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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
minim Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 76, 135, 156, 160, 163, 164, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171
Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 244, 245, 250, 258, 260, 262, 263, 264, 267, 268, 269, 270
Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 15, 33, 68, 70, 71, 72, 165, 166
Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 335
Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 36, 53, 60, 62, 71, 140
Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 111, 136, 157, 212
minim, appear as kosher jews Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 197, 210
minim, as a specific group in late antiquity, min pl. Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 2, 3, 7, 168
minim, as heretics, min pl. Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 7, 11, 12
minim, bavli, evidence on interaction of palestinian rabbis with Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 73
minim, benediction of the Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 57, 58, 59, 80, 81
minim, books of Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275
Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 85, 86, 155, 197, 198
minim, cause abhorence between israel and god Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 155, 199
minim, christians Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 80, 84, 86, 87, 88, 93, 101, 192, 210
minim, christians, yaakov, term applied to Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 71
minim, definition of min pl. Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12
minim, deny god Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 50, 51, 52, 56, 65, 155
minim, encounters with Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 390, 391, 392
minim, favorable representations of min pl. Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 187
minim, for all opponents, heresy, rabbinic judaism, use of Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 536
minim, gentiles Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 52, 53, 57
minim, gnostics Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 86
minim, healing by Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 190
minim, heresy Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275, 388
minim, heretic arguments, answered by Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 66, 292, 326
minim, heretics Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 25
Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 488
minim, identity of Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 388
minim, in discussions of kilayim Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 139, 140, 239
minim, in priestly source, p Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 5, 31
minim, in rabbinic literature Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 191
minim, in tannaitic literature, min pl. Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 11, 12
minim, interaction between rabbis and, evidence on disputations Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 71, 72
minim, interaction between rabbis and, historicity of portrayals Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 72, 73
minim, interaction between rabbis and, in babylonia Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 70, 71
minim, interaction between rabbis and, in palestine Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 68, 69, 70, 73
minim, interaction between rabbis and, palestinian sources in bavli Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 73
minim, interaction between rabbis and, social contact with Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 39
minim, kuttim, samaritans Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 80, 81, 86
minim, laws of Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 187, 190, 191, 201, 202
minim, minut Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 139, 140, 142, 143, 207, 210
minim, mock rabbis Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 193
minim, nations of the world Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 52, 57
minim, not always christians in rashi Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529
minim, not in babylonia Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 189, 226
minim, or philosophers, dialogue stories with Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 282, 388, 390, 391, 392, 434
minim, palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with christians, bible-reading heretics Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 5, 68, 69, 70
minim, rabbinic combat against Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 50, 71
minim, sectarians Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79
minim, separatists Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 57, 61, 62
minim, sifre Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 157, 213, 221
minim, social connections with Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 73, 204, 226
minim, species Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 4, 8, 27, 146
minim, species, in priestly source Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 5, 31
minim, species, kilayim and Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 139, 140, 239
minim, species, of plants Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 207
minim, species, of territorial doubles Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 231
minim, species, signs of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 38, 60, 61
minim, species, tannaitic use of Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 31, 32, 61, 70, 71, 207
minim, species, “likeness” to, ke-min Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 36, 37, 208
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, as a reflection of internal rabbinic attitudes Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 23
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, as a response to christian writings Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 86
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, as an expression of rabbinic anxiety about enticing christian views Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 23
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, audience of Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 190, 191
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, chronology of Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 12
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, common features of Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 3, 4, 25, 43, 187
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, function of Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 176
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, historicity of Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 23, 25, 37, 105, 163, 185, 190, 191
minim, stories, in the babylonian talmud, satire and irony in Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 105, 164, 187, 190
minim, tannaim, on Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 31, 32, 61, 70, 71, 207
minim, their doctrines Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 155, 156, 181
minim, their identity Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 167, 168
minim, two powers Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 52, 54, 82
minim, use for all opponents of rabbinic judaism Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 536
minim, worse than gentiles Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 76, 202
minimal, definition, public religion Rupke (2016), Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality?, 108
minimal, in aramaic piyyut for passover, an, anonymous, allegory Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 110, 112, 113
minimal, incident, aeschylus, and tragic plots of Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 250
minimal, religious dimension of thucydides Kirkland (2022), Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception, 269
minimal, representation in literary sources, mothers, and daughters Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 197
minimal, siesta Ker (2023), Quotidian Time and Forms of Life in Ancient Rome. 220
minimal, taxes anthedon, agrippias, of under herod Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 186
minimal, taxes caesarea, of under herod Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 186
minimally, counterintuitive, mci, representations Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 320, 321, 322, 323, 327, 330, 337
minime, romano sacro Davies (2004), Rome's Religious History: Livy, Tacitus and Ammianus on their Gods, 68, 84
sectarianism, min im Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007), The Cambridge Companion to the Talmud and Rabbinic Literature Cambridge Companions to Religion, 4, 258, 259

List of validated texts:
41 validated results for "minim"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aramaic Piyyut for Passover, An (anonymous), allegory minimal in • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 93; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 110

sup>
5.2 אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃'' None
sup>
5.2 I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.8, 13.18, 32.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim, Christians • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, deny God • minim, laws of • minim, mock rabbis • minim, not always Christians in Rashi • minim, rabbinic combat against • minim, their identity • sifre minim

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 185; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 523, 524; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 15, 70; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 50, 80, 193; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 157

sup>
6.8 וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃
13.18
וְלֹא־יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם לְמַעַן יָשׁוּב יְהוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְנָתַן־לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃
32.21
הֵם קִנְאוּנִי בְלֹא־אֵל כִּעֲסוּנִי בְּהַבְלֵיהֶם וַאֲנִי אַקְנִיאֵם בְּלֹא־עָם בְּגוֹי נָבָל אַכְעִיסֵם׃'' None
sup>
6.8 And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes.
13.18
And there shall cleave nought of the devoted thing to thy hand, that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of His anger, and show thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee, as He hath sworn unto thy fathers;
32.21
They have roused Me to jealousy with a no-god; They have provoked Me with their vanities; And I will rouse them to jealousy with a no-people; I will provoke them with a vile nation.'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11, 1.26-1.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Priestly source (P), minim in • Tannaim, on minim • heretics (minim) • minim • minim (species) • minim (species), Tannaitic use of • minim (species), in Priestly source • minim, not always Christians in Rashi

 Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 527, 528, 529; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 250; Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 25; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 15; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 4, 27, 31, 146

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1.11 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.26
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27 וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃'' None
sup>
1.11 And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.26
And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27 And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.'' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, audience of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, function of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim, encounters with

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 168, 176, 191; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 390

sup>
5.6 בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם׃'' None
sup>
5.6 With their flocks and with their herds they shall go To seek the LORD, but they shall not find Him; He hath withdrawn Himself from them.'' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 69.22-69.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, audience of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 88, 89, 102, 191; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 258, 260, 262, 263, 264, 267, 268

sup>
69.22 וַיִּתְּנוּ בְּבָרוּתִי רֹאשׁ וְלִצְמָאִי יַשְׁקוּנִי חֹמֶץ׃ 69.23 יְהִי־שֻׁלְחָנָם לִפְנֵיהֶם לְפָח וְלִשְׁלוֹמִים לְמוֹקֵשׁ׃'' None
sup>
69.22 Yea, they put poison into my food; And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. 69.23 Let their table before them become a snare; And when they are in peace, let it become a trap.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity • min (pl. minim), definition of • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, as a response to Christian writings • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, audience of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • minim, encounters with

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 2, 86, 97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 191; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 391, 392; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 250, 264, 267, 268, 269, 270

sup>
4.13 כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃'' None
sup>
4.13 For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 52.7, 54.1, 61.1 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • heresy, minim • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, audience of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • minim, identity of

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 90, 191; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 388; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 258

sup>
52.7 מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם מְבַשֵּׂר טוֹב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיּוֹן מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃
54.1
כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃
54.1
רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃
61.1
רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃61.1 שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃ ' None
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52.7 How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, That announceth peace, the harbinger of good tidings, That announceth salvation; That saith unto Zion: ‘Thy God reigneth! ’
54.1
Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.
61.1
The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;'' None
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • minim • minut, minim

 Found in books: Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 142

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2.165 φασὶν δ' ἐπ' ἀνθρώπων ἐκλογῇ τό τε καλὸν καὶ τὸ κακὸν προκεῖσθαι καὶ κατὰ γνώμην ἑκάστου τούτων ἑκατέρῳ προσιέναι. ψυχῆς τε τὴν διαμονὴν καὶ τὰς καθ' ᾅδου τιμωρίας καὶ τιμὰς ἀναιροῦσιν."" None
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2.165 and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades.'' None
9. Mishnah, Berachot, 7.5, 9.2, 9.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Laws of minim • Minim • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • minim, Christians • minim, Gnostics • minim, Nations of the world • minim, Two Powers • minim, deny God • minim, gentiles • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, laws of • minim, sectarians • minim, their identity • minut, minim

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 90, 97; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 167; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 258, 264; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 15, 70, 71; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 142; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 36, 52, 79, 191, 192

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7.5 שְׁתֵּי חֲבוּרוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלוֹת בְּבַיִת אֶחָד, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמִּקְצָתָן רוֹאִין אֵלּוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִים לְזִמּוּן. וְאִם לָאו, אֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן, וְאֵלּוּ מְזַמְּנִין לְעַצְמָן. אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַיַּיִן עַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְתוֹכוֹ מַיִם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מְבָרְכִין:
9.2
עַל הַזִּיקִין, וְעַל הַזְּוָעוֹת, וְעַל הַבְּרָקִים, וְעַל הָרְעָמִים, וְעַל הָרוּחוֹת, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁכֹּחוֹ וּגְבוּרָתוֹ מָלֵא עוֹלָם. עַל הֶהָרִים, וְעַל הַגְּבָעוֹת, וְעַל הַיַּמִּים, וְעַל הַנְּהָרוֹת, וְעַל הַמִּדְבָּרוֹת, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ עוֹשֵׂה מַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָרוֹאֶה אֶת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ שֶׁעָשָׂה אֶת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל, בִּזְמַן שֶׁרוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ לִפְרָקִים. עַל הַגְּשָׁמִים וְעַל הַבְּשׂוֹרוֹת הַטּוֹבוֹת אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַטּוֹב וְהַמֵּטִיב, וְעַל שְׁמוּעוֹת רָעוֹת אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ דַּיַּן הָאֱמֶת:
9.5
חַיָּב אָדָם לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרָעָה כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטּוֹבָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו) וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְיָ אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ. בְּכָל לְבָבְךָ, בִּשְׁנֵי יְצָרֶיךָ, בְּיֵצֶר טוֹב וּבְיֵצֶר רָע. וּבְכָל נַפְשְׁךָ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹטֵל אֶת נַפְשֶׁךָ. וּבְכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מָמוֹנֶךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר בְּכָל מְאֹדֶךָ, בְּכָל מִדָּה וּמִדָּה שֶׁהוּא מוֹדֵד לְךָ הֱוֵי מוֹדֶה לוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד. לֹא יָקֵל אָדָם אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ כְּנֶגֶד שַׁעַר הַמִּזְרָח, שֶׁהוּא מְכֻוָּן כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית קָדְשֵׁי הַקָּדָשִׁים. לֹא יִכָּנֵס לְהַר הַבַּיִת בְּמַקְלוֹ, וּבְמִנְעָלוֹ, וּבְפֻנְדָּתוֹ, וּבְאָבָק שֶׁעַל רַגְלָיו, וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂנּוּ קַפַּנְדַּרְיָא, וּרְקִיקָה מִקַּל וָחֹמֶר. כָּל חוֹתְמֵי בְרָכוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ בַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, וְאָמְרוּ, אֵין עוֹלָם אֶלָּא אֶחָד, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהוּ אוֹמְרִים, מִן הָעוֹלָם וְעַד הָעוֹלָם. וְהִתְקִינוּ, שֶׁיְּהֵא אָדָם שׁוֹאֵל אֶת שְׁלוֹם חֲבֵרוֹ בַּשֵּׁם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (רות ב) וְהִנֵּה בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם, וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְיָ עִמָּכֶם, וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ, יְבָרֶכְךָ יְיָ. וְאוֹמֵר (שופטים ו) יְיָ עִמְּךָ גִּבּוֹר הֶחָיִל. וְאוֹמֵר (משלי כג) אַל תָּבוּז כִּי זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ. וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים קיט) עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ. רַבִּי נָתָן אוֹמֵר, הֵפֵרוּ תוֹרָתֶךָ עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַייָ:'' None
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7.5 Two eating companies that were eating in the same room: When some of them can see some of the other they combine for a zimun, but if not each group makes a zimun for itself. They do not bless over the wine until they put water into it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say they bless.
9.2
On witnessing comets, earthquakes, thunder, or windy storms one says, “Blessed be He whose strength and might fill the world.” On seeing mountains, hills, seas, rivers or deserts one says, “Blessed be He who made creation.” Rabbi Judah says: one who sees the Great Sea should say, “Blessed be He who made the Great Sea,” if he sees it at intervals. For rain and for good news one says, “Blessed be He that is good and grants good.” For bad news one says, “Blessed be the true judge.”
9.5
One must bless God for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul life away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting is forbidden. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever lit. as long as the world is.” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: this means “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”'' None
10. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Laws of minim • Minim • minim • minim, Christians • minim, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 167; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 15; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 191, 192

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2.9 אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין לֹא לְתוֹךְ יַמִּים, וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ נְהָרוֹת, וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ כֵּלִים. אֲבָל שׁוֹחֵט הוּא לְתוֹךְ עוּגָא שֶׁל מַיִם, וּבִסְפִינָה, עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין לְגֻמָּא כָּל עִקָּר, אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה גֻמָּא בְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס הַדָּם לְתוֹכָהּ. וּבַשּׁוּק לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן, שֶׁלֹּא יְחַקֶּה אֶת הַמִּינִין:'' None
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2.9 One may not slaughter so that the blood runs into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics.'' None
11. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minim • minim • minim, Christians • minim, Gnostics • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, laws of • minim, sectarians • minim, their doctrines • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 167, 168; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 15; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 156

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4.8 הָאוֹמֵר אֵינִי עוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה בִצְבוּעִין, אַף בִּלְבָנִים לֹא יַעֲבֹר. בְּסַנְדָּל אֵינִי עוֹבֵר, אַף יָחֵף לֹא יַעֲבֹר. הָעוֹשֶׂה תְפִלָּתוֹ עֲגֻלָּה, סַכָּנָה וְאֵין בָּהּ מִצְוָה. נְתָנָהּ עַל מִצְחוֹ אוֹ עַל פַּס יָדוֹ, הֲרֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּינוּת. צִפָּן זָהָב, וּנְתָנָהּ עַל בֵּית אֻנְקְלִי שֶׁלּוֹ, הֲרֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הַחִיצוֹנִים: 4.9 הָאוֹמֵר יְבָרְכוּךָ טוֹבִים, הֲרֵי זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הַמִּינוּת. עַל קַן צִפּוֹר יַגִּיעוּ רַחֲמֶיךָ, וְעַל טוֹב יִזָּכֵר שְׁמֶךָ, מוֹדִים מוֹדִים, מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ. הַמְכַנֶּה בָעֲרָיוֹת, מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ. הָאוֹמֵר, וּמִזַּרְעֲךָ לֹא תִתֵּן לְהַעֲבִיר לַמֹּלֶךְ (ויקרא יח), וּמִזַרְעָךְ לֹא תִתֵּן לְאַעְבָּרָא בְּאַרְמָיוּתָא, מְשַׁתְּקִין אוֹתוֹ בִנְזִיפָה:'' None
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4.8 If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. If one says, “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin for the head round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put the one for the hand on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders. 4.9 If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. If one says, “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, instead of “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give your seed to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke.'' None
12. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Laws of minim • Minim • minim, Christians • minim, Gnostics • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, laws of • minim, sectarians • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 168; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 79, 191

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2.1 אִם אֵינָן מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ, מְשַׁלְּחִין אַחֵר עִמּוֹ לַהֲעִידוֹ. בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ מְקַבְּלִין עֵדוּת הַחֹדֶשׁ מִכָּל אָדָם. מִשֶּׁקִּלְקְלוּ הַמִּינִין, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְקַבְּלִין אֶלָּא מִן הַמַּכִּירִים:'' None
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2.1 If they don’t know him the one who came to testify, they send another with him to testify concerning his reliability. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known to the court.'' None
13. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5, 10.1-10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Laws of minim • Minim • minim • minim, Christians • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, laws of • minim, their identity • minut, minim

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 171; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 15, 68, 70; Reed (2005), Fallen Angels and the History of Judaism and Christianity: The Reception of Enochic Literature. 140, 142; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 60, 84, 191, 192

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4.5 כֵּיצַד מְאַיְּמִין אֶת הָעֵדִים עַל עֵדֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן וּמְאַיְּמִין עֲלֵיהֶן. שֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מֵאֹמֶד, וּמִשְּׁמוּעָה, עֵד מִפִּי עֵד וּמִפִּי אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שָׁמַעְנוּ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אִי אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִין שֶׁסּוֹפֵנוּ לִבְדֹּק אֶתְכֶם בִּדְרִישָׁה וּבַחֲקִירָה. הֱווּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁלֹּא כְדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, אָדָם נוֹתֵן מָמוֹן וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ. דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְקַיִן שֶׁהָרַג אֶת אָחִיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד) דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר דַּם אָחִיךָ אֶלָּא דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, שֶׁהָיָה דָמוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הָאֲבָנִים. לְפִיכָךְ נִבְרָא אָדָם יְחִידִי, לְלַמֶּדְךָ, שֶׁכָּל הַמְאַבֵּד נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ אִבֵּד עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וְכָל הַמְקַיֵּם נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ קִיֵּם עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וּמִפְּנֵי שְׁלוֹם הַבְּרִיּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַבָּא גָדוֹל מֵאָבִיךָ. וְשֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מִינִין אוֹמְרִים, הַרְבֵּה רָשֻׁיּוֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם. וּלְהַגִּיד גְּדֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁאָדָם טוֹבֵעַ כַּמָּה מַטְבְּעוֹת בְּחוֹתָם אֶחָד וְכֻלָּן דּוֹמִין זֶה לָזֶה, וּמֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא טָבַע כָּל אָדָם בְּחוֹתָמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן דּוֹמֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד חַיָּב לוֹמַר, בִּשְׁבִילִי נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ וְלַצָּרָה הַזֹּאת, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא ה) וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם לוֹא יַגִּיד וְגוֹ'. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ לָחוּב בְּדָמוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (משלי יא) וּבַאֲבֹד רְשָׁעִים רִנָּה:" "
10.1
כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל יֵשׁ לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס) וְעַמֵּךְ כֻּלָּם צַדִּיקִים לְעוֹלָם יִירְשׁוּ אָרֶץ נֵצֶר מַטָּעַי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי לְהִתְפָּאֵר. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הָאוֹמֵר אֵין תְּחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאֵין תּוֹרָה מִן הַשָּׁמָיִם, וְאֶפִּיקוֹרֶס. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אַף הַקּוֹרֵא בַסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, וְהַלּוֹחֵשׁ עַל הַמַּכָּה וְאוֹמֵר (שמות טו) כָּל הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי ה' רֹפְאֶךָ. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, אַף הַהוֹגֶה אֶת הַשֵּׁם בְּאוֹתִיּוֹתָיו:" '10.2 שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים וְאַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. שְׁלֹשָׁה מְלָכִים, יָרָבְעָם, אַחְאָב, וּמְנַשֶּׁה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְנַשֶּׁה יֶשׁ לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברי הימים ב לג) וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ וַיִּשְׁמַע תְּחִנָּתוֹ וַיְשִׁיבֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם לְמַלְכוּתוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְמַלְכוּתוֹ הֱשִׁיבוֹ וְלֹא לְחַיֵּי הָעוֹלָם הַבָּא הֱשִׁיבוֹ. אַרְבָּעָה הֶדְיוֹטוֹת, בִּלְעָם, וְדוֹאֵג, וַאֲחִיתֹפֶל, וְגֵחֲזִי:' "10.3 דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ו) לֹא יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם, לֹא דִין וְלֹא רוּחַ. דּוֹר הַפַּלָּגָה אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יא) וַיָּפֶץ ה' אֹתָם מִשָּׁם עַל פְּנֵי כָל הָאָרֶץ. וַיָּפֶץ ה' אֹתָם, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. וּמִשָּׁם הֱפִיצָם ה', לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם יג) וְאַנְשֵׁי סְדֹם רָעִים וְחַטָּאִים לַה' מְאֹד. רָעִים בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. וְחַטָּאִים, לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין. רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֵלּוּ וָאֵלּוּ אֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים א) עַל כֵּן לֹא יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים. עַל כֵּן לֹא יָקֻמוּ רְשָׁעִים בַּמִּשְׁפָּט, זֶה דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. וְחַטָּאִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים, אֵלּוּ אַנְשֵׁי סְדוֹם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵינָם עוֹמְדִים בַּעֲדַת צַדִּיקִים אֲבָל עוֹמְדִין בַּעֲדַת רְשָׁעִים. מְרַגְּלִים אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר וַיָּמֻתוּ הָאֲנָשִׁים מוֹצִאֵי דִבַּת הָאָרֶץ רָעָה בַּמַּגֵּפָה לִפְנֵי ה' (במדבר יד). וַיָּמֻתוּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. בַּמַּגֵּפָה, בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דּוֹר הַמִּדְבָּר אֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְאֵין עוֹמְדִין בַּדִּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם) בַּמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה יִתַּמּוּ וְשָׁם יָמֻתוּ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר (תהלים נ) אִסְפוּ לִי חֲסִידָי כֹּרְתֵי בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי זָבַח. עֲדַת קֹרַח אֵינָהּ עֲתִידָה לַעֲלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר טז) וַתְּכַס עֲלֵיהֶם הָאָרֶץ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וַיֹּאבְדוּ מִתּוֹךְ הַקָּהָל, לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא אוֹמֵר (שמואל א ב) ה' מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל. עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים אֵינָן עֲתִידִין לַחֲזֹר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים כט) וַיַּשְׁלִכֵם אֶל אֶרֶץ אַחֶרֶת כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה, מַה הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה הוֹלֵךְ וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר, אַף הֵם הוֹלְכִים וְאֵינָם חוֹזְרִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה, מַה הַיּוֹם מַאֲפִיל וּמֵאִיר, אַף עֲשֶׂרֶת הַשְּׁבָטִים שֶׁאָפַל לָהֶן, כָּךְ עָתִיד לְהָאִיר לָהֶן:"" None
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4.5 How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, saying, “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him that is wrongfully condemned and the blood of his descendants that should have been born to him to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again but a single person was created for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, but a single person was created against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again but a single person was created to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you witnesses would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you witnesses would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).
10.1
All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers a charm over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases which i brought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.” 10.2 Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They the sages said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to his portion in the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi. 10.3 The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the last judgment, as it says, “And the Lord said, my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), meaning there will be neither judgment nor my spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They the Sages said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “they died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the last judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend from the earth, as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return to the Land of Israel, for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them.'' None
14. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minim • minim • minim, Christians

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 170; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 71; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 192

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9.15 מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי מֵאִיר, בָּטְלוּ מוֹשְׁלֵי מְשָׁלִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן עַזַּאי, בָּטְלוּ הַשַּׁקְדָּנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן זוֹמָא, בָּטְלוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, פָּסְקָה טוֹבָה מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בָּא גוֹבַי וְרַבּוּ צָרוֹת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, פָּסַק הָעשֶׁר מִן הַחֲכָמִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, בָּטְלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי קַטְנוּתָא, פָּסְקוּ חֲסִידִים. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ קַטְנוּתָא, שֶׁהָיָה קַטְנוּתָן שֶׁל חֲסִידִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, בָּטַל זִיו הַחָכְמָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה וּמֵתָה טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פָּאבִי, בָּטַל זִיו הַכְּהֻנָּה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי, בָּטְלָה עֲנָוָה וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בּוֹשׁוּ חֲבֵרִים וּבְנֵי חוֹרִין, וְחָפוּ רֹאשָׁם, וְנִדַּלְדְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגָבְרוּ בַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּבַעֲלֵי לָשׁוֹן, וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, וְאֵין שׁוֹאֵל, עַל מִי לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שָׁרוּ חַכִּימַיָּא לְמֶהֱוֵי כְסָפְרַיָּא, וְסָפְרַיָּא כְּחַזָּנָא, וְחַזָּנָא כְּעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא, וְעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא אָזְלָא וְדַלְדְּלָה, וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. בְּעִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחָא חֻצְפָּא יִסְגֵּא, וְיֹקֶר יַאֲמִיר, הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר, וְהַמַּלְכוּת תֵּהָפֵךְ לְמִינוּת, וְאֵין תּוֹכֵחָה, בֵּית וַעַד יִהְיֶה לִזְנוּת, וְהַגָּלִיל יֶחֱרַב, וְהַגַּבְלָן יִשּׁוֹם, וְאַנְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל יְסוֹבְבוּ מֵעִיר לְעִיר וְלֹא יְחוֹנָּנוּ, וְחָכְמַת סוֹפְרִים תִּסְרַח, וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא יִמָּאֲסוּ, וְהָאֱמֶת תְּהֵא נֶעְדֶּרֶת. נְעָרִים פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים יַלְבִּינוּ, זְקֵנִים יַעַמְדוּ מִפְּנֵי קְטַנִּים. (מיכה ז) בֵּן מְנַבֵּל אָב, בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ, כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ, אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ. פְּנֵי הַדּוֹר כִּפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב, הַבֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָבִיו. וְעַל מִי יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת, וּנְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טָהֳרָה, וְטָהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי פְרִישׁוּת, וּפְרִישׁוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדֻשָּׁה, וּקְדֻשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה, וַעֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא, וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת, וַחֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְבִיאָה לִידֵי תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, וּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים בָּא עַל יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב, אָמֵן:'' None
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9.15 When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students of Torah ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place of scholars will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about begging from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”'' None
15. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • heresy, minim • minim • minim, books of

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 72

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4.8 אָמַר צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, קוֹבֵל אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם משֶׁה בַּגֵּט. אוֹמְרִים פְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ, צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם הַשֵּׁם בַּדַּף, וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל מִלְמַעְלָן וְאֶת הַשֵּׁם מִלְּמַטָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה) וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁלָּקָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (שם ט), ה' הַצַּדִּיק:"" None
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4.8 A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page of Torah? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \\"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \\"The Lord is righteous\\" (Exodus 9:27).'' None
16. New Testament, Acts, 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birkat ha-minim • heresy, Rabbinic Judaism, use of minim for all opponents • minim, use for all opponents of Rabbinic Judaism

 Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 536; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 656

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8 , Saul was consenting to his death. A great persecution arose against the assembly which was in Jerusalem in that day. They were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria, except for the apostles. , Devout men buried Stephen, and lamented greatly over him. , But Saul ravaged the assembly, entering into every house, and dragged both men and women off to prison. , Therefore those who were scattered abroad went around preaching the word. , Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and proclaimed to them the Christ. , The multitudes listened with one accord to the things that were spoken by Philip, when they heard and saw the signs which he did. , For unclean spirits came out of many of those who had them. They came out, crying with a loud voice. Many who had been paralyzed and lame were healed. , There was great joy in that city. , But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one, , to whom they all listened, from the least to the greatest, saying, "This man is that great power of God.", They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries. , But when they believed Philip preaching good news concerning the Kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. , Simon himself also believed. Being baptized, he continued with Philip. Seeing signs and great miracles done, he was amazed. , Now when the apostles who were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent Peter and John to them, , who, when they had come down, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Spirit; , for as yet he had fallen on none of them. They had only been baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. , Then they laid their hands on them, and they received the Holy Spirit. , Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of the apostles\' hands, he offered them money, , saying, "Give me also this power, that whoever I lay my hands on may receive the Holy Spirit.", But Peter said to him, "May your silver perish with you, because you thought you could obtain the gift of God with money! , You have neither part nor lot in this matter, for your heart isn\'t right before God. , Repent therefore of this, your wickedness, and ask God if perhaps the thought of your heart may be forgiven you. , For I see that you are in the gall of bitterness and in the bondage of iniquity.", Simon answered, "Pray for me to the Lord, that none of the things which you have spoken come on me.", They therefore, when they had testified and spoken the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many villages of the Samaritans. , But an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying, "Arise, and go toward the south to the way that goes down from Jerusalem to Gaza. This is a desert.", He arose and went. Behold, there was a man of Ethiopia, a eunuch of great authority under Candace, queen of the Ethiopians, who was over all her treasure, who had come to Jerusalem to worship. , He was returning and sitting in his chariot, and was reading the prophet Isaiah. , The Spirit said to Philip, "Go near, and join yourself to this chariot.", Philip ran to him, and heard him reading Isaiah the prophet, and said, "Do you understand what you are reading?", He said, "How can I, unless someone explains it to me?" He begged Philip to come up and sit with him. , Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, "He was led as a sheep to the slaughter. As a lamb before his shearer is silent, So he doesn\'t open his mouth. , In his humiliation, his judgment was taken away. Who will declare His generations? For his life is taken from the earth.", The eunuch answered Philip, "Please tell who the prophet is talking about: about himself, or about some other?", Philip opened his mouth, and beginning from this Scripture, preached to him Jesus. , As they went on the way, they came to some water, and the eunuch said, "Behold, here is water. What is keeping me from being baptized?", , He commanded the chariot to stand still, and they both went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. , When they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord caught Philip away, and the eunuch didn\'t see him any more, for he went on his way rejoicing. , But Philip was found at Azotus. Passing through, he preached the gospel to all the cities, until he came to Caesarea. '' None
17. New Testament, John, 9.22, 12.42, 16.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birchath-ha-Minim • Birkat ha-minim • birkat ha-minim

 Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 152; Tite (2009), Valentinian Ethics and Paraenetic Discourse: Determining the Social Function of Moral Exhortation in Valentinian Christianity, 23; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 276, 532, 623, 624, 640, 642, 643

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9.22 ταῦτα εἶπαν οἱ γονεῖς αὐτοῦ ὅτι ἐφοβοῦντο τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, ἤδη γὰρ συνετέθειντο οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα ἐάν τις αὐτὸν ὁμολογήσῃ Χριστόν, ἀποσυνάγωγος γένηται.
12.42
Ὅμως μέντοι καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἀρχόντων πολλοὶ ἐπίστευσαν εἰς αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ διὰ τοὺς Φαρισαίους οὐχ ὡμολόγουν ἵνα μὴ ἀποσυνάγωγοι γένωνται,
16.2
ἀποσυναγώγους ποιήσουσιν ὑμᾶς· ἀλλʼ ἔρχεται ὥρα ἵνα πᾶς ὁ ἀποκτείνας ὑμᾶς δόξῃ λατρείαν προσφέρειν τῷ θεῷ.' ' None
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9.22 His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. ' "9 , As he passed by, he saw a man blind from birth. , His disciples asked him, "Rabbi, who sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind?", Jesus answered, "Neither did this man sin, nor his parents; but, that the works of God might be revealed in him. , I must work the works of him who sent me, while it is day. The night is coming, when no one can work. , While I am in the world, I am the light of the world.", When he had said this, he spat on the ground, made mud with the saliva, anointed the blind man\'s eyes with the mud, , and said to him, "Go, wash in the pool of Siloam" (which means "Sent"). So he went away, washed, and came back seeing. , The neighbors therefore, and those who saw that he was blind before, said, "Isn\'t this he who sat and begged?", Others were saying, "It is he." Still others were saying, "He looks like him."He said, "I am he.", They therefore were asking him, "How were your eyes opened?", He answered, "A man called Jesus made mud, anointed my eyes, and said to me, "Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash." So I went away and washed, and I received sight.", Then they asked him, "Where is he?"He said, "I don\'t know.", They brought him who had been blind to the Pharisees. , It was a Sabbath when Jesus made the mud and opened his eyes. , Again therefore the Pharisees also asked him how he received his sight. He said to them, "He put mud on my eyes, I washed, and I see.", Some therefore of the Pharisees said, "This man is not from God, because he doesn\'t keep the Sabbath." Others said, "How can a man who is a sinner do such signs?" There was division among them. , Therefore they asked the blind man again, "What do you say about him, because he opened your eyes?"He said, "He is a prophet.", The Jews therefore did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and had received his sight, until they called the parents of him who had received his sight, , and asked them, "Is this your son, who you say was born blind? How then does he now see?", His parents answered them, "We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind; , but how he now sees, we don\'t know; or who opened his eyes, we don\'t know. He is of age. Ask him. He will speak for himself.", His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if any man would confess him as Christ, he would be put out of the synagogue. , Therefore his parents said, "He is of age. Ask him.", So they called the man who was blind a second time, and said to him, "Give glory to God. We know that this man is a sinner.", He therefore answered, "I don\'t know if he is a sinner. One thing I do know: that though I was blind, now I see.", They said to him again, "What did he do to you? How did he open your eyes?", He answered them, "I told you already, and you didn\'t listen. Why do you want to hear it again? You don\'t also want to become his disciples, do you?", They insulted him and said, "You are his disciple, but we are disciples of Moses. , We know that God has spoken to Moses. But as for this man, we don\'t know where he comes from.", The man answered them, "How amazing! You don\'t know where he comes from, yet he opened my eyes. , We know that God doesn\'t listen to sinners, but if anyone is a worshipper of God, and does his will, he listens to him. , Since the world began it has never been heard of that anyone opened the eyes of someone born blind. , If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.", They answered him, "You were altogether born in sins, and do you teach us?" They threw him out. , Jesus heard that they had thrown him out, and finding him, he said, "Do you believe in the Son of God?", He answered, "Who is he, Lord, that I may believe in him?", Jesus said to him, "You have both seen him, and it is he who speaks with you.", He said, "Lord, I believe!" and he worshiped him. , Jesus said, "I came into this world for judgment, that those who don\'t see may see; and that those who see may become blind.", Those of the Pharisees who were with him heard these things, and said to him, "Are we also blind?", Jesus said to them, "If you were blind, you would have no sin; but now you say, \'We see.\' Therefore your sin remains. 12.42 Nevertheless even of the rulers many believed in him, but because of the Pharisees they didn't confess it, so that they wouldn't be put out of the synagogue, " 16.2 They will put you out of the synagogues. Yes, the time comes that whoever kills you will think that he offers service to God. ' None
18. New Testament, Matthew, 5.17, 6.5, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birkat Ha-Minim • Birkat ha-minim • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • minim (species) • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, common features of

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 43; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 282; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 146; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2006), A Holy People: Jewish And Christian Perspectives on Religious Communal Identity. 86; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 269

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5.17 Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι·
6.5
Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί· ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν.
6.14
Ἐὰν γὰρ ἀφῆτε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τὰ παραπτώματα αὐτῶν, ἀφήσει καὶ ὑμῖν ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν ὁ οὐράνιος·'' None
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5.17 "Don\'t think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn\'t come to destroy, but to fulfill.
6.5
"When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward.
6.14
"For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. '' None
19. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 8.7, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • Laws of minim • Minim • minim • minim, Christians • minim, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 167; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 33; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 59, 60, 191, 192

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8.7 ... should a person/adam be overbearing, they say to him, the mosquito preceded you.\\n' ' None
20. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Books of minim • Laws of minim • Minim • heresy, minim • minim, books of • minim, cause abhorence between Israel and God • minim, in rabbinic literature

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 76; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 191, 198, 199

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2.13 Amon and Moab—they tithe poor tithe in the seventh year. And in all lands on other years of the seven-year cycle: if they do poor tithe, poor tithe; if second tithe, second tithe. Said Rabbi Yose ben Durmaskit: I was with the early elders when they came from Yavneh to Lod and I found Rabbi Eliezer sitting in the baker\'s shop in Lod. He said to me: What new learning do you have in the study house today? I said to him: We are your students and we drink from your waters! He said to me: It is impossible there was no new learning! I told him the laws, the answers and everything. But when I came to this, his eyes flowed with tears. He said, \\"God\'s secret is for those who fear Him and He makes known His covet to them\\" (Psalms 25:14); and it says, \\"Does the Lord God do anything without revealing His secret to His servants the prophets?\\" (Amos 3:7). Go and say to them: Do not pay attention to your number i.e. the court! Thus I received from Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai, he received it from the Pairs, and the Pairs from the prophets, from Moses, a law from Sinai, that Amon and Moab they tithe the poor tithe in the seventh year! "'' None
21. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Laws of minim • minim • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, separatists

 Found in books: Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 33; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 61, 191

22. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • Birkat ha-minim • Laws of minim • Nations of the world, minim • minim, Christians • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, Nations of the world • minim, gentiles • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, laws of • minim, separatists • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 57, 59, 80, 191; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 652

23. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birkat ha-minim • Books of minim • Laws of minim • Minim • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • Yaakov, term applied to minim, Christians • minim • minim, Christians • minim, Gnostics • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, cause abhorence between Israel and God • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, interaction between rabbis and, evidence on disputations • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Babylonia • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, laws of • minim, not in Babylonia • minim, rabbinic combat against • minim, sectarians • minim, their identity • minim, worse than gentiles

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 167, 168, 169; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 263; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 68, 69, 71; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 15, 71; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 71, 72, 76, 77, 79, 86, 87, 88, 101, 187, 189, 191, 192, 198, 199; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 276, 532, 634, 643, 652, 655

24. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Books of minim • Laws of minim • Minim • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • heresy, minim • minim, Christians • minim, appear as kosher Jews • minim, books of • minim, cause abhorence between Israel and God • minim, deny God • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, laws of • minim, their doctrines • minim, their identity • minim, worse than gentiles

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 275; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 69; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 84, 140, 155, 191, 197, 202

25. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • minim, Christians • minim, appear as kosher Jews • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine

 Found in books: Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 69; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 210

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1.8 "... R’ Yehoshua ben Qorchah asks, “Who was created for the sake of whom / mi nivra’ bish’vil mi? Was earth/arets created for the sake of a (human) generation, or a generation created for the sake of the arets?” ... R’ B’rakhyah said in the name of R’ Shimon ben Lakish: Whatever the Holy One created in the human, He created in the earth as a model for him / l’dugma lo. A person/adam has a head and so does the earth, as it is said, “and the head of the dirt/ `afar of the world/teivel” Pr 8:26. A person has eyes and so does the earth, as it is said, “And they will cover the eye of the earth” Ex 10:5\\n", , "…R’ Berachia said in the name of R’ Yitzchak the last redeemer will be just as the first. Just as it says of the first redeemer “So Moses took his wife and his sons, mounted them upon the donkey…” (Shemot 4:20) so too the last redeemer, as it says “…humble, and riding a donkey…” (Zechariah 9:9) Just as the first redeemer brought down the manna, as it says “Behold! I am going to rain down for you bread from heaven…” (Shemot 16:4) so too the last redeemer will bring down manna, as it says “May there be an abundance of grain in the land…” (Tehillim 72:16) Just as the first redeemer brought up the well, so too the last redeemer will bring up the water, as it says “…and a spring will issue from the house of the Lord and will water the valley of Shittim…” (Yoel 4:18)", , "(8) \\"All the streams flow to the sea\\" (Ecclesiastes 1) -- All of Israel only ever gather together in Jerusalem, and they go up at the time of the festivals each and every year.\\"Yet the sea is never full\\" (Ecclesiastes 1) -- Yet Jerusalem is never filled. As it was taught \\"They stand crowded, yet they bow spaciously\\". Rav Shmuel Bar Chova said in the name of Rav Acha who said, \\"Four cubits space between each and every one of them, and one cubit on each side, so that no one would hear the prayer of his friend and come to err\\".\\"To the place the streams flow there they shall return again\\" -- To the place Israel gathers in this world, there they shall gather in the world to come, in the time to come, as it is said (Isaiah 27) \\"And it shall be in that day, that a great horn shall be blown; and they shall come, those that were lost in the land of Assyria and those that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; and they shall worship G-d at the holy mountain in Jerusalem\\"", , "The words of Koheleth, king in Jerusalem. Midrash: This is to say that this the writing is done with \\"ruach hakodesh\\" (divine inspiration) by the hand of King Solomon (Mishlei 22:29). You see that the work of a man who is adept at his trade will endure when it is done in front of kings. It happened that Rebbe Chanina ben Dosa saw people in his city taking up vow-offerings and free-will offerings to Jerusalem. He said, \\"Everyone is bringing up vow-offerings and free-will offerings to Jerusalem, and I don\'t have a thing to bring up.\\" What did he do? He went to the walkway of his city and saw one stone and chipped it, chiseled it, and polished it and said: \\"Now I have something to bring up to Jerusalem.\\" He sought to hire workers. Five men passed by him. He said to them \\"Will you take this stone for me up to Jerusalem?\\" They said to him, \\"Give us 5 Selayim currency and we will bring it up to Jerusalem.\\" He sought it for them but he could not find a single thing...", '' None
26. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 8.8-8.9, 14.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minim • minim • minim, not always Christians in Rashi • minim, social connections with

 Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 528; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 68; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 335; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 204; Veltri (2006), Libraries, Translations, and 'Canonic' Texts: The Septuagint, Aquila and Ben Sira in the Jewish and Christian Traditions. 111

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8.8 רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אָמַר, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה משֶׁה כּוֹתֵב אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, הָיָה כּוֹתֵב מַעֲשֵׂה כָּל יוֹם וָיוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לַפָּסוּק הַזֶּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, אָמַר לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים מָה אַתָּה נוֹתֵן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ כְּתֹב, וְהָרוֹצֶה לִטְעוֹת יִטְעֶה. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, משֶׁה, הָאָדָם הַזֶּה שֶׁבָּרָאתִי, לֹא גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים אֲנִי מַעֲמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאִם יָבוֹא הַגָּדוֹל לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנוּ וְהוּא אוֹמֵר מָה אֲנִי צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל רְשׁוּת מִן הַקָּטָן מִמֶּנִּי, וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ לְמַד מִבּוֹרְאֶךָ, שֶׁהוּא בָּרָא אֶת הָעֶלְיוֹנִים וְאֶת הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא לִבְרֹאת אֶת הָאָדָם נִמְלַךְ בְּמַלְאֲכֵי הַשָּׁרֵת. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי לֵית הָכָא מַלְכוּ, אֶלָּא מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְטַיֵּל בְּפֶתַח פָּלָטִין שֶׁלּוֹ, וְרָאָה בְּלוֹרִין אַחַת מוּשְׁלֶכֶת, אָמַר מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה בָהּ, מֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים דִּימוּסִיּוֹת, וּמֵהֶן אוֹמְרִים פְּרִיבְטָאוֹת, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אִינְדַרְטִין אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ, מִי מְעַכֵּב.' "8.9 שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא." '8.9 שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב <>(דברים ד, לב)<>: כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב <>(יהושע כב, כב)<>: אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא <>(יהושע כב, כב)<>: הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב <>(יהושע כד, יט)<>: כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא." "
14.7
עָפָר, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן אוֹמֵר, עוֹפֶר עוֹלָם עַל מְלֵיאָתוֹ נִבְרָא. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר שִׁמְעוֹן אַף חַוָּה עַל מְלֵיאָתָהּ נִבְרֵאת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָדָם וְחַוָּה כִּבְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה נִבְרְאוּ. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר עָפָר זָכָר, אֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, הַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה מֵבִיא עָפָר זָכָר, וַאֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֵּלָיו בְּרִיאִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד בְּצִפּוֹרִי שֶׁמֵּת בְּנוֹ, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִינָאִי הֲוָה יָתִיב גַּבֵּיהּ, סְלֵק רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא לְמֶחֱמֵי לֵיהּ אַנְפִּין, חַמְתֵיהּ יָתֵיב וְשָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה אַתָּה שָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַן רְחִיצָן בְּמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא, דְּאִתְחַמֵי לְאַפּוּיֵי לְעָלְמָא דְאָתֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא מִסְתְּיֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא עָקְתֵיהּ אֶלָּא דַאֲתֵית מְעָקָא לֵיהּ, אִית חַסְפִּין מִתְדַּבְּקִין, לֹא כָּךְ כְּתִיב (תהלים ב, ט): כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר, כְּלִי זְכוּכִית בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הָאוּר וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר. זֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְיֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, וְזֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָה. אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמְעוּ אָזְנֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁפִּיךָ אוֹמֵר, מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁעָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל בָּשָׂר וָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כִּכְלִי חֶרֶס תְּנַפְּצֵם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, כְּלִי יוֹצֵר שֶׁלֹא הוּסְקוּ יְכוֹלִין הֵן לַחֲזֹר.14.7 עָפָר, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן אוֹמֵר, עוֹפֶר עוֹלָם עַל מְלֵיאָתוֹ נִבְרָא. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר שִׁמְעוֹן אַף חַוָּה עַל מְלֵיאָתָהּ נִבְרֵאת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָדָם וְחַוָּה כִּבְנֵי עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה נִבְרְאוּ. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר עָפָר זָכָר, אֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, הַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה מֵבִיא עָפָר זָכָר, וַאֲדָמָה נְקֵבָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֵּלָיו בְּרִיאִין. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּאֶחָד בְּצִפּוֹרִי שֶׁמֵּת בְּנוֹ, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִינָאִי הֲוָה יָתִיב גַּבֵּיהּ, סְלֵק רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא לְמֶחֱמֵי לֵיהּ אַנְפִּין, חַמְתֵיהּ יָתֵיב וְשָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָמָּה אַתָּה שָׂחֵיק, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנַן רְחִיצָן בְּמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא, דְּאִתְחַמֵי לְאַפּוּיֵי לְעָלְמָא דְאָתֵי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא מִסְתְּיֵיהּ לְהַהוּא גַבְרָא עָקְתֵיהּ אֶלָּא דַאֲתֵית מְעָקָא לֵיהּ, אִית חַסְפִּין מִתְדַּבְּקִין, לֹא כָּךְ כְּתִיב <>(תהלים ב, ט)<>: כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הַמַּיִם וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר, כְּלִי זְכוּכִית בְּרִיָּיתוֹ מִן הָאוּר וְהֶכְשֵׁרוֹ בָּאוּר. זֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְיֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, וְזֶה נִשְׁבַּר וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, אֶתְמְהָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָה. אָמַר לוֹ יִשְׁמְעוּ אָזְנֶיךָ מַה שֶּׁפִּיךָ אוֹמֵר, מָה אִם זֶה שֶׁעָשׂוּי בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל בָּשָׂר וָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה, בִּנְפִיחָתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק כִּכְלִי חֶרֶס תְּנַפְּצֵם אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא כִּכְלִי יוֹצֵר תְּנַפְּצֵם, כְּלִי יוֹצֵר שֶׁלֹא הוּסְקוּ יְכוֹלִין הֵן לַחֲזֹר. ' None
sup>
8.8 "... “if a great person . . . says, ‘Why do I need to take permission from one lesser than me?’ . . . they say to him: Learn from your Creator, for He created upper ones and lower ones, and when He came to create the human, He ruled with the ministering angels.”", 8.9 "... R’ Simlai said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence).",
14.7
"... dirt from the ground / afar min ha’adamah, explains: ‘Afar’—male, ‘adamah’—female...", '' None
27. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48, 320, 331 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • minim • minim, Christians • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, deny God • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Babylonia • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, laws of • minim, mock rabbis • minim, not always Christians in Rashi • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 523; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 69, 70; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 70, 71; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 51, 80, 192, 193

sup>
48 (Devarim 11:22) "For if you
320 (Devarim 32:19) "And the L-rd saw and thrust away": R. Yehudah says: At the (very) time that they are seen (favorably) by Him, they thrust Him away! "in anger at His sons and daughters.",R. Meir says: Now does this not follow 331 (Devarim 32:41) "When I whet the flash of My sword": When punishment goes forth from before Me, it is light as a flash — in spite of which "My hand takes hold of justice." , "I shall return vengeance to
28. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 112, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • minim • minim, Christians • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, laws of • minim, their doctrines • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 68; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 81, 181, 192

sup>
112 " (Bamidbar 15:27) \\"And if one soul sin (the sin of idolatry) in error\\": Idolatry was in the category of all the mitzvoth — for which the individual brings a ewe-lamb or a she-goat; the leader (nassi), a he-goat; and the high-priest and beth-din, a bullock. And here (in respect to idolatry) Scripture removes them from their category, to have an individual, a Nassi, and the high-priest bring \\"a she-goat of the first year as a sin-offering\\" — for which reason this section was stated. You say that it speaks of idolatry, but perhaps it speaks of (any) one of all the mitzvoth written in the Torah! Would you say that? What is the subject under discussion? Idolatry! R. Yitzchak says: Scripture (here) speaks of idolatry. — But perhaps it speaks of (any) one of all the mitzvoth written in the Torah! — You reason as follows: The congregation was in the general category (of all of the mitzvoth, to bring a bullock), and (in respect to idolatry) its offerings were changed (to bring a bullock for a burnt-offering and a he-goat for a sin-offering.) And the individual was in the general category (of all the mitzvoth, etc.), and (in respect to idolatry) its offerings were changed, etc. Just as there (in respect to the congregation) Scripture speaks of idolatry; here, too, it is understood to be speaking of idolatry. \\"And if one soul sin (the sin of idolatry) in error\\": to exclude (from the offering) one who sins willfully (without witnesses or warning). For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If \\"light\\" mitzvoth are liable (for an offering), willful (transgression) as unwitting, how much more the \\"grave\\" (transgression of idolatry)! It is, therefore, written \\"in error\\" — to exclude willful (transgression). \\"he shall bring a she-goat of the first year as a sin-offering.\\" This is a prototype, viz.: Wherever \\"goat\\" is written, it must be of the first year. (Ibid. 28) \\"And the Cohein shall make atonement for the soul that is unwitting in sinning\\": It is the sins that he has done (willfully), which have caused him to err. \\"unwitting in sinning\\": to exclude unwittingness of (its being) idolatry, (e.g., mistaking a church for a synagogue and bowing down to it.) For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If he is liable (to bring an offering) for unwitting transgression of other mitzvoth, how much more so for the \\"grave\\" transgression of idolatry! It is, therefore, written \\"unwitting in sinning,\\" but not unwitting as to (its being) idolatry. \\"to atone for him\\": to exclude an instance of doubt (as to whether or not he had sinned). For it would follow (otherwise), viz.: If he must bring an offering for an instance of possible transgression of \\"light\\" mitzvoth, how much more so for an instance of possible transgression of idolatry (e.g., if there is a possibility of his having bowed down to an asheirah a tree devoted to idolatry)! It is, therefore, written \\"And he shall atone\\" (implying that there has been a sin), to exclude (an instance of) doubt (as to whether a sin has been committed.) \\"and he shall be forgiven\\": absolute forgiveness, as with all of the other \\"forgivings\\" in the Torah, (even though the sin of idolatry though unwitting has been committed). (Ibid. 15:29) \\"The native-born among the children of Israel, etc.\\" What is the intent of this? Because it is written (Vayikra 24:22) \\"All of the native-born in Israel shall sit in succoth,\\" I might think that only Israelites are intended. Whence do I derive the same for proselytes? It is, therefore, written \\"the native-born among the children of Israel and for the stranger that sojourns among them.\\" This is a prototype: wherever \\"native-born\\" is written, proselytes are also included. Variantly: What is the intent of \\"the native-born among the children of Israel\\"? For it would follow otherwise, viz.: Israelites are commanded against idolatry, and gentiles are commanded against idolatry. If I have learned that Israelites bring (an offering) for unwitting idolatry, so, gentiles should bring an offering for unwitting idolatry. It is, therefore, written \\"the native-born among the children of Israel\\": Israelites bring (an offering) for unwitting idolatry, but not gentiles. (Ibid.) \\"One Torah shall there be for you for him who acts unwittingly\\": for the individual, and for the Nassi, and for the high-priest. For I would think (otherwise), viz.: Since the congregation bring a bullock for (unwitting transgression of) all of the mitzvoth, and the high-priest brings a bullock for transgression of all of the mitzvoth, then if I have learned about the congregation that just as they bring a bullock for all of the mitzvoth, so, they bring a bullock for idolatry, then the high-priest, (too,) who brings a bullock for all of the mitzvoth, should bring a bullock for idolatry. And, furthermore, it follows a fortiori, viz.: If (in the Yom Kippur service), where the congregation does not bring a bullock, the high-priest does bring a bullock, then here, (in unwitting transgression of idolatry), where the congregation does bring a bullock, how much more so should the high-priest bring a bullock! It is, therefore, written \\"One Torah (a she-goat of the first year) shall there be for you\\": for the individual, and for the Nassi, and for the high-priest. \\"for him who acts unwittingly\\": R. Yehudah b. Betheira says: One who acts unwittingly (re idolatry) is (in principle) like one who serves idolatry, viz.: Just as serving idolatry is distinct in that it is an act in which deliberate transgression is punishable by kareth (cutting-off viz. Vayikra 20:3), and unwitting transgression, by a sin-offering (viz. Bamidbar 16:27) so, (the act of) all who act unwittingly, (in order to be liable to a sin-offering), must be an act where deliberate transgression is punishable by kareth and unwitting transgression by a sin-offering.", , " (Bamidbar 15:30) \\"And the soul who acts with a high hand\\": This is one who perverts the Torah, like Menasheh ben Chezkiah, who would sit and cast ridicule in the face of the L-rd, saying (for example): He should not have written in the Torah (Bereshit 30:14) \\"And Reuven went in the days of the wheat harvest.\\" And He should not have written (Ibid. 36:22) \\"And the sister of Lotan was Timna.\\" of one such as he it is written in the Tradition (Psalms 50:20) \\"You sit and speak against your brother; you cast ridicule against your mother. These you have done and I have kept silent. You thought I was one such as you\\": (i.e.), you thought that perhaps as the ways of flesh and blood are the ways of the L-rd. (Ibid.) \\"I will reprove you and set (them) forth before your eyes.\\" And of one such as he, Isaiah writes in the tradition (Isaiah 5:18) \\"Woe unto those who pull transgressions to themselves with strands of deceit, and sin as with the ropes of a wagon\\": In the beginning, sin is like the strands of a spider\'s web, and, in the end, sin is as (\\"stout\\" as) wagon ropes. Rebbi says: If a man does one mitzvah lishmah (for the sake of Heaven), let him rejoice not only in that mitzvah alone; for in the end, it will \\"pull along\\" many mitzvoth. And if a man commits one transgression, let him not despond over it alone, for in the end, it will pull along many transgressions. For mitzvah \\"tows\\" mitzvah, and transgression, transgression. (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"It is the L-rd whom he blasphemes (megadef).\\" R. Eliezer b. Azaryah says: As a man would say to his neighbor: \\"You have scraped out the dish (of food) and \'scraped\' (\'megaref,\' similar to \'megadef\') the \'dish\' itself.\\" (i.e., this is the ultimate insult). Issi b. Akiva says: As one would say to his neighbor: \\"You have scraped out the entire dish and left nothing in it.\\" (Ibid.) \\"and that soul will be cut off\\": \\"cutting-off\\" connotes cessation (of the family line, i.e., he will be childless). \\"that soul\\": who acts deliberately. \\"from the midst of its people\\": but its people will remain at peace. (Ibid. 31) \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is a Sadducee. \\"and His commandment he has broken\\": This is a heretic. Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is one who distorts the Torah. \\"and His commandment he has broken\\": This is one who breaks the covet of the flesh (circumcision, i.e., one who does not circumcise his sons.) From here R. Elazar Hamodai said: One who desecrates the offerings, and cheapens the festivals, and breaks the covet (of circumcision) of our father Abraham — even if he has performed many mitzvoth, it were best to \\"thrust\\" him from the world! Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": this is one who says there is no Torah from Heaven. And even if he says: The entire Torah is from the mouth of the Holy One (except for) this thing that Moses said on his own — And even if he said: The entire Torah I accept, except for this inference, this kal vachomer (a fortiori argument) — this is \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised.\\" Variantly: \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\": This is one who learns, but does not teach others. R. Nechemiah says: This is one who is able to learn but does not. R. Nathan said: This is one who paid no heed at all to words of Torah. R. Yishmael says: The verse speaks of idolatry, as it is written \\"For the word of the L-rd he has despised\\" — the first commandment of the Omnipotent One — (Shemot 20:2-3) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d … There shall be unto you no other gods before Me.\\" (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"cut off shall be cut off\\": \\"cut off\\" — in this world; \\"shall be cut off\\" — in the world to come. These are the words of R. Akiva. R. Yishmael says: But is it not already written (Ibid. 30) \\"It is the L-rd whom he blasphemes; and that soul shall be cut off\'? Are there three worlds? Rather, \\"and that soul shall be cut off\\" — in this world. \\"cut off\\" — in the world to come. \\"cut off shall be cut off\\" — Torah speaks in the language of man. (Ibid. 31) \\"its transgression is in it\\": All who die are atoned for by death; but this one, \\"its transgression is in it.\\" As it is written (Ezekiel 32:27) \\"And their transgressions shall be upon their bones.\\" — Even if they have repented? — It is, therefore, written (when) \\"its transgression is in it,\\" and not when he has repented. Similarly, (Devarim 32:5) \\"They have corrupted themselves — not His children — their blemish\\" — When their blemish is in them, they are not His children. When their blemish is not in them, they are His children. R. Yishmael says: \\"its transgression is in it\\": What is the intent of this? Because it is written (Shemot 20:5) \\"He visits the iniquity of the fathers upon sons,\\" I might think that (the father\'s sin of) idolatry, too, is visited upon sons \\"until the third and fourth generation\\"; it is, therefore, written (here, in respect to idolatry) \\"its transgression is in it\\" — in it (the soul of the doer) the transgression inheres, and it is not visited upon the sons, and not on the third and on the fourth generation. R. Nathan says: This (\\"its transgression is in it\\") is a good sign for a man, (indicating) that his transgressions are exacted of him after his death, (so that he may merit life in the world to come.) If a dead one is not eulogized or buried, or if he is eaten by an animal, or if rain descended upon it — this is a good sign, (indicating that his transgressions are being exacted of him after his death.) And even though there is no (Scriptural) proof for this, it is intimated in (Jeremiah 8:1-2) \\"At that time, says the L-rd, they will remove the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of its officers … And they will spread them out under the sun and the moon, etc.\\" R. Shimon b. Elazar said: From here (\\"its transgression is in it\\") I have exposed (as false) the books of the Samaritans. For they say: The dead do not live — whereupon I said to them: But it is written \\"That soul shall be cut off; its transgression is in it.\\" Let this not be stated (i.e., What purpose does it serve?) — It indicates that it (the soul) is destined to give an accounting on the day of judgment.", 115 " (Bamidbar 15:37-38) \\"And the L-rd spoke to Moses, saying … and they shall make for themselves tzitzith\\": Women, too, are included (in the mitzvah of tzitzith.) R. Shimon exempts women from tzitzith, it being a time-based (only in the daytime) positive commandment, from which women are exempt, this being the principle: R. Shimon said: Women are exempt from all time-based positive commandments. R. Yehudah b. Bava said: of a certainty, the sages exempted a woman\'s veil from tzitzith, and they are required in a wrap only because sometimes her husband covers himself with it. \\"tzitzith\\": \\"tzitzith\\" is something which \\"protrudes\\" (\\"yotzeh\\") somewhat. And the elders of Beth Shammai and those of Beth Hillel have already entered the upper chamber of Yonathan b. Betheira and declared: Tzitzith have no prescribed size. And they declared, similarly: A lulav has no prescribed size. \\"and they shall make for themselves tzitzith.\\" I might think that one string suffices; it is, therefore, written (Devarim 22:12) \\"Fringes (shall you make for yourself.\\") How many fringes? Not fewer than three. These are the words of Beth Hillel. Beth Shammai say: Three of wool and the fourth of tcheleth (blue linen). And the halachah is in accordance with Beth Shammai. When is this so (that a minimum size is required)? In the beginning (of its attachment). But for what is left over or lopped off any size (is sufficient). (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"and they shall make for themselves tzitzith.\\" I might think that all of it shall be tzitzith; it is, therefore, written \\"fringes.\\" If \\"fringes,\\" I might think all of it shall be fringes. It is, therefore, written \\"tzitzith.\\" How is this (to be implemented)? That its fringes protrude from the corner (of the garment), and tzitzith from the fringes. \\"in the corners of their garments\\": I might think, even garments that are three-cornered, five-cornered, six-cornered, seven-cornered, and eight-cornered; it is, therefore, written (Devarim, Ibid.) \\"on the four corners of your garment,\\" to exclude the aforementioned. And whence is it derived that pillows and covers are (also) excluded (from tzitzith)? From (Ibid.) \\"wherewith you cover yourself.\\" If from there, I would think that night-clothes are also included (as requiring tzitzith). It is, therefore, written (Bamidbar, Ibid. 39) \\"and you shall see it\\" — in the daytime and not at night. And if it were intended both for day and night, it requires tzitzith. I might think that this excludes both the above and the garment of a blind man; it is, therefore, written (Bamidbar, Ibid. 39) \\"And it shall be for you for tzitzith\\" — in any event (i.e., to include a blind man). (Ibid. 38) \\"and they shall place on the tzitzith (on) the corner a strand of tcheleth\\": spun and doubled. This tells me only of the tcheleth, that it is to be spun and doubled. Whence do I derive (the same for) the white (i.e., the wool)? You derive it by induction, viz.: Since the Torah said: \\"place\\" tcheleth and \\"place\\" white, just as tcheleth is spun and doubled, so, white is spun and doubled. \\"and they shall place\\": on the place of the weaving (i.e., the corner of the garment), and not on the place of the \\"growing\\" (i.e., the strands at the corner of the garment). If he did place it on the site of the \\"growing,\\" it is (nonetheless) kasher. R. Eliezer b. Yaakov includes it both on the \\"growing\\" and on the very edge of the garment, it being written \\"on the corners of their garments.\\" \\"and they shall place on the tzitzith (on) the corner\\": What is the intent of this? From \\"and they shall make for themselves tzitzith, I might think that he should weave it (the tzitzith) together with it (the garment; it is, therefore, written \\"and they shall place.\\" How so? He ties it (the tzitzith) together with it (the garment). (Ibid. 39) \\"And it shall be to you for tzitzith\\": The four tzitzith are mutually inclusive (i.e., in the absence of one there is no mitzvah), the four being one mitzvah. R. Yishmael says: They are four mitzvoth. R. Elazar b. R. Shimon says: Why is it called \\"tcheleth\\"? Because the Egyptians were \\"bereaved\\" (\\"nitkelu\\" like \\"tcheleth\\") of their first-born, viz. (Shemot 12:29) \\"And it was in the middle of the night, that the L-rd smote every first-born, etc.\\" Variantly: Because the Egyptians were \\"destroyed\\" (\\"kalu\\") in the Red Sea. Why is it called \\"tzitzith\\"? Because the L-rd \\"looked\\" (\\"hetzith\\") over our fathers\' houses in Egypt, as it is written (Song of Songs 2:9) \\"The voice of My Beloved, behold, it is coming … My Beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart … Behold, He stands behind our wall, looking through the windows, peering through the lattices.\\" R. Chanina b. Antignos says: One who fulfills the mitzvah of tzitzith, what is said of him? (Zechariah 8:23) \\"In these days it will happen that ten men, of all the languages of the nations will take hold of the corner (i.e., of the tzitzith) of a Jewish man, saying \'Let us go with you, for we have heard that G-d is with you!\'\\" And one who nullifies the mitzvah of \\"the corner,\\" what is said of him? (Iyyov 38:13) \\"to take hold of the corners of the earth and to shake the wicked from it!\\" R. Meir says: It is not written (Bamidbar, Ibid. 39) \\"And you shall see them\\" (the tzitzith), but \\"And you shall see Him.\\" Scripture hereby apprises us that if one fulfills the mitzvah of tzitzith, it is reckoned unto him as if he beheld the face of the Shechinah. For tcheleth is reminiscent of (the color of) the sea; the sea, of the firmament; and the firmament, of the Throne of Glory, as it is written (Ezekiel 1:26) \\"And above the firmament that was over their heads … (28) the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the L-rd.\\" (Bamidbar, Ibid.) \\"and you shall see and you shall remember\\": See this mitzvah and remember another mitzvah, (which is contingent upon it.) Which is that? The recitation of the Shema — But perhaps (the reference is to) one of all the other mitzvoth of the Torah. It is, therefore, written (in the section of tzitzith, Ibid. 41) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d,\\" which you find to be written only in (the section of) the recitation of the Shema. \\"and you shall remember\\": Remember (i.e., recite) the section with your mouth. I might think that the section \\"vehaya im shamoa\\" (Devarim 11:13-21) should precede all of the sections. — Would you say that? The section of Shema (Devarim 6:4-9), which contains acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven should precede \\"vehaya im shamoa,\\" which contains acceptance of the yoke of mitzvoth, and \\"vehaya im shamoa,\\" which obtains both in the daytime and at night, should precede the section of tzitzith (\\"vayomer\\" Bamidbar 15:37-41), which obtains only in the daytime. And perhaps he should recite three (sections) in the evening as he does in the daytime. It is, therefore, written (of tzitzith Bamidbar 15:39) \\"and you shall see it\\" — in the daytime and not at night. R. Shimon b. Yochai says: The section of Shema, which contains (the mitzvah of) learning (Torah), should precede \\"vehaya im shamoa,\\" which speaks only of teaching. And \\"vehaya im shamoa\\" should precede the section of tzitzith, which is only to do (i.e., the final stage). For thus was Torah given: to learn and to teach, to keep and to do: \\"And you shall see it, and you shall remember (all the mitzvoth of the L-rd, and you shall do them.\\"): Now does this not follow a fortiori, viz.: If one who fulfills the mitzvah of tzitzith, (which is only a sign and a remembrance towards the doing of mitzvoth,) is accounted as one who has fulfilled all of the mitzvoth, how much more so (is this true of) one who (actively) performs (any one of) all the mitzvoth of the Torah! \\"And you shall not go astray after your hearts\\": This is heresy, as it is written (Koheleth 7:26) \\"And I find more bitter than death \'the woman\' (heresy), whose heart is snares and nets. Her hands are bonds. The good before G-d shall escape her.\\" \\"and after your eyes\\": This is harlotry, as it is written (Judges 14:3) \\"Take her for me, for she is just in my eyes.\\" \\"after which you go astray\\": This is idolatry, as it is written (Ibid. 8:33) \\"and they went astray after the ba\'alim.\\" R. Nathan says: that one not \\"drink\\" in this \\"cup\\" (i.e., his own wife), and cast his gaze at the \\"cup\\" of another. Variantly: \\"And you shall not go astray after your hearts and after your eyes\\": This teaches us that the eyes follow the heart. — But perhaps the heart follows the eyes! Would you say that? Are there not blind men who commit all the abominations in the world? What, then, is the intent of \\"And you shall not go astray after your hearts, etc.\\"? That the eyes follow the heart. R. Yishmael says: \\"And you shall not go astray after your hearts\\": What is the intent of this? From (Koheleth 11:9) \\"Rejoice young man in your youth (… and walk in the ways of your heart\\"), (I would not know whether) in a way that is straight or in (any) way that you like; it is, therefore, written \\"And you shall not go astray after your hearts.\\" (Ibid. 40) \\"So that you remember and you do (all of My mitzvoth): This equates remembering with doing. \\"and you shall be holy to your G-d\\": This refers to the holiness of all of the mitzvoth. You say the holiness of (all the) mitzvoth, but perhaps the holiness of tzitzith (is intended). — Would you say that? What is the (general) context? The holiness of all the mitzvoth. Rebbi says: The reference is to the holiness of tzitzith. You say the holiness of tzitzith, but perhaps the holiness of all the mitzvoth is intended. — (Vayikra 19:2) \\"Holy shall you be\\" already refers to the holiness of all the mitzvoth. How, then, am I to understand \\"and you shall be holy to your G-d\\"? As referring to the holiness of tzitzith — whence it is seen that tzitzith add holiness to Israel. (Ibid. 41) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d, who took you out of the land of Egypt.\\": Why is this mentioned here? So that one not say: I will take imitation-dyed threads (and attach them to my garment) as tcheleth, and who will know the difference? If (within the framework of) the measure of punishment, the lesser measure (of the L-rd) — if one sins in secret, He exposes him in public, (as He did in Egypt), then, (within the framework of) the measure of good, the greater measure (of the L-rd) — how much more so (does this hold true)! Variantly: Why is the exodus from Egypt mentioned in connection with every mitzvah? An analogy: The son of a king\'s loved one was taken captive. When he (the king) redeems him, he redeems him not as a son, but as a servant, so that if he (the son) does not accept his decree, he can say to him \\"You are my servant!\\" When they enter the province, he (the king) says to him: Put on my sandals and carry my things before me to the bath-house. The son begins to object, whereupon the king presents him with his writ (of servitude) and says to him: \\"You are my servant!\\" Thus, when the Holy One Blessed be He redeemed the seed of His loved one, He did not redeem them as \\"sons,\\" but as servants, so that if they reject His decree He says to them: \\"You are My servants!\\" When they went to the desert, He began to decree upon them some \\"light\\" mitzvoth and some formidable ones, such as Shabbath, illicit relations, tzitzith, and tefillin, and Israel began to object — whereupon He said to them: \\"You are My servants! On that condition I redeemed you; on condition that I decree and you fulfill!\\" \\"I am the L-rd your G-d\\": Why is this stated again? Is it not already written (Shemot 20:2) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d who took you out of the land of Egypt\\"? Why state it again? So that Israel not say: Why did the L-rd command us (to do mitzvoth)? Is it not so that we do them and receive reward? We shall not do them and we shall not receive reward! As Israel said (Ezekiel 20:1) \\"There came to me (Ezekiel) men of the elders of Israel to make inquiry of the L-rd, and they sat before me.\\" They said to him: A servant whose Master has sold him, does he not leave His domain? Ezekiel: Yes. They: Since the L-rd has sold us to the nations, we have left His domain. Ezekiel: A servant whose Master has sold him in order to return, does he leave His domain? (Ibid. 32-33) \\"And what enters your minds, it shall not be, your saying: We will be like the nations, like the families of the lands, to serve wood and stone. As I live, says the L-rd G-d. I swear to you that I will rule over you with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm and with outpoured wrath!\\" \\"with a strong hand\\": pestilence, as it is written (in that regard, Shemot 9:3) \\"Behold, the hand of the L-rd is in your cattle, etc.\\" \\"with an outstretched arm\\": the sword, as it is written (I Chronicles 21:16) \\"with his (the angel\'s) sword drawn in his hand, stretched over Jerusalem.\\" \\"and with outpoured wrath\\": famine. After I bring these three calamities upon you, one after the other, I will rule over you perforce!", , " R. Nathan said: There is no mitzvah in the Torah whose reward is not \\"at its side.\\" Go and learn this from the mitzvah of tzitzith. There was once a certain man who was particularly diligent in the mitzvah of tzitzith. Once, hearing of a (\\"famed\\") harlot in the cities of the sea, who took four hundred gold coins as her hire, he sent her that sum, and she set a time for him. When the appointed time came, he went there and sat at the door of her house. Her maid-servant went in and said to her: That man whom you appointed a time for is sitting at the door of the house. The harlot: Let him come in. When he came in, she spread seven beds for him, six of silver and one of gold, and she was on the uppermost. Between each one was a silver ladder, and the uppermost, of gold. When he came to the act, his four tzitzith came and struck him across his face. They seemed to him like four men. He immediately left off and sat upon the ground. She, too, left off and sat upon the ground. She said to him \\"\'Gapa of Rome\' (an idolatrous oath), I shall not let you go until you tell me what blemish you have seen in me!\\" He: I swear, I have seen no blemish in you. There is no beauty like yours in all the world, but there is one mitzvah (tzitzith) concerning which it is written two times (Bamidbar 15:41) \\"I am the L-rd your G-d.\\" \\"I am the L-rd your G-d\\" — I am destined to reward; \\"I am the L-rd your G-d\\" — I am destined to punish. And now they appeared to me as four witnesses (testifying to the above). At this, she said: I swear that I will not let you go until you write for me your name, the name of your city, and the name of the place where you study Torah. He wrote for her his name, the name of his city, the name of his master, and the name of the place where he studied Torah — whereupon she arose and divided all of her wealth: a third to the authorities (for permission to convert), a third to the poor, and a third which she took with her, in addition to those spreads. When she came to R. Meir\'s house of study, she said to him: My master, convert me. R. Meir: Is it possible that you have \\"cast your eyes\\" upon one of my disciples! At this, she took out the note that she had with her, and he said to her: \\"Go and claim your purchase!\\" Those spreads which she had spread for him unlawfully, she now spread for him lawfully, This was her reward in this world. As to the world to come, I do not know how much.", ' None
29. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 62 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minim • heretics (minim)

 Found in books: Kessler (2004), Bound by the Bible: Jews, Christians and the Sacrifice of Isaac, 25; Lieu (2015), Marcion and the Making of a Heretic: God and Scripture in the Second Century, 335

sup>
62 The words Let Us make man agree with the testimony of Proverbs Justin: And the same sentiment was expressed, my friends, by the word of God written by Moses, when it indicated to us, with regard to Him whom it has pointed out, that God speaks in the creation of man with the very same design, in the following words: 'Let Us make man after our image and likeness. And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the heaven, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over all the creeping things that creep on the earth. And God created man: after the image of God did He create him; male and female created He them. And God blessed them, and said, Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and have power over it.' And that you may not change the force of the words just quoted, and repeat what your teachers assert — either that God said to Himself, 'Let Us make,' just as we, when about to do something, oftentimes say to ourselves, 'Let us make;' or that God spoke to the elements, to wit, the earth and other similar substances of which we believe man was formed, 'Let Us make,'— I shall quote again the words narrated by Moses himself, from which we can indisputably learn that God conversed with some one who was numerically distinct from Himself, and also a rational Being. These are the words: 'And God said, Behold, Adam has become as one of us, to know good and evil.' Genesis 3:22 In saying, therefore, 'as one of us,' Moses has declared that there is a certain number of persons associated with one another, and that they are at least two. For I would not say that the dogma of that heresy which is said to be among you is true, or that the teachers of it can prove that God spoke to angels, or that the human frame was the workmanship of angels. But this offspring, which was truly brought forth from the Father, was with the Father before all the creatures, and the Father communed with Him; even as the Scripture by Solomon has made clear, that He whom Solomon calls Wisdom, was begotten as a Beginning before all His creatures and as offspring by God, who has also declared this same thing in the revelation made by Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). Listen, therefore, to the following from the book of Joshua, that what I say may become manifest to you; it is this: 'And it came to pass, when Joshua was near Jericho, he lifted up his eyes, and sees a man standing over against him. And Joshua approached to Him, and said, Are you for us, or for our adversaries? And He said to him, I am Captain of the Lord's host: now have I come. And Joshua fell on his face on the ground, and said to Him, Lord, what do You command Your servant? And the Lord's Captain says to Joshua, Loose the shoes off your feet; for the place whereon you stand is holy ground. And Jericho was shut up and fortified, and no one went out of it. And the Lord said to Joshua, Behold, I give into your hand Jericho, and its king, and its mighty men.'"" None
30. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 90; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 258

31. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Birkat ha-Minim • Birkat ha-minim • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • heresy, minim • min (pl. minim), definition of • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, common features of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim, identity of

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 4, 97, 185; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 388; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 264; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 14, 15; Piovanelli, Burke, Pettipiece (2015), Rediscovering the Apocryphal Continent : New Perspectives on Early Christian and Late Antique Apocryphal Textsand Traditions. De Gruyter: 2015 95; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 650

10a כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר\' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי\' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה\',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר\' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא\' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר\' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה\' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה\' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה\' כל צבאיו וגו\',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה\' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר\' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה\' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה\' ה\' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו\',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר\' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר\' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה\' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה\' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר\' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה\' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו\' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי\' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא\' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל' 28b רב אויא חלש ולא אתא לפרקא דרב יוסף למחר כי אתא בעא אביי לאנוחי דעתיה דרב יוסף א"ל מ"ט לא אתא מר לפרקא א"ל דהוה חליש לבאי ולא מצינא א"ל אמאי לא טעמת מידי ואתית א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המוספין א"ל איבעי ליה למר לצלויי צלותא דמוספין ביחיד ולטעום מידי ולמיתי א"ל ולא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הצבור א"ל לאו אתמר עלה א"ר אבא בצבור שנו,ולית הלכתא לא כרב הונא ולא כריב"ל כרב הונא הא דאמרן כריב"ל דאריב"ל כיון שהגיע זמן תפלת המנחה אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המנחה:,51a במידי דלא ממאיס נמי לסלקינהו לצד אחד וליברך תרגמא רב יצחק קסקסאה קמיה דרבי יוסי בר אבין משמיה דרבי יוחנן משום שנאמר (תהלים עא, ח) ימלא פי תהלתך,בעו מיניה מרב חסדא מי שאכל ושתה ולא ברך מהו שיחזור ויברך אמר להו מי שאכל שום וריחו נודף יחזור ויאכל שום אחר כדי שיהא ריחו נודף,אמר רבינא הלכך אפילו גמר סעודתו יחזור ויברך דתניא טבל ועלה אומר בעלייתו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על הטבילה,ולא היא התם מעיקרא גברא לא חזי הכא מעיקרא גברא חזי והואיל ואידחי אידחי:,תנו רבנן אספרגוס יפה ללב וטוב לעינים וכ"ש לבני מעים והרגיל בו יפה לכל גופו והמשתכר הימנו קשה לכל גופו,מדקתני יפה ללב מכלל דבחמרא עסקינן וקתני וכל שכן לבני מעים והתניא ללע"ט יפה לרמ"ת קשה,כי תניא ההיא במיושן כדתנן קונם יין שאני טועם שהיין קשה לבני מעים אמרו לו והלא מיושן יפה הוא לבני מעים ושתק אסור בחדש ומותר במיושן שמע מינה:,תנו רבנן ששה דברים נאמרו באספרגוס אין שותין אותו אלא כשהוא חי ומלא מקבלו בימין ושותהו בשמאל ואין משיחין אחריו ואין מפסיקין בו ואין מחזירין אותו אלא למי שנתנו לו ורק אחריו ואין סומכין אותו אלא במינו,והתניא אין סומכין אותו אלא בפת לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא,תני חדא ללע"ט יפה לרמ"ת קשה ותניא אידך לרמ"ת יפה ללע"ט קשה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא,תני חדא רק אחריו לוקה ותניא אידך לא רק אחריו לוקה לא קשיא הא בדחמרא הא בדשכרא,א"ר אשי השתא דאמרת לא רק אחריו לוקה מימיו נזרקין אפילו בפני המלך:,א"ר ישמעאל בן אלישע שלשה דברים סח לי סוריאל שר הפנים אל תטול חלוקך בשחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תחזיר כוס אספרגוס אלא למי שנתנו לך מפני שתכספית ואמרי לה אסתלגנית של מלאכי חבלה מצפין לו לאדם ואומרים אימתי יבא אדם לידי אחד מדברים הללו וילכד,אמר ריב"ל שלשה דברים סח לי מלאך המות אל תטול חלוקך שחרית מיד השמש ותלבש ואל תטול ידיך ממי שלא נטל ידיו ואל תעמוד לפני הנשים בשעה שחוזרות מן המת מפני שאני מרקד ובא לפניהן וחרבי בידי ויש לי רשות לחבל,ואי פגע מאי תקנתיה לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע אמות אי איכא נהרא ליעבריה ואי איכא דרכא אחרינא ליזיל בה ואי איכא גודא ליקו אחורא ואי לא ליהדר אפיה ולימא (זכריה ג, ב) ויאמר ה\' אל השטן יגער ה\' בך וגו\' עד דחלפי מיניה:,א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה דברים נאמרו בכוס של ברכה טעון הדחה ושטיפה חי ומלא עיטור ועיטוף נוטלו בשתי ידיו ונותנו בימין ומגביהו מן הקרקע טפח ונותן עיניו בו ויש אומרים אף משגרו במתנה לאנשי ביתו,אמר ר\' יוחנן אנו אין לנו אלא ארבעה בלבד הדחה שטיפה חי ומלא תנא הדחה מבפנים ושטיפה מבחוץ,א"ר יוחנן כל המברך על כוס מלא נותנין לו נחלה בלי מצרים שנאמר (דברים לג, כג) ומלא ברכת ה\' ים ודרום ירשה ר\' יוסי בר חנינא אומר זוכה ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא,עיטור רב יהודה מעטרהו בתלמידים רב חסדא מעטר ליה בנטלי אמר ר\' חנן ובחי אמר רב ששת ובברכת הארץ,עיטוף רב פפא מעטף ויתיב רב אסי פריס סודרא על רישיה,נוטלו בשתי ידיו א"ר חיננא בר פפא מאי קראה (תהלים קלד, ב) שאו ידיכם קדש וברכו את ה\',ונותנו לימין א"ר חייא בר אבא אמר ר\' יוחנן ראשונים שאלו שמאל מהו שתסייע לימין אמר רב אשי הואיל וראשונים איבעיא להו ולא איפשט להו ' None10a Every chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the man who has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). And he concluded with “happy,” as it is written at the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. Happy are those who take refuge in Him” (Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say Halleluya until he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: There were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed for God to have mercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking? On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, as it is written: “Let sins cease from the land” (Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But is it written, let sinners cease?” Let sins cease, is written. One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves.,Moreover, go to the end of the verse, where it says: “And the wicked will be no more.” If, as you suggest, transgressions shall cease refers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that the wicked will be no more, i.e., that they will no longer be evil? Rather, pray for God to have mercy on them, that they should repent, as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct and he prayed for God to have mercy on them, and they repented.,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: A certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth, open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). Because she has not given birth, she should sing and rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and said: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.”,Rather, what is the meaning of: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”? It means: Sing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who are destined for Gehenna like you.,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom” (Psalms 3:1), and similarly it is said: “To the chief musician, al tashḥet, a mikhtam of David when fleeing from Saul into the cave” (Psalms 57:1). Which event was first? Since the event with Saul was first, it would have been appropriate to write it first.,Rabbi Abbahu said to him: For you, who do not employ the homiletic method of juxtaposition of verses, it is difficult. But for us, who employ the homiletic method of juxtaposition of verses, it is not difficult, as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, Rabbi Yoḥa said: From where in the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the juxtaposition of verses? As it is said: “The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. Adjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness” (Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”,Why was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog? They are juxtaposed so that if a person should say to you, expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: Is there a slave who rebels against his master? Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? You too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his father and severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? Yet, nevertheless, there was such a son, Absalom, and so too there can be a situation where people will seek to rebel against God.,Rabbi Yoḥa said explanations of other verses in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What is the meaning of that which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue” (Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so with reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said this verse about none other than his father, David, who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and who resided in five worlds or stages of life and his soul said a song of praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life.,He resided in his mother’s womb, his first world, and said a song of praise of the pregcy, as it is stated: “of David. Bless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name” (Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb.,He emerged into the atmosphere of the world, his second world, looked upon the stars and constellations and said a song of praise of God for the entirety of creation, as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts, His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator (Ma’ayan HaBerakhot).,He nursed from his mother’s breast, his third world, and he looked upon her bosom and said a song of praise, as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits gemulav (Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between gemulav and gemulei meḥalav, which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, what is meant by all His benefits? What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? Rabbi Abbahu said: In contrast with most other animals, God placed her breasts near her heart, the place that is the source of understanding.,What is the reason that God did this? Rav Yehuda said: So that the nursing child would not look upon the place of his mother’s nakedness. Rav Mattana said: So that the child would not nurse from a place of uncleanliness.,He witnessed in both vision and reality the downfall of the wicked and he said a song of praise, as it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, Halleluya (Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David looked upon the day of death and said a song of praise, as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty” (Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: From where is it inferred that this verse was stated with regard to the day of death? Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this from the verses at the end of the matter, where it is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perish and return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how Rav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularly study before Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, who was well versed in aggada and would arrange the aggada before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. rOnce, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said to him: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? rRav Shimi bar Ukva said to Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi: Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood, as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. The attribute of flesh and blood is such that he shapes a form on the wall for all to see, yet he cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. While the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so, as God shapes one form within another form, a child in its mother’s womb, and instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this is the explanation of what Hannah said with regard to the birth of Samuel: “There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God” (I Samuel 2:2).,What is the meaning of there is no rock tzur like our God? There is no artist tzayyar like our God.,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: What is the meaning of “there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not read the verse to mean “there is none like You biltekha”; rather, read it to mean “none can outlast You levalotkha,” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood is such that his creations outlast him, but the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions.,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who said to Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi: I meant to say to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these five instance of “Bless the Lord, O my soul”? He answered him: He said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul, as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world.,Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. rJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. rJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. rJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. rJust as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber, in His inner sanctum, so too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber, in the innermost recesses of the body. rTherefore, that which has these five characteristics, the soul, should come and praise He Who has these five characteristics.,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. Rav Hamnuna said: What is the meaning of that which is written praising the Holy One, Blessed be He: “Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation pesher of the matter” (Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: Who is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise peshara between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah, the king of Judea, and Isaiah the prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. Hezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijah the prophet, who went to Ahab, the king of Israel, as it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab” (I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. And Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab, king of Israel, who went to Elisha the prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12).,What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do to effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? He brought the suffering of illness upon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick. Isaiah did as God instructed, as it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live” (Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; what is the meaning of you will die and you will not live? This repetition means: You will die in this world, and you will not live, you will have no share, in the World-to-Come.,Hezekiah said to him: What is all of this? For what transgression am I being punished? rIsaiah said to him: Because you did not marry and engage in procreation. rHezekiah apologized and said: I had no children because I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous. Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah said to him: Why do you involve yourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded, the mitzva of procreation, you are required to perform, and that which is acceptable in the eyes of the Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform, as He has so decided.,Hezekiah said to Isaiah: Now give me your daughter as my wife; perhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. rIsaiah said to him: The decree has already been decreed against you and this judgment cannot be changed. rHezekiah said to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave. As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: I have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father, from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: Even if a sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from praying for mercy. One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that it was also said that Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from praying for mercy, as it is stated in the words of Job: “Though He slay me, I will trust in Him” (Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.' 28b After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. When Rav Avya came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef. rTo this end, he asked him: Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture? rRav Avya said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable to attend. rAbaye said to him: Why did you not eat something and come? rRav Avya said to him: Does the Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer. rAbaye said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and then come to the lecture. rRav Avya said to him: Does my Master not hold in accordance with that statement of Rabbi Yoḥa: A person may not recite his individual prayer prior to the communal prayer? rAbaye said to him: Was it not stated regarding this halakha, Rabbi Abba said: They taught this in a communal setting? rIn other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion.,And the Gemara summarizes: The halakha is neither in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna nor in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. The Gemara explains: It is not in accordance with the statement of Rav Huna, as we said above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time to recite the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer.,halakhot relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire caused by me in the study hall. And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion.,The Sages taught in a baraita the complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap in determining the halakha transpires caused by me, and that I not fail in any matter of halakha, and that my colleagues, who together with me engage in clarifying the halakha, will rejoice in me. He specified: And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor declare impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of halakha, and that I will rejoice in them.,Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit idly on street corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to pursue matters of Torah, and they rise early to pursue frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction.,On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, guidelines by which to live, and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come.,He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic when studying verses that tend toward heresy (geonim), and place your children, while they are still young, between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For doing that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come.,A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: When Rabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, for what reason are you crying? With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?,He said to them: I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king whose life is temporal, who is here today and dead in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, I am able to appease him with words and even bribe him with money, and even so I would cry when standing before royal judgment. Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry?,His students said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be His will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students were puzzled and said: To that point and not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? He said to them: Would that a person achieve that level of fear. Know that when one commits a transgression, he says to himself: I hope that no man will see me. If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.,The Gemara relates that at the time of his death, immediately beforehand, he said to them: Remove the vessels from the house and take them outside due to the ritual impurity that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming from the upper world to accompany me.,Amida prayer, also known as Shemoneh Esreh, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as tefilla, prayer. Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says an intermediate opinion: If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the prayer of eighteen blessings, and if not, he need only recite an abridged version of the prayer of eighteen blessings.,Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw.,Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who cannot recite a complete prayer because he is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remt of Israel, at every transition parashat ha’ibur, the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer.,While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray calmly. If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face toward the direction of the Temple. If he is unable to turn his face, it is sufficient that he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. Similarly, one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft asda and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.,Amida prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. Corresponding to what were these eighteen blessings instituted? When the Shemoneh Esreh was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?,Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm: “Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might” (Psalms 29). Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in Shema. Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine beneath the ribs.,Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the Amida prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In those blessings where one is required to bow, one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude.,Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, Ulla said: Until he can see a small coin issar, on the ground before him opposite his heart (Rav Hai Gaon). Rabbi Ḥanina said: There is room for leniency; once he moves his head forward, he need not bow any further. Rava said: But that applies only if he is exerting himself when doing so, and he appears like one who is bowing. However, if he is able, he should bow further.,Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are these eighteen blessings? They are nineteen.,Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, which curses informers, was instituted in Yavne and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: Corresponding to what was this nineteenth blessing instituted?,Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing corresponds to a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: “The God of glory thunders” (Psalms 29:3). According to Rav Yosef, who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in Shema, the additional blessing corresponds to the word one that is in Shema. Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. According to what Rabbi Tanḥum said that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing corresponds to the small vertebra that is at the bottom of the spine.,In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessings, already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, before Rabban Gamliel, the Nasi of the Sanhedrin, in order in Yavne. Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, a blessing directed against the Sadducees? Shmuel HaKatan, who was one of the most pious men of that generation, stood and instituted it.,The Gemara relates: The next year, when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, he forgot that blessing, 51a The Gemara asks: With regard to a food item that does not become disgusting as well, let him shift it to the side and recite the blessing. Why need he spit it out? Rav Yitzḥak Kaskesa’a explained before Rabbi Yosei bar Avin, in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: One spits it out because it is stated: “My mouth will be filled with Your praise” (Psalms 71:8), meaning that one should recite God’s praises with his entire mouth, not merely half.,They raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: One who ate and drank and did not recite a blessing, what is the ruling? Does he return and recite the blessing that he should have recited beforehand before he continues eating or not? In response, Rav Ḥisda said to them an analogy: Should one who ate garlic and the odor on his breath smells return and eat another garlic so that the odor on his breath will smell? That is to say, one must recite a blessing. Should one who committed a transgression and failed to recite a blessing before eating, remedy his situation by continuing to eat without reciting a blessing (Talmidei Rabbeinu Yona)?,Ravina said: Therefore, even if one finished his meal, he must return and recite a blessing. He cites a proof, as it was taught in a baraita with regard to the laws of immersion: One who was ritually impure who immersed himself in a ritual bath and emerged, as he emerges he recites: Blessed…Who has made us holy through His mitzvot and has commanded us about ritual immersion. Evidently, in certain cases, one may recite the blessing after completing the act.,The Gemara rejects the parallel between the cases: That is not so, as there, in the case of immersion, initially, before he immersed himself, the man was unfit to recite the blessing because he was ritually impure; here, in the case where one did not recite a blessing before eating, initially he was fit to recite the blessing, and since he did not recite the blessing before he ate and he concluded his meal and is, therefore, excluded from reciting the blessing, he is completely excluded and has no way to remedy the situation.,Tangential to the laws concerning wine that the Gemara cited earlier, the Sages taught: Asparagus, wine or other alcoholic beverages that they were accustomed to drink early in the morning before eating, is agreeable for the heart and beneficial for the eyes, and all the more so for the intestines. And in extolling the virtues of this drink, the Gemara says: One who is accustomed to drink it, it is agreeable for his entire body. However, one must be careful, as one who drinks excessively and becomes drunk, it is harmful for his entire body.,The Gemara discusses this: From the fact that it was taught that asparagus is agreeable for the heart, it may be inferred that we are dealing with asparagus made from wine, which is known to be agreeable for the heart. And we learned: And all the more so, asparagus is beneficial for the intestines. Wasn’t it taught in a baraita: For L-E-T, which is an acronym for lev, heart; einayim, eyes; teḥol, spleen, it is beneficial, but for R-M-T, rosh, head; me’ayim, intestines; taḥtoniot, hemorrhoids, it is harmful. Apparently, asparagus is harmful for one’s intestines.,The Gemara responds: That baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial to one’s intestines, refers to asparagus made with old wine. As we learned in the mishna concerning the laws of vows that one who vowed: Wine is konam for me to taste because it is harmful to the intestines, and those who heard him said to him: But isn’t old wine beneficial to the intestines? If he was silent and did not argue the point, he is forbidden to drink new wine because of his vow, but he is permitted to drink old wine. Conclude from this that old wine is beneficial for the intestines.,The Sages taught: Six things were said with regard to asparagus: One only drinks it undiluted and from a full cup; he receives it from the attendant in his right hand and drinks it with his left hand; one should not converse after drinking it and one does not stop while drinking it, but should drink it all at once; one only returns it to the one who gave it to him; and he spits after drinking it; and one may only supplement it with its own kind, meaning that after drinking asparagus, one should only eat something that is used to make similar beverages, e.g., dates after date beer, etc.,The Gemara challenges: Wasn’t it taught in a baraita that one may only supplement asparagus with bread? The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with bread, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that one supplements it with its own kind, refers to asparagus made of beer.,It was taught in one baraita that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen, and harmful for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids. And it was taught in another baraita that asparagus is beneficial for R-M-T, head, intestines, and hemorrhoids, and harmful for L-E-T, heart, eyes, and spleen. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is beneficial for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that asparagus is harmful for L-E-T, refers to asparagus made of beer.,The Gemara resolves a contradiction between two other baraitot in the same manner. It was taught in one baraita that if he spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. And it was taught in another baraita that if he did not spit after drinking asparagus, he suffers an illness. The Gemara responds: That is not difficult. This baraita, in which it was taught that if he spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of wine, while that baraita, in which it was taught that if he did not spit he suffers an illness, refers to asparagus made of beer.,Rav Ashi said: Now that you said that if he did not spit after drinking it he suffers an illness, its water, the saliva in his mouth after drinking asparagus, may be expelled even when standing before the king, as failure to do so will endanger him.,Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: Suriel, the heavenly ministering angel of the Divine Presence, told me three things from on high: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and only return a cup of asparagus to the one who gave it to you. Why is this? Because a band of demons and some say a band of angels of destruction lie in wait for a person and say: When will a person encounter one of these circumstances and be captured?,Similarly, the Gemara relates that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: The Angel of Death told me three things: Do not take your cloak in the morning from the hand of your servant and wear it; do not ritually wash your hands from one who has not ritually washed his own hands; and do not stand before the women when they return from the burial of the deceased, because I dance and come before them and my sword is in hand, and I have license to destroy.,The Gemara asks: And if one encounters women returning from a funeral, what is his remedy? The Gemara answers: Let him jump four cubits from where he stands; if there is a river, let him cross it; if there is another path, let him go down it; if there is a wall, let him stand behind it; and if not, he should turn his face around and recite the verse: “And the Lord said to the Satan: The Lord rebukes you, Satan, the Lord that has chosen Jerusalem rebukes you; is not this man a brand plucked from the fire?” (Zechariah 3:2), until they pass him.,Rabbi Zeira said that Rabbi Abbahu said, and some say that this halakha was taught in a baraita: Ten things were said with regard to a cup of blessing, e.g., the cup of wine over which Grace after Meals is recited: It requires rinsing and washing; it must be undiluted wine, and full; it requires adorning and wrapping; he takes it in his two hands and places it in his right hand, and he lifts it at least one handbreadth from the ground, and when reciting the blessing he fixes his eyes upon it. And some say: He also sends it as a gift to members of his household.,Rabbi Yoḥa said: We only have four of those ten things: Rinsing, washing, the wine must be undiluted, and the cup must be full. In explanation, it was taught: Rinsing is from the inside of the cup, and washing is from the outside of the cup.,Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who recites a blessing over a full cup, they give him a boundless inheritance, as it is stated: “And full of the blessing of the Lord, possess the sea and the south” (Deuteronomy 33:23), indicating that one whose cup is full will receive God’s blessing and will inherit from all sides. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: He merits and inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come.,The Gemara continues explaining the ten things said with regard to the cup of blessing: The Sages would adorn the cup of blessing in different ways. Rav Yehuda would adorn it with students, as when he recited the blessing he would surround himself with students to accord honor to the blessing. Rav Ḥisda, however, would adorn it with other cups; he would surround the cup of blessing with other cups. Rabbi Ḥa said: And specifically with undiluted wine. Rav Sheshet said: And in the blessing of the land.,The Sages also had different customs with regard to wrapping. Rav Pappa would wrap himself in his prayer shawl and sit and recite Grace after Meals. Rav Asi spread a cloth on his head as an sign of respect.,With regard to what was said that he takes it in his two hands, Rabbi Ḥina bar Pappa said: What is the verse that proves this? As it is stated: “Lift your hands in holiness and bless the Lord” (Psalms 134:2).,As for what was said after he takes it in his two hands: And he places it in his right hand, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: The early Sages asked: What is the ruling, may the left hand assist the right when taking the cup? Rav Ashi said: Since the early Sages raised this dilemma and it was not resolved for them, ' None
32. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • minim • minim, encounters with • minim, interaction between rabbis and, social contact with

 Found in books: Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 391; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 244, 245, 268; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 39

87a הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:,87a The Gemara rejects this: How can these cases be compared? There, in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is impossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously. Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. Here, when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is possible to slaughter the bird with the one hand and cover the blood of the undomesticated animal with the other one. Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously.,slaughtered an undomesticated animal or bird and did not cover the blood, and another person saw the uncovered blood, the second person is obligated to cover the blood. If one covered the blood and it was then uncovered, he is exempt from covering it again. If the wind blew earth on the blood and covered it, and it was consequently uncovered, he is obligated to cover the blood.,The Sages taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that the one who poured out its blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, shall cover it. If one slaughtered the animal or bird and did not cover the blood, and another person saw the uncovered blood, from where is it derived that the person who saw the blood is obligated to cover it? It is derived from the following verse, as it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel” (Leviticus 17:12), which is a warning to all the children of Israel to fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood.,It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: “And he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth,” indicating that with that which he poured out the blood he shall cover it, i.e., he must use his hand, and he may not cover it with his foot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taught in another baraita: The verse states: “And he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth,” indicating that the one who poured out the blood shall cover it. An incident occurred involving one who slaughtered an undomesticated animal or bird and another individual preempted him and covered the blood, and Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins to the one who performed the act of slaughter.,A dilemma was raised before the Sages: Are these ten gold coins compensation for the stolen mitzva or are they compensation for the stolen blessing recited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: What is the practical difference? The difference is with regard to a similar case involving Grace after Meals. If you say the coins are compensation for the mitzva, then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute one mitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. But if you say they are compensation for the lost blessing, then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation is forty gold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. What is the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof from an incident in which a certain heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: He who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains; rather, each was created by a separate deity, as it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind” (Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse, which states: “The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.” The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: Give me three days’ time and I will respond to you with a rebuttal of your claim. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi sat and fasted three days of fasting while awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi wanted to have a meal at the conclusion of those three days, they said to him: That heretic is standing at the doorway. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi recited the following verse about himself: “They put gall into my food, and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic said to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, would you like to dine with me? The heretic said to him: Yes. After they ate and drank, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said to the heretic: Would you like to drink the cup of blessing, i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, or would you like to take forty gold coins instead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic said to him: I will drink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins. Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: Rabbi Yitzḥak says: That family of the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi still exists among the prominent families of Rome, and that family is called: The family of bar Luyyanus.,§ The mishna teaches that if one covered the blood and it was then uncovered he is not obligated to cover it again. Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is different about this case from the mitzva of returning a lost item, where the Master said: The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: “You shall return them to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), even one hundred times?,Rav Ashi said to Rav Aḥa: There, in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, a restriction is not written in the verse to limit the obligation. Here, in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, a restriction is written, as the verse states: “And he shall cover it.” The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if the wind blew earth on the blood and covered it one is obligated to cover the blood. Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: They taught this halakha only if the blood was again uncovered. But if the blood was not again uncovered one is exempt from the obligation to cover it. The Gemara asks: And when the blood was again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t it already rejected from the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? Rav Pappa said: That is to say that there is no permanent rejection with regard to mitzvot. Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: But even if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? What is different about this case from that which is taught in a baraita: In a case where one slaughters an undomesticated animal or a bird and its blood is absorbed by the ground, one is obligated to cover the blood? The Gemara responds: There, the baraita is referring to a case where the impression of the blood is still recognizable, i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground.,blood of an undomesticated animal or bird that was mixed with water, if there is in the mixture the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. If the blood was mixed with wine one views the wine as though it is water, and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird was mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal, which one does not have to cover,'' None
33. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 102; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 268

15b בפרוזבוטי אמר רב פפא וקרו ליה עבדא דמזדבן בטלמי,וכל זה איננו שוה לי מלמד שכל גנזיו של אותו רשע חקוקין על לבו ובשעה שרואה את מרדכי יושב בשער המלך אמר כל זה איננו שוה לי,ואמר ר\' אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא עתיד הקב"ה להיות עטרה בראש כל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו כח, ה) ביום ההוא יהיה ה\' צבאות לעטרת צבי וגו\' מאי לעטרת צבי ולצפירת תפארה לעושין צביונו ולמצפין תפארתו יכול לכל ת"ל לשאר עמו למי שמשים עצמו כשירים,ולרוח משפט זה הדן את יצרו וליושב על המשפט זה הדן דין אמת לאמתו ולגבורה זה המתגבר על יצרו משיבי מלחמה שנושאין ונותנין במלחמתה של תורה שערה אלו ת"ח שמשכימין ומעריבין בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות,אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם מה נשתנו אלו מאלו אמר לה הקדוש ברוך הוא ישראל עסקו בתורה אומות העולם לא עסקו בתורה,אמר ליה גם אלה ביין שגו ובשכר תעו פקו פליליה אין פקו אלא גיהנם שנאמר (שמואל א כה, לא) ולא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה ואין פליליה אלא דיינין שנאמר (שמות כא, כב) ונתן בפלילים,ותעמד בחצר בית המלך הפנימית א"ר לוי כיון שהגיעה לבית הצלמים נסתלקה הימנה שכינה אמרה (תהלים כב, ב) אלי אלי למה עזבתני שמא אתה דן על שוגג כמזיד ועל אונס כרצון,או שמא על שקראתיו כלב שנאמר (תהלים כב, כא) הצילה מחרב נפשי מיד כלב יחידתי חזרה וקראתו אריה שנאמר (תהלים כב, כב) הושיעני מפי אריה,ויהי כראות המלך את אסתר המלכה אמר רבי יוחנן ג\' מלאכי השרת נזדמנו לה באותה שעה אחד שהגביה את צוארה ואחד שמשך חוט של חסד עליה ואחד שמתח את השרביט,וכמה אמר רבי ירמיה שתי אמות היה והעמידו על שתים עשרה ואמרי לה על שש עשרה ואמרי לה על עשרים וארבע במתניתא תנא על ששים וכן אתה מוצא באמתה של בת פרעה וכן אתה מוצא בשיני רשעים דכתיב (תהלים ג, ח) שיני רשעים שברת ואמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי שברת אלא שריבבת רבה בר עופרן אמר משום ר"א ששמע מרבו ורבו מרבו מאתים,ויאמר לה המלך לאסתר המלכה מה בקשתך עד חצי המלכות ותעש חצי המלכות ולא כל המלכות ולא דבר שחוצץ למלכות ומאי ניהו בנין בית המקדש,יבא המלך והמן אל המשתה ת"ר מה ראתה אסתר שזימנה את המן ר"א אומר פחים טמנה לו שנאמר (תהלים סט, כג) יהי שלחנם לפניהם לפח,ר\' יהושע אומר מבית אביה למדה שנאמר (משלי כה, כא) אם רעב שונאך האכילהו לחם וגו\' ר"מ אומר כדי שלא יטול עצה וימרוד,ר\' יהודה אומר כדי שלא יכירו בה שהיא יהודית ר\' נחמיה אומר כדי שלא יאמרו ישראל אחות יש לנו בבית המלך ויסיחו דעתן מן הרחמים ר\' יוסי אומר כדי שיהא מצוי לה בכל עת ר"ש בן מנסיא אומר אולי ירגיש המקום ויעשה לנו נס,רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר אסביר לו פנים כדי שיהרג הוא והיא רבן גמליאל אומר מלך הפכפכן היה אמר רבי גמליאל עדיין צריכין אנו למודעי דתניא ר\' אליעזר המודעי אומר קנאתו במלך קנאתו בשרים,רבה אמר (משלי טז, יח) לפני שבר גאון אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו (ירמיהו נא, לט) בחומם אשית את משתיהם וגו\' אשכחיה רבה בר אבוה לאליהו א"ל כמאן חזיא אסתר ועבדא הכי א"ל ככולהו תנאי וככולהו אמוראי,ויספר להם המן את כבוד עשרו ורוב בניו וכמה רוב בניו אמר רב ל\' עשרה מתו ועשרה נתלו ועשרה מחזרין על הפתחים,ורבנן אמרי אותן שמחזרין על הפתחים שבעים הויא דכתיב (שמואל א ב, ה) שבעים בלחם נשכרו אל תקרי שבעים אלא שבעים,ורמי בר אבא אמר כולן מאתים ושמונה הוו שנאמר ורוב בניו ורוב בגימטריא מאתן וארביסר הוו אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ורב כתיב,בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך אמר רבי תנחום נדדה שנת מלכו של עולם ורבנן אמרי נדדו עליונים נדדו תחתונים רבא אמר שנת המלך אחשורוש ממש,נפלה ליה מילתא בדעתיה אמר מאי דקמן דזמינתיה אסתר להמן דלמא עצה קא שקלי עילויה דההוא גברא למקטליה הדר אמר אי הכי לא הוה גברא דרחים לי דהוה מודע לי הדר אמר דלמא איכא איניש דעבד בי טיבותא ולא פרעתיה משום הכי מימנעי אינשי ולא מגלו לי מיד ויאמר להביא את ספר הזכרונות דברי הימים,ויהיו נקראים מלמד שנקראים מאיליהן וימצא כתוב כתב מבעי ליה מלמד'' None15b as one with the heritage of a poor man perozeboti, as Mordecai had been Haman’s slave master and was aware of Haman’s lowly lineage. Rav Pappa said: And he was called: The slave who was sold for a loaf of bread.,Haman’s previously quoted statement: “Yet all this avails me nothing” (Esther 5:13), teaches that all the treasures of that wicked one were engraved on his heart, and when he saw Mordecai sitting at the king’s gate, he said: As long as Mordecai is around, all this that I wear on my heart avails me nothing.,And Rabbi Elazar further said that Rabbi Ḥanina said: In the future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will be a crown on the head of each and every righteous man. As it is stated: “In that day shall the Lord of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, to the residue of His people” (Isaiah\xa028:5). What is the meaning of “for a crown of glory tzevi, and for a diadem velitzefirat of beauty”? A crown for those that do His will tzivyono and a diadem for those that await velamtzapin His glory. One might have thought that this extends to all such individuals. Therefore, the verse states: “To the residue of his people,” to whoever regards himself as a remainder, i.e., small and unimportant like residue. But whoever holds himself in high esteem will not merit this.,Apropos the quotation from Isaiah, the Gemara explains the following verse, which states: “And for a spirit of justice to him that sits in judgment and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate” (Isaiah 28:6). “And for a spirit of justice”; this is referring to one who brings his evil inclination to trial and forces himself to repent. “To him that sits in judgment”; this is referring to one who judges an absolutely true judgment. “And for strength”; this is referring to one who triumphs over his evil inclination. “Them that turn back the battle”; this is referring to those that give and take in their discussion of halakha in the battle of understanding the Torah. “To the gate”; this is referring to the Torah scholars who arrive early and stay late at the darkened gates of the synagogues and study halls.,The Gemara continues with an episode associated with a verse in Isaiah. The Attribute of Justice said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, how are these, referring to the Jewish people, different from those, the other nations of the world, such that God performs miracles only on behalf of the Jewish people? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to it: The Jewish people occupied themselves with Torah, whereas the other nations of the world did not occupy themselves with Torah.,The Attribute of Justice said to Him: “These also reel through wine, and stagger through strong drink; the priest and the prophet reel through strong drink, they are confused because of wine, they stagger because of strong drink; they reel in vision, they stumble paku in judgment peliliyya (Isaiah 28:7). The word paku in this context is referring only to Gehenna, as it is stated: “That this shall not be a cause of stumbling puka to you” (I\xa0Samuel 25:31), and the word peliliyya here is referring only to judges, as it is stated: “And he shall pay as the judges determine bifelilim (Exodus\xa021:22). The response of the Attribute of Justice was essentially that the Jewish people have also sinned and are consequently liable to receive punishment.,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the verses of the Megilla. The verse states with regard to Esther: “And she stood in the inner court of the king’s house” (Esther 5:1). Rabbi Levi said: Once she reached the chamber of the idols, which was in the inner court, the Divine Presence left her. She immediately said: “My God, my God, why have You forsaken me?” (Psalms\xa022:2). Perhaps it is because You judge an unintentional sin as one performed intentionally, and an action done due to circumstances beyond one’s control as one done willingly.,Or perhaps You have left me because in my prayers I called Haman a dog, as it is stated: “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one from the hand of the dog” (Psalms 22:21). She at once retracted and called him in her prayers a lion, as it is stated in the following verse: “Save me from the lion’s mouth” (Psalms 22:22).,The verse states: “And so it was, that when the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, that she obtained favor in his sight; and the king held out to Esther the golden scepter that was in his hand” (Esther 5:2). Rabbi Yoḥa said: Three ministering angels happened to join her at that time: One that raised up her neck, so that she could stand erect, free of shame; one that strung a cord of divine grace around her, endowing her with charm and beauty; and one that stretched the king’s scepter.,How much was it stretched? Rabbi Yirmeya said: The scepter was two cubits, and he made it twelve cubits. And some say that he made it sixteen cubits, and yet others say twenty-four cubits. It was taught in a baraita: He made it sixty cubits. And similarly you find with the arm of Pharaoh’s daughter, which she stretched out to take Moshe. And so too, you find with the teeth of the wicked, as it is written: “You have broken the teeth of the wicked” (Psalms 3:8), with regard to which Reish Lakish said: Do not read it as “You have broken shibbarta,” but as: You have enlarged sheribavta. Rabba bar oferan said in the name of Rabbi Elazar, who heard it from his teacher, who in turn heard it from his teacher: The scepter was stretched two hundred cubits.,The verse states: “Then the king said to her” (Esther 5:3), to Esther the queen, “What is your wish, even to half the kingdom, it shall be performed” (Esther 5:6). The Gemara comments that Ahasuerus intended only a limited offer: Only half the kingdom, but not the whole kingdom, and not something that would serve as a barrier to the kingdom, as there is one thing to which the kingdom will never agree. And what is that? The building of the Temple; if that shall be your wish, realize that it will not be fulfilled.,The verse states that Esther requested: “If it seem good unto the king, let the king and Haman come this day to the banquet that I have prepared for him” (Esther 5:4). The Sages taught in a baraita: What did Esther see to invite Haman to the banquet? Rabbi Elazar says: She hid a snare for him, as it is stated: “Let their table become a snare before them” (Psalms 69:23), as she assumed that she would be able to trip up Haman during the banquet.,Rabbi Yehoshua says: She learned to do this from the Jewish teachings of her father’s house, as it is stated: “If your enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat” (Proverbs 25:21). Rabbi Meir says: She invited him in order that he be near her at all times, so that he would not take counsel and rebel against Ahasuerus when he discovered that the king was angry with him.,Rabbi Yehuda says: She invited Haman so that it not be found out that she was a Jew, as had she distanced him, he would have become suspicious. Rabbi Neḥemya says: She did this so that the Jewish people would not say: We have a sister in the king’s house, and consequently neglect their prayers for divine mercy. Rabbi Yosei says: She acted in this manner, so that Haman would always be on hand for her, as that would enable her to find an opportunity to cause him to stumble before the king. Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya said that Esther said to herself: Perhaps the Omnipresent will take notice that all are supporting Haman and nobody is supporting the Jewish people, and He will perform for us a miracle.,Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa says: She said to herself: I will act kindly toward him and thereby bring the king to suspect that we are having an affair; she did so in order that both he and she would be killed. Essentially, Esther was willing to be killed with Haman in order that the decree would be annulled. Rabban Gamliel says: Ahasuerus was a fickle king, and Esther hoped that if he saw Haman on multiple occasions, eventually he would change his opinion of him. Rabban Gamliel said: We still need the words of Rabbi Eliezer HaModa’i to understand why Esther invited Haman to her banquet. As it is taught in a baraita: Rabbi Eliezer HaModa’i says: She made the king jealous of him and she made the other ministers jealous of him, and in this way she brought about his downfall.,Rabba says: Esther invited Haman to her banquet in order to fulfill that which is stated: “Pride goes before destruction” (Proverbs 16:18), which indicates that in order to destroy the wicked, one must first bring them to pride. It can be understood according to Abaye and Rava, who both say that she invited Haman in order to fulfill the verse: “When they are heated, I will make feasts for them, and I will make them drunk, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep” (Jeremiah 51:39). The Gemara relates that Rabba bar Avuh once happened upon Elijah the Prophet and said to him: In accordance with whose understanding did Esther see fit to act in this manner? What was the true reason behind her invitation? He, Elijah, said to him: Esther was motivated by all the reasons previously mentioned and did so for all the reasons previously stated by the tanna’im and all the reasons stated by the amora’im.,The verse states: “And Haman recounted to them the glory of his riches, and the multitude of his sons” (Esther 5:11). The Gemara asks: And how many sons did he in fact have that are referred to as “the multitude of his sons”? Rav said: There were thirty sons; ten of them died in childhood, ten of them were hanged as recorded in the book of Esther, and ten survived and were forced to beg at other people’s doors.,And the Rabbis say: Those that begged at other people’s doors numbered seventy, as it is written: “Those that were full, have hired themselves out for bread” (I\xa0Samuel 2:5). Do not read it as: “Those that were full” seve’im; rather, read it as seventy shivim, indicating that there were seventy who “hired themselves out for bread.”,And Rami bar Abba said: All of Haman’s sons together numbered two hundred and eight, as it is stated: “And the multitude verov of his sons.” The numerical value of the word verov equals two hundred and eight, alluding to the number of his sons. The Gemara comments: But in fact, the numerical value gimatriyya of the word verov equals two hundred and fourteen, not two hundred and eight. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The word verov is written in the Bible without the second vav, and therefore its numerical value equals two hundred and eight.,The verse states: “On that night the sleep of the king was disturbed” (Esther 6:1). Rabbi Tanḥum said: The verse alludes to another king who could not sleep; the sleep of the King of the universe, the Holy One, Blessed be He, was disturbed. And the Sages say: The sleep of the higher ones, the angels, was disturbed, and the sleep of the lower ones, the Jewish people, was disturbed. Rava said: This should be understood literally: The sleep of King Ahasuerus was disturbed.,And this was the reason Ahasuerus could not sleep: A thought occurred to him and he said to himself: What is this before us that Esther has invited Haman? Perhaps they are conspiring against that man, i.e., against me, to kill him. He then said again to himself: If this is so, is there no man who loves me and would inform me of this conspiracy? He then said again to himself: Perhaps there is some man who has done a favor for me and I have not properly rewarded him, and due to that reason people refrain from revealing to me information regarding such plots, as they see no benefit for themselves. Immediately afterward, the verse states: “And he commanded the book of remembrances of the chronicles to be brought” (Esther 6:1).,The verse states: “And they were read before the king” (Esther 6:1). The Gemara explains that this passive form: “And they were read,” teaches that they were read miraculously by themselves. It further says: “And it was found written katuv (Esther 6:2). The Gemara asks: Why does the Megilla use the word katuv, which indicates that it was newly written? It should have said: A writing ketav was found, which would indicate that it had been written in the past. The Gemara explains: This teaches'' None
34. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 97; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 264

107a אמר רבא הילכתא טעם מקדש וטעם מבדיל ומי שלא קידש בערב שבת מקדש והולך כל היום כולו עד מוצאי שבת מי שלא הבדיל במוצאי שבת מבדיל והולך כל השבת כולו,אמימר פתח לה להא שמעתא דרבא בהאי לישנא אמר רבא הילכתא טעם מקדש טעם מבדיל מי שלא קידש בע"ש מקדש והולך כל היום כולו מי שלא הבדיל במוצ"ש מבדיל והולך כל היום כולו,אמרי ליה מר ינוקא ומר קשישא בריה דרב חסדא לרב אשי זימנא חדא איקלע אמימר לאתרין ולא הוה לן חמרא אייתינא ליה שיכרא ולא אבדיל ובת טוות למחר טרחנא ואייתינא ליה חמרא ואבדיל וטעים מידי לשנה תו איקלע לאתרין לא הוה לן חמרא אייתינא שיכרא אמר אי הכי חמר מדינה הוא אבדיל וטעים מידי,שמע מינה תלת ש"מ המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס ושמע מינה אסור לו לאדם שיאכל קודם שיבדיל ושמע מינה מי שלא הבדיל במוצ"ש מבדיל והולך כל השבת כולו,בעא מיניה רב הונא מרב חסדא מהו לקדושי אשיכרא אמר השתא ומה פירזומא ותאיני ואסני דבעאי מיניה מרב ורב מר\' חייא ורבי חייא מרבי ולא פשט ליה שיכרא מיבעיא,סבור מינה קדושי הוא דלא מקדשינן עילויה אבל אבדולי מבדלינן אמר להו רב חסדא הכי אמר רב כשם שאין מקדשין עליו כך אין מבדילין עליו איתמר נמי אמר רב תחליפא בר אבימי אמר שמואל כשם שאין מקדשין עליו כך אין מבדילין עליו,לוי שדר ליה לר\' שיכרא בר תליסר מגני טעמיה הוה בסים טובא אמר כגון זה ראוי לקדש עליו ולומר עליו כל שירות ותושבחות שבעולם בליליא צעריה אמר מיסרן ומפייס,אמר רב יוסף אדור ברבים דלא אישתי שיכרא אמר רבא אישתי מי זוריון ולא אישתי שיכרא,ואמר רבא תיהוי שקיותיה שיכרא מאן דמקדש אשיכרא רב אשכחיה רב הונא דקדיש אשיכרא אמר ליה שרי אבא למיקני איסתירי משיכרא,ת"ר אין מקדשין אלא על היין ואין מברכין אלא על היין אטו אשיכרא ואמיא מי לא מברכין עליהו שהכל נהיה בדברו אמר אביי הכי קאמר אין אומרים הבא כוס של ברכה לברך אלא על היין ת"ר אין מקדשין על השכר משום ר\' אלעזר בר רבי שמעון אמרו מקדשין,מטעימת יין כל שהוא ר\' יוסי בר יהודה אומר מלא לוגמא אמר רב הונא אמר רב וכן תני רב גידל דמן נרש המקדש וטעם מלא לוגמא יצא ואם לאו לא יצא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אנא תנינא לה לא גידול בר מנשיא ולא גידול בר מניומי אלא גידול סתמא למאי נפקא מינה למירמא דידי\' אדידיה:,סמוך למנחה: איבעיא להו סמוך למנחה גדולה תנן או דילמא סמוך למנחה קטנה תנן,סמוך למנחה גדולה תנן ומשום פסח דילמא אתי למימשך'' None107a Rava said: The halakha is that one who tasted food before kiddush may recite kiddush; and one who tasted food before havdala may recite havdala; and one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve, at night, may recite kiddush any time during the entire day until the conclusion of Shabbat. Likewise, one who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala any time during the entire week, i.e., during the first three days of the week, the time period called: After Shabbat.,Ameimar began this teaching of Rava in this emended formulation: Rava said: The halakha is that one who tasted food before kiddush may recite kiddush; and one who tasted food before havdala may recite havdala; and one who did not recite kiddush on Shabbat eve, at night, may recite kiddush any time during the entire day. One who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala any time during the entire day of Sunday, but no later.,The Gemara relates that the Mar Yanuka, the younger Mar, and Mar Kashisha, the elder Mar, both sons of Rav Ḥisda, said to Rav Ashi: Once Ameimar happened to come to our place and we did not have wine for havdala. We brought him beer and he did not recite havdala, and he passed the night fasting, as it is prohibited to eat before havdala. The next day we exerted ourselves and brought him wine, and he recited havdala and tasted some food. The next year he again happened to come to our place. Once again we did not have wine and we brought him beer. He said: If so, if it is so difficult to obtain wine in your place, beer is the wine of the province. He recited havdala over the beer and tasted some food.,The Gemara notes that one may learn from Ameimar’s conduct three halakhot: Learn from it that one who recites havdala in the prayer service must recite havdala again over a cup, as Ameimar had presumably recited the paragraph of havdala in his Amida prayer. And learn from it that it is prohibited for a person to eat before he recites havdala. And learn from it that one who did not recite havdala at the conclusion of Shabbat may recite havdala anytime during the entire week, i.e., during the first three days of the week.,In the above story, Ameimar refused to recite havdala over beer. The Gemara addresses this issue at greater length. Rav Huna raised a dilemma before Rav Ḥisda: What is the halakha with regard to whether it is permitted to recite kiddush over date beer? He said: Now, if with regard to barley beer, fig beer, and beer produced from berries, I raised a dilemma before Rav as to whether or not they may be used for kiddush, and Rav had previously raised this dilemma before Rabbi Ḥiyya, and Rabbi Ḥiyya had inquired of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, and he did not resolve it for him, as he could not find a source that clearly permits it, is it necessary to say that date beer, which is inferior to those other types of beer, may not be used for kiddush?,Those who heard this response understood from it that it is kiddush that one may not recite over it, but one may recite havdala over date beer. Rav Ḥisda said to them that Rav said as follows: Just as one may not recite kiddush over date beer, so one may not recite havdala over it. It was also stated that Rav Taḥalifa bar Avimi said that Shmuel said: Just as one may not recite kiddush over date beer, so one may not recite havdala over it.,The Gemara relates that Levi sent Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi a beer of thirteen soakings, i.e., thirteen batches of dates had been soaked in water until it had thoroughly absorbed the taste of the dates. This was considered a high-quality beer. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi tasted it and it was especially pleasant. He said: A beer like this is fit to recite kiddush over and to say upon it all the songs and praises in the world, as it is as good as wine. At night, it disrupted his digestion and caused him pain. He said: It pains on the one hand and soothes on the other.,With regard to the discomfort caused by beer, the Gemara cites related statements of amora’im. Rav Yosef said: I will take a vow in public, which cannot be nullified, that I will not drink beer due to its negative effects, despite the fact that beer was a popular beverage in Babylonia. Rava said: I would rather drink water used for soaking flax, and I will not drink beer.,And Rava said: One who recites kiddush over beer, his regular drink should be beer. In other words, the fitting punishment for one who recites kiddush over beer, the poor man’s drink in Babylonia, is for him to become poor himself and have to drink beer on a regular basis. The Gemara relates that Rav was found by Rav Huna reciting kiddush over beer. He said to him: Abba, Rav’s first name, has started to acquire coins with beer. As Rav recently began selling beer, it has become his favorite beverage, to the extent that he uses it for kiddush.,The Sages taught: One may recite kiddush only over wine, and one may recite blessings only over wine. The Gemara expresses surprise: Is that to say that one does not say the blessing: By Whose word all things shehakol came to be, over beer and water? Abaye said: This is what the baraita is saying: One only says: Bring a cup of blessing to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, over wine. The Rabbis taught in a baraita: One may not recite kiddush over beer. In the name of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, they said that one may recite kiddush over beer.,With regard to the halakha that one who recites kiddush must drink from the cup, the Gemara states that one fulfills the mitzva of kiddush by tasting any amount of wine. Rabbi Yosei, son of Yehuda, says that one must drink at least a cheekful. Rav Huna said that Rav said, and Rav Giddel from the city of Neresh likewise teaches: One who recites kiddush and tastes a cheekful has fulfilled his obligation, and if not, he has not fulfilled his obligation.,Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: I teach this baraita in a precise manner, and I do not mention Giddul bar Menashya, nor Giddul bar Minyumei, but rather the plain name Giddul, without any identifying moniker. The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference in Rav Giddel’s name? The Gemara answers: To raise a contradiction between one of his rulings and another one of his rulings. Since it is not clear exactly which Sage issued this ruling, it is impossible to prove that he reversed or contradicted his opinion in a later statement.,The Gemara returns to the mishna, which stated that it is prohibited to eat adjacent to minḥa time on Passover eve. A dilemma was raised before the Sages in the study hall: Did we learn in the mishna that it is prohibited to eat adjacent to the time of the greater minḥa minḥa gedola, which is half an hour after midday, or perhaps we learned in the mishna that it is prohibited to eat adjacent to the time of the lesser minḥa minḥa ketana, two and a half hours before sunset?,The Gemara elaborates: Did we learn in the mishna that it is prohibited to eat adjacent to the time of the greater minḥa, and this is because of the Paschal lamb, lest one come to be drawn after the meal and spend a long time eating, as was typical for large meals,'' None
35. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Benediction of the minim • Yaakov, term applied to minim, Christians • heretic arguments, answered by, minim • min (pl. minim), as heretics • min (pl. minim), definition of • min (pl. minim), in tannaitic literature • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, chronology of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • minim, Christians • minim, Kuttim (Samaritans) • minim, appear as kosher Jews • minim, deny God • minim, interaction between rabbis and, evidence on disputations • minim, interaction between rabbis and, historicity of portrayals • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Babylonia • minim, laws of • minim, not always Christians in Rashi • minim, not in Babylonia • minim, social connections with • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 12, 91, 163, 185; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 528; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 250; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 71, 72; Klawans (2019), Heresy, Forgery, Novelty: Condemning, Denying, and Asserting Innovation in Ancient Judaism, 71, 165, 166; Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 51, 81, 210, 226

38b גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו\',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו\' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה\' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה\' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר\' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה\' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה\' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר\' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה\' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו\',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר\' ישמעאל בר\' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה\' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה\' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר\' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר\' יוחנן ג\' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 39a (יחזקאל יח, ב) אבות יאכלו בוסר ושיני בנים תקהינה (ויקרא יט, לו) מאזני צדק אבני צדק (משלי יא, ח) צדיק מצרה נחלץ ויבא רשע תחתיו,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל אלהיכם גנב הוא דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויפל ה\' אלהים תרדמה על האדם ויישן אמרה ליה ברתיה שבקיה דאנא מהדרנא ליה אמרה ליה תנו לי דוכוס אחד א"ל למה ליך ליסטין באו עלינו הלילה ונטלו ממנו קיתון של כסף והניחו לנו קיתון של זהב אמר לה ולוואי שיבא עלינו בכל יום ולא יפה היה לו לאדם הראשון שנטלו ממנו צלע אחת ונתנו לו שפחה לשמשו,אמר לה הכי קאמינא אלא לשקליה בהדיא אמרה ליה אייתו לי אומצא דבישרא אייתו לה אותבה תותי בחשא אפיקתה אמרה ליה אכול מהאי אמר לה מאיסא לי אמרה ליה ואדם הראשון נמי אי הות שקילה בהדיא הוה מאיסא ליה,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל ידענא אלהייכו מאי קא עביד (והיכן יתיב) איתנגד ואיתנח א"ל מאי האי א"ל בן אחד יש לי בכרכי הים ויש לי גיעגועים עליו בעינא דמחוית ליה ניהלי אמר מי ידענא היכא ניהו א"ל דאיכא בארעא לא ידעת דאיכא בשמיא ידעת,אמר ליה כופר לרבן גמליאל כתיב (תהלים קמז, ד) מונה מספר לכוכבים מאי רבותיה אנא מצינא למימנא כוכבי אייתי חבושי שדינהו בארבילא וקא מהדר להו אמר ליה מנינהו א"ל אוקמינהו א"ל רקיע נמי הכי הדרא,איכא דאמרי הכי א"ל מני לי כוכבי א"ל אימא לי ככיך ושיניך כמה הוה שדא ידיה לפומיה וקא מני להו א"ל דאיכא בפומיך לא ידעת דאיכא ברקיעא ידעת,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל מי שברא הרים לא ברא רוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אלא מעתה גבי אדם דכתיב ויברא וייצר הכי נמי מי שברא זה לא ברא זה,טפח על טפח יש בו באדם ושני נקבים יש בו מי שברא זה לא ברא זה שנאמר (תהלים צד, ט) הנוטע אוזן הלא ישמע ואם יוצר עין הלא יביט א"ל אין א"ל ובשעת מיתה כולן נתפייסו,א"ל ההוא אמגושא לאמימר מפלגך לעילאי דהורמיז מפלגך לתתאי דאהורמיז א"ל א"כ היכי שביק ליה אהורמיז להורמיז לעבורי מיא בארעיה,אמר ליה קיסר לר\' תנחום תא ליהוו כולן לעמא חד אמר לחיי אנן דמהלינן לא מצינן מיהוי כוותייכו אתון מהליתו והוו כוותן א"ל מימר שפיר קאמרת מיהו כל דזכי למלכא לשדיוה לביבר שדיוה לביבר ולא אכלוה א"ל ההוא מינא האי דלא אכלוה משום דלא כפין הוא שדיוה ליה לדידיה ואכלוה,א"ל כופר לר"ג אמריתו כל בי עשרה שכינתא שריא כמה שכינתא איכא קרייה לשמעיה מחא ביה באפתקא א"ל אמאי על שמשא בביתיה דכופר א"ל שמשא אכולי עלמא ניחא ומה שמשא דחד מן אלף אלפי רבוא שמשי דקמי קודשא בריך הוא ניחא לכולי עלמא שכינתא דקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם גחכן הוא דקאמר ליה ליחזקאל (יחזקאל ד, ד) שכב על צדך השמאלי וכתיב (יחזקאל ד, ו) ושכבת על צדך הימני אתא ההוא תלמידא א"ל מ"ט דשביעתא א"ל השתא אמינא לכו מילתא דשויא לתרוייהו,אמר הקב"ה לישראל זרעו שש והשמיטו שבע כדי שתדעו שהארץ שלי היא והן לא עשו כן אלא חטאו וגלו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם שסרחה עליו מדינה אם אכזרי הוא הורג את כולן אם רחמן הוא הורג חצים אם רחמן מלא רחמים הוא מייסר הגדולים שבהן ביסורין אף כך הקב"ה מייסר את יחזקאל כדי למרק עונותיהם של ישראל,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם כהן הוא דכתיב (שמות כה, ב) ויקחו לי תרומה כי קבריה למשה במאי טביל וכי תימא במיא והכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יב) מי מדד בשעלו מים,א"ל בנורא טביל דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, טו) כי הנה ה\' באש יבא ומי סלקא טבילותא בנורא א"ל אדרבה עיקר טבילותא בנורא הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, כג) וכל אשר לא יבא באש תעבירו במים,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי אבינא כתיב (שמואל ב ז, כג) מי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ מאי רבותייהו אתון נמי ערביתו בהדן דכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יז) כל הגוים כאין נגדו אמר ליה מדידכו אסהידו עלן דכתיב 43a (ויקרא כד, כג) ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה\' את משה,אלא מעתה (ויקרא כד, כג) וירגמו אותו אבן מאי עבדי ליה ההוא מבעי ליה לכדתניא וירגמו אותו באבן אותו ולא בכסותו אבן שאם מת באבן אחת יצא,ואצטריך למיכתב אבן ואיצטריך למיכתב אבנים דאי כתב רחמנא אבן הוה אמינא היכא דלא מת בחדא לא ניתי אחריתי ומיקטליה כתב רחמנא אבנים ואי כתב רחמנא אבנים הוה אמינא מעיקרא נייתי תרתי כתב רחמנא אבן,והא האי תנא נאמר קאמר אילו לא נאמר קאמר וה"ק אילו לא נאמר קרא הייתי אומר גזירה שוה עכשיו שנאמר קרא גזירה שוה לא צריך,רב אשי אמר משה היכא הוה יתיב במחנה לוייה ואמר ליה רחמנא הוצא את המקלל חוץ למחנה לוייה אל מחוץ למחנה חוץ למחנה ישראל ויוציאו את המקלל לעשייה,עשייה בהדיא כתיב בהו ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה\' את משה ההוא מיבעי ליה חד לסמיכה וחד לדחייה,אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי לדידך כל הני הוציא דכתיבי בפרים הנשרפים מאי דרשת בהו קשיא:,אחד עומד כו\': אמר רב הונא פשיטא לי אחד אבן שנסקל בה ואחד עץ שנתלה בו ואחד סייף שנהרג בו ואחד סודר שנחנק בו כולן משל צבור מ"ט דמדידיה לא אמרינן ליה זיל וליתיה וליקטול נפשיה,בעי רב הונא סודר שמניפין בו וסוס שרץ ומעמידן משל מי הוא כיון דהצלה דידיה מדידיה הוא או דילמא כיון דבי דינא מחייבין למעבד בה הצלה מדידהו,ותו הא דאמר ר\' חייא בר רב אשי אמר רב חסדא היוצא ליהרג משקין אותו קורט של לבונה בכוס של יין כדי שתטרף דעתו שנאמר (משלי לא, ו) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש ותניא נשים יקרות שבירושלים היו מתנדבות ומביאות אותן לא התנדבו נשים יקרות משל מי הא ודאי מסתברא משל צבור כיון דכתיב תנו מדידהו,בעא מיניה רב אחא בר הונא מרב ששת אמר אחד מן התלמידים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות ונשתתק מהו מנפח רב ששת בידיה נשתתק אפילו אחד בסוף העולם נמי התם לא קאמר הכא קאמר מאי,תא שמע דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו זיכה אין לא זיכה לא,זיכה פשיטא לי אמר תיבעי לך:,אפילו הוא כו\': ואפילו פעם ראשונה ושניה והתניא פעם ראשונה ושניה בין שיש ממש בדבריו בין שאין ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו מכאן ואילך אם יש ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו אין ממש בדבריו אין מחזירין אותו,אמר רב פפא תרגומה מפעם שניה ואילך,מנא ידעי אמר אביי דמסרינן ליה זוגא דרבנן אי איכא ממש בדבריו אין אי לא לא,ולימסר ליה מעיקרא אגב דבעית לא מצי אמר כל מאי דאית ליה:,90b וכתיב (מלכים ב ז, כ) ויהי לו כן וירמסו אותו העם בשער וימות ודילמא קללת אלישע גרמה ליה דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב קללת חכם אפי\' על חנם היא באה אם כן לכתוב קרא וירמסוהו וימות מאי בשער על עסקי שער,(אמר ר\' יוחנן) מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (במדבר יח, כח) ונתתם ממנו את תרומת ה\' לאהרן הכהן וכי אהרן לעולם קיים והלא לא נכנס לארץ ישראל שנותנין לו תרומה אלא מלמד שעתיד לחיות וישראל נותנין לו תרומה מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא לאהרן כאהרן מה אהרן חבר אף בניו חברים,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מניין שאין נותנין תרומה לכהן עם הארץ שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לא, ד) ויאמר לעם ליושבי ירושלים לתת מנת (לכהנים ולוים) למען יחזקו בתורת ה\' כל המחזיק בתורת ה\' יש לו מנת ושאינו מחזיק בתורת ה\' אין לו מנת,אמר רב אחא בר אדא אמר רב יהודה כל הנותן תרומה לכהן עם הארץ כאילו נותנה לפני ארי מה ארי ספק דורס ואוכל ספק אינו דורס ואוכל אף כהן עם הארץ ספק אוכלה בטהרה ספק אוכלה בטומאה,ר\' יוחנן אמר אף גורם לו מיתה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, ט) ומתו בו כי יחללוהו דבי ר"א בן יעקב תנא אף משיאו עון אשמה שנאמר (ויקרא כב, טז) והשיאו אותם עון אשמה באכלם את קדשיהם,תניא ר\' סימאי אומר מניין לתחיית המתים מן התורה שנאמר (שמות ו, ד) וגם הקימותי את בריתי אתם לתת להם את ארץ כנען לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מכאן לתחיית המתים מן התורה:,(צד"ק ג"ם גש"ם ק"ם סימן): שאלו מינין את רבן גמליאל מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים אמר להם מן התורה ומן הנביאים ומן הכתובים ולא קיבלו ממנו,מן התורה דכתיב (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה\' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם אמרו לו ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה,מן הנביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו כו, יט) יחיו מתיך נבלתי יקומון הקיצו ורננו שוכני עפר כי טל אורות טלך וארץ רפאים תפיל ודילמא מתים שהחיה יחזקאל,מן הכתובים דכתיב (שיר השירים ז, י) וחכך כיין הטוב הולך לדודי למישרים דובב שפתי ישנים ודילמא רחושי מרחשן שפוותיה בעלמא כר\' יוחנן דאמר ר\' יוחנן משום ר"ש בן יהוצדק כל מי שנאמרה הלכה בשמו בעולם הזה שפתותיו דובבות בקבר שנאמר דובב שפתי ישנים,עד שאמר להם מקרא זה (דברים יא, כא) אשר נשבע ה\' לאבותיכם לתת להם לכם לא נאמר אלא להם מיכן לתחיית המתים מן התורה,וי"א מן המקרא הזה אמר להם (דברים ד, ד) ואתם הדבקים בה\' אלהיכם חיים כלכם היום (פשיטא דחיים כולכם היום אלא אפילו ביום שכל העולם כולם מתים אתם חיים) מה היום כולכם קיימין אף לעוה"ב כולכם קיימין,שאלו רומיים את רבי יהושע בן חנניה מניין שהקב"ה מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות אמר להו תרווייהו מן המקרא הזה שנאמר (דברים לא, טז) ויאמר ה\' אל משה הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם העם הזה וזנה,ודילמא וקם העם הזה וזנה אמר להו נקוטו מיהא פלגא בידייכו דיודע מה שעתיד להיות איתמר נמי א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי מניין שהקדוש ברוך הוא מחיה מתים ויודע מה שעתיד להיות שנאמר הנך שוכב עם אבותיך וקם וגו\',תניא א"ר אליעזר בר\' יוסי בדבר זה זייפתי ספרי מינים שהיו אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה אמרתי להן זייפתם תורתכם ולא העליתם בידכם כלום שאתם אומרים אין תחיית המתים מן התורה הרי הוא אומר (במדבר טו, לא) הכרת תכרת הנפש ההיא עונה בה הכרת תכרת בעולם הזה עונה בה לאימת לאו לעולם הבא,א"ל רב פפא לאביי ולימא להו תרוייהו מהכרת תכרת אינהו הוו אמרי ליה דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,כתנאי הכרת תכרת הכרת בעולם הזה תכרת לעולם הבא דברי ר"ע אמר לו ר\' ישמעאל והלא כבר נאמר (במדבר טו, ל) את ה\' הוא מגדף ונכרתה וכי שלשה עולמים יש אלא ונכרתה בעולם הזה הכרת לעולם הבא הכרת תכרת דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,בין ר\' ישמעאל ובין ר"ע עונה בה מאי עבדי ביה לכדתניא יכול אפילו עשה תשובה ת"ל עונה בה לא אמרתי אלא בזמן שעונה בה,שאלה קליאופטרא מלכתא את ר"מ אמרה ידענא דחיי שכבי דכתיב (תהלים עב, טז) ויציצו מעיר כעשב הארץ אלא כשהן עומדין עומדין ערומין או בלבושיהן עומדין אמר לה ק"ו מחיטה ומה חיטה שנקברה ערומה יוצאה בכמה לבושין צדיקים שנקברים בלבושיהן על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל קיסר לרבן גמליאל אמריתו דשכבי חיי הא הוו עפרא ועפרא מי קא חיי 107b בחברון מלך שבע שנים ובירושלים מלך שלשים ושלש שנים וכתיב (שמואל ב ה, ה) בחברון מלך על יהודה שבע שנים וששה חדשים וגו\' והני ששה חדשים לא קחשיב ש"מ נצטרע,אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון מחול לך (תהלים פו, יז) עשה עמי אות לטובה ויראו שונאי ויבושו כי אתה ה\' עזרתני ונחמתני א"ל בחייך איני מודיע אבל אני מודיע בחיי שלמה בנך,בשעה שבנה שלמה את בית המקדש ביקש להכניס ארון לבית קדשי הקדשים דבקו שערים זה בזה אמר עשרים וארבעה רננות ולא נענה אמר (תהלים כד, ז) שאו שערים ראשיכם והנשאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד מי זה מלך הכבוד ה\' עזוז וגבור ה\' גבור מלחמה ונאמר (תהלים כד, ט) שאו שערים ראשיכם ושאו פתחי עולם ויבא מלך הכבוד וגו\' ולא נענה,כיון שאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, מב) ה\' אלהים אל תשב פני משיחך זכרה לחסדי דויד עבדך מיד נענה באותה שעה נהפכו פני שונאי דוד כשולי קדירה וידעו כל ישראל שמחל לו הקב"ה על אותו העון,גחזי דכתיב וילך אלישע דמשק להיכא אזל א"ר יוחנן שהלך להחזיר גחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לחטאת ירבעם והעמידה בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק בפיה והיתה מכרזת ואומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,וא"ד רבנן דחה מקמיה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה נא המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד השתא לא הוו (פיישי) צר,תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ולא כרבי יהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו ליש"ו בשתי ידים,גחזי דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל וקח ככרים (ויפצר) ויפרץ בו ויצר ככרים כסף וגו\' ויאמר אליו אלישע מאין גחזי ויאמר לא הלך עבדך אנה ואנה ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות ומי שקל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקל,אמר רבי יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע יושב ודורש בשמונה שרצים נעמן שר צבא מלך ארם היה מצורע אמרה ליה ההיא רביתא דאישתבאי מארעא ישראל אי אזלת לגבי אלישע מסי לך כי אתא א"ל זיל טבול בירדן א"ל אחוכי קא מחייכת בי אמרי ליה הנהו דהוו בהדיה מאי נפקא לך מינה זיל נסי אזל וטבל בירדנא ואיתסי אתא אייתי ליה כל הני דנקיט לא צבי לקבולי מיניה גחזי איפטר מקמיה אלישע אזל שקל מאי דשקל ואפקיד,כי אתא חזייה אלישע לצרעת דהוה פרחא עילויה רישיה א"ל רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך עד עולם ויצא מלפניו מצורע כשלג: (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים פתח השער אמר ר\' יוחנן גחזי ושלשה בניו,הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי יהושע בן פרחיה מאי הוא כדקטלינהו ינאי מלכא לרבנן אזל רבי יהושע בן פרחיה ויש"ו לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח לי\' שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש ליכי אלכסנדרי\' של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואנכי יושבת שוממה,קם אתא ואתרמי ליה ההוא אושפיזא עבדו ליה יקרא טובא אמר כמה יפה אכסניא זו אמר ליה רבי עיניה טרוטות אמר ליה רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שיפורי ושמתיה,אתא לקמיה כמה זמנין אמר ליה קבלן לא הוי קא משגח ביה יומא חד הוה קא קרי קריאת שמע אתא לקמיה סבר לקבולי אחוי ליה בידיה הוא סבר מידחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא והשתחוה לה אמר ליה הדר בך אמר ליה כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה ואמר מר יש"ו כישף והסית והדיח את ישראל:,תניא א"ר שמעון בן אלעזר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת,ת"ר ג\' חלאים חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו שנא\' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו וגו\',עד אברהם לא היה זקנה כל דחזי לאברהם אמר האי יצחק כל דחזי ליצחק אמר האי אברהם בעא אברהם רחמי דליהוי ליה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד אלישע לא הוה איניש חליש דמיתפח ואתא אלישע ובעא רחמי ואיתפח שנא\' (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:,38b his torso was fashioned from dust taken from Babylonia, and his head was fashioned from dust taken from Eretz Yisrael, the most important land, and his limbs were fashioned from dust taken from the rest of the lands in the world. With regard to his buttocks, Rav Aḥa says: They were fashioned from dust taken from Akra De’agma, on the outskirts of Babylonia.,Rabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hours long, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the first hour of the day, his dust was gathered. In the second, an undefined figure was fashioned. In the third, his limbs were extended. In the fourth, a soul was cast into him. In the fifth, he stood on his legs. In the sixth, he called the creatures by the names he gave them. In the seventh, Eve was paired with him. In the eighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four, i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. In the tenth, he sinned. In the eleventh, he was judged. In the twelfth, he was expelled and left the Garden of Eden, as it is stated: “But man abides not in honor; he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night.,Rami bar Ḥama says in explanation of the end of that verse: A wild animal does not have power over a person unless that person seems to the wild animal like an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.”,The Gemara presents a mnemonic for the statements that follow: At the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them: If you agree, let us fashion a person in our image. The angels said before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions of this person You suggest to create? God said to them: His actions are such and such, according to human nature.,The angels said before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?” (Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God outstretched His small finger among them and burned them with fire. And the same occurred with a second group of angels. The third group of angels that He asked said before Him: Master of the Universe, the first two groups who spoke their mind before You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do. God then created the first person.,When history arrived at the time of the people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion, i.e., the Tower of Babel, whose actions were ruinous, the angels said before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t the first set of angels speak appropriately before You, that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God said to them concerning humanity: “Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you; I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws.,Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spanned from one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other” (Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me” (Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him.,Rabbi Elazar says: The height of Adam the first man was from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.” Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. Once Adam sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of the verses contradict each other. The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: This and that, from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, are one measure, i.e., the same distance.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man spoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is stated in the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God” (Psalms 139:17).,And this, i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam” (Genesis 5:1)? This verse teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed Adam every generation and its Torah interpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived at his vision of the generation of Rabbi Akiva, Adam was gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by his manner of death. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,” i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer.,And Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: Adam the first man was a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”? (Genesis 3:9), meaning, to where has your heart turned, indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He was one who drew his foreskin forward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet” (Hosea 6:7), and it is written there: “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covet” (Genesis 17:14).,Rav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principle of belief in God. It is written here: “And they like men adam have transgressed the covet,” and it is written there: “He has broken My covet,” and it is written in a third verse: “And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their God and worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ We learned in a mishna there (Avot 2:14): Rabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic la’apikoros. Rabbi Yoḥa says: This was taught only with regard to a gentile heretic, but not with regard to a Jewish heretic, as one should not respond to him. All the more so, if one does respond he will become more heretical. His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position.,Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any place in the Bible from where the heretics attempt to prove their heresy, i.e., that there is more than one god, the response to their claim is alongside them, i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: “Let us make man in our image” (Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, but it then states: “And God created man in His image” (Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: “Come, let us go down and there confound their language” (Genesis 11:7), but it also states: “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower” (Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: “There God was revealed niglu to him when he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: “To God Who answers haoneh me in the day of my distress” (Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: “For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” (Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, kerovim, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: “And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?” (II\xa0Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, halekhu, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit” (Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, kharsavan, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: Why do I need these instances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is in accordance with the statement of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above, i.e., the angels, as it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones” (Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This works out well for almost all the verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but what is there to say concerning the verse: “I beheld till thrones were placed”? The Gemara answers: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David, i.e., the messiah, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for Him and one throne is for David; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presence by equating God with a person? Rather, the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as one throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness.,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva accept this explanation from Rabbi Yosei or did he not accept it from him? The Gemara suggests: Come and hear a proof to the matter from what was taught in another baraita, as it is taught in a baraita: One throne is for judgment and one throne is for righteousness; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near, i.e., discussing, matters of aggada? Go near tractates Nega’im and Oholot, which examine the complex halakhot of ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. Rather, the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, one is for a throne and one is for a stool. There is a throne for God to sit upon, and a stool that serves as His footstool.,Rav Naḥman says: This one, i.e., any person, who knows how to respond to the heretics as effectively as Rav Idit should respond to them, but if he does not know, he should not respond to them. The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rav Idit: It is written in the verse concerning God: “And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord” (Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: It should have stated: Come up to Me. Rav Idit said to him: This term, “the Lord,” in that verse is referring to the angel Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written: “Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, for My name is in him” (Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: If so, if this angel is equated with God, we should worship him as we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It is written: “Do not defy tammer him,” which alludes to: Do not replace Me temireni with him. The heretic said to him: If so, why do I need the clause “For he will not pardon your transgression”? Rav Idit said to him: We believe that we did not accept the angel even as a guide befarvanka for the journey, as it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with me raise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: It is written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: It should have stated: From Him out of heaven. A certain launderer said to Rabbi Yishmael: Leave him be; I will respond to him. This is as it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech, hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: It should have been written: My wives, and not: “Wives of Lemech.” Rather, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Here too, it is the style of the verse to speak in this manner. Rabbi Yishmael said to the launderer: From where did you hear this interpretation? The launderer said to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir.,The Gemara comments: This is as Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third halakha, one-third aggada, and one-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had, i.e., taught, three hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. 39a And they are the parables concerning the following verses: “The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge” (Ezekiel 18:2); “Just balances, just weights…shall you have” (Leviticus 19:36); and “The righteous is delivered out of trouble, and the wicked comes in his stead” (Proverbs 11:8).,§ The Roman emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Your God is a thief, as it is written: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man and he slept; and He took one of his sides, and closed up the place with flesh instead” (Genesis 2:21). The daughter of the emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Leave him, as I will respond to him. She said to her father: Provide one commander dukhus for me to avenge someone’s wrongdoing. The emperor said to her: Why do you need him? She said to him: Armed bandits came to us this past night, and took a silver jug kiton from us, and left a golden jug for us. The emperor said to her: If so, would it be that armed bandits such as these would come to us every day. She said to him: And was it not similarly good for Adam the first man that God took a side from him and gave him a maidservant to serve him?,The emperor said to her: This is what I was saying: But if it is good for Adam, let God take his side from him in the open, not during the time of his deep sleep, like a thief. She said to him: Bring me a slice of raw meat. They brought it to her. She placed it under the embers, and removed it after it was roasted. She said to him: Eat from this meat. The emperor said to her: It is repulsive to me. Although he knew that this is how meat is prepared, seeing the raw meat made it repulsive to him. She said to him: With regard to Adam the first man as well, had God taken her from him in the open, she would have been repulsive to him. Therefore God acted while Adam was asleep.,The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: I know your God, what He does and where He sits. Meanwhile, the emperor was moaning and groaning. Rabban Gamliel said to him: What is this? Why are you in distress? The emperor said to him: I have one son in the cities overseas and I miss him. Rabban Gamliel said to him: I want you to show him to me. The emperor said: Do I know where he is? Rabban Gamliel said to him: If you do not know that which is on earth, is it possible that you do know that which is in the heavens?,The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: It is written in praise of the Lord: “He counts the number of the stars; He gives them all their names” (Psalms 147:4). What is His greatness? I can also count the stars. Rabban Gamliel brought quinces, put them in a sieve, and spun them. He said to the emperor: Count them. The emperor said to him: Stand them still so that I can count them. Rabban Gamliel said to him: The firmament also revolves like this, therefore you cannot count the stars in it.,Some say that this is what the emperor said to him: I have counted the stars. Rabban Gamliel said to him: Tell me how many teeth and incisors you have. The emperor put his hand in his mouth and was counting them. Rabban Gamliel said to him: You do not know what is in your mouth, but you do know what is in the firmament?,The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: He Who created mountains did not create wind, rather two separate gods created them, as it is stated: “For, lo, He forms mountains and creates wind” (Amos 4:13); one is described with the verb “forms,” and the other with the verb “creates.” Rabban Gamliel said to him: If that is so, then with regard to Adam, as it is written concerning him: “And God created” (Genesis 1:27), and also: “And the Lord God formed” (Genesis 2:7), so too should one say that He who created this did not create that?,If you will claim that different gods created different parts of Adam, that will not suffice. A person has one handbreadth by one handbreadth of facial countece, with two types of orifices in it, eyes and ears. Should one say that He who created this did not create that; as it is stated: “He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?” (Psalms 94:9)? The verse employs two verbs for the eyes and ears alone. The emperor said to him: Yes, different gods created different parts of the face. Rabban Gamliel said to him: And at the moment of death, are they all appeased? Do all these gods agree as one that the time arrived for the person to die?,The Gemara relates: A certain magus said to Ameimar: From your midpoint and up is in the domain of Hurmiz, the god of good, who created the significant and important parts of the body, and from your midpoint and down is in the domain of Ahurmiz, the god of bad. Ameimar said to him: If so, how does Ahurmiz allow Hurmiz to urinate in his territory? A person drinks with his mouth, which is in his upper half, and urinates from below.,The Gemara relates: The emperor said to Rabbi Tanḥum: Come, let us all be one people. Rabbi Tanḥum said: Very well. But we, who are circumcised, cannot become uncircumcised as you are; you all circumcise yourselves and become like us. The emperor said to Rabbi Tanḥum: In terms of the logic of your statement, you are saying well, but anyone who bests the king in a debate is thrown to the enclosure labeivar of wild animals. They threw him to the enclosure but the animals did not eat him, as God protected him. A certain heretic said to the emperor: This incident, that they did not eat him, happened because they are not hungry. They then threw the heretic into the enclosure and the animals ate him.,The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the Divine Presence dwells in any place where there are ten adult male Jews. He asked, sarcastically: How many Divine Presences are there? Rabban Gamliel summoned the servant of the emperor and hit him on his neck be’appatka. Rabban Gamliel said to him: Why did you allow the sun to enter the house of the emperor? The emperor said to him: The sun rests upon all the world; no one can prevent it from shining. Rabban Gamliel said to him: And if the sun, which is one of ten thousand attendants that are before the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests upon all the world, the Divine Presence of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so rests upon the world.,A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a jester, as He said to Ezekiel the prophet: “Lie on your left side” (Ezekiel 4:4), and it is also written: “Lie on your right side” (Ezekiel 4:6); God had Ezekiel turn from side to side, apparently for comic effect. In the meantime, a certain student came before Rabbi Abbahu and said to him: What is the reason for the mitzva of the Sabbatical Year? Rabbi Abbahu said to them: Now I will tell you something that is fit for the two of you.,Rabbi Abbahu continued: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: Sow for six years, and withhold sowing during the seventh year, so that that you will know that the land is Mine. But the Jewish people did not do so; rather, they sinned and were consequently exiled. The manner of the world is that in the case of a flesh-and-blood king whose province sinned against him, if he is cruel, he kills them all; if he is compassionate, he kills only half of them; and if he is compassionate and is full of compassion, he afflicts the leaders among them with suffering. Rabbi Abbahu continues: So too in this case, the Holy One, Blessed be He, afflicts Ezekiel in order to cleanse the sins of the Jewish people. God instructed him to lie down and suffer the same number of days as the number of years that the Jewish people did not observe the halakhot of the Sabbatical Year.,A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a priest, as it is written: “That they take for Me an offering teruma (Exodus 25:2), and teruma is given to the priests. He asked, sarcastically: When He buried Moses, in what ritual bath did He immerse? A priest who contracts impurity from a corpse must immerse in order to be able to partake of teruma. And if you would say that He immersed in water, but isn’t it written: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand” (Isaiah 40:12), that all waters of the world fit in the palm of God, so He could not immerse in them.,Rabbi Abbahu said to him: He immersed in fire, as it is written: “For, behold, the Lord will come in fire” (Isaiah 66:15). The heretic said to him: But is immersion in fire effective? Rabbi Abbahu said to him: On the contrary, the main form of immersion is in fire, as it is written with regard to the removal of non-kosher substances absorbed in a vessel: “And all that abides not the fire you shall make to go through the water” (Numbers 31:23), indicating that fire purifies more than water does.,A certain heretic said to Rabbi Avina: It is written: “And who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the earth” (II\xa0Samuel 7:23). The heretic asked: What is your greatness? You are also mixed together with us, as it is written: “All nations before Him are as nothing; they are counted by Him less than nothing and vanity” (Isaiah 40:17). Rabbi Avina said to him: One of yours, the gentile prophet Balaam, has already testified for us, as it is written: 43a “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.”,The Gemara asks: If that is so, what do they do with the words in the verse: “And they stoned him with a stone”? These words appear to be superfluous, as even without them we would know that God’s instructions to stone the blasphemer were implemented. What then do they serve to teach? The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary for that which is taught in a baraita: The verse states: “And they stoned him with a stone.” The word “him” teaches that they stoned him alone, while he was naked, but not while he was in his clothing. The verse uses the singular term “stone aven rather than the plural term stones avanim to teach that if the condemned man died after being struck with one stone, the court has fulfilled its obligation.,The Gemara notes: And it was necessary to write with regard to the blasphemer that “they stoned him with a stone,” in the singular, and it was necessary to write with regard to the man who gathered sticks on Shabbat that “they stoned him with stones” (Numbers 15:36), in the plural. As, had the Merciful One written only “stone,” I would say that where the condemned man did not die after being struck with one stone, they do not bring other stones and kill him with them. Therefore, the Merciful One writes “stones.” And had the Merciful One written only “stones,” I would say that from the outset they should bring two or more stones. Therefore, the Merciful One writes “stone.”,The Gemara raises an objection to Rav Pappa’s derivation: But this tanna of the baraita cited above said: It is stated here and it is stated elsewhere, thereby basing his derivation on a verbal analogy between the verse concerning the blasphemer and the verse concerning the bulls brought as sin-offerings that are burned. How, then, can Rav Pappa, an amora, disagree and derive the halakha directly from the verse dealing with the blasphemer? The Gemara answers: According to Rav Pappa, the tanna of the baraita said: Had it not been stated, and this is what he is saying: Had a verse not been stated from which it can be directly derived that the condemned man is stoned outside all three camps, I would have said that this can be learned by way of a verbal analogy. But now that such a verse has been stated, the verbal analogy is not needed.,Rav Ashi said: The location of the place of stoning can be directly derived from the verse discussing the blasphemer but in a slightly different manner. Where was Moses sitting when the matter of the blasphemer was brought before him? In the Levite camp. And the Merciful One said to him: “Take out him who has cursed” (Leviticus 24:14), indicating that he should be taken outside the Levite camp into the Israelite camp. And God continued in that verse: “Outside the camp,” which is an additional command that he should be removed even further, to outside the Israelite camp. And the later verse, which says: “And they brought him that had cursed out of the camp…and the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses” (Leviticus 24:23), teaches us about the implementation of God’s instructions, i.e., that the children of Israel did in fact carry out His command.,The Gemara raises an objection: The implementation of God’s instructions is written explicitly in this context, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.” The Gemara answers: That verse is necessary to teach us that not only was the condemned man taken outside the three camps and stoned, but the rest of God’s instructions were also fulfilled. These instructions relate to the placing of the witnesses’ hands upon the head of the condemned man, as it is stated: “And let all that heard him place their hands upon his head” (Leviticus 24:14), and to the witnesses’ pushing of the condemned man from a platform the height of two stories.,The Sages said to Rav Ashi: According to you, that the expression “take out” by itself means outside the camp, and “outside the camp” means outside an additional camp, what do you learn from all those instances of “take out” that are written with regard to the bulls brought as sin-offerings that are burned? According to your explanation, there are many superfluous phrases in the verses. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is difficult with regard to the opinion of Rav Ashi.,§ The mishna teaches that one man stands at the entrance to the court, with cloths in his hand, ready to signal to the court agents leading the condemned man to his execution that some doubt has been raised with respect to the latter’s guilt. Rav Huna says: It is obvious to me that the stone with which the condemned man is stoned and the tree on which his corpse is hung after his execution, or the sword with which he is killed, or the scarf with which he is strangled, all of these come from the property of the community. What is the reason for this? We do not tell the condemned man to go and bring these items from his own property and effectively kill himself.,Rav Huna raised a dilemma: With regard to the cloth that is waved and the horse that races off after the court agents to stop the latter from carrying out the execution, from whose property do they come, that of the condemned man or that of the community? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: Since they are needed to save the man being led to his execution, these items should be taken from his property. Or perhaps, since the court is obligated to take all possible measures to save him from death, they should be taken from them, i.e., the community.,And furthermore, another question is raised along similar lines: With regard to that which Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says that Rav Ḥisda says: The court gives one who is being led out to be killed a grain koret of frankincense in a cup of wine in order to confuse his mind and thereby minimize his suffering from the fear of his impending death, as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter in soul” (Proverbs 31:6). And it is taught in a baraita: The prominent women of Jerusalem would donate this drink and bring it to those being led out to be killed. The question is: If these prominent women did not donate this drink, from whom is it taken? The Gemara answers: With regard to this question, it is certainly reasonable that this drink should be taken from the community, as it is written: “Give tenu strong drink,” in the plural, indicating that it should come from them, the community.,§ Rav Aḥa bar Huna asked Rav Sheshet: If one of the students sitting before the judges said: I can teach a reason to acquit him, and he became mute and cannot explain himself, what is the halakha in such a case? Does the court take heed of his words, or do they disregard him? Rav Sheshet waved his hands in scorn and said: If the student became mute, the court certainly does not pay attention to him, as were the court to concern themselves with what he said, they would have to be concerned even that perhaps there is someone at the end of the world who can propose an argument in the condemned man’s favor. The Gemara rejects this argument: The cases are not similar. There, no one said that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. Here, the student already said that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. The question, therefore, is appropriate. What is the halakha in such a case?,The Gemara suggests: Come and hear an answer: As Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: In a case where there was one of the students who argued to acquit the defendant and then died, the court views him as if he were alive and standing in his place and voting to acquit the defendant. The implication is that if he argued to acquit the defendant and explained his reasoning, yes, the court counts his vote as if he were still alive. But if he did not actually argue to acquit the defendant, but only said that he wished to propose such an argument, his vote is not counted as though he were still alive.,The Gemara rejects this proof: If the student argued to acquit the defendant, it is obvious to me that he should be counted among those favoring acquittal. But if he only says that he wishes to propose such an argument, let the dilemma be raised whether or not he should be regarded as having presented a convincing argument in favor of acquittal. The question is left unresolved.,The mishna teaches: And even if he, the condemned man himself, says: I can teach a reason to acquit myself, he is returned to the courthouse even four or five times, provided that there is substance to his words. The Gemara asks: And is the halakha that there must be substance to his words even the first and second time that the condemned man says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself? But isn’t it taught in a baraita: The first and second times that he says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself, they return him to the courthouse and consider whether there is substance to his statement or there is no substance to his statement. From this point forward, if there is substance to his statement they return him to the courthouse, but if there is no substance to his statement, they do not return him. This appears to contradict the mishna.,Rav Pappa said: Explain that the mishna’s ruling applies only from after the second time forward, that from that point on we examine whether there is substance to his words.,The Gemara asks: How do we know whether or not there is substance to his words? Abaye said: If the condemned man has already been returned twice to the courthouse, we send a pair of rabbis with him to evaluate his claim. If they find that there is substance to his statement, yes, he is returned once again to the courthouse; if not, he is not returned.,The Gemara asks: But why not send a pair of rabbis with him from the outset, even the first time, and have them make an initial assessment of his claim? The Gemara answers: Since a man facing execution is frightened by the thought of his impending death, he is not able to say all that he has to say, and perhaps out of fear he will be confused and not provide a substantial reason to overturn his verdict. Therefore, the first two times he is returned to the courthouse without an initial examination of his arguments. Once he has already been returned on two occasions, the court allows for no further delay, and they send two rabbis to evaluate his claim before returning him a third time.,find a reason to acquit him, they acquit him and release him immediately. But if they do not find a reason to acquit him, he goes out to be stoned. And a crier goes out before him and publicly proclaims: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is going out to be stoned because he committed such and such a transgression. And so-and-so and so-and-so are his witnesses. Anyone who knows of a reason to acquit him should come forward and teach it on his behalf.,Abaye says: And the crier must also publicly proclaim that the transgression was committed on such and such a day, at such and such an hour, and at such and such a place, as perhaps there are those who know that the witnesses could not have been in that place at that time, and they will come forward and render the witnesses conspiring witnesses.,The mishna teaches that a crier goes out before the condemned man. This indicates that it is only before him, i.e., while he is being led to his execution, that yes, the crier goes out, but from the outset, before the accused is convicted, he does not go out. The Gemara raises a difficulty: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: On Passover Eve they hung the corpse of Jesus the Nazarene after they killed him by way of stoning. And a crier went out before him for forty days, publicly proclaiming: Jesus the Nazarene is going out to be stoned because he practiced sorcery, incited people to idol worship, and led the Jewish people astray. Anyone who knows of a reason to acquit him should come forward and teach it on his behalf. And the court did not find a reason to acquit him, and so they stoned him and hung his corpse on Passover eve.,Ulla said: And how can you understand this proof? Was Jesus the Nazarene worthy of conducting a search for a reason to acquit him? He was an inciter to idol worship, and the Merciful One states with regard to an inciter to idol worship: “Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him” (Deuteronomy 13:9). Rather, Jesus was different, as he had close ties with the government, and the gentile authorities were interested in his acquittal. Consequently, the court gave him every opportunity to clear himself, so that it could not be claimed that he was falsely convicted.,Apropos the trial of Jesus, the Gemara cites another baraita, where the Sages taught: Jesus the Nazarene had five disciples: Mattai, Nakai, Netzer, Buni, and Toda. They brought Mattai in to stand trial. Mattai said to the judges: Shall Mattai be executed? But isn’t it written: “When matai shall I come and appear before God?” (Psalms 42:3). Mattai claimed that this verse alludes to the fact he is righteous. They said to him: Yes, Mattai shall be executed, as it is written: “When matai shall he die, and his name perish?” (Psalms 41:6).,Then they brought Nakai in to stand trial. Nakai said to the judges: Shall Nakai be executed? But isn’t it written: “And the innocent naki and righteous you shall not slay” (Exodus 23:7)? They said to him: Yes, Nakai shall be executed, as it is written: “In secret places he kills the innocent naki (Psalms 10:8).,Then they brought Netzer in to stand trial. He said to the judges: Shall Netzer be executed? But isn’t it written: “And a branch netzer shall grow out of his roots” (Isaiah 11:1)? They said to him: Yes, Netzer shall be executed, as it is written: “But you are cast out of your grave like an abhorred branch netzer (Isaiah 14:19).,Then they brought Buni in to stand trial. Buni said to the judges: Shall Buni be executed? But isn’t it written: “My firstborn son beni is Israel” (Exodus 4:22)? They said to him: Yes, Buni shall be executed, as it is written: “Behold, I shall kill your firstborn son binkha (Exodus 4:23).,Then they brought Toda in to stand trial. Toda said to the judges: Shall Toda be executed? But isn’t it written: “A psalm of thanksgiving toda (Psalms 100:1)? They said to him: Yes, Toda shall be executed, as it is written: “Whoever slaughters a thanks-offering toda honors Me” (Psalms 50:23). 90b And it is written: “And it was for him so, and the people trampled him in the gate, and he died” (II\xa0Kings 7:20). The Gemara challenges: Perhaps it was the curse of Elisha that caused the officer to die in that manner, not the principle of punishment measure for measure for his lack of belief, as Rav Yehuda says that Rav says: The curse of a Sage, even if baseless, comes to be fulfilled? This is all the more so true concerning the curse of Elisha, which was warranted. The Gemara answers: If so, let the verse write: And they trampled him and he died. What does the term “in the gate” serve to teach? It teaches that he died over matters relating to the gate sha’ar. It was for the cynical dismissal of the prophecy of Elisha that the officer voiced at the city gate that he was punished measure for measure and was trampled at the city gate.,§ Rabbi Yoḥa says: From where is the resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from this verse, as it is stated with regard to teruma of the tithe: “And you shall give the teruma of the Lord to Aaron the priest” (Numbers 18:28). And does Aaron exist forever so that one can fulfill the mitzva by giving him the teruma of the tithe? But is it not so that Aaron did not enter Eretz Yisrael, the only place where the people would give him teruma? Rather, the verse teaches that Aaron is destined to live in the future and the Jewish people will give him teruma. From here it is derived that the resurrection of the dead is from the Torah.,The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a different derivation from this verse. From the term “to Aaron” one derives that teruma must be given to a priest like Aaron; just as Aaron is one devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, particularly those relating to ritual purity, teruma, and tithes ḥaver, so too one gives teruma to his descendants who are ḥaverim.,Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says that Rabbi Yonatan says: From where is it derived that one does not give teruma to a priest who is an am ha’aretz? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: “And he commanded the people who dwelled in Jerusalem to give the portion of the priests and of the Levites, so that they may firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord” (II\xa0Chronicles 31:4). Everyone who firmly adheres to the Torah of the Lord has a portion, and anyone who does not firmly adhere to the Torah of the Lord does not have a portion.,Rav Aḥa bar Adda says that Rav Yehuda says: With regard to anyone who gives teruma to a priest who is an am ha’aretz, it is as though he placed the teruma before a lion. Just as with regard to a lion, there is uncertainty whether it will maul its prey and eat it, and uncertainty whether it will not maul its prey and instead eat it alive, so too, with regard to a priest who is an am ha’aretz to whom one gives teruma, there is uncertainty whether he will eat it in purity, and there is uncertainty whether he will eat it in impurity, thereby violating a prohibition by Torah law.,Rabbi Yoḥa says: One who gives teruma to a priest who is an am ha’aretz even causes the priest’s death, as it is stated with regard to teruma: “And die therefore if they profane it” (Leviticus 22:9). Priests who partake of teruma in a state of ritual impurity profane it and are liable to be punished with death at the hand of Heaven. The school of Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov taught: By giving teruma to a priest who is an am ha’aretz, one also brings upon him a sin of guilt, i.e., a sin that will lead to additional sins, as it is stated: “And so bring upon them a sin of guilt when they eat their sacred items” (Leviticus 22:16).,§ It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Simai says: From where is resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated with regard to the Patriarchs: “I have also established My covet with them to give to them the land of Canaan” (Exodus 6:4). The phrase: To give to you the land of Canaan, is not stated, as the meaning of the verse is not that God fulfilled the covet with the Patriarchs when he gave the land of Canaan to the children of Israel; rather, it is stated: “To give to them the land of Canaan,” meaning to the Patriarchs themselves. From here is it derived that the resurrection of the dead is from the Torah, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land.,The Gemara records a mnemonic for those cited in the upcoming discussion: Tzadi, dalet, kuf; gimmel, mem; gimmel, shin, mem; kuf, mem.Heretics asked Rabban Gamliel: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead? Rabban Gamliel said to them that this matter can be proven from the Torah, from the Prophets, and from Writings, but they did not accept the proofs from him.,The proof from the Torah is as it is written: “And the Lord said to Moses, behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise” (Deuteronomy 31:16). The heretics said to him: But perhaps the verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers, and this people will arise and stray after the foreign gods of the land.”,The proof from the Prophets is as it is written: “Your dead shall live, my corpse shall arise. Awake and sing, you that dwell in the dust, for your dew is as the dew of vegetation, and the land shall cast out the dead” (Isaiah 26:19). The heretics said to him: But perhaps the prophecy was fulfilled with the dead that Ezekiel revived. No proof may be cited from that verse with regard to any future resurrection.,The proof from Writings is as it is written: “And your palate is like the best wine that glides down smoothly for my beloved, moving gently the lips of those that sleep” (Song of Songs 7:10), indicating that the dead will ultimately rise and speak. The heretics said to him: But perhaps merely their lips will move, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak: Anyone in whose name a halakha is stated in this world, his lips move in the grave as if repeating the statement cited in his name, as it is stated: “Moving gently the lips of those that sleep.” No proof may be cited from that verse, as it is unrelated to resurrection.,This exchange continued until Rabban Gamliel stated to them this verse: “That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the land that the Lord took an oath to your forefathers to give them” (Deuteronomy 11:21). The phrase: To give you, is not stated; rather, it is stated: “To give them,” to the Patriarchs themselves, as in the future the Patriarchs will come to life and inherit the land. From here resurrection of the dead is derived from the Torah.,And there are those who say that it is from this following verse that he said to them his ultimate proof: “But you who cleave to the Lord your God every one of you is alive this day” (Deuteronomy 4:4). Wasn’t it obvious with regard to the children of Israel whom God was addressing, that “every one of you is alive this day”? Rather, the meaning of the verse is: Even on the day when everyone is dead you will live; just as today every one of you is alive, so too, in the World-to-Come every one of you will be alive.,The Romans asked Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, and from where is it derived that He knows what is destined to be? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said to them: Both of those matters are derived from this verse, as it is stated: “And the Lord said to Moses, Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise; this people will go astray” (Deuteronomy 31:16). This indicates that Moses will die and then arise from the dead and that the Holy One, Blessed be He, knows what the children of Israel are destined to do.,The Romans asked: But perhaps the verse should be divided in a different manner, and it should be read: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and this people will arise and go astray after the foreign gods of the land.” Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya said to them: Take at least a response to half of your question in your hands from that verse, that God knows what is destined to be. The Gemara comments: It was also stated on a similar note by an amora citing a tanna, as Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: From where is it derived that the Holy One, Blessed be He, revives the dead, and from where is it derived that He knows what is destined to be? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: “Behold, you shall lie with your fathers and arise.”,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, says: With this following matter, I refuted the books of the Samaritans, as they would say that there is no source for the resurrection of the dead from the Torah. I said to them: You falsified your torah and you accomplished nothing, as you say there is no source for the resurrection of the dead from the Torah, and the Torah states: “That soul shall be excised; his iniquity shall be upon him” (Numbers 15:31). You interpret the phrase “that soul shall be excised” to mean that a sinner will be punished with death in this world. If so, with regard to the phrase “his iniquity shall be upon him,” for when is that destined to be? Is it not for the World-to-Come, i.e., the world as it will exist after the resurrection of the dead? Apparently, there is a World-to-Come and there is an allusion to it in the Torah.,Rav Pappa said to Abaye: And let Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, say to the Samaritans that both of those matters can be derived from the phrase “shall be excised hikkaret tikkaret.”Hikkaret” indicates that the sinner is excised from this world, and “tikkaret” indicates that the sinner is excised from the World-to-Come. Abaye answered: Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, preferred not to cite proof from the compound verb, because the Samaritans would say: The Torah spoke in the language of people, and the compound verb is merely a stylistic flourish.,The Gemara notes: These derivations of Rabbi Eliezer and Rav Pappa are parallel to a dispute between tanna’im with regard to hikkaret tikkaret,” as follows: Hikkaret indicates that the sinner is excised in this world, and tikkaret indicates that the sinner is excised in the World-to-Come; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yishmael said to him: Isn’t it already stated in the previous verse: “That person that blasphemes the Lord, that soul shall be excised venikhreta (Numbers 15:30), and are there three worlds from which the sinner is excised? Rather, from the term venikhreta it is derived that the sinner is excised in this world, from hikkaret it is derived that the sinner is excised in the World-to-Come, and from the compound verb hikkaret tikkaret nothing is derived, as the Torah spoke in the language of people.,The Gemara asks: According to both Rabbi Yishmael and Rabbi Akiva, what do they do with, i.e., what do they derive from, the phrase “His iniquity shall be upon him”? The Gemara answers: That phrase is necessary for that derivation which is taught in a baraita: One might have thought that the sinner is excised even after he repented. Therefore, the verse states: “His iniquity shall be upon him.” God states: I said that the sinner will be excised only when his iniquity remains upon him.,§ The Gemara relates: Queen Cleopatra asked Rabbi Meir a question. She said: I know that the dead will live, as it is written: “And may they blossom out of the city like grass of the earth” (Psalms 72:16). Just as grass grows, so too, the dead will come to life. But when they arise, will they arise naked or will they arise with their garments? Rabbi Meir said to her: It is derived a fortiori from wheat. If wheat, which is buried naked, meaning that the kernel is sown without the chaff, emerges with several garments of chaff, all the more so will the righteous, who are buried with their garments, arise with their garments.,The Roman emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say that the dead will live. Aren’t they dust? And does dust come to life? 107b in Hebron he reigned seven years, and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years” (I\xa0Kings 2:11). And it is written: “In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months and in Jerusalem he reigned for thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah” (II\xa0Samuel 5:5). And those six months, the prophet did not tally them as part of the forty years of King David’s reign. Conclude from it that there were six months that he was not considered king because he was afflicted with leprosy.,David said before Him after this: Master of the Universe, pardon me for this sin. God said to him: It is forgiven for you. David requested: “Perform on my behalf a sign for good, that they that hate me may see it and be put to shame” (Psalms 86:17); show me a sign in my lifetime so that everyone will know that You have forgiven me. God said to him: In your lifetime I will not make it known that you were forgiven, but I will make it known in the lifetime of your son, Solomon.,The Gemara explains: When Solomon built the Temple and sought to bring the Ark into the Holy of Holies, the gates clung together and could not be opened. Solomon uttered twenty-four songs of praise, and his prayer was not answered. He said: “Lift up your heads, you gates, and be you lifted up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who is the King of glory? The Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle” (Psalms 24:7–8). And it is stated: “Lift up your heads, you gates, yea, lift them up, you everlasting doors, that the King of glory may come in. Who then is the King of glory? The Lord of hosts; He is the King of glory. Selah” (Psalms 24:9–10), and he was not answered.,Once he said: “O Lord God, turn not away the face of Your anointed; remember the good deeds of David Your servant” (II\xa0Chronicles 6:42), he was immediately answered, and the gates opened (II\xa0Chronicles 7:1). At that moment, the faces of all of David’s enemies turned dark like the charred bottom of a pot. And all of the Jewish people knew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, had forgiven him for that sin, as it was only by David’s merit that Solomon’s prayer was answered.,§ The mishna states that Gehazi, the attendant of Elisha, has no share in the World-to-Come. The Gemara explains that this is as it is written: And Elisha went to Damascus (see II\xa0Kings 8:7). Where did he go, and for what purpose? Rabbi Yoḥa says: He went to cause Gehazi to repent, but he did not repent. Elisha said to him: Repent. Gehazi said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent.,What did he do that caused the masses to sin? There are those who say that he hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s sin, i.e., on the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, so that he suspended it between heaven and earth, i.e., he caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly than before. And there are those who say: He engraved the sacred name of God on its mouth, and it would declare and say: “I am the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), and: “You shall not have other gods” (Exodus 20:3). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments that prohibit idol worship, causing the people to worship it even more devoutly than before.,And there are those who say: Gehazi pushed the Sages away from coming before him, i.e., he prevented them from learning from Elisha, as it is stated: “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us” (II\xa0Kings 6:1). It may be derived by inference that until now they were not numerous and the place was not cramped for them, as Gehazi would turn people away.,The Sages taught: Always have the left hand drive sinners away and the right draw them near, so that the sinner will not totally despair of atonement. This is unlike Elisha, who pushed away Gehazi with his two hands and caused him to lose his share in the World-to-Come, and unlike Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed away Jesus the Nazarene with his two hands.,Elisha drove Gehazi away, as it is written: “And Naaman said: Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments” (II\xa0Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him. The verse states: “And Elisha said to him: Where from, Gehazi? And he said: Your servant went nowhere at all. And he said to him: Went not my heart with you, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it the time to receive silver and to receive garments, and olive groves, and vineyards, and sheep and cattle, and menservants and maidservants?” (II\xa0Kings 5:25–26). The Gemara asks: And did Gehazi take all that? It is merely silver and garments that he took.,Rabbi Yitzḥak says: This was the incident involving Gehazi: At that moment, Elisha was sitting and teaching the halakhot of the eight impure creeping animals. Now Naaman, the general of the army of Aram, was a leper. A certain young Jewish woman who had been taken captive from Eretz Yisrael said to him: If you go to Elisha, he will heal you. When Naaman came to him, Elisha said to him: Go immerse in the Jordan. Naaman said to him: Are you mocking me by suggesting that this will cure me? Those companions who were with Naaman said to him: What is the difference to you? Go, try it. Naaman went and immersed in the Jordan and was healed. Naaman came and brought to Elisha all those items that he had taken with him from Aram, and Elisha did not agree to receive them from him. Gehazi took leave from before Elisha and went and took from Naaman what he took, and he deposited them.,When Gehazi came, Elisha saw the leprosy that had grown on Gehazi’s head. Elisha said to him: Wicked one! The time has arrived to take your reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals. Since the silver Gehazi received was his reward for studying the matter of the eight creeping animals, Elisha enumerated eight items that Gehazi sought to purchase with the silver that he took. Then Elisha said to Gehazi: “The leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your seed forever. And he went out of his presence a leper as white as snow” (II\xa0Kings 5:27). With regard to the verse: “And there were four men afflicted with leprosy at the entrance of the gate” (II\xa0Kings 7:3), Rabbi Yoḥa says: These were Gehazi and his three sons, as he and his descendants were cursed.,§ What is the incident involving Yehoshua ben Peraḥya? The Gemara relates: When King Yannai was killing the Sages, Yehoshua ben Peraḥya and Jesus, his student, went to Alexandria of Egypt. When there was peace between King Yannai and the Sages, Shimon ben Shataḥ sent a message to Yehoshua ben Peraḥya: From me, Jerusalem, the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt: My sister, my husband is located among you and I sit desolate. The head of the Sages of Israel is out of the country and Jerusalem requires his return.,Yehoshua ben Peraḥya understood the message, arose, came, and happened to arrive at a certain inn on the way to Jerusalem. They treated him with great honor. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said: How beautiful is this inn. Jesus, his student, said to him: But my teacher, the eyes of the innkeeper’s wife are narrow terutot. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya said to him: Wicked one! Do you involve yourself with regard to that matter, the appearance of a married woman? He produced four hundred shofarot and ostracized him.,Jesus came before Yehoshua ben Peraḥya several times and said to him: Accept our, i.e., my, repentance. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya took no notice of him. One day Yehoshua ben Peraḥya was reciting Shema and Jesus came before him with the same request. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya intended to accept his request, and signaled him with his hand to wait until he completed his prayer. Jesus did not understand the signal and thought: He is driving me away. He went and stood a brick upright to serve as an idol and he bowed to it. Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then said to Jesus: Repent. Jesus said to him: This is the tradition that I received from you: Whoever sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. And the Master says: Jesus performed sorcery, incited Jews to engage in idolatry, and led Israel astray. Had Yehoshua ben Peraḥya not caused him to despair of atonement, he would not have taken the path of evil.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: With regard to the evil inclination, to a child, and to a woman, have the left hand drive them away and the right draw them near. Total rejection of the evil inclination will lead to inaction, unlike channeling its power in a positive direction. One should not draw them too near, lest they lead him to sin, but one should not drive his wife or his child away completely, lest he cause them to abandon the path of righteousness.,The Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: One illness was due to the fact that he incited bears to attack and eat children (see II\xa0Kings 2:24–25); and one was due to the fact that he pushed Gehazi away with two hands and caused him to despair of atonement; and one was the illness from which he died, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II\xa0Kings 13:14), indicating that he had previously suffered other illnesses.,Apropos the death of Elisha, the Gemara says: Until the time of Abraham there was no aging, and the old and the young looked the same. Anyone who saw Abraham said: That is Isaac, and anyone who saw Isaac said: That is Abraham. Abraham prayed for mercy, that he would undergo aging, as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age” (Genesis 24:1). There is no mention of aging before that verse. Until the time of Jacob there was no weakness, i.e., illness. Jacob prayed for mercy and there was weakness, as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is ill” (Genesis 48:1). Until the time of Elisha, there was no ill person who recovered, and Elisha came and prayed for mercy and recovered, as it is stated: “And Elisha was fallen ill of his illness from which he was to die” (II\xa0Kings 13:14). That is the first mention of a person who was ill and who did not die from that illness.,mishna The members of the generation of the flood have no share in the World-to-Come and will not stand in judgment at the end of days, as it is stated: “My soul shall not abide yadon in man forever” (Genesis 6:3); neither will they stand in judgment din nor shall their souls be restored to them. The members of the generation of the dispersion have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8), and it is written: “And from there did the Lord scatter them upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:9). “And the Lord scattered them” indicates in this world; “and from there did the Lord scatter them” indicates for the World-to-Come. The people of Sodom have no share in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “And the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the Lord exceedingly” (Genesis 13:13). “Wicked” indicates in this world; “and sinners” indicates for the World-to-Come. But they will stand in judgment and they will be sentenced to eternal contempt.,Rabbi Neḥemya says: Both these, the people of Sodom, and those, the members of the generation of the flood, will not stand in judgment, as it is stated: “Therefore the wicked shall not stand'' None
36. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Books of minim • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • minim • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, historicity of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, satire and irony in • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, interaction between rabbis and, social contact with • minim, laws of • minim, their identity

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 90, 163; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 258; Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 39, 69; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 85

116a שאין זה מקומה ר\' אומר לא מן השם הוא זה אלא מפני שספר חשוב הוא בפני עצמו,כמאן אזלא הא דא"ר שמואל בר נחמן א"ר יונתן (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה אלו שבעה ספרי תורה כמאן כר\',מאן תנא דפליג עליה דר\' רשב"ג הוא דתניא רשב"ג אומר עתידה פרשה זו שתיעקר מכאן ותכתב במקומה ולמה כתבה כאן כדי להפסיק בין פורענות ראשונה לפורענות שנייה פורענות שנייה מאי היא (במדבר יא, א) ויהי העם כמתאוננים פורענות ראשונה (במדבר י, לג) ויסעו מהר ה\' וא"ר חמא בר\' חנינא שסרו מאחרי ה\' והיכן מקומה אמר רב אשי בדגלים,איבעיא להו הגליונין של ס"ת מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה ת"ש ס"ת שבלה אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין ואמאי תיפוק ליה משום גיליון דידיה בלה שאני,ת"ש ס"ת שנמחק אם יש בו ללקט שמונים וחמש אותיות כגון פרשת ויהי בנסוע הארון מצילין ואם לאו אין מצילין ואמאי תיפוק ליה משום גיליון דידיה מקום הכתב לא קמיבעיא לי דכי קדוש אגב כתב הוא דקדוש אזל כתב אזלא לה קדושתיה כי קמיבעיא לי של מעלה ושל מטה שבין פרשה לפרשה שבין דף לדף שבתחלת הספר שבסוף הספר ותיפוק ליה משום ההוא דגייז ושדי,ת"ש הגליונין של מעלה ושל מטה שבין פרשה לפרשה שבין דף לדף שבתחלת הספר שבסוף הספר מטמאין את הידים דילמא אגב ס"ת שאני,ת"ש הגיליונין וספרי מינין אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אלא נשרפין במקומן הן ואזכרותיהן מאי לאו גליונין דספר תורה לא גליונין דספרי מינין השתא ספרי מינין גופייהו אין מצילין גליונין מבעיא הכי קאמר וספרי מינין הרי הן כגליונים,גופא הגליונים וספרי מינין אין מצילין אותם מפני הדליקה רבי יוסי אומר בחול קודר את האזכרות שבהן וגונזן והשאר שורפן א"ר טרפון אקפח את בני שאם יבאו לידי שאני אשרוף אותם ואת האזכרות שבהן שאפי\' אדם רודף אחריו להורגו ונחש רץ להכישו נכנס לבית ע"ז ואין נכנס לבתיהן של אלו שהללו מכירין וכופרין והללו אין מכירין וכופרין ועליהן הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו נז, ח) ו אחר הדלת והמזוזה שמת זכרונך,א"ר ישמעאל ק"ו ומה לעשות שלום בין איש לאשתו אמרה תורה שמי שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים הללו שמטילין קנאה ואיבה ותחרות בין ישראל לאביהן שבשמים על אחת כמה וכמה ועליהם אמר דוד (תהלים קלט, כא) הלא משנאיך ה\' אשנא ובתקוממיך אתקוטט תכלית שנאה שנאתים לאויבים היו לי וכשם שאין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה כך אין מצילין אותן לא מן המפולת ולא מן המים ולא מדבר המאבדן,בעי מיניה יוסף בר חנין מר\' אבהו הני ספרי דבי אבידן מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה או אין מצילין אין ולאו ורפיא בידיה רב לא אזיל לבי אבידן וכ"ש לבי נצרפי שמואל לבי נצרפי לא אזיל לבי אבידן אזיל אמרו ליה לרבא מ"ט לא אתית לבי אבידן אמר להו דיקלא פלניא איכא באורחא וקשי לי ניעקריה דוכתיה קשי לי מר בר יוסף אמר אנא מינייהו אנא ולא מסתפינא מינייהו זימנא חדא אזיל בעו לסכוניה הוספה מחסרונות הש"ס: רבי מאיר הוה קרי ליה און גליון רבי יוחנן הוה קרי ליה עון גליון.,אימא שלום דביתהו דרבי אליעזר אחתיה דרבן גמליאל הואי הוה ההוא פילוסופא בשבבותיה'116b דהוה שקיל שמא דלא מקבל שוחדא בעו לאחוכי ביה אעיילא ליה שרגא דדהבא ואזול לקמיה אמרה ליה בעינא דניפלגי לי בנכסי דבי נשי אמר להו פלוגו א"ל כתיב לן במקום ברא ברתא לא תירות א"ל מן יומא דגליתון מארעכון איתנטלית אורייתא דמשה ואיתיהיבת ספרא אחריתי וכתיב ביה ברא וברתא כחדא ירתון,למחר הדר עייל ליה איהו חמרא לובא אמר להו שפילית לסיפיה דספרא וכתב ביה אנא לא למיפחת מן אורייתא דמשה אתיתי ולא לאוספי על אורייתא דמשה אתיתי וכתיב ביה במקום ברא ברתא לא תירות אמרה ליה נהור נהוריך כשרגא א"ל רבן גמליאל אתא חמרא ובטש לשרגא:,ומפני מה אין קורין כו\': אמר רב לא שנו אלא בזמן בית המדרש אבל שלא בזמן בהמ"ד קורין ושמואל אמר אפילו שלא בזמן בית המדרש אין קורין איני והא נהרדעא אתריה דשמואל הוה ובנהרדעא פסקי סידרא בכתובים במנחתא דשבתא אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר אמר רב לא שנו אלא במקום בהמ"ד אבל שלא במקום בהמ"ד קורין ושמואל אמר,בין במקום בהמ"ד בין שלא במקום בהמ"ד בזמן בהמ"ד אין קורין שלא בזמן בית המדרש קורין ואזדא שמואל לטעמיה דבנהרדעא פסקי סידרא דכתובים במנחתא דשבתא,רב אשי אמר לעולם כדאמרן מעיקרא ושמואל כרבי נחמיה דתניא אע"פ שאמרו כתבי הקדש אין קורין בהן אבל שונין בהן ודורשין בהן נצרך לפסוק מביא ורואה בו א"ר נחמיה מפני מה אמרו כתבי הקדש אין קורין בהן כדי שיאמרו בכתבי הקדש אין קורין וכ"ש בשטרי הדיוטות:,119a עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן אמר רבא תיתי לי דכי אתא צורבא מרבנן לקמאי לדינא לא מזיגנא רישי אבי סדיא כמה דלא מהפיכנא בזכותי\' אמר מר בר רב אשי פסילנא ליה לצורבא מרבנן לדינא מ"ט דחביב עלי כגופאי ואין אדם רואה חובה לעצמו,רבי חנינא מיעטף וקאי אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמר בואו ונצא לקראת שבת המלכה רבי ינאי לביש מאניה מעלי שבת ואמר בואי כלה בואי כלה רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי רבה בר רב נחמן קריבו ליה תלת סאוי טחיי א"ל מי הוה ידעיתון דאתינא אמרו ליה מי עדיפת לן מינה,רבי אבא זבן בתליסר אסתירי פשיטי בישרא מתליסר טבחי ומשלים להו אצינורא דדשא ואמר להו אשור הייא אשור הייא ר\' אבהו הוה יתיב אתכתקא דשינא ומושיף נורא רב ענן לביש גונדא דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בגדים שבישל בהן קדירה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו,רב ספרא מחריך רישא רבא מלח שיבוטא רב הונא מדליק שרגי רב פפא גדיל פתילתא רב חסדא פרים סילקא רבה ורב יוסף מצלחי ציבי ר\' זירא מצתת צתותי רב נחמן בר יצחק מכתף ועייל מכתף ונפיק אמר אילו מקלעין לי ר\' אמי ור\' אסי מי לא מכתיפנא קמייהו ואיכא דאמרי ר\' אמי ורבי אסי מכתפי ועיילי מכתפי ונפקי אמרי אילו איקלע לן רבי יוחנן מי לא מכתפינן קמיה,יוסף מוקיר שבי הוה ההוא נכרי בשבבותיה דהוה נפישי נכסיה טובא אמרי ליה כלדאי כולהו נכסי יוסף מוקר שבי אכיל להו אזל זבנינהו לכולהו ניכסי זבן בהו מרגניתא אותבה בסייניה בהדי דקא עבר מברא אפרחיה זיקא שדייה במיא בלעיה כוורא אסקוה אייתוה אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמרי מאן זבין כי השתא אמרי להו זילו אמטיוהו לגבי יוסף מוקר שבי דרגיל דזבין אמטיוה ניהליה זבניה קרעיה אשכח ביה מרגניתא זבניה בתליסר עיליתא דדינרי דדהבא פגע ביה ההוא סבא אמר מאן דיזיף שבתא פרעיה שבתא,בעא מיניה רבי מר\' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי עשירים שבא"י במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמעשרין שנאמר (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר שבבבל במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את התורה,ושבשאר ארצות במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את השבת דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא פעם אחת נתארחתי אצל בעל הבית בלודקיא והביאו לפניו שלחן של זהב משוי ששה עשר בני אדם ושש עשרה שלשלאות של כסף קבועות בו וקערות וכוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות קבועות בו ועליו כל מיני מאכל וכל מיני מגדים ובשמים וכשמניחים אותו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה\' הארץ ומלואה וגו\' וכשמסלקין אותו אומרים (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה\' והארץ נתן לבני אדם אמרתי לו בני במה זכית לכך אמר לי קצב הייתי ומכל בהמה שהיתה נאה אמרתי זו תהא לשבת אמרתי לו אשריך שזכית וברוך המקום שזיכך לכך,א"ל קיסר לרבי יהושע בן חנניא מפני מה תבשיל של שבת ריחו נודף אמר לו תבלין אחד יש לנו ושבת שמו שאנו מטילין לתוכו וריחו נודף אמר לו תן לנו הימנו אמר לו כל המשמר את השבת מועיל לו ושאינו משמר את השבת אינו מועיל לו,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב המנונא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יג) ולקדוש ה\' מכובד א"ל זה יוה"כ שאין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה אמרה תורה כבדהו בכסות נקיה וכבדתו רב אמר להקדים ושמואל אמר לאחר אמרו ליה בני רב פפא בר אבא לרב פפא כגון אנן דשכיח לן בישרא וחמרא כל יומא במאי נישנייה אמר להו אי רגיליתו לאקדומי אחרוה אי רגיליתו לאחרוה אקדמוה רב ששת בקיטא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא שימשא בסיתוא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא טולא כי היכי דליקומו הייא ר\' זירא ' None116a that this is not its place, as the previous portion does not discuss the nation’s travels. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: It is not for that reason that signs were inserted. Rather, the signs are there because this portion is considered a book unto itself.,The Gemara asks: According to whose opinion is that which Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥman said that Rabbi Yonatan said, that with regard to the verse: “With wisdom she built her house, she carved its seven pillars” (Proverbs 9:1), these are the seven books of the Torah? According to whose opinion? It is according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as by his count there are seven books of the Torah: Genesis; Exodus; Leviticus; Numbers until: “And when the Ark traveled”; the portion: “And when the Ark traveled,” which is considered its own book; the remainder of Numbers; and Deuteronomy.,Who is the tanna who disagrees with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi? It is Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel. As it was taught in a baraita that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: In the future, this portion will be uprooted from here, where it appears, and will be written in its proper place. And why was it written here, even though it discusses the travels of the children of Israel, and the portion before it does not? It is in order to demarcate between the first punishment and the second punishment. What is the second punishment that appears immediately afterward? It is the verse: “And the people complained wickedly in God’s ears, and God heard and became angry, and the fire of God burned in them and it consumed the edge of the camp” (Numbers 11:1). What is the first punishment? It is the verse: “And they traveled from the mountain of God mehar Hashem for three days” (Numbers 10:33), and Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: That they turned from after God me’aḥarei Hashem and hurriedly fled Mount Sinai. The Gemara asks: And if so, where is the proper place for this paragraph? Rav Ashi said: In the portion of the flags, where there is a description of the manner in which the Jewish people traveled through the desert.,A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the blank folios of parchment of a Torah scroll, does one rescue them from the fire on Shabbat, or does one not rescue them from the fire? Come and hear a resolution to this from that which we learned: With regard to a Torah scroll that is worn, if there is enough in it to compile eighty-five complete letters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescues it from the fire, and if not one does not rescue it. If even the blank folios are rescued, why would one not rescue a Torah scroll with fewer than the requisite number of letters? Derive that this scroll may be rescued due to its blank folios. The Gemara answers: A Torah scroll that is worn is different, because at that point its sanctity is negated, and its blank folios are not sacred. Therefore, one may rescue the scroll only if it contains eighty-five letters.,Come and hear a different resolution from that which was taught in another baraita: With regard to a Torah scroll that was erased, if there is enough in it to compile eighty-five complete letters as in the portion of: “And when the Ark traveled,” one rescues it from the fire, and if not, one does not rescue it. And why is that so? Derive that this scroll may be rescued due to its blank folios, as the erased section is surely no less significant than the blank folios of the scroll. The Gemara answers: That is not so. In a case where the place of the writing is erased it is not a dilemma for me, as it is sacred due to the writing. If the writing is gone, its sanctity is gone. When it is a dilemma for me is with regard to the blank portions that are above and below, that are between one section and another section, that are between one page and another page, that are at the beginning of the scroll, and that are at the end of the scroll. The Gemara asks again: Derive that this scroll may be rescued due to that area that is blank, whose sanctity remains. The Gemara replies: There, it is referring to a case where the blank area was cut and thrown out, and all that remains is the place of the writing.,Come and hear a different resolution from what we learned in a mishna: The Sages decreed that the blank folios that are above and below, that are between one section and another section, that are between one page and another page, that are at the beginning of the scroll, and that are at the end of the scroll render the hands that touch them ritually impure. Apparently, the blank folios have the sanctity of a Torah scroll. The Gemara replies: That is not a proof, as perhaps when it is part of the Torah scroll, it is different, and in those circumstances the sanctity of the Torah extends to the blank portions. When they stand alone they have no sanctity.,Therefore, come and hear a different resolution from that which was taught in another baraita: With regard to the blank folios and the Torah scrolls of heretics, one does not rescue them from the fire; rather, they burn in their place, they and the names of God contained therein. What, is this not referring to the blank folios of a Torah scroll? The Gemara rejects this: No, it is referring to the blank folios of the scrolls of heretics. The Gemara is surprised at this: Now, with regard to the scrolls of heretics themselves, one does not rescue them; is it necessary to say that one does not rescue their blank folios? Rather, this is what it is saying: And the scrolls of heretics are like blank folios.,Apropos the scrolls of heretics, the Gemara analyzes the matter itself. With regard to the blank folios and the Torah scrolls of the heretics, one does not rescue them from the fire. Rabbi Yosei says: During the week, one cuts the names of God contained therein and buries them, and burns the rest. Rabbi Tarfon said in the form of an oath: I will bury my sons if I fail to do the following, that if these books come into my possession I will burn them and the names contained therein. As even if a person is pursuing him with the intent to kill him, and a snake is hurrying to bite him, one enters a house of idolatry and does not enter the houses of these heretics. The reason is that these heretics are aware of the greatness of the Creator manifest in the Torah and its mitzvot, and nevertheless, they deny the existence of God; whereas these idolators are not aware, and that is the reason that they deny the existence of God. And with regard to the heretics, the verse says: “And behind the door and the doorpost you place your memory” (Isaiah 57:8). Although they remember the word of God, they treat it contemptuously, as if casting it behind the door.,Rabbi Yishmael said: The fact that the names of God in the scrolls of heretics may be burned can be derived through an a fortiori inference: Just as to make peace between a husband and his wife, the Torah says: My name that was written in sanctity shall be erased in the water in the framework of the ordeal of the sota; these, the heretics, who impose jealousy, and hatred, and conflict between the Jewish people and their Father in Heaven, all the more so it is proper to erase God’s names because of them. And with regard to heretics, David said: “For I hate those who hate You, God, and I fight those who rise against You. I hate them with the utmost hatred, they have become enemies to me” (Psalms 139:21–22). And just as they, the scrolls of heretics, are not rescued from the fire, neither are they rescued from a rockslide, nor from water, nor from any other matter that destroys them.,Yosef bar Ḥanin raised a dilemma before Rabbi Abbahu: With regard to these books of the house of Abidan, does one rescue them from the fire or does one not rescue them? There were sacred Jewish texts in that house, which were used in debates and discussions on matters of faith. Rabbi Abbahu did not give him a clear answer but said yes and no, and the matter was uncertain to him. Rav would not go to the house of Abidan for conversation, and all the more so he would not go to the house of Nitzrefei, the Persian fire-temple. Shmuel, to the house of Nitzrefei he did not go, but to the house of Abidan he did go. The gentile scholars said to Rava: Why did you not come to the house of Abidan? He evaded their question with an excuse and said to them: There is a certain palm tree on the road, and that makes the path difficult for me. They said to him: We will uproot it. He said to them: Nevertheless, the resulting pit in its place will be difficult for me. Mar bar Yosef said: I am one of them, we are friends, and I do not fear them. Still, one time he went and argued with them and they sought to endanger his life. Rabbi Meir would call the Christian writing, the Evangelion, the wicked folio aven gilyon; Rabbi Yoḥa called it the sinful folio avon gilyon.,The Gemara relates: Imma Shalom, the wife of Rabbi Eliezer, was Rabban Gamliel’s sister. There was a Christian philosopher pilosofa in their neighborhood'116b who disseminated about himself the reputation that he does not accept bribes. They wanted to mock him and reveal his true nature. She privately gave him a golden lamp, and she and her brother came before him, approaching him as if they were seeking judgment. She said to the philosopher: I want to share in the inheritance of my father’s estate. He said to them: Divide it. Rabban Gamliel said to him: It is written in our Torah: In a situation where there is a son, the daughter does not inherit. The philosopher said to him: Since the day you were exiled from your land, the Torah of Moses was taken away and the avon gilyon was given in its place. It is written in the avon gilyon: A son and a daughter shall inherit alike.,The next day Rabban Gamliel brought the philosopher a Libyan donkey. Afterward, Rabban Gamliel and his sister came before the philosopher for a judgment. He said to them: I proceeded to the end of the avon gilayon, and it is written: I, avon gilayon, did not come to subtract from the Torah of Moses, and I did not come to add to the Torah of Moses. And it is written there: In a situation where there is a son, the daughter does not inherit. She said to him: May your light shine like a lamp, alluding to the lamp she had given him. Rabban Gamliel said to him: The donkey came and kicked the lamp, thereby revealing the entire episode.,We learned in the mishna: And why does one not read the Writings on Shabbat? Due to suspension of Torah study in the study hall. Rav said: They only taught that it is prohibited to read from the Writings on Shabbat during the hours of study in the study hall; but when it is not during the hours of study in the study hall, one may read them. And Shmuel said: Even when it is not the hours of study in the study hall one may not read from the Writings on Shabbat. The Gemara asks: Is that so? Wasn’t Neharde’a Shmuel’s place where he was the rabbi of the town, and in Neharde’a they concluded their regular weekly discourse with Writings on Shabbat afternoon. Rather, if a dispute was stated in this matter, it was stated as follows: Rav said: It was only taught that there is a prohibition in a place where there is a study hall nearby that people can attend; but not in a place where there is a study hall, one may read Writings.,And Shmuel said: Whether it is in the place of the study hall or it is not the place of the study hall, one may not read anywhere when it is during the hours of study in the study hall; but when it is not during the hours of study in the study hall, one may read. And Shmuel follows his line of reasoning stated elsewhere, as in Neharde’a they would conclude their studies with Writings on Shabbat afternoon.,Rav Ashi said: Actually, the dispute is as we stated initially, and Shmuel said what he said in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya. As it was taught in a baraita: Although the Sages said with regard to sacred writings that they may not be read on Shabbat, one may study the midrash on them and teach them before the congregation; if one requires a verse that is written in the Writings, he brings a book and looks in it. Rabbi Neḥemya said: Why did they say that sacred writings are not read on Shabbat? So that people will say: Sacred writings may not be read, all the more so that is the case with ordinary documents, i.e., contracts and letters. If so, according to Rabbi Neḥemya, reading any sacred writings on Shabbat is prohibited so that people will refrain from reading non-sacred documents on Shabbat. It was not prohibited to encourage attendance the study hall. Shmuel himself does not hold in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Neḥemya.,One may rescue the casing of a Torah scroll from a fire on Shabbat together with the Torah scroll, and the casing of phylacteries along with the phylacteries, even if they have money inside them. And to where may one rescue them? Into an alley that is closed, which, if it is surrounded on three sides, is considered to be a private domain by Torah law. Ben Beteira says: Even into an open alley.,the Sages taught in a baraita: If the fourteenth of Nissan occurs on Shabbat, and the Paschal lamb is offered but not roasted until Shabbat ends, one flays the Paschal lamb up to the breast to enable removal of the parts of the animal that are offered on the altar on Shabbat. One flays the rest of the animal after Shabbat. Further skinning is only to facilitate eating the animal, therefore, it does not override Shabbat; this is the statement of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka. And the Rabbis say: One flays it in its entirety. The Gemara asks: Granted, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, who said one may flay only part of the animal, the halakha is understandable. Since it has already been used for its divine purpose of having its blood sprinkled on the altar, the animal no longer should be flayed. But according to the Rabbis, what is the reason for their opinion? Rabba bar bar Ḥana said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: The verse states, “All that the Lord has made is for His sake” (Proverbs 16:4), meaning that a prohibited action is only permitted if its performance honors God. The Gemara asks: And here, what manifestation of for His sake is there in flaying the remaining hide from the Paschal lamb? Rav Yosef said: The Rabbis permitted removing the entire hide so that the sacrifice will not putrefy. Rava said: The Rabbis permitted removing the entire hide so that the sacred sacrifices will not be left in disgrace like a half-stripped animal carcass left unattended.,The Gemara asks: What is the practical difference between them? The Gemara answers: There is a practical difference between them when the Paschal lamb is laid on a golden table. In this case, there is indeed a concern that the carcass will putrefy, although there is no element of disgrace. Alternatively, there is a practical difference on a day with a cold northern wind. In this case, there is no concern that it will putrefy but there is a concern of disgracing the sacrifice. The Gemara asks: And what does Rabbi Yishamel, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, do with the verse, “All that the Lord has made is for His sake”? The Gemara answers: He uses it to permit removing part of the hide, as if it was not for this verse, it would have been possible to remove the sacrificial parts offered on the altar before removing the hide by puncturing the hide of the animal and removing the fats through the opening. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that the Torah prohibited doing so? Rav Huna, son of Rav Natan, said: Because of the hairs, so that they do not become entangled in the sacrificial parts and distort them.,Rav Ḥisda said that Mar Ukva said: How did the members of the group respond to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka? This is what they said to him: If one may save the casing of a Torah scroll along with the Torah scroll, why may one not strip the Paschal lamb of its skin? Here too, in the case of skinning the Paschal lamb, once part of the action is permitted one should be able to perform the entire act. The Gemara is surprised at this: Are they comparable? There, in rescuing the casing of the scroll, only moving is involved, which is prohibited by rabbinic law; whereas here, in the case of the Paschal lamb, the act of flaying is a prohibited labor by Torah law. Rav Ashi said: They are disagreeing with regard to two issues: They disagree with regard to moving the hide along with the flesh, and they disagree with regard to the labor of flaying the animal. And this is what they said to him: If one may rescue the casing of the Torah scroll along with the Torah scroll, will we not move the hide of the Paschal lamb together with the flesh of the sacrifice? The sacrifice should be moved with its skin so it does not putrefy. 119a I make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receive my reward because when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seek as many of his merits as possible, based on conditions and his claims. Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified to sit in judgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reason that I am disqualified? It is because the Torah scholar is as beloved to me as my own self, and a person does not find fault in himself.,The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. Rabbi Ḥanina would wrap himself in his garment and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, and say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride. The Gemara relates: Rabba bar Rav Huna happened to come to the house of Rabba bar Rav Naḥman. They brought before him three se’a of oiled biscuits. He said to them: Did you know I was coming and prepared all of this in my honor? They said to him: Are you more important to us than Shabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat.,Rabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters astirei peshitei worth half a zuz of meat from thirteen butchers in deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. And he would place the meats at the door hinge at the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. And he said to the cooks, in order to rush them: Hurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it. The Gemara also relates: Rabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair takhteka and fan the fire cooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. Rav A would don a simple black garment for the Shabbat preparations, as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: While wearing the garments in which he cooked a pot of food for his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master. One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand.,Rav Safra would roast the head of an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. Rava salted a shibuta fish in deference to Shabbat. Rav Huna kindled lamps in deference to Shabbat. Rav Pappa spun the wicks for the Shabbat lamp. Rav Ḥisda cut the beets in preparation for Shabbat. Rabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticks for kindling. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would load objects on his shoulder and enter, load objects on his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to visit me, would I not load objects on my shoulder before them? So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. And some say that Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi would load objects on their shoulders and enter, load objects on their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yoḥa happened to come to visit us, would we not load objects on our shoulders before him?,The Gemara relates with regard to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said to the gentile with regard to all his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it. The gentile went and sold all of his property, and with the money he received he bought a pearl, and he placed it in his hat. When he was crossing a river in a ferry, the wind blew his hat and cast it into the water, and a fish swallowed it. The fish was caught and removed from the water and it was brought to shore adjacent to nightfall on Shabbat eve. The fishermen said: Who buys fish at a time like this? The townspeople said to the fishermen: Go bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchases delicacies in deference to Shabbat. They brought it to him and he purchased it. He ripped the fish open and found a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars (Tosafot). This elderly man who encountered him and said: One who lends to Shabbat, Shabbat repays him.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: With regard to the wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: “A tithe you shall tithe asser te’asser from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year” (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: Take a tithe asser so that you will become wealthy titasher. He asked: With regard to the wealthy of Babylonia, who are not obligated to tithe, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor the Torah and the Sages in Babylonia.,With regard to the wealthy of other countries, where there are no Sages, by what virtue do they merit their wealth? He said to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted at the home of a homeowner in Laodicea and they brought before him a table of gold that was so heavy it required sixteen people to carry it, and there were sixteen chains of silver attached to it, and there were bowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, and there were all sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed it there they would say: “The earth and all that fills it is God’s, the world and all that inhabit it” (Psalms 24:1). And when they removed it they would say: “The heavens are God’s heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind” (Psalms 115:16). I said to him: My son, what did you do to merit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, and when I would come across parts from every animal that I slaughtered that was fine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you merited this, and blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit.,The Roman emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse? He said to him: We have a certain spice called dill shevet, which we place in the cooked dishes and its fragrance diffuses. The emperor said to him: Give us some of it. He said to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat, the spice is effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective.,The Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: What is the meaning of that which is written, “The holy one of God is honored” (Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna said to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking, and so the Torah said: Honor it with a clean garment. And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, “And you shall honor it,” Rav said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast earlier than on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. And Shmuel said: To honor Shabbat, make the Shabbat feast later, so that one’s appetite will be greater. The sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa: People like us, for whom meat and wine is found on our table every day, in what manner can we change it on Shabbat? He said to them: If you are accustomed to eating your meal early, make it later on Shabbat; if you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlier on Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: In the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sages who attended his lecture in a place where the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sages in a place where the shade would reach. He did this so that they would stand quickly after the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. Rabbi Zeira ' None
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • minim, Christians • minim, appear as kosher Jews • minim, not always Christians in Rashi

 Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 523; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 210

49b אזלא ודלדלה ואין שואל ואין מבקש על מי יש להשען על אבינו שבשמים,בעקבות משיחא חוצפא יסגא ויוקר יאמיר הגפן תתן פריה והיין ביוקר ומלכות תהפך למינות ואין תוכחת בית וועד יהיה לזנות והגליל יחרב והגבלן ישום ואנשי הגבול יסובבו מעיר לעיר ולא יחוננו,וחכמות סופרים תסרח ויראי חטא ימאסו והאמת תהא נעדרת נערים פני זקנים ילבינו זקנים יעמדו מפני קטנים בן מנוול אב בת קמה באמה כלה בחמותה אויבי איש אנשי ביתו פני הדור כפני הכלב הבן אינו מתבייש מאביו ועל מה יש לנו להשען על אבינו שבשמים,49b are increasingly diminished, and none ask and none seek. Upon whom is there to rely? Only upon our Father in Heaven.,He also said: In the times of the approach of the Messiah, impudence will increase and high costs will pile up. Although the vine shall bring forth its fruit, wine will nevertheless be expensive. And the monarchy shall turn to heresy, and there will be no one to give reproof about this. The meeting place of the Sages will become a place of promiscuity, and the Galilee shall be destroyed, and the Gavlan will be desolate, and the men of the border shall go round from city to city to seek charity, but they will find no mercy.,And the wisdom of scribes will putrefy, and people who fear sin will be held in disgust, and the truth will be absent. The youth will shame the face of elders, elders will stand before minors. Normal family relations will be ruined: A son will disgrace a father; a daughter will rise up against her mother, a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. A man’s enemies will be the members of his household. The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog; a son will no longer be ashamed before his father. And upon what is there for us to rely? Only upon our Father in heaven.Rav says concerning the decree banning the wearing of crowns that they taught this halakha only with regard to crowns of salt and sulfur, but those of myrtle and rose are permitted. And Shmuel says that even crowns of myrtle and rose are prohibited, but those made of reeds and bulrush are permitted. And Levi says: Even crowns of reeds and bulrush are prohibited. And likewise Levi teaches in his baraita: Even those of reeds and bulrush are prohibited.,The mishna taught that the Sages decreed against the wearing of crowns for bridegrooms and upon the drums. The Gemara poses a question: What is this drum irus? Rabbi Elazar says: A drum with one mouth. The Gemara relates a story involving this instrument: Rabba bar Rav Huna made a tambourine for his son. His father, Rav Huna, came and broke it. He said to him: This instrument will be confused for a drum with one mouth, and people will assume that a drum with one mouth is permitted. Instead, go and make for him a small drum on the mouth of an earthen jug ḥatzava, or on the mouth of a container used for measuring a kefiza, a small measurement, which did not pose the concern of being confused with a drum with one mouth.,They further taught that in the war of Titus the Sages decreed upon the crowns of brides. The Gemara clarifies: What are the crowns of brides? Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: A city of gold, a gold crown engraved with the design of a city, worn by women as an ornament. This is also taught in a baraita: Which are the crowns of brides that were forbidden? The crown of a bride is a city of gold. However, one may make it as a cap of fine wool meilat.,The Sage taught: The Sages even decreed upon the canopy of grooms. The Gemara asks: What is the type of canopy of grooms that was prohibited, as they certainly did not ban the marriage canopy. The Gemara answers: It means the golden crimson zehorit clothes, dyed red and crimson and decorated with gold, which they would hang on a marriage canopy. This is also taught in a baraita: These are the canopy of grooms the Sages banned: The golden crimson clothes. But he may make a papyrus papirit construction and hang upon it whatever he wants, even ornaments made of gold.,§ The mishna taught that during the war of Titus the Sages decreed that a person should not teach his son Greek. The Sages taught that this decree came about as a result of the following incident: When the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy besieged each other in their civil war, Hyrcanus was outside of Jerusalem, besieging it, and Aristoblus was inside. On each and every day they would lower dinars in a box from inside the city, and those on the outside would send up animals for them to bring the daily offerings in the Temple.,A certain Elder was there, in Jerusalem, who was familiar with Greek wisdom. He communicated to those on the outside by means of Greek wisdom, using words understood only by those proficient in Greek wisdom. He said to them: As long as they are engaged in the Temple service, they will not be delivered into your hands. Upon hearing this, on the following day, when they lowered dinars in a box, they sent up a pig to them. Once the pig reached halfway up the wall, it inserted its hooves into the wall and Eretz Yisrael shuddered four hundred parasangs.,When the Sages saw this, they said at that time: Cursed is the person who raises pigs, and cursed is the person who teaches his son Greek wisdom. And with regard to that year of civil war, in which the land was destroyed, we learned (Menaḥot 64b): An incident occurred in which the omer, the measure of barley brought as a communal offering on the sixteenth of Nisan, came from Gaggot Tzerifim, and the two loaves offered on Shavuot came from the valley of Ein Sokher.,It is understood from both the mishna and the baraita that it is prohibited to learn Greek. The Gemara raises a question: Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi say: In Eretz Yisrael, why should people speak the tongue of Syriac Sursi, the Aramaic commonly spoken in Eretz Yisrael? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the beautiful tongue of Greek. And Rav Yosef similarly said: In Babylonia, why should they speak in the vernacular tongue of Aramaic? Rather, they should speak either in the sacred tongue, Hebrew, or in the tongue of Persian, used by the authorities.,The Gemara answers that there is a difference: The Greek tongue is discrete and Greek wisdom is discrete, and the Sages prohibited the latter but not the former.,The Gemara poses a question: And is Greek wisdom prohibited? But didn’t Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said in the name of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: What is the meaning of that which is written: “My eye affected my soul, due to all the daughters of my city” (Lamentations 3:51)? There were a thousand children in my father’s house, the princes’ household. Five hundred of them learned Torah, and the other five hundred learned Greek wisdom, and there only remained of them, after the bar Kokheva revolt, me, here in Eretz Yisrael, and the son of my father’s brother, who lives in Asia Minor Asya. The fact that Rabban Gamliel allowed half of his household to study Greek wisdom indicates that it is permitted.,The Gemara answers: The members of the house of Rabban Gamliel are different, as they were close to the monarchy, and therefore had to learn Greek wisdom in order to converse with people of authority. As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta, Shabbat 7:1): One who cuts his hair in the komi style, which was the gentile fashion of cutting and wearing the hair, is considered to be acting in the ways of the Amorites, and it is prohibited to act in their way. However, they permitted Avtolos ben Reuven to cut his hair in the komi style, as he is close to the monarchy, and similarly they permitted the house of Rabban Gamliel to study Greek wisdom, because they are close to the monarchy.,§ The mishna taught: In the last war the Sages decreed that a bride may not go out in a palanquin inside the city, but the later Sages permitted it. The Gemara explains: What is the reason they permitted this practice? Due to modesty, so that brides should not have to go out into the street and be seen by all.,The mishna taught that from the time when Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai died, wisdom ceased. The Sages taught: From the time when Rabbi Eliezer died, it was as if the Torah scroll had been interred, as he had memorized many secrets of the Torah. From the time when Rabbi Yehoshua died, council and deliberate thought ceased, as he had the sharpest mind in Israel. From the time when Rabbi Akiva died, the powerful arm of Torah, meaning the exposition of all the details of Torah scripture, ceased, and the fountains of wisdom were sealed.,From the time when Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya died, the crowns of wisdom ceased, as “the crown of the wise is their riches” (Proverbs 14:24), and he was both a great Torah scholar and a very wealthy man. From the time when Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa died, the men of wondrous deeds ceased. From the time when Abba Yosei ben Katonta died, the pious men ceased. And why was he called Abba Yosei ben Katonta? Because he was among the diminished miktanei of the pious people, i.e., he lived in an era when the pious had become few.,From the time when ben Azzai died, the diligent ceased; from the time when ben Zoma died, the exegetists ceased. From the time when Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel died, locusts ascended upon the land and troubles proliferated. From the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, the troubles multiplied.,The final line of the mishna states that from the time when Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rav Yosef said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that humility ceased, for there is still one who is humble, namely me. Rav Naḥman similarly said to the tanna who reviewed the mishna: Do not teach that fear of sin ceased, for there is still one who fears sin, namely me.,'' None
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • dialogue stories with minim or philosophers • min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity • min (pl. minim), definition of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, common features of • minim stories, in the Babylonian Talmud, function of • minim, encounters with • minim, mock rabbis • minim, not always Christians in Rashi

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 4, 168, 176; Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 523; Hayes (2022), The Literature of the Sages: A Re-Visioning, 390; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 193

63b מן החטא מקרי ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה (קהלת ז, כו) ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה א"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך,והא מתני ליה רב יהודה לרב יצחק בריה אין אדם מוצא קורת רוח אלא מאשתו ראשונה שנאמר (משלי ה, יח) יהי מקורך ברוך ושמח מאשת נעוריך וא"ל כגון מאן כגון אמך מתקיף תקיפא ועבורי מיעברא במלה,היכי דמי אשה רעה אמר אביי מקשטא ליה תכא ומקשטא ליה פומא רבא אמר מקשטא ליה תכא ומהדרא ליה גבא,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כיון שנשא אדם אשה עונותיו מתפקקין שנאמר (משלי יח, כב) מצא אשה מצא טוב ויפק רצון מה\' במערבא כי נסיב אינש איתתא אמרי ליה הכי מצא או מוצא מצא דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב מוצא דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה,אמר רבא אשה רעה מצוה לגרשה דכתיב (משלי כב, י) גרש לץ ויצא מדון וישבות דין וקלון ואמר רבא אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה צרתה בצדה דאמרי אינשי בחברתה ולא בסילתא ואמר רבא קשה אשה רעה כיום סגריר שנאמר (משלי כז, טו) דלף טורד ביום סגריר ואשת מדינים נשתוה,ואמר רבא בא וראה כמה טובה אשה טובה וכמה רעה אשה רעה כמה טובה אשה טובה דכתיב מצא אשה מצא טוב אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהכתוב משבחה אי בתורה משתעי קרא כמה טובה אשה טובה שהתורה נמשלה בה כמה רעה אשה רעה דכתיב ומוצא אני מר ממות את האשה אי בגוה משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שהכתוב מגנה אי בגיהנם משתעי קרא כמה רעה אשה רעה שגיהנם נמשלה בה,(ירמיהו יא, יא) הנני מביא רעה אשר לא יוכלו לצאת ממנה אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה (איכה א, יד) נתנני ה\' בידי לא אוכל קום אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא בר חייא זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה במערבא אמרו זה שמזונותיו תלוין בכספו,(דברים כח, לב) בניך ובנותיך נתונים לעם אחר אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשת האב (דברים לב, כא) בגוי נבל אכעיסם אמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב זו אשה רעה וכתובתה מרובה רבי אליעזר אומר אלו הצדוקים וכן הוא אומר (תהלים יד, א) אמר נבל בלבו אין אלהים וגו\',במתניתא תנא אלו אנשי ברבריא ואנשי מרטנאי שמהלכין ערומים בשוק שאין לך משוקץ ומתועב לפני המקום יותר ממי שמהלך בשוק ערום רבי יוחנן אמר אלו חברים אמרו ליה לר\' יוחנן אתו חברי לבבל שגא נפל אמרו ליה מקבלי שוחדא תריץ יתיב,גזרו על ג\' מפני ג\' גזרו על הבשר מפני המתנות גזרו על המרחצאות מפני הטבילה,קא מחטטי שכבי מפני ששמחים ביום אידם שנאמר (שמואל א יב, טו) והיתה יד ה\' בכם ובאבותיכם אמר רבה בר שמואל זו חטוטי שכבי דאמר מר בעון חיים מתים מתחטטין,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מארי כתיב (ירמיהו ח, ב) לא יאספו ולא יקברו לדומן על פני האדמה יהיו וכתיב (ירמיהו ח, ג) ונבחר מות מחיים אמר ליה נבחר מות לרשעים שלא יחיו בעולם הזה ויחטאו ויפלו בגיהנם,כתוב בספר בן סירא אשה טובה מתנה טובה לבעלה וכתיב טובה בחיק ירא אלהים תנתן אשה רעה צרעת לבעלה מאי תקנתיה יגרשנה ויתרפא מצרעתו אשה יפה אשרי בעלה מספר ימיו כפלים,העלם עיניך מאשת חן פן תלכד במצודתה אל תט אצל בעלה למסוך עמו יין ושכר כי בתואר אשה יפה רבים הושחתו ועצומים כל הרוגיה רבים היו פצעי רוכל המרגילים לדבר ערוה כניצוץ מבעיר גחלת ככלוב מלא עוף כן בתיהם מלאים מרמה,אל תצר צרת מחר כי לא תדע מה ילד יום שמא מחר בא ואיננו נמצא מצטער על העולם שאין שלו מנע רבים מתוך ביתך ולא הכל תביא ביתך רבים יהיו דורשי שלומך גלה סוד לאחד מאלף,אמר רבי אסי אין בן דוד בא עד שיכלו כל הנשמות שבגוף שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי תניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) שופך דם האדם באדם דמו ישפך וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו ורבו,רבי יעקב אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות שנאמר (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם וכתיב בתריה ואתם פרו וגו\' בן עזאי אומר כאילו שופך דמים וממעט הדמות שנאמר ואתם פרו ורבו,אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש ונאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש ואתה נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים אמר להן בן עזאי ומה אעשה שנפשי חשקה בתורה אפשר לעולם שיתקיים על ידי אחרים,תניא אידך רבי אליעזר אומר כל מי שאין עוסק בפריה ורביה כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר שופך דם האדם וסמיך ליה ואתם פרו וגו\' רבי אלעזר בן עזריה אומר כאילו ממעט הדמות בן עזאי אומר וכו\' אמרו לו לבן עזאי יש נאה דורש וכו\',ת"ר (במדבר י, לו) ובנחה יאמר שובה ה\' רבבות אלפי ישראל 102b ומי איכא כי האי גוונא אין דחזיוה רבנן לרב יהודה דנפק בחמשא זוזי מוקי לשוקא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יבמה שהגדילה בין האחין מותרת לינשא לאחד מן האחין ואין חוששין שמא חלצה סנדל לאחד מהן טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חיישינן,והא תניא בין שנתכוון הוא ולא נתכוונה היא בין שנתכוונה היא ולא נתכוון הוא חליצתה פסולה עד שיתכוונו שניהם כאחד הכי קאמר אע"ג דחזינן אין חוששין שמא כוונו,ואיכא דאמרי טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חוששין ודקא תנא בעי כוונה הני מילי לאישתרויי לעלמא אבל לאחין מיפסלא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב סנדל התפור בפשתן אין חולצין בו שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, י) ואנעלך תחש ואימא תחש אין מידי אחרינא לא נעל נעל ריבה,אי נעל נעל ריבה אפי\' כל מילי נמי אם כן תחש מאי אהני ליה,בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב הוא של עור ותריסיותיו של שער מהו אמר ליה מי לא קרינן ביה ואנעלך תחש אי הכי כולו של שער נמי ההוא קרקא מקרי,אמר ליה רב כהנא לשמואל ממאי דהאי וחלצה נעלו מעל רגלו מישלף הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מ) וחלצו את האבנים אשר בהן הנגע,ואימא זרוזי הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, ג) החלצו מאתכם אנשים לצבא התם נמי שלופי מביתא לקרבא,והכתיב (איוב לו, טו) יחלץ עני בעניו בשכר עניו יחלצו מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (תהלים לד, ח) חונה מלאך ה\' סביב ליראיו ויחלצם בשכר יראיו יחלצם מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יא) ועצמותיך יחליץ ואמר רבי אלעזר זו מעולה שבברכות ואמר רבא זרוזי גרמי אין משמע הכי ומשמע הכי דהכא אי ס"ד זרוזי הוא א"כ לכתוב רחמנא וחלצה נעלו ברגלו,אי כתב רחמנא ברגלו ה"א ברגלו אין בשוקו לא כתב רחמנא מעל רגלו דאפילו בשוקו א"כ לכתוב רחמנא במעל רגלו מאי מעל רגלו ש"מ מישלף הוא,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר"ג עמא דחלץ ליה מריה מיניה דכתיב (הושע ה, ו) בצאנם ובבקרם ילכו לבקש את ה\' ולא ימצאו חלץ מהם,אמר ליה שוטה מי כתיב חלץ להם חלץ מהם כתיב ואילו יבמה דחלצו לה אחין מידי מששא אית ביה:,באנפיליא חליצתה פסולה כו\': למימרא דאנפיליא לאו מנעל הוא,ותנן נמי אין התורם נכנס לא בפרגוד חפות ולא באנפיליא ואין צריך לומר במנעל וסנדל לפי שאין נכנסין במנעל וסנדל לעזרה,ורמינהו אחד מנעל וסנדל ואנפיליא לא יטייל בהן לא מבית לבית ולא ממטה למטה,אמר אביי דאית ביה כתיתי ומשום תענוג אמר ליה רבא ומשום תענוג בלא מנעל ביום הכפורים מי אסירי והא רבה בר רב הונא כריך סודרא אכרעיה ונפיק אלא אמר רבא לא קשיא כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד,ה"נ מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי קשיא יום הכפורים איום הכפורים דתניא לא יטייל אדם בקורדקיסין בתוך ביתו אבל מטייל הוא באנפילין בתוך ביתו אלא לאו ש"מ כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד ש"מ,תניא כוותיה דרבא חלצה במנעל הנפרם שחופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שמקבל את רוב הרגל בסנדל של שעם ושל סיב בקב הקיטע במוק בסמיכת הרגלים באנפיליא של עור והחולצת מן הגדול'' None63b from sin. We should therefore show our gratitude to them. The Gemara cites a related incident: Rav Yehuda was teaching Torah to Rav Yitzḥak, his son, and they encountered the verse: “And I find more bitter than death the woman” (Ecclesiastes 7:26). His son said to him: For example, whom? His father replied: For example, your mother.,The Gemara asks: Didn’t Rav Yehuda teach Rav Yitzḥak, his son, the following baraita: A man finds peace of mind only with his first wife, as it is stated: “Let your fountain be blessed, and have joy from the wife of your youth” (Proverbs 5:18), and his son said to him: For example, whom, and his father responded in this case as well: For example, your mother. This indicates that Rav Yehuda did find peace of mind with his wife. The Gemara answers: She was aggressive and forceful, but she was easily appeased.,The Gemara asks: What are the circumstances when a woman is considered a bad wife? Abaye said: She arranges a table for him and arranges her mouth for him at the same time. In other words, although she prepares food for him, she verbally abuses him while he eats. Rava said: She arranges a table for him and then turns her back to him, displaying her lack of interest in his company.,Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: Once a man marries a woman his iniquities crumble mitpakekin, as it is stated: “Whoever finds a wife finds good, and obtains veyafek favor of the Lord” (Proverbs 18:22). In the West, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, when a man married a woman they would say to him as follows: Matza or motze? In other words, they would ask the groom if the appropriate passage for his wife is that verse, which begins with the word matza, as it is written: Whoever finds matza a wife finds good, or whether the more appropriate verse is the one beginning with the word motze, as it is written: “And I find motze more bitter than death the woman” (Ecclesiastes 7:26).,Rava said: It is a mitzva to divorce a bad wife, as it is written: “Cast out the scorner and contention will depart; strife and shame will cease” (Proverbs 22:10). And Rava said: A bad wife whose marriage contract settlement is too large for her husband to pay in the event of a divorce, her rival wife is at her side. In other words, the only way for him to improve matters is to take another wife. As people say in the well-known adage: The way to trouble a woman is with her peer and not with a thorn. And Rava said: A bad wife is as troublesome as a day of heavy rain, as it is stated: “A continual dropping on a very rainy day and a contentious woman are alike” (Proverbs 27:15).,And Rava said: Come and see how good a good wife is and how bad a bad wife is. How good is a good wife? As it is written: Whoever finds a wife finds good. If the verse speaks of her, a wife, this demonstrates how good a good wife is, as the Bible praises her. If the verse speaks metaphorically of the Torah, it nevertheless indicates how good a good wife is, as the Torah is compared to her. Conversely, how bad is a bad wife? As it is written: “And I find more bitter than death the woman.” If the verse speaks of her, this demonstrates how bad a bad wife is, as the Bible condemns her. If the verse speaks metaphorically of Gehenna, it still demonstrates how bad a bad wife is, as Gehenna is compared to her.,The Gemara cites further statements on the same issue. The verse states: “Behold, I will bring evil upon them, which they shall not be able to escape” (Jeremiah 11:11). Rav Naḥman said that Rabba bar Avuh said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. Similarly, with regard to the verse: “The Lord has given me into the hands of those against whom I cannot stand” (Lamentations 1:14), Rav Ḥisda said that Mar Ukva bar Ḥiyya said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they said this verse is referring to one whose food is dependent on his money. He is forced to purchase his food with cash, as he does not possess land of his own.,With regard to the verse: “Your sons and your daughters shall be given to another people” (Deuteronomy 28:32), Rav Ḥa bar Rava said that Rav said: This is a reference to the children’s father’s wife, their stepmother. With regard to the verse: “I will provoke them with a vile nation” (Deuteronomy 32:21), Rav Ḥa bar Rava said that Rav said: This is a bad wife whose marriage contract is large. Rabbi Eliezer says that these are apostates, and so too the verse states: “The vile man has said in his heart: There is no God, they have dealt corruptly” (Psalms 14:1), which proves that an apostate is called vile.,It was taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “I will provoke them with a vile nation,” that these are the inhabitants of Barbarya and the inhabitants of Martenai, who walk naked in the marketplace, as none is more despised and abominable before the Omnipresent than one who walks naked in the marketplace. Rabbi Yoḥa said: These are the Ḥabbarim, a sect of Persian priests. The Gemara relates: When they said to Rabbi Yoḥa: The Ḥabbarim have come to Babylonia, he shuddered and fell of his chair, out of concern for the Jews living there. They said to him: There is a way to deal with their persecution, as they accept bribes. Upon hearing that not all was lost, he straightened himself and sat in his place once again.,Apropos the Ḥabbarim, the Gemara cites the following statement of the Sages: The Ḥabbarim were able to issue decrees against the Jewish people with regard to three matters, due to three transgressions on the part of the Jewish people. They decreed against meat, i.e., they banned ritual slaughter, due to the failure of the Jewish people to give the priests the gifts of the foreleg, the jaw, and the maw. They decreed against Jews bathing in bathhouses, due to their neglect of ritual immersion.,Third, they exhumed the dead from their graves because the Jews rejoice on the holidays of the gentiles, as it is stated: “Then shall the hand of the Lord be against you and against your fathers” (I\xa0Samuel 12:15). Rabba bar Shmuel said: This verse is referring to exhuming the dead, which upsets both the living and the dead, as the Master said: Due to the iniquity of the living, the dead are exhumed.,Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written: “They shall not be gathered nor buried; they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth” (Jeremiah 8:2), and it is written: “And death shall be chosen rather than life” (Jeremiah 8:3). If death will be so indecent that their bodies will not even be buried, why would people choose death over life? Rabba bar Mari said to him: The latter verse does not refer to the previously described state of affairs, but rather it means: Death is preferable for the wicked, as it is better that they not live in this world and sin and consequently descend into Gehenna.,The Gemara cites more statements concerning women. It is written in the book of Ben Sira: A good wife is a good gift for her husband. And it is written: A good one will be placed in the bosom of a God-fearing man; a bad wife is a plague to her husband. What is his remedy? He should divorce her and he will be cured of his plague. A beautiful wife, happy is her husband; the number of his days are doubled. His pleasure in her beauty makes him feel as though he has lived twice as long.,Turn your eyes from a graceful woman who is married to another man, lest you be caught in her trap. Do not turn to her husband to mix wine and strong drink with him, which can lead to temptation. For on account of the countece of a beautiful woman many have been destroyed, and her slain is a mighty host. Furthermore, many have been the wounded peddlers. This is referring to men who travel from place to place to sell women’s jewelry. Their frequent dealings with women lead their husbands to harm the peddlers. Those who accustom themselves to licentious matters are like a spark that ignites a coal. As a cage is full of birds, so are their houses full of deceit.,The Gemara quotes additional statements from the book of Ben Sira: Do not suffer from tomorrow’s trouble, that is, do not worry about problems that might arise in the future, as you do not know what a day will bring. Perhaps when tomorrow comes, the individual who was so worried will not be among the living, and he was consequently upset over a world that is not his. Prevent a crowd from inside your house, do not let many people enter, and do not even bring all your friends into your house. Make sure, however, that a crowd seeks your welfare, and that you have many allies. Reveal a secret to only one in a thousand, since most people are unable to keep a secret.,Rabbi Asi said: The Messiah, son of David, will not come until all the souls of the body have been finished, i.e., until all souls that are destined to inhabit physical bodies will do so. As it is stated: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” (Isaiah 57:16). It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is considered as though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed” (Genesis 9:6), and it is written immediately afterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 9:7).,Rabbi Ya’akov says: It is as though he diminishes the Divine Image, as it is stated: “For in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6), and it is written immediately afterward: “And you, be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 9:7). Ben Azzai says: It is as though he sheds blood and also diminishes the Divine Image, as it is stated: “And you, be fruitful and multiply,” after the verse that alludes to both shedding blood and the Divine Image.,They said to ben Azzai: There is a type of scholar who expounds well and fulfills his own teachings well, and another who fulfills well and does not expound well. But you, who have never married, expound well on the importance of procreation, and yet you do not fulfill well your own teachings. Ben Azzai said to them: What shall I do, as my soul yearns for Torah, and I do not wish to deal with anything else. It is possible for the world to be maintained by others, who are engaged in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply.,It is similarly taught in another baraita that Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who does not engage in the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply is considered as though he sheds blood, as it is stated: “Whoever sheds the blood of man,” and it is stated near it: “And you, be fruitful and multiply.” Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: It is as though he diminishes the Divine Image. Ben Azzai says: It is as though he both sheds blood and diminishes the Divine Image. They said to ben Azzai: There is a type of scholar who expounds well, etc.,The Sages taught with regard to the mitzva to be fruitful and multiply: “And when it rested, he would say: Return, Lord, to the ten thousands of the thousands of Israel” (Numbers 10:36). 102b The Gemara asks: Is there really a case like this where people wear one shoe on top of another? The Gemara answers: Yes, for the Sages saw Rav Yehuda, who went out once to the market wearing five pairs of shoes, which were similar to slippers, one on top of another.,Rav Yehuda said another halakha that Rav said: An underage yevama who grew up among her husband’s brothers before any ḥalitza was performed is permitted to marry one of the brothers through levirate marriage, and we are not concerned about the possibility that during the time she was in the company of her yevamin she removed a sandal from one of them, and thereby she would have already performed ḥalitza. The Gemara infers from this statement: The reason it is permitted to perform levirate marriage now is specifically that we did not see her remove one of their shoes, but if in fact we did see her do so, we are concerned and treat her as a yevama who already performed ḥalitza and is thereby forbidden to all the brothers.,The Gemara challenges: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Whether he intended to perform ḥalitza and she did not intend to, or whether she intended to perform ḥalitza and he did not intend to, the ḥalitza is invalid, unless they both intended it as one to perform a proper act of ḥalitza? The Gemara answers: This is what Rav said: Even if we did see that she removed a shoe from one of them, we are not concerned that perhaps they intended to perform ḥalitza.,And there are those who say the inference from Rav’s statement should be made in the opposite manner: The reason it is permitted for her to perform levirate marriage now is specifically that we did not see her remove a shoe from one of the brothers. But if we did see, we would be concerned and would treat her as a yevama who already performed ḥalitza, despite our knowledge that she did not intend to perform ḥalitza. And with regard to that which was taught in the baraita, that intention is required, this applies only as far as validating the act of ḥalitza in order to permit her to marry a stranger. But performing an act of ḥalitza even without intention is sufficient to disqualify her for the brothers, rendering prohibited an act of levirate marriage afterward.,Rav Yehuda also said that Rav said: One may not perform ḥalitza using a sandal that was sewn together with threads made of flax, as it is stated: “And I made you shoes of taḥash skin” (Ezekiel 16:10), which is the skin of an animal, implying that a shoe is something made entirely of leather. The Gemara challenges: If the source is “taḥash,” let us say: A shoe made of taḥash skin, yes, it is valid; but if made of anything else, no. The Gemara rejects this: Because “shoe” and “shoe” are written in the Torah multiple times, this amplifies and includes all types of shoes crafted from leather skins as valid for performing ḥalitza.,The Gemara asks: If the inclusion of the words “shoe” and “shoe” amplifies, then should one include as valid for performing ḥalitza shoes crafted from even any other materials as well, including those not produced from leather at all? The Gemara answers: If so, what purpose does “taḥash” serve, as nothing is learned from it? Rather, from the word taḥash it is derived that the shoe must be crafted entirely of leather, but all types of leather are included because the word “shoe” is repeated in the Torah numerous times.,Rabbi Elazar asked Rav: What is the status of the following type of sandal used for performing ḥalitza? In a case where it, the shoe itself, is made of leather, and the sections that hold its straps tereisiyyot are made of hair, as they were woven together with goat’s hair, what is the halakha? He said to him: Do we not refer to such a sandal as: “And I made you shoes of taḥash”? Since it is crafted from material that comes from an animal it is valid. The Gemara asks: If that is so, i.e., that anything derived from an animal is valid, then even if it is fashioned entirely of hair it should also be valid. The Gemara answers: That would be called a slipper, not a shoe.,Rav Kahana said to Shmuel: From where is it known that this phrase: “And she shall remove ḥaltza his shoe from on his foot” (Deuteronomy 25:9), means to remove? As it is written: “Then the priest shall command, and they shall take out ḥiltzu the stones in which the plague is” (Leviticus 14:40), indicating that the word ḥaltza means that they shall remove the stones from their place.,The Gemara asks whether the word ḥaltza can be interpreted differently based upon its apparent meaning in other contexts: But could you say it is a term for strengthening, as it is written: “Arm heḥaletzu men from among you for the army” (Numbers 31:3), meaning that men among you will be strengthened and take up arms to prepare for battle? The Gemara answers: There too, the meaning of the word is referring to taking something from its place, as it means removing people from their houses in order to go out to war.,The Gemara challenges: But isn’t it written: “He delivers yeḥaletz the afflicted by His affliction be’onyo (Job 36:15)? This indicates that the afflicted one becomes stronger due to his affliction, as, if the intention was to deliver him from his affliction, it should have said: From His affliction, rather than “by His affliction.” The Gemara answers that the verse should be interpreted as follows: Be’onyo, in other words, as reward for his suffering from affliction, He shall deliver him from the judgment of Gehenna, as is understood from the term be’onyo, through the reward due to his affliction.,The Gemara challenges further: But with regard to that it is written: “The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear Him and delivers them vayeḥaltzem (Psalms 34:8), doesn’t vayeḥaltzem rather mean: He shall strengthen them? The Gemara answers: The verse means: As a reward for those that fear Him, He shall deliver them from the judgment of Gehenna. Therefore, the Gemara interprets vayeḥaltzem as “delivers them,” not as: Strengthens them.,The Gemara challenges further: But with regard to that which is written: “And the Lord will guide you, and satisfy your soul in drought, and make your bones strong yaḥalitz (Isaiah 58:11), and Rabbi Elazar said regarding that verse: This is the greatest of blessings, and Rava said it means: Strengthening of bones. This seems to indicate that the root of the word ḥalitza is referring to strengthening. The Gemara answers: Yes, it has this connotation, and it has this connotation, i.e., the root ḥ-l-tz sometimes connotes removal and sometimes connotes strengthening. But here, only one meaning is possible, as, if it enters your mind that ḥalitza here connotes strengthening, then let the Merciful One write in the Torah: She shall strengthen ḥaletza his shoe on his foot beraglo, indicating that she should tighten the shoe on his foot, rather than stating: “From on his foot me’al raglo,” which indicates that she is removing something from his foot.,The Gemara responds: If the Merciful One had written in the Torah: On his foot beraglo, I would have said she must strengthen and tighten the shoe on his foot, yes, but on his calf, no; and if his foot were amputated she may no longer perform ḥalitza. Therefore, the Merciful One writes in the Torah: “From on his foot me’al raglo,” to teach that she may strengthen the shoe even on his calf, which is part of the leg, or regel, above the foot. The Gemara answers: If so, and ḥalitza really means strengthening, let the Merciful One write in the Torah: She shall strengthen his shoe on the upper part of his foot beme’al raglo, indicating that the shoe can also be tightened on the area of the calf. What then is the meaning of “from on his foot me’al raglo,” which is written in the verse? Learn from here that in this context the word ḥalitza clearly indicates removal, meaning that the mitzva of ḥalitza is for the yevama to remove the shoe of the yavam and not to tighten it on his foot.,Parenthetical to this discussion, the Gemara relates: A certain heretic said to Rabban Gamliel: You, the children of Israel, are a nation whose Master removed ḥalatz Himself from them, for God has left you in much the same way in which a yavam would perform ḥalitza with his yevama, as it is written: “With their flocks and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, but they shall not find Him. He has removed ḥalatz Himself from them meihem (Hoshea 5:6). The heretic tried to use this verse as scriptural support that God has performed ḥalitza with the Jewish people.,He, Rabban Gamliel, said to him: Imbecile, does it say: He performed ḥalitza to them lahem? Rather, it says “ḥalatz from them meihem,” meaning it is as if they, the Jewish people, performed ḥalitza on Him. But if a yevama had her shoe removed by her yevamin, does this have any significance? Here too, the meaning of the verse is that the nation of Israel abandoned God by removing themselves from Him, and this abandonment has no significance.,The Gemara analyzes the phrase used in the mishna that discusses the types of shoes that can be used for ḥalitza. It was taught in the mishna that if he was wearing a soft shoe anpileya made of cloth for ḥalitza, her ḥalitza is invalid. The Gemara explains: That is to say that an anpileya is not considered a shoe.,And we also learned similarly in a mishna (Shekalim 3:2): The one who collects the funds of shekels donated to the Temple from the chamber and puts them it into baskets in order to be used may not enter to collect the funds wearing a garment pargod that is cuffed ḥafut, nor wearing an anpileya, and needless to say that he may not enter wearing a shoe or a sandal, because one may not enter the Temple courtyard wearing a shoe or a sandal. It is prohibited for the one collecting funds from the chamber to enter the chamber wearing a garment or footwear in which money could be hidden, lest people come to suspect that he hid in them funds collected from the chamber. In any case, the wording of the mishna indicates that an anpileya is not considered a type of shoe, since it is permitted to enter the Temple wearing an anpileya when there is no reason for suspicion, unlike a shoe or sandal, which can never be worn in the Temple.,And the Gemara raises a contradiction from a baraita concerning what footwear is permitted on Yom Kippur, which seems to indicate otherwise: The halakha is the same for a soft leather shoe, and a hard leather sandal, and an anpileya, as one may not walk in them from one house to another, nor from one bed to another on Yom Kippur, due to the prohibition against wearing shoes, indicating that at least as far as Yom Kippur is concerned, an anpileya is considered a shoe.,Abaye said: There, with regard to Yom Kippur, it is referring to an anpileya that has cushioning, and this is forbidden due to the pleasure that one derives from cushioned footwear on a day when people are commanded to afflict themselves. Rava said to him: But is footwear that is not considered to be shoes forbidden on Yom Kippur due to the pleasure one derives from wearing them? But Rabba bar Rav Huna would wrap a scarf on his feet and go out on Yom Kippur so his feet would not be injured, implying that there is no prohibition against wearing something comfortable on one’s foot, as long as it is not defined as a shoe. Rather, Rava said: This is not difficult. Here, when they said that an anpileya has the status of a shoe, it is referring to an anpileya made of leather. There, when they do not consider it a shoe, it is referring to an anpileya made of cloth.,The Gemara adds: And so too, it is reasonable to distinguish in this manner, as, if you do not say so, it is difficult to reconcile the seeming contradiction between one statement about Yom Kippur and another statement about Yom Kippur. As it is taught in a baraita: A person shall not walk while wearing slippers kordakisin within his house on Yom Kippur, but he may walk while wearing an anpileya within his house. This would imply that wearing an anpileya is permitted, but the baraita quoted above taught that it is prohibited. Rather, must one not conclude from here that here, where it indicates that an anpileya is forbidden, it is referring to an anpileya made of leather, as they are considered like a shoe, and there, where an anpileya is permitted, it is referring to an anpileya made of cloth? The Gemara concludes: Indeed, learn from here that it is so.,It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Rava: If she performed ḥalitza using a shoe whose seams were opened up, which still covered most of the foot; or if she performed ḥalitza with a sandal whose sole was partially opened that still held most of the foot; or if she performed ḥalitza with a sandal made of cork sha’am, or of fibers from a tree; or with a prosthetic foot of an amputee; or with a felt shoe muk; or with a leg blanket that an amputee makes for his feet as a covering in which to put the stumps of his legs, which is not an actual shoe; or with a leather anpileya; and likewise, a woman who performs ḥalitza with her yavam when he is an adult man,'' None
39. Augustine, The City of God, 18.46 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • min (pl. minim), favorable representations of • minim

 Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 102; Herman, Rubenstein (2018), The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World. 268

sup>
18.46 While Herod, therefore, reigned in Judea, and C sar Augustus was emperor at Rome, the state of the republic being already changed, and the world being set at peace by him, Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judah, man manifest out of a human virgin, God hidden out of God the Father. For so had the prophet foretold: Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which, being interpreted, is, God with us. He did many miracles that He might commend God in Himself, some of which, even as many as seemed sufficient to proclaim Him, are contained in the evangelic Scripture. The first of these is, that He was so wonderfully born, and the last, that with His body raised up again from the dead He ascended into heaven. But the Jews who slew Him, and would not believe in Him, because it behooved Him to die and rise again, were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly rooted out from their kingdom, where aliens had already ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so that indeed there is no place where they are not), and are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. And very many of them, considering this, even before His passion, but chiefly after His resurrection, believed on Him, of whom it was predicted, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remt shall be saved. But the rest are blinded, of whom it was predicted, Let their table be made before them a trap, and a retribution, and a stumbling-block. Let their eyes be darkened lest they see, and bow down their back always. Therefore, when they do not believe our Scriptures, their own, which they blindly read, are fulfilled in them, lest perchance any one should say that the Christians have forged these prophecies about Christ which are quoted under the name of the sibyl, or of others, if such there be, who do not belong to the Jewish people. For us, indeed, those suffice which are quoted from the books of our enemies, to whom we make our acknowledgment, on account of this testimony which, in spite of themselves, they contribute by their possession of these books, while they themselves are dispersed among all nations, wherever the Church of Christ is spread abroad. For a prophecy about this thing was sent before in the Psalms, which they also read, where it is written, My God, His mercy shall prevent me. My God has shown me concerning mine enemies, that You shall not slay them, lest they should at last forget Your law: disperse them in Your might. Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as says the apostle, their offense is the salvation of the Gentiles. Romans 11:11 And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no avail in this matter of which we treat. But it was not enough that he should say, Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Your law, unless he had also added, Disperse them; because if they had only been in their own land with that testimony of the Scriptures, and not every where, certainly the Church which is everywhere could not have had them as witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were sent before concerning Christ. '' None
40. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • minim, Christians • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Babylonia • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, their doctrines

 Found in books: Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 69, 70; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 181, 192

41. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Bavli, evidence on interaction of Palestinian rabbis with minim • Laws of minim • Palestinian rabbis, sages, contact with minim, Christians, Bible-reading heretics • minim, in rabbinic literature • minim, interaction between rabbis and, Palestinian sources in Bavli • minim, interaction between rabbis and, historicity of portrayals • minim, interaction between rabbis and, in Palestine • minim, not in Babylonia

 Found in books: Kalmin (1998), The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity, 69, 73; Schremer (2010), Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity, 189, 191

4a בה דכתיב (מלאכי ג, יט) כי הנה היום בא בוער כתנור והיו כל זדים וכל עושה רשעה קש ולהט אותם היום הבא אמר ה\' צבאות אשר לא יעזוב להם שורש וענף לא שורש בעולם הזה ולא ענף לעולם הבא,צדיקים מתרפאין בה דכתיב (מלאכי ג, כ) וזרחה לכם יראי שמי שמש צדקה ומרפא בכנפיה וגו\' ולא עוד אלא שמתעדנין בה שנאמר (מלאכי ג, כ) ויצאתם ופשתם כעגלי מרבק,דבר אחר מה דגים שבים כל הגדול מחבירו בולע את חבירו אף בני אדם אלמלא מוראה של מלכות כל הגדול מחבירו בולע את חבירו והיינו דתנן רבי חנינא סגן הכהנים אומר הוי מתפלל בשלומה של מלכות שאלמלא מוראה של מלכות איש את רעהו חיים בלעו,רב חיננא בר פפא רמי כתיב (איוב לז, כג) שדי לא מצאנוהו שגיא כח וכתיב (תהלים קמז, ה) גדול אדונינו ורב כח וכתיב (שמות טו, ו) ימינך ה\' נאדרי בכח לא קשיא כאן בשעת הדין כאן בשעת מלחמה,רבי חמא בר\' חנינא רמי כתיב (ישעיהו כז, ד) חימה אין לי וכתיב (נחום א, ב) נוקם ה\' ובעל חימה לא קשיא כאן בישראל כאן בעובדי כוכבים רב חיננא בר פפא אמר חימה אין לי שכבר נשבעתי מי יתנני שלא נשבעתי אהיה שמיר ושית וגו\',והיינו דאמר רבי אלכסנדרי מאי דכתיב (זכריה יב, ט) והיה ביום ההוא אבקש להשמיד את כל הגוים אבקש ממי אמר הקב"ה אבקש בניגני שלהם אם יש להם זכות אפדם ואם לאו אשמידם,והיינו דאמר רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב ל, כד) אך לא בעי ישלח יד אם בפידו להן שוע אמר להן הקב"ה לישראל כשאני דן את ישראל אין אני דן אותם כעובדי כוכבים דכתיב (יחזקאל כא, לב) עוה עוה עוה אשימנה וגו\' אלא אני נפרע מהן כפיד של תרנגולת,דבר אחר אפילו אין ישראל עושין מצוה לפני כי אם מעט כפיד של תרנגולין שמנקרין באשפה אני מצרפן לחשבון גדול שנאמר אם בפידו להן שוע דבר אחר בשכר שמשוועין לפני אני מושיע אותם,והיינו דאמר ר\' אבא מאי דכתיב (הושע ז, יג) ואנכי אפדם והמה דברו עלי כזבים אני אמרתי אפדם בממונם בעוה"ז כדי שיזכו לעולם הבא והמה דברו עלי כזבים,והיינו דאמר רב פפי משמיה דרבא מאי דכתיב (הושע ז, טו) ואני יסרתי חזקתי זרועותם ואלי יחשבו רע אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי איסרם ביסורין בעולם הזה כדי שיחזקו זרועותם לעוה"ב ואלי יחשבו רע,משתבח להו ר\' אבהו למיני ברב ספרא דאדם גדול הוא שבקו ליה מיכסא דתליסר שנין יומא חד אשכחוהו אמרו ליה כתיב (עמוס ג, ב) רק אתכם ידעתי מכל משפחות האדמה על כן אפקוד עליכם את כל עונותיכם מאן דאית ליה סיסיא ברחמיה מסיק ליה אישתיק ולא אמר להו ולא מידי רמו ליה סודרא בצואריה וקא מצערו ליה,אתא רבי אבהו אשכחינהו אמר להו אמאי מצעריתו ליה אמרו ליה ולאו אמרת לן דאדם גדול הוא ולא ידע למימר לן פירושא דהאי פסוקא אמר להו אימר דאמרי לכו בתנאי בקראי מי אמרי לכו,אמרו ליה מ"ש אתון דידעיתון אמר להו אנן דשכיחינן גביכון רמינן אנפשין ומעיינן אינהו לא מעייני,אמרו ליה לימא לן את אמר להו אמשול לכם משל למה"ד לאדם שנושה משני בנ"א אחד אוהבו ואחד שונאו אוהבו נפרע ממנו מעט מעט שונאו נפרע ממנו בבת אחת,א"ר אבא בר כהנא מאי דכתיב (בראשית יח, כה) חלילה לך מעשות כדבר הזה להמית צדיק עם רשע אמר אברהם לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע חולין הוא מעשות כדבר הזה להמית צדיק עם רשע,ולא והכתיב (יחזקאל כא, ח) והכרתי ממך צדיק ורשע בצדיק שאינו גמור,אבל בצדיק גמור לא והכתיב (יחזקאל ט, ו) וממקדשי תחלו ותני רב יוסף אל תקרי ממקדשי אלא ממקודשי אלו בני אדם שקיימו את התורה מאל"ף ועד תי"ו התם נמי כיון שהיה בידם למחות ולא מיחו הוו להו כצדיקים שאינן גמורים,רב פפא רמי כתיב (תהלים ז, יב) אל זועם בכל יום וכתיב (נחום א, ו) לפני זעמו מי יעמוד לא קשיא כאן ביחיד כאן בצבור,ת"ר אל זועם בכל יום וכמה זעמו רגע וכמה רגע אחת מחמש ריבוא ושלשת אלפים ושמונה מאות וארבעים ושמנה בשעה זו היא רגע ואין כל בריה יכולה לכוין אותה רגע חוץ מבלעם הרשע דכתיב ביה 27b סבר שיולי משאיל לו כי היכי דמשאיל לו משאיל לאיניש אחרינא ואתא ההוא גברא לאורועי נפשיה,אמר רבא א"ר יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר רב חסדא אמר ר\' יוחנן ספק חי ספק מת אין מתרפאין מהן ודאי מת מתרפאין מהן,מת האיכא חיי שעה לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,ומנא תימרא דלחיי שעה לא חיישינן דכתיב (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבוא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם והאיכא חיי שעה אלא לאו לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,מיתיבי לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינין ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה,מעשה בבן דמא בן אחותו של ר\' ישמעאל שהכישו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו ולא הניחו ר\' ישמעאל וא"ל ר\' ישמעאל אחי הנח לו וארפא ממנו ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת,קרא עליו ר\' ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שגופך טהור ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים (קהלת י, ח) ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש,שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי למימשך בתרייהו,אמר מר לא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש איהו נמי חויא טרקיה חויא דרבנן דלית ליה אסותא כלל,ומאי ה"ל למימר (ויקרא יח, ה) וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם,ור\' ישמעאל הני מילי בצינעא אבל בפרהסיא לא דתניא היה רבי ישמעאל אומר מנין שאם אומרים לו לאדם עבוד עבודת כוכבים ואל תהרג שיעבוד ואל יהרג ת"ל וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם יכול אפילו בפרהסיא ת"ל (ויקרא כב, לב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כל מכה שמחללין עליה את השבת אין מתרפאין מהן ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר"י כל'' None4a by it, as it is written: “For, behold, the day comes, it burns as a furnace; and all the proud, and all that work wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that comes shall set them ablaze, said the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch” (Malachi 3:19). This verse is interpreted as follows: Neither a root shall remain for them in this world, nor will a branch grow for them in the World-to-Come. This teaches that the sun itself will burn and consume the wicked in the future.,And the righteous will be healed by it, as it is written in the next verse: “But to you that fear My Name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings” (Malachi 3:20). And moreover, not only will they be healed by it, but they will even be rejuvenated by it, as it is stated in the continuation of that verse: “And you shall go forth and leap as calves of the stall.”,Alternatively, just as in the case of fish of the sea, any fish that is bigger than another swallows the other, so too in the case of people, were it not for the fear of the ruling government, anyone who is bigger than another would swallow the other. And this is as we learned in a mishna (Avot 3:2) that Rabbi Ḥanina, the deputy High Priest, says: One should pray for the continued welfare of the government, as were it not for the fear of the government, every man would swallow his neighbor alive.Rav Ḥina bar Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: “The Almighty, Whom we have not found out His excellent power” (Job 37:23), which indicates that His power has not been seen. And it is written elsewhere: “Great is our Lord, and mighty in power” (Psalms 147:5), and it is also written: “Your right hand, O Lord, glorious in power” (Exodus 15:6), from which it may be inferred that His power is discernable. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, in the first verse, God’s strength is not seen at a time of judgment, where He acts mercifully, whereas there, in the other verses, they are referring to a time of war, when He wages war against His enemies and His power is seen.,Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: “Fury is not in Me” (Isaiah 27:4), and it is written: “The Lord is a jealous and furious God” (Nahum 1:2). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where it states that God has no fury, it is speaking with regard to the Jewish people, whereas there, where it says that God has fury, it is speaking with regard to the nations of the world. Rav Ḥina bar Pappa says in explanation of the verse: “Fury is not in Me; would that I were as the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogether” (Isaiah 27:4). “Fury is not in Me,” as I have already taken an oath that I will not destroy the Jewish people; “would that I” had not taken this oath, since then I would be active “as the briers and thorns in flame! I would with one step burn it altogether.”,And this is the same as that which Rabbi Alexandri says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations” (Zechariah 12:9)? “I will seek” from whom? Does God need to seek permission? Rather, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I will seek and search in their records benigeni; if they have merit, I will redeem them, and if not, I will destroy them.,And this is the same as that which Rava says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Surely none shall put forth his hand to a ruinous heap, neither because of these things shall help come in one’s calamity befido (Job 30:24)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says to the Jewish people: When I judge the Jewish people, I do not judge them as I judge the nations of the world. When judging the nations of the world, I punish them for all of their transgressions together, as it is written: “A ruin, a ruin, a ruin, will I make it, this also shall be no more” (Ezekiel 21:32). Rather, I punish the Jewish people like the pecking kefid of a hen, which picks up only a tiny amount each time it pecks.,Alternatively, even if the Jewish people perform but a few mitzvot before Me, like the pecking of hens that peck in a dunghill, I will combine them to a large reckoning, as it is stated: “Though they peck befido,” i.e., perform mitzvot a little at a time, “they will be saved lahen shua (Job 30:24). Alternatively, in reward for the manner in which they cry out shua and pray before Me, I will save moshia them. In other words, God punishes the Jewish people for each individual infraction, but He does not destroy them entirely in a moment of fury.,And this is the same as that which Rabbi Abba says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “And though I will redeem them, they have spoken lies against Me” (Hosea 7:13)? I said that I would redeem them through taking away their money in this world so that they should merit the World-to-Come, but they have spoken lies against Me, by saying that I am angry and uninterested in them.,And this is the same as that which Rav Pappi says in the name of Rava: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Though I have trained yissarti and strengthened their arms, yet they consider evil against Me” (Hosea 7:15)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I said that I would visit them ayasserem with afflictions in this world for their benefit, so that their arms would be strengthened in the World-to-Come, but they consider that which I have done as evil.,With regard to the afflictions of the Jewish people, the Gemara relates: Rabbi Abbahu would praise Rav Safra to the heretics by saying that he is a great man. Therefore, they remitted Rav Safra’s obligation to pay taxes for thirteen years, as they relied upon Rabbi Abbahu’s word and wanted to reward a great man. One day they found Rav Safra and said to him: It is written: “You only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore, I will visit upon you all your iniquities” (Amos 3:2). The meaning of this verse is unclear, as why would God punish specifically the Jewish people because He loves them? One who has wrath siseya, does he raise it against his beloved? Rav Safra was silent and did not say anything in response to them. They threw a scarf around his neck and tormented him, by pulling and denigrating him.,Rabbi Abbahu came and found them doing this to Rav Safra. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: Why are you tormenting him? They said to him: And didn’t you say to us that he is a great man? But he did not even know how to tell us the explanation of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: You can say that I said this praise of Rav Safra to you only with regard to the Oral Law and the statements of tanna’im, but did I say to you that he is knowledgeable with regard to the Bible?,They said to Rabbi Abbahu: What is different about you Sages of Eretz Yisrael, that you know the Bible as well? Rabbi Abbahu said to them: We, who are situated among you heretics and are forced to debate the meaning of verses, we impose upon ourselves this obligation and analyze verses in depth. By contrast, those Sages of Babylonia, who are not forced to debate you, do not analyze the Bible in such depth.,The heretics said to Rabbi Abbahu: In that case, you should tell us the meaning of this verse. Rabbi Abbahu said to them: I will relate a parable to you. To what is this matter comparable? It is comparable to a person who lends money to two people, one of whom is his beloved, and the other one is his enemy. In the case of his beloved, he collects the debt from him little by little, whereas in the case of his enemy he collects the debt from him all at once. So too, with regard to the Jewish people, God punishes them for each transgression as it occurs, so that they should not receive one severe punishment on a single occasion.,§ The Gemara continues discussing the manner in which God metes out punishment. Rabbi Abba Bar Kahana says: What is the meaning of that which is written as part of Abraham’s prayer to God, when God informed him that He was going to destroy Sodom: “That be far ḥalila from You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked” (Genesis 18:25)? This is what Abraham said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is a sacrilege ḥullin for You to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked.,The Gemara asks: And does God not act in this manner? But isn’t it written: “And I will cut off from You the righteous and the wicked” (Ezekiel 21:8)? The Gemara answers: There the verse is referring to a righteous person who is not completely righteous, and he will therefore be destroyed along with the wicked.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: But is it true that one who is completely righteous cannot be destroyed along with the wicked? But isn’t it written in a prophecy about the destruction of the Temple that God says to the destroyers: “And begin at My Sanctuary mimmikdashi (Ezekiel 9:6); and Rav Yosef teaches: Do not read the word as mimmikdashi,” but rather read it as mimmekudashai, those sanctified to Me. He explains: These are people who observed the Torah in its entirety, from the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet alef through its final letter tav. These people observed every mitzva in the Torah, and yet they were destroyed along with the wicked. The Gemara answers the difficulty: There too, since they had the power to protest against the wicked and prevent them from sinning and they did not protest, they are considered as righteous people who are not completely righteous.,Rav Pappa raises a contradiction between the following verses. It is written: “A God that has indignation every day” (Psalms 7:12), and yet the world still exists, and it is written: “Who can stand before His indignation?” (Nahum 1:6). The Gemara answers: This is not difficult; here, where the verse states that no one can stand before His indignation, it is referring to an individual, whereas there, when it is written that God is indigt every day, it is referring to the community, which can withstand the indignation of God, due to its cumulative merits.,The Sages taught with regard to the verse: A God that has indignation every day. And how long does His indignation last? It lasts a moment. And how long is a moment? One in 53,848 parts of an hour, a very small amount of time, that is a moment. The Gemara adds: And no entity can precisely determine that moment when God is indigt, except for Balaam the wicked, that it is written concerning him: 27b The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile thinks to himself that the Jew is asking him for his opinion, and just as he is asking him, he will also ask other people. And the gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, that man, i.e., the gentile, will bring harm to himself by damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.,§ The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. Rava says that Rabbi Yoḥa says, and some say that it was Rav Ḥisda who says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: If there is uncertainty as to whether a patient will live through his ailment or die from it, the patient may not be treated by gentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is certain that he will die from his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient is treated by them, as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.,The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will die if he is not treated, nevertheless, there is value in temporal life, i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: We are not concerned with the value of temporal life when there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.,The Gemara asks: And from where do you say that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life? As it is written with regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: “If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there; and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II\xa0Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: But isn’t there temporal life to be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? Rather, is it not apparent that we are not concerned with the value of temporal life?,The Gemara raises an objection from a baraita: A person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even in a case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only temporal life.,The baraita relates an incident illustrating this point. There was an incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister, in which a snake bit him. And following the attack, Ya’akov of the village of Sekhanya, who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, came to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let him do so. And ben Dama said to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let him treat me, and I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torah to prove that accepting medical treatment from a heretic is permitted in this situation. But ben Dama did not manage to complete the statement before his soul departed from his body and he died.,Rabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: “And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him” (Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordice of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.,The Gemara explains: Heresy is different, as it is enticing. In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, as one might come to be drawn after his heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated.,The Master said above: You did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would state the verse: “And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.” The Gemara asks: But ben Dama was also bitten by a snake, even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: The snake mentioned in the curse of the Sages is different, as it has no remedy whatsoever. Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.,The Gemara asks: And what would ben Dama have said? What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: “You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them” (Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by God’s mitzvot, and not that he should die by them. This verse serves as a source for the halakha that one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life.,And why does Rabbi Yishmael disagree with ben Dama? He maintains that this matter applies only in private, but in public one may not transgress a prohibition even to save a life. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yishmael would say: From where is it derived that if oppressors say to a person: Worship an idol and you will not be killed, that one should worship the idol and not be killed? The verse states: “He shall live by them,” and not that he should die by them. One might have thought that this applies even in public. Therefore, the verse states: “And you shall not profane My holy name” (Leviticus 22:32).,§ The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: With regard to any injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated by gentiles. And there are those who say that Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yoḥa says: With regard to any'' None



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