|1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.24, 16.4, 22.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596, 611
| 15.24. "וַיִּלֹּנוּ הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר מַה־נִּשְׁתֶּה׃", 16.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃", 22.27. "אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר׃",
| 15.24. "And the people murmured against Moses, saying: ‘What shall we drink?’", 16.4. "Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not.", 22.27. "Thou shalt not revile God, nor curse a ruler of thy people.",
|2. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 13.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
| 13.14. "מִיַּד שְׁאוֹל אֶפְדֵּם מִמָּוֶת אֶגְאָלֵם אֱהִי דְבָרֶיךָ מָוֶת אֱהִי קָטָבְךָ שְׁאוֹל נֹחַם יִסָּתֵר מֵעֵינָי׃",
| 13.14. "Shall I ransom them from the power of the nether-world? Shall I redeem them from death? Ho, thy plagues, O death! Ho, thy destruction, O netherworld! Repentance be hid from Mine eyes!",
|3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.3-23.4, 24.1, 25.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389, 448, 601
| 23.3. "לֹא־יָבֹא מַמְזֵר בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לוֹ בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃", 23.4. "לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 24.1. "כִּי־תַשֶּׁה בְרֵעֲךָ מַשַּׁאת מְאוּמָה לֹא־תָבֹא אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ לַעֲבֹט עֲבֹטוֹ׃", 24.1. "כִּי־יִקַּח אִישׁ אִשָּׁה וּבְעָלָהּ וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא תִמְצָא־חֵן בְּעֵינָיו כִּי־מָצָא בָהּ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְכָתַב לָהּ סֵפֶר כְּרִיתֻת וְנָתַן בְּיָדָהּ וְשִׁלְּחָהּ מִבֵּיתוֹ׃", 25.2. "וְהָיָה אִם־בִּן הַכּוֹת הָרָשָׁע וְהִפִּילוֹ הַשֹּׁפֵט וְהִכָּהוּ לְפָנָיו כְּדֵי רִשְׁעָתוֹ בְּמִסְפָּר׃",
| 23.3. "A bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the assembly of the LORD.", 23.4. "An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;", 24.1. "When a man taketh a wife, and marrieth her, then it cometh to pass, if she find no favour in his eyes, because he hath found some unseemly thing in her, that he writeth her a bill of divorcement, and giveth it in her hand, and sendeth her out of his house,", 25.2. "then it shall be, if the wicked man deserve to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to the measure of his wickedness, by number.",
|4. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 68
| 2.16. "כִּי־שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִסָּה חָמָס עַל־לְבוּשׁוֹ אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם בְּרוּחֲכֶם וְלֹא תִבְגֹּדוּ׃",
| 2.16. "For I hate putting away, Saith the LORD, the God of Israel, And him that covereth his garment with violence, Saith the LORD of hosts; Therefore take heed to your spirit, That ye deal not treacherously.",
|5. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 25.8, 27.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
| 25.8. "בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח וּמָחָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה דִּמְעָה מֵעַל כָּל־פָּנִים וְחֶרְפַּת עַמּוֹ יָסִיר מֵעַל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃", 27.13. "וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃",
| 25.8. "He will swallow up death for ever; And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from off all faces; And the reproach of His people will He take away from off all the earth; For the LORD hath spoken it.", 27.13. "And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem.",
|6. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38-71, 37 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 68
| 37. The second vision which he saw, the vision of wisdom -which Enoch the son of Jared, the son,of Mahalalel, the son of Cai, the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, saw. And this is the beginning of the words of wisdom which I lifted up my voice to speak and say to those which dwell on earth: Hear, ye men of old time, and see, ye that come after, the words of the Holy,One which I will speak before the Lord of Spirits. It were better to declare (them only) to the men of old time, but even from those that come after we will not withhold the beginning of wisdom.,Till the present day such wisdom has never been given by the Lord of Spirits as I have received according to my insight, according to the good pleasure of the Lord of Spirits by whom the lot of,eternal life has been given to me. Now three Parables were imparted to me, and I lifted up my voice and recounted them to those that dwell on the earth.
|7. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 57.17-57.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389
|8. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 2.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 448
|9. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 11.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 448
|10. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.19-5.5, 4.21, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389
|11. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.19-5.5, 4.21, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389
|12. Mishnah, Eduyot, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389
|13. Mishnah, Makkot, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 601, 646
| 3.10. "כַּמָּה מַלְקִין אוֹתוֹ, אַרְבָּעִים חָסֵר אַחַת. שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כה) בְּמִסְפָּר אַרְבָּעִים, מִנְיָן שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לְאַרְבָּעִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַרְבָּעִים שְׁלֵמוֹת הוּא לוֹקֶה. וְהֵיכָן הוּא לוֹקֶה אֶת הַיְתֵרָה, בֵּין כְּתֵפָיו: \n",
| 3.10. "How many lashes is he given? Forty save one, as it says, “By number forty” (Deuteronomy 25:2-3) which means, a number close to forty. Rabbi Judah says: “He is given forty [lashes] in full.” And where does he receive the additional lash? Between his shoulders.",
|14. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 9.6, 10.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33, 610
| 9.6. "הַגּוֹנֵב אֶת הַקַּסְוָה וְהַמְקַלֵּל בַּקּוֹסֵם וְהַבּוֹעֵל אֲרַמִּית, קַנָּאִין פּוֹגְעִין בּוֹ. כֹּהֵן שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בְּטֻמְאָה, אֵין אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין, אֶלָּא פִרְחֵי כְהֻנָּה מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה וּמַפְצִיעִין אֶת מֹחוֹ בִּגְזִירִין. זָר שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בְּחֶנֶק. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּידֵי שָׁמָיִם: \n", 10.4. "אַנְשֵׁי עִיר הַנִּדַּחַת אֵין לָהֶן חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יג) יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת ישְׁבֵי עִירָם. וְאֵינָן נֶהֱרָגִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מַדִּיחֶיהָ מֵאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר וּמֵאוֹתוֹ הַשֵּׁבֶט, וְעַד שֶׁיֻּדַּח רֻבָּהּ, וְעַד שֶׁיַּדִּיחוּם אֲנָשִׁים. הִדִּיחוּהָ נָשִׁים וּקְטַנִּים אוֹ שֶׁהֻדַּח מִעוּטָהּ אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ מַדִּיחֶיהָ חוּצָה לָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ כִיחִידִים. וּצְרִיכִין שְׁנֵי עֵדִים וְהַתְרָאָה לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. זֶה חֹמֶר בַּיְּחִידִים מִבַּמְּרֻבִּים, שֶׁהַיְּחִידִים בִּסְקִילָה, לְפִיכָךְ מָמוֹנָם פָּלֵט. וְהַמְּרֻבִּים בְּסַיִף, לְפִיכָךְ מָמוֹנָם אָבֵד: \n",
| 9.6. "If one steals the sacred vessel called a “kasvah” (Numbers 4:7), or cursed by the name of an idol, or has sexual relations with an Aramean (non-Jewish) woman, he is punished by zealots. If a priest performed the temple service while impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court, but rather the young priests take him out into the courtyard and split his skull with clubs. A layman who performed the service in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says: “He is strangled.” But the Sages say: “[His death is] at the hands of heaven.”", 10.4. "The inhabitants of a city seduced into worshipping idols have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “Certain men, wicked persons, have gone out from among you and seduced the inhabitants of their town” (Deuteronomy 13:14). They are not executed unless the seducers are of that city and that tribe, and until the majority of the city are seduced, and the seducers are men. If women or minors seduced it, or if a minority of the city were seduced, or if the seducers were from outside the city, they are treated as individuals, and therefore two witnesses and a formal warning are necessary for each [offender]. In this [the penalty of] individuals is severer than [that of] the multitudes, for individuals are stoned, therefore their property is saved; but the multitudes are decapitated; hence their possessions are destroyed.",
|15. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 608
| 3.4. "אֵינָהּ מַסְפֶּקֶת לִשְׁתּוֹת עַד שֶׁפָּנֶיהָ מוֹרִיקוֹת וְעֵינֶיהָ בּוֹלְטוֹת וְהִיא מִתְמַלֵּאת גִּידִין, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים הוֹצִיאוּהָ הוֹצִיאוּהָ, שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא הָעֲזָרָה. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ זְכוּת, הָיְתָה תוֹלָה לָהּ. יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁנָה אַחַת, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. מִכָּאן אוֹמֵר בֶּן עַזַּאי, חַיָּב אָדָם לְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, שֶׁאִם תִּשְׁתֶּה, תֵּדַע שֶׁהַזְּכוּת תּוֹלָה לָהּ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ מְלַמְּדָהּ תִּפְלוּת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, רוֹצָה אִשָּׁה בְקַב וְתִפְלוּת מִתִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין וּפְרִישׁוּת. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חָסִיד שׁוֹטֶה, וְרָשָׁע עָרוּם, וְאִשָּׁה פְרוּשָׁה, וּמַכּוֹת פְּרוּשִׁין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְכַלֵּי עוֹלָם: \n",
| 3.4. "She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world.",
|16. Mishnah, Taanit, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 608
| 3.8. "עַל כָּל צָרָה שֶׁלֹּא תָבֹא עַל הַצִּבּוּר, מַתְרִיעִין עֲלֵיהֶן, חוּץ מֵרוֹב גְּשָׁמִים. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁאָמְרוּ לוֹ לְחוֹנִי הַמְעַגֵּל, הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. אָמַר לָהֶם, צְאוּ וְהַכְנִיסוּ תַנּוּרֵי פְסָחִים, בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יִמּוֹקוּ. הִתְפַּלֵּל, וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים. מֶה עָשָׂה, עָג עוּגָה וְעָמַד בְּתוֹכָהּ, וְאָמַר לְפָנָיו, רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, בָּנֶיךָ שָׂמוּ פְנֵיהֶם עָלַי, שֶׁאֲנִי כְבֶן בַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ. נִשְׁבָּע אֲנִי בְשִׁמְךָ הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן, עַד שֶׁתְּרַחֵם עַל בָּנֶיךָ. הִתְחִילוּ גְּשָׁמִים מְנַטְּפִין. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי בוֹרוֹת שִׁיחִין וּמְעָרוֹת. הִתְחִילוּ לֵירֵד בְּזָעַף. אָמַר, לֹא כָךְ שָׁאַלְתִּי, אֶלָּא גִּשְׁמֵי רָצוֹן, בְּרָכָה וּנְדָבָה. יָרְדוּ כְתִקְנָן, עַד שֶׁיָּצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַר הַבַּיִת מִפְּנֵי הַגְּשָׁמִים. בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהִתְפַּלַלְתָּ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ כָּךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ לָהֶן. אָמַר לָהֶן, צְאוּ וּרְאוּ אִם נִמְחֵת אֶבֶן הַטּוֹעִים. שָׁלַח לוֹ שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח, אִלְמָלֵא חוֹנִי אַתָּה, גּוֹזְרַנִי עָלֶיךָ נִדּוּי. אֲבָל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְּךָ, שֶׁאַתָּה מִתְחַטֵּא לִפְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וְעוֹשֶׂה לְךָ רְצוֹנְךָ כְּבֵן שֶׁהוּא מִתְחַטֵּא עַל אָבִיו וְעוֹשֶׂה לוֹ רְצוֹנוֹ. וְעָלֶיךָ הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (משלי כג), יִשְׂמַח אָבִיךָ וְאִמֶּךָ וְתָגֵל יוֹלַדְתֶּךָ: \n",
| 3.8. "For every trouble that should not come upon the community they sound a blast except on account of too much rain. It happened that they said to Honi the circle drawer: “Pray for rain to fall.” He replied: “Go and bring in the pesah ovens so that they do not dissolve.” He prayed and no rain fell. What did he do? He drew a circle and stood within it and exclaimed before Him: “Master of the universe, Your children have turned their faces to me because I am like one who was born in Your house. I swear by Your great name that I will not move from here until You have mercy upon Your children.” Rain then began to drip, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but rain [which can fill] cisterns, ditches and caves. The rain then began to come down with great force, and he exclaimed: “I did not request this but pleasing rain of blessing and abudance.” Rain then fell in the normal way until the Jews in Jerusalem had to go up Temple Mount because of the rain. They came and said to him: “In the same way that you prayed for [the rain] to fall pray [now] for the rain to stop.” He replied: “Go and see if the stone of people claiming lost objects has washed away.” Rabbi Shimon ben Shetah sent to him: “Were you not Honi I would have excommunicated you, but what can I do to you, for you are spoiled before God and he does your will like a son that is spoiled before his father and his father does his request. Concerning you it is written, “Let your father and your mother rejoice, and let she that bore you rejoice” (Proverbs 23:25).",
|17. New Testament, Galatians, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.12-2.14, 1.13-2.21, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.23, 2, 2.7, 2.8, 2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 5.2, 5.3, 5.6, 6.11, 6.12, 6.15, 148 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 567
| 1.6. Θαυμάζω ὅτι οὕτως ταχέως μετατίθεσθε ἀπὸ τοῦ καλέσαντος ὑμᾶς ἐν χάριτι Χριστοῦ εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον,
| 1.6. I marvel that you are so quickly deserting him who called you in the grace of Christ to a different gospel;
|18. Josephus Flavius, Life, 191, 10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 646
|19. Mishnah, Yoma, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 611
| 1.6. "אִם הָיָה חָכָם, דּוֹרֵשׁ. וְאִם לָאו, תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים דּוֹרְשִׁין לְפָנָיו. וְאִם רָגִיל לִקְרוֹת, קוֹרֵא. וְאִם לָאו, קוֹרִין לְפָנָיו. וּבַמֶּה קוֹרִין לְפָנָיו, בְּאִיּוֹב וּבְעֶזְרָא וּבְדִבְרֵי הַיָּמִים. זְכַרְיָה בֶּן קְבוּטָל אוֹמֵר, פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה קָרִיתִי לְפָנָיו בְּדָנִיֵּאל: \n",
| 1.6. "If he was a sage he would expound, and if not, the disciples of the sages would expound before him. If he was familiar with reading [the Scriptures] he would read, if not they would read before him. From what would they read before him? From Job, Ezra and Chronicles. Zechariah ben Kv’utal says: I have often read before him from Daniel.",
|20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.162 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 586
| 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate [or providence], and to God,
|21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 7, 7.10, 7.18, 7.39, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 10, 10.32-11.1, 15, 15.9, 15.51, 15.52, 15.53, 15.54, 15.55, 15.56, 16.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596, 598
|22. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
| 4.13. Οὐ θέλομεν δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, περὶ τῶν κοιμωμένων, ἵνα μὴ λυπῆσθε καθὼς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες ἐλπίδα.
| 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope.
|23. New Testament, Acts, 1, 1.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 5.22, 5.23, 5.24, 5.25, 5.26, 5.27, 5.28, 5.29, 5.30, 5.31, 5.32, 5.33, 5.34, 5.35, 5.36, 5.37, 5.38, 5.39, 5.40, 6.1, 6.5, 6.9, 6.12, 7.11, 7.58, 7.60, 8, 9.29, 10, 15.1, 15.5, 16.12, 18.25, 19.32, 19.35, 19.39, 21.15-22.3, 21.26, 21.27, 21.28, 22.3, 22.9, 22.30-23.9, 23.5, 23.6, 23.8, 23.9, 23.27, 24.14, 25.8, 25.11, 26.5, 26.22, 26.23, 26.24, 28, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.20, 28.21, 28.22, 28.23, 28.24, 28.25, 28.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 598, 608, 619, 646
| 15.5. Ἐξανέστησαν δέ τινες τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς αἱρέσεως τῶν Φαρισαίων πεπιστευκότες, λέγοντες ὅτι δεῖ περιτέμνειν αὐτοὺς παραγγέλλειν τε τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως.
| 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses."
|24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.238, 12.293, 18.15, 20.197-20.203 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 586, 646, 656
| 4.238. But for him that acts contrary to this law, let him be beaten with forty stripes save one by the public executioner; let him undergo this punishment, which is a most ignominious one for a free-man, and this because he was such a slave to gain as to lay a blot upon his dignity; 12.293. 2. When king Antiochus heard of these things, he was very angry at what had happened; so he got together all his own army, with many mercenaries, whom he had hired from the islands, and took them with him, and prepared to break into Judea about the beginning of the spring. 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 20.197. 1. And now Caesar, upon hearing the death of Festus, sent Albinus into Judea, as procurator. But the king deprived Joseph of the high priesthood, and bestowed the succession to that dignity on the son of Aus, who was also himself called Aus. 20.198. Now the report goes that this eldest Aus proved a most fortunate man; for he had five sons who had all performed the office of a high priest to God, and who had himself enjoyed that dignity a long time formerly, which had never happened to any other of our high priests. 20.199. But this younger Aus, who, as we have told you already, took the high priesthood, was a bold man in his temper, and very insolent; he was also of the sect of the Sadducees, who are very rigid in judging offenders, above all the rest of the Jews, as we have already observed; 20.200. when, therefore, Aus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: 20.201. but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Aus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified; 20.202. nay, some of them went also to meet Albinus, as he was upon his journey from Alexandria, and informed him that it was not lawful for Aus to assemble a sanhedrim without his consent. 20.203. Whereupon Albinus complied with what they said, and wrote in anger to Aus, and threatened that he would bring him to punishment for what he had done; on which king Agrippa took the high priesthood from him, when he had ruled but three months, and made Jesus, the son of Damneus, high priest.
|25. Tosefta, Demai, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 611
| 2.5. "גר שקבל עליו כל דברי התורה ונחשד על דבר אחד אפילו על התורה כולה הרי הוא כישראל מומר.",
|26. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 5, 6, 6.14-7.1, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 11.22, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 11.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 601
| 11.26. κινδύνοις ποταμῶν, κινδύνοις λῃστῶν, κινδύνοις ἐκ γένους, κινδύνοις ἐξ ἐθνῶν, κινδύνοις ἐν πόλει, κινδύνοις ἐν ἐρημίᾳ, κινδύνοις ἐν θαλάσσῃ, κινδύνοις ἐν ψευδαδέλφοις,
|27. New Testament, Philippians, 3.4-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 322, 549, 584, 656
| 3.4. καίπερ ἐγὼ ἔχων πεποίθησιν καὶ ἐν σαρκί. Εἴ τις δοκεῖ ἄλλος πεποιθέναι ἐν σαρκί, ἐγὼ μᾶλλον· 3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος, 3.6. κατὰ ζῆλος διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν νόμῳ γενόμενος ἄμεμπτος. 3.7. Ἀλλὰ ἅτινα ἦν μοι κέρδη, ταῦτα ἥγημαι διὰ τὸν χριστὸν ζημίαν. 3.8. ἀλλὰ μὲν οὖν γε καὶ ἡγοῦμαι πάντα ζημίαν εἶναι διὰ τὸ ὑπερέχον τῆς γνώσεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ κυρίου μου διʼ ὃν τὰ πάντα ἐζημιώθην, καὶ ἡγοῦμαι σκύβαλα ἵνα Χριστὸν κερδήσω καὶ εὑρεθῶ ἐν αὐτῷ, 3.9. μὴ ἔχων ἐμὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ νόμου ἀλλὰ τὴν διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ, τὴν ἐκ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει, 3.10. τοῦ γνῶναι αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ καὶ κοινωνίαν παθημάτων αὐτοῦ, συμμορφιζόμενος τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτοῦ, 3.11. εἴ πως καταντήσω εἰς τὴν ἐξανάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν. οὐχ ὅτι ἤδη ἔλαβον ἢ ἤδη τετελείωμαι,
| 3.4. though I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If any other man thinks that he has confidence in the flesh, I yet more: 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless. 3.7. However, what things were gain to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.
|28. New Testament, Romans, 7.2-7.4, 11.25, 16.20, 16.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389, 390, 452, 584, 596, 597
| 7.2. ἡ γὰρ ὕπανδρος γυνὴ τῷ ζῶντι ἀνδρὶ δέδεται νόμῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ἀνδρός. 7.3. ἄρα οὖν ζῶντος τοῦ ἀνδρὸς μοιχαλὶς χρηματίσει ἐὰν γένηται ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, τοῦ μὴ εἶναι αὐτὴν μοιχαλίδα γενομένην ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ. 7.4. ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐθανατώθητε τῷ νόμῳ διὰ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς ἑτέρῳ, τῷ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθέντι ἵνα καρποφορήσωμεν τῷ θεῷ. 11.25. Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ, καὶ οὕτως πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται· 16.20. ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης συντρίψει τὸν Σατανᾶν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας ὑμῶν ἐν τάχει. Ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ μεθʼ ὑμῶν. 16.22. ἀσπάζομαι ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ Τέρτιος ὁ γράψας τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ἐν κυρίῳ.
| 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.3. So then if, while the husband lives, she is joined to another man, she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in, 16.20. And the God of peace will quickly crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 16.22. I, Tertius, who write the letter, greet you in the Lord.
|29. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 6, 5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
| 5. But not to dwell upon ancient examples, let us come to the most recent spiritual heroes. Let us take the noble examples furnished in our own generation. Through envy and jealousy the greatest and most righteous pillars [of the church] have been persecuted and put to death. Let us set before our eyes the illustrious apostles. Peter, through unrighteous envy, endured not one or two, but numerous labours; and when he had at length suffered martyrdom, departed to the place of glory due to him. Owing to envy, Paul also obtained the reward of patient endurance, after being seven times thrown into captivity, compelled to flee, and stoned. After preaching both in the east and west, he gained the illustrious reputation due to his faith, having taught righteousness to the whole world, and come to the extreme limit of the west, and suffered martyrdom under the prefects. Thus was he removed from the world, and went into the holy place, having proved himself a striking example of patience.
|30. New Testament, John, 5.16, 5.18, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549, 601, 608, 619
| 5.16. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐδίωκον οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὅτι ταῦτα ἐποίει ἐν σαββάτῳ. 5.18. διὰ τοῦτο οὖν μᾶλλον ἐζήτουν αὐτὸν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀποκτεῖναι ὅτι οὐ μόνον ἔλυε τὸ σάββατον ἀλλὰ καὶ πατέρα ἴδιον ἔλεγε τὸν θεόν, ἴσον ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν τῷ θεῷ. 9.22. ταῦτα εἶπαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἐφοβοῦντο τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, ἤδη γὰρ συνετέθειντο οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα ἐάν τις αὐτὸν ὁμολογήσῃ Χριστόν, ἀποσυνάγωγος γένηται. 12.42. Ὅμως μέντοι καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς Φαρισαίους οὐχ ὡμολόγουν ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται, 16.2. ἀποσυναγώγους ποιήσουσιν ὑμᾶς· ἀλλʼ ἔρχεται ὥρα ἵνα πᾶς ὁ ἀποκτείνας [ὑμᾶς] δόξῃ λατρείαν προσφέρειν τῷ θεῷ.
| 5.16. For this cause the Jews persecuted Jesus, and sought to kill him, because he did these things on the Sabbath. 5.18. For this cause therefore the Jews sought all the more to kill him, because he not only broke the Sabbath, but also called God his own Father, making himself equal with God. 9.22. His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. 12.42. Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue, 16.2. They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God.
|31. New Testament, Luke, 1, 1.1, 1.3, 2, 2.1, 2.32, 3.1, 3.4, 6.11, 7, 7.6, 7.30, 7.36, 11.37, 11.53, 13.17, 13.31, 13.32, 13.33, 14.1, 14.6, 15.2, 16.14, 16.18, 19.12, 19.13, 19.14, 19.15, 19.16, 19.17, 19.18, 19.19, 19.20, 19.21, 19.22, 19.23, 19.24, 19.25, 19.26, 19.27, 19.47, 20.1, 20.19, 20.45-21.4, 22.2, 22.4, 23.6, 23.7, 23.8, 23.9, 23.10, 23.11, 23.12, 23.27, 23.28, 23.29, 23.30, 23.31, 23.51, 23.52, 23.66, 24.53 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 549
| 7.6. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἐπορεύετο σὺν αὐτοῖς. ἤδη δὲ αὐτοῦ οὐ μακρὰν ἀπέχοντος ἀπὸ τῆς οἰκίας ἔπεμψεν φίλους ὁ ἑκατοντάρχης λέγων αὐτῷ Κύριε, μὴ σκύλλου, οὐ γὰρ ἱκανός εἰμι ἵνα ὑπὸ τὴν στέγην μου εἰσέλθῃς·
| 7.6. Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy for you to come under my roof.
|32. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 7.9-7.13, 9.5, 10.2-10.12, 12.41-12.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 389, 549, 553, 567, 581, 584, 608, 610
| 3.6. Καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 9.5. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Ῥαββεί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωυσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἠλείᾳ μίαν. 10.2. Καὶ [προσελθόντες Φαρισαῖοι] ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν εἰ ἔξεστιν ἀνδρὶ γυναῖκα ἀπολῦσαι, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 10.3. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί ὑμῖν ἐνετείλατο Μωυσῆς; 10.4. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Ἐπέτρεψεν Μωυσῆς βιβλίον ἀποστασίου γράψαι καὶ ἀπολῦσαι. 10.5. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν ἔγραψεν ὑμῖν τὴν ἐντολὴν ταύτην· 10.6. ἀπὸ δὲ ἀρχῆς κτίσεως ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν [αὐτούς]· 10.7. ἕνεκεν τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα αὐτοῦ καὶ τὴν μητέρα, 10.8. καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν· ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ μία σάρξ· 10.9. ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω. 10.10. Καὶ εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν πάλιν οἱ μαθηταὶ περὶ τούτου ἐπηρώτων αὐτόν. 10.11. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην μοιχᾶται ἐπʼ αὐτήν, 10.12. καὶ ἐὰν αὐτὴ ἀπολύσασα τὸν ἄνδρα αὐτῆς γαμήσῃ ἄλλον μοιχᾶται. 12.41. Καὶ καθίσας κατέναντι τοῦ γαζοφυλακίου ἐθεώρει πῶς ὁ ὄχλος βάλλει χαλκὸν εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον· καὶ πολλοὶ πλούσιοι ἔβαλλον πολλά· 12.42. καὶ ἐλθοῦσα μία χήρα πτωχὴ ἔβαλεν λεπτὰ δύο, ὅ ἐστιν κοδράντης. 12.43. καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον· 12.44. πάντες γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύοντος αὐτοῖς ἔβαλον, αὕτη δὲ ἐκ τῆς ὑστερήσεως αὐτῆς πάντα ὅσα εἶχεν ἔβαλεν, ὅλον τὸν βίον αὐτῆς.
| 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this." 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 10.2. Pharisees came to him testing him, and asked him, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?" 10.3. He answered, "What did Moses command you?" 10.4. They said, "Moses allowed a certificate of divorce to be written, and to divorce her." 10.5. But Jesus said to them, "For your hardness of heart, he wrote you this commandment. 10.6. But from the beginning of the creation, 'God made them male and female. 10.7. For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will join to his wife, 10.8. and the two will become one flesh,' so that they are no longer two, but one flesh. 10.9. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate." 10.10. In the house, his disciples asked him again about the same matter. 10.11. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife, and marries another, commits adultery against her. 10.12. If a woman herself divorces her husband, and marries another, she commits adultery." 12.41. Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury. Many who were rich cast in much. 12.42. A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins, which make a quadrans. 12.43. He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, 12.44. for they all gave out of their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on."
|33. New Testament, Matthew, 5.32, 12.14, 19.1-19.9, 24.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 68, 389, 549, 596, 608
| 5.32. Ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πᾶς ὁ ἀπολύων τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνείας ποιεῖ αὐτὴν μοιχευθῆναι[, καὶ ὃς ἐὰν ἀπολελυμένην γαμήσῃ μοιχᾶται]. 12.14. Ἐξελθόντες δὲ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 19.1. Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς λόγους τούτους, μετῆρεν ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς τὰ ὅρια τῆς Ἰουδαίας πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου. 19.2. καὶ ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ ὄχλοι πολλοί, καὶ ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ. 19.3. Καὶ προσῆλθαν αὐτῷ Φαρισαῖοι πειράζοντες αὐτὸν καὶ λέγοντες Εἰ ἔξεστιν ἀπολῦσαι τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ κατὰ πᾶσαν αἰτίαν; 19.4. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ὅτι ὁ κτίσας ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτοὺς 19.5. καὶ εἶπεν Ἕνεκα τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ κολληθήσεται τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν; 19.6. ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ σὰρξ μία· ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω. 19.7. λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Τί οὖν Μωυσῆς ἐνετείλατο δοῦναι βιβλίον ἀποστασίου καὶ ἀπολῦσαι ; 19.8. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὅτι Μωυσῆς πρὸς τὴν σκληροκαρδίαν ὑμῶν ἐπέτρεψεν ὑμῖν ἀπολῦσαι τὰς γυναῖκας ὑμῶν, ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς δὲ οὐ γέγονεν οὕτως. 19.9. λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν ὅτι ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ μὴ ἐπὶ πορνείᾳ καὶ γαμήσῃ ἄλλην μοιχᾶται. 24.31. καὶ ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ μετὰ σάλπιγγος μεγάλης, καὶ ἐπισυνάξουσιν τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀπʼ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως [τῶν] ἄκρων αὺτῶν.
| 5.32. but I tell you that whoever who puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 19.1. It happened when Jesus had finished these words, he departed from Galilee, and came into the borders of Judea beyond the Jordan. 19.2. Great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there. 19.3. Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason?" 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart." 19.7. They asked him, "Why then did Moses command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her?" 19.8. He said to them, "Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. 19.9. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery." 24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other.
|34. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 2.6, 11.7, 13.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33, 598
| 2.6. "אין מעברין את השנה מפני הטומאה רבי יהודה אומר מעברין את השנה מפני הטומאה אמר רבי יהודה מעשה בחזקיה המלך שעיבר את השנה מפני הטומאה שנאמר (דברי הימים ב ל׳:י״ח) כי מרבית העם רבת מאפרים ומנשה יששכר וזבולון לא הטהרו וגו' ר\"ש אומר אם לעבר אותה מפני הטומאה כבר מעוברת היא אלא עבר ניסן בניסן ואין מעברין אלא אדר ר\"ש בן יהודה אומר משום ר\"ש אף מפני שהעשו את הצבור לעשות פסח שני אין מעברין את השנה אא\"כ היתה צריכה מעברין אותו מפני הצרכים ומפני הדרכים מפני התנורין ומפני הגליות שלא יצאו ממקומם אבל אין מעברין אותה לא מפני הצנה ולא מפני השלגים ולא מפני הגליות שעלו ועדיין לא הגיעו וכולן סעד לשנה ואם עברוה הרי זו מעוברת אין מעברין את השנה אלא ביהודה ואם עברוה בגליל הרי זו מעוברת העיד חנינא איש אונו לפני ר\"ג שאין מעברין את השנה אלא ביהודה ואם עברוה בגליל שהיא מעוברת ומעברין את השנה כל אדר שבראשונה היו אומרים אין מעברין אלא עד הפורים עד שבאו ר' יהושע ור' פפייס והעידו שכל אדר ואדר כשר לעבר רשב\"ג ור' אלעזר בן ר' צדוק אומרים אין מעברין את השנה ואין עושין כל צרכי צבור אלא על תנאי כדי שיקבלו רוב הצבור עליהם.",
|35. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 448
| 3.11. "מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה [ואין] מדלגין מנביא לנביא ובנביא של שנים עשר [מדלגין] ובלבד שלא ידלג מסוף הספר [לראשו].",
|36. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33
| 5.1. "הבוגרת [בתביעה נותנים] לה שנים עשר חודש אם היתה קטנה בין היא בין אביה יכולין לעכב ר\"ט אומר נותנין לה הכל תרומה בד\"א מן האירוסין אבל מן הנישואין מודה ר\"ט שנותנין לה מחצה חולין ומחצה תרומה במה ד\"א בבת כהן לכהן אבל בת ישראל לכהן [הכל מודים שמעלין לה כל מזונותיה מן החולין] ר' יהודה בן בתירה אומר שתי ידות תרומה ואחד חולין ר' יהודה אומר [מוכרת את התרומה ולוקחת בדמיה חולין] רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר כל מקום שהוזכרו [שם] תרומה נותנין [כפול] חולין. זו משנה ראשונה רבותינו אמרו אין האשה אוכלת בתרומה עד שתכנס לחופה והיבמה עד שתבעל ואם מתה בעלה יורשה אמר ר' מנחם בן נפח [משם] ר' אליעזר הקפר מעשה בר' טרפון שקדש ג' מאות נשים להאכילן בתרומה שהיו שני בצורת וכבר שלח יוחנן בן בג בג אצל ר' יהודה בן בתירה לנציבים אמר לו שמעתי עליך שאתה אומר בת ישראל המאורסת לכהן אוכלת בתרומה שלח לו [ואמר לו] מוחזק הייתי בך שאתה בקי בחדרי תורה לדון קל וחומר אי אתה יודע ומה שפחה כנענית שאין ביאתה קונה אותה לאכול בתרומה [כסף] קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה בת ישראל שהביאה קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה אינו דין שיהא כסף קונה אותה להאכילה בתרומה אבל מה אעשה שהרי אמרו חכמים אין ארוסה בת ישראל אוכלת בתרומה עד שתכנס לחופה [אם] מתה בעלה יורשה.",
| 5.1. "The adult woman is like (sic!) one claimed—they give her 12 months. If she were a minor, either she or her father is able to delay [the marriage until she is of majority age]. Rabbi Tarfon says: They give her everything terumah [if she is claimed by a priest and the time limit of 12 months is up and they are still not married, she eats entirely terumah]. When does this apply? From betrothal [i.e. when the claiming 12 months is up, she is betrothed but still not married], but from marriage, Rabbi Tarfon agrees that they give her half hullin and half terumah. When does this apply? With a kohen's daughter [married to a] kohen, but an Israelite's daughter to a kohen, everyone agrees they raise all of her food from hullin. Rabbi Yehudah ben Betera says: Two parts terumah and one hullin. Rabbi Yehudah says: She should sell the terumah and buy with its value hullin. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Any place where they [the sages] mention \"terumah\", he gives double hullin. This was the original mishnah. Our rabbis said: A wife who is an Israelite's daughter doesn't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber, and a yevamah doesn't [eat terumah] until she has sex [with her levir]. If her husband dies [after the time of claiming has passed], he inherits her. Said Rabbi Menahem ben Nafah in the name of Rabbi Liezer Ha-Kappar: A case, that Rabbi Tarfon who betrothed 300 wives for them to eat terumah, for they were years of famine. But Yoha ben Bagbag already sent to Rabbi Yehudah ben Beterah to Netzivin, he said to him: I heard about you that you say a betrothed Israelite's daughter betrothed to a kohen can eat terumah. He replied to him and said to him: I had assumed that you were an expert in the chambers of Torah, but you don't know how to do a kal va-homer! Just as a Canaanite slavegirl, whose sex [with a kohen] does not acquire her to allow her to eat terumah, isn't it logical that money would acquire her to eat terumah!? But what can I do? For the Hakhamim said: A betrothed Israelite's daughter can't eat terumah until she enters the bridal chamber. If she dies, her father inherits her.",
|37. Tosefta, Hulin, 2.19-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 601
|38. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
|39. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
| 3.17. Ὁ ἀσπασμὸς τῇ ἐμῇ χειρὶ Παύλου, ὅ ἐστιν σημεῖον ἐν πάσῃ ἐπιστολῇ· οὕτως γράφω.
| 3.17. The greeting of me, Paul, with my own hand, which is the sign in every letter: this is how I write.
|40. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 117 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33
|41. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 611
|42. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 18.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 68
| 18.5. עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ (בראשית ב, כד), תַּנְיָא גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּיר וְהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַאֲחוֹתוֹ בֵּין מִן הָאָב בֵּין מִן הָאֵם, יוֹצִיא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים מִן הָאֵם יוֹצִיא מִן הָאָב יְקַיֵּם, שֶׁאֵין אָב לְעוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים. אֲתִיבוּן לֵיהּ וְהָא כְתִיב (בראשית כ, יב): וְגַם אָמְנָה אֲחֹתִי בַת אָבִי הִיא וגו', אָמַר לָהֶן בְּשִׁיטָתָן הֵשִׁיבָן. אֲתֵיב לְהוֹן רַבִּי מֵאִיר עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ אֶת אָבִיו וְאֶת אִמּוֹ הַסָּמוּךְ לְאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לְאִמּוֹ. אֲתֵיב רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְהָכְתִיב (שמות ו, כ): וַיִּקַּח עַמְרָם אֶת יוֹכֶבֶד דֹּדָתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ מֵעַתָּה אֲפִלּוּ כִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא הָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל נוֹהֲגִים קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי וּפָשְׁטוּ לֵיהּ עַל כֵּן יַעֲזָב אִישׁ וגו', הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאָבִיו הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ מֵאִמּוֹ. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר בְּנֵי נֹחַ עַל הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת חַיָּבִין וְעַל הָאֲרוּסוֹת פְּטוּרִין. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל אָמַר זוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת בַּשּׁוּק וּבָאוּ עָלֶיהָ שְׁנַיִם, הָרִאשׁוֹן פָּטוּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי חַיָּב מִשּׁוּם בְּעוּלַת בַּעַל, וְכִי נִתְכַּוֵּן הָרִאשׁוֹן לִקְנוֹתָהּ בִּבְעִילָה, הָדָא אֲמַר בְּעִילָה בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ קוֹנֶה שֶׁלֹא כַּדָּת. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן וְרַבִּי חָנִין בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם גֵּרוּשִׁין אוֹ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מְגָרְשִׁין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אִשְׁתּוֹ מְגָרַשְׁתּוֹ וְנוֹתֶנֶת לוֹ דּוֹפוֹרוֹן. תָּנֵי רַבִּי חִיָּא עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁגֵּרַשׁ אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָלְכָה וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְאַחֵר וְהָלְכוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם וְנִתְגַיְּרוּ, אֵינִי קוֹרֵא עָלָיו (דברים כד, ד): לֹא יוּכַל בַּעֲלָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן אֲשֶׁר שִׁלְחָהּ וגו', רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר פָּפָּא אָמַר בְּכָל סֵפֶר מַלְאָכִי כְּתִיב ה' צְבָאוֹת, וּבְכָאן כְּתִיב אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלאכי ב, טז): כִּי שָׂנֵא שַׁלַּח אָמַר ה' אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, כִּבְיָכוֹל לֹא יָחוּל שְׁמוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּלְבָד. אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַגּוֹלָה, נִתְפַּחֲמוּ פְּנֵי הַנָּשִׁים מִן הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנִּיחוּ אוֹתָן וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם וְנָשְׂאוּ נָשִׁים עֲמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְהָיוּ מַקִּיפוֹת אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּבוֹכוֹת, הוּא שֶׁמַּלְאָכִי אוֹמֵר (מלאכי ב, יג): וְזֹאת שֵׁנִית תַּעֲשׂוּ, שְׁנִיָּה לְשִׁטִּים. (מלאכי ב, יג): כַּסּוֹת דִּמְעָה אֶת מִזְבַּח ה' בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַאן קַבֵּל מֵהֶם, בְּכִי וַאֲנָקָה, מִשֶּׁגָּזַלְתָּ וְחָמַסְתָּ וְנָטַלְתָּ יָפְיָהּ מִמֶּנָּהּ אַתָּה מְשַׁלְּחָהּ, אֶתְמְהָא. וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁהֵן מֻזְהָרִין עַל גִּלּוּי עֲרָיוֹת כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ, וְלֹא בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ, וְלֹא בְּזָכוּר, וְלֹא בִּבְהֵמָה. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל וְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אָמְרוּ בֶּן נֹחַ שֶׁבָּא עַל אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁלֹא כְּדַרְכָּהּ חַיָּב מִיתָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַסֵּי כָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁכָּתוּב בִּבְנֵי נֹחַ לֹא בַּעֲשֵׂה, וְלֹא בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, אֶלָּא בְּמִיתָה, וְהֵיאַךְ עֲבִידָא (בראשית ב, כד): וְדָבַק בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ וְהָיוּ לְבָשָׂר אֶחָד לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹשִׂים בָּשָׂר אֶחָד.
| 18.5. "\"Therefore a man will abandon.\" It was taught: a convert that converted and was married to his sister, whether from the mother or the father - it is acceptable, according to Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: from the mother it is acceptable, from the father, it must be established that he does not worship idols. A refutation arose: does it not say: \"And moreover, she is my sister, the daughter of my father...\" (Genesis 20:12)! He said to them: reply to them by their own reasoning. Rabbi Meir refuted: \"Therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" (Genesis 2:24). Rabbi Yocha said: they explained this verse \"therefore a man will abandon his father and his mother\" the one who supports his father, the one who supports his mother. Rabbi Abahu refuted: does it not say: \"And Amram took Yocheved his cousin\" (Exodus 6:20)! Rabbi Shimon the son of Rabbi Abahu said: from here would we learn that at the time of the children of Noah, Israel acted differently, before the giving of the Torah!? Rabbi Levi said: we explain the verse \"therefore a man will abandon...\" the one who is supported by his father, or by his mother. Rabbi Abahu in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: the children of Noah, in matters of marriage are obligated, in matters of engagement are not. Rabbi Yonah in the name of Rabbi Shmuel said: if a whore is in the marketplace, and two men come to her, the first is exempt and the second is liable, because he was sleeping with a married woman. Did the first one intend to acquire her [as a wife]?! It is said: intercourse at the time of the children of Noah acquires, even not in the way of [later] Judaism. And how do we know that they did not divorce? Rabbi Yehuda in the name of Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Chanin in the name of Rabbi Yocha said: they did not divorce, or they both divorced each other. Rabbi Yocha said: his wife divorced him and gave him a bill of divorce. Rabbi Hiyya taught: an idol-worshipper that divorced his wife, and she went and married someone else, and then they both went and converted to Judaism, I do not apply to them the verse \"The first husband that sent her away cannot...\" (Deuteronomy 24:4). Rabbi Aha in the name of Rabbi Hanina bar Pappa said: in the whole book of Malachi it is written 'Hashem, Lord of Hosts' but here it is written 'the God of Israel' as it says: \"For I hate sending away, said Hashem, God of Israel\" (Malachi 2:16) - as if to say, God's name only rests on Israel. Rabbi Haggai said: When Israel was exiled, the women's faces were blackened from the sun, and they were left and the men went and married Amonite women. They went and circled the altar, crying, as Malachi says: \"And this do a second time\" (Malachi 2:13) - a second time in relation to Shittim. \"Cover with tears the altar of Hashem with wailing and sighing\" (ibid.), the Holy One Blessed be He said: who will accept these tears and wailing, since you stole and did violence to and took it's beauty from her, now you will send her away? And how do we know that they were fastidious about sexual impropriety like Israel? As it says: \"And he cleaved to his wife\" (Genesis 2:24) and not the wife of his friend, or another man, or an animal. Rabbi Shmuel and Rabbi Abahu and Rabbi Eleazar in the name of Rabbi Hanina said: a child of Noah who comes to his wife unnaturally is liable for the death penalty. Rabbi Assi said: every crime written about the children of Noah is not judged on the metric of positive and negative commandments; rather, they all require the death penalty. How do we know this? \"And he cleaved to his wife and they became as one flesh\" (ibid.).",
|43. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 2.25.5-2.25.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 584
| 2.25.5. Thus publicly announcing himself as the first among God's chief enemies, he was led on to the slaughter of the apostles. It is, therefore, recorded that Paul was beheaded in Rome itself, and that Peter likewise was crucified under Nero. This account of Peter and Paul is substantiated by the fact that their names are preserved in the cemeteries of that place even to the present day. 2.25.6. It is confirmed likewise by Caius, a member of the Church, who arose under Zephyrinus, bishop of Rome. He, in a published disputation with Proclus, the leader of the Phrygian heresy, speaks as follows concerning the places where the sacred corpses of the aforesaid apostles are laid: 2.25.7. But I can show the trophies of the apostles. For if you will go to the Vatican or to the Ostian way, you will find the trophies of those who laid the foundations of this church. 2.25.8. And that they both suffered martyrdom at the same time is stated by Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, in his epistle to the Romans, in the following words: You have thus by such an admonition bound together the planting of Peter and of Paul at Rome and Corinth. For both of them planted and likewise taught us in our Corinth. And they taught together in like manner in Italy, and suffered martyrdom at the same time. I have quoted these things in order that the truth of the history might be still more confirmed.
|44. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 611
| 114a. דבר טלי וטליא וליטיילו התם דאי משכחי להו מייתי להו אלמא קסבר קטן אוכל נבלות אין ב"ד מצווין להפרישו לימא מסייע ליה לא יאמר אדם לתינוק הבא לי מפתח הבא לי חותם אלא מניחו תולש מניחו זורק,אמר אביי תולש בעציץ שאינו נקוב זורק בכרמלית דרבנן:,ת"ש עובד כוכבים שבא לכבות אין אומרים לו כבה ואל תכבה מפני שאין שביתתו עליהם קטן הבא לכבות אומרים לו אל תכבה ששביתתו עליהם,א"ר יוחנן בעושה על דעת אביו דכוותיה גבי עובד כוכבים דעושה על דעת ישראל מי שרי עובד כוכבים אדעתא דנפשיה עביד,ת"ש בן חבר שרגיל לילך אצל אבי אמו עם הארץ אין חוששין שמא יאכילנו דברים שאינם מתוקנים מצא בידו פירות אין זקוק לו אמר רבי יוחנן בדמאי הקילו,אלא טעמא דדמאי הא ודאי בעא לעשורי והאמר ר' יוחנן בעושה על דעת אביו אלא רבי יוחנן ספוקי מספקא ליה קאי הכא מדחי קאי הכא מדחי,ת"ש בן חבר כהן שרגיל לילך אצל אבי אמו כהן עם הארץ אין חוששין שמא יאכילנו תרומה טמאה מצא בידו פירות אין זקוק לו בתרומה דרבנן,תא שמע יונק תינוק והולך מעובדת כוכבים ומבהמה טמאה ואין חוששין ביונק שקץ ולא יאכילנו נבלות וטרפות שקצים ורמשים ומכולן יונק מהם ואפילו בשבת ובגדול אסור אבא שאול אומר נוהגין היינו שיונקים מבהמה טהורה ביום טוב,קתני מיהא אין חוששין ביונק שקץ התם משום סכנה אי הכי גדול נמי,גדול בעי אומדנא קטן נמי ליבעי אומדנא אמר רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע סתם תינוק מסוכן אצל חלב:,אבא שאול אומר נוהגין היינו שיונקים מבהמה טהורה ביום טוב: היכי דמי אי דאיכא סכנה אפילו בשבת נמי ואי דליכא סכנה אפילו ביום טוב אסור לא צריכא דאיכא צערא,וקסבר מפרק כלאחר יד הוא שבת דאיסור סקילה גזרו רבנן יו"ט דאיסור לאו לא גזרו ביה רבנן,ת"ש (ויקרא יא, מב) לא תאכלום כי שקץ הם לא תאכילום להזהיר הגדולים על הקטנים מאי לאו דאמר להו לא תאכלו לא דלא ליספו ליה בידים,תא שמע (ויקרא יז, יב) כל נפש מכם לא תאכל דם להזהיר הגדולים על הקטנים מאי לאו דאמרי להו לא תאכלו לא דלא ליספו להו בידים,ת"ש (ויקרא כא, א) אמור ואמרת להזהיר גדולים על הקטנים מאי לאו דאמר להו לא תיטמו לא דלא ליטמו להו בידים,וצריכי דאי אשמעינן שקצים
| 114a. b and lead boys and girls and let them walk there /b where the keys were lost, b and if they find the keys they will bring them /b to you of their own accord, without you saying anything to them. The Gemara comments: b Apparently, /b Rabbi Pedat b maintains /b that with regard to b a minor /b who b eats /b meat from b unslaughtered animals /b or violates other prohibitions, b the court is not commanded to prevent him /b from doing so. The Gemara comments: b Let us say that /b the following source b supports his /b opinion: b A person may not tell a child /b on Shabbat: b Bring me a key, or: Bring me /b my b seal /b from the public domain. b However, he may allow /b the child to b detach /b plants and b allow him /b to b throw /b in the public domain. This shows that one need not be strict with a child who transgresses a prohibition, but one may not tell a child to transgress a prohibition.,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: b Abaye said /b that this is no proof, as it is possible that b detaching /b plants is referring b to an unperforated flowerpot, /b as the prohibition against detaching plants from a vessel of this kind applies by rabbinic law. Similar, when it states: b Throw, /b this can be referring to throwing b in a i karmelit /i /b rather than the public domain. A i karmelit /i is an intermediate domain between public and private domains, which has the status of a public domain b by rabbinic /b law. However, perhaps one is obligated to stop the child if he is transgressing a Torah prohibition.,The Gemara further suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b the following statement ( i Shabbat /i 121a): If b a gentile comes to extinguish /b a Jew’s fire on Shabbat, b one may not say to him: Extinguish, or: Do not extinguish, because /b responsibility for b his rest is not /b incumbent b upon /b the Jew. However, if a Jewish b child comes to extinguish /b a fire on Shabbat, b they do say to him: Do not extinguish, /b despite the fact that he is not yet obligated in mitzva observance, b because /b responsibility for b his rest is /b incumbent b upon /b the Jew. This shows that one must prevent a minor from violating a Torah prohibition., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b This is referring b to /b a minor b who is acting with his father’s consent. /b Even if the father did not tell him explicitly what to do, the child is aware of his father’s wishes, and acts on his behalf. The Gemara asks: The b same /b reasoning can be applied b with regard to a gentile, that he acts with the Jew’s consent, /b and yet in this case b is it permitted /b for him to perform labor on behalf of a Jew? The Gemara answers: b A gentile acts in accordance with his /b own wishes. As an adult he is responsible for his own decisions and is not considered to be following the instructions of others., b Come /b and b hear: The son of a i ḥaver /i , /b one who is devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, especially the i halakhot /i of ritual purity, i teruma /i , and tithes, b is accustomed to going to his mother’s father, /b who is b an ignoramus /b and therefore is not known to be as careful to separate i teruma /i and tithes. In this case, the son need b not /b be b concerned lest /b his grandfather b feed him /b food b items that are not tithed. /b If the father b found fruit in /b the child’s b hand, /b and he does not know where the fruit is from, b he is not bound /b to separate tithes from the fruit. This indicates that one need not prevent a minor from eating forbidden food. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b The Sages b were lenient with regard to doubtfully tithed produce [ i demai /i ]. /b Since the prohibition against eating this produce applies only due to doubt, and most ignoramuses do separate tithes, the Sages were lenient in uncertain cases of this kind.,The Gemara infers: b Rather, /b the b reason /b that the Sages were lenient is b that /b it is b i demai /i , /b from which it may be inferred that b if it was definitely /b untithed, the father would be b required to tithe /b the fruit. b But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa /b himself b say that /b one need stop a minor only b when he is acting with his father’s consent? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa is uncertain /b with regard to this i halakha /i , and therefore b in this case he refutes /b it, and b in that case he refutes it. /b In other words, he reached no definite conclusion about this matter, and therefore he treats each case on its own merits., b Come /b and b hear: /b With regard to b the son of a i ḥaver /i priest who is accustomed to going to his mother’s father, a priest /b who is also b an ignoramus, one /b need b not /b be b concerned lest /b his grandfather b feed him ritually impure i teruma /i . /b If the father b found fruit in /b the child’s b hand, he is not bound /b to take it from him. This shows that even when the concern involves ritually impure i teruma /i , which is a Torah prohibition, one is not required to ensure that a minor does not sin. The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof, as this is referring b to i teruma /i /b that is separated b by rabbinic /b law, not a doubt concerning a Torah prohibition., b Come /b and b hear: A child may regularly suckle from a gentile woman; and /b a child may suckle from b a non-kosher animal. And /b in both cases b one /b need b not /b be b concerned that he /b might be considered one who b suckles from a detestable creature. But one may not feed /b a child unslaughtered b animal carcasses, or animals with wounds that will cause the animals to die within twelve months [ i tereifot /i ], /b or b repugt creatures, or creeping animals. /b A child b may suckle from all these, /b including the non-kosher creatures, b even on Shabbat, but /b in the case b of an adult, /b it is b prohibited /b for him to suckle on Shabbat even from a kosher animal. b Abba Shaul says: We were accustomed to suckle from a kosher animal on a Festival, /b rather than milk it by hand, in the usual way., b In any event, /b this i tanna /i b teaches /b that b one /b need b not /b be b concerned that he /b might be considered one who b suckles from a detestable creature, /b which indicates that a child may be left to eat forbidden food. The Gemara rejects this: b There, /b permission is granted b due to a danger, /b because a child must eat. The Gemara asks: b If so, /b it should b also /b be permitted for b an adult, /b as saving a human life supersedes these prohibitions.,The Gemara answers: b An adult requires consultation, /b i.e., doctors or other experts must examine him and establish that he is dangerously ill. The Gemara retorts: b A minor should also require consultation /b as to whether he is in danger. b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: /b There is no need for a special consultation, as in an b unspecified /b case b a child is in danger with regard to milk. /b It can be assumed that a child needs milk, and if he does not get it, he will be in danger.,The Gemara analyzes the last opinion in the above i baraita /i . b Abba Shaul says: We were accustomed to suckle from a kosher animal on a Festival. /b The Gemara inquires: b What are the circumstances? If there is /b imminent b danger /b to a person, b even on Shabbat /b it should b also /b be permitted. b And if there is no danger, even on a Festival /b it should be b prohibited. /b The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is b necessary /b in a case b where there is suffering, /b i.e., they suffer from thirst but no danger is involved.,The Gemara explains: b And /b Abba Shaul b holds /b that sucking directly from an animal b is /b considered the prohibited labor of b extracting /b performed b in an unusual manner. /b It is prohibited to remove food from a source that is not fit for consumption. However, in this case he does not do so in the usual way of milking, but by sucking, and therefore it is prohibited by rabbinic law. Consequently, on b Shabbat, when /b it is b a prohibition /b punishable by b stoning, the Sages issued a decree /b in this case, even if the milking is done in an unusual manner. Conversely, with regard to b a Festival, when /b labor is a b negative prohibition /b that is not punishable by stoning, b the Sages did not issue a decree /b in a situation that involves suffering. In any case, this source offers no proof with respect to how to treat a child who transgresses., b Come /b and b hear: /b The verse states, with regard to creeping animals and other non-kosher animals: b “You shall not eat them [ i tokhlum /i ] for they are a detestable thing” /b (Leviticus 11:42). The Sages interpret this verse as though it said b i ta’akhilum /i , do not feed them /b to others. The verse comes b to warn adults concerning minors, /b i.e., not only is it prohibited for adults to eat these items themselves, they may also not feed them to minors. b What, is it not /b the case b that /b this means adults must b say to /b children: b Do not eat, /b and prevent them from transgressing? The Gemara rejects this explanation: b No, /b it means b that /b an adult b may not feed /b the minor non-kosher food directly b by /b direct b action, /b but this does not prove that one must stop a child from eating non-kosher food of his own accord., b Come /b and b hear, /b as the verse states: b “No soul of you shall eat blood” /b (Leviticus 17:12). This serves b to warn adults concerning minors. What, is it not /b the case b that /b this means adults must b say to /b children: b Do not eat blood? /b The Gemara responds: b No, /b here, too, it means b that /b an adult may not feed minors b by /b direct b action. /b , b Come /b and b hear, /b as the verse states: b “Speak /b to the priests, the sons of Aaron, b and say /b to them: None shall become impure for the dead among his people” (Leviticus 21:1). This reiteration of “speak” and “and say” comes b to warn adults concerning minors. What, is it not /b the case b that /b this means adults must b say to /b children: b Do not become impure? /b The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b it is possible to interpret b that /b an adult should b not render /b children b impure by /b direct b action. /b ,The Gemara adds: And all these three cases b are necessary, /b despite the fact that they apparently teach the same i halakha /i , i.e., that adults may not feed minors forbidden food. b As, /b had the i tanna /i b taught us /b only the case of b repugt creatures, /b
|45. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33
| 11b. תקיפאי קדמאי לעינוותני בתראי,דתניא מעשה ברבן גמליאל שהיה יושב על גב מעלה בהר הבית והיה יוחנן סופר הלז עומד לפניו ושלש איגרות חתוכות לפניו מונחות,אמר לו טול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני גלילאה עילאה ולאחנא בני גלילאה תתאה שלומכון יסגא מהודעין אנחנא לכון דזמן ביעורא מטא לאפרושי מעשרא ממעטנא דזיתא וטול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני דרומא שלומכון יסגא מהודעין אנחנא לכון דזמן ביעורא מטא לאפרושי מעשרא מעומרי שיבליא,וטול איגרתא חדא וכתוב לאחנא בני גלוותא בבבל ולאחנא דבמדי ולשאר כל גלוותא דישראל שלומכון יסגא לעלם מהודעין אנחנא לכון דגוזליא רכיכין ואימריא ערקין וזמנא דאביבא לא מטא ושפרא מילתא באנפאי ובאנפי חביריי ואוסיפית על שתא דא יומין תלתין דילמא בתר דעברוהו:,תנו רבנן על שלשה דברים מעברין את השנה על האביב ועל פירות האילן ועל התקופה על שנים מהן מעברין ועל אחד מהן אין מעברין,ובזמן שאביב אחד מהן הכל שמחין רבי שמעון בן גמליאל אומר על התקופה איבעיא להו על התקופה שמחין או על התקופה מעברין תיקו:,ת"ר על שלשה ארצות מעברין את השנה יהודה ועבר הירדן והגליל על שתים מהן מעברין ועל אחת מהן אין מעברין ובזמן שיהודה אחת מהן הכל שמחין שאין עומר בא אלא מיהודה,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנים אלא ביהודה ואם עיברוה בגליל מעוברת העיד חנניה איש אונו אם עיברוה בגליל אינה מעוברת א"ר יהודה בריה דרבי שמעון בן פזי מאי טעמא דחנניה איש אונו אמר קרא (דברים יב, ה) לשכנו תדרשו ובאת שמה כל דרישה שאתה דורש לא יהיו אלא בשכנו של מקום,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה אלא ביום ואם עיברוה בלילה אינה מעוברת ואין מקדשין את החדש אלא ביום ואם קידשוהו בלילה אינו מקודש א"ר אבא מאי קרא (תהלים פא, ד) תקעו בחדש שופר בכסה ליום חגנו איזהו חג שהחדש מתכסה בו הוי אומר זה ראש השנה וכתיב כי חוק לישראל הוא משפט לאלהי יעקב מה משפט ביום אף קידוש החדש ביום,ת"ר אין מעברין את השנה
| 11b. b the earlier, stern /b authorities b and the later, humble /b authorities, for although Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel was known as particularly humble, his proclamation was written with less modesty than that of his father, Rabban Gamliel, who was known to be particularly stern., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:6): There was b an incident involving Rabban Gamliel, who was sitting on a step on the Temple Mount, and Yoḥa, that scribe, was standing before him, and three /b blank b documents cut /b from parchment and ready for writing b were set before him. /b ,Rabban Gamliel b said to /b the scribe: b Take one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the Upper Galilee, and to our brothers, the people of the Lower Galilee, may your peace increase. We are informing you that the time has come /b for b eradication /b of tithes that had been separated from produce but not yet given to their designated recipients, as is to be done in the fourth and seventh years of the Sabbatical-Year cycle, b to separate the tithe from the vat of olives, /b because most of the local olives were grown in the Galilee. Rabban Gamliel continued, instructing the scribe: b And take one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the South, /b meaning the area of Judea and its environs, b may your peace increase. We are informing you that the time has come /b for b eradication, to separate the tithe from the mounds of stalks /b of grains, because most of the local grain was grown in the Judea region.,Rabban Gamliel continued to instruct the scribe: b And take one document, and write: To our brothers, the people of the Diaspora in Babylonia, and to our brothers who are in Medea, and to the rest of the entire Jewish Diaspora, may your peace increase forever. We are informing you that the fledglings are tender, and the lambs are thin, and time for the spring has not come. And /b consequently, b the matter is good before me and before my colleagues, /b i.e., in our estimation, b and I have /b consequently b added thirty days to this year. /b The third letter indicates that evidently Rabban Gamliel included others in his decision. The Gemara rejects this, and explains: b Perhaps /b this incident occurred b after they deposed /b Rabban Gamliel from his position as i Nasi /i . When he was reinstated, he shared his office with Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. Therefore, he wrote the decision in the name of his colleagues as well.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:2): The court b may intercalate the year for three matters: For the ripening of the grain, /b if it is not yet time for the barley to ripen; b for the fruit of the trees, /b if they have not yet ripened; b and for the equinox, /b i.e., to ensure that the autumnal equinox will precede i Sukkot /i . If b two of /b these concerns apply, the court b intercalates /b the year even if the third factor does not apply; b but for /b only b one of them /b the court b does not intercalate /b the year.,The i baraita /i continues: b And when the ripening of the grain /b is b one of the concerns, everyone is happy. /b Since the grain is not yet ripe, the people do not mind waiting an extra month for Nisan. If the grain is already ripe, however, the extra month would simply prolong the period during which the grain may not be eaten due to the prohibition of the new crop, as the new crop may be harvested and eaten only after the sacrifice of the i omer /i offering on the sixteenth of Nisan (see Leviticus 23:14). b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the equinox. /b The Gemara seeks to clarify this statement: b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages. When he said: b For the equinox, /b did he mean this is the reason that everyone is b happy, or /b did he mean that only b for the equinox /b may the court b intercalate /b the year? The dilemma b shall stand /b unresolved., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:2): The court b may intercalate the year for three /b regional b lands /b of Eretz Yisrael, meaning that the court considers the agricultural situation in three regions: b Judea, and Transjordan, and the Galilee. /b If there is a concern b about two of them, /b the court b intercalates /b the year even if the third region does not need it, b but /b if there is a concern b about /b only b one of them /b the court b does not intercalate /b the year. b And when Judea is one of them, everyone is happy, because the i omer /i /b offering b comes only from Judea. /b If the court therefore ensures that the crops in Judea ripen just before the i omer /i is brought, the crops will certainly be ripe in the other regions as well, and there will be no complications with the prohibition of the new crop.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:2): The court b may intercalate the years only /b when located b in Judea. And if they intercalated it /b when located b in the Galilee, /b the year is nevertheless b intercalated. Ḥaya of Ono testified: /b Even b if /b the court already formally b intercalated /b the year when located b in the Galilee, it is not intercalated. Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, says: What is the reasoning of Ḥaya of Ono? The verse states: /b “But to the place that the Lord your God shall choose out of all your tribes to put His name there, b to His abode shall you seek, and there you shall come” /b (Deuteronomy 12:5). This is interpreted as: b Every pursuit that you shall pursue /b in the area of i halakha /i b must be only in the abode of the Omnipresent, /b in close proximity to Jerusalem, i.e., in Judea., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:7): The court b may intercalate the year only during the day; and if /b the court b intercalated it at night, it is not intercalated. And /b the court b may sanctify the month only during the day; and if /b the court b sanctified it at night, it is not sanctified. Rav Abba says: What is the verse /b from which this i halakha /i is derived? b “Sound the shofar at the New Moon, at the concealed time for our Festival day” /b (Psalms 81:4). On b which Festival is the new moon concealed? You must say it is Rosh HaShana, /b which occurs on the first of the month, before the moon is visible, whereas the moon is visible during the other Festivals, which occur later in the month. b And it is written /b in the next verse: b “For it is a statute for Israel, a judgment of the God of Jacob” /b (Psalms 81:5). b Just as /b all civil b judgment is /b done b during the day, so too is /b the sanctification of Rosh HaShana, and b the sanctification of the month /b in general, done b during the day. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 2:5): The court b does not intercalate the year /b
|46. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 33
| 11b. והרי טענה דכתיב (שמות כב, ו) כי יתן איש אל רעהו כסף או כלים לשמור ותנן שבועת הדיינין הטענה שתי כסף וההודאה שוה פרוטה,התם דומיא דכלים מה כלים שנים אף כסף שנים ומה כסף דבר חשוב אף כלים דבר חשוב,והרי מעשר דכתיב (דברים יד, כה) וצרת הכסף בידך ותנן הפורט סלע ממעות מעשר שני כסף הכסף ריבה,והרי הקדש דכתיב ונתן הכסף וקם לו ואמר שמואל הקדש שוה מנה שחיללו על שוה פרוטה מחולל התם נמי כסף כסף יליף ממעשר,והרי קידושי אשה דכתיב (דברים כד, א) כי יקח איש אשה ובעלה וגמר קיחה (בראשית כג, יג) קיחה משדה עפרון ותנן בית הלל אומרים בפרוטה ובשוה פרוטה נימא רב אסי דאמר כבית שמאי,אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי כל כסף קצוב האמור בתורה כסף צורי ושל דבריהם כסף מדינה,מאי קמ"ל תנינא חמש סלעים של בן שלשים של עבד חמשים של אונס ושל מפתה מאה של מוציא שם רע כולם בשקל הקודש במנה צורי,ושל דבריהם כסף מדינה איצטריכא ליה דלא תנן דתניא התוקע לחבירו נותן לו סלע ולא תימא מאי סלע ארבע זוזי אלא מאי סלע פלגא דזוזא דעבידי אינשי דקרו לפלגא דזוזא איסתירא,רבי שמעון בן לקיש אומר טעמייהו דבית שמאי כדחזקיה דאמר חזקיה אמר קרא (שמות כא, ח) והפדה מלמד שמגרעת מפדיונה ויוצאה,אי אמרת בשלמא דיהב לה דינר היינו דמגרעה ואזלה עד פרוטה אלא אי אמרת דיהב לה פרוטה מפרוטה מי מגרעה ודלמא ה"ק רחמנא היכא דיהב לה דינר תיגרע עד פרוטה היכא דיהב לה פרוטה לא תיגרע כלל
| 11b. b But /b with regard to b a claim that /b someone has not returned a deposit or loan, when the defendant admits that only part of the claim is true, b it is written: “If a man deliver to his neighbor money or vessels to guard /b and it be stolen out of the man’s house” (Exodus 22:6). The following verses teach that if the thief is not found, the case is brought to a court, where the defendant must take an oath. b And we learned /b in a mishna with regard to one who admits to part of a claim ( i Shevuot /i 38b): b The oath /b administered b by the judges /b to one who admits to part of a claim is administered only when b the claim /b is for at least b two silver /b i ma’a /i , b and the /b defendant’s b admission /b is to at least b the value of one i peruta /i . /b If every sum of money mentioned in the Torah is referring to Tyrian coinage, how did the Sages arrive at the amount of two i ma’a /i in this case?,The Gemara explains: b There, /b the i halakha /i is derived from a juxtaposition, as the “money” mentioned in the verse is b similar to “vessels”: Just as /b the word b “vessels” /b indicates at least b two, so too “money” /b is referring to at least b two /b coins. b And just as money is a significant item, so too /b the b vessels /b must be b a significant item. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b there is the case of the redemption of second b tithe, as it is written: “And bind up the money in your hand” /b (Deuteronomy 14:25). b And /b yet b we learned /b in a mishna ( i Ma’aser Sheni /i 2:8): With regard to b one who exchanges /b copper coins b of second-tithe money /b for b a i sela /i , /b Beit Shammai say: He may exchange the copper coins for the entire silver i sela /i . This mishna indicates that second-tithe money, mentioned in the Torah, can be in the form of copper coins, and it is not required to be in the form of silver coins. The Gemara explains that the verse does not say b money, /b but b “the money.” /b The addition of the article b serves as an amplification. /b In other words, this addition teaches that second-tithe money can be in any coinage, including copper coins.,The Gemara asks: b But /b there is the case of b consecrated /b property, b as it is written: “And he will give the money and it will be assured to him” /b (see Leviticus 27:19). b And Shmuel says: /b With regard to b consecrated /b property b worth one hundred dinars, which was redeemed for /b an item b worth one i peruta /i , it is redeemed. /b Although the word “money” is stated in the Torah, a copper i peruta /i may be used. The Gemara answers: b There too, /b there is a reason for this unusual i halakha /i , as b he derives /b this ruling from a verbal analogy of the terms b “money” /b mentioned here and b “money” from tithes. /b Consequently, one may use any type of coin in this case as well.,The Gemara asks: b But /b there is the case of b the betrothal of a woman, as it is written: “When a man takes a woman and engages in sexual intercourse with her” /b (Deuteronomy 24:1), b and one derives /b betrothal through money by a verbal analogy of the term b “taking” /b used here and b “taking” from /b the case of b the field of Ephron. And /b yet b we learned /b in the mishna that b Beit Hillel say /b one can betroth a woman b with one i peruta /i or with /b any item that is b worth one i peruta /i . /b If so, b shall we say /b that b Rav Asi, /b who claims that all sums of money mentioned in the Torah are in Tyrian coinage, b stated /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Beit Shammai? /b , b Rather, /b the Gemara suggests an alternative explanation: b If /b this b was stated, /b it b was stated like this: Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav Asi says: Every set /b amount of b money stated in the Torah, /b i.e., when a specific amount is mentioned, is referring to b Tyrian coinage, and /b any amount of money set b by rabbinic law /b is in b provincial coinage. /b ,The Gemara asks: If so, b what is /b Rav Asi b teaching us? /b We have already b learned /b all of these i halakhot /i explicitly ( i Bekhorot /i 49b): The payment of b five i sela /i for /b the redemption of a firstborn b son /b (Numbers 18:16);the payment of b thirty /b i sela /i b for a slave, /b paid by the owner of the ox that killed the slave (Exodus 21:32); the b fifty /b i sela /i paid b by a rapist and by a seducer /b (Deuteronomy 22:29); the b one hundred /b i sela /i paid b by a defamer /b (Deuteronomy 22:19); b all of these are /b paid b in the sacred shekel, /b which is b one hundred dinars in Tyrian /b coinage. All of the cases in which a defined amount is mentioned by the Torah have already been taught, and it is unclear what Rav Asi adds.,The Gemara answers: b It was necessary for /b Rav Asi to teach: b And /b any amount of money set b by rabbinic law /b is in b provincial coinage, as we did not learn /b that i halakha /i in that mishna. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The Sages established that b one who strikes another /b as an act of disrespect b must give him one i sela /i /b as a fine. b And /b Rav Asi is teaching that one should b not say: What /b is the meaning of b one i sela /i ? /b It is a Tyrian i sela /i worth b four dinar. Rather, what /b is the meaning of b one i sela /i ? /b This is the i sela /i of provincial coinage, which is worth b half a dinar, as people commonly call half a dinar /b by the name b i sela /i [ i isteira /i ]. /b , b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish says /b a different explanation: b The reasoning of Beit Shammai, /b that the minimum amount with which a woman can be betrothed is one dinar, is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Ḥizkiyya. As Ḥizkiyya says /b that b the verse states /b with regard to a Hebrew maidservant: b “Then he shall let her be redeemed” /b (Exodus 21:8), which b teaches that she can deduct /b an amount b from /b the price of b her redemption and leave /b before her time of slavery is complete. If she comes into possession of money, she can pay the master for her value, less the work she has performed. Beit Shammai derive the i halakhot /i of regular betrothal from the case of a Hebrew maidservant, as explained below., b Granted, if you say that /b when she was acquired b he gave her /b at least b one dinar, this is /b the meaning of the statement b that she may continually deduct /b from that amount b up to one i peruta /i . But if you say that /b he b gave her one i peruta /i /b when he purchased her as a maidservant, can b she deduct from one i peruta /i ? /b One i peruta /i is already the smallest possible sum of money. The Gemara rejects this argument: b But perhaps this is what the Merciful One is saying: /b In a case b where he gave her one dinar, she deducts /b from that amount b up to one i peruta /i ; /b in b a case where he gave her one i peruta /i she cannot deduct at all. /b If he paid one i peruta /i for her, the option of redemption does not apply.
|47. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE) Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 611
| 30b. חשוד על המעשר ומאן חכמים ר' יהודה וחד אמר החשוד על המעשר חשוד על השביעית ומאן חכמים ר' מאיר,דתניא עם הארץ שקיבל עליו דברי חבירות ונחשד לדבר אחד נחשד לכל התורה כולה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים אינו נחשד אלא לאותו דבר בלבד,הגר שקיבל עליו דברי תורה אפי' נחשד לדבר אחד הוי חשוד לכל התורה כולה והרי הוא כישראל משומד נפקא מינה דאי קדיש קידושיו קידושין,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו עובד כוכבים שבא לקבל דברי תורה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר אפי' דקדוק אחד מדברי סופרים,וכן בן לוי שבא לקבל דברי לויה וכהן שבא לקבל דברי כהונה חוץ מדבר אחד אין מקבלין אותו שנאמר (ויקרא ז, לג) המקריב את דם השלמים וגו' העבודה המסורה לבני אהרן כל כהן שאינו מודה בה אין לו חלק בכהונה,ת"ר הבא לקבל דברי חבירות אם ראינוהו שנוהג בצינעה בתוך ביתו מקבלין אותו ואחר כך מלמדין אותו ואם לאו מלמדין אותו ואחר כך מקבלין אותו ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בין כך ובין כך מקבלין אותו והוא למד כדרכו והולך:,ת"ר מקבלין לכנפים ואח"כ מקבלין לטהרות ואם אמר איני מקבל אלא לכנפים מקבלין אותו קיבל לטהרות ולא קיבל לכנפים אף לטהרות לא קיבל:,ת"ר עד כמה מקבלין אותו בית שמאי אומרים למשקין שלשים יום לכסות שנים עשר חודש ובית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשנים עשר חודש,אם כן הוה ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל אלא בית הלל אומרים אחד זה ואחד זה לשלשים:,(סימן חב"ר תלמי"ד תכל"ת מכ"ם חז"ר גבא"י בעצמ"ו),תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ובניו ובני ביתו אינן צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אף בניו ובני ביתו צריכין לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים לפי שאינו דומה חבר שקיבל לבן חבר שקיבל:,תנו רבנן הבא לקבל דברי חבירות צריך לקבל בפני ג' חבירים ואפילו תלמיד חכם צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים זקן ויושב בישיבה אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים שכבר קיבל עליו משעה שישב אבא שאול אומר אף תלמיד חכם אינו צריך לקבל בפני שלשה חבירים ולא עוד אלא שאחרים מקבלין לפניו,אמר רבי יוחנן בימי בנו של רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס נשנית משנה זו רבי יהודה ור' יוסי איסתפק להו מילתא בטהרות שדרו רבנן לגבי בנו של ר' חנינא בן אנטיגנוס אזילו אמרו ליה לעיין בה אשכחוה דקא טעין טהרות אותיב רבנן מדידיה לגבייהו וקאי איהו לעיוני בה,אתו אמרי ליה לר' יהודה ור' יוסי אמר להו ר' יהודה אביו של זה ביזה תלמידי חכמים אף הוא מבזה תלמידי חכמים,אמר לו ר' יוסי כבוד זקן יהא מונח במקומו אלא מיום שחרב בית המקדש נהגו כהנים סילסול בעצמן שאין מוסרין את הטהרות לכל אדם:,תנו רבנן חבר שמת אשתו ובניו ובני ביתו הרי הן בחזקתן עד שיחשדו וכן חצר שמוכרין בה תכלת הרי היא בחזקתה עד שתיפסל:,תנו רבנן אשת עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן בתו של עם הארץ שנשאת לחבר וכן עבדו של עם הארץ שנמכר לחבר כולן צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה אבל אשת חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן בתו של חבר שנשאת לעם הארץ וכן עבדו של חבר שנמכר לעם הארץ אין צריכין לקבל דברי חבירות בתחלה,ר"מ אומר אף הן צריכין לקבל עליהן דברי חבירות לכתחלה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר"מ מעשה באשה אחת שנשאת לחבר והיתה קומעת לו תפילין על ידו נשאת לעם הארץ והיתה קושרת לו קשרי מוכס על ידו:
| 30b. is b suspect with regard to tithe. And who /b are the Sages referred to here as b the Rabbis? /b It is b Rabbi Yehuda, /b as in his locale they treated the prohibition of produce of the Sabbatical Year stringently. b And /b the other b one says: One who is suspect with regard to tithe is suspect with regard to /b produce of the b Sabbatical /b Year. b And who /b are the Sages referred to here as b the Rabbis? /b It is b Rabbi Meir. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Demai /i 2:4): With regard to b an i am ha’aretz /i , /b i.e., one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity and tithes, b who accepts upon himself /b the commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status, /b i.e., that he will be stringent in all matters observed by i ḥaverim /i , including i teruma /i , tithes, and i ḥalla /i , and also undertake to eat only food that is ritually pure, and the Sages accepted him as trustworthy b but /b subsequently he b was suspected with regard to one matter /b in which others saw him act improperly, b he is suspected with regard to the entire Torah. /b This is the b statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: He is suspected only with regard to that particular matter. /b ,It is also taught in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Demai /i 2:4): With regard to b a convert who accepted upon himself /b upon his conversion b matters of Torah, /b i.e., all of the mitzvot, b even if he is suspect with regard to one matter /b alone, b he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, and he is /b considered b like a Jewish transgressor [ i meshummad /i ], /b who habitually transgresses the mitzvot. The Gemara explains that the practical b difference /b resulting from the fact that he is considered like a Jewish transgressor is b that if he betroths /b a woman, b his betrothal is /b a valid b betrothal, /b and they are married. Although he is suspect with regard to the entire Torah, he does not return to his prior gentile status., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b one who comes to accept upon himself /b the commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status except for one matter, /b which he does not wish to observe, b he is not accepted, /b and he is not trustworthy even with regard to those matters that he does wish to accept upon himself. Likewise, in the case of b a gentile who comes to /b convert and takes upon himself to b accept the words of Torah except for one matter, he is not accepted /b as a convert. b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: Even /b if he refuses to accept b one detail of rabbinic law, /b he is not accepted.,The i baraita /i continues: b And similarly, /b in the case of b a Levite who comes to accept the matters of a Levite, or a priest who comes to accept the matters of priesthood, except for one matter, he is not accepted. As it is stated: /b “He among the sons of Aaron, b that sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings, /b and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). This means that with regard to b the /b Temple b service, which is handed /b over b to the sons of Aaron, any priest who does not admit to it /b in its entirety b has no share in the priesthood. /b ,The Gemara continues on a similar topic. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b one who comes to accept upon himself /b a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status, if we have seen that he practices /b such matters b in private, within his home, he is accepted, and afterward he is taught /b the precise details of being a i ḥaver /i . b But if /b we have b not /b seen him act as a i ḥaver /i in his home, b he is taught /b first b and afterward accepted. Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Whether /b in b this /b case b or that /b case, b he is /b first b accepted, and he /b then b continues to learn in /b the b usual manner, /b i.e., as a i ḥaver /i he learns from others how to behave., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : An i am ha’aretz /i who wishes to become a i ḥaver /i b is accepted /b first b with regard to hands, /b i.e., he is presumed to be stringent concerning the ritual purity of his hands by making sure to wash his hands before handling pure items, b and afterward he is accepted /b as trustworthy b for purity /b in general. b And if he says: I /b wish to b accept /b purity b only with regard to hands, he is accepted /b for this. If he wishes to b accept /b upon himself the stringencies of a i ḥaver /i b with regard to ritual purity but he does not accept /b upon himself the stringencies b with regard to hands, /b i.e., to wash his hands, which is a simple act, b he is not accepted even for purity /b in general., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Until when is he accepted, /b i.e., how much time must elapse before he is considered trustworthy as a i ḥaver /i ? b Beit Shammai say: With regard to liquids, thirty days. With regard to /b impurity of b clothing, /b about which i ḥaverim /i would be careful as well, b twelve months. And Beit Hillel say: Both /b with regard to b this, /b liquids, b and that, /b clothing, he must maintain the practice b for twelve months /b before he is fully accepted as a i ḥaver /i .,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b If so, this is /b one b of /b the rare cases of b the leniencies of Beit Shammai and of the stringencies of Beit Hillel, /b and yet it is not included in tractate i Eduyyot /i , which lists all of the cases where Beit Shammai are more lenient than Beit Hillel. b Rather, /b the text of the i baraita /i must be emended so that it reads: b Beit Hillel say: Both /b with regard to b this, /b liquids b and that, /b clothing, he must maintain the practice b for thirty /b days before he is fully accepted as a i ḥaver /i .,§ The Gemara provides b a mnemonic /b to remember the topics from here until the end of the chapter: b i Ḥaver /i ; student; sky-blue dye [ i tekhelet /i ]; tax; return; /b tax b collector; by himself. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who comes to accept upon himself /b a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status must accept /b it b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i . But his children and /b the b members of his household are not required to accept /b the status of i ḥaver /i separately b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i . Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Even his children and /b the b members of his household must accept /b the status of i ḥaver /i b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i , because a i ḥaver /i , who accepted it /b himself in the presence of three others, b is not comparable to the son of a i ḥaver /i , /b who b accepted /b that status only due to his father but did not accept it himself explicitly, and their accepting the status not in the presence of three people is insufficient., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who comes to accept upon himself /b a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status must accept /b it b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i , and even a Torah scholar /b who wishes to become a i ḥaver /i b must accept /b the status of i ḥaver /i b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i . /b But b an elder who sits /b and studies Torah b in a yeshiva is not required to accept /b the status of i ḥaver /i b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i , as he already accepted it upon himself from the moment he sat /b and dedicated himself to study Torah in yeshiva. b Abba Shaul says: Even a Torah scholar is not required to accept /b the status of i ḥaver /i b in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i ; and not only /b does he have the status of i ḥaver /i without an explicit declaration in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i , b but others /b can b accept /b that they wish to become a i ḥaver /i b in his presence. /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa says: This mishna, /b i.e., the ruling that a Torah scholar must declare his intent to become a i ḥaver /i in the presence of three i ḥaverim /i , b was taught in the days of the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus. /b At that time, b Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei were uncertain about /b a certain b matter of ritual purity. The Sages sent /b a delegation of their students b to the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus /b and told them to b go /b and b tell him to examine /b this matter. The students b found him while he was carrying /b items that were ritually b pure. /b The son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus b seated Sages from his own /b yeshiva b next to /b the students who came to ask the question, because he did not trust these students to keep his items pure. b And he stood and examined /b the matter.,The students returned and b came and told Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yosei /b that the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus had treated them as though they had the status of i amei ha’aretz /i . b Rabbi Yehuda said to them /b in anger: b This one’s father, /b i.e., Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, b degraded Torah scholars /b by not trusting them with matters of ritual purity. And b he too, /b the son of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus, b degrades Torah scholars. /b , b Rabbi Yosei said to him: Let the honor of the elder, /b i.e., both the father and son, b be left in its place. /b He did not act in this manner to degrade Torah scholars. b Rather, from the day the Temple was destroyed, the priests were accustomed to act with a higher standard for themselves, /b and they decided b that they will not pass ritually pure /b items b to any /b other b person. /b Therefore, the son of Rabbi Ḥanina, as a priest, acted appropriately., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a i ḥaver /i that died, his wife and children and members of his household retain their presumptive /b status b until they are suspected /b of engaging in inappropriate deeds. b And similarly, /b in the case of b a courtyard in which one sells sky-blue dye, it retains its presumptive /b status as a place in which fit sky-blue dye is sold b until it is disqualified /b due to the merchant’s unscrupulous behavior., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The /b former b wife an i am ha’aretz /i who /b later b marries a i ḥaver /i , and likewise the daughter of an i am ha’aretz /i who marries a i ḥaver /i , and likewise the slave of an i am ha’aretz /i who is sold to a i ḥaver /i , must all accept /b upon themselves a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status. But /b with regard to b the /b former b wife of a i ḥaver /i who /b later b marries an i am ha’aretz /i , and likewise the daughter of a i ḥaver /i who marries an i am ha’aretz /i , and likewise the slave of a i ḥaver /i who was sold to an i am ha’aretz /i , /b these people b need not accept /b upon themselves a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status i ab initio /i , /b as each of them is already accustomed to behave as a i ḥaver /i .,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabbi Meir says: They too must accept /b upon themselves a commitment to observe b the matters /b associated with b i ḥaver /i status i ab initio /i . And similarly, Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar would /b illustrate this point and b say in the name of Rabbi Meir: /b There was b an incident involving a certain woman who married a i ḥaver /i and would tie [ i koma’at /i ] for him phylacteries on his hand, /b and she later b married a tax collector and would tie for him tax seals on his hand, /b which shows that her new husband had a great influence on her level of piety.
|57. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 4.5, 12.10 Tagged with subjects: •paul pharisee Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596