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49 results for "oral"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 30.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
30.12. "לֹא בַשָּׁמַיִם הִוא לֵאמֹר מִי יַעֲלֶה־לָּנוּ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְיִקָּחֶהָ לָּנוּ וְיַשְׁמִעֵנוּ אֹתָהּ וְנַעֲשֶׂנָּה׃", 30.12. "It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest say: ‘Who shall go up for us to heaven, and bring it unto us, and make us to hear it, that we may do it?’",
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 119.126 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
119.126. "עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַיהוָה הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃", 119.126. "It is time for the LORD to work; They have made void Thy law.",
3. Anon., 1 Enoch, 37-57, 59-71, 58 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 45
58. And I began to speak the third Parable concerning the righteous and elect.",Blessed are ye, ye righteous and elect, For glorious shall be your lot.,And the righteous shall be in the light of the sun. And the elect in the light of eternal life: The days of their life shall be unending, And the days of the holy without number.,And they shall seek the light and find righteousness with the Lord of Spirits: There shall be peace to the righteous in the name of the Eternal Lord.",And after this it shall be said to the holy in heaven That they should seek out the secrets of righteousness, the heritage of faith: For it has become bright as the sun upon earth, And the darkness is past.,And there shall be a light that never endeth, And to a limit (lit. ' number ') of days they shall not come, For the darkness shall first have been destroyed, [And the light established before the Lord of Spirits] And the light of uprightness established for ever before the Lord of Spirits.
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 284
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 12.6-12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 284
6. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 45
7. Mishnah, Zavim, 5.3, 5.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 10
5.3. "מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָמְרוּ, כֹּל הַנּוֹשֵׂא וְנִשָּׂא עַל גַּבֵּי מִשְׁכָּב, טָהוֹר, חוּץ מִן הָאָדָם. כֹּל הַנּוֹשֵׂא וְנִשָּׂא עַל גַּבֵּי הַנְּבֵלָה, טָהוֹר, חוּץ מִן הַמַּסִּיט. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, אַף הַנּוֹשֵׂא. כֹּל הַנּוֹשֵׂא וְנִשָּׂא עַל גַּבֵּי הַמֵּת, טָהוֹר, חוּץ מִן הַמַּאֲהִיל, וְאָדָם בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא מַסִּיט: \n", 5.12. "אֵלּוּ פוֹסְלִים אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה. הָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל רִאשׁוֹן, וְהָאוֹכֵל אֹכֶל שֵׁנִי, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה מַשְׁקִין טְמֵאִין, וְהַבָּא רֹאשׁוֹ וְרֻבּוֹ בְּמַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְטָהוֹר שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עַל רֹאשׁוֹ וְעַל רֻבּוֹ שְׁלשָׁה לֻגִּין מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין, וְהַסֵּפֶר, וְהַיָּדַיִם, וּטְבוּל יוֹם, וְהָאֳכָלִים וְהַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּטְמְאוּ בְמַשְׁקִים: \n", 5.3. "Whatever carries or is carried by objects on which one sits or lies upon remain clean, except for a person. Whatever carries or is carried by carrion is clean, except for one that shifts it. Rabbi Eliezer says: also one that carries it. Whatever carries or is carried upon a corpse remains clean, except for one that overshadows, or a person when he shifts it.", 5.12. "The following disqualify terumah:One who eats foods with first degree uncleanness; Or one who eats food with second degree uncleanness; And who drinks unclean liquids. And the one who has immersed his head and the greater part of him in drawn water; And a clean person upon whose head and greater part of him there fell three logs of drawn water; And a scroll [of Holy Scriptures], And [unwashed] hands; And one that has had immersion that same day; And foods and vessels which have become defiled by liquids.",
8. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
4.9. "נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן: \n", 4.9. "How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.",
9. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 393
2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.",
10. Mishnah, Parah, 3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
3.7. "לֹא הָיְתָה פָרָה רוֹצָה לָצֵאת, אֵין מוֹצִיאִין עִמָּהּ שְׁחוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ, שְׁחוֹרָה שָׁחֲטוּ. וְלֹא אֲדֻמָּה, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמְרוּ, שְׁתַּיִם שָׁחֲטוּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לֹא מִשּׁוּם זֶה, אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יט), וְהוֹצִיא אֹתָהּ, לְבַדָּהּ. וְזִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הָיוּ מַקְדִּימִים בְּרַגְלֵיהֶם לְהַר הַמִּשְׁחָה, וּבֵית טְבִילָה הָיָה שָׁם. וּמְטַמְּאִים הָיוּ אֶת הַכֹּהֵן הַשּׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַפָּרָה, מִפְּנֵי הַצְּדוֹקִים, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ אוֹמְרִים, בִּמְעֹרְבֵי שֶׁמֶשׁ הָיְתָה נַעֲשֵׂית: \n", 3.7. "If the cow refused to go out, they may not take out with it a black one lest people say, \"They slaughtered a black cow\" nor another red [cow] lest people say, \"They slaughtered two.\" Rabbi Yose says: it was not for this reason but because it is said \"And he shall bring her out\" by herself. The elders of Israel used to go first by foot to the Mount of Olives, where there was a place of immersion. The priest that was to burn the cow was (deliberately) made unclean on account of the Sadducees so that they should not be able to say, \"It can be done only by those on whom the sun has set.\"",
11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 399
4.1. Λοιπὸν, ἀδελφοί, ἐρωτῶμεν ὑμᾶς καὶ παρακαλοῦ μεν ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ, [ἵνα] καθὼς παρελάβετε παρʼ ἡμῶν τὸ πῶς δεῖ ὑμᾶς περιπατεῖν καὶ ἀρέσκειν θεῷ, καθὼς καὶ περιπατεῖτε,— ἵνα περισσεύητε μᾶλλον. 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more.
12. Mishnah, Kelim, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
5.10. "חֲתָכוֹ חֻלְיוֹת וְנָתַן חֹל בֵּין חֻלְיָא לְחֻלְיָא, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְטַהֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְטַמְּאִין. זֶה תַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל עַכְנָאי. יוֹרוֹת הָעַרְבִיִּין שֶׁהוּא חוֹפֵר בָּאָרֶץ וְטָח בְּטִיט, אִם יָכוֹל הַטִּיחַ לַעֲמוֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, טָמֵא. וְאִם לָאו, טָהוֹר. וְזֶה תַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל בֶּן דִּינָאי: \n", 5.10. "If he cut the oven up into rings, and then he put sand between each pair of rings, Rabbi Eliezer says: it is clean. But the sages say: it is unclean. This is the oven of Akhnai. As regards Arabian vats, which are holes dug in the ground and plastered with clay, if the plastering can stand of itself it is susceptible to impurity; Otherwise it is not susceptible. This is the oven of Ben Dinai.",
13. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 284
2.7. "הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְנָכְרִי, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר פּוֹסֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁחָטָהּ שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַנָּכְרִי מֵחֲצַר כָּבֵד שֶׁלָּהּ, פְּסוּלָה, שֶׁסְּתָם מַחֲשֶׁבֶת נָכְרִי לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, קַל וָחֹמֶר הַדְּבָרִים, וּמַה בִּמְקוֹם שֶׁהַמַּחֲשָׁבָה פוֹסֶלֶת, בְּמֻקְדָּשִׁין, אֵין הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶלָּא אַחַר הָעוֹבֵד, מְקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מַחֲשָׁבָה פוֹסֶלֶת, בְּחֻלִּין, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶלָּא אַחַר הַשּׁוֹחֵט: \n", 2.7. "If one slaughtered for a non-Jew, the slaughtering is valid. Rabbi Eliezer declares it invalid. Rabbi Eliezer said: even if one slaughtered a beast with the intention that a non-Jew should eat [only] its liver, the slaughtering is invalid, for the thoughts of a non-Jew are usually directed towards idolatry. Rabbi Yose said: is there not a kal vehomer argument? For if in the case of consecrated animals, where a wrongful intention can render invalid, it is established that everything depends solely upon the intention of him who performs the service, how much more in the case of unconsecrated animals, where a wrongful intention cannot render invalid, is it not logical that everything should depend solely upon the intention of him who slaughters!",
14. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16-2.4, 2.4, 2.8, 2.10, 2.11, 3.4, 4.11, 5.17 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 393, 616
1.12. "הִלֵּל וְשַׁמַּאי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן, אוֹהֵב שָׁלוֹם וְרוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת וּמְקָרְבָן לַתּוֹרָה: \n", 1.12. "Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah.",
15. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 1.5-1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 284
1.5. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים אֲסוּרִים לִמְכֹּר לְגוֹיִם, אִצְטְרוֹבָּלִין, וּבְנוֹת שׁוּחַ וּפְטוֹטְרוֹתֵיהֶן, וּלְבוֹנָה, וְתַרְנְגוֹל הַלָּבָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מֻתָּר לִמְכּוֹר לוֹ תַּרְנְגוֹל לָבָן בֵּין הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִין. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהוּא בִפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, קוֹטֵעַ אֶת אֶצְבָּעוֹ וּמוֹכְרוֹ לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַקְרִיבִין חָסֵר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַדְּבָרִים, סְתָמָן מֻתָּר, וּפֵרוּשָׁן אָסוּר. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אַף דֶּקֶל טָב וַחֲצָב וְנִקְלִיבָם אָסוּר לִמְכֹּר לְגוֹיִם: \n", 1.6. "מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לִמְכֹּר בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה לְגוֹיִם, מוֹכְרִין. מְקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִמְכֹּר, אֵין מוֹכְרִין. וּבְכָל מָקוֹם אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה, עֲגָלִים וּסְיָחִים, שְׁלֵמִים וּשְׁבוּרִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר בִּשְׁבוּרָה. וּבֶן בְּתֵירָה מַתִּיר בְּסוּס: \n", 1.7. "אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם דֻּבִּין וַאֲרָיוֹת וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ נֵזֶק לָרַבִּים. אֵין בּוֹנִין עִמָּהֶם בָּסִילְקִי, גַּרְדּוֹם, וְאִצְטַדְיָא, וּבִימָה. אֲבָל בּוֹנִים עִמָּהֶם בִּימוֹסְיָאוֹת וּבֵית מֶרְחֲצָאוֹת. הִגִּיעוּ לַכִּפָּה שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִין בָּהּ עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אָסוּר לִבְנוֹת: \n", 1.8. "וְאֵין עוֹשִׂין תַּכְשִׁיטִין לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, קֻטְלָאוֹת וּנְזָמִים וְטַבָּעוֹת. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, בְּשָׂכָר מֻתָּר. אֵין מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, אֲבָל מוֹכֵר הוּא מִשֶּׁיִּקָּצֵץ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מוֹכֵר הוּא לוֹ עַל מְנָת לָקוֹץ. אֵין מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שָׂדוֹת. וּבְסוּרְיָא מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים, אֲבָל לֹא שָׂדוֹת. וּבְחוּץ לָאָרֶץ מוֹכְרִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים וּמַשְׂכִּירִין שָׂדוֹת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, בְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַשְׂכִּירִין לָהֶם בָּתִּים, אֲבָל לֹא שָׂדוֹת. וּבְסוּרְיָא מוֹכְרִין בָּתִּים וּמַשְׂכִּירִין שָׂדוֹת. וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ מוֹכְרִין אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ: \n", 1.5. "The following things are forbidden to be sold to idolaters: iztroblin, bnoth-shuah with their stems, frankincense, and a white rooster. Rabbi Judah says: it is permitted to sell a white rooster to an idolater among other roosters; but if it be by itself, one should clip its spur and then sell it to him, because a defective [animal] is not sacrificed to an idol. As for other things, if they are not specified their sale is permitted, but if specified it is forbidden. Rabbi Meir says: also a “good-palm”, hazab and niklivas are forbidden to be sold to idolaters.", 1.6. "In a place where it is the custom to sell small domesticated animals to non-Jews, such sale is permitted; but where the custom is not to sell, such sale is not permitted. In no place however is it permitted to sell large animals, calves or foals, whether whole or maimed. Rabbi Judah permits in the case of a maimed one. And Ben Bateira permits in the case of a horse.", 1.7. "One should not sell them bears, lions or anything which may injure the public. One should not join them in building a basilica, a scaffold, a stadium, or a platform. But one may join them in building public or private bathhouses. When however he reaches the cupola in which the idol is placed he must not build.", 1.8. "One should not make jewelry for an idol [such as] necklaces, ear-rings, or finger-rings. Rabbi Eliezer says, for payment it is permitted. One should not sell to idolaters a thing which is attached to the soil, but when cut down it may be sold. R. Judah says, one may sell it on condition that it be cut down. One should not let houses to them in the land of Israel; and it is not necessary to mention fields. In Syria houses may be let to them, but not fields. Outside of the land of Israel, houses may be sold and fields let to them, these are the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yose says: in the land of Israel, one may let to them houses but not fields; In Syria, we may sell them houses and let fields; Outside of the land of Israel, both may be sold.",
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.409 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 284
2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account;
17. New Testament, Acts, 5.38, 7.58, 22.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427, 599
5.38. καὶ [τὰ] νῦν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπόστητε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τούτων καὶ ἄφετε αὐτούς·?̔ὅτι ἐὰν ᾖ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἡ βουλὴ αὕτη ἢ τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο, καταλυθήσεται· 7.58. καὶ ἐκβαλόντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως ἐλιθοβόλουν. καὶ οἱ μάρτυρες ἀπέθεντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας νεανίου καλουμένου Σαύλου. 22.3. Ἐγώ εἰμι ἀνὴρ Ἰουδαῖος, γεγεννημένος ἐν Ταρσῷ τῆς Κιλικίας, ἀνατεθραμμένος δὲ ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιήλ, πεπαιδευμένος κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν τοῦ πατρῴου νόμου, ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τοῦ θεοῦ καθὼς πάντες ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ σήμερον, 5.38. Now I tell you, refrain from these men, and leave them alone. For if this counsel or this work is of men, it will be overthrown. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 22.3. "I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day.
18. New Testament, James, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
2.10. Ὅστις γὰρ ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσῃ, πταίσῃ δὲ ἐν ἑνί, γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος. 2.10. For whoever shall keep the whole law, and yet stumble in one point, he has become guilty of all.
19. New Testament, Galatians, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
5.3. μαρτύρομαι δὲ πάλιν παντὶ ἀνθρώπῳ περιτεμνομένῳ ὅτι ὀφειλέτης ἐστὶν ὅλον τὸν νόμον ποιῆσαι. 5.3. Yes, I testify again to every man whoreceives circumcision, that he is a debtor to do the whole law.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.372, 18.12-18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing. 18.12. 3. Now, for the Pharisees, they live meanly, and despise delicacies in diet; and they follow the conduct of reason; and what that prescribes to them as good for them they do; and they think they ought earnestly to strive to observe reason’s dictates for practice. They also pay a respect to such as are in years; nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing which they have introduced; 18.13. and when they determine that all things are done by fate, they do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they think fit; since their notion is, that it hath pleased God to make a temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. 18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.16. 4. But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies; nor do they regard the observation of any thing besides what the law enjoins them; for they think it an instance of virtue to dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom they frequent: 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them.
21. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.16, 14.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 399, 599
10.16. Τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ χριστοῦ; τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐστίν; 14.16. ἐπεὶ ἐὰν εὐλογῇς [ἐν] πνεύματι, ὁ ἀναπληρῶν τὸν τόπον τοῦ ἰδιώτου πῶς ἐρεῖ τό Ἀμήν ἐπὶ τῇ σῇ εὐχαριστίᾳ; ἐπειδὴ τί λέγεις οὐκ οἶδεν· 10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist? 14.16. Otherwise if you blesswith the spirit, how will he who fills the place of the unlearned saythe "Amen" at your giving of thanks, seeing he doesn't know what yousay?
22. Mishnah, Makkot, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 10
2.8. "כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ, רוֹצֵחַ שֶׁגָּלָה לְעִיר מִקְלָטוֹ וְרָצוּ אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר לְכַבְּדוֹ, יֹאמַר לָהֶם רוֹצֵחַ אָנִי. אָמְרוּ לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, יְקַבֵּל מֵהֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יט) וְזֶה דְּבַר הָרֹצֵחַ. מַעֲלִים הָיוּ שָׂכָר לַלְוִיִּם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיוּ מַעֲלִים לָהֶן שָׂכָר. וְחוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא הָיָה חוֹזֵר לַשְּׂרָרָה שֶׁהָיָה בָהּ: \n", 2.8. "A manslayer who went to his city of his refuge and the men of that city wished to do him honor, should [refuse] by saying to them, “I am a manslayer!”. If they say to him, “Nevertheless” he should accept from them [the proffered honor], as it is said: “and this is the word of the manslayer.” They used to pay rent to the Levites, according to the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Meir says: “They did not pay them rent.” And [on his return home] he returns to the office he formerly held, according to the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: “He does not return to the office he formerly held.”",
23. Tosefta, Demai, 2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 599
24. Mishnah, Temurah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
2.1. "יֵשׁ בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר, וְיֵשׁ בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד. שֶׁקָּרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה, וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר אֵינָם עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה. קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד נוֹהֲגִין בִּזְכָרִים וּבִנְקֵבוֹת, וְקָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר אֵינָן נוֹהֲגִין אֶלָּא בִזְכָרִים. קָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן וּבְאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶם, וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר אֵין חַיָּבִין לֹא בְאַחֲרָיוּתָן וְלֹא בְאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶן, אֲבָל חַיָּבִין בְּאַחֲרָיוּת נִסְכֵּיהֶן מִשֶּׁקָּרַב הַזָּבַח. יֵשׁ בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר מַה שֶּׁאֵין בְּקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד. שֶׁקָּרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר דּוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה, וְקָרְבְּנוֹת הַיָּחִיד אֵינָן דּוֹחִים לֹא אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְלֹא אֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, וַהֲלֹא חֲבִתֵּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל וּפַר יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, קָרְבַּן יָחִיד וְדוֹחִין אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת וְאֶת הַטֻּמְאָה. אֶלָּא שֶׁזְּמַנָּן קָבוּעַ: \n", 2.1. "There are [laws relating] to the sacrifices of an individual which do not apply to congregational sacrifices and [laws relating] to congregational sacrifices which do not apply to the sacrifices of individuals. For sacrifices of an individual can make a substitute whereas congregational sacrifices cannot make a substitute; Sacrifices of an individual can be either males or females, whereas congregational sacrifices can be only males. For sacrifices of an individual the owner is responsible for them and their libations, whereas for congregational sacrifices they are not liable for them or for their libations, although they are liable for their libations once the sacrifice has been offered. There are [laws relating] to congregational sacrifices which do not apply to the sacrifices of individuals: For congregational sacrifices override Shabbat and [the laws] of ritual impurity, whereas sacrifices of individuals do not override the Shabbat or [the laws] of ritual impurity. Rabbi Meir said: but do not the griddle cakes of a high priest and the bull for Yom Hakippurim which are sacrifices of individuals and yet override the Shabbat and [the laws] of ritual impurity? The matter therefore depends on [whether] the time [for the offering up] is fixed.",
25. Tosefta, Eduyot, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
2.1. "כזית בשר הפורש מאבר מן החי ר' אליעזר מטמא השיבו את ר' אליעזר שלש תשובות לא אם אמרת בבית שיש בה רובע רקב תאמר באבר מן החי שאין בו רובע רקב ד\"א מי תלוי במי אבר תלוי בבשר או בשר תלוי באבר הבשר תלוי באבר איפשר שהבשר מטמא במגע ובמשא ובאהל ואבר יהא טהור. אמר ר\"ש תמה אני אם טימא ר' אליעזר לא טימא אלא בזמן שיש באבר בשר כראוי כדי שיהא זה וזה מטמאין במגע ובמשא ובאהל עצם הפורש כשעורה ר' נחוניא מטמא והשיבו רבי נחוניא שלש תשובות לא אם אמרת במת שיש בו רובע רקב תאמר באבר מן החי שאין בו רובע רקב דבר אחר מי תלוי במי אבר תלוי בעצם או עצם תלוי באבר הוי אומר עצם תלוי באבר אפשר שהעצם מטמא במגע ובמשא ואבר יהא טהור אמר ר\"ש תמה אני אם טימא ר' נחוניא לא טמא אלא בזמן שיש באבר עצם כשעורה כדי שיהא זה וזה מטמאין במגע ובמשא השיב ר' יהושע על דברי שניהן ומה אם החי שיש בו רמ\"ח עצם ובשר הפורשים ממנו טהורים אבר מן החי שאין בו אינו דין שיהא עצם ובשר הפורשין ממנו טהור. השיב רבי על דברי ר' יהושע לא אם אמרת בפורש מן החי שכן פורש מדבר טהור תאמר באבר מן החי שכן פורש מדבר טמא. ", 2.1. "ארבעה דברים ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאין מסרק של צרצור ר' אליעזר אומר אין מטמא באויר וחכמים אומרים מטמא באויר. דף של נחתום שקבעו במסמר או שחיברו במריש או בקורה ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאין. מנעל שעל האימים ר' אליעזר מטמא וחכמים מטהרין. חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאין והיה נקרא תנורו של עכנאי שעליו רבו מחלוקת בישראל.", 2.1. "Four things Rabbi Eliezer declares pure while the Sages declare impure. The rim of a stone strainer—Rabbi Eliezer says: It is not impure in the air; but the Sages say: It is impure in the air. A baker's sheet which is fixed to a nail, or attached to a beam—Rabbi Eliezer makes it pure; but the Sages make it impure. A shoe that is on the shoe mold—Rabbi Eliezer makes it pure; but the Sages make it impure. He cut it [an oven, see Mishnah Kelim 5:10] into rings, and sand is placed between each ring, Rabbi Eliezer makes it pure; but the Sages make it impure. This was called the oven of Akhnai, for on its account, disagreement (mahloket) increased in Israel."
26. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
3.8. "נתנן עד שלא הוצת האור ברובה או משנעשית אפר פסולה. נטל עצם או שחור וקדש בו הרי זה לא עשה כלום אם יש עליו אבק כל שהוא אם מגופה כותשו ומקדש בו וכשר. וחולקין אותו לשלשה חלקים אחד ניתן בחיל ואחד ניתן בהר המשחה ואחד מתחלק לכל המשמרות זה שמתחלק לכל המשמרות היו ישראל מזין הימנו. זה שניתן בהר המשחה היו כהנים מקדשין בו. זה שניתן בחיל היו משמרין שנאמר (במדבר יט) והיתה לעדת בני ישראל למשמרת. ",
27. Tosefta, Pesahim, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
28. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
29. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
1.8. "איזו היא אצבע צרדה זו אצבע גדולה של ימין בפה [ולא] בנבל ולא בכנור מה היו אומרים (תהילים קכ״ז:א׳) שיר המעלות לשלמה אם ה' לא יבנה בית וגו' לא היו ישנים כל הלילה אלא שקורין כנגד כהן גדול [כדי] לעסקו בתורה כך היו נוהגין בגבולין אחר חורבן הבית זכר למקדש אבל חוטאין [היו].",
30. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 34.3. "Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!...",
31. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
29a. קרובים ונתרחקו הוו אתו לקמיה לדינא אמר להו פסילנא לכו לדינא,אמרו ליה מאי דעתיך כר' יהודה אנן מייתינן איגרתא ממערבא דאין הלכה כרבי יהודה,אמר להו אטו בקבא דקירא אידבקנא בכו דלא קאמינא פסילנא לכו לדינא אלא משום דלא צייתיתו דינא:,אוהב זה שושבינו וכו':,וכמה אמר ר' אבא אמר רבי ירמיה אמר רב כל שבעת ימי המשתה ורבנן משמיה דרבא אמרי אפילו מיום ראשון ואילך:,השונא כל שלא דבר כו': ת"ר (במדבר לה, כג) והוא לא אויב לו יעידנו (במדבר לה, כג) ולא מבקש רעתו ידיננו,אשכחן שונא אוהב מנלן,קרי ביה הכי והוא לא אויב לו ולא אוהב לו יעידנו ולא מבקש רעתו ולא טובתו ידיננו,מידי אוהב כתיב אלא סברא הוא אויב מאי טעמא משום דמרחקא דעתיה אוהב נמי מקרבא דעתיה,ורבנן האי לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מאי דרשי ביה,חד לדיין,אידך כדתניא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה והוא לא אויב לו ולא מבקש רעתו מכאן לשני תלמידי חכמים ששונאין זה את זה שאין יושבין בדין כאחד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כיצד בודקים את העדים היו מכניסין אותן לחדר ומאיימין עליהן ומוציאין את כל האדם לחוץ ומשיירין את הגדול שבהן,ואומרים לו אמור היאך אתה יודע שזה חייב לזה אם אמר הוא אמר לי שאני חייב לו איש פלוני אמר לי שהוא חייב לו לא אמר כלום עד שיאמר בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז,ואחר כך מכניסין את השני ובודקין אותו אם נמצאו דבריהן מכוונין נושאין ונותנין בדבר,שנים אומרים זכאי ואחד אומר חייב זכאי שנים אומרים חייב ואחד אומר זכאי חייב אחד אומר חייב ואחד אומר זכאי אפילו שנים מזכין או שנים מחייבין ואחד אומר איני יודע יוסיפו הדיינין,גמרו את הדבר היו מכניסין אותן הגדול שבדיינין אומר איש פלוני אתה זכאי איש פלוני אתה חייב,ומניין לכשיצא לא יאמר אני מזכה וחביריי מחייבים אבל מה אעשה שחביריי רבו עלי על זה נאמר ((ויקרא יט, טז) לא תלך רכיל בעמך ואומר) (משלי יא, יג) הולך רכיל מגלה סוד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big היכי אמרי' להו אמר רב יהודה הכי אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יד) נשיאים ורוח וגשם אין איש מתהלל במתת שקר,אמר (ליה) רבא יכלי למימר שב שני הוה כפנא ואבבא אומנא לא חליף,אלא אמר רבא אמרינן להו (משלי כה, יח) מפץ וחרב וחץ שנון איש עונה ברעהו עד שקר,אמר (ליה) רב אשי יכלי למימר שב שני הוה מותנא ואיניש בלא שניה לא שכיב,אלא אמר רב אשי אמר לי נתן בר מר זוטרא אמרינן להו סהדי שקרי אאוגרייהו זילי דכתיב (מלכים א כא, י) והושיבו שנים אנשים בני בליעל נגדו ויעידוהו לאמר ברכת אלהים ומלך:,אם אמר הוא אמר לי כו' עד שיאמרו בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז:,מסייע ליה לרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב צריך שיאמר אתם עדיי,איתמר נמי א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן (מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר) משטה אני בך פטור,תניא נמי הכי מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן למחר אמר לו תנהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ולא עוד אלא אפילו הכמין לו עדים אחורי גדר ואמר לו מנה לי בידך אמר לו הן רצונך שתודה בפני פלוני ופלוני אמר לו מתיירא אני שמא תכפיני לדין למחר אמר לו תניהו לי אמר לו משטה אני בך פטור,ואין טוענין למסית,מסית מאן דכר שמיה חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני אם לא טען אין טוענין לו ובדיני נפשות אע"ג דלא טען טוענין לו ואין טוענין למסית,מאי שנא מסית אמר ר' חמא בר חנינא מפירקיה דרבי חייא בר אבא שמיע לי שאני מסית דרחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמן אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין טוענין למסית מנחש הקדמוני דא"ר שמלאי הרבה טענות היה לו לנחש לטעון ולא טען ומפני מה לא טען לו הקב"ה לפי שלא טען הוא,מאי הוה ליה למימר דברי הרב ודברי תלמיד דברי מי שומעין דברי הרב שומעין,אמר חזקיה מניין שכל המוסיף גורע שנאמר (בראשית ג, ג) אמר אלהים לא תאכלו ממנו ולא תגעו בו,רב משרשיא אמר מהכא (שמות כה, י) אמתים וחצי ארכו,רב אשי אמר (שמות כו, ז) עשתי עשרה יריעות,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא דאמר משטה אני בך אבל אמר 29a. b were relatives /b of his b and became not related /b to him, as Mar Ukva’s wife, who was their sister, died. b They came before him for judgment. /b Mar Ukva b said to them: I am disqualified from adjudicating for you. /b , b They said to /b Mar Ukva: b What is your opinion /b according to which you disqualify yourself? Do you rule b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, /b that since you have children we are still relatives? b We shall bring a letter from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b that /b the b i halakha /i /b is b not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda. /b ,Mar Ukva b said to them: Is that to say /b that b I am stuck to you with a i kav /i of wax [ i kira /i ]? /b I agree b that /b we are not considered relatives; b I am saying that I am disqualified from adjudicating for you only because you will not obey the verdict, /b and I do not wish to participate in such judgment.,§ The mishna teaches that according to Rabbi Yehuda, one who loves or one who hates one of the litigants is disqualified from bearing witness. One who b loves /b one of the litigants; b this /b is referring to b his groomsman. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b for b how long /b is the groomsman disqualified? b Rabbi Abba says /b that b Rabbi Yirmeya says /b that b Rav says: /b Throughout b all of the seven days of feasting. And the Rabbis say in the name of Rava: Even from the first day /b after the wedding b and onward /b he is no longer disqualified; he is disqualified only on the wedding day itself.,§ The mishna teaches: b One who hates /b the litigant is referring to b anyone /b who, out of enmity, b did not speak /b with the litigant for three days. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : This i halakha /i is derived from the verse: “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm” (Numbers 35:23), that one about whom it can be stated: b “And he was not his enemy,” can testify about him. /b And one who b “neither sought his harm” can judge him. /b ,The Gemara asks: b We found /b a source for the disqualification of one who b hates; from where do we /b derive that one who b loves /b is disqualified?,The Gemara answers that one should b read into /b the verse b like this: /b One about whom it can be stated: b And he who was not his enemy nor one who loves him, can testify about him; /b and one who b neither sought his harm nor his favor can judge him. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is: One who loves, written /b in the verse? How can the verse be read in this manner? b Rather, /b the extension of the disqualification to one who loves him as well b is /b based on b logical reasoning: What is the reason an enemy /b is disqualified from bearing witness? It is b because he feels a sense of aversion /b toward that individual and might testify falsely against him. A similar logic can be employed with regard to one who b loves, as well: He feels a sense of affinity /b toward that individual, and might testify falsely on his behalf.,The Gemara asks: b And what do the Rabbis, /b who do not agree with Rabbi Yehuda, b derive from this /b verse: b “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm”? /b ,The Gemara answers: b One /b part of the verse is necessary b for /b the i halakha /i that b a judge /b who loves or hates one of the litigants is disqualified. The Rabbis agree with this i halakha /i , as such a judge is naturally inclined to favor one of the litigants., b The other /b part of the verse is interpreted b in accordance with that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b With regard to the verse b “And he was not his enemy, neither sought his harm,” /b it is derived b from here that two Torah scholars who hate each other cannot sit in judgment /b together b as one. /b Because of their hatred they will come to contradict each other’s rulings unjustly., strong MISHNA: /strong b How do /b the judges b examine the witnesses? They bring them into a room /b in the courthouse b and intimidate them /b so that they will speak only the truth. b And they take all the people, /b other than the judges, b outside /b so that they should not tell the other witnesses the questions the judges ask and the answers the first witness gives, b and they leave /b only b the eldest of /b the witnesses to testify first., b And they say to him: Say how /b exactly b you know that this /b litigant b owes money to that /b litigant, as the plaintiff claims. b If he said: /b The defendant b said to me: /b It is true b that I owe /b the plaintiff, or if he says: b So-and-so said to me that /b the defendant b owes /b the plaintiff, the witness b has said nothing /b and his testimony is disregarded. It is not valid testimony b unless he says: /b The defendant b admitted in our presence to /b the plaintiff b that he owes him, /b e.g., b two hundred dinars. /b By admitting to the debt in the presence of witnesses he renders himself liable to pay the amount that he mentioned., b And afterward they bring in the second /b witness b and examine him /b in the same manner. b If their statements are found to be congruent /b the judges then b discuss the matter. /b ,If the opinions of the judges are divided, as b two /b judges b say /b that the defendant is b exempt /b from payment b and one says /b he is b liable /b to pay, he is b exempt. /b If b two say /b he is b liable and one says /b he is b exempt, /b he is b liable. /b If b one says /b he is b liable and one says /b he is b exempt, /b or b even /b if b two /b of the judges b deem /b him b exempt or two /b of them b deem /b him b liable, and /b the other b one says: I do not know, /b the court b must add /b more b judges /b and then rule in accordance with the majority opinion. This is because the one who abstains is considered as though he is not a member of the court.,After the judges b finish the matter /b and reach a decision, b they bring in /b the litigants. b The greatest of the judges says: So-and-so, you are exempt /b from paying; or: b So-and-so, you are liable /b to pay., b And from where /b is it derived that b when /b the judge b leaves /b the courtroom b he may not say: I deemed /b you b exempt and my colleagues deemed /b you b liable, but what can I do, as my colleagues outnumbered me /b and consequently you were deemed liable? b About this it is stated: “You shall not go as a talebearer among your people” /b (Leviticus 19:16), b and it says: “One who goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets, /b but one who is of a faithful spirit conceals a matter” (Proverbs 11:13)., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the judges intimidate the witnesses. The Gemara asks: b What do we say to them? Rav Yehuda says /b that b this /b is what b we say to them: /b It is stated: b “As clouds and wind without rain, so is he who boasts himself of a false gift” /b (Proverbs 25:14). In other words, there will be no rain and no blessing from your deeds if you lie., b Rava said to him: /b If so, false witnesses b can say /b to themselves that they do not have to worry about this punishment, according to the folk saying: b Seven years there was a famine, but over the craftsman’s door it did not pass. /b If the witnesses are not farmers, they do not need to worry over lack of rain. Consequently, they will disregard this concern., b Rather, Rava said /b that b we say /b this verse b to them: “As a hammer, and a sword, and a sharp arrow, so is a man who bears false witness against his neighbor” /b (Proverbs 25:18), meaning that a false witness will die prematurely., b Rav Ashi said to him: /b Here too, false witnesses b can say /b to themselves a folk saying: b Seven years there was a pestilence, but a man /b who has b not /b reached b his years did not die; /b everyone dies at his predestined time. Therefore, they will disregard this concern as well.,The Gemara presents another suggestion: b Rather, Rav Ashi said: Natan bar Mar Zutra said to me /b that b we say to them /b that b false witnesses are belittled /b even b by those who hire them, /b and all the more so by others; b as it is written /b that Jezebel said when she ordered witnesses to be hired to testify against Naboth: b “And set two men, base fellows, before him, and let them bear witness against him, saying: You cursed God and the king” /b (I Kings 21:10). Even Jezebel, who gave the orders to hire them, called them “base fellows.”,§ The mishna teaches that b if /b the witness b said: /b The defendant b said to me: /b It is true that I owe him, his testimony is disregarded b unless he says: /b The defendant b admitted in our presence to /b the plaintiff b that he owes him two hundred dinars. /b ,The Gemara comments: b This supports /b the opinion of b Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b The debtor b needs to say /b to the witnesses to the loan or in his admission that he owes the creditor: b You are my witnesses. /b Otherwise, their testimony is not valid., b It was also stated /b that b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b If one said to another: b I /b have b one hundred dinars in your possession, /b i.e., you owe me one hundred dinars, and the other b said to him: Yes, /b and b the next day /b the claimant b said to him: Give it to me, /b if the other then b said /b to him: b I was teasing you, /b i.e., I did not mean it seriously when I said that I owed it to you, the respondent is b exempt. /b , b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : If one said to another: b I /b have b one hundred dinars in your possession, /b and the other b said to him: Yes, /b and b the next day /b the claimant b said to him: Give it to me, /b if the other then b said to him: I was teasing you, /b the respondent is b exempt. /b , b And moreover, /b the respondent is exempt b even /b in a case where the claimant b hid witnesses for /b the respondent b behind a fence /b so that the respondent would not see them, b and said to him: I /b have b one hundred dinars in your possession, /b and the respondent b said to him: Yes, /b and the claimant then said to him: b Do you wish to admit /b the debt b in the presence of so-and-so and so-and-so? /b And the respondent b said to him: I am afraid /b to do so, b lest you compel me to /b go to b judgment, /b where, based on their testimony, you will be given the right to forcibly take the money from me whenever you want. But between you and me, I admit that I owe you. And b the next day /b the claimant b said to him: Give me /b the one hundred dinars that you admitted to owing me, and the respondent b said to him: I was teasing you. /b The respondent is b exempt /b because he can claim that he stated his admission only to appease the claimant temporarily, and did not mean to actually admit to owing the money, as he did not know that there were witnesses present., b But /b the judges b do not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter, /b i.e., one who is accused of inciting others to idol worship.,The Gemara asks: b An inciter? Who mentioned anything about it? /b This matter was not discussed in the i baraita /i . The Gemara answers: The i baraita /i b is incomplete, and this is what it is teaching: If /b the defendant b did not advance a claim /b that he was teasing the plaintiff, the judges b do not advance /b this b claim for him. /b Apparently, he stated his admission seriously. b But in /b cases of b capital law, even if /b the defendant b did not advance /b any b claim /b on his own behalf, the judges b advance a claim on his behalf. But /b the judges b do not advance claims on behalf of an inciter. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about b an inciter, /b that the court does not seek to deem him innocent? b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: I heard at the lecture of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba /b that b an inciter is different, as the Merciful One states /b concerning him: b “Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him” /b (Deuteronomy 13:9). In this unique case, the court is not required to try to deem him innocent., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman says /b that b Rabbi Yonatan says: From where /b is it derived b that /b the judges b do not advance a claim on behalf of an inciter? /b It is derived b from /b the incident of b the primordial snake /b who tempted Eve; he was the first inciter. b As Rabbi Simlai says: The snake could have advanced many claims /b on its own behalf, b but it did not claim /b them. b And for what /b reason b did the Holy One, Blessed be He, not advance /b these b claims for it, /b deeming the snake exempt from punishment? b Because /b the snake b did not advance /b these b claims itself. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What could he have said? /b The Gemara answers: The snake could have said that it is not to blame, as when there is a contradiction between b the statement of the teacher and the statement of the student, whose statement should one listen to? One should listen to the statement of the teacher. /b Since God instructed Adam and Eve not to eat from the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Adam and Eve should have heeded God’s words and not those of the snake., b Ḥizkiyya says: From where /b is it derived b that anyone who adds, subtracts? /b It is derived from a verse, b as it is stated /b that Eve said: b “God has said: You shall not eat of it, neither shall you touch it” /b (Genesis 3:3), whereas God had actually rendered prohibited only eating from the tree but not touching it, as it is stated: “But of the Tree of Knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it” (Genesis 2:17). Because Eve added that there was a prohibition against touching the tree, the snake showed her that touching it does not cause her to die, and she consequently sinned by eating from it as well., b Rav Mesharshiyya says /b that the idea that one who adds, subtracts can also be proven b from here: “Two cubits [ i amatayim /i ] and a half shall be its length” /b (Exodus 25:10). Without the letter i alef /i at the beginning of the word i amatayim /i , it would be read i matayim /i , which would mean two hundred cubits. The addition of the i alef /i therefore reduces this term to only two cubits., b Rav Ashi says /b another example: In the verse: b “Eleven [ i ashtei esrei /i ] curtains” /b (Exodus 26:7), without the letter i ayin /i at the beginning of the phrase it would read i shtei esrei /i , twelve. Therefore, the additional letter i ayin /i reduces the amount from twelve to eleven., b Abaye says: /b With regard to the case of one who denies a debt to which he admitted in the presence of hidden witnesses, the Sages b taught /b that he is exempt b only /b in a case b where he says: I was teasing you. But /b if b he says: /b
32. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
33. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427
19a. ואי ס"ד דלא ידעי כי אמר להו מאי הוי אלא מאי דידעי למה לי' למימר להו לאחזוקי ליה טיבותא למשה,אמר רבי יצחק כל המספר אחרי המת כאלו מספר אחרי האבן איכא דאמרי דלא ידעי ואיכא דאמרי דידעי ולא איכפת להו,איני והא אמר רב פפא חד אישתעי מילתא בתריה דמר שמואל ונפל קניא מטללא ובזעא לארנקא דמוחיה,שאני צורבא מרבנן דקודשא בריך הוא תבע ביקריה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כל המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים נופל בגיהנם שנא' (תהלים קכה, ה) והמטים עקלקלותם יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון שלום על ישראל אפילו בשעה ששלום על ישראל יוליכם ה' את פועלי האון,תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל אם ראית תלמיד חכם שעבר עבירה בלילה אל תהרהר אחריו ביום שמא עשה תשובה שמא סלקא דעתך אלא ודאי עשה תשובה והני מילי בדברים שבגופו אבל בממונא עד דמהדר למריה:,ואמר ר' יהושע בן לוי בכ"ד מקומות בית דין מנדי' על כבוד הרב וכולן שנינו במשנתנו אמר ליה ר' אלעזר היכא אמר ליה לכי תשכח,נפק דק ואשכח תלת המזלזל בנטילת ידים והמספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמי' והמגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה,המספר אחר מטתן של תלמידי חכמים מאי היא דתנן הוא היה אומר אין משקין לא את הגיורת ולא את המשוחררת וחכמים אומרים משקין ואמרו לו מעשה בכרכמית שפחה משוחררת בירושלים והשקוה שמעיה ואבטליון ואמר להם דוגמא השקוה ונדוהו ומת בנדויו וסקלו בית דין את ארונו,והמזלזל בנטילת ידים מאי היא דתנן א"ר יהודה חס ושלום שעקביא בן מהללאל נתנדה שאין עזרה ננעלת על כל אדם בישראל בחכמה ובטהרה וביראת חטא כעקביא בן מהללאל אלא את מי נדו את אלעזר בן חנוך שפקפק בנטילת ידים וכשמת שלחו בית דין והניחו אבן גדולה על ארונו ללמדך שכל המתנדה ומת בנדויו ב"ד סוקלין את ארונו,המגיס דעתו כלפי מעלה מאי היא דתנן שלח לו שמעון בן שטח לחוני המעגל צריך אתה להתנדות ואלמלא חוני אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי אבל מה אעשה שאתה מתחטא לפני המקום ועושה לך רצונך כבן שמתחטא לפני אביו ועושה לו רצונו ועליך הכתוב אומר (משלי כג, כה) ישמח אביך ואמך ותגל יולדתך,ותו ליכא והא איכא דתני רב יוסף תודוס איש רומי הנהיג את בני רומי להאכילן גדיים מקולסין בלילי פסחים שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח אלמלא תודוס אתה גוזרני עליך נדוי שאתה מאכיל את ישראל קדשים בחוץ,במשנתנו קאמרינן והא ברייתא היא,ובמתני' ליכא והא איכא הא דתנן חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא ר' אליעזר מטהר וחכמים מטמאים וזהו תנורו של עכנאי,מאי עכנאי אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מלמד שהקיפוהו הלכות כעכנאי זה וטמאוהו,ותניא אותו היום הביאו כל טהרות שטיהר ר"א ושרפום לפניו ולבסוף ברכוהו,אפילו הכי נדוי במתני' לא תנן אלא בכ"ד מקומות היכא משכחת לה ר' יהושע בן לוי מדמה מילתא למילתא ור' אלעזר לא מדמה מילתא למילתא:, נושאי המטה וחלופיהן: ת"ר אין מוציאין את המת סמוך לק"ש ואם התחילו אין מפסיקין איני והא רב יוסף אפקוהו סמוך לק"ש אדם חשוב שאני:,שלפני המטה ושלאחר המטה: ת"ר העוסקים בהספד בזמן שהמת מוטל לפניהם נשמטין אחד אחד וקורין אין המת מוטל לפניהם הן יושבין וקורין והוא יושב ודומם הם עומדים ומתפללין והוא עומד ומצדיק עליו את הדין ואומר רבון העולמים הרבה חטאתי לפניך ולא נפרעת ממני אחד מני אלף יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתגדור פרצותינו ופרצות כל עמך בית ישראל ברחמים,אמר אביי לא מבעי ליה לאינש למימר הכי דארשב"ל וכן תנא משמיה דרבי יוסי לעולם אל יפתח אדם פיו לשטן,ואמר רב יוסף מאי קראה שנאמר (ישעיהו א, ט) כמעט כסדום היינו מאי אהדר להו נביא שמעו דבר ה' קציני סדום:,קברו את המת וחזרו וכו': אם יכולים להתחיל ולגמור את כולה אין אבל פרק אחד או פסוק אחד לא ורמינהו קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפילו פרק אחד או פסוק אחד,הכי נמי קאמר אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור אפי' פרק אחד או אפילו פסוק אחד עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו 19a. b And if it should enter your mind that /b the dead b do not know, then what of it if he tells them? /b The Gemara rejects this: b Rather what /b will you say, b that /b they b know? /b Then b why does he /b need b to tell them? /b The Gemara replies: This is not difficult, as he is telling them so that b they will give credit to Moses. /b ,On this subject, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who speaks /b negatively b after the deceased it is as if /b he b speaks after the stone. /b The Gemara offers two interpretations of this: b Some say /b this is because the dead b do not know, and some say /b that b they know, /b but b they do not care /b that they are spoken of in such a manner.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? Didn’t Rav Pappa say: /b There was once b someone who spoke /b disparagingly b after /b the death of b Mar Shmuel and a reed fell from the ceiling, fracturing his skull? /b Obviously, the dead care when people speak ill of them.,The Gemara rejects this: This is no proof that the dead care. Rather, a b Torah scholar is different, as God /b Himself b demands /b that b his honor /b be upheld.,Rabbi Yehoshua b ben Levi said /b similarly: b One who speaks /b disparagingly b after the biers of Torah scholars /b and maligns them after their death will b fall in Gehenna, as it is stated: “But those who turn aside unto their crooked ways, the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity; peace be upon Israel” /b (Psalms 125:5). b Even /b if he speaks ill of them b when there is peace upon Israel, /b after death, when they are no longer able to fight those denouncing them ( i Tosafot /i ); nevertheless b the Lord will lead them away with the workers of iniquity, /b to Gehenna.,On a similar note, b it was taught in the school of Rabbi Yishmael: If you saw a /b Torah b scholar transgress a prohibition at night, do not think /b badly b of him during the day; perhaps he has repented /b in the meantime. The Gemara challenges this: b Does it enter your mind /b that only b perhaps /b he has repented? Shouldn’t he be given the benefit of the doubt? b Rather, he has certainly repented. /b The Gemara notes: b The idea /b that one must always give a Torah scholar the benefit of the doubt and assume that he has repented refers specifically to b matters /b affecting b himself, but, /b if one witnesses a Torah scholar committing a transgression b involving the property /b of another, one is not required to give him the benefit of the doubt. Rather, he should not assume that he has repented b until /b he sees him b return /b the money to b its owner. /b ,Since matters relating to the respect due Torah scholars were raised, the Gemara continues, citing b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, /b who b said: There are twenty-four places in which the court ostracizes over /b matters of b respect /b due b the rabbi, and we learned them all in our Mishna. Rabbi Elazar said to him: Where /b are those cases to be found? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b said to him: When /b you look, b you /b will b find /b them., b He went out, analyzed, and found three /b examples: b One who demeans /b the ritual of b washing of the hands, one who speaks /b disparagingly b after the bier of Torah scholars, and one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven. /b The Gemara cites sources for each of these cases., b What is /b the source for b one who speaks /b disparagingly b after the biers of Torah scholars? As we learned /b in the mishna: Akavya ben Mahalalel b would say: /b In the case of a woman whose husband suspects her of adultery, who was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with another man and she did not listen (see Numbers 5), the court b does not administer /b the bitter water potion of a i sota /i to b a convert or an emancipated /b maidservant. b And the Rabbis say: /b The court b administers /b the bitter water potion to them. b And /b the Rabbis b said to him /b as proof: b There is the story of Kharkemit, an emancipated maidservant in Jerusalem, and Shemaya and Avtalyon administered her /b the bitter waters. Akavya ben Mahalalel b said to /b the Sages: That is no proof. Shemaya and Avtalyon, who were also from families of converts, required the maidservant b to drink /b the potion because she was b like them [ i dugma /i ]. And /b since Akavya ben Mahalalel cast aspersion on the deceased Torah scholars, b he was ostracized and died /b while b he /b was still under the ban of b ostracism. And /b in accordance with the i halakha /i with regard to one who dies while under a ban of ostracism, the court b stoned his coffin. /b Apparently, one who deprecates a deceased Torah scholar is sentenced to ostracism.,And b what is /b the source for b one who demeans /b the ritual of b washing of the hands? We learned /b later in the same mishna: b Rabbi Yehuda said: /b That story related with regard to the ostracism of Akavya ben Mahalalel is completely untrue; b God forbid that Akavya ben Mahalalel was ostracized, as the Temple courtyard is not closed on any Jew, /b meaning that even when all of Israel made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, when each of the three groups that gathered to offer the Paschal lamb filled the courtyard, leading the Temple administration to close the courtyard, there was no one there as perfect b in wisdom, purity and fear of sin as Akavya ben Mahalalel. Rather, whom did they excommunicate? Elazar ben Ḥanokh, /b because he b doubted /b and demeaned the rabbinic ordice of b washing of the hands. And when he died, the court sent /b instructions b and they placed a large rock upon his coffin /b in order b to teach you that one who is ostracized and dies in /b a state of b ostracism, the court stones his coffin, /b as if symbolically stoning him. Apparently, one who makes light of the ritual of washing of the hands is sentenced to ostracism., b What is /b the source for the third case, b one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven? /b The mishna relates that Ḥoni HaMe’aggel, the circle-drawer, drew a circle and stood inside it, and said that he would not leave the circle until it rained, and he went so far as to make demands in terms of the manner in which he wanted the rain to fall. After it rained, b Shimon ben Shataḥ, /b the i Nasi /i of the Sanhedrin, relayed to b Ḥoni HaMe’aggel: /b Actually, b you should be ostracized /b for what you said, b and if you were not Ḥoni, I would have decreed ostracism upon you, but what can I do? You nag God and He does your bidding, like a son who nags his father and /b his father b does his bidding /b without reprimand. After all, the rain fell as you requested. b About you, the verse states: “Your father and mother will be glad and she who bore you will rejoice” /b (Proverbs 23:25). Apparently, one who is arrogant vis-à-vis Heaven would ordinarily merit excommunication.,The Gemara challenges this: b And are there no more /b cases of excommunication or threats of excommunication? b Surely there are /b additional cases like the one in the i baraita /i b taught by Rav Yosef: /b It is told that b Theodosius of Rome, /b leader of the Jewish community there, b instituted the custom for the Roman /b Jews b to eat whole kids, /b young goats roasted with their entrails over their heads, as was the custom when roasting the Paschal lamb, b on the eve of Passover, /b as they did in the Temple. b Shimon ben Shataḥ sent /b a message b to him: If you were not Theodosius, /b an important person, b I would have decreed ostracism upon you, as /b it appears as if b you are feeding Israel consecrated food, /b which may only be eaten in and around the Temple itself, b outside /b the Temple.,The Gemara responds: This case should not be included, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that there were twenty-four cases b in our Mishna, /b and b this is /b merely b a i baraita /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b And are there none in the Mishna? Isn’t there that which we learned /b in the mishna: b One /b who b cut /b an earthenware oven horizontally b into /b ring-shaped b pieces and put sand between the pieces, Rabbi Eliezer deems /b the oven b ritually pure, /b i.e., it is no longer susceptible to ritual impurity. He holds that, although the fragments of the oven were pieced together, it is not considered an intact vessel but, rather, as a collection of fragments, and a broken earthenware vessel cannot become ritually impure. b And the Rabbis deem it ritually impure. /b Since the oven continues to serve its original function, it is still considered a single entity and a whole vessel despite the sand put between the pieces. b And this is /b called b the oven of i akhnai /i , snake. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of oven of the b snake? Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b It is called snake b to teach that /b the Rabbis b surrounded /b Rabbi Eliezer b with /b i halakhot /i and proofs b like a snake /b surrounds its prey, b and declared /b the oven and its contents b ritually impure. /b , b And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On that day, they gathered all /b of b the ritually pure /b food items that had come into contact with the oven b that Rabbi Eliezer had declared ritually pure, and burned them before him, /b and because he did not accept the decision of the majority, b in the end they “blessed,” /b a euphemism for ostracized, b him. /b This is another case that ended in ostracism.,The Gemara answers: b Even so, we did not learn /b the ruling with regard to his b ostracism in the mishna. /b The Gemara asks: Then b where do you find /b the b twenty-four places /b mentioned in Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement? The Gemara responds: b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi likens one matter to another /b similar b matter. /b Whenever he would encounter a case in a mishna where one of the Sages expressed himself inappropriately in reference to other Sages, he concluded that they should have been excommunicated. b Rabbi Elazar does not liken one matter to another /b similar b matter, /b and therefore located only three explicit cases of ostracism.,We learned in the mishna that b the pallbearers and their replacements /b are exempt from the recitation of i Shema /i . On this subject, the Gemara cites that which the b Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The deceased may not be taken out /b to be buried b adjacent to /b the time for b the recitation of i Shema /i , /b but should be buried later. b And if they /b already b started /b to take him out, b they need not stop /b in order to recite i Shema /i . The Gemara challenges: b Is that so? Didn’t they take Rav Yosef out /b to be buried b adjacent to /b the time for b the recitation of i Shema /i ? /b The Gemara resolves this contradiction: The case of b an important person is different, /b and they are more lenient in order to honor him at his burial.,In the mishna, we learned the i halakha /i with regard to the pallbearers and their obligation to recite i Shema /i , and a distinction was made between those b who are before the bier and /b those b after the bier. Our Rabbis taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Those involved in eulogy must slip away /b from the eulogy b one by one while the deceased is laid out before them and recite /b i Shema /i elsewhere. And b if the deceased is not laid out before them, /b the eulogizers must b sit and recite /b i Shema /i b while /b the bereaved b sits silently. They stand and pray and he stands and justifies God’s judgment, saying: Master of the Universe, I have sinned greatly against You, and You have not collected even one one-thousandth /b of my debt. b May it be Your will, Lord our God, to mercifully repair the breaches in our /b fence b and the breaches of Your nation, the House of Israel. /b , b Abaye said: A person should not say that, as Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said, and it was also taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei: One must never open his mouth to the Satan, /b i.e., one must not leave room for or raise the possibility of disaster or evil. This formula, which states that the entire debt owed due to his transgressions has not been collected, raises the possibility that further payment will be exacted from him., b And Rav Yosef said: What is the verse /b from which b it /b is derived? b As it is stated: “We should have almost been as Sodom, /b we should have been like unto Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:9), after which b what did /b the prophet b reply to them? “Hear the word of the Lord, rulers of Sodom; /b give ear unto the law of our God, people of Gomorrah” (Isaiah 1:10).,We learned in the mishna that, in a case when b they buried the deceased and returned, /b if they have sufficient time to begin to recite i Shema /i and conclude before they arrive at the row formed by those who came to console the bereaved, they should begin. Here, the Gemara clarifies: This is the case only b if they can begin and complete /b recitation of i Shema /i b in its entirety. However, /b if they can only complete b one chapter or one verse, /b they should b not /b stop to do so. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from that which we learned in the i baraita /i : After b they buried the deceased and returned, if they can begin /b the recitation of i Shema /i b and finish even a single chapter or verse, /b they should begin.,The Gemara responds: b That is also what /b the i tanna /i of the mishna b said /b and this is the conclusion drawn from his statement: b If one can begin and conclude even one chapter or one verse before they arrive at the row /b of consolers, b they should begin. And if not, they should not begin. /b
34. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
41b. אתא לקמיה דרב יהודה אזיל אייתי תרי סהדי חד אמר תרתי אוצייתא עאל וחד אמר תלת אוצייתא עאל א"ל זיל שלים תרתי מגו תלת,אמר ליה כמאן כרבי שמעון בן אלעזר דתניא אמר ר' שמעון בן אלעזר לא נחלקו בית שמאי ובית הלל על שתי כיתי עדים שאחת אומרת מנה ואחת אומרת מאתים שיש בכלל מאתים מנה,על מה נחלקו על כת אחת שאחד אומר מנה ואחד אומר מאתים שבית שמאי אומרים נחלקה עדותן ובית הלל אומרים יש בכלל מאתים מנה,א"ל והא מייתינא לך איגרתא ממערבא דאין הלכה כר' שמעון בן אלעזר א"ל לכי תיתי,ההוא גברא דדר בקשתא בעיליתא ארבע שני אתא מארי דביתא אשכחיה א"ל מאי בעית בהאי ביתא א"ל מפלניא זבינתה דזבנה מינך אתא לקמיה דר' חייא א"ל אי אית לך סהדי דדר בה איהו דזבנת מיניה ואפילו חד יומא אוקימנא לה בידך ואי לא לא,אמר רב הוה יתיבנא קמיה דחביבי ואמרי ליה וכי אין אדם עשוי ליקח ולמכור בלילה וחזיתיה לדעתיה אי א"ל קמאי דידי זבנה מינך מהימן מיגו דאי בעי א"ל אנא זבנתה מינך,אמר רבא כוותיה דר' חייא מסתברא דקתני הבא משום ירושה אינו צריך טענה טענה הוא דלא בעי הא ראיה בעי,ודלמא לא ראיה בעי ולא טענה בעי ואיבעית אימא שאני לוקח דלא שדי זוזי בכדי,איבעיא להו נראה בו מאי אמר אביי היא היא רבא אמר עביד איניש דסיאר ארעיה ולא זבין:,שלשה לקוחות מצטרפין אמר רב וכולם בשטר,למימרא דסבר רב שטר אית ליה קלא ועדים לית להו קלא והאמר רב המוכר שדה בעדים גובה מנכסים משועבדים התם לקוחות 41b. Rav Kahana b came before Rav Yehuda. /b Rav Kahana’s neighbor b went /b and b brought two witnesses. One said: /b Rav Kahana b entered two rows /b into his neighbor’s land, b and one said: /b Rav Kahana b entered three rows /b into his neighbor’s land. Rav Yehuda b said to /b Rav Kahana: b Go /b and b pay two out of /b the b three /b that your neighbor is claiming by moving the wall two rows into your property.,Rav Kahana b said to /b Rav Yehuda: b In accordance with whose /b opinion are you ruling that the testimony of witnesses who contradict each other is valid? Is it b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar? As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel did not disagree with regard to two sets of witnesses, where one /b set b says /b that a litigant owes b one hundred dinars and one /b set b says /b that he owes b two hundred. /b In such a case, everyone agrees b that /b two hundred b includes one hundred, /b and he is liable to pay one hundred., b With regard to what did /b Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel b disagree? /b They disagree b with regard to one set /b of witnesses, b where one /b witness b says /b that a litigant owes b one hundred dinars and one /b witness b says /b that he owes b two hundred; as /b in such a case, b Beit Shammai say /b that b their testimony is divided, /b and they do not combine to form a set of witnesses, b and Beit Hillel say /b that b two hundred includes one hundred, /b and they combine to form a set of witnesses. Rav Kahana assumed that Rav Yehuda based his ruling on Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar’s interpretation of the opinion of Beit Hillel.,Rav Kahana then b said to /b Rav Yehuda: How can you rely on this opinion? b But I can bring you a letter from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, stating b that /b the b i halakha /i is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, /b and that in fact Beit Hillel also disqualify two witnesses in such a case. Rav Yehuda b said to /b Rav Kahana: I will accept that ruling b when you will bring /b such a letter. Until then, I stand by my ruling.,§ The Gemara relates: There was b a certain man who resided in a loft in Kashta /b for b four years. /b At the end of that period, the prior b owner of the house came /b and b found him /b there. The prior owner b said to him: What do you want with this house /b of mine? The possessor b said to /b him: b I purchased it from so-and-so, who purchased it from you. /b The possessor b came before Rabbi Ḥiyya, /b who b said to him: If you have witnesses /b who will testify b that he, from whom you purchased /b the house, b resided in it, even /b if there is testimony that he resided in it for only b one day, I will establish it in your possession, but if /b there is b no /b testimony to his having resided there then I will b not /b establish it in your possession, and it will revert back to its prior owner., b Rav said: I was sitting before my uncle [ i deḥavivi /i ], /b Rabbi Ḥiyya, b and I said to him: But isn’t it common /b for b a person to purchase /b a house b and sell /b it immediately b during the /b same b night? /b It is possible that the seller purchased and sold the house without witnesses who saw him residing in it. b And I saw that /b Rabbi Ḥiyya’s b opinion /b was that b if /b the possessor b said to /b the claimant: The one who sold it to me b purchased it from you in my presence, /b this claim is b deemed credible, since if /b the possessor b wanted /b to, he could have b said to /b the prior owner of the house: b I purchased it from you. /b , b Rava said: /b It b stands to reason /b that the i halakha /i is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Ḥiyya, as /b the mishna (41a) b teaches: /b In the case of land b that comes as an inheritance, one is not required to make a claim /b as to how the land came into his benefactor’s possession when one’s ownership of the land is challenged. This indicates that b it is a claim that /b he b does not need, but /b he b does need proof /b that it had been in the possession of his ancestors.,The Gemara rejects the inference from the mishna: b But perhaps /b he b does not need proof and does not need a claim. /b The only reason that the mishna mentions that he does not need a claim is to clarify that this does not fall into the category of a possession that is not accompanied by a claim. Therefore, one cannot infer from the ruling of that mishna what the i halakha /i should be in this case. b And if you wish, say /b instead that although the inference from the mishna is correct, it is not relevant to this case, as the case of b a buyer is different, since /b he would b not throw money /b away b for nothing. /b The fact that he purchased the house indicates that he must have ascertained that the seller had a right to it., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: If the seller b was seen in /b the house, b what /b is the i halakha /i ? Is this sufficient proof that he had purchased the house? b Abaye said: It is identical /b to testimony that he had resided there. b Rava said: /b This does not constitute proof, as b a person is apt to survey [ i desayyar /i ] land and /b ultimately b not purchase /b it.,§ The Gemara issues a ruling concerning the establishment of the presumption of ownership. b Three buyers combine /b to establish the presumption of ownership. If one purchased a field and sold it to another, who then sold it to a third party, and in total, the three of them worked and profited from the field for three years, the third one has established the presumption of ownership. b Rav says: And /b this is the i halakha /i only if they b all /b purchased the land b with a bill /b of sale. As a result of the bill of sale, the prior owner will know that it is not the case that each of them worked and profited from the field for only one year and abandoned it, which would explain why he did not bother to lodge a protest.,The Gemara asks: b Is this to say that Rav holds /b that b a bill /b of sale generates b publicity, but witnesses do not /b generate b publicity? But doesn’t Rav say /b that with regard to b one who sells a field in /b the presence of b witnesses, /b and that field is later seized by the creditors of the seller, the buyer b collects from /b the b liened property /b that the seller had sold to others, to be reimbursed for his seized field? If not for the fact that the sale in the presence of witnesses generates publicity, those who later purchased land from the seller would not have been aware that the property they are purchasing is liened to the first buyer. The Gemara answers: b There, /b with regard to b buyers, /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 22
31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. b who wagered with each other /b and b said: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillel /b to the point that he reprimands him, b will take four-hundred /b i zuz /i . b One of them said: I will aggravate him. That day /b that he chose to bother Hillel b was Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washing /b the hair on b his head. He went and passed the entrance to /b Hillel’s b house /b and in a demeaning manner b said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Hillel b wrapped himself /b in a dignified garment b and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. /b Hillel b said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked him: b Why are the heads of Babylonians oval? /b He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. b He said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they do not have clever midwives. /b They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man b went and waited one hour, /b a short while, b returned /b to look for Hillel, b and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Again, Hillel b wrapped himself and went out to greet him. /b Hillel b said to him: My son, what do you seek? /b The man b said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked: b Why are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ i terutot /i ]? /b Hillel b said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they live among the sands /b and the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man b went, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel? /b Again, b he, /b Hillel, b wrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask. /b The man asked: b Why do Africans have wide feet? /b Hillel b said to him: You have asked a significant question. /b The reason is b because they live in marshlands /b and their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man b said to him: I have many /b more b questions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry. /b Hillel b wrapped himself and sat before him, /b and b he said to him: All of /b the b questions that you have to ask, ask /b them. The man got angry and b said to him: Are you Hillel whom they call /b the b i Nasi /i of Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: If /b it b is you, /b then b may there not be many like you in Israel. /b Hillel b said to him: My son, for what /b reason do you say this? The man b said to him: Because I lost four hundred i zuz /i because of you. /b Hillel b said to him: Be vigilant of your spirit /b and avoid situations of this sort. b Hillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred i zuz /i and /b another b four hundred i zuz /i on his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b , b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai. /b The gentile b said to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah. /b The gentile b said to him: /b With regard to b the Written /b Torah, b I believe you, but /b with regard to b the Oral /b Torah, b I do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach me /b only the b Written Torah. /b Shammai b scolded him and cast him out with reprimand. /b The same gentile b came before Hillel, /b who b converted him /b and began teaching him Torah. b On the first day, he /b showed him the letters of the alphabet and b said to him: i Alef /i , i bet /i , i gimmel /i , i dalet /i . The next day he reversed /b the order of the letters and told him that an i alef /i is a i tav /i and so on. The convert b said to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that. /b Hillel b said to him: /b You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. b Didn’t you rely on me? /b Therefore, you should b also rely on me /b with regard to the matter b of the Oral /b Torah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was b another incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai /b and b said to /b Shammai: b Convert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot. /b Shammai b pushed him /b away b with the builder’s cubit in his hand. /b This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile b came before Hillel. He converted him /b and b said to him: /b That b which is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b ,There was b another incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study hall /b and b heard the voice of a teacher who was /b teaching Torah to his students and b saying /b the verse: b “And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an i efod, /i /b and a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). b The gentile said: These /b garments, b for whom are they /b designated? The students b said to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammai /b and b said to him: Convert me on condition that you install me /b as High Priest. Shammai b pushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b ,Hillel b said to him, /b to the convert: b Is it not /b the way of the world that b only one who knows the protocols [ i takhsisei /i ] /b of royalty b is appointed king? Go /b and b learn the royal protocols /b by engaging in Torah study. b He went and read /b the Bible. b When he reached /b the verse which says: b “And the common man that draws near shall be put to death” /b (Numbers 1:51), the convert b said to /b Hillel: b With regard to whom is the verse speaking? /b Hillel b said to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an i a fortiori /i inference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn” /b (Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless b it is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who came /b without merit, b with /b nothing more than b his staff and traveling bag, all the more so /b that this applies to him, as well.,The convert b came before Shammai /b and b told him /b that he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: b Am I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hillel /b and b said to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence. /b The Gemara relates: b Eventually, the three /b converts b gathered together /b in b one place, /b and b they said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b ,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that b Reish Lakish said: What /b is the meaning of b that which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge, /b the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? b Faith; that is the order of i Zera /i ’ i im /i , Seeds, /b in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). b Your times; that is the order of i Moed /i , Festival, /b which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. b Strength; that is the order of i Nashim /i , Women. Salvations; that is the order of i Nezikin /i , Damages, /b as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. b Wisdom; that is the order of i Kodashim /i , Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of i Teharot /i , Purity, /b which is particularly difficult to master. b And even /b if a person studies and masters all of these, b “the fear of the Lord is his treasure,” /b it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, b Rava said: /b After departing from this world, b when a person is brought to judgment /b for the life he lived in this world, b they say to him /b in the order of that verse: Did b you conduct business faithfully? /b Did b you designate times for Torah /b study? Did b you engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engage /b in the dialectics of b wisdom /b or understand b one matter from another? And, nevertheless, /b beyond all these, b if the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes, /b he is worthy, and b if not, no, /b none of these accomplishments have any value. There is b a parable /b that illustrates this. b A person who said to his emissary: Bring a i kor /i of wheat up to the attic for me /b to store there. The messenger b went and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary: /b Did b you mix a i kav /i of i ḥomton /i , /b a preservative to keep away worms, b into it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him: /b If so, it would have been b preferable had you not brought it up. /b of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a i halakha /i that was b taught /b in b the school /b of b Rabbi Yishmael: A person /b who sells wheat b may, /b i ab initio /i , b mix a i kav /i of i ḥomton /i into a i kor /i of grain and need not be concerned /b that by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the i kav /i of i ḥomton /i is essential for the preservation of the wheat., b Rabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
37. Babylonian Talmud, Shevuot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
48b. שהבן גובה בין בשבועה ובין שלא בשבועה והאב אינו גובה אלא בשבועה היכי דמי דמת לוה בחיי מלוה,וקתני שהבן גובה בין בשבועה ובין שלא בשבועה בשבועה שבועת יורשין שלא בשבועה כרשב"ג,אמר רב יוסף הא מני בית שמאי היא דאמרי שטר העומד לגבות כגבוי דמי,איקלע רב נחמן לסורא עול לגביה רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא אמרו ליה ליתי מר נעקרא להא דרב ושמואל אמר להו איכפלי ואתאי כל הני פרסי למעקרא להא דרב ושמואל אלא הבו דלא לוסיף עלה כגון מאי דאמר רב פפא הפוגם את שטרו ומת יורשין נשבעין שבועת יורשין ונוטלין,ההוא דשכיב ושבק ערבא סבר רב פפא למימר הא נמי דלא לוסיף עלה הוא אמר ליה רב הונא בריה דרב יהושע לרב פפא אטו ערבא לאו בתר יתמי אזיל,ההוא דשכיב ושבק אחא סבר רמי בר חמא למימר הא נמי דלא לוסיף עלה הוא אמר ליה רבא מה לי שלא פקדני אבא ומה לי שלא פקדני אחי,אמר רב חמא השתא דלא איתמר הלכתא לא כרב ושמואל ולא כרבי אלעזר האי דיינא דעבד כרב ושמואל עבד דעבד כרבי אלעזר עבד,אמר רב פפא האי שטרא דיתמי לא מקרע קרעינן ליה ולא אגבויי מגבינן ביה אגבויי לא מגבינן ביה דלמא סבירא לן כרב ושמואל ומקרע לא קרעינן ליה דהאי דיינא דעבד כרבי אלעזר עבד,ההוא דיינא דעבד כרבי אלעזר הוה צורבא מרבנן במתיה אמר ליה אייתינה איגרתא ממערבא דלית הלכתא כרבי אלעזר אמר ליה לכי תייתי אתא לקמיה דרב חמא א"ל האי דיינא דעבד כרבי אלעזר עבד:,ואלו נשבעין: אטו בשופטני עסקינן הכי קאמר ואלו נשבעין שלא בטענת ברי אלא בטענת שמא השותפין והאריסין,תנא בן בית שאמרו לא שנכנס ויוצא ברגליו אלא מכניס לו פועלין ומוציא לו פועלין מכניס לו פירות ומוציא לו פירות,ומאי שנא הני משום דמורו בה התירא,אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן והוא שיש טענה בינייהו שתי כסף,כמאן כשמואל והתני רבי חייא לסיועיה לרב אימא כפירת טענה כרב:,חלקו השותפין והאריסין: איבעיא להו מהו לגלגל בדרבנן,ת"ש לוה הימנו ערב שביעית ולמוצאי שביעית נעשה לו שותף או אריס אין מגלגלין טעמא דלוה הימנו ערב שביעית דאתיא שביעית אפקעתיה הא שאר שני שבוע מגלגלין,לא תימא הא שאר שני שבוע מגלגלין אלא אימא נעשה לו שותף או אריס ערב שביעית ולמוצאי שביעית לוה הימנו מגלגלין,הא בהדיא קתני לה נעשה לו שותף או אריס ערב שביעית ולמוצאי שביעית לוה הימנו מגלגלין ש"מ מגלגלין בדרבנן ש"מ,אמר רב הונא 48b. b as the son can collect both by /b taking b an oath and without /b taking b an oath, while the father can collect only by /b taking b an oath. What are the circumstances /b in which this occurs? It is b when /b the b borrower died during the life of /b the b lender. /b The father who is the lender can collect from the borrower’s heirs only if he takes an oath., b And it is taught: As the son can collect both by /b taking b an oath and without /b taking b an oath. /b He collects b by /b taking b an oath /b when he takes b the heirs’ oath, /b that he has no knowledge that his father’s debt was paid, and he collects b without /b taking b an oath in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel /b in the mishna, that when there are witnesses that the father said at the time of his death that a certain promissory note had not been paid, the son collects the debt without taking an oath. In any case, absent testimony to that effect, the father bequeaths the oath to his children and the son can collect by taking an oath, contrary to the ruling of Rav and Shmuel., b Rav Yosef said /b in response: In accordance with b whose /b opinion b is this /b i baraita /i ? b It is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Beit Shammai, who say /b that a debt recorded in a promissory b note that stands to be collected /b is considered b as if /b it b is /b already b collected. /b Therefore, the father is considered to be already in possession of the loan and bequeaths it to his son. Even though the Sages instituted that the son take an oath to the heirs of the borrower, this is not a case of the son inheriting an oath.,§ It is related that b Rav Naḥman arrived in /b the city of b Sura. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna came to /b see b him. They said to him: Let /b our b Master come, /b and together b we will overturn that /b ruling b of Rav and Shmuel. /b Rav Naḥman b said to them: Did I exert /b myself b and come all these parasangs to uproot that /b ruling b of Rav and Shmuel? Rather, let us not extend /b their ruling by applying it to other situations outside the specific context of when the borrower died during the lifetime of the lender. The Gemara offers an example: This is b like what Rav Pappa says: /b If a creditor b vitiates his /b promissory b note, /b by acknowledging that he has received partial payment and thereby rendering himself liable to take an oath in order to receive the rest, b and /b then he b dies, /b his b heirs take the heirs’ oath and collect /b from the debtor.,The Gemara relates: There was b a certain /b debtor b who died and left a guarantor /b of his debt, and the orphans of the creditor came to collect from the guarantor. b Rav Pappa thought to say: This, too, is /b a case to which b one should not extend /b Rav and Shmuel’s ruling, as they said only that orphans do not inherit an oath to collect from other orphans, and this should not apply to collecting from a guarantor. b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, said to Rav Pappa: Is that to say /b that b the guarantor will not pursue /b the b orphans /b and collect from them? Ultimately, collecting from the guarantor is tantamount to collecting from the orphans, and no distinction should be made.,The Gemara relates: There was b a certain /b creditor b who died and left a brother /b as his heir, who wanted to collect from the orphans of the debtor. b Rami bar Ḥama thought to say /b that b this, too, is /b a case to which b one should not extend /b Rav and Shmuel’s ruling, since Rav and Shmuel ruled that one does not bequeath an oath to one’s children, and they did not mention a case where the heir is a brother. b Rava said to him: What /b difference does it make b to me /b if the oath taken by the heir is: My b father did not inform me /b that this debt has been paid, b and what /b difference does it make b to me /b if the oath taken is: b My brother did not inform me? /b , b Rav Ḥama says: Now that the i halakha /i was not stated either in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav and Shmuel or in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, a judge who rules in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav and Shmuel has ruled, /b and his ruling is accepted, and a judge b who rules in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar has ruled, /b and his ruling is accepted., b Rav Pappa says: /b When b that /b promissory b note of orphans /b comes before our court, b we do not tear it up, but we /b also b do not collect /b the debt b with it. We do not collect /b the debt b with it, /b since b perhaps we /b should b hold in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav and Shmuel /b that orphans cannot collect debts in a case where their father was required to take an oath to collect, as they cannot take the appropriate oath; b but we do not tear it up, since a judge who rules in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar has ruled. /b ,The Gemara relates: There was b a certain judge who ruled in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar. There was a Torah scholar in his city. He said to /b the judge: b I will bring a letter from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, stating b that the i halakha /i is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar. /b The judge b said to him: When you bring /b such a letter, I will consider it, but for now I stand by my ruling. That Torah scholar b came before Rav Ḥama, /b and Rav Ḥama b said to him: A judge who rules in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar has ruled, /b and his ruling cannot be voided.,§ The mishna teaches: b And these /b people are sometimes required to b take an oath /b that they do not owe anything even when there is no explicit claim against them: Partners, sharecroppers, stewards, a woman who does business from home, where she manages the property of orphans, and the member of the household appointed to manage the household’s affairs. The Gemara asks: b Is that to say /b that b we are dealing with fools /b who take an oath even though no claim has been brought against them? The Gemara explains: b This /b is what the mishna b is saying: And these /b people b take an oath without /b it being in response b to a definite claim but /b only b to an uncertain claim, /b i.e., the claimant cannot know with certainty that he is owed money: b Partners, sharecroppers, /b and the others listed in the mishna.,The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Ketubot /i 9:3): With regard to the b member of the household whom they mentioned /b in the mishna, this is b not /b referring to one b who enters and exits /b the house b on foot /b as a family friend, but b rather /b to one who b engages laborers, and dismisses laborers, gathers produce, and sends out produce /b in managing the household.,The Gemara asks: b And what is different /b about b these /b people listed in the mishna, e.g., partners, such that they are liable to take an oath in response to an uncertain claim? It is b because they /b tend to b grant /b themselves b permission /b to take for themselves b from /b the property for which they are responsible, using as an excuse the effort they invest in their duties., b Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said /b that b Rav Naḥman said: /b One takes an oath in response to an uncertain claim only b when there is a claim between them /b worth at least b two silver /b i ma’a /i .,The Gemara asks: b In accordance with whose /b opinion is this ruling? Is it b in accordance with /b that of b Shmuel? /b Shmuel holds that one becomes liable to take an oath after admitting to part of a claim when the value of the entire claim is at least two silver i ma’a /i . Rav holds that the portion one denies he owes must be at least two i ma’a /i (see 39b). b But didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach /b a i baraita /i b in support of Rav? /b The Gemara answers: b Say /b that Rav Naḥman means that b the /b value of the b denial of a claim /b is at least two silver i ma’a /i , b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: Once b the partners or the sharecroppers have divided /b the common property, and each has taken his share, then one side may not require an oath of the other absent a definite claim. b A question was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the i halakha /i b about extending /b an oath to an additional situation, in a case where the original oath is b by rabbinic law? /b ,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a i baraita /i : If b one borrowed from /b another on the b eve of, /b i.e., before, the b Sabbatical /b Year, b and upon the conclusion of the Sabbatical /b Year b became his partner or sharecropper, /b the lender b may not extend /b the partner’s or sharecropper’s oath to an oath about the loan. The Gemara infers: The b reason /b he may not extend the oath is b that he borrowed from him /b on the b eve of the Sabbatical /b Year, b so that /b the b Sabbatical /b Year b came and abrogated /b the loan, rendering the oath irrelevant. b Therefore, /b if he borrowed during b the other years of the /b seven-year b Sabbatical /b cycle, an oath b may be extended /b from the partner’s oath or sharecropper’s oath, which are rabbinic ordices, to an oath about the loan.,The Gemara rejects that inference: b Do not say: Therefore, /b if he borrowed during b the other years of the Sabbatical /b cycle, an oath b may be extended. Rather, say /b that one should infer from the i baraita /i that if b he became his partner or sharecropper /b on the b eve of the Sabbatical /b Year, b and upon the conclusion of the Sabbatical /b Year b he borrowed from him /b and incurred an oath by Torah law, that oath b may be extended. /b ,The Gemara asks: Isn’t b that taught explicitly /b in a i baraita /i ? It teaches: b If he became his partner or sharecropper on the eve of the Sabbatical /b Year, b and upon the conclusion of the Sabbatical /b Year b he borrowed from him, /b the oath b may be extended. /b Therefore, the initial inference must be correct. b Conclude from it /b that an oath incurred b by rabbinic law may be extended. /b The Gemara affirms: b Conclude from it /b that this is so., b Rav Huna says: /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 613
48b. כמין שני חוטמין דקין (ואחד) מעובה ואחד דק כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת מערבו של מים מזרחו של יין עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא,ר' יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה ולמנסך אומר לו הגבה ידך שפעם אחד נסך אחד על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן,כמעשהו בחול כך מעשהו בשבת אלא שהיה ממלא מערב שבת חבית של זהב שאינה מקודשת מן השילוח ומניחה בלשכה נשפכה נתגלתה היה ממלא מן הכיור שהיין והמים מגולין פסולין לגבי מזבח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הנ"מ אמר רב עינא דאמר קרא (ישעיהו יב, ג) ושאבתם מים בששון וגו',הנהו תרי מיני חד שמיה ששון וחד שמיה שמחה א"ל ששון לשמחה אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (ישעיהו לה, י) ששון ושמחה ישיגו וגו' א"ל שמחה לששון אנא עדיפנא מינך דכתיב (אסתר ח, יז) שמחה וששון ליהודים א"ל ששון לשמחה חד יומא שבקוך ושויוך פרוונקא דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, יב) כי בשמחה תצאו א"ל שמחה לששון חד יומא שבקוך ומלו בך מיא דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון,א"ל ההוא מינא דשמיה ששון לר' אבהו עתידיתו דתמלו לי מים לעלמא דאתי דכתיב ושאבתם מים בששון א"ל אי הוה כתיב לששון כדקאמרת השתא דכתיב בששון משכיה דההוא גברא משוינן ליה גודא ומלינן ביה מיא:,עלה בכבש ופנה לשמאלו כו': ת"ר כל העולים למזבח עולין דרך ימין ומקיפין ויורדין דרך שמאל חוץ מן העולה לשלשה דברים הללו שעולין דרך שמאל וחוזרין על העקב ואלו הן ניסוך המים וניסוך היין ועולת העוף כשרבתה במזרח:,אלא שהיו משחירין: בשלמא דיין משחיר דמיא אמאי משחיר כיון דאמר מר עירה של מים לתוך של יין ושל יין לתוך של מים יצא של מים אתי לאשחורי:,ומנוקבים כמין ב' חוטמין וכו': לימא מתניתין ר' יהודה היא ולא רבנן דתנן רבי יהודה אומר בלוג היה מנסך כל שמונה דאי רבנן כי הדדי נינהו,אפי' תימא רבנן חמרא סמיך מיא קליש,הכי נמי מסתברא דאי רבי יהודה רחב וקצר אית ליה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר שני קשוואות היו שם אחד של מים ואחד של יין של יין פיה רחב של מים פיה קצר כדי שיהו שניהם כלין בבת אחת ש"מ:,מערבו של מים: ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שניסך על גבי רגליו ורגמוהו כל העם באתרוגיהן ואותו היום נפגמה קרן המזבח והביאו בול של מלח וסתמוהו לא מפני שהוכשר לעבודה אלא מפני שלא יראה מזבח פגום 48b. with b two thin /b perforated b nose-like /b protrusions. b One /b of the basins, used for the wine libation, had a perforation that was b broad, and one, /b used for the water libation, had a perforation that was b thin, so that /b the flow of b both /b the water and the wine, which do not have the same viscosity, would b conclude simultaneously. /b The basin to the b west of /b the altar was b for water, /b and the basin to the b east of /b the altar was b for wine. /b However, if b one poured /b the contents of the basin b of water into /b the basin b of wine, or /b the contents of the basin b of wine into /b the basin b of water, he fulfilled /b his obligation, as failure to pour the libation from the prescribed location does not disqualify the libation after the fact., b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b The basin for the water libation was not that large; rather, b one would pour /b the water b with /b a vessel that had a capacity of b one i log /i /b on b all eight /b days of the Festival and not only seven. b And /b the appointee b says to the one pouring /b the water into the silver basin: b Raise your hand, /b so that his actions would be visible, b as one time /b a Sadducee priest intentionally b poured /b the water b on his feet, /b as the Sadducees did not accept the oral tradition requiring water libation, and in their rage b all the people pelted him with their i etrogim /i . /b ,Rabbi Yehuda continues: b As its performance during the week, so is its performance on Shabbat, except /b that on Shabbat one would not draw water. Instead, b on Shabbat eve, one would fill a golden barrel that was not consecrated /b for exclusive use in the Temple b from the Siloam /b pool, b and he /b would b place it in the /b Temple b chamber /b and draw water from there on Shabbat. If the water in the barrel b spilled, /b or if it b was exposed /b overnight, leading to concern that a snake may have deposited poison in the water, b one would fill /b the jug with water b from the basin /b in the Temple courtyard, b as exposed wine or water is unfit for the altar. /b Just as it is prohibited for people to drink them due to the potential danger, so too, they may not be poured on the altar., strong GEMARA: /strong With regard to the customs accompanying the drawing of the water, the Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? b Rav Eina said /b that it is b as the verse states: “With joy [ i sason /i ] you shall draw water /b out of the springs of salvation” (Isaiah 12:3), indicating that the water was to be drawn from the spring and the rite performed in extreme joy.,Apropos this verse, the Gemara relates: There were b these two heretics, one named Sason and one named Simḥa. Sason said to Simḥa: I am superior to you, as it is written: “They shall obtain joy [ i sason /i ] and happiness [ i simḥa /i ], /b and sorrow and sighing shall flee” (Isaiah 35:10). The verse mentions joy first. b Simḥa said to Sason, /b On the contrary, b I am superior to you, as it is written: “There was happiness [ i simḥa /i ] and joy [ i sason /i ] for the Jews” /b (Esther 8:17). b Sason said to Simḥa: One day they will dismiss you and render you a messenger [ i parvanka /i ], as it is written: “For you shall go out with happiness [ i simḥa /i ]” /b (Isaiah 55:12). b Simḥa said to Sason: One day they will dismiss you and draw water with you, as it is written: “With joy [ i sason /i ] you shall draw water.” /b ,The Gemara relates a similar incident: b A certain heretic named Sason said to Rabbi Abbahu: You are /b all b destined to draw water for me in the World-to-Come, as it is written: “With i sason /i you shall draw water.” /b Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: If it had been written: For i sason /i , /b it would have been b as you say; now that it is written: With i sason /i , /b it means that b the skin of that man, /b you, b will be rendered a wineskin, and we will draw water with it. /b ,§ The mishna continues: The priest b ascended the ramp /b of the altar b and turned to his left. The Sages taught: All who ascend the altar ascend /b and turn b via /b the b right, and circle /b the altar, b and descend via /b the b left. /b This is the case b except for one ascending /b to perform one of b these three tasks, as /b the ones who perform these tasks b ascend via /b the b left, and /b then b turn on /b their b heel and return /b in the direction that they came. b And /b these tasks b are: The water libation, and the wine libation, and the bird /b sacrificed as b a burnt-offering when there were /b too b many /b priests engaged in the sacrifice of these burnt-offerings b in the /b preferred location b east /b of the altar. When that was the case, additional priests engaged in sacrificing the same offering would pinch the neck of the bird west of the altar.,The mishna continues: Rabbi Yehuda said that they were limestone, not silver, basins, b but they would blacken /b due to the wine. The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b the basin b for wine blackened /b due to the wine; however, b why did the /b basin b for water blacken? /b The Gemara answers: b Since the Master said /b in the mishna: However, if b one /b inadvertently b poured /b the contents of the basin b of water into /b the basin b of wine or /b the contents of the basin b of wine into /b the basin b of water, he fulfilled /b his obligation. Then even the basin b for water /b would b come to blacken /b over the course of time as well.,§ The mishna continues: b And /b the two basins were b perforated /b at the bottom with b two thin, /b perforated, b nose-like /b protrusions, one broad and one thin. The Gemara asks: b Let us say /b that b the mishna is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda and not /b with that of b the Rabbis, as we learned /b in the mishna that b Rabbi Yehuda says: One would pour /b the water b with /b a vessel that had a capacity of b one i log /i /b on b all eight /b days of the Festival, unlike the wine libation, for which a three- i log /i basin was used. According to his opinion, there is a difference between the capacity of the wine vessel and that of the water vessel; therefore, it is clear why the opening in the wine vessel was broader. b As, if /b the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, they are the same /b as the capacity of the water basin, three i log /i . Why, then, were there different sized openings?,The Gemara answers: b Even /b if b you say /b that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b the reason for the different-sized openings is that b wine is thick /b and b water is thin, /b and therefore wine flows more slowly than water. In order to ensure that the emptying of both basins would conclude simultaneously, the wine basin required a wider opening., b So too, it is reasonable /b to establish that the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, b as, if /b it is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, /b unlike the description of the two openings in the mishna as broad and thin, elsewhere he b is of /b the opinion that the openings b as wide and narrow, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: There were two /b small b pipes there, one for water and one for wine. The mouth of /b the pipe b for wine was wide and the mouth of /b the pipe b for water was narrow, so that /b the emptying of both basins b would conclude simultaneously. /b The disparity between wide and narrow is greater than the disparity between broad and thin, thereby facilitating the simultaneous emptying of the three- i log /i and one- i log /i basins according to Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from it /b that the mishna is not in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda.,§ The mishna continues: The basin to the b west of /b the altar was b for water, /b and the basin to the east of the altar was for wine, and they would tell the one pouring the water to raise his hand. b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving one Sadducee /b priest b who poured /b the water b on his feet, /b and in anger b all the people pelted him with their i etrogim /i . And that day, the horn of the altar was damaged /b as a result of the pelting and the ensuing chaos. b They brought a fistful of salt and sealed /b the damaged section, b not because it rendered /b the altar b fit for the /b Temple b service, but /b in deference to the altar, b so that the altar would not be seen /b in its b damaged /b state.
39. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, None (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 22
40. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, None (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 22, 393
41. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 30  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 30
30. and I now have the following proposal to lay before you. The books of the law of the Jews (with some few others) are absent from the library. They are written in the Hebrew characters and language and have been carelessly interpreted, and do not represent the original text as I am
49. Anon., Seder Olam, 3  Tagged with subjects: •oral or written ~ Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 427