֹלִין לְהוֹצִיא מִיָּדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה. נָתַן הַכֶּסֶף לִיהוֹיָרִיב וְאָשָׁם לִידַעְיָה, יָצָא. אָשָׁם לִיהוֹיָרִיב וְכֶסֶף לִידַעְיָה, אִם קַיָּם הָאָשָׁם, יַקְרִיבוּהוּ בְנֵי יְדַעְיָה, וְאִם לֹא, יַחֲזִיר וְיָבִיא אָשָׁם אַחֵר, שֶׁהַמֵּבִיא גְזֵלוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא אֲשָׁמוֹ, יָצָא. הֵבִיא אֲשָׁמוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא גְזֵלוֹ, לֹא יָצָא. נָתַן אֶת הַקֶּרֶן וְלֹא נָתַן אֶת הַחֹמֶשׁ, אֵין הַחֹמֶשׁ מְעַכֵּב: \n", 9.12. "If he [who had stolen from the convert] gave the money to the men of the priestly watch and then died, his inheritors cannot recover it from their [the priests] hands, as it says, “Whatsoever a man gives to a priest shall be his” (Numbers 5:10). If he gave the money to Yehoyariv, and the Guilt-offering to Yedayah, he has fulfilled his obligation. If he gave the Guilt-offering to Yehoyariv and the money to Yedayah: if the Guilt-offering still remains, the sons of Yedayah shall offer it; otherwise, he must bring another Guilt-offering. For if a man brought what he had stolen before he offered his Guilt-offering, he has fulfilled his obligation. But if he brought his Guilt-offering before he brought what he had stolen, he has not yet fulfilled his obligation. If he gave the value but not the [added] fifth, the [added] fifth does not prevent [him from offering the Guilt-offering].",
38. Tosefta, Berachot, 1.2, 3.7, 3.10, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567, 568; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
1.2. "רבי שמעון אומר פעמים שאדם קורא אותה שתי פעמים בלילה אחת קודם שיעלה עמוד השחר ואחת משיעלה עמוד השחר ונמצא יוצא [בה] ידי חובה של יום ושל לילה.", 3.7. "א\"ר יהודה כשהיה רבי עקיבה מתפלל עם הצבור היה מקצר בפני כולן כשהיה מתפלל בינו לבין עצמו היה אדם מניחו בצד זה ובא ומצאו בצד אחר מפני הכריעות והשתחויות שהיה עושה.", 3.13. "לא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ולא שאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו לא אמר הבדלה בחונן הדעת אומרה על הכוס ואם לא אמר מחזירין אותו רבי יוסי אומר אף מי שלא הזכיר ברית בברכת הארץ מחזירין אותו.",
39. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.6, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests •midrash, priestly blessing Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 375, 439, 527, 555
3.6. "בית הכנסת שאין להם מי שיקרא אלא אחד עומד וקורא ויושב אפילו שבעה פעמים בית הכנסת של לעוזות אם יש להם מי שיקרא עברית פותחין עברית וחותמין אם [אין להם מי שיקרא אלא אחד אין קורא אלא אחד].", 3.21. "כתב הנכתב ליחיד מכנין אותה לרבים לרבים אין מכנין אותה ליחיד רבי יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף הרי זה מגדף. תורגמן העומד לפני חכם אינו רשאי לא לפחות ולא להוסיף ולא לשנות אלא אם כן יהיה אביו או רבו. ",
40. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 519
41. Mishnah, Eruvin, 3.7-3.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 555
3.7. "רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁהָיָה יָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תִּתְעַבֵּר, מְעָרֵב אָדָם שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין וְאוֹמֵר, עֵרוּבִי בָרִאשׁוֹן לַמִּזְרָח וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמַּעֲרָב, בָּרִאשׁוֹן לַמַּעֲרָב וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמִּזְרָח. עֵרוּבִי בָּרִאשׁוֹן, וּבַשֵּׁנִי כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. עֵרוּבִי בַּשֵּׁנִי, וּבָרִאשׁוֹן כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים: \n", 3.8. "וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, מַתְנֶה אָדָם עַל הַכַּלְכָּלָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן וְאוֹכְלָהּ בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְכֵן בֵּיצָה שֶׁנּוֹלְדָה בָרִאשׁוֹן, תֵּאָכֵל בַּשֵּׁנִי. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים: \n", 3.9. "רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶן הַרְכִּינָס אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אוֹמֵר, הַחֲלִיצֵנוּ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת יוֹם רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם לְמָחָר. וּלְמָחָר הוּא אוֹמֵר, אִם הַיּוֹם, אִם אֶמֶשׁ. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים: \n", 3.7. "Rabbi Judah says: [if on the eve of the] New Year a man was afraid that [the preceding month of Elul] might be intercalated, he may prepare two eruvs and make this declaration: “My eruv for the first day is that to the east and the one for the second day is that to the west”; “the one for the first day is that to the west and the one for the second day is that to the east”; “my eruv is for the first day, and for the second I shall be as the people of my town”; “my eruv is for the second day, and for the first I shall be as the people of my town.” But the sages did not agree with him.", 3.8. "Rabbi Judah further said: a man may stipulate concerning a basket [of produce] on the first festival day [of Rosh Hashanah] and may then eat it on the second day, And so also if an egg was laid on the first [festival] day it may be eaten on the second. But the sages did not agree with him.", 3.9. "Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas says: the person who goes in front of the ark on [the first day of] of Rosh Hashanah says: “Strengthen us, o Lord our God, on this first day of the month, whether it be today or tomorrow”; and on the following day he says: ‘[Strengthen us...] whether it be today or yesterday.” But the sages did not agree with him.",
42. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 2.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 555
2.11. "פקדונות כזכרונות שנאמר (בראשית כ״א:א׳) וה' פקד את שרה וגו' [ואומר (שמות ג׳:ט״ז) פקד פקדתי אתכם וגו'] רבי יוסי אומר אומרן עם הזכרונות רבי יהודה אומר לא [היה אומרן] עמהן זכרון שיש [עמו] תרועה כגון (ויקרא כ״ג:כ״ד) זכרון תרועה מקרא קדש רבי יוסי אומר אומרן עם הזכרונות ועם השופרות רבי יהודה אומר לא היה אומרן אלא עם הזכרונות בלבד תרועה שאין עמה [זכרון] כגון (במדבר כ״ט:א׳) יום תרועה יהיה לכם ר' יוסי אומר עם השופרות רבי יהודה אומר לא היה אומרן [עמהם] מלכות שיש עמה [שופר כגון (תהילים צ״ח:ו׳) בחצוצרות וקול שופר וגו'] רבי יוסי אומר אומרה עם המלכיות ועם השופרות רבי יהודה אומר לא היה אומרה אלא עם השופרות בלבד (דברים ו׳:ד׳) שמע ישראל ה' אלהינו ה' אחד (דברים ד׳:ל״ט) וידעת היום והשבות אל לבבך כי ה' הוא האלהים וגו' רבי יוסי אומר אומרן עם [מלכיות] רבי יהודה אומר לא היה אומרן [עמהן מלכיות שאין עמה שופר כגון] (תהילים מ״ז:ז׳-ט׳) זמרו לאלהים זמרו וגו' כי מלך כל הארץ אלהים [זמרו משכיל מלך אלהים על גוים] רבי יוסי אומר [אומרן עם המלכיות] רבי יהודה אומר [לא היה אומרן] (תהילים כ״ד:ז׳) שאו שערים ראשיכם וגו' מי זה מלך הכבוד [וגו' שאו שערים ראשיכם מי הוא זה מלך הכבוד ה' צבאות] וגו' ר' יוסי אומר [כל אחד ואחד בפני עצמו רבי יהודה אומר אומרן כולן כאחד] זכרונות האמורות [בענין בקשה] רבי יוסי אומר אומרן כולן כאחד רבי יהודה אומר ראשונים בפני עצמן ושניים בפני עצמן. שופרות האמורות בענין גדעון ובענין יהושע ר' יוסי אומר אומרן כל אחד ואחד בפני עצמו רבי יהודה אומר האמורין בשעת מעשה לעצמן בשעת פקידה לעצמן.",
43. Tosefta, Shabbat, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 59
44. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 519; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 134
13.8. "שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק [אמר להם בשנה זו אני] מת אמרו לו מנין אתה יודע אמר להם כל ימות הכפורים היה זקן [אחד לובש] בגדים לבנים ומתכסה לבנים נכנס עמי [ויוצא] עמי שנה זו נכנס עמי ולא יצא לאחר הרגל חלה שבעת ימים ומת משמת שמעון הצדיק פסקו מלברך בשם <ס\"א> [נמנעו אחיו מלברך בשם].", 13.8. "The year in which Shimon the Righteous died [he said to them] \"in this year I will die\" \"how do you know this?\" they responded. He (Shimon the Righteous) responded: \"all of the Yom Kippur days there was an old man dressed in all white who would go with me into the holy of holies and leave with me, on this year he went in with me but did not come out with me.\" Seven days passed after the holiday and he died. From the time of the death of Rebbi Shimon the Righteous they ceased blessing in the name of Hashem.",
45. Tosefta, Taanit, a b c d\n0 1.11(12) 1.11(12) 1 11(12)\n1 3.1 3.1 3 1 \n2 1.13 1.13 1 13 \n3 1.14 1.14 1 14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 583
46. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 568
4.5. "סֵדֶר בְּרָכוֹת, אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִמָּהֶן, וְאֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ. קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אִם אֵינוֹ תוֹקֵעַ לַמַּלְכוּיוֹת, לָמָּה הוּא מַזְכִּיר. אֶלָּא אוֹמֵר אָבוֹת וּגְבוּרוֹת וּקְדֻשַּׁת הַשֵּׁם, וְכוֹלֵל מַלְכוּיוֹת עִם קְדֻשַּׁת הַיּוֹם, וְתוֹקֵעַ. זִכְרוֹנוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. שׁוֹפָרוֹת, וְתוֹקֵעַ. וְאוֹמֵר עֲבוֹדָה וְהוֹדָאָה וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים: \n", 4.5. "The order of blessings [in the Musaf Amidah of Rosh Hashanah]:He says “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verses with them and does not blow [the shofar]. The sanctification of the day and blows [the shofar], the remembrance-verses and blows [the shofar], and the shofar-verses and blows [the shofar]. Then he says the blessing of the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priests, the words of Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri. Rabbi Akiva said to him: if he does not blow the shofar for the kingship-verses, why should he say them? Rather he says: “patriarchs”, “powers” and the “sanctification of the name” and includes the kingship verse with the sanctification of the day and blows the shofar, then he says the remembrance-verses and blows, and the shofar-verses and blows. Then he says the Temple service and “thanksgiving” and the blessing of the priest.",
47. Mishnah, Peah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 233
4.6. "עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁקָּצַר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר, פָּטוּר מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב בְּשִׁכְחָה, שֶׁאֵין הַשִּׁכְחָה אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת הָעִמּוּר: \n", 4.6. "A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from [leaving] gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding.",
48. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.1, 10.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59, 134
3.1. "דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. זֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד וְזֶה בּוֹרֵר לוֹ אֶחָד, וּשְׁנֵיהֶן בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי דַיָּנִין בּוֹרְרִין לָהֶן עוֹד אֶחָד. זֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל דַּיָּנוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמֵּבִיא עֲלֵיהֶן רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִין אוֹ פְסוּלִין, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים אוֹ מֻמְחִין, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן. זֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה פּוֹסֵל עֵדָיו שֶׁל זֶה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא עֲלֵיהֶם רְאָיָה שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבִים אוֹ פְסוּלִים. אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כְשֵׁרִים, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְפָסְלָן: \n", 10.1. "כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס) וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים לְעוֹלָם יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ נֵצֶר מַטָּעַי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי לְהִתְפָּאֵר. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין תּוֹרָה מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, וְאֶפִּיקוֹרֶס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אַף הַקּוֹרֵא בַסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, וְהַלּוֹחֵשׁ עַל הַמַּכָּה וְאוֹמֵר (שמות טו) כָּל הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, אַף הַהוֹגֶה אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּאוֹתִיּוֹתָיו: \n", 3.1. "Cases concerning property [are decided] by three [judges].This [litigant] chooses one and this [litigant] chooses one and then the two of them choose another, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “The two judges choose the other judge.” This [litigant] can invalidate this one’s judge, and this [litigant] can invalidate this one’s judge, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “When is this so? When they bring proof against them that they are relatives or otherwise invalid; but if they are valid and experts, he cannot invalidate them. This [litigant] may invalidate this one’s witnesses and this [litigant] may invalidate this one’s witnesses, according to Rabbi Meir. But the Sages say: “When is this so? When they bring proof against them that they are relatives or otherwise invalid; but if they are valid, he cannot invalidate them.", 10.1. "All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases which i brought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”",
49. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.5, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 583; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 205
2.5. "מַעֲשֶׂה בִימֵי רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן, שֶׁעָבַר אֶחָד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְגָמַר אֶת הַבְּרָכָה כֻלָּהּ, וְלֹא עָנוּ אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן. תִּקְעוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים תְּקָעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. הָרִיעוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הָרִיעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עַל יַם סוּף, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. וּכְשֶׁבָּא דָבָר אֵצֶל חֲכָמִים, אָמְרוּ, לֹא הָיִינוּ נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן אֶלָּא בְשַׁעַר מִזְרָח וּבְהַר הַבָּיִת:", 4.2. "אֵלּוּ הֵן מַעֲמָדוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר כח), צַו אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי, וְכִי הֵיאַךְ קָרְבָּנוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קָרֵב, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבָּיו, הִתְקִינוּ נְבִיאִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבַּע מִשְׁמָרוֹת. עַל כָּל מִשְׁמָר וּמִשְׁמָר הָיָה מַעֲמָד בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם שֶׁל כֹּהֲנִים, שֶׁל לְוִיִּם, וְשֶׁל יִשְׂרְאֵלִים. הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַמִּשְׁמָר לַעֲלוֹת, כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם עוֹלִים לִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ מִשְׁמָר מִתְכַּנְּסִין לְעָרֵיהֶן וְקוֹרְאִין בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית: \n", 2.5. "It happened in the days of Rabbi Halafta and Rabbi Hanina ben Tradyon that a man passed before the ark [as shaliah tzibbur] and completed the entire benediction and they did not respond, “amen.” [The hazzan called out]: Sound a tekiah, priests, sound a tekiah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered Abraham on Mt. Moriah, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. Then [the hazzan called out]: Sound a teru'ah, sons of Aaron, sound a teru'ah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered our fathers at the Sea of Reeds, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. And when the matter came up before the sages, they said: they only practiced in this way at the eastern gates on the Temple Mount.", 4.2. "What are the ma’amadot? Since it is said, “Command the children of Israel and say to them: My offering, My food” (Numbers 28:2). Now how can a man’s offering be offered and he is not present? [Therefore] the former prophets instituted twenty-four mishmarot (guards). For each mishmar there was a ma’amad [at the Temple] in Jerusalem consisting of priests, Levites and Israelites. When the time came for the mishmar to go up [to Jerusalem] the priests and Levites went up to Jerusalem and the Israelites of that mishmar assembled in their cities and read the story of creation.",
50. Mishnah, Tamid, 5.1, 7.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 568; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 527; Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158
5.1. "אָמַר לָהֶם הַמְמֻנֶּה, בָּרְכוּ בְרָכָה אֶחַת, וְהֵן בֵּרְכוּ. קָרְאוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים, שְׁמַע, וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ, וַיֹּאמֶר. בֵּרְכוּ אֶת הָעָם שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, אֱמֶת וְיַצִּיב, וַעֲבוֹדָה, וּבִרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים. וּבְשַׁבָּת מוֹסִיפִין בְּרָכָה אַחַת לַמִּשְׁמָר הַיּוֹצֵא: \n", 7.2. "בָּאוּ וְעָמְדוּ עַל מַעֲלוֹת הָאוּלָם. עָמְדוּ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים לִדְרוֹם אֲחֵיהֶם הַכֹּהֲנִים, וַחֲמִשָּׁה כֵלִים בְּיָדָם, הַטֶּנִי בְיַד אֶחָד, וְהַכּוּז בְּיַד אֶחָד, וְהַמַּחְתָּה בְיַד אֶחָד, וְהַבָּזָךְ בְּיַד אֶחָד, וְכַף וְכִסּוּיָהּ בְּיַד אֶחָד. וּבֵרְכוּ אֶת הָעָם בְּרָכָה אַחַת, אֶלָּא שֶׁבַּמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים אוֹתָהּ שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה אֶחָת. בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים אֶת הַשֵּׁם כִּכְתָבוֹ, וּבַמְּדִינָה בְּכִנּוּיוֹ. בַּמְּדִינָה הַכֹּהֲנִים נוֹשְׂאִים אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, יְדֵיהֶם כְּנֶגֶד כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל גַּבֵּי רָאשֵׁיהֶן, חוּץ מִכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מַגְבִּיהַּ אֶת יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ט), וַיִּשָּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרְכֵם:", 5.1. "The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving.", 7.2. "They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22).",
51. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
7.1. "בָּא לוֹ כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל לִקְרוֹת. אִם רָצָה לִקְרוֹת בְּבִגְדֵי בוּץ, קוֹרֵא. וְאִם לֹא, קוֹרֵא בְאִצְטְלִית לָבָן מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. חַזַּן הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹטֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וְנוֹתְנוֹ לְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת, וְרֹאשׁ הַכְּנֶסֶת נוֹתְנוֹ לַסְּגָן, וְהַסְּגָן נוֹתְנוֹ לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל עוֹמֵד וּמְקַבֵּל וְקוֹרֵא עוֹמֵד, וְקוֹרֵא אַחֲרֵי מוֹת וְאַךְ בֶּעָשׂוֹר. וְגוֹלֵל סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה וּמַנִּיחוֹ בְחֵיקוֹ, וְאוֹמֵר, יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּרָאתִי לִפְנֵיכֶם כָּתוּב כָּאן, וּבֶעָשׂוֹר שֶׁבְּחֻמַּשׁ הַפְּקוּדִים קוֹרֵא עַל פֶּה, וּמְבָרֵךְ עָלֶיהָ שְׁמֹנֶה בְרָכוֹת, עַל הַתּוֹרָה, וְעַל הָעֲבוֹדָה, וְעַל הַהוֹדָאָה, וְעַל מְחִילַת הֶעָוֹן, וְעַל הַמִּקְדָּשׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְעַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן וְעַל יְרוּשָׁלַיִם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ וְעַל הַכֹּהֲנִים בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן וְעַל שְׁאָר הַתְּפִלָּה: \n", 7.1. "The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”",
52. New Testament, 1 John, 1.9, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 182
1.9. ἐὰν ὁμολογῶμεν τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἡμῶν, πιστός ἐστιν καὶ δίκαιος ἵνα ἀφῇ ἡμῖν τὰς ἁμαρτίας καὶ καθαρίσῃ ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ πάσης ἀδικίας. 2.12. Γράφω ὑμῖν, τεκνία, ὅτι ἀφέωνται ὑμῖν αἱ ἁμαρτίαι διὰ τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ· 1.9. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. 2.12. I write to you, little children, because your sins are forgiven you for his name's sake.
53. New Testament, John, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 185
17.2. δόξασόν σου τὸν υἱόν, ἵνα ὁ υἱὸς δοξάσῃ σέ, καθὼς ἔδωκας αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαν πάσης σαρκός, ἵνα πᾶν ὃ δέδωκας αὐτῷ δώσει αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 17.2. even as you gave him authority over all flesh, to give eternal life to all whom you have given him.
54. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.5, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 527, 555
3.5. "בְּפֶסַח קוֹרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת מוֹעֲדוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים (ויקרא כב). בַּעֲצֶרֶת, שִׁבְעָה שָׁבֻעוֹת (דברים טז). בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ (ויקרא כג). בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אַחֲרֵי מוֹת (שם טז). בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חָג קוֹרִין בְּפָרָשַׁת מוֹעֲדוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹרַת כֹּהֲנִים (ויקרא כג), וּבִשְׁאָר כָּל יְמוֹת הֶחָג בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הֶחָג (במדבר כט): \n", 4.3. "אֵין פּוֹרְסִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְאֵין עוֹבְרִין לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אֶת כַּפֵּיהֶם, וְאֵין קוֹרִין בַּתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין מַפְטִירִין בַּנָּבִיא, וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין מַעֲמָד וּמוֹשָׁב, וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים וְתַנְחוּמֵי אֲבֵלִים וּבִרְכַּת חֲתָנִים, וְאֵין מְזַמְּנִין בַּשֵּׁם, פָּחוֹת מֵעֲשָׂרָה. וּבַקַּרְקָעוֹת, תִּשְׁעָה וְכֹהֵן. וְאָדָם, כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן:", 3.5. "On Pesah we read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus (Torat Kohanim) (Leviticus 23:4). On Shavuot, “Seven weeks” (Deuteronomy 16:9). On Rosh Hashanah “On the seventh day on the first of the month” (Leviticus 23:2. On Yom Hakippurim, “After the death” (Leviticus. On the first day of the Festival [of Sukkot] they read from the portion of the festivals in Leviticus, and on the other days of the Festival [of Sukkot] the [sections] on the offerings of the Festival.", 4.3. "They do not recite the Shema responsively, And they do not pass before the ark; And the [the priests] do not lift up their hands; And they do not read the Torah [publicly]; And they do not conclude with a haftarah from the prophets; And they do not make stops [at funeral] processions; And they do not say the blessing for mourners, or the comfort of mourners, or the blessing of bridegrooms; And they do not mention God’s name in the invitation [to say Birkat Hamazon]; Except in the presence of ten. [For redeeming sanctified] land nine and a priest [are sufficient], and similarly with human beings.",
55. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.159, 18.259-18.260, 19.276-19.277, 20.100 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 69
18.159. He then pretended that he would do as he bid him; but when night came on, he cut his cables, and went off, and sailed to Alexandria, where he desired Alexander the alabarch to lend him two hundred thousand drachmae; but he said he would not lend it to him, but would not refuse it to Cypros, as greatly astonished at her affection to her husband, and at the other instances of her virtue; 18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations; 18.260. but Caius prohibited him, and bid him begone; he was also in such a rage, that it openly appeared he was about to do them some very great mischief. So Philo being thus affronted, went out, and said to those Jews who were about him, that they should be of good courage, since Caius’s words indeed showed anger at them, but in reality had already set God against himself. 19.276. he also took away from Antiochus that kingdom which he was possessed of, but gave him a certain part of Cilicia and Commagena: he also set Alexander Lysimachus, the alabarch, at liberty, who had been his old friend, and steward to his mother Antonia, but had been imprisoned by Caius, whose son [Marcus] married Bernice, the daughter of Agrippa. 19.277. But when Marcus, Alexander’s son, was dead, who had married her when she was a virgin, Agrippa gave her in marriage to his brother Herod, and begged for him of Claudius the kingdom of Chalcis. 20.100. 2. Then came Tiberius Alexander as successor to Fadus; he was the son of Alexander the alabarch of Alexandria, which Alexander was a principal person among all his contemporaries, both for his family and wealth: he was also more eminent for his piety than this his son Alexander, for he did not continue in the religion of his country.
56. New Testament, Matthew, 6.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 182
6.12. καὶ ἄφες ἡμῖν τὰ ὀφειλήματα ἡμῶν, ὡς καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀφήκαμεν τοῖς ὀφειλέταις ἡμῶν· 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors.
57. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
58. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 205
59. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
60. Palestinian Talmud, Eruvin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
61. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
62. Anon., Sifre Numbers, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158
63. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
64. Palestinian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
65. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
66. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567
67. Tertullian, On Prayer, 1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 185
1. The Spirit of God, and the Word of God, and the Reason of God - Word of Reason, and Reason and Spirit of Word - Jesus Christ our Lord, namely, who is both the one and the other, - has determined for us, the disciples of the New Testament, a new form of prayer; for in this particular also it was needful that new wine should be laid up in new skins, and a new breadth be sewn to a new garment. Besides, whatever had been in bygone days, has either been quite changed, as circumcision; or else supplemented, as the rest of the Law; or else fulfilled, as Prophecy; or else perfected, as faith itself. For the new grace of God has renewed all things from carnal unto spiritual, by superinducing the Gospel, the obliterator of the whole ancient bygone system; in which our Lord Jesus Christ has been approved as the Spirit of God, and the Word of God, and the Reason of God: the Spirit, by which He was mighty; the Word, by which He taught; the Reason, by which He came. So the prayer composed by Christ has been composed of three parts. In speech, by which prayer is enunciated, in spirit, by which alone it prevails, even John had taught his disciples to pray, but all John's doings were laid as groundwork for Christ, until, when He had increased - just as the same John used to fore-announce that it was needful that He should increase and himself decrease John 3:30 - the whole work of the forerunner passed over, together with his spirit itself, unto the Lord. Therefore, after what form of words John taught to pray is not extant, because earthly things have given place to heavenly. He who is from the earth, says John, speaks earthly things; and He who is here from the heavens speaks those things which He has seen. John 3:31-32 And what is the Lord Christ's - as this method of praying is - that is not heavenly? And so, blessed brethren, let us consider His heavenly wisdom: first, touching the precept of praying secretly, whereby He exacted man's faith, that he should be confident that the sight and hearing of Almighty God are present beneath roofs, and extend even into the secret place; and required modesty in faith, that it should offer its religious homage to Him alone, whom it believed to see and to hear everywhere. Further, since wisdom succeeded in the following precept, let it in like manner appertain unto faith, and the modesty of faith, that we think not that the Lord must be approached with a train of words, who, we are certain, takes unsolicited foresight for His own. And yet that very brevity - and let this make for the third grade of wisdom - is supported on the substance of a great and blessed interpretation, and is as diffuse in meaning as it is compressed in words. For it has embraced not only the special duties of prayer, be it veneration of God or petition for man, but almost every discourse of the Lord, every record of His Discipline; so that, in fact, in the Prayer is comprised an epitome of the whole Gospel.
68. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 23.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158
23.4. רַב חָנָן דְּצִפּוֹרִי פָּתַר קְרָיָא בִּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הֶאָבֵל וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְתֹּחַ אֶת פִּיו וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם פּוֹתֵחַ פִּיו וּמְבָרֵךְ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם עֲשָׂרָה בְּנֵי אָדָם נִכְנָסִין לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לִפְרֹס עַל שְׁמַע וְלַעֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם יוֹדֵעַ, דּוֹמֶה כְּשׁוֹשַׁנָּה בֵּין הַחוֹחִים. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אָזַל לְחַד אֲתַר אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה. אָמַר לָהֶן לֵינָא חָכֵם, אָמְרִין דֵּין הוּא רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, דֵּין הוּא דְּאַתּוּן מִתְגַּלְגְּלִין בֵּיהּ, עַל מַגָּן צָוְוחִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי. נִתְכַּרְכְּמוּ פָנָיו וְהָלַךְ לוֹ אֵצֶל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא רַבּוֹ, אָמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, תָּנֵי לֵיהּ עוֹבָדָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ צָבֵי מָרִי דְּיֵלִיף, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין, אִלְפֵיהּ. לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אָזַל לְהַהוּא אַתְרָא, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ פְּרֹס עַל שְׁמַע, פָּרַס. עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה, עָבַר. אָמְרִין אִתְחַסַּם רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר, וְקוֹרִין לֵיהּ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא. רַבִּי יוֹנָה הֲוָה מַלֵּיף לְתַלְמִידוֹי בִּרְכַּת אֲבֵלִים, אֲמַר יֶהֱווֹן גַּבְרִין בְּכָל מִלָּה.
69. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
24b. של חמשה ושל ששה ושל שמונה ושל שבעה לא יעשה אפי' של שאר מיני מתכות רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו מלכי בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראייה שפודין של ברזל היו וחיפום בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו העשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, יט) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא דמות ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם א"ר הונא בריה דרב אידי מפרקיה דאביי שמיעא לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והא תניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקודש ומלאכי השרת אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת כי תניא ההיא לעבדם,אי לעבדם אפילו שלשול קטן נמי אין ה"נ דתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בארץ לרבות הרים וגבעות ימים ונהרות אפיקים וגאיות מתחת לרבות שלשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם חותמו בולט הוה ומשום חשדא כדתניא טבעת חותמו בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמו שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא ההיא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דהוה ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי רב ושמואל ואבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו התם ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא ר"ג יחיד הוא כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה איבעית אימא דפרקים הוה,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד עבד וכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה שבאו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו שחרית במזרח 24b. a candelabrum b of five or of six or of eight /b lamps. b But one may not fashion /b a candelabrum with b seven /b lamps b even /b if he constructs it b from other kinds of metal /b rather than gold, as in exigent circumstances the candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals. b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Also, one may not fashion /b a candelabrum b of wood, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned /b it. When they first purified the Temple they had to prepare the candelabrum out of wood, as no other material was available. Since this candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The other Sages b said to /b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: b From there /b you seek to bring b a proof? /b There the branches of the candelabrum b were /b comprised of b spits [ i shippudin /i ] of iron and they covered them with tin. /b Later, when b they grew richer /b and could afford a candelabrum of higher-quality material, b they fashioned them from silver. /b When b they grew even richer, they fashioned them from gold. /b Still, Abaye proves from this i baraita /i that the prohibition against forming an image applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s forms were permitted.,The Gemara asks: b And is it /b really b permitted /b to form images of b those attendants /b concerning b which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), comes to teach: b You shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high. /b Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon. b Abaye said: /b This does not include the sun and the moon, as b the Torah prohibited only /b the fashioning of b an image of /b all b four faces /b of the creatures of the Heavenly Chariot b together /b (see Ezekiel, chapter 1). However, all other images, which are not the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b However, if /b that is b so, let /b the fashioning of an image of b a human face [ i partzuf /i ] alone be permitted. Why, /b then, b is it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b All faces are permitted /b for ornamental purposes, b except for the face of a person? Rav Huna, son of Rav Idi, said: From a lecture of Abaye I heard /b that there is a different reason why one may not form an image of a human face, as the verse states: b “You shall not make with Me [ i iti /i ]” /b (Exodus 20:19). This can be read as: b You shall not make Me [ i oti /i ]. /b Since man is created in the image of God, it is prohibited to form an image of a human being.,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b other attendants? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high, for example, i ofanim /i and seraphim and the sacred i ḥayyot /i and the ministering angels. Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only /b those b attendants that are /b found b in the upper Heaven, /b i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but not the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b those /b bodies found b in the lower heaven? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:3). The phrase b “that is in heaven” /b comes b to include /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b The term b “above” /b serves b to include the ministering angels. /b Apparently, it is prohibited to form an image even of the celestial bodies found in the lower Heaven. The Gemara answers: b When that /b i baraita /i b is taught, /b it is in reference to the prohibition b against worshipping them. /b However, there is no prohibition against forming an image in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: b If /b that i baraita /i is referring to b the prohibition against worshipping them, /b then b even a tiny worm /b should b also /b be prohibited. The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, as it is taught /b in the same i baraita /i with regard to the continuation of the verse, b “in the earth” /b comes b to include mountains and hills, seas and rivers, streams and valleys; “beneath” /b comes b to include a tiny worm. /b If so, it is indeed possible to explain that the entire i baraita /i is referring to the prohibition against idol worship.,The Gemara raises yet another objection: b And is the mere fashioning /b of images of the celestial bodies b permitted? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i : b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19). This verse teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me, for example /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars and /b the b constellations. /b This is explicit proof that it is prohibited to form images of the sun and the moon; consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty with Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of b Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, /b i.e., gentiles, b fashioned /b those images b for him, /b and it is prohibited only for a Jew to fashion such images; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b there is the case of b Rav Yehuda, as others fashioned for him /b a seal in the form of a human being, b and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, /b who was his student: b Sharp-witted one, blind this one’s eyes, /b i.e., disfigure the image, as it is prohibited even to have the image of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b in the case of Rav Yehuda, b his was a protruding seal, /b i.e., the image projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it b due to /b the potential b suspicion /b that he had an object of idol worship in his hand. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b a ring, /b if b its seal protrudes it is prohibited to place it /b on one’s finger, due to the suspicion of idol worship, b but it is permitted to seal /b objects b with it. /b In this case, the act of sealing creates an image that is sunken below the surface, which is not prohibited. However, if b its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it /b on one’s finger, b but it is prohibited to seal /b objects b with it, /b as that creates a protruding image.,The Gemara asks: b And are we concerned about /b arousing b suspicion /b in a case of this kind? b But /b what about that b certain synagogue that had been /b destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and its stones were b relocated and /b it was rebuilt so that it b sat in Neharde’a, /b and b there was a statue [ i andarta /i ] /b of the king b in it. And /b nevertheless b Rav and Shmuel and Shmuel’s father and Levi would /b all b enter and pray there and they were not concerned about /b arousing b suspicion. /b The Gemara answers: When b many /b Jews are present it b is different, /b as a large group is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for purposes of ornamentation.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? /b According to this reasoning, his images of the moon should have been prohibited, as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: b Since he is the i Nasi /i , /b the head of the Great Sanhedrin, b many /b people b were /b always b found with him, /b and therefore there was no room for suspicion. The Gemara suggests an alternative answer: b If you wish, say /b that these images were not whole; rather, they b were /b formed b from pieces /b of images that had to be put together. Only complete images are prohibited.,The Gemara suggests yet another answer: b If you wish, say: /b Rabban Gamliel b did /b this b to teach himself, /b which is not prohibited, as b it is written: “You shall not learn to do /b after the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9), which indicates: b However, you may learn to understand and to teach. /b In other words, it is permitted to do certain things for the sake of Torah study which would otherwise be prohibited., strong MISHNA: /strong There was b an incident /b in b which two /b witnesses b came /b to testify about the new moon, b and they said: We saw /b the waning moon b in the morning in the east, /b
70. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 567, 568
34a. חברותא כלפי שמיא מי איכא אי לא כוון דעתיה מעיקרא מחינן ליה במרזפתא דנפחא עד דמכוין דעתיה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (האומר יברכוך טובים הרי זה דרכי מינות) העובר לפני התיבה וטעה יעבור אחר תחתיו ולא יהא סרבן באותה שעה מהיכן הוא מתחיל מתחלת הברכה שטעה זה,העובר לפני התיבה לא יענה אמן אחר הכהנים מפני הטרוף ואם אין שם כהן אלא הוא לא ישא את כפיו ואם הבטחתו שהוא נושא את כפיו וחוזר לתפלתו רשאי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר העובר לפני התיבה צריך לסרב ואם אינו מסרב דומה לתבשיל שאין בו מלח ואם מסרב יותר מדאי דומה לתבשיל שהקדיחתו מלח כיצד הוא עושה פעם ראשונה יסרב שניה מהבהב שלישית פושט את רגליו ויורד,ת"ר שלשה רובן קשה ומיעוטן יפה ואלו הן שאור ומלח וסרבנות,אמר רב הונא טעה בשלש ראשונות חוזר לראש באמצעיות חוזר לאתה חונן באחרונות חוזר לעבודה,ורב אסי אמר אמצעיות אין להן סדר,מתיב רב ששת מהיכן הוא חוזר מתחלת הברכה שטעה זה תיובתא דרב הונא,אמר לך רב הונא אמצעיות כלהו חדא ברכתא נינהו,אמר רב יהודה לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו לא בשלש ראשונות ולא בשלש אחרונות אלא באמצעיות דא"ר חנינא ראשונות דומה לעבד שמסדר שבח לפני רבו אמצעיות דומה לעבד שמבקש פרס מרבו אחרונות דומה לעבד שקבל פרס מרבו ונפטר והולך לו,ת"ר מעשה בתלמיד אחד שירד לפני התיבה בפני רבי אליעזר והיה מאריך יותר מדאי א"ל תלמידיו רבינו כמה ארכן הוא זה אמר להם כלום מאריך יותר ממשה רבינו דכתיב ביה (דברים ט, כה) את ארבעים היום ואת ארבעים הלילה וגו',שוב מעשה בתלמיד א' שירד לפני התיבה בפני ר"א והיה מקצר יותר מדאי א"ל תלמידיו כמה קצרן הוא זה א"ל כלום מקצר יותר ממשה רבינו דכתיב (במדבר יב, יג) אל נא רפא נא לה,א"ר יעקב אמר רב חסדא כל המבקש רחמים על חבירו אין צריך להזכיר שמו שנאמר אל נא רפא נא לה ולא קמדכר שמה דמרים:,ת"ר אלו ברכות שאדם שוחה בהן באבות תחלה וסוף בהודאה תחלה וסוף ואם בא לשוח בסוף כל ברכה וברכה ובתחלת כל ברכה וברכה מלמדין אותו שלא ישחה,אר"ש בן פזי אריב"ל משום בר קפרא הדיוט כמו שאמרנו 34a. b Can one have /b that degree of b familiarity with Heaven, /b to the extent that he can take his words lightly and say them however he likes? b If he did not focus his attention initially, we beat him with a blacksmith’s hammer until he focuses his attention, /b as conduct of that sort is unacceptable., strong MISHNA: /strong This mishna and the next one deal with the communal prayer leader. b (If one says: “May the good bless You,” this is a path of heresy.) One who is passing before the ark, /b as prayer leader, b and erred, another should /b immediately b pass in his place, and at that moment, /b this replacement b should not refuse /b in the interest of courtesy. The i Amida /i prayer was interrupted and he should replace him as quickly as possible. b From where does /b the replacement b commence? From the beginning of the blessing in which /b the former b had erred. /b ,In order to prevent the prayer leader from erring in his prayer, it was said that b one who passes before the ark should not respond amen after the /b blessing of the b priests, because of /b potential b confusion. /b Since the mishna is describing a situation in which he was praying without a prayer book, responding amen would interrupt the order of the prayer and potentially lead him to begin a different blessing. For this reason, even b if there is no priest other than /b the communal prayer leader, b he does not lift his hands /b to bless the people, lest he become confused. b And, /b however, b if he is certain that he can lift his hands and resume his prayer /b without becoming confused, b he is permitted /b to recite the blessing., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that one who replaces a communal prayer leader who erred in the middle of the i Amida /i prayer should not refuse when approached. The Gemara cites the general i halakha /i with regard to proper conduct when one is approached to serve as prayer leader. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : One who is approached b to pass before the ark /b to serve as prayer leader, for the sake of propriety b should refuse, /b to avoid creating the impression that he is too eager. b And if he does not refuse, /b but jumps at the opportunity, b he is like cooked food without salt, /b which is to say that he acts in bad taste. b However, if he refuses too much /b this is similarly inappropriate, as b he is like cooked food that was ruined by /b too much b salt. /b So b how should he act? /b The appropriate conduct when approached to serve as communal prayer leader is as follows: When approached b the first time, one should refuse; the second /b time, one should b vacillate /b like a wick that has just begun to catch a flame but is not yet burning; and b the third /b time, b he should stretch his legs and descend /b before the ark.,On this note, the Gemara cites that which b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : There are b three /b things that b are harmful in excess but are beneficial when used sparingly. /b They are: b Leavening /b in dough, b salt /b in a cooked dish b and refusal /b for the sake of propriety.,The mishna states that when one replaces the communal prayer leader, he commences from the beginning of the blessing in which the former had erred. However that is not universally true, as b Rav Huna said: /b One who b erred in /b any of b the first three /b blessings b he must return to the beginning /b of the i Amida /i prayer because the first three blessing comprise a single entity. Likewise, if one b erred in /b any of b the /b thirteen b middle /b blessings, b he returns to /b the blessing of: b You grace /b humanity, the first of the middle blessings. If one erred b in /b any of the three b final /b blessings, b he must return to the /b blessing of b Temple service, /b which is the first of the final blessings., b And Rav Asi /b disputes one aspect of Rav Huna’s opinion, as b he said: The middle /b blessings b have no /b set b order. /b If one erred in any of them he may insert it at whatever point he becomes aware of his error., b Rav Sheshet raised an objection /b based on a i baraita /i : b From where does he /b commence b repetition /b of the i Amida /i prayer? He commences b from the beginning of the blessing in which /b the former b had erred. /b If so, this is b a conclusive refutation of Rav Huna’s /b opinion, as Rav Huna said that if one erred in one of the middle blessings, he returns to the beginning of the middle blessings, not to the beginning of that particular blessing., b Rav Huna /b could have b said to you: The middle /b blessings b are all /b considered b one blessing; /b commencing from the beginning of the blessing means returning to the beginning of the middle blessings., b Rav Yehuda said: /b There is an additional distinction between the various sections of the i Amida /i prayer: b One must never request his /b own b needs in the first three or in the last three /b blessings; b rather, /b he should do so b in the middle /b blessings. b As Rabbi Ḥanina said: /b During the b first /b three blessings, he b is like a servant who arranges praise before his master; /b during the b middle /b blessings, he b is like a servant who requests a reward from his master; /b during the b final /b three blessings, one b is like a servant who /b already b received a reward from his master and is taking his leave and departing. /b ,Continuing on the subject of prayer, b the Sages taught: /b There was b an incident where one student descended /b to serve as prayer leader b before the ark in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he was excessively prolonging his prayer. His students /b complained and b said to him: How long-winded he is. He said to them: Is /b this student b prolonging /b his prayer any more b than Moses our teacher /b did? b As about /b Moses b it is written: /b “And I prostrated myself before the Lord b for the forty days and forty nights /b that I prostrated myself” (Deuteronomy 9:25). There is no limit to the duration of a prayer.,There was b again an incident where one student descended /b to serve as prayer leader b before the ark in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer, and he was excessively abbreviating his prayer. His students /b protested b and said to him: How brief is his /b prayer. b He said to them: Is he abbreviating /b his prayer b any more than Moses our teacher /b did? b As it is written /b with regard to the prayer Moses recited imploring God to cure Miriam of her leprosy: “And Moses cried out to the Lord, saying: b ‘Please, God, heal her, please’” /b (Numbers 12:13). This student’s prayer was certainly no briefer than the few words recited by Moses.,Having mentioned Moses’ prayer for Miriam, the Gemara cites what b Rabbi Ya’akov said /b that b Rav Ḥisda said: Anyone who requests mercy on /b behalf of b another need not mention his name, as it is stated: “Please, God, heal her, please,” and he did not mention Miriam’s name. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i Tosefta /i : b These /b are the b blessings /b in the i Amida /i prayer b in which a person bows: In /b the first blessing, the blessing of the b Patriarchs, /b one bows b at the beginning and the end; in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving, /b one bows b at the beginning and the end; and if one seeks to bow at the end of each and every blessing and at the beginning of each and every blessing, they teach him not to bow /b so as not to go beyond the ordice instituted by the Sages., b Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said in the name of /b the i tanna /i b bar Kappara: An ordinary /b person b [ i hedyot /i ], /b conducts himself b as we said; /b he bows at the beginning and the end of the blessings of Patriarchs and thanksgiving and is admonished if he seeks to bow at the beginning and end of the other blessings.
71. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 527
16a. מאי דרש אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן (דברים לג, ב) (ואתא) מרבבות קדש אות הוא ברבבה שלו,ורבי אבהו אמר (שיר השירים ה, י) דגול מרבבה דוגמא הוא ברבבה שלו,וריש לקיש אמר (ישעיהו מח, ב) ה' צבאות שמו אדון הוא בצבא שלו,ורבי חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מלכים א יט, יא) לא ברוח ה' ואחר הרוח רעש לא ברעש ה' ואחר הרעש אש לא באש ה' ואחר האש קול דממה דקה והנה ה' עובר,ת"ר ששה דברים נאמרו בשדים שלשה כמלאכי השרת ושלשה כבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם כנפים כמלאכי השרת וטסין מסוף העולם ועד סופו כמלאכי השרת ויודעין מה שעתיד להיות כמלאכי השרת,יודעין ס"ד אלא שומעין מאחורי הפרגוד כמלאכי השרת,ושלשה כבני אדם אוכלין ושותין כבני אדם פרין ורבין כבני אדם ומתים כבני אדם,ששה דברים נאמרו בבני אדם שלשה כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה שלשה כמלאכי השרת יש להם דעת כמלאכי השרת ומהלכין בקומה זקופה כמלאכי השרת ומספרים בלשון הקדש כמלאכי השרת שלשה כבהמה אוכלין ושותין כבהמה ופרין ורבין כבהמה ומוציאין רעי כבהמה:,כל המסתכל בד' דברים רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם כו': בשלמא מה למעלה מה למטה מה לאחור לחיי אלא לפנים מה דהוה הוה,ר' יוחנן ור"א דאמרי תרוייהו משל למלך ב"ו שאמר לעבדיו בנו לי פלטירין גדולין על האשפה הלכו ובנו לו אין רצונו של מלך להזכיר שם אשפה:,כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו רתוי לו שלא בא לעולם: מאי היא ר' אבא אמר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר מסתכל בקשת דכתיב (יחזקאל א, כח) כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם כן מראה הנגה סביב הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה',רב יוסף אמר זה העובר עבירה בסתר כדר' יצחק דאמר רבי יצחק כל העובר עבירה בסתר כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה שנא' (ישעיהו סו, א) כה אמר ה' השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,איני והאמר ר' אלעא הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורין ויתעטף שחורין ויעשה מה שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליה ליצריה הא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש כל המסתכל בג' דברים עיניו כהות בקשת ובנשיא ובכהנים בקשת דכתיב כמראה הקשת אשר יהיה בענן ביום הגשם הוא מראה דמות כבוד ה' בנשיא דכתיב (במדבר כז, כ) ונתת מהודך עליו המסתכל בכהנים בזמן שבהמ"ק קיים שהיו עומדין על דוכנן ומברכין את ישראל בשם המפורש,דרש ר' יהודה ברבי נחמני מתורגמניה דריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (מיכה ז, ה) אל תאמינו ברע אל תבטחו באלוף אם יאמר לך יצר הרע חטוא והקב"ה מוחל אל תאמן (שנא') אל תאמן ברע ואין רע אלא יצר הרע שנאמר (בראשית ח, כא) כי יצר לב האדם רע,ואין אלוף אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ירמיהו ג, ד) אלוף נעורי אתה שמא תאמר מי מעיד בי אבני ביתו וקורות ביתו של אדם הם מעידין בו שנאמר (חבקוק ב, יא) כי אבן מקיר תזעק וכפיס מעץ יעננה,וחכ"א נשמתו של אדם מעידה בו שנאמר (מיכה ז, ה) משכבת חיקך שמור פתחי פיך אי זו היא דבר ששוכבת בחיקו של אדם הוי אומר זו נשמה ר' זריקא אמר שני מלאכי השרת המלוין אותו הן מעידין בו שנאמר (תהלים צא, יא) כי מלאכיו יצוה לך לשמרך בכל דרכיך (וחכ"א) אבריו של אדם מעידין בו שנאמר (ישעיהו מג, יב) ואתם עדי נאם ה' ואני אל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big (יוסי) בן יועזר אומר שלא לסמוך יוסף בן יוחנן אומר לסמוך יהושע בן פרחיה אומר שלא לסמוך ניתאי הארבלי אומר לסמוך יהודה בן טבאי אומר שלא לסמוך שמעון בן שטח אומר לסמוך שמעיה אומר לסמוך אבטליון אומר שלא לסמוך הלל ומנחם לא נחלקו יצא מנחם נכנס שמאי שמאי אומר שלא לסמוך הלל אומר לסמוך 16a. The Gemara asks: b What /b verse did Rabbi Akiva b expound /b that prevented him from making the same mistake as i Aḥer /i ? b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It was the following: b “And He came [ i ve’ata /i ] from the holy myriads” /b (Deuteronomy 33:2), which he explained in this manner: b He, /b God, b is unique [ i ot /i ] among His myriads /b of angels. Therefore, he knew that he had merely seen an angel., b And Rabbi Abbahu said: /b Rabbi Akiva expounded the verse: b “Preeminent above a myriad” /b (Song of Songs 5:10) to indicate that b He is exemplary among His myriad. /b , b And Reish Lakish said: /b He expounded the verse: b “The Lord of hosts is His name” /b (Isaiah 48:2); b He is the Master in His host. /b , b And Rav Ḥiyya bar Abba /b said that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b He expounded the verses: b “But the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind, an earthquake; the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake, fire; /b but b the Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire, a still, small voice,” /b and it states in that verse: b “And behold, the Lord passed by” /b (I Kings 19:11–12). Rabbi Akiva used this verse in order to recognize the place of His presence and refrain from trespassing there.,§ The Gemara returns to discussing the heavenly beings. b The Sages taught: Six /b statements b were said with regard to demons: /b In b three /b ways they are b like ministering angels, and /b in b three /b ways they are b like humans. /b The i baraita /i specifies: In b three /b ways they are b like ministering angels: They have wings like ministering angels; and they fly from one end of the world to the other like ministering angels; and they know what will be in the future like ministering angels. /b ,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: b Should it enter your mind that they know /b this? Not even the angels are privy to the future. b Rather, they hear from behind the curtain /b when God reveals something of the future, b like ministering angels. /b , b And /b in b three /b ways they are similar b to humans: They eat and drink like humans; they multiply like humans; and they die like humans. /b , b Six /b statements b were said with regard to humans: /b In b three /b ways, they are b like ministering angels, /b and in b three /b ways they are b like animals. /b The i baraita /i explains: In b three /b ways they are b like ministering angels: They have intelligence like ministering angels; and they walk upright like ministering angels; and they speak in the holy tongue like ministering angels. /b In b three /b ways humans are b like animals: They eat and drink like animals; and they multiply like animals; and they emit excrement like animals. /b ,§ The mishna taught: b Whoever looks at four things, it would have been better for him had he never entered the world: /b Anyone who reflects upon that which is above the firmament; that which is below the earth; what was before the creation of the world; and what will be after the end of the world. The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b it is prohibited to reflect on b what is above, what is below, /b and b what is after. /b This is b fine, /b since one is examining things that are not part of the world but lie beyond it. b But before /b the creation of the world, b what has happened has happened. /b Why is it prohibited to reflect upon this?,The Gemara explains: b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: /b This can be demonstrated through b a parable /b with regard to b a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Build for me large palaces on a garbage dump. They went and built /b them b for him. /b Clearly, in that case, b the king does not desire /b that they b mention the garbage dump. /b Here too, God does not want people to concern themselves with the chaos that preceded the world.,It is taught in the mishna: b Whoever has no concern for the honor of his Maker deserves to have never come to the world. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b lack of concern for the honor of one’s Maker? b Rabbi Abba said: This is /b one b who looks at a rainbow. Rav Yosef said: This is /b one b who commits a transgression in private. /b They proceed to clarify their opinions: b Looking at a rainbow /b constitutes an act of disrespect toward the Divine Presence, b as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord” /b (Ezekiel 1:28), and it is a dishonor to God to stare at His likeness., b Rav Yosef said: This is /b one b who commits a transgression in private, in accordance with Rabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Whoever commits a transgression in private, it is as though he pushed /b away b the feet of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: “Thus said the Lord: The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool” /b (Isaiah 66:1). If one believes that no one can see what he is doing in private, it is as though he said that God is absent from that place. He is therefore compared to one who attempts to remove God from His footstool.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: And b is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Ela the Elder say: If a person sees that his inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is unknown, and wear black, and wrap himself in black, /b in the manner of mourners, because he should be ashamed of his weakness, b and do /b there b what his heart desires, but let him not desecrate the Name of Heaven in public. /b This shows that sinning in private is sometimes preferable to the public performance of a transgression. The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b case, where one who commits a transgression in public has no concern for the honor of his Maker, occurs b when one is capable of overcoming his inclination /b and fails to do so. b That /b case, where it is preferable to sin in private, occurs b when one is incapable of overcoming his inclination. /b He is therefore advised to, at the very least, refrain from desecrating God’s name in public., b Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminator /b of b Reish Lakish, interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: Whoever looks at /b the following b three things, his eyes will grow dim: /b One who looks b at a rainbow, at a i Nasi /i , and at the priests. /b He explains: b At a rainbow, as it is written: “As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud on the day of rain, /b so was the appearance of the brightness round about, b this was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord” /b (Ezekiel 1:28). b At a i Nasi /i , as it is written: “And you shall put of your splendor upon him” /b (Numbers 27:20), which indicates that the splendor of the Divine Presence rested upon Moses, who was the i Nasi /i of Israel. The third item, looking at priests, is referring to one b who looks at the priests when the Temple is standing, as they would stand on their platform and bless Israel with the ineffable name, /b at which point the Divine Presence would rest above the joints of their fingers.,Apropos this Sage, the Gemara cites another statement of his: b Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Naḥmani, the disseminator /b of b Reish Lakish, interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “Trust not in a companion, do not put your confidence in an intimate friend” /b (Micah 7:5)? b If the evil inclination says to you: Sin, and the Holy One, Blessed be He, will forgive, do not trust /b it, b since it is stated: “Trust not in a companion [ i rei’a /i ].” And i rei’a /i is referring to none other /b than b the evil [ i ra /i ] inclination, as it is stated: “For the inclination of the heart of man is evil [ i ra /i ]” /b (Genesis 8:21)., b And “intimate friend” is referring to none other /b than b the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “You are the intimate friend of my youth” /b (Jeremiah 3:4). b Lest you say: /b Since I am acting in private, b who will testify against me? The stones of the house and the beams of the house of /b each b person testify against him, as it is stated: /b “For the stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it” (Habakkuk 2:11)., b And the Sages say: A person’s soul /b shall itself b testify against him, as it is stated: “Guard the doors of your mouth from she who lies in your bosom” /b (Micah 7:5). b What thing lies in a person’s bosom? You must say it is /b his b soul. Rabbi Zerika said: /b The b two ministering angels who accompany him, /b i.e., each individual, b they testify against him, as it is stated: “For He will command his angels over you, to guard you in all your ways” /b (Psalms 91:11). b And the Sages say: A person’s limbs testify against him, as it is stated: “Therefore you are My witnesses, says the Lord, and I am God” /b (Isaiah 43:12), which indicates that each individual becomes his own witness and testifies against himself on the Day of Judgment., strong MISHNA: /strong b Yosei ben Yo’ezer says not to place /b one’s hands on offerings before slaughtering them on a Festival because this is considered performing labor with an animal on a Festival. His colleague, b Yosef ben Yoḥa, says to place /b them; b Yehoshua ben Peraḥya says not to place /b them; b Nitai HaArbeli says to place /b them; b Yehuda ben Tabbai says not to place /b them; b Shimon ben Shataḥ says to place /b them; b Shemaya says to place /b them; b Avtalyon says not to place /b them. b Hillel and Menaḥem did not disagree /b with regard to this issue. b Menaḥem departed /b from his post, and b Shammai entered /b in his stead. b Shammai says not to place /b them; b Hillel says to place /b them.
72. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 59
24b. (דברי הימים ב ה, יג) ויהי כאחד למחצצרים ולמשוררים להשמיע קול אחד:,עד שיזקין עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר ר' חנינא עד שירתת,תנן התם בעל קרי שטבל ולא הטיל מים לכשיטיל טמא ר' יוסי אומר בחולה ובזקן טמא בילד ובבריא טהור,ילד עד כמה אמר רבי אלעא אמר רבי חנינא כל שעומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמרו עליו על רבי חנינא שהיה בן שמונים שנה והיה עומד על רגלו אחת וחולץ מנעלו ונועל מנעלו אמר רבי חנינא חמין ושמן שסכתני אמי בילדותי הן עמדו לי בעת זקנותי,ת"ר נתמלא זקנו ראוי ליעשות שליח ציבור ולירד לפני התיבה ולישא את כפיו מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות רבי אומר אומר אני עד שיהא בן עשרים,א"ר חסדא מ"ט דרבי דכתיב (עזרא ג, ח) ויעמידו [את] הלוים מבן עשרים שנה ומעלה לנצח על מלאכת בית ה' ואידך לנצח שאני,והא האי קרא בלוים כתיב כדר' יהושע בן לוי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי בעשרים וארבעה מקומות נקראו כהנים לוים וזה אחד מהן (יחזקאל מד, טו) והכהנים הלוים בני צדוק,ת"ר (ויקרא כא, יז) איש מזרעך לדורותם מכאן אמר רבי אלעזר קטן פסול לעבודה ואפי' תם מאימתי כשר לעבודה משיביא שתי שערות אבל אחיו הכהנים אין מניחין אותו לעבוד עד שיהא בן כ',איכא דאמרי הא רבי היא ואפי' פסול דרבנן לית ליה ואיכא דאמרי רבי אית ליה פסול מדרבנן והא רבנן היא ולכתחלה הוא דלא אבל דיעבד עבודתו כשרה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר אויר כלי חרש טמא וגבו טהור אויר כל הכלים טהור וגבן טמא נמצא טהור בכלי חרש טמא בכל הכלים טהור בכל הכלים טמא בכלי חרש,מנהני מילי דת"ר תוכו ואע"פ שלא נגע,אתה אומר אע"פ שלא נגע או אינו אלא אם כן נגע רבי יונתן בן אבטולמוס אומר נאמר (ויקרא יא, לג) תוכו לטמא ונאמר תוכו ליטמא מה תוכו האמור לטמא אע"פ שלא נגע אף תוכו האמור ליטמא אע"פ שלא נגע,והתם מנלן אמר רבי יונתן התורה העידה על כלי חרס 24b. b “It came to pass, when the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard” /b (II Chronicles 5:13). This indicates that the Levites must be capable of singing in one voice, and one who is unable to do so is unfit for service.,The i baraita /i teaches that the priest is eligible for service b until he ages. /b The Gemara asks: b Until when, /b i.e., what is the definition of aging in this context? b Rabbi Ela says /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina says: Until /b his hands and feet begin to b tremble. /b , b We learned /b in a mishna b there /b ( i Mikvaot /i 8:4): With regard to b one who experienced a seminal emission who /b then b immersed /b in a ritual bath b and did not urinate /b before immersing, b when he urinates he is ritually impure, /b because residue of the semen remain in his body and was discharged with the urine, rendering him impure. b Rabbi Yosei says: In /b the case of b an ill /b person b and an elderly /b person, he is b ritually impure; in /b the case of b a young /b person b and a healthy /b person, he is b ritually pure, /b as the semen was presumably discharged in its entirety at the outset., b Until when /b is one considered b a young /b person? b Rabbi Ela says /b that b Rabbi Ḥanina says: Anyone who /b is able to b stand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoe /b is considered young. b They said about Rabbi Ḥanina that he was eighty years old and would stand on one of his legs and remove his shoe or put on his shoe. Rabbi Ḥanina says: /b The b hot water and oil that my mother smeared on me in my youth benefited me in my old age. /b , b The Sages taught: /b If b one’s beard /b is b fully /b grown, b he is fit to be appointed an emissary of the community /b for various matters, b and to descend before the ark /b as a prayer leader, b and to lift his hands /b for the Priestly Benediction. b From when /b is a priest b fit for /b Temple b service? /b It is b from /b the time he reaches puberty and b grows two /b pubic b hairs. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: I say /b that he is not fit for Temple service b until he is twenty /b years of b age. /b , b Rav Ḥisda said: What is the reason /b for the opinion b of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi? The reason is b as it is written: “And appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and upward, to oversee of the work of the House of the Lord” /b (Ezra 3:8). b And /b what does b the other /b i tanna /i hold? He holds that b to oversee is different /b and requires an older priest.,The Gemara asks: b But /b what proof can be cited from this verse with regard to priests; b isn’t that verse written with regard to Levites? /b The Gemara answers: It is understood b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: In twenty-four places /b in the Bible the b priests are called Levites. And this is one of those /b verses: b “And the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok” /b (Ezekiel 44:15). The verse in Ezra is another one of the verses., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: b “Any man of your descendants throughout their generations /b that has a blemish shall not approach to offer the bread of his God” (Leviticus 21:17); b from here Rabbi Elazar says: A minor /b priest is b unfit for /b Temple b service, even /b if he is b unblemished, /b as he is not a man. b From when /b is b he fit for service? From /b the time he reaches puberty and b grows two /b pubic b hairs. But his brethren the priests do not allow him to perform the service until he is twenty /b years of b age. /b , b There are /b those b who say: This is /b the opinion of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and he is /b of the opinion that there is b no disqualification /b for one between puberty and twenty years of age b even by rabbinic law. /b The other priests simply do not allow priests of that age to perform the Temple service i ab initio /i . b And there are /b those b who say: Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b is of /b the opinion that there is b disqualification by rabbinic law /b in that case, b and this /b statement in the i baraita /i b is /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, and /b they hold that b it is i ab initio /i that /b one may b not /b perform the service, b but after the fact, his service is valid. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong That which is b ritually pure in an earthenware vessel /b is b ritually impure in all the /b other types of b vessels; /b that which is b ritually pure in all the /b other types of b vessels /b is b ritually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i explaining the mishna: If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the b airspace of an earthenware vessel /b the vessel is b ritually impure, and /b if it fell on b its outer side, /b the vessel is b ritually pure. /b If a primary source of ritual impurity fell into the b airspace of all the /b other types of b vessels, /b the vessels are b ritually pure, and /b if it fell on b their outer side, /b they are b ritually impure. It is found /b that that which is b ritually pure in an earthenware vessel /b is b ritually impure in all the /b other b vessels, /b and that which is b ritually pure in all the /b other b vessels /b is b ritually impure in an earthenware vessel. /b ,The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? It is b as the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i based on the verse: “And every earthenware vessel into which [ i tokho /i ] any of them falls, whatever is in it [ i tokho /i ] shall be impure, and it you shall break” (Leviticus 11:33); if an impure item fell b “in it [ i tokho /i ],” and even /b in a case b where /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, the vessel becomes impure.,The i baraita /i continues: b Do you say /b that it is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, b or /b perhaps b it is /b impure b only if it did come into contact /b with the vessel? b Rabbi Yonatan ben Avtolemos says: i Tokho /i is stated /b with regard b to transmitting impurity /b to food in its airspace, as it is stated: “Whatever is in it [ i tokho /i ] shall be impure,” b and i tokho /i is stated /b with regard b to becoming impure, /b as it is stated: “Into which [ i tokho /i ] any of them falls”; b just as /b in the case of b i tokho /i that is stated /b with regard b to transmitting impurity /b to food in its airspace, the food is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with the vessel, b so too, /b in the case of b i tokho /i that is stated /b with regard b to /b the vessel b becoming impure, /b the vessel is impure b even if /b the impure item b did not come into contact /b with it.,The Gemara asks: b And there, /b with regard to rendering food impure in its airspace, b from where do we /b derive that the food becomes impure even if it did not come into contact with the impure vessel? b Rabbi Yonatan said: The Torah testified about an earthenware vessel /b
73. Origen, On Prayer, 27.1-27.13 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •blessing, priestly Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 182
74. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 527, 565
23b. כנגדו נמי לא בעי,מתקיף לה רבא והרי (ירמיהו ז, כא) עולותיכם ספו דלא הויין עשרין וחד וקרינן שאני התם דסליק עניינא,והיכא דלא סליק עניינא לא והאמר רב שמואל בר אבא זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דר' יוחנן וכי הוה קרינן עשרה פסוקי אמר לן אפסיקו מקום שיש תורגמן שאני דתני רב תחליפא בר שמואל לא שנו אלא במקום שאין תורגמן אבל מקום שיש תורגמן פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פורסין על שמע ואין עוברין לפני התיבה ואין נושאין את כפיהם ואין קורין בתורה ואין מפטירין בנביא,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים וברכת חתנים ואין מזמנין בשם פחות מעשרה ובקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן דאמר קרא (ויקרא כב, לב) ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל כל דבר שבקדושה לא יהא פחות מעשרה,מאי משמע דתני ר' חייא אתיא תוך תוך כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם (במדבר טז, כא) הבדלו מתוך העדה,ואתיא עדה עדה דכתיב התם (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת מה להלן עשרה אף כאן עשרה:,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב פחות מעשרה: כיון דבעי למימר עמדו יקרים עמודו שבו יקרים שבו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים וברכת חתנים (וכו'): מאי ברכת אבלים ברכת רחבה דא"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן ברכת אבלים בעשרה ואין אבלים מן המנין ברכת חתנים בעשרה וחתנים מן המנין:,ואין מזמנין על המזון בשם פחות מעשרה (וכו'): כיון דבעי למימר נברך לאלהינו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,והקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן (וכו'): מנה"מ,אמר שמואל עשרה כהנים כתובים בפרשה חד לגופיה (וחד למעוטי) ואידך הוי מיעוט אחר מיעוט ואין מיעוט אחר מיעוט אלא לרבות תשעה ישראלים וחד כהן,ואימא חמשה כהנים וחמשה ישראלים קשיא:,ואדם כיוצא בהן: אדם מי קדוש,אמר רבי אבהו באומר דמי עלי דתניא האומר דמי עלי שמין אותו כעבד ועבד איתקש לקרקעות דכתיב (ויקרא כה, מו) והתנחלתם אותם לבניכם אחריכם לרשת אחוזה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הקורא בתורה לא יפחות משלשה פסוקים ולא יקרא למתורגמן יותר מפסוק אחד 23b. b it is not necessary /b to b also /b add corresponding verses in the i haftara /i ., b Rava strongly objects to this /b i baraita /i : b But /b there is the i haftara /i that begins with the words: b “Add your burnt offerings” /b (Jeremiah 7:21–28), b which does not have twenty-one verses, and /b nevertheless b we read it. /b The Gemara answers: b There it is different, as the topic is completed /b in fewer than twenty-one verses, and it is not necessary to begin another topic merely to complete the number of verses.,The Gemara asks: b But /b is it true that b where the topic is not completed, /b we do b not /b read fewer than twenty-one verses? b Didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Abba say: Many times I stood before Rabbi Yoḥa /b as a translator, b and when we had read ten verses he would say to us: Stop. /b This indicates that a i haftara /i need not be twenty-one verses. The Gemara answers: b In a place where there is a translator, /b who translates each verse into Aramaic and adds additional explanation, b it is different. /b In that case, it is not necessary for the i haftara /i to consist of twenty-one verses, so as not to overburden the congregation, b as Rav Taḥalifa bar Shmuel taught: They taught /b that twenty-one verses must be read from the i haftara /i b only /b in b a place where there is no translator; but in a place where there is a translator, one may stop /b even before that., strong MISHNA: /strong b One does not recite the /b introductory prayers and b blessing [ i poresin /i ] /b before b i Shema /i ; nor does one pass before the ark /b to repeat the i Amida /i prayer; b nor do the /b priests b lift their hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction; b nor is the Torah read /b in public; b nor does one conclude with /b a reading from b the Prophets /b [ i haftara /i ] in the presence of fewer than ten men., b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service; b nor does one recite the mourners’ blessing or comfort mourners /b in two lines after the funeral; b or /b recite the b bridegrooms’ blessing; and one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , b with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b men b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b i.e., that ten people are needed in each of these cases, derived? b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It is b as the verse states: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 22:32), which indicates that b any expression of sanctity may not be /b recited in a quorum of b fewer than ten /b men.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b in the verse may this b be inferred? /b The Gemara responds that it must be understood b as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: It is inferred /b by means of a verbal analogy [ i gezera shava /i ] between the words b “among,” “among.” Here, it is written: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,” and there, /b with regard to Korah’s congregation, b it is written “Separate yourselves from among this congregation” /b (Numbers 16:21). Just as with regard to Korah the reference is to ten men, so too, the name of God is to be hallowed in a quorum of ten men.,The connotation of ten associated with the word “among” in the portion of Korah is, in turn, b inferred /b by means of another verbal analogy between the word b “congregation” /b written there and the word b “congregation” /b written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael, b as it is written there: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?” /b (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, b just as there, /b in the case of the spies, it was a congregation of b ten /b people, as there were twelve spies altogether, and Joshua and Caleb were not included in the evil congregation, b so too, here, /b in the case of Korah, the reference is to a congregation of b ten /b people. The first several items mentioned in the mishna are expressions of sanctity, and they consequently require a quorum of ten.,§ We learned in the mishna: b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service b with fewer than ten /b men present. As this is not an expression of sanctity, it is therefore necessary to explain why a quorum is required. The Gemara explains: b Since /b the leader of the funeral procession b is required to say: Stand, dear /b friends, b stand; sit down, dear /b friends, b sit down, /b when there are b fewer than ten it is not proper conduct /b to speak in such a dignified style.,We also learned in the mishna that b one does not recite the mourners’ blessing and the bridegrooms’ blessing /b with fewer than ten men present. The Gemara asks: b What is the mourners’ blessing? The blessing /b recited b in the square /b next to the cemetery. Following the burial, those who participated in the funeral would assemble in the square and bless the mourners that God should comfort them, b as Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: The mourners’ blessing /b is recited only b with ten /b men present, b and mourners /b themselves b are not included in the count. The bridegrooms’ blessing /b is also recited only b with ten /b men present, b and bridegrooms /b themselves b are included in the count. /b Consequently, only nine other men are needed.,We learned further in the mishna: b And one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , in order to thank God b for /b one’s b nourishment, with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. b Since one is required to say: Let us bless our Lord, /b in the presence of b fewer than ten /b it is b not proper conduct /b to mention the name of God.,§ If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b Israelites b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b that consecrated land must be assessed by ten people, one of whom is a priest, derived?, b Shmuel said: /b The word b priest /b is b written ten /b times b in the /b Torah b portion /b that addresses the redemption of consecrated property, indicating that ten people are required to assess the value of such property (Leviticus, chapter 27). b One /b instance of the word is needed b for itself, /b to indicate that a priest must participate in the assessment. b And one /b instance is needed b to exclude /b all non-priests from fulfilling that role. b And /b all b the other /b instances of the word b are restrictions following /b other b restrictions, /b and there is a general hermeneutical principle that b one restriction after another /b serves b only to amplify. /b Therefore, each additional time the word priest is repeated, it extends the criteria applied to appraisers, so as to allow non-priests to participate. Consequently, the assessment may be carried out by b nine /b ordinary b Israelites and one priest. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b on the basis of this principle, b say /b that the first usage of the term is restrictive and requires a priest for the assessment; the second usage amplifies and allows for a non-priest; the third usage again requires a priest; the fourth usage allows for a non-priest; and so on. Consequently, the assessment must be carried out by b five priests and five /b ordinary b Israelites. /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is b difficult, /b as the derivation has not been sufficiently explained.,We learned in the mishna: b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b Can a person become consecrated /b and thereby require redemption?, b Rabbi Abbahu said: /b The mishna is referring b to one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b and thereby pledges to donate a sum of money equivalent to his own monetary value to the Temple treasury, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b the court b assesses him as /b though he were b a slave /b in order to determine the amount he is obligated to donate to the Temple treasury. b And a slave is compared to land, as it is written /b with regard to slaves: b “And you shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession” /b (Leviticus 25:46). Consequently, the same criteria that apply to assessing consecrated land apply to assessing the monetary value of an individual., strong MISHNA: /strong b One who reads from the Torah /b in the synagogue b should not read fewer than three verses. And /b when it is being translated, b he should not read to the translator more than one verse /b at a time, so that the translator will not become confused.
75. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 156
22a. (עזרא ד, ז) וכתב הנשתוון כתוב ארמית ומתורגם ארמית וכתיב (דניאל ה, ח) לא כהלין כתבא למיקרא ופשרא להודעא למלכא וכתיב (דברים יז, יח) וכתב את משנה התורה הזאת כתב הראוי להשתנות,למה נקרא אשורית שעלה עמהם מאשור,תניא רבי אומר בתחלה בכתב זה ניתנה תורה לישראל כיון שחטאו נהפך להן לרועץ כיון שחזרו בהן החזירו להם שנאמר (זכריה ט, יב) שובו לביצרון אסירי התקוה גם היום מגיד משנה אשיב לך,למה נקרא שמה אשורית שמאושרת בכתב,רשב"א אומר משום ר' אליעזר בן פרטא שאמר משום רבי אלעזר המודעי כתב זה לא נשתנה כל עיקר שנאמר (שמות כז, י) ווי העמודים מה עמודים לא נשתנו אף ווים לא נשתנו ואומר (אסתר ח, ט) ואל היהודים ככתבם וכלשונם מה לשונם לא נשתנה אף כתבם לא נשתנה,אלא מה אני מקיים את משנה התורה הזאת לשתי תורות אחת שיוצאה ונכנסת עמו ואחת שמונחת לו בבית גנזיו אותה שיוצאה ונכנסת עמו עושה אותה כמין קמיע ותולה בזרועו שנאמר (תהלים טז, ח) שויתי ה' לנגדי תמיד,ואידך האי שויתי מאי דריש ביה ההוא מיבעי ליה כדרב חנה בר ביזנא דאמר רב חנה בר ביזנא אר"ש חסידא המתפלל צריך שיראה עצמו כאילו שכינה כנגדו שנאמר שויתי ה' לנגדי תמיד,לר"ש דאמר כתב זה לא נשתנה מאי לא כהלין כתבא למיקרא אמר רב בגימטריא איכתיב להון יטת יטת אידך פוגחמט,מאי פריש להו (דניאל ה, כה) מנא מנא תקל ופרסין מנא מנא אלהא מלכותך (והשלמת לך) תקיל תקילתא במאזניא והשתכחת חסיר (פרסין) פריסת מלכותך ויהיבת למדי ופרס,ושמואל אמר ממתוס ננקפי אאלרן ור' יוחנן אמר אנם אנם לקת ניסרפו רב אשי אמר נמא נמא קתל פורסין:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין רוכבין על סוסו ואין יושבין על כסאו ואין משתמשין בשרביטו ואין רואין אותו כשהוא מסתפר ולא כשהוא ערום ולא כשהוא בבית המרחץ שנאמר (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב יעקב א"ר יוחנן אבישג מותרת לשלמה ואסורה לאדניה מותרת לשלמה דמלך היה ומלך משתמש בשרביטו של מלך ואסורה לאדניה דהדיוט הוא,אבישג מאי היא דכתיב (מלכים א א, א) והמלך דוד זקן בא בימים וגו' ויאמרו לו עבדיו יבקשו וגו' וכתיב (מלכים א א, ג) ויבקשו נערה יפה וגו' וכתיב (מלכים א א, ד) והנערה יפה עד מאד ותהי למלך סוכנת ותשרתהו אמרה נינסבן אמר לה אסירת לי,אמרה ליה חסריה לגנבא נפשיה לשלמא נקיט אמר להו קראו לי לבת שבע וכתיב (מלכים א א, טו) ותבא בת שבע אל המלך החדרה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב באותה שעה קינחה בת שבע בשלש עשרה מפות,אמר רב שמן בר אבא בוא וראה כמה קשין גירושין שהרי דוד המלך התירו לו לייחד ולא התירו לו לגרש,א"ר אליעזר כל המגרש את אשתו ראשונה אפילו מזבח מוריד עליו דמעות שנאמר (מלאכי ב, יג) וזאת שנית תעשו כסות דמעה את מזבח ה' בכי ואנקה מאין עוד פנות אל המנחה ולקחת רצון מידכם וכתיב (מלאכי ב, יד) ואמרתם על מה על כי ה' העיד בינך ובין אשת נעוריך אשר אתה בגדתה בה והיא חברתך ואשת בריתך,א"ר יוחנן ואיתימא ר' אלעזר אין אשתו של אדם מתה אלא אם כן מבקשין ממנו ממון ואין לו שנאמר (משלי כב, כז) ואם אין לך לשלם למה יקח משכבך מתחתיך,וא"ר יוחנן כל אדם שמתה אשתו ראשונה כאילו חרב בהמ"ק בימיו שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, טז) בן אדם הנני לוקח ממך את מחמד עיניך במגפה לא תספד ולא תבכה ולא תבוא דמעתך וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, יח) ואדבר אל העם בבקר ותמת אשתי בערב וכתיב (יחזקאל כד, כא) הנני מחלל את מקדשי גאון עוזכם מחמד עיניכם,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי כל אדם שמתה אשתו בימיו עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב יח, ו) אור חשך באהלו ונרו עליו ידעך ר' יוסי בר חנינא אמר פסיעותיו מתקצרות שנאמר (איוב יח, ז) יצרו צעדי אונו רבי אבהו אמר עצתו נופלת שנאמר (איוב יח, ז) ותשליכהו עצתו,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן קשה לזווגם כקריעת ים סוף שנאמר (תהלים סח, ז) אלהים מושיב יחידים ביתה מוציא אסירים בכושרות (אל תיקרי מוציא אסירים אלא כמוציא אסירים אל תיקרי בכושרות אלא בכי ושירות),איני והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ארבעים יום קודם יצירת הולד בת קול יוצאת ואומרת בת פלוני לפלוני לא קשיא הא בזווג ראשון הא בזווג שני,א"ר שמואל בר נחמן לכל יש תמורה חוץ מאשת נעורים שנא' (ישעיהו נד, ו) ואשת נעורים כי תמאס מתני לה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה אין אדם מוצא קורת רוח אלא מאשתו ראשונה שנא' (משלי ה, יח) יהי מקורך ברוך ושמח מאשת 22a. b “And the writing of the letter [ i hannishtevan /i ] was written in the Aramaic script, and set forth in the Aramaic tongue” /b (Ezra 4:7). The term “ i hannishtevan /i ” is similar to the word i nishtana /i , meaning changed, alluding to the fact that the script had been changed. b And it is written /b with regard to the writing on the wall of Belshazzar’s palace: b “Then came in all the king’s wise men. But they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation” /b (Daniel 5:8), and the reason they could not read it is that it was written in the new script that Ezra would transmit. b And it is written: “That he shall write for himself a second [ i mishne /i ] Torah” /b (Deuteronomy 17:18), where “second [ i mishne /i ]” teaches that it is written in b a script that is apt to be changed [ i lehishtannot /i ]. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b Why /b is this script b called i Ashurit /i ? Because it ascended with /b the Jewish people b from Ashur /b when they returned from their exile in Babylonia., b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 4:5): b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: Initially, the Torah was given to the Jewish people in this script, /b i Ashurit /i , which is in use today. b Once /b the Jewish people b sinned, it turned into an impairment for them /b and they began writing with a different script, i Libona’a /i . b Once they repented, /b the first script b was returned to them, /b and they resumed writing with i Ashurit /i script, b as it is stated: “Return to the stronghold, you prisoners of hope; even today do I declare that I will render double [ i mishne /i ] unto you” /b (Zechariah 9:12), meaning that God restored to the Jewish people this script that had been changed [ i nishtanna /i ].,The i baraita /i continues: If this script predates the exile to Babylonia, b why is it called i Ashurit /i ? Because it is i meusheret /i , /b beautiful and straight, b in script. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Perata, who said in the name of Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i: This script did not change at all, as it is stated /b with regard to the construction of the Tabernacle: b “The hooks of [ i vavei /i ] the poles” /b (Exodus 27:10). This teaches that b just as the poles were not changed, so too, the hooks [ i vavim /i ] were not changed. /b The letter i vav /i in i Ashurit /i script has the shape of a hook. Evidently, this is why the term for hook in the Torah is i vav /i . b And /b the verse b states: “And to the Jews according to their script and according to their language” /b (Esther 8:9). This teaches that b just as their language was not changed /b over the generations but remained Hebrew, b so too, their script was not changed. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b But /b if the script was in fact not changed, b how do I realize /b the meaning of the phrase b “a second [ i mishne /i ] Torah” /b (Deuteronomy 17:18)? This serves b to /b teach the i halakha /i concerning the b two Torah scrolls /b that the king writes, b one that goes out and comes in with him, and one that is placed in his treasury. /b With regard to b the one that goes out and comes in with him, he makes it /b very small, b like an amulet, and he hangs /b it b on his arm. As it is stated /b by King David: b “I have set the Lord always before me; /b He is at my right hand, that I shall not be moved” (Psalms 16:8). This verse alludes to the two Torah scrolls, one that is before him and one that is in his right hand.,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b the other /b Sage, i.e., Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, who does not hold that the king must write and affix the second scroll to his arm, b what does he expound from that /b verse: b “I have set” /b (Psalms 16:8)? The Gemara responds: b He requires that /b verse b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rav Ḥana bar Bizna, as Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida says: One who prays needs to see himself as if the Divine Presence is opposite him, as it is stated: “I have set the Lord always before me” /b (Psalms 16:8).,The Gemara asks: b According to Rabbi Shimon, who says /b that b this script was not changed /b at all, b what /b is the reason b “they could not read the writing” /b (Daniel 5:8)? b Rav says: /b Because b it was written for them in /b the obscure code of b i gimatriyya /i . /b It was written: b i Yod /i , i tet /i , i tav /i ; i yod /i , i tet /i , i tav /i ; i alef /i , i yod /i , i dalet /i , i khaf /i ; i peh /i , i vav /i , i gimmel /i , i ḥet /i , i mem /i , i tet /i . /b These letters correspond with: i Mem /i , i nun /i , i alef /i ; i mem /i , i nun /i , i alef /i ; i tav /i , i kuf /i , i lamed /i ; i vav /i , i peh /i , i reish /i , i samekh /i , i yod /i , i nun /i ; this is based on the exchange of letters known as i at bash /i , or the exchanging of a letter with its counterpart in the opposite place in the alphabet, e.g., i alef /i , the first letter, for i tav /i , the last letter., b What did /b Daniel b explain to them? /b The letters stand for the terms: b “ i Mene mene tekel ufarsin /i ” /b (Daniel 5:25). He then explained the meaning: b “ i Mene /i ”: God has numbered [ i mena /i ] /b the days of b your kingdom and brought it to an end. “ i Tekel /i ”: You are weighed [ i tekilta /i ] on the scale and are found lacking. “ i Parsin /i ”: Your kingdom is divided [ i perisat /i ] and given to the Medes and Persians” /b (Daniel 5:26–28)., b And Shmuel says: /b The writing used the correct letters for those terms, but instead of being written in order, the four words, i mene mene tekel ufarsin /i were written vertically and were therefore meant to be read from the top down. If read in the usual way, from right to left, it says: b “ i Mamtos kafei a’alran /i .” And Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b Each word was written backward, so that read right to left, they spelled, b i Anem anem leket nisrapu /i . Rav Ashi says: /b They were written with the first two letters of each word reversed: b i Nema nema ketal pursin /i . /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b One may not ride on /b the king’s b horse, and one may not sit on his throne, and one may not use his scepter, and one may not see him when he is having his hair cut, nor when he is naked, nor when he is in the bathhouse, as it is stated: “You shall set a king over you” /b (Deuteronomy 17:15), meaning, ensure b that his fear should be upon you. /b All of these actions would lessen one’s fear of and reverence for the king., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav Ya’akov says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Abishag /b the Shunammite was b permitted to Solomon but forbidden to Adonijah, /b who in fact wanted to marry her. She was b permitted to Solomon, as he was a king, and a king may use the scepter of a king. /b Abishag’s status was similar to the king’s scepter, as she had been designated to serve King David. She was b forbidden to Adonijah, as he /b was b an ordinary /b person, not a king.,The Gemara clarifies: The story of b Abishag, what is it? As it is written: “Now King David was old and stricken in years…and his servants said to him, let there be sought /b …a young virgin…and let her lie in your bosom, that my lord the king may get heat” (I Kings 1:1–2); b and it is written: “So they sought for a beautiful maiden… /b and found Abishag” (I Kings 1:1–3); b and it is written: “And the maiden was very beautiful and she became a companion to the king and ministered to him, /b but the king did not know her” (I Kings 1:1–4). Abishag b said /b to King David: b Marry me. /b King David b said to her: You are forbidden to me, /b as I already have eighteen wives.,Abishag b said to him: When the thief is lacking /b what to steal, b he makes himself like a man of peace. /b In other words, she was saying that since King David was physically unable to engage in intercourse, he devised an excuse not to marry her. King David b said to /b his attendants: b Call Bathsheba to me. And it is written: “And Bathsheba went in to the king into the chamber; /b now the king was very old and Abishag the Shunammite ministered to the king” (I Kings 1:15). b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: At that time, Bathsheba wiped /b herself b with thirteen cloths, /b corresponding to the number of words in the verse, indicating that she engaged in intercourse with King David thirteen times., b Rav Shemen bar Abba says: Come and see how severe /b a matter b divorce /b is, b as they /b rendered it b permitted for King David to be secluded /b with Abishag without marrying her, b but they did not /b render it b permitted for him to divorce /b one of his wives to enable him to marry Abishag.,§ b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b Concerning b anyone who divorces his first wife, even the altar sheds tears about him, as it is stated: “And further, this you should do: Cover the altar of the Lord with tears, with weeping and sighing, from His no longer showing regard to the offering, nor receiving it with goodwill from your hand” /b (Malachi 2:13), b and it is written: “Yet you say: Why? Because the Lord has been witness between you and the wife of your youth, against whom you have dealt treacherously, though she is your companion and the wife of your covet” /b (Malachi 2:14)., b Rabbi Yoḥa, and some say Rabbi Elazar, says: A man’s wife does not die unless /b his creditors b ask him for money /b that he owes b and he does not have /b it, b as it is stated: “If you do not have with what to pay, why should he take away your bed from under you?” /b (Proverbs 22:27). The bed mentioned in the verse alludes to one’s wife., b And Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b For b any man whose first wife dies, it is as if the Temple were destroyed in his days, as it is stated: “Son of man, behold, I take away from you the desire of your eyes with a stroke; yet neither shall you make lamentation nor weep, neither shall your tears run down” /b (Ezekiel 24:16). b And it is written: “So I spoke to the people in the morning and in the evening my wife died” /b (Ezekiel 24:18). b And it is written /b in the continuation of the same passage: b “Behold I will profane My Sanctuary, the pride of your power, the desire of your eyes” /b (Ezekiel 24:21), illustrating that a man’s wife is as precious to him as the Temple is for the entire Jewish nation., b Rabbi Alexandri says: /b For b any man whose wife dies in his days, the world is dark for him, as it is stated: “The light shall be dark in his tent and his lamp over him shall be put out” /b (Job 18:6), since the word tent is commonly employed as a metonym for a wife. b Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: His steps get shorter, as it is stated: “The steps of his strength shall be constrained” /b (Job 18:7). b Rabbi Abbahu says: His counsel falls, as it is stated: “And his own counsel shall cast him down” /b (Job 18:7)., b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b It is as b difficult to match /b a couple b as the splitting of the Red Sea, as it is stated: “God makes the solitary dwell in a house; He brings out prisoners into prosperity” /b (Psalms 68:7). b Do not read /b the verse as b “brings out prisoners”; rather, /b read it as: b Like bringing out prisoners. /b Accordingly, the act described in the first clause of the verse, God’s causing the solitary to dwell in a house, i.e., to marry, is compared to the act described in the next clause in the verse, i.e., bringing out prisoners. And do not read the verse as b “into prosperity [ i bakkosharot /i ]”; rather, /b read it as: b Crying and singing [ i bekhi veshirot /i ], /b which alludes to the splitting of the Red Sea, when there was both crying and singing.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so /b that it is this difficult to find a match? b But doesn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Rav says: Forty days before the formation of the fetus a Divine Voice emerges and states: The daughter of so-and-so /b shall be the wife b of so-and-so? /b Why should matching them be so difficult, since they are prepared for this from before their birth? The Gemara responds: This is b not difficult. This /b latter statement, about predestined matches, b is /b stated b with regard to the first match; that /b former statement, about the difficulty of matchmaking, b is /b stated b with regard to the second match. /b , b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman says: For everything /b that is lost b there is a substitute, except for /b one’s b wife from youth /b who dies, b as it is stated: “And a wife from youth, can she be rejected?” /b (Isaiah 54:6). b Rav Yehuda taught Rav Yitzḥak, his son: A man finds calmness of spirit only from his first wife, as it is stated: “Let your fountain be blessed and have joy with the wife of /b
76. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
12b. רבי יהודה אומר המקום ירחם עליך ועל חולי ישראל רבי יוסי אומר המקום ירחם עליך בתוך חולי ישראל שבנא איש ירושלים בכניסתו אומר שלום וביציאתו אומר שבת היא מלזעוק ורפואה קרובה לבא ורחמיו מרובין ושבתו בשלום כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי חנינא מי שיש לו חולה בתוך ביתו צריך שיערבנו בתוך חולי ישראל כמאן כר' יוסי,ואמר רבי חנינא בקושי התירו לנחם אבלים ולבקר חולים בשבת אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי אלעזר לשיולי בתפיחה זימנין אמר המקום יפקדך לשלום וזימנין אמר (ליה) רחמנא ידכרינך לשלם היכי עביד הכי והאמר רב יהודה לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו בלשון ארמי ואמר רבי יוחנן כל השואל צרכיו בלשון ארמי אין מלאכי השרת נזקקין לו שאין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי שאני חולה דשכינה עמו,דאמר רב ענן אמר רב מנין ששכינה סועד את החולה שנאמר (תהלים מא, ד) ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי תניא נמי הכי הנכנס לבקר את החולה לא ישב לא על גבי מטה ולא על גבי כסא אלא מתעטף ויושב לפניו מפני ששכינה למעלה מראשותיו של חולה שנאמר ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי ואמר רבא אמר רבין מנין שהקב"ה זן את החולה שנאמר ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי:,ולא יקרא לאור הנר: אמר רבה אפילו גבוה שתי קומות ואפי' שתי מרדעות ואפילו עשרה בתים זו על גב זו חד הוא דלא ליקרי הא תרי שפיר דמי והתניא לא אחד ולא שנים אמר ר' אלעזר לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני ענינים אמר רב הונא ובמדורה אפי' עשרה בני אדם אסור,אמר רבא אם אדם חשוב הוא מותר מיתיבי לא יקרא לאור הנר שמא יטה אמר ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע אני אקרא ולא אטה פעם א' קרא ובקש להטות אמר כמה גדולים דברי חכמים שהיו אומרים לא יקרא לאור הנר ר' נתן אומר קרא והטה וכתב על פנקסו אני ישמעאל בן אלישע קריתי והטיתי נר בשבת לכשיבנה בהמ"ק אביא חטאת שמנה א"ר אבא שאני ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע הואיל ומשים עצמו על דברי תורה כהדיוט,תני חדא שמש בודק כוסות וקערות לאור הנר ותניא אידך לא יבדוק לא קשיא כאן בשמש קבוע כאן בשמש שאינו קבוע ואי בעית אימא הא והא בשמש קבוע ולא קשיא הא בדמשחא והא בדנפטא,איבעיא להו שמש שאינו קבוע בדמשחא מהו אמר רב הלכה ואין מורין כן ור' ירמיה בר אבא אמר הלכה ומורין כן ר' ירמיה בר אבא איקלע לבי רב אסי קם שמעיה קא בדיק לנהורא דשרגא אמרה ליה דביתהו ומר לא עביד הכי אמר לה שבקיה כרביה ס"ל:,באמת אמרו החזן כו': והאמרת רישא רואה מאי לאו לקרות לא לסדר ראשי פרשיותיו וכן אמר רבה בר שמואל אבל מסדר הוא ראשי פרשיותיו וכולה פרשה לא 12b. b Rabbi Yehuda says /b that it is appropriate to say: b May the Omnipresent have compassion upon you and upon all the sick people of Israel. Rabbi Yosei says /b that it is appropriate to say: b May the Omnipresent have compassion upon you among the sick people of Israel, /b thereby including this sick person within the community of Israel. When b Shevna of Jerusalem /b would visit a sick person on Shabbat, b upon entering, he would say /b i shalom /i b . And when he exited he would say: It is Shabbat /b when one is prohibited b to cry out, and healing is soon to come, and His compassion is abundant, and rest /b on Shabbat b in peace. /b The Gemara asks: b In accordance with whose /b opinion b is /b the i halakha /i that b Rabbi Ḥanina said: One who has a sick person in his house must include him among the sick people of Israel /b in his prayer? b In accordance with whose /b opinion? b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. /b , b And Rabbi Ḥanina said: It was /b only b with great difficulty that /b the Sages b permitted to comfort the mourners and visit the sick on Shabbat, /b as both the visitor and the comforter experience suffering on Shabbat. They permitted it only due to the mitzva involved in these activities. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would follow Rabbi Elazar to inquire about /b the health of b a sick person; sometimes he would say /b in Hebrew: b May the Omnipresent remember you for peace /b , b and sometimes he would say to him /b in Aramaic: b May the all-Merciful remember you for peace. /b He would say it in Aramaic when the sick person did not understand Hebrew (Rav Elazar Moshe Horovitz). The Gemara asks: b How did he do this, /b pray in Aramaic? b Didn’t Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request /b that b his needs /b be met b in the Aramaic language /b ? b And, /b similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who requests /b that b his needs /b be met b in the Aramaic language /b , b the ministering angels do not attend to him /b to bring his prayer before God, b as the ministering angels are not familiar with the Aramaic language, /b but only with the sacred tongue, Hebrew, exclusively. The Gemara responds: b A sick person is different. /b He does not need the angels to bring his prayer before God because b the Divine Presence is with him. /b , b As Rav A said /b that b Rav said: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence cares for /b and aids b the sick person? As it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness” /b (Psalms 41:4). The Gemara comments: b That was also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who enters to visit the sick person should sit neither on the bed nor on a chair; rather, he should wrap himself /b in his prayer shawl with trepidation and awe, b and sit before /b the sick person below him, b as the Divine Presence is above the head of the sick person, as it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness,” /b and he must treat the Divine Presence with deference. On a similar note, b Rava said /b that b Ravin said: From where /b is it derived b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds the sick person /b during his illness? b As it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness.” /b ,We learned in the mishna that b one may not read /b a book b by candlelight /b on Shabbat. b Rabba said: /b Since a decree was issued, there is no distinction whether or not the lamp was near enough to him to enable him to adjust the wick. The prohibition applies b even /b if the lamp was b two statures /b of a person b high, and even /b as high as b two plow handles, and even /b if it was as high as b ten houses one atop the other. /b We learned in the mishna that one may not read, and the Gemara infers: b One may not read, but /b for b two, /b apparently, he may b well /b do so. They will not violate any prohibition, as two people together will certainly not forget the Shabbat prohibition. The Gemara asks: b Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b neither one nor two /b are permitted to read by the light of the lamp? b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This is b not difficult, /b as there is room to distinguish between them and say that b here, /b where two were permitted to read by candlelight, it is referring to a case where they are both engaged b in one matter /b and will remind each other to refrain from adjusting the wick. b There, /b where two were prohibited to read by candlelight it is referring to a case where they are engaged b in two /b different b matters. /b Since each is preoccupied with a different text, they will not pay attention and remind each other. b Rav Huna said: And with regard to a bonfire, /b where everyone is sitting around it and not adjacent to it, b even /b if they were b ten people, it is prohibited /b to read by its light. When sitting around a bonfire, everyone sits at a distance from the others, and therefore they do not notice each other, and each is liable to adjust the firebrands to provide himself with more light., b Rava said: /b Even though they prohibited reading by candlelight due to a decree lest they adjust the wick, b if he is an important person, it is permitted, /b as even on weekdays he is not accustomed to adjust a lamp that is dirty with oil. The Gemara b raises an objection /b from that which was taught in a i Tosefta /i : b One may not read /b a book on Shabbat b by the light of the lamp, lest he adjust it. /b The i Tosefta /i relates that b Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: I will read and will not adjust, /b as I will certainly not forget that it is Shabbat. However, b once he read /b a book by candlelight b and /b he b sought to adjust /b the wick. b He said: How great are the words of the Sages, who would say /b that b one may not read by candlelight, /b as even a person like me sought to adjust the wick. b Rabbi Natan says: /b That was not the way it happened. Rather, b he read and /b actually b adjusted /b the wick, b and he wrote /b afterward b in his notebook [ i pinkas /i ]: I, Yishmael ben Elisha, read and adjusted a lamp on Shabbat. When the Temple will be rebuilt I will bring a fat sin-offering /b as atonement for this sin. This proves that even an important person like Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha is liable to adjust the wick. b Rabbi Abba said: Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha is different, since with regard to the study of Torah, he comports himself like a simple man /b with no air of importance, but generally, an important person would not dirty his hands and adjust the wick.,On this subject, the Gemara cites two apparently contradictory i baraitot /i . b It was taught /b in b one /b i baraita /i that a b servant may examine cups and bowls by candlelight /b to check if they are clean. b And it was taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i that b he may not examine /b them. The Gemara explains: This is b not difficult. /b Rather, b here, /b the i baraita /i that prohibited examining the cups, is referring b to a regularly /b employed b servant /b who fears his master and examines the dishes meticulously. Therefore, there is concern lest he come to adjust the wick. While b there, /b the i baraita /i that permitted examining the cups, is referring b to a servant who is not regularly /b employed, does not fear his master, and therefore will not check meticulously. There is no concern lest he come to adjust the wick. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b this /b i baraita /i b and that /b i baraita /i are both referring b to a regularly /b employed b servant. And /b this is b not difficult, /b as they are not referring to the same kind of lamp. b This /b i baraita /i , which prohibited examining the dishes, is referring b to an oil lamp, /b where there is room for concern lest he adjust it. b And that /b i baraita /i , which permitted examining the dishes, is referring b to a naphtha /b [ b i nafta /i /b ] b lamp. /b Since the naphtha lamp is dirty, the servant certainly will not touch it while checking the cups and dishes., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the ruling with regard to b a servant who is not regularly /b employed in terms of examining cups and dishes by the light of b an oil lamp? /b Is he permitted to examine the cups by candlelight, or not? From the perspective of his being a servant not regularly employed, it should be permitted. On the other hand, because it is an oil lamp it should be prohibited. b Rav said: The i halakha /i /b is that it is permitted, b and, /b however, i ab initio /i b a /b public b ruling is not issued to that effect /b so that they will not come to sin. However, one who knows the i halakha /i that it is permitted may practice accordingly. b Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: That i halakha /i is /b that it is permitted b and a /b public b ruling is issued to that effect. /b The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba happened to /b come to b the house of Rav Asi /b on Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmeya’s b servant stood and examined the cups by the light of a lamp /b [ b i sheraga /i /b ], as he was not a regularly employed servant in the house of Rav Asi. Rav Asi’s b wife said to /b Rav Asi: But b the Master, /b you, b does not do so. /b You prohibit doing so. Why is the servant of Rabbi Yirmeya examining the cups? b He said to her: Leave him, he holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b his master. /b ,We learned in the mishna that b in truth they said /b that b the attendant /b sees where in the book the children under his supervision are reading, but he himself should not read. The Gemara asked: b Didn’t you say in the first clause /b of the mishna that the attendant b sees? Doesn’t /b that mean that he sees in order b to read? /b How can that part of the mishna conclude by saying that he may not read? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it does not mean that the attendant is permitted to actually read; rather, he is only permitted b to /b look and b arrange the beginning of his sections /b of the Torah that b he /b must read the next day. b And so too, Rabba bar Shmuel said: However, he may arrange the beginning of his sections /b that he must read the next day. The Gemara asks: b And /b may he b not /b read b the entire section? /b
77. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 156
53b. אמרו ליה לרב יוסף הכי עביד רבא אמר ליה יהא רעוא דתרום רישך אכולה כרכא,אמר רבי אלכסנדרי אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום אמר ליה רב מרדכי כיון שפסע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו התם איבעיא ליה למיקם משל לתלמיד הנפטר מרבו אם חוזר לאלתר דומה לכלב ששב על קיאו,תניא נמי הכי המתפלל צריך שיפסיע שלש פסיעות לאחוריו ואחר כך יתן שלום ואם לא עשה כן ראוי לו שלא התפלל ומשום שמעיה אמרו שנותן שלום לימין ואחר כך לשמאל שנאמר (דברים לג, ב) מימינו אש דת למו ואומר (תהלים צא, ז) יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,מאי ואומר וכי תימא אורחא דמילתא היא למיתב בימין ת"ש יפול מצדך אלף ורבבה מימינך,רבא חזייה לאביי דיהיב שלמא לימינא ברישא א"ל מי סברת לימין דידך לשמאל דידך קא אמינא דהוי ימינו של הקב"ה אמר רב חייא בריה דרב הונא חזינא להו לאביי ורבא דפסעי להו שלש פסיעות בכריעה אחת,ומתפלל תפלה קצרה בבית החיצון מאי מצלי רבא בר רב אדא ורבין בר רב אדא תרוייהו משמיה דרב אמרי יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתהא שנה זו גשומה ושחונה שחונה מעליותא היא אלא אימא אם שחונה תהא גשומה,רב אחא בריה דרבא מסיים בה משמיה דרב יהודה לא יעדי עביד שולטן מדבית יהודה ולא יהיו עמך ישראל צריכין לפרנס זה מזה ולא תכנס לפניך תפלת עוברי דרכים,רבי חנינא בן דוסא הוה קא אזיל באורחא שדא מטרא עליה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בנחת וחנינא בצער פסק מיטרא כי אתא לביתיה אמר רבש"ע כל העולם כולו בצער וחנינא בנחת אתא מיטרא א"ר יוסף מאי אהניא ליה צלותיה דכהן גדול לגבי ר' חנינא בן דוסא,תנו רבנן מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שהאריך בתפלתו ונמנו אחיו הכהנים ליכנס אחריו התחילו הם נכנסין והוא יוצא אמרו לו מפני מה הארכת בתפלתך אמר להם קשה בעיניכם שהתפללתי עליכם ועל בית המקדש שלא יחרב אמרו לו אל תהי רגיל לעשות כן שהרי שנינו לא היה מאריך בתפלתו כדי שלא להבעית את ישראל, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big משניטל ארון אבן היתה שם מימות נביאים ראשונים ושתייה היתה נקראת גבוה מן הארץ שלש אצבעות ועליה היה נותן נטל את הדם ממי שהיה ממרס בו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה,ולא היה מתכוון להזות לא למעלה ולא למטה אלא כמצליף וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים אחת ושלש אחת וארבע אחת וחמש אחת ושש אחת ושבע יצא והניחו על כן הזהב שבהיכל,הביאו לו את השעיר שחטו וקבל במזרק את דמו נכנס למקום שנכנס ועמד במקום שעמד והזה ממנו אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכך היה מונה אחת אחת ואחת אחת ושתים וכו' יצא והניחו על כן הזהב השני שבהיכל רבי יהודה אומר לא היה שם אלא כן אחד בלבד נטל דם הפר והניח דם השעיר,והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה ולא היה מתכוון וכו' וכך היה מונה וכו' נטל דם השעיר והניח דם הפר והזה ממנו על הפרוכת שכנגד הארון מבחוץ אחת למעלה ושבע למטה וכו' עירה דם הפר לתוך דם השעיר ונתן את המלא בריקן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big משנגנז לא קתני אלא משניטל תנן כמאן דאמר ארון גלה לבבל דתניא רבי אליעזר אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ולתשובת השנה שלח המלך נבוכדנאצר ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה',רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אומר ארון גלה לבבל שנאמר (ישעיהו לט, ו) לא יותר דבר אמר ה' אלו עשרת הדברות שבו,רבי יהודה (בן לקיש) אומר ארון במקומו נגנז שנאמר (מלכים א ח, ח) ויראו ראשי הבדים מן הקדש על פני הדביר ולא יראו החוצה ויהיו שם עד היום הזה,ופליגא דעולא דאמר עולא שאל רבי מתיא בן חרש את רבי שמעון בן יוחאי ברומי וכי מאחר שרבי אליעזר מלמדנו פעם ראשונה ושניה ארון גלה לבבל ראשונה הא דאמרן (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה עם כלי חמדת בית ה' שניה מאי היא דכתיב (איכה א, ו) ויצא מבת ציון 53b. b They said to Rav Yosef: This is what Rava does. /b Rav Yosef was blind and could not see for himself. Rav Yosef b said to him: May it be /b God’s b will that you lift your head over the entire city, /b in reward for honoring your teacher.,§ Apropos the obligation of a student to walk backward when taking leave of his teacher, the Gemara discusses a similar topic. b Rabbi Alexandri said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who prays must take three steps backward /b upon concluding his prayer b and then recite: Peace, /b in a manner befitting one who departs from before the Holy One, Blessed be He. b Rav Mordekhai said to him: Since he has taken three steps backward, he should stand there /b and not return to his place immediately. This is b analogous to a student who takes leave of his teacher. If he returns immediately /b to the place where was first standing, b he is similar to a dog who returns to its vomit, /b and his previous action is spoiled.,The Gemara comments that b this was also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who prays must take three steps backward /b upon concluding his prayer b and then recite: Peace. And if he did not do so, it is better for him not to have prayed, /b as his actions are disrespectful toward God. b And they said in the name of Shemaya /b the Sage b that /b when b one recites: Peace, /b he first bows b to the right and then to the left, as it is stated: “At His right hand was a fiery law to them” /b (Deuteronomy 33:2), b and it says: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side” /b (Psalms 91:7).,The Gemara asks: b What is /b the reason for: b And it says? /b Why is it necessary to cite another source? The Gemara explains: b If you say /b that b it is /b merely b the usual manner to give /b an object b with the right /b hand, but this bears no special significance, b come /b and b hear: “A thousand may fall at your side, and ten thousand at your right side,” /b which indicates that the right side is the more significant one.,The Gemara relates that b Rava saw Abaye reciting: Peace, /b by bowing at the end of his prayer b to /b his b right first. /b Rava b said to him: Do you maintain /b that you should bow b to your right? I say /b you should bow b to your left /b first, b as it is the right of the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b since He is opposite you face-to-face, as it were. b Rav Ḥiyya, son of Rav Huna, said: I observed that Abaye and Rava /b both b took /b those b three steps all in one /b act of b bowing, /b without standing upright in between, by way of submission to and acceptance of God’s authority.,§ The mishna taught: b And /b the High Priest b recites a brief prayer in the outer chamber. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b does b he pray? Rava bar Rav Adda and Ravin bar Rav Adda both said in the name of Rav /b that this was his prayer: b May it be your will, Lord our God, that this year shall be rainy and hot. /b The Gemara immediately expresses surprise at this request: Is b heat a good /b matter? Why should he request that the year be hot? b Rather, say /b and emend it as follows: b If /b the upcoming year is b hot, may it /b also b be rainy, /b lest the heat harm the crops., b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, concluded /b the language of this prayer b in the name of Rav Yehuda: May the rule of power not depart from the house of Judah; and may your nation Israel not depend on each other for sustece, /b rather, they should be sustained from the produce of their land; b and let not the prayer of travelers enter Your presence /b when they pray for the rain to stop on their travels.,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa was walking on the road /b when b rain fell upon him. He said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is comfortable and Ḥanina is suffering. The rain stopped. When he came to his house he said: Master of the Universe, the entire world is suffering /b for lack of rain b and Ḥanina is comfortable. The rain came /b back. b Rav Yosef said: What effect does the prayer of the High Priest have with regard to Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa? /b Notwithstanding the prayer of the High Priest in the Holy of Holies, Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa’s sanctity is greater, as God fulfills his bidding.,§ The mishna stated that the High Priest would not extend his prayer. b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : There was b an incident /b involving b a certain High Priest who extended his prayer, and his fellow priests /b took a vote, b counted, /b and decided b to go in after him /b out of concern that he had died or fainted and required assistance. b They began to enter and /b at that moment b he emerged. They said to him: Why did you extend your prayer? He said to them: /b Why not? b Does it trouble you that I prayed for you and for the Temple not to be destroyed? They said to him: Do not make a habit of doing so, as we learned: He would not extend his prayer, so as not to alarm the Jewish people, /b who might fear he had died., strong MISHNA: /strong b After the Ark was taken /b into exile, b there was a rock /b in the Holy of Holies b from the days of the early prophets, /b David and Samuel, who laid the groundwork for construction of the Temple, b and /b this stone b was called /b the b foundation /b rock. It was b three fingerbreadths higher than the ground, and /b the High Priest b would place /b the incense b on it. /b After the High Priest left the Holy of Holies, b he took the blood /b of the bull sacrificed as a sin-offering b from /b the one b who was stirring it, /b so it would not coagulate. b He entered into the place that he /b had previously b entered, /b the Holy of Holies, b and stood at the place where he /b had previously b stood /b to offer the incense, between the staves. b And he sprinkled from /b the blood, b one /b time b upward and seven /b times b downward. /b , b And he would neither intend to sprinkle /b the blood b upward nor /b to sprinkle it b downward, but rather like one who whips, /b with the blood sprinkled in a single column, one drop below the other. b And this /b is how b he would count /b as he sprinkled, to avoid error: b One; one and one; one and two; one and three; one and four; one and five; one and six; one and seven. /b The High Priest then b emerged /b from there b and placed /b the bowl with the remaining blood b on the golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. /b , b They brought him the goat /b to be sacrificed as a sin-offering to God. b He slaughtered it and received its blood in the bowl. He /b again b entered into the place that he /b had previously b entered, /b the Holy of Holies, b and stood at the place that he /b previously b stood, and sprinkled from /b the blood of the goat b one /b time b upward and seven /b times b downward. And this /b is how b he would count, /b just as he counted when sprinkling the blood of the bull: b One; one and one; one and two; etc. /b The High Priest then b emerged /b from the Holy of Holies b and placed /b the bowl with the remaining blood b on the second golden pedestal in the Sanctuary. Rabbi Yehuda says: There was only one pedestal there, /b and he b took the blood of the bull /b from the pedestal b and placed the blood of the goat /b in its place., b And he sprinkled from /b the blood of the bull b on the curtain opposite the Ark from outside /b the Holy of Holies, b one /b time b upward and seven /b times b downward, and he would not intend, etc. And this /b is how b he would count, etc. /b When he concluded, b he took the blood of the goat /b from the pedestal b and placed blood of the bull /b in its place on the pedestal. b And he sprinkled from /b the goat’s blood b on the curtain opposite the Ark from outside, /b just as he did with the blood of the bull, b one /b time b upward and seven /b times b downward, etc. /b Afterward, b he poured the blood of the bull into the blood of the goat and placed /b the blood b from the full /b bowl into the b empty /b bowl, so that the blood would be mixed well., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara comments with regard to the wording of the mishna: It does b not teach: After /b the Ark b was buried, but: After /b it b was taken. /b If so, b we learned /b this mishna b in accordance with /b the opinion of b the one who said /b that b the Ark was exiled to Babylonia /b and was not buried in its place, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Eliezer says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: “And at the turn of the year King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord” /b (II Chronicles 36:10). These precious vessels must include the Ark.,Likewise, b Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: The Ark was exiled to Babylonia, as it is stated: /b “Behold, the days come that all that is in your house, and that which your fathers have stored until this day, shall be carried to Babylonia; b nothing [ i davar /i ] shall be left, says the Lord” /b (Isaiah 39:6). b These are the Ten Commandments [ i dibrot /i ] that are inside it; /b they too shall not be left behind., b Rabbi Yehuda ben Lakish says: The Ark was buried in its place, as it is stated: “And the ends of the staves were seen from the sacred place before the partition, but they could not be seen without; and they are there to this day” /b (I Kings 8:8). The expression “to this day” means forever, as the text might be read at any time. This teaches that the Ark is hidden in its place.,The Gemara comments: And b this /b opinion that the Ark was exiled to Babylonia b disagrees with /b that b of Ulla, as Ulla said: Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash asked Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai in Rome: And since Rabbi Eliezer taught us once and twice, /b i.e., from two separate verses, that b the Ark was exiled to Babylonia. /b The Gemara interrupts its citation of Rabbi Matya ben Ḥarash’s question to identify these two verses. b The first /b verse is b that which we said: “And brought him to Babylonia, along with the precious vessels of the House of the Lord.” What is the second /b verse? Rabbi Eliezer said: b As it is written: “And gone from the daughter of Zion is /b
78. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
16b. היינו מטופל ואין לו היינו ביתו ריקם אמר רב חסדא זהו שביתו ריקם מן העבירה: ופרקו נאה אמר אביי זה שלא יצא (לו) שם רע בילדותו,(ירמיהו יב, ח) היתה לי נחלתי כאריה ביער נתנה עלי בקולה על כן שנאתיה מאי נתנה עלי בקולה אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רבי חמא אמר רבי אלעזר זה שליח צבור (היורד לפני התיבה שאינו הגון):,ואומר לפניהם עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש: הני שש שבע הוויין כדתנן על השביעית הוא אומר ברוך מרחם על הארץ אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי שביעית שביעית לארוכה,כדתניא בגואל ישראל מאריך ובחותמה הוא אומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו בני אהרן הריעו וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו:,במה דברים אמורים בגבולין אבל במקדש אינו כן לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש,שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ה) קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם עד העולם ויברכו שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה יכול על כל ברכות כולן לא תהא אלא תהלה אחת ת"ל ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה תן לו תהלה,ואלא במקדש מהו אומר ברוך ה' אלהים אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו הכהנים בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל זוכר הנשכחות והם עונים אחריו בשכמל"ו וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו הכהנים בני אהרן הריעו וכו' וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שגומר את כולן,וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר לפני חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית,ואית דאמרי כדתניא אומר לפניהן עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש ואותן שש היכן אומרן בין גואל לרופא חולי ומאריך בגאולה והן עונין אחריו אמן על כל ברכה וברכה וכך היו נוהגין בגבולין,אבל במקדש היו אומרים ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל ולא היו עונין אחריו אמן וכל כך למה לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש שנאמר קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם ועד העולם ויברכו (את) שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה וברכה תן לו תהלה:,תנו רבנן על הראשונות הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר תקעו כהנים תקעו וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה (והן תוקעין ומריעין ותוקעין) ועל השניה הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,וחזן הכנסת אומר הריעו בני אהרן הריעו ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה והם מריעין ותוקעין ומריעין וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שיגמור את הברכות כולן וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר אצל חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית:,ר' יהודה אומר לא היה צריך לומר זכרונות כו': א"ר אדא דמן יפו מאי טעמא דר' יהודה לפי שאין אומרים זכרונות ושופרות 16b. The Gemara asks a question concerning the explanation of Rabbi Yehuda: One who has b dependent /b children b and does not have /b anything with which to support them b is /b apparently b the same as /b one whose b house is empty. /b Why does Rabbi Yehuda list both descriptions? b Rav Ḥisda said: This /b expression means b that his house is empty of transgression. And /b Rabbi Yehuda further said that the prayer leader must be one b whose youth was becoming. /b In explanation of this phrase, b Abaye said: This /b is b one who did not have a bad reputation /b at any time b during his youth. /b ,The Gemara cites a verse in relation to the prayer leader: b “My heritage has become to me as a lion in the forest. She has uttered her voice against me; therefore I have hated her” /b (Jeremiah 12:8). b What is /b the meaning of the phrase: b “She has uttered her voice against me”? Mar Zutra bar Toviyya said /b that b Rav said, and some say Rabbi Ḥama said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: This is an unworthy prayer leader who descends before the ark. /b When this person calls out to God, He thinks, so to speak: I hate the sound of his prayer.,§ The mishna teaches: b And /b the prayer leader b recites twenty-four blessings before them: /b The b eighteen /b blessings b of /b the b everyday /b i Amida /i prayer, b to which he adds another six /b blessings. The Gemara asks: Are b these six /b blessings? In fact, b they are seven, as we learned /b in a mishna: b For the seventh he recites, /b Blessed are You, Lord, b Who has mercy on the Land. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: What /b is the meaning of the b seventh /b blessing? This is referring to the b seventh for length, /b i.e., there were actually six new blessings, but as the prayer leader lengthens the sixth weekday blessing it is considered an additional blessing., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b In /b the blessing of: b Redeemer of Israel, /b the prayer leader b lengthens /b the blessing, b and for its conclusion he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel. And /b the community b answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b sons of Aaron, blow. /b , b And /b the prayer leader b resumes and recites /b the second blessing, concluding: b He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Who remembers the forgotten. And /b the community b answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blast /b a wavering sound, b sons of Aaron, blast. And similarly, /b this is the procedure b for each and every /b additional b blessing: After one /b blessing b he says: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and after /b the next b one he says: Blast /b a wavering sound.,The Gemara asks: b In what /b case b is this statement said? /b This method applies b in the outlying areas, /b i.e., everywhere except in the Temple. b However, in the Temple /b itself this b is not /b the correct procedure, b as one does not answer amen in the Temple. /b Instead, one responds with a long blessing. The Gemara inquires: b And from where /b is it derived b that one does not answer amen in the Temple? /b ,The Gemara answers: b As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” /b (Nehemiah 9:5). One b might /b have thought that b for all blessings there should be only one praise, /b i.e., all blessings are answered with amen. Therefore, b the verse states: “That is exalted above all [ i al kol /i ] blessing and praise,” /b which indicates that b for every [ i al kol /i ] blessing, /b you should b give it /b its own b praise. /b , b But /b if so, b in the Temple, what /b would the prayer leader b recite? /b He would conclude the blessing: b Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel. And /b instead of amen, b they answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blow, priests, sons of Aaron, blow. /b , b And /b the prayer leader b resumes and recites /b the second blessing, concluding: b He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, Who remembers the forgotten. And /b the community b answers after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blast, priests, sons of Aaron, blast, etc. And similarly, /b this is the procedure b for each and every /b additional b blessing: After one /b blessing b he says: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and after /b the next b one he says: Blast /b a wavering sound, b until he concludes all /b the blessings.,§ The Gemara relates: b And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in /b the city of b Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon in /b the city of b Sikhni. And when /b this b matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act /b in accordance with b this custom only at the Eastern Gate /b of the Temple b and on the Temple Mount, /b but not outside the Temple., b And /b some b say /b that they acted b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b And he recites twenty-four blessings before them: /b The b eighteen /b blessings b of /b the b everyday /b i Amida /i prayer, b to which he adds another six /b blessings. b And those /b extra b six, where does he recite them? Between /b the blessings: b Redeemer /b of Israel, b and: Healer of the sick. And he lengthens /b the earlier prayer b of redemption, and /b the congregation b answers amen after him, for each and every blessing. And this was the custom in the outlying areas, /b outside the Temple., b However, in the Temple they would recite: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel, and they would not answer amen after him. And why /b did the practice differ b so much? Because one does not answer amen in the Temple. And from where /b is it derived b that one does not answer amen in the Temple? As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious Name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” /b (Nehemiah 9:5). As stated above, this verse indicates that b for every blessing, /b you should b give it /b its own b praise. /b , b The Sages taught: In /b concluding b the first /b blessing b he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says: Blow, priests, blow. And he resumes /b the blessings b and recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and blast /b a wavering sound, b and blow. And for the second /b blessing b he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting, who remembers the forgotten, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. /b , b And the sexton says: Blast, sons of Aaron, blast. And he recites: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow, and blast, and blow. And similarly, for each and every blessing: After one he says: Blow, and after /b the next b one he says: Blast, until he concludes all of them. And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon in Sikhni. And when /b this b matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act /b in accordance with b this custom only at the Eastern Gate and on the Temple Mount. /b ,§ The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader b did not need to recite /b the b Remembrances /b and i Shofarot /i passages. Instead, he recited verses dealing with famine and suffering. b Rabbi Adda from Jaffa said: What is Rabbi Yehuda’s reason? /b Rabbi Yehuda maintains b that one recites Remembrances and i Shofarot /i /b
79. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. b with flaming torches /b that they would juggle b in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise /b to God. b And the Levites /b would play b on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless /b other b musical instruments. /b The musicians would stand b on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen /b Songs of the b Ascents in Psalms, /b i.e., chapters 120–134, and b upon which /b the b Levites stand with musical instruments and recite /b their b song. /b , b And /b this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: b Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. /b When b the rooster crowed /b at dawn, b they sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b When b they /b who would draw the water b reached the tenth stair /b the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i , /b to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When b they reached the /b Women’s b Courtyard /b with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b ,When b they reached the ground /b of the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . They continued sounding /b the trumpets b until they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, /b from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When b they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, they turned from /b facing b east to /b facing b west, /b toward the Holy of Holies, b and said: Our ancestors who were in this place /b during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” /b (Ezekiel 8:16), b and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water, b never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed /b state, b never saw a magnificent structure. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the Temple building to which the Sages refer? b Abaye said, and some say /b that it was b Rav Ḥisda /b who said: b This /b is referring to the magnificent b building of Herod, /b who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: b With what /b materials b did he construct it? Rava said: /b It was b with stones of /b green-gray b marble and white marble [ i marmara /i ]. Some say: /b It was b with stones of blue marble and white marble. /b The rows of stones were set with b one row /b slightly b protruded and one row /b slightly b indented, so that the plaster would take /b better. b He thought to plate /b the Temple b with gold, /b but b the Sages said to him: Leave it /b as is, and do not plate it, b as it is better this way, as /b with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, b it has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ i deyofloston /i ] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said /b that its structure b was like a large basilica [ i basileki /i ], /b with b a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand /b men b and /b another b six hundred thousand /b men b in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ i katedraot /i ], corresponding to the seventy-one /b members b of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which /b consisted of b no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And /b there was b a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue /b would b stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And /b because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, b when /b the prayer leader b reached /b the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people b to answer amen, /b the sexton b waved the scarf and all the people /b would b answer amen. /b , b And /b the members of the various crafts b would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths /b would sit b among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor /b stranger b entered there, he would recognize people /b who plied b his craft, and he would turn to /b join them b there. And from there /b he would secure b his livelihood /b as well as b the livelihood /b of the b members of his household, /b as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that b Abaye said: All of /b the people who congregated in that synagogue b were killed by Alexander /b the Great b of Macedonia. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that b they were punished /b and killed? It is b due to /b the fact b that they violated /b the prohibition with regard to Egypt in b this verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way” /b (Deuteronomy 17:16), b and they returned. /b Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., b When /b Alexander b arrived, he found them, /b and saw b that they were reading /b the verse b in the /b Torah b scroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far, /b from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). b He said, /b referring to himself: b Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, /b and b a wind carried it and the ship arrived in /b only b five days, /b apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, b he set upon them and slaughtered them. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b At the conclusion of /b the first b Festival /b day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: b What /b is this b significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said /b that b it is like that which we learned: /b The walls of the Women’s Courtyard b were smooth, /b without protrusions, b initially. /b Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and b surrounded /b the courtyard b with a balcony [ i gezuztra /i ]. And they instituted that /b the b women should sit above and /b the b men below. /b , b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b Initially, women would /b stand b on the inside /b of the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, b and the men /b were b on the outside /b in the courtyard and on the rampart. b And they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity /b in each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages b instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity. /b Therefore, b they instituted /b in the interest of complete separation b that the women would sit above and the men below. /b ,The Gemara asks: b How could one do so, /b i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? b But isn’t it written /b with regard to the Temple: b “All this /b I give you b in writing, /b as b the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, /b even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, b Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically /b and acted accordingly:
80. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 156, 158
49a. שמבזבזין דין אביהם לעתיד לבוא אומרים לפניו רבונו של עולם מאחר שאתה עתיד ליפרע מהן למה הקהיתה שיניהם בם,אמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של דוד היו כל ישראל מוכרי רבב שנאמר (תהלים ט, כא) שיתה ה' מורה להם וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה אלמלא תפלתו של חבקוק היו ב' תלמידי חכמים מתכסים בטלית אחת ועוסקין בתורה שנאמר (חבקוק ג, ב) ה' שמעתי שמעך יראתי ה' פעלך בקרב שנים חייהו אל תקרא בקרב שנים אלא בקרוב שנים,ואמר ר' אילעא בר יברכיה שני תלמידי חכמים המהלכין בדרך ואין ביניהן דברי תורה ראוין לישרף באש שנאמר (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויהי המה הולכים הלוך ודבר והנה רכב אש וגו' טעמא דאיכא דיבור הא ליכא דיבור ראוין לישרף,וא"ר אילעא בר יברכיה שני ת"ח הדרין בעיר אחת ואין נוחין זה לזה בהלכה אחד מת ואחד גולה שנאמר (דברים ד, מב) לנוס שמה רוצח אשר ירצח את רעהו בבלי דעת ואין דעת אלא תורה שנאמר (הושע ד, ו) נדמו עמי מבלי הדעת,אמר ר' יהודה בריה דר' חייא כל ת"ח העוסק בתורה מתוך הדחק תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, יט) כי עם בציון ישב בירושלים בכה לא תבכה חנון יחנך לקול זעקך כשמעתו ענך וכתיב בתריה (ישעיהו ל, כ) ונתן ה' לכם לחם צר ומים לחץ,ר' אבהו אומר משביעין אותו מזיו שכינה שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) והיו עיניך רואות את מוריך ר' אחא בר חנינא אמר אף אין הפרגוד ננעל בפניו. שנאמר (ישעיהו ל, כ) ולא יכנף עוד מוריך,רשב"ג אומר משום ר' יהושע מיום שחרב בהמ"ק אין וכו' אמר רבא בכל יום ויום מרובה קללתו משל חבירו שנאמר (דברים כח, סז) בבקר תאמר מי יתן ערב ובערב תאמר מי יתן בקר הי בקר אילימא בקר דלמחר מי ידע מאי הוי אלא דחליף,ואלא עלמא אמאי קא מקיים אקדושה דסידרא ואיהא שמיה רבא דאגדתא שנא' (איוב י, כב) ארץ עפתה כמו אופל צלמות ולא סדרים הא יש סדרים תופיע מאופל,ולא ירד טל לברכה וניטל טעם פירות וכו' תניא ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר טהרה בטלה טעם וריח מעשר ביטל שומן דגן,רב הונא אשכח תומרתא דחינוניתא שקלה כרכה בסודריה אתא רבה בריה א"ל מורחינא ריחא דחינוניתא א"ל בני טהרה יש בך יהבה ניהליה אדהכי אתא אבא בריה שקלה יהבה ניהליה א"ל בני שמחת את לבי והקהיתה את שיני היינו דאמרי אינשי רחמי דאבא אבני רחמי דבני אבני דהוו ליה,רב אחא בר יעקב איטפל ביה ברב יעקב בר ברתיה כי גדל א"ל אשקיין מיא אמר לו לאו בריך אנא והיינו דאמרי אינשי רבי רבי בר ברתך אנא, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בפולמוס של אספסיינוס גזרו על עטרות חתנים ועל האירוס,בפולמוס של טיטוס גזרו על עטרות כלות ושלא ילמד אדם את בנו יוונית,בפולמוס האחרון גזרו שלא תצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר ורבותינו התירו שתצא הכלה באפריון בתוך העיר,משמת ר"מ בטלו מושלי משלים משמת בן עזאי בטלו השקדנים משמת בן זומא בטלו הדרשנים משמת ר"ע בטל כבוד התורה משמת ר' חנינא בן דוסא בטלו אנשי מעשה משמת ר' יוסי קטנתא פסקו חסידים ולמה נקרא שמו קטנתא שהיה קטנתא של חסידים,משמת רבי יוחנן בן זכאי בטל זיו החכמה משמת ר"ג הזקן בטל כבוד התורה ומתה טהרה ופרישות משמת רבי ישמעאל בן פאבי בטלה זיו הכהונה משמת רבי בטל ענוה ויראת חטא,[ big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר] ר' פנחס בן יאיר אומר משחרב בהמ"ק בושו חברים ובני חורין וחפו ראשם ונדלדלו אנשי מעשה וגברו בעלי זרוע ובעלי לשון ואין דורש ואין מבקש ואין שואל,על מי לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים,ר"א הגדול אומר מיום שחרב בית המקדש שרו חכימיא למהוי כספריא וספריא כחזניא וחזניא כעמא דארעא ועמא דארעא 49a. b who plunder, /b i.e., destroy, b their fathers’ future judgment. /b When God sits in judgment of their parents, these children b say before Him: Master of the Universe, because You were destined to exact punishment from /b our fathers in the World-to-Come for their wickedness, b why did You blunt their teeth with /b the death of their children in their lifetimes? In this way, the death of their children atones for the fathers.,§ b Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says: If it were not for the prayer of David /b for Israel to have sustece, b all Israel would be sellers of fat [ i revav /i ], /b i.e., involved in debased occupations, b as it is stated: “Place for them mastery, O Lord” /b (Psalms 9:21), that is, may God grant them dignity. b And Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya /b also b says: If it were not for the prayer of Habakkuk, two Torah scholars would have to cover themselves with a single cloak /b due to poverty b and engage in Torah study /b dressed that way, b as it is stated: “Lord, I heard Your report and was afraid; O Lord, revive Your work in the midst of the years” /b (Habakkuk 3:2). b Do not read: “In the midst [ i bekerev /i ] of the years [ i shanim /i ],” but in the closeness [ i bikrov /i ] of two [ i shenayim /i ]. /b In other words, Habakkuk prayed that God would nullify His decree of two Torah scholars having to share a single cloak., b And Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says: /b In the case of b two Torah scholars who are walking along the way and there are no words of Torah between them, /b but they are conversing about other matters, b they are deserving of being burned in fire. As it is stated /b with regard to Elijah and his disciple Elisha: b “And it was as they walked along, talking, that behold, there appeared a chariot of fire /b and horses of fire, which parted them both asunder” (II Kings 2:11). b The reason /b they were not burned by the chariot of fire is b that there was speech /b exchanged between them, which presumably was words of Torah, b but if there had been no speech, they /b would have been b deserving of being burned /b by the chariot., b And Rabbi Ile’a bar Yeverekhya says: /b If there are b two Torah scholars who reside in the same city and they are not pleasant to each other with regard to i halakha /i , /b but are constantly fighting, b one /b of them will b die and /b the other b one /b will be b exiled. As /b it b is stated: “That the manslayer might flee there, who slays his neighbor without knowledge” /b (Deuteronomy 4:42), b and “knowledge” /b means b nothing other /b than b Torah, as it is stated: “My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge” /b (Hosea 4:6)., b Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says: /b With regard to b any Torah scholar who engages in Torah /b study b while experiencing the pressure /b of poverty, b his prayer is listened to, as it is stated: “For, O people that dwells in Zion at Jerusalem, you shall weep no more; He will surely be gracious to you at the voice of your cry. When He shall hear, He will answer you” /b (Isaiah 30:19), b and after it is written: “And the Lord shall give you sparse bread and scant water” /b (Isaiah 30:20). This verse indicates that those who sit and study Torah, that is, the people who dwell in Zion, and eat bread sparingly, will have their prayers answered by God., b Rabbi Abbahu says: /b A Torah scholar who engages in Torah study despite economic pressures b is satiated with the glory of the Divine Presence, as it is stated /b in the same verse, above: b “And your eyes shall behold your Teacher.” Rabbi Aḥa, son of Ḥanina, said: Even the /b concealing b partition /b [ b i pargod /i /b ] before the Divine Presence b is not locked before him, as it is stated: “And your Teacher shall not hide Himself anymore” /b (Isaiah 30:20).,§ The mishna states that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, there is no /b day that does not include some form of curse. b Rava says: Each and every day is more cursed than the previous one, as it is stated /b in the chapter detailing the curses in the book of Deuteronomy: b “In the morning you will say, would that it were evening, and in the evening you will say, would that it were morning” /b (Deuteronomy 28:67). It is unclear b which morning /b the verse means. b If we say /b that in the evening he will wish it would be b the following morning, does he know what will be /b the outcome of the next morning, which would cause him to yearn for its arrival? b Rather, /b it must mean the morning b that has passed; /b that is, in the evening they will pine for the previous morning, because their situation is continuously worsening.,The Gemara poses a question: b But /b if everything is deteriorating, b why does the world /b continue to b exist? /b The Gemara answers: b By the sanctification that /b is said in the b order /b of prayers, after the passage that begins: And a redeemer shall come to Israel, which includes the recitation and translation of the sanctification said by the angels, b and /b by the response: b Let His great name /b be blessed, etc., which is recited after the study b of i aggada /i . As it is stated: “A land of thick darkness, as darkness itself; a land of the shadow of death, without any order” /b (Job 10:22). b Therefore, /b it can be inferred from this verse that if b there are orders /b of prayer and study, the land b shall appear from /b amidst b the darkness. /b ,§ The mishna taught that since the destruction of the Temple, b dew has not descended for a blessing, and the taste has been removed from fruit. It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: /b The lost b purity has removed the taste and the aroma; /b the b tithes /b that were not separated b have removed the fat of grain. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rav Huna found a fragrant date. He took it and wrapped it in his shawl. Rabba, his son, came /b and b said to him: I smell the aroma of a fragrant /b date. Rav Huna b said to him: My son, there is /b clearly b purity in you, /b as you were able to notice the fragrance. b He gave it to him. Meanwhile, Abba, /b Rabba’s b son, arrived. /b Rabba b took /b the date and b gave it to /b him. Rav Huna b said to /b Rabba: b My son, you have made my heart rejoice /b with your purity, b and you have blunted my teeth, /b by showing your preference for your own son. The Gemara comments: b This /b explains the folk saying b that people say: The love of a father is for the sons; the love of the sons is for their own sons, /b more than for their father.,The Gemara relates another incident: b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov took care of Rav Ya’akov, the son of his daughter, /b who was an orphan. b When /b the grandchild b grew up, /b his grandfather once b said to him: Give me water to drink. He said to him: I am not your son, /b and I am not obligated in your honor as a son must honor his father. The Gemara again comments: b And this /b explains the folk saying b that people say: Raise, raise /b your grandchild, but in the end he will retort: b I am the son of your daughter, /b and I do not have to take care of you., strong MISHNA: /strong b In the war [ i pulemus /i ] of Vespasian /b the Sages b decreed upon the crowns of bridegrooms, /b i.e., that bridegrooms may no longer wear crowns, b and upon the drums, /b meaning they also banned the playing of drums., b In the war of Titus they /b also b decreed upon the crowns of brides, and /b they decreed b that a person should not teach his son Greek. /b , b In the last war, /b meaning the bar Kokheva revolt, b they decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but our Sages permitted a bride to go out in a palanquin inside the city, /b as this helps the bride maintain her modesty.,The mishna lists more things that ceased: b From /b the time b when Rabbi Meir died, those who relate parables ceased; from /b the time b when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from /b the time b when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased; from /b the time b when Rabbi Akiva died, the honor of the Torah ceased; from /b the time b when Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa died, the men of /b wondrous b action ceased; from /b the time b when Rabbi Yosei the Small died, the pious were no more. And why was he called the Small? Because he was the smallest of the pious, /b meaning he was one of the least important of the pious men., b From /b the time b when Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai died, the glory of wisdom ceased; from /b the time b when Rabban Gamliel the Elder died, the honor of the Torah ceased, and purity and asceticism died. From /b the time b when Rabbi Yishmael ben Pavi died, the glory of the priesthood ceased; from /b the time b when Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b died, humility and fear of sin ceased. /b ,gemara b The Sages taught: Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ya’ir says: From /b the time b when the /b Second b Temple was destroyed, the i ḥaverim /i and free men /b of noble lineage b were ashamed, and their heads were covered /b in shame, b and men of action dwindled, and violent and smooth-talking men gained the upper hand, and none seek, and none ask, and none inquire /b of the fear of Heaven., b Upon whom /b is there b for us to rely? /b Only b upon our Father in Heaven. /b , b Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: From the day the /b Second b Temple was destroyed, /b the generations have deteriorated: b Scholars have begun to become like scribes /b that teach children, b and scribes have become like beadles, and beadles have become like ignoramuses, and ignoramuses /b
81. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 11.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •midrash, priestly blessing Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 375
11.4. דַּבֵּר אֶל אַהֲרֹן וגו' (במדבר ו, כג), לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַעֲשֵׂה הַפָּרָשָׁה בְּאַהֲרֹן, הֵבִיא אֶת אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת בָּנָיו לִכְלַל דִּבּוּר, שֶׁזֶּה כְּלָל, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמַּעֲשֶׂה בַּכֹּהֲנִים הַדִּבּוּר לַכֹּהֲנִים, הַמַּעֲשֶׂה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, הַדִּבּוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. כֹּה תְבָרֲכוּ, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר מִנַּיִן אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שֶׁמִּפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא נֶאֱמַר לְמשֶׁה בְּאֵיזֶה סֵדֶר יְבָרְכוּ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּכָל לָשׁוֹן, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (דברים כז, יב): אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הָעָם, מַה לְּהַלָּן בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ אַף כָּאן בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר. כֹּה, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה, שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר עֲנִיָּה וַאֲמִירָה וְכֹה, בִּלְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, בַּעֲמִידָה. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בַּעֲמִידָה, אוֹ שֶׁלֹא בַּעֲמִידָהּ, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אֵלֶּה יַעַמְדוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת הָעָם, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן בְּרָכָה, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן בְּרָכָה, מַה בְּרָכָה הָאֲמוּרָה לְהַלָּן בַּעֲמִידָה, אַף בְּרָכָה הָאֲמוּרָה כָּאן בַּעֲמִידָה. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ, שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱמַר (דברים י, ח): לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בִּשְׁמוֹ, מַקִּישׁ בְּרָכָה לַשֵּׁרוּת, מַה שֵּׁרוּת בַּעֲמִידָה, דִּכְתִיב: לַעֲמֹד לְשָׁרֵת, אַף בְּרָכָה בַּעֲמִידָה. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם. אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם, אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם וְשֶׁלֹא בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (ויקרא ט, כב): וַיִּשָֹּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָיו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרֲכֵם, מַה הוּא בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם אַף בָּנָיו בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם. רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אוֹמֵר אִי מַה לְהַלָּן רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, אַף כָּאן רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ וְקָרְבַּן צִבּוּר וְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל. תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (דברים כז, יב): כִּי בוֹ בָּחַר ה' וגו' הוּא וּבָנָיו, מַקִּישׁ בָּנָיו לוֹ, מַה הוּא בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם אַף בָּנָיו בִּנְשִׂיאוּת כַּפַּיִם, וּכְתִיב (דברים כז, יב): כָּל הַיָּמִים, וְאִתְקַשׁ בְּרָכָה לַשֵּׁרוּת. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, בַּשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ, אַתָּה אוֹמֵר בַּשֵּׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ אוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּכִנּוּי, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וְשָׂמוּ אֶת שְׁמִי עַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַאֲנִי אֲבָרֲכֵם בַּשֵּׁם הַמְיֻחָד לִי. יָכוֹל אַף בַּגְּבוּלִין, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן: וְשָׂמוּ אֶת שְׁמִי, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (דברים יב, ה): לָשׂוּם אֶת שְׁמוֹ, מַה לְּהַלָּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אַף כָּאן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ בַּשֵּׁם הַמְּפֹרָשׁ וּבַמְדִינָה בְּכִנּוּי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יֹאשִׁיָּה. רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אוֹמֵר הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמות כ, כד): בְּכָל הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי וגו', זֶה מִקְרָא מְסֹרָס, שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֲנִי אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ, שָׁם אַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי, וְהֵיכָן אֲנִי נִגְלֶה אֵלֶיךָ, בְּבֵית הַבְּחִירָה, אַף אַתָּה לֹא תְהֵא מַזְכִּיר אֶת שְׁמִי אֶלָּא בְּבֵית הַבְּחִירָה, מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ שֵׁם הַמְּפֹרָשׁ אָסוּר לוֹמַר בַּגְּבוּלִין. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ וגו', אֵין לִי אֶלָּא בְּרָכָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, בְּרָכָה לַגֵּרִים, לַנָּשִׁים וְלַעֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים מִנַּיִן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (במדבר ו, כג): אָמוֹר לָהֶם לְכֻלָּן. כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פָּנִים. אוֹ עֹרֶף מוּל פָּנִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: אָמוֹר לָהֶם, פָּנִים כְּנֶגֶד פָּנִים, כְּאָדָם שֶׁאוֹמֵר לַחֲבֵרוֹ. אָמוֹר לָהֶם, מִכָּאן שֶׁהַחַזָּן צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לָהֶם שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ, אִם שְׁנֵי כֹּהֲנִים הֵם שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ לַדּוּכָן, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהֶם הַחַזָּן: כֹּהֲנִים בָּרֵכוּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כֹּהֵן אֶחָד, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: אָמוֹר לָהֶם לִשְׁנַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כָּל כֹּהֵן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה לַדּוּכָן עוֹבֵר בְּשָׁלשׁ עֲשֵׂה: כֹּה תְבָרְכוּ, אָמוֹר לָהֶם, וְשָׂמוּ אֶת שְׁמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כָּל כֹּהֵן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹקֵר אֶת רַגְלָיו לַעֲלוֹת אֵצֶל הַתֵּבָה בְּבִרְכַּת עֲבוֹדָה, שׁוּב אֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יט, כב): וַיִּשָֹּׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת יָדָו אֶל הָעָם וַיְבָרֲכֵם וַיֵּרֶד מֵעֲשׂוֹת הַחַטָּאת, מַה לְּהַלָּן בַּעֲבוֹדָה, אַף כָּאן בַּעֲבוֹדָה. אָמַר רַבִּי שַׂמְלָאי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁכֻּלָּם כֹּהֲנִים, כֻּלָּם עוֹלִים לַדּוּכָן, וְהוּא דְּאִשְׁתַּיְרוּ עֲשָׂרָה יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעוֹנִין אָמֵן. בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת שֶׁכֻּלָּה כֹּהֲנִים, מִקְצָתָן עוֹלִים לַדּוּכָן, מִקְצָתָם עוֹנִים אָמֵן. הָעָם שֶׁאֲחוֹרֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵינָן בִּכְלַל בְּרָכָה, וּלְכָךְ הָיוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים עוֹלִים אֶל הָאָרוֹן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הָעָם בִּפְנֵיהֶם. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן פָּזִי כָּל כֹּהֵן שֶׁלֹא נָטַל יָדָיו לֹא יִשָֹּׂא אֶת כַּפָּיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלד, ב): שְׂאוּ יְדֵיכֶם קֹדֶשׁ וּבָרְכוּ אֶת ה'. שָׁאֲלוּ תַּלְמִידָיו אֶת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן שַׁמּוּעַ בַּמֶּה הֶאֱרַכְתָּ יָמִים, אָמַר לָהֶם מִיָּמַי לֹא עָשִׂיתִי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וְלֹא פָּסַעְתִּי עַל רָאשֵׁי עַם קֹדֶשׁ, וְלֹא נָשָׂאתִי אֶת כַּפַּי בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה. מַאי מְבָרֵךְ אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בִּקְדֻשָּׁתוֹ שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן וְצִוָּנוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמּוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַהֲבָה. כִּי עָקַר הַכֹּהֵן רַגְלָיו לַעֲלוֹת לַדּוּכָן מַאי אָמַר, יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ שֶׁתְּהֵא בְּרָכָה זוֹ שֶׁצִּוִּיתָנוּ לְבָרֵךְ אֶת עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁלֹא יְהֵא בָהּ מִכְשֹׁל וְעָוֹן. וְכִי מְסַיֵּם לְבָרֵךְ וּמַחֲזִיר פָּנָיו מִן הַצִּבּוּר מַאי אָמַר, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם עָשִׂינוּ מַה שֶּׁגָּזַרְתָּ עָלֵינוּ עֲשֵׂה עִמָּנוּ מַה שֶּׁהִבְטַחְתָּנוּ. אָמַר רַב חִסְדָּא אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים רַשָּׁאִים לָכֹף קִשְׁרֵי אֶצְבְּעוֹת יָדָם עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִירוּ פְּנֵיהֶם מִן הַצִּבּוּר, וְאֵין הַקּוֹרֵא רַשַּׁאי לִקְרוֹת בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה אָמֵן מִפִּי הַצִּבּוּר, וְאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים רַשָּׁאִים לְהַתְחִיל בִּבְרָכָה אַחֶרֶת עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה אָמֵן מִפִּי הַצִּבּוּר, וְאֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים רַשָּׁאִים לְהַחֲזִיר פְּנֵיהֶם מִן הַצִּבּוּר עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִיל שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר בְּשִׂים שָׁלוֹם, וְאֵינָם רַשָּׁאִין לַעֲקֹר רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֵילֵךְ עַד שֶׁיִּגְמֹר שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר שִׂים שָׁלוֹם. בִּזְּמַן שֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים מְבָרְכִין הָעָם מָה הַצִּבּוּר אוֹמְרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי זֵירָא (תהלים קג, כ כב): בָּרְכוּ ה' מַלְאָכָיו וגו', בָּרְכוּ ה' כָּל צְבָאָיו וגו' בָּרְכוּ ה' כָּל מַעֲשָׂיו וגו'. הֵיכָן אוֹמֵר אוֹתָן, רַב יוֹסֵף אָמַר בֵּין כָּל בְּרָכָה וּבְרָכָה. רַב אָמַר בְּהַזְכָּרַת הַשֵּׁם. פְּלִיגֵי בָּהּ רַב מָארֵי וְרַב זְבִיד, חַד אָמַר פָּסוּק כְּנֶגֶד פָּסוּק, וְחַד אָמַר בְּכָל פָּסוּק אוֹמֵר לְכָל שְׁלשֶׁת הַפְּסוּקִים. בְּמוּסַף שֶׁל שַׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהַכֹּהֲנִים מְבָרְכִים מָה הַצִּבּוּר אוֹמְרִים, אָמַר רַב אַסֵי (תהלים קלד, א ב): שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת הִנֵּה בָּרְכוּ אֶת ה' וגו' שְׂאוּ יְדֵיכֶם וגו' (תהלים קלה, כא): בָּרוּךְ ה' מִצִּיּוֹן וגו'. וְלָמָּה אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר (תהלים קלד, ג): יְבָרֶכְךָ ה' מִצִּיּוֹן וגו', שֶׁכָּתוּב בְּהַהוּא עִנְיָן, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן פָּזִי, מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִתְחִיל בְּבִרְכוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, מְסַיֵּם בְּבִרְכוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. בַּמִּנְחָה שֶׁל תַּעֲנִיּוֹת מַאי אָמְרֵי, אָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר יַעֲקֹב (ירמיה יד, ז ט): אִם עֲוֹנֵינוּ עָנוּ בָנוּ ה' עֲשֵׂה לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ כִּי רַבּוּ מְשׁוּבֹתֵינוּ לְךָ חָטָאנוּ. מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' מוֹשִׁיעוֹ בְּעֵת צָרָה לָמָּה תִהְיֶה כְּגֵר בָּאָרֶץ וּכְאֹרֵחַ נָטָה לָלוּן. לָמָּה תִהְיֶה כְּאִישׁ נִדְהָם כְּגִבּוֹר לֹא יוּכַל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ וְאַתָּה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ ה' וְשִׁמְךָ עָלֵינוּ נִקְרָא. בַּנְּעִילָה שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מַאי אָמְרֵי (תהלים קכח, ד ו): הִנֵּה כִּי כֵן יְבֹרַךְ גָּבֶר יְרֵא ה'. יְבָרֶכְךָ ה' מִצִּיּוֹן וּרְאֵה בְּטוּב יְרוּשָׁלָיִם כֹּל יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ. וּרְאֵה בָנִים לְבָנֶיךָ שָׁלוֹם עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא כָּל הָאוֹמְרָן בַּגְּבוּלִין אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא טוֹעֶה, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פַּפָּא תֵּדַע דְּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ נָמֵי לָא לִבָּעֵי לְמֵמְרִינְהוּ, כְּלוּם יֵשׁ עֶבֶד שֶׁמְבָרְכִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַאֲזִין. אָמַר רַב אַחָא בַּר חֲנִינָא תֵּדַע דְּבַגְּבוּלִין נָמֵי מִבָּעֵי לְמֵמְרִינְהוּ, כְּלוּם יֵשׁ עֶבֶד שֶׁמְבָרְכִין אוֹתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מַסְבִּיר פָּנִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵרֵישׁ הֲוָה אָמֵינָא לְהַנֵּי קְרָאֵי, כֵּיוָן דְּחָזֵינָא לְרַבִּי אַבָּא דְּמִן עַכּוֹ דְּלָא אֲמַר לְהוּ, אֲנָא נָמֵי לָא אָמֵינָא לְהוּ. מִכָּאן שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִין אוֹתוֹ בַּגְּבוּלִין. בַּמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים בִּרְכַּת כֹּהֲנִים שָׁלשׁ בְּרָכוֹת, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ בְּרָכָה אַחַת, כָּל כָּךְ לָמָּה, שֶׁאֵין עוֹנִין אָמֵן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ. תָּנֵי מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין עוֹנִין אָמֵן בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה ט, ה): קוּמוּ בָּרְכוּ אֶת ה' אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִן הָעוֹלָם עַד הָעוֹלָם וִיבָרְכוּ שֵׁם כְּבֹדֶךָ וּמְרוֹמַם עַל כָּל בְּרָכָה וּתְהִלָּה. מִנַּיִן שֶׁעַל כָּל בְּרָכָה תְּהִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וּמְרוֹמַם עַל כָּל בְּרָכָה וּתְהִלָּה, עַל כָּל בְּרָכָה וּבְרָכָה תֵּן לוֹ תְּהִלָּה. בַּמְּדִינָה נוֹשְׂאִין כַּפֵּיהֶם כְּנֶגֶד כִּתְפוֹתֵיהֶם, וּבַמִּקְדָּשׁ עַל גַּבֵי רָאשֵׁיהֶם, חוּץ מִכֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְבִּיהַּ יָדָיו לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיץ. אָמוֹר לָהֶם, מָלֵא. אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַכֹּהֲנִים, לֹא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לָכֶם שֶׁתִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִים אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל תִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִים אוֹתָם בְּאַנְגַרְיָא וּבְבַהֲלוּת, אֶלָּא תִּהְיוּ מְבָרְכִין בְּכַוָּנַת הַלֵּב, כְּדֵי שֶׁתִּשְׁלַם הַבְּרָכָה בָּהֶן, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר אָמוֹר לָהֶם.
82. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 38.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158
38.4. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֶה הַדָּבָר, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (הושע יד, ג): קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים, זֶהוּ שֶׁאָמַר הַכָּתוּב (תהלים כו, ו ז): אֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי, לַשְׁמִעַ בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה. יָכוֹל אַף לְהַקְרִיב פָּרִים וְאֵילִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: לַשְׁמִעַ בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה. לְפִי שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹמְרִים רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָם, הַנְּשִׂיאִים חוֹטְאִים וּמְבִיאִים קָרְבָּן וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לָהֶם, מָשִׁיחַ חוֹטֵא וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ, אָנוּ אֵין לָנוּ קָרְבָּן. אָמַר לָהֶם (ויקרא ד, יג): וְאִם כָּל עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגוּ וגו'. אָמְרוּ לוֹ עֲנִיִּים אָנוּ וְאֵין לָנוּ לְהָבִיא קָרְבָּנוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, דְּבָרִים אֲנִי מְבַקֵּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל ה', וַאֲנִי מוֹחֵל עַל כָּל עֲוֹנוֹתֵיכֶם. וְאֵין דְּבָרִים אֶלָּא דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים א, א): אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר משֶׁה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּכוּ וְהִתְפַּלְּלוּ לְפָנַי וַאֲנִי מְקַבֵּל, אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם לֹא בִּתְפִלָּה פָּדִיתִי אוֹתָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ב, כג): וַיֵּאָנְחוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הָעֲבֹדָה וַיִּזְעָקוּ. בִּימֵי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לֹא בִּתְפִלָּה עָשִׂיתִי לָהֶם נִסִּים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יהושע ז, ו): וַיִּקְרַע יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שִׂמְלֹתָיו, וּמַה אָמַרְתִּי לוֹ (יהושע ח, יח): נְטֵה בַּכִּידוֹן. בִּימֵי הַשּׁוֹפְטִים בִּבְכִיָּה שָׁמַעְתִּי צַעֲקָתָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שופטים ו, ז): וַיְהִי כִּי זָעֲקוּ בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל ה'. בִּימֵי שְׁמוּאֵל לֹא בִּתְפִלָּה שָׁמַעְתִּי לָהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א ז, ט): וַיִּזְעַק שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל ה' בְּעַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ ה'. וְכֵן אַנְשֵׁי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִכְעִיסוּנִי בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁבָּכוּ לְפָנַי רִחַמְתִּי עֲלֵיהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה לא, ו): כֹּה אָמַר ה' רָנּוּ לְיַעֲקֹב שִׂמְחָה וגו', הֱוֵי אֵינִי מְבַקֵּשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא זְבָחִים וְלֹא קָרְבָּנוֹת אֶלָּא דְּבָרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים וְשׁוּבוּ אֶל ה'. לְכָךְ אָמַר דָּוִד (תהלים כו, ו): אֶרְחַץ בְּנִקָּיוֹן כַּפָּי, אֵינִי אוֹמֵר לְהַקְרִיב לְךָ, אֶלָּא לַשְׁמִעַ בְּקוֹל תּוֹדָה, שֶׁאֲנִי מוֹדֶה לְךָ עַל דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים, אָמַר משֶׁה (דברים לג, כז): מְעוֹנָה אֱלֹהֵי קֶדֶם, אֵלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁבִּזְכוּתָן נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וַעֲלֵיהֶם הָעוֹלָם עוֹמֵד. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר (דברים לג, כז): וַיְגָרֶשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אוֹיֵב, זֶה הָמָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ז, ו): אִישׁ צַר וְאוֹיֵב, וְלָמָּה צַר וְאוֹיֵב, אֶלָּא צַר לְמַעְלָן וְאוֹיֵב לְמַטָּן, צַר לָאָבוֹת וְאוֹיֵב לַבָּנִים, צַר לִי וְאוֹיֵב לְךָ. (דברים לג, כז): וַיֹּאמֶר הַשְׁמֵד, אֵלּוּ בָּנָיו. (דברים לג, כח): וַיִּשְׁכֹּן יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּטַח בָּדָד עֵין יַעֲקֹב, אֵין עַיִן אֶלָּא נְבוּאָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם ה' רוּחַ תַּרְדֵמָה וַיְעַצֵם אֶת עֵינֵיכֶם. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל גְּדוֹלָה חִבָּתָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְשַׁנֶּה סִדְרֵי בְּרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁבִיל טוֹבָתָן, שֶׁהוּא מוֹרִיד לָהֶם מָן מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם וּמַעֲלֶה לָהֶם מִן הָאָרֶץ טָל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טז, יד): וַתַּעַל שִׁכְבַת הַטָּל, וְכֵן (דברים לג, כח): אַף שָׁמָיו יַעַרְפוּ טָל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה משֶׁה מַתַּן שְׂכָרָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, אָמַר לָהֶם (דברים לג, כח): אַשְׁרֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִי כָמוֹךָ עַם נוֹשַׁע בַּה', בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁהֵן מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בְּהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (דברים לג, כח): מָגֵן עֶזְרֶךָ, כְּנֶגֶד אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יד, כ): אֲשֶׁר מִגֵּן צָרֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ. (דברים לג, כח): וַאֲשֶׁר חֶרֶב גַּאֲוָתֶךָ, כְּנֶגֶד יִצְחָק, שֶׁפָּשַׁט צַוָּארוֹ כְּנֶגֶד הַחֶרֶב. (דברים לג, כח): וְיִכָּחֲשׁוּ אוֹיְבֶיךָ לָךְ, כְּנֶגֶד יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לו, ו): וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל אֶרֶץ מִפְּנֵי יַעֲקֹב אָחִיו. (דברים לג, כח): וְאַתָּה עַל בָּמוֹתֵימוֹ תִדְרֹךְ, בִּימֵי מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ו, יא): וַיִּקַּח הָמָן אֶת הַלְּבוּשׁ וְאֶת הַסּוּס, מִי גָרַם לְמָרְדְּכַי לָבֹא לִידֵי הַגְּדֻלָּה הַזֹּאת, אֱמֹר שֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל בְּכָל שָׁעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ד, א): וּמָרְדְּכַי יָדַע אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה, מֵאַחַר שֶׁרָאָה עַצְמוֹ בִּגְדֻלָּה לֹא הֵגֵס לִבּוֹ וְלֹא עָמַד מִן הַתְּפִלָּה, אֶלָּא (אסתר ו, יב): וַיָּשָׁב מָרְדְּכַי, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהָיָה מִתְּחִלָּה. (דברים ל, ז): וְנָתַן ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵת כָּל הָאָלוֹת הָאֵלֶּה, לֹא עָלֶיךָ אֶלָּא עַל אֹיְבֶיךָ וְעַל שׂנְאֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר רְדָפוּךָ, וְאַתָּה תַעֲמֹד לְךָ מִן הַתְּפִלָּה, לָאו, אֶלָּא מַה כְּתִיב אַחֲרָיו, (דברים ל, ח): וְאַתָּה תָשׁוּב וְשָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקוֹל ה', כְּשֵׁם שֶׁעָשָׂה מָרְדֳּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ו, יב): וַיָּשָׁב מָרְדֳּכַי אֶל שַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ, שֶׁחָזַר לְשַׂקּוֹ וּלְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: קְחוּ עִמָּכֶם דְּבָרִים. אַף כָּאן הוּא אוֹמֵר, זֶה הַדָּבָר, לְפִי שֶׁלֹא הִתְרַצֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְאַהֲרֹן אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַתְּפִלָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ט, כ): וּבְאַהֲרֹן הִתְאַנַּף ה' מְאֹד לְהַשְׁמִידוֹ. 38.4. "Another explanation for zeh hadavar: “Take with you words. . .”(d’varim, Ho 14:3). This is what is meant by what is written: “I wash my palms with cleanliness and circle your altar, Yahh, to voice thanks aloud and to tell of all your miracles.” (Ps 26:6f) One might also offer bulls and rams, but exegesis says to voice thanks aloud. Accordingly, Jews say, “Ribon HaOlam (“master of the universe”), leaders sin and bring and bring a korban (“offering”) and it atones for them. The mashiach sins and brings a korban and it atones for him. We, we have no korban.” He said to them: “And if all the congregation of Yisrael stray–and the matter is hidden from the eyes of the community–and they are guilty of doing one of the negative commandments of Yahh, then, if the sin guilt for which they sinned becomes known, the community shall offer a bull of the herd as a sin offering.”(Lev 4:13f) They say to him, “We are poor and we have not what to bring for korbanot.” He says to them, “Words, I request, as it is said, ‘Take with you words and return to Yahh’ and I annul all your misdeeds.” These words are none other than divrey Torah, as it is said, “These are the d’varim that Moshe spoke to all Yisrael.(Dt 1:1) They said to him, “We do not know.” He said to them, “Weep and pray before me and I accept it. Your ancestors, when they were enslaved in Mitsrayim, it wasn’t for prayer that I redeemed them, as it is said, ‘The B’neiYisrael groaned from the work and cried out.’(Ex 2:23)In the days of Y’hoshua it wasn’t for prayer that I made miracles for them, as it is said, ‘Y’hoshua tore his garment and fell on his face before the ark of Yahh till evening.’(Jos 7:6) So what did I say to him? ‘Hold out the spear which is in your hand towards The Ai, for I give it into your hand.’(Jos 8:18) In the days of the Judges, with weeping I heard their outcry, as it is said, ‘It happened, when the B’neiYisrael cried out to Yahh on account of Midyan.’(Ju 6:7) In the days of Sh’muel it was not in prayer that I heard them, as it is said, ‘Sh’muel cried out to Yahh on behalf of Yisrael and Yahh responded to him.’(Sam 7:9) And similarly the men of Y’rushalayim, even though they had angered me, because they wept before me I had mercy on them, as it is said, ‘For thus said Yahh, “Sing out joy to Ya’akov. . .”(Jer 31:7) Oh, I request from you not sacrifices and not korbanot but words, as it is said, ‘Take with you words. . .’ This is why David said, ‘I wash my hands with cleanliness’ not intending to make an offering but to voice thanks aloud, for I am thankful to you for divrey Torah.",
83. Jerome, On Illustrious Men, 11 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 69
84. Anon., Yalqut Shimoni, None  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 555
85. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 527
86. Anon., Soferim, 10.6, 17.5  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing, quorum of ten males Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 555
87. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 45  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 580
45. (ways). Immediately therefore I offered sacrifices on behalf of you, your sister, your children, and your friends, and all the people prayed that your plans might prosper continually, and that Almighty God might preserve your kingdom in peace with honour, and that the translation of the
88. Epigraphy, Jigre, 84  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 190
89. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 568
92. Babylonian Talmud, Hul., None  Tagged with subjects: •priestly blessing Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 158
97. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 22, 29, 32, 36, 42-43, 49, 55, 47  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 568
98. Anon., Naso, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016), Ontological Aspects of Early Jewish Anthropology, 172