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10 results for "min"
1. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 168
5.6. "בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם׃", 5.6. "With their flocks and with their herds they shall go To seek the LORD, but they shall not find Him; He hath withdrawn Himself from them.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 2
4.13. "כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃", 4.13. "For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.",
3. Tosefta, Horayot, 2.20-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 11
4. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 80 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 7
80. The opinion of Justin with regard to the reign of a thousand years. Several Catholics reject it Trypho: I remarked to you sir, that you are very anxious to be safe in all respects, since you cling to the Scriptures. But tell me, do you really admit that this place, Jerusalem, shall be rebuilt; and do you expect your people to be gathered together, and made joyful with Christ and the patriarchs, and the prophets, both the men of our nation, and other proselytes who joined them before your Christ came? Or have you given way, and admitted this in order to have the appearance of worsting us in the controversies? Justin: I am not so miserable a fellow, Trypho, as to say one thing and think another. I admitted to you formerly, that I and many others are of this opinion, and [believe] that such will take place, as you assuredly are aware; but, on the other hand, I signified to you that many who belong to the pure and pious faith, and are true Christians, think otherwise. Moreover, I pointed out to you that some who are called Christians, but are godless, impious heretics, teach doctrines that are in every way blasphemous, atheistical, and foolish. But that you may know that I do not say this before you alone, I shall draw up a statement, so far as I can, of all the arguments which have passed between us; in which I shall record myself as admitting the very same things which I admit to you. For I choose to follow not men or men's doctrines, but God and the doctrines [delivered] by Him. For if you have fallen in with some who are called Christians, but who do not admit this [truth], and venture to blaspheme the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; who say there is no resurrection of the dead, and that their souls, when they die, are taken to heaven; do not imagine that they are Christians, even as one, if he would rightly consider it, would not admit that the Sadducees, or similar sects of Genistæ, Meristæ, Galilæans, Hellenists, Pharisees, Baptists, are Jews (do not hear me impatiently when I tell you what I think), but are [only] called Jews and children of Abraham, worshipping God with the lips, as God Himself declared, but the heart was far from Him. But I and others, who are right-minded Christians on all points, are assured that there will be a resurrection of the dead, and a thousand years in Jerusalem, which will then be built, adorned, and enlarged, [as] the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah and others declare.
5. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 3, 12
87a. b the flour- /b like white scum that floats on the surface, b nor from /b the wine at b bottom of /b the cask b due to the sediment /b that collects there. b Rather, one brings from /b the wine in b its middle third. /b , b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b the wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? b The treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. When he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum b [ i hagir /i ], he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed., b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine b in which there is flour- /b like white scum is b unfit /b for libations, b as it is stated /b with regard to animal offerings: b “Unblemished they shall be for you…and their meal offering /b shall be fine flour mixed with b oil…unblemished they shall be for you, and their libations” /b (Numbers 28:19–20, 31). This indicates that animal offerings, meal offerings, and libations must all be brought from flawless products. Therefore, the presence of flour-like white scum in wine renders it unfit., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b libations from b sweet /b wine, b nor /b from b boiled /b wine, b nor /b from wine produced from b smoked /b grapes, b and if one did bring /b a libation from such wine, it is b not valid. /b The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t the first clause teach: One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring /b a libation from such wine it is b valid? /b How can one clause teach that a libation of one type of sweet wine is valid, and the other clause teach that a libation of another type of sweet wine is not valid?, b Ravina said: /b The text of the mishna is corrupt. To correct it, b combine /b the two clauses into one b and teach /b with regard to all the wines mentioned that they are unfit to be used for libations. b Rav Ashi said: /b The text of the mishna is correct. The reason for the difference between the two wines is that b the sweetness /b of grapes sweetended b by the sun is not objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are valid, while b sweetness /b that results from the sugars b of the fruit /b itself b is objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are not valid.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine b aged /b for one year; this is b the statement of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b but the Rabbis deem it valid. /b The Gemara provides the source for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s ruling. b Rabbi Ḥizkiyya said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi? b The verse states /b with regard to the libations that accompany the New Moon offering: “And their libations: Half a i hin /i for a bull, a third of a i hin /i for a ram, and a quarter of a i hin /i b for a lamb, of wine” /b (Numbers 28:14). The juxtaposition of the terms lamb and wine teaches that b just as a lamb /b is fit to be used as an offering only if brought b in its /b first b year, so too wine /b is fit to be used as a libation only if it is b in its /b first b year. /b ,The Gemara ask: b If /b so, take the analogy further and conclude that b just as /b if one offers b a lamb in /b its b second year, /b it is b not valid, so too /b a libation of b wine in /b its b second year /b is b not valid. And if you would say /b that this is b indeed /b the i halakha /i , that is difficult: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b wine in /b its b second year may not be brought /b i ab initio /i , but b if one did bring it /b as a libation, it is b valid? /b That i baraita /i certainly expresses the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as b whom did you hear who said /b that aged wine b may not be brought? /b Only b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, who explicitly states this opinion in the mishna. b And yet he says /b in the i baraita /i : b If one did bring /b a libation of aged wine, it is b valid. /b According to Rabbi Ḥizkiyya’s explanation of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, such an opinion is illogical., b Rather, Rava said: This is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b As it is written /b in the verse exhorting a person not to be enticed by fine wines: b “Look not upon the wine when it is red” /b (Proverbs 23:31). Evidently, the redness of wine is indicative of its quality. After a year, wine begins to lose its redness and so it should not be used, i ab initio /i . Nevertheless, it is still of a sufficient quality to be acceptable, after the fact.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine produced from b grapes suspended /b on stakes or trees; rather, one brings wine produced from grapes at foot height and from vineyards that are cultivated. The definition of vineyards that are cultivated is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: Vineyards that are cultivated twice a year. /b This is done by hoeing the earth underneath the vines.,The Gemara relates the efficacy of cultivating the land twice a year: b Rav Yosef had a tract /b of land b that was /b used b an orchard [ i depardeisa /i ] /b to b which he /b used to b give an extra hoeing, and /b consequently b it produced wine /b of such superior quality that when preparing the wine for drinking it required b a dilution using twice /b the amount b of water /b than that which is usually used to dilute wine.,§ The mishna teaches: When people produced wine for libations b they would not collect /b the wine b into large barrels, /b as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it would be placed in small casks. The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : The b casks /b referred to by the mishna are b flasks /b that are made in b Lod and /b that b are medium-sized. /b ,The Gemara adds another i halakha /i : When storing casks containing wine for libations, b they should not be placed in twos, /b i.e., one atop the other, but b rather singly, /b i.e., each one should be placed separately.,§ The mishna teaches: b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The b treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. If he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, b he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed. The precise point at which he knocks is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: /b If the wine b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, which comes b from the sediment, he knocks with the reed. /b ,The Gemara challenges: Why does the treasurer knock with the reed; b let him /b simply b speak. /b The Gemara explains: This b supports /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: Just as speech is beneficial to the /b incense b spices, so is speech detrimental to wine, /b and so the treasurer avoids speaking.,§ The mishna teaches: b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations. b Rabbi Yoḥa raises a dilemma /b concerning such wine: If b one consecrated it /b to be used as a libation, b what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether b he should be flogged for /b consecrating b it due to /b the prohibition against consecrating b a flawed /b item as an offering? Does one say that b since it /b is b unfit, it is comparable to a blemished /b animal? b Or perhaps, /b the prohibition to consecrate b a flawed /b item b applies only to an animal. /b The Gemara concludes: The dilemma b shall stand /b unresolved.,§ Having discussed which flours, oils, and wine are fit to be offered in the Temple, the Gemara considers which animals are of sufficient quality to be used as offerings. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The choicest b rams /b are those b from Moab; /b the choicest b lambs /b are those b from Hebron; /b the choicest b calves /b are those b from Sharon; /b and the choicest b fledglings, /b i.e., doves and pigeons, are those b from the King’s Mountain. /b , b Rabbi Yehuda says: One should bring lambs whose height is like their width, /b i.e., they are so robust that they are as wide as they are tall. b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: /b “And He will give the rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground, and bread of the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and bountiful; b your cattle shall graze in wide pastures [ i kar nirḥav /i ] on that day” /b (Isaiah 30:23). The word “ i kar /i ” can also mean a lamb, and “ i nirḥav /i ” means wide. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehuda interprets this verse, on a homiletical level, to be alluding to robust sheep.,The chapter concludes by quoting an additional prophecy of Isaiah concerning the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael: It b is written: “I have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem; they shall never be silent day nor night; those who remind the Lord, take no rest” /b (Isaiah 62:6). This is referring to the angels appointed by God to bring the redemption. The Gemara asks: b What /b do these watchmen b say /b to remind the Lord? b This /b is what b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: /b They recite the verse: b “You will arise and have compassion upon Zion; /b for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has come” (Psalms 102:14)., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: /b They recite the verse: b “The Lord builds up Jerusalem, /b He gathers together the dispersed of Israel” (Psalms 147:2). The Gemara asks: b And initially, /b when the Temple still stood and the Jewish people were gathered together in Eretz Yisrael, b what would /b the watchmen b say? Rava bar Rav Sheila says: /b They would say: b “For the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His habitation. /b This is My resting place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Psalms 132:13–14).,, strong MISHNA: /strong b Two /b sizes of b measuring vessels for dry /b substances b were /b used b in the Temple /b for measuring flour for the meal offerings. One held b a tenth /b of an ephah b and /b the other held b one-half of a tenth /b of an ephah. b Rabbi Meir says: /b There were three measuring vessels; one that held b a tenth /b of an ephah, another one that also held b a tenth /b of an ephah, b and /b a third one that held b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah., b What /b purpose b did /b the b tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b flour b for all the meal offerings. One would not measure /b the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that held the entire volume of flour required at once, i.e., b neither with /b a vessel of b three- /b tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a bull, nor with /b a vessel of b two /b -tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a ram. Rather, one measures /b the flour for b them /b by repeatedly using the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel to measure the required number of b tenths. /b , b What /b purpose b did /b the b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour for the b High Priest’s griddle-cake /b offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed b half /b of it b in the morning and /b the other b half /b of it b in the afternoon. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a i baraita /i that clarifies Rabbi Meir’s opinion. It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say: What /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “A tenth, a tenth, for every lamb” /b (Numbers 28:29)? The fact the word “tenth” appears twice b teaches that there were two /b measuring vessels that each held b a tenth /b of an ephah b in the Temple. One /b of them held that volume when it was b heaped, and /b the other b one /b was slightly larger and held that same volume when the flour was b leveled /b with the rim.,The one that held a tenth of an ephah when b heaped /b was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour b for all the meal offerings. /b
6. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 12
39a. (יחזקאל יח, ב) אבות יאכלו בוסר ושיני בנים תקהינה (ויקרא יט, לו) מאזני צדק אבני צדק (משלי יא, ח) צדיק מצרה נחלץ ויבא רשע תחתיו,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל אלהיכם גנב הוא דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויפל ה' אלהים תרדמה על האדם ויישן אמרה ליה ברתיה שבקיה דאנא מהדרנא ליה אמרה ליה תנו לי דוכוס אחד א"ל למה ליך ליסטין באו עלינו הלילה ונטלו ממנו קיתון של כסף והניחו לנו קיתון של זהב אמר לה ולוואי שיבא עלינו בכל יום ולא יפה היה לו לאדם הראשון שנטלו ממנו צלע אחת ונתנו לו שפחה לשמשו,אמר לה הכי קאמינא אלא לשקליה בהדיא אמרה ליה אייתו לי אומצא דבישרא אייתו לה אותבה תותי בחשא אפיקתה אמרה ליה אכול מהאי אמר לה מאיסא לי אמרה ליה ואדם הראשון נמי אי הות שקילה בהדיא הוה מאיסא ליה,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל ידענא אלהייכו מאי קא עביד (והיכן יתיב) איתנגד ואיתנח א"ל מאי האי א"ל בן אחד יש לי בכרכי הים ויש לי גיעגועים עליו בעינא דמחוית ליה ניהלי אמר מי ידענא היכא ניהו א"ל דאיכא בארעא לא ידעת דאיכא בשמיא ידעת,אמר ליה כופר לרבן גמליאל כתיב (תהלים קמז, ד) מונה מספר לכוכבים מאי רבותיה אנא מצינא למימנא כוכבי אייתי חבושי שדינהו בארבילא וקא מהדר להו אמר ליה מנינהו א"ל אוקמינהו א"ל רקיע נמי הכי הדרא,איכא דאמרי הכי א"ל מני לי כוכבי א"ל אימא לי ככיך ושיניך כמה הוה שדא ידיה לפומיה וקא מני להו א"ל דאיכא בפומיך לא ידעת דאיכא ברקיעא ידעת,א"ל כופר לרבן גמליאל מי שברא הרים לא ברא רוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אלא מעתה גבי אדם דכתיב ויברא וייצר הכי נמי מי שברא זה לא ברא זה,טפח על טפח יש בו באדם ושני נקבים יש בו מי שברא זה לא ברא זה שנאמר (תהלים צד, ט) הנוטע אוזן הלא ישמע ואם יוצר עין הלא יביט א"ל אין א"ל ובשעת מיתה כולן נתפייסו,א"ל ההוא אמגושא לאמימר מפלגך לעילאי דהורמיז מפלגך לתתאי דאהורמיז א"ל א"כ היכי שביק ליה אהורמיז להורמיז לעבורי מיא בארעיה,אמר ליה קיסר לר' תנחום תא ליהוו כולן לעמא חד אמר לחיי אנן דמהלינן לא מצינן מיהוי כוותייכו אתון מהליתו והוו כוותן א"ל מימר שפיר קאמרת מיהו כל דזכי למלכא לשדיוה לביבר שדיוה לביבר ולא אכלוה א"ל ההוא מינא האי דלא אכלוה משום דלא כפין הוא שדיוה ליה לדידיה ואכלוה,א"ל כופר לר"ג אמריתו כל בי עשרה שכינתא שריא כמה שכינתא איכא קרייה לשמעיה מחא ביה באפתקא א"ל אמאי על שמשא בביתיה דכופר א"ל שמשא אכולי עלמא ניחא ומה שמשא דחד מן אלף אלפי רבוא שמשי דקמי קודשא בריך הוא ניחא לכולי עלמא שכינתא דקב"ה על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם גחכן הוא דקאמר ליה ליחזקאל (יחזקאל ד, ד) שכב על צדך השמאלי וכתיב (יחזקאל ד, ו) ושכבת על צדך הימני אתא ההוא תלמידא א"ל מ"ט דשביעתא א"ל השתא אמינא לכו מילתא דשויא לתרוייהו,אמר הקב"ה לישראל זרעו שש והשמיטו שבע כדי שתדעו שהארץ שלי היא והן לא עשו כן אלא חטאו וגלו מנהגו של עולם מלך בשר ודם שסרחה עליו מדינה אם אכזרי הוא הורג את כולן אם רחמן הוא הורג חצים אם רחמן מלא רחמים הוא מייסר הגדולים שבהן ביסורין אף כך הקב"ה מייסר את יחזקאל כדי למרק עונותיהם של ישראל,א"ל ההוא מינא לרבי אבהו אלהיכם כהן הוא דכתיב (שמות כה, ב) ויקחו לי תרומה כי קבריה למשה במאי טביל וכי תימא במיא והכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יב) מי מדד בשעלו מים,א"ל בנורא טביל דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, טו) כי הנה ה' באש יבא ומי סלקא טבילותא בנורא א"ל אדרבה עיקר טבילותא בנורא הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, כג) וכל אשר לא יבא באש תעבירו במים,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לרבי אבינא כתיב (שמואל ב ז, כג) מי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ מאי רבותייהו אתון נמי ערביתו בהדן דכתיב (ישעיהו מ, יז) כל הגוים כאין נגדו אמר ליה מדידכו אסהידו עלן דכתיב 39a. And they are the parables concerning the following verses: b “The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge” /b (Ezekiel 18:2); b “Just balances, just weights /b …shall you have” (Leviticus 19:36); and b “The righteous is delivered out of trouble, and the wicked comes in his stead” /b (Proverbs 11:8).,§ b The /b Roman b emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: Your God is a thief, as it is written: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man and he slept; /b and He took one of his sides, and closed up the place with flesh instead” (Genesis 2:21). b The daughter of /b the emperor b said to /b Rabban Gamliel: b Leave him, as I will respond to him. She said /b to her father: b Provide one commander [ i dukhus /i ] for me /b to avenge someone’s wrongdoing. The emperor b said to her: Why do you need /b him? She said to him: b Armed bandits came to us this /b past b night, and took a silver jug [ i kiton /i ] from us, and left a golden jug for us. /b The emperor b said to her: /b If so, b would it be that /b armed bandits such as these b would come to us every day. /b She said to him: b And was it not /b similarly b good for Adam the first /b man b that /b God b took a side from him and gave him a maidservant to serve him? /b ,The emperor b said to her: This is what I was saying: But /b if it is good for Adam, b let /b God b take /b his side from him b in the open, /b not during the time of his deep sleep, like a thief. b She said to him: Bring me /b a slice of b raw meat. They brought it to her. She placed it under the embers, /b and b removed it /b after it was roasted. b She said to him: Eat from this /b meat. The emperor b said to her: It is repulsive to me. /b Although he knew that this is how meat is prepared, seeing the raw meat made it repulsive to him. b She said to him: /b With regard to b Adam the first /b man b as well, had /b God b taken her /b from him b in the open, she would have been repulsive to him. /b Therefore God acted while Adam was asleep., b The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: I know your God, what He does and where He sits. /b Meanwhile, the emperor b was moaning and groaning. /b Rabban Gamliel b said to him: What /b is b this? /b Why are you in distress? The emperor b said to him: I have one son in the cities overseas and I miss him. /b Rabban Gamliel said to him: b I want you to show him to me. /b The emperor b said: Do I know where he is? /b Rabban Gamliel b said to him: /b If b you do not know that which is on earth, /b is it possible that b you do know that which is in the heavens? /b , b The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: It is written /b in praise of the Lord: b “He counts the number of the stars; /b He gives them all their names” (Psalms 147:4). b What is His greatness? I can /b also b count the stars. /b Rabban Gamliel b brought quinces, put them in a sieve, and spun them. He said /b to the emperor: b Count them. /b The emperor b said to him: Stand them still /b so that I can count them. Rabban Gamliel b said to him: /b The b firmament also revolves like this, /b therefore you cannot count the stars in it., b Some say /b that b this is /b what the emperor b said to him: I have counted the stars. /b Rabban Gamliel b said to him: Tell me how many teeth and incisors you /b have. The emperor b put his hand in his mouth and was counting them. /b Rabban Gamliel b said to him: You do not know what is in your mouth, /b but b you do know what is in the firmament? /b , b The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: He Who created mountains did not create wind, /b rather two separate gods created them, b as it is stated: “For, lo, He forms mountains and creates wind” /b (Amos 4:13); one is described with the verb “forms,” and the other with the verb “creates.” Rabban Gamliel said to him: b If that is so, /b then b with regard to Adam, as it is written /b concerning him: b “And /b God b created” /b (Genesis 1:27), and also: b “And /b the Lord God b formed” /b (Genesis 2:7), b so too /b should one say that b He who created this did not create that? /b ,If you will claim that different gods created different parts of Adam, that will not suffice. b A person has one handbreadth by one handbreadth /b of facial countece, with b two /b types of b orifices in it, /b eyes and ears. Should one say that b He who created this did not create that; as it is stated: “He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?” /b (Psalms 94:9)? The verse employs two verbs for the eyes and ears alone. The emperor b said to him: Yes, /b different gods created different parts of the face. Rabban Gamliel b said to him: And at the moment of death, are they all appeased? /b Do all these gods agree as one that the time arrived for the person to die?,The Gemara relates: b A certain magus said to Ameimar: From your midpoint and up /b is in the domain b of Hurmiz, /b the god of good, who created the significant and important parts of the body, and b from your midpoint and down /b is in the domain b of Ahurmiz, /b the god of bad. Ameimar b said to him: If so, how does Ahurmiz allow Hurmiz to urinate in his territory? /b A person drinks with his mouth, which is in his upper half, and urinates from below.,The Gemara relates: b The emperor said to Rabbi Tanḥum: Come, let us all be one people. /b Rabbi Tanḥum b said: Very well. /b But b we, who are circumcised, cannot become /b uncircumcised b as you /b are; b you /b all b circumcise /b yourselves b and become like us. /b The emperor b said to /b Rabbi Tanḥum: In terms of the logic of your b statement, you are saying well, but anyone who bests the king /b in a debate b is thrown to the enclosure [ i labeivar /i ] /b of wild animals. b They threw him to the enclosure but /b the animals b did not eat him, /b as God protected him. b A certain heretic said to /b the emperor: b This /b incident, b that they did not eat him, /b happened b because they are not hungry. They /b then b threw the /b heretic into the enclosure b and /b the animals b ate him. /b , b The emperor said to Rabban Gamliel: You say /b that b the Divine Presence dwells /b in b any place where there are ten /b adult male Jews. He asked, sarcastically: b How many Divine Presences are there? /b Rabban Gamliel b summoned the servant /b of the emperor and b hit him on his neck [ i be’appatka /i ]. /b Rabban Gamliel b said to him: Why /b did you allow b the sun /b to b enter the house of the emperor? The emperor said to him: The sun rests upon all the world; /b no one can prevent it from shining. Rabban Gamliel said to him: b And if the sun, which is one of ten thousand attendants that are before the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests upon all the world, the Divine Presence of the Holy One, Blessed be He, all the more so /b rests upon the world., b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a jester, as He said to Ezekiel /b the prophet: b “Lie on your left side” /b (Ezekiel 4:4), b and /b it b is /b also b written: “Lie on your right side” /b (Ezekiel 4:6); God had Ezekiel turn from side to side, apparently for comic effect. In the meantime, b a certain student came /b before Rabbi Abbahu and b said to him: What is the reason for /b the mitzva of b the Sabbatical /b Year? Rabbi Abbahu b said to them: Now I will tell you something that is fit for the two of you. /b ,Rabbi Abbahu continued: b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: Sow /b for b six /b years, b and withhold /b sowing during the b seventh /b year, b so that that you will know that the land is Mine. But /b the Jewish people b did not do so; rather, they sinned and were /b consequently b exiled. The manner of the world /b is that in the case of b a flesh-and-blood king whose province sinned against him, if he is cruel, he kills them all; if he is compassionate, he kills /b only b half of them; /b and b if he is compassionate /b and b is full of compassion, he afflicts the leaders among them with suffering. /b Rabbi Abbahu continues: b So /b too in b this /b case, b the Holy One, Blessed be He, afflicts Ezekiel in order to cleanse the sins of the Jewish people. /b God instructed him to lie down and suffer the same number of days as the number of years that the Jewish people did not observe the i halakhot /i of the Sabbatical Year., b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu: Your God is a priest, as it is written: “That they take for Me an offering [ i teruma /i ]” /b (Exodus 25:2), and i teruma /i is given to the priests. He asked, sarcastically: b When He buried Moses, in what /b ritual bath b did He immerse? /b A priest who contracts impurity from a corpse must immerse in order to be able to partake of i teruma /i . b And if you would say /b that He immersed b in water, but isn’t it written: “Who has measured the waters in the hollow of His hand” /b (Isaiah 40:12), that all waters of the world fit in the palm of God, so He could not immerse in them.,Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: He immersed in fire, as it is written: “For, behold, the Lord will come in fire” /b (Isaiah 66:15). The heretic said to him: b But is immersion in fire effective? /b Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: On the contrary, the main /b form of b immersion is in fire, as it is written /b with regard to the removal of non-kosher substances absorbed in a vessel: b “And all that abides not the fire you shall make to go through the water” /b (Numbers 31:23), indicating that fire purifies more than water does., b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Avina: It is written: “And who is like Your people, Israel, one nation in the earth” /b (II Samuel 7:23). The heretic asked: b What is your greatness? You are also mixed together with us, as it is written: “All nations before Him are as nothing; /b they are counted by Him less than nothing and vanity” (Isaiah 40:17). Rabbi Avina b said to him: One of yours, /b the gentile prophet Balaam, b has /b already b testified for us, as it is written: /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 168
102b. ומי איכא כי האי גוונא אין דחזיוה רבנן לרב יהודה דנפק בחמשא זוזי מוקי לשוקא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יבמה שהגדילה בין האחין מותרת לינשא לאחד מן האחין ואין חוששין שמא חלצה סנדל לאחד מהן טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חיישינן,והא תניא בין שנתכוון הוא ולא נתכוונה היא בין שנתכוונה היא ולא נתכוון הוא חליצתה פסולה עד שיתכוונו שניהם כאחד הכי קאמר אע"ג דחזינן אין חוששין שמא כוונו,ואיכא דאמרי טעמא דלא חזינן הא חזינן חוששין ודקא תנא בעי כוונה הני מילי לאישתרויי לעלמא אבל לאחין מיפסלא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב סנדל התפור בפשתן אין חולצין בו שנאמר (יחזקאל טז, י) ואנעלך תחש ואימא תחש אין מידי אחרינא לא נעל נעל ריבה,אי נעל נעל ריבה אפי' כל מילי נמי אם כן תחש מאי אהני ליה,בעא מיניה רבי אלעזר מרב הוא של עור ותריסיותיו של שער מהו אמר ליה מי לא קרינן ביה ואנעלך תחש אי הכי כולו של שער נמי ההוא קרקא מקרי,אמר ליה רב כהנא לשמואל ממאי דהאי וחלצה נעלו מעל רגלו מישלף הוא דכתיב (ויקרא יד, מ) וחלצו את האבנים אשר בהן הנגע,ואימא זרוזי הוא דכתיב (במדבר לא, ג) החלצו מאתכם אנשים לצבא התם נמי שלופי מביתא לקרבא,והכתיב (איוב לו, טו) יחלץ עני בעניו בשכר עניו יחלצו מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (תהלים לד, ח) חונה מלאך ה' סביב ליראיו ויחלצם בשכר יראיו יחלצם מדינה של גיהנם,אלא הא דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יא) ועצמותיך יחליץ ואמר רבי אלעזר זו מעולה שבברכות ואמר רבא זרוזי גרמי אין משמע הכי ומשמע הכי דהכא אי ס"ד זרוזי הוא א"כ לכתוב רחמנא וחלצה נעלו ברגלו,אי כתב רחמנא ברגלו ה"א ברגלו אין בשוקו לא כתב רחמנא מעל רגלו דאפילו בשוקו א"כ לכתוב רחמנא במעל רגלו מאי מעל רגלו ש"מ מישלף הוא,אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר"ג עמא דחלץ ליה מריה מיניה דכתיב (הושע ה, ו) בצאנם ובבקרם ילכו לבקש את ה' ולא ימצאו חלץ מהם,אמר ליה שוטה מי כתיב חלץ להם חלץ מהם כתיב ואילו יבמה דחלצו לה אחין מידי מששא אית ביה:,באנפיליא חליצתה פסולה כו': למימרא דאנפיליא לאו מנעל הוא,ותנן נמי אין התורם נכנס לא בפרגוד חפות ולא באנפיליא ואין צריך לומר במנעל וסנדל לפי שאין נכנסין במנעל וסנדל לעזרה,ורמינהו אחד מנעל וסנדל ואנפיליא לא יטייל בהן לא מבית לבית ולא ממטה למטה,אמר אביי דאית ביה כתיתי ומשום תענוג אמר ליה רבא ומשום תענוג בלא מנעל ביום הכפורים מי אסירי והא רבה בר רב הונא כריך סודרא אכרעיה ונפיק אלא אמר רבא לא קשיא כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד,ה"נ מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי קשיא יום הכפורים איום הכפורים דתניא לא יטייל אדם בקורדקיסין בתוך ביתו אבל מטייל הוא באנפילין בתוך ביתו אלא לאו ש"מ כאן באנפיליא של עור כאן באנפיליא של בגד ש"מ,תניא כוותיה דרבא חלצה במנעל הנפרם שחופה את רוב הרגל בסנדל הנפחת שמקבל את רוב הרגל בסנדל של שעם ושל סיב בקב הקיטע במוק בסמיכת הרגלים באנפיליא של עור והחולצת מן הגדול 102b. The Gemara asks: b Is there really a case like this /b where people wear one shoe on top of another? The Gemara answers: b Yes, for the Sages saw Rav Yehuda, who went out /b once b to the market wearing five pairs of /b shoes, which were similar to b slippers, /b one on top of another., b Rav Yehuda said /b another i halakha /i that b Rav said: /b An underage b i yevama /i who grew up among /b her husband’s b brothers /b before any i ḥalitza /i was performed b is permitted to marry one of the brothers /b through levirate marriage, b and we are not concerned /b about the possibility b that /b during the time she was in the company of her i yevamin /i b she removed a sandal from one of them, /b and thereby she would have already performed i ḥalitza /i . The Gemara infers from this statement: b The reason /b it is permitted to perform levirate marriage now b is /b specifically b that we did not see /b her remove one of their shoes, b but if /b in fact b we did see /b her do so, b we are concerned /b and treat her as a i yevama /i who already performed i ḥalitza /i and is thereby forbidden to all the brothers.,The Gemara challenges: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Whether he intended /b to perform i ḥalitza /i b and she did not intend /b to, b or whether she intended /b to perform i ḥalitza /i b and he did not intend to, the i ḥalitza /i is invalid, unless they both intended it as one /b to perform a proper act of i ḥalitza /i ? The Gemara answers: b This is what /b Rav b said: Even if we /b did b see /b that she removed a shoe from one of them, b we are not concerned that perhaps they intended to /b perform i ḥalitza /i ., b And there are /b those b who say /b the inference from Rav’s statement should be made in the opposite manner: b The reason /b it is permitted for her to perform levirate marriage now b is /b specifically b that we did not see /b her remove a shoe from one of the brothers. b But if we did see, we would be concerned /b and would treat her as a i yevama /i who already performed i ḥalitza /i , despite our knowledge that she did not intend to perform i ḥalitza /i . b And /b with regard to b that which was taught /b in the i baraita /i , b that intention is required, this applies /b only as far as validating the act of i ḥalitza /i in order b to permit her to marry a stranger. But /b performing an act of i ḥalitza /i even without intention is sufficient to b disqualify her for the brothers, /b rendering prohibited an act of levirate marriage afterward., b Rav Yehuda /b also b said /b that b Rav said: One may not perform i ḥalitza /i using a sandal /b that was b sewn /b together b with /b threads made of b flax, as it is stated: “And I made you shoes of i taḥash /i skin” /b (Ezekiel 16:10), which is the skin of an animal, implying that a shoe is something made entirely of leather. The Gemara challenges: If the source is “ i taḥash /i ,” b let us say: /b A shoe made of b i taḥash /i skin, yes, /b it is valid; but if made of b anything else, no. /b The Gemara rejects this: Because b “shoe” /b and b “shoe” /b are written in the Torah multiple times, this b amplifies /b and includes all types of shoes crafted from leather skins as valid for performing i ḥalitza /i .,The Gemara asks: b If /b the inclusion of the words b “shoe” /b and b “shoe” amplifies, /b then should one include as valid for performing i ḥalitza /i shoes crafted from b even any /b other b materials as well, /b including those not produced from leather at all? The Gemara answers: b If so, what purpose does “ i taḥash /i ” serve, /b as nothing is learned from it? Rather, from the word i taḥash /i it is derived that the shoe must be crafted entirely of leather, but all types of leather are included because the word “shoe” is repeated in the Torah numerous times., b Rabbi Elazar asked Rav: /b What is the status of the following type of sandal used for performing i ḥalitza /i ? In a case where b it, /b the shoe itself, b is made of leather, and /b the sections that hold b its straps [ i tereisiyyot /i ] /b are made b of hair, /b as they were woven together with goat’s hair, b what is /b the i halakha /i ? b He said to him: Do we not refer to /b such a sandal b as: “And I made you shoes of i taḥash /i ”? /b Since it is crafted from material that comes from an animal it is valid. The Gemara asks: b If that is so, /b i.e., that anything derived from an animal is valid, then even if it is fashioned b entirely of hair it should also be /b valid. The Gemara answers: b That would be called a slipper, /b not a shoe., b Rav Kahana said to Shmuel: From where is it known that this /b phrase: b “And she shall remove [ i ḥaltza /i ] his shoe from on his foot” /b (Deuteronomy 25:9), b means to remove? As it is written: /b “Then the priest shall command, b and they shall take out [ i ḥiltzu /i ] the stones in which the plague is” /b (Leviticus 14:40), indicating that the word i ḥaltza /i means that they shall remove the stones from their place.,The Gemara asks whether the word i ḥaltza /i can be interpreted differently based upon its apparent meaning in other contexts: b But /b could you b say it is /b a term for b strengthening, as it is written: “Arm [ i heḥaletzu /i ] men from among you for the army” /b (Numbers 31:3), meaning that men among you will be strengthened and take up arms to prepare for battle? The Gemara answers: b There too, /b the meaning of the word is referring to taking something from its place, as it means b removing /b people b from their houses /b in order b to go /b out b to war. /b ,The Gemara challenges: b But isn’t it written: “He delivers [ i yeḥaletz /i ] the afflicted by His affliction [ i be’onyo /i ]” /b (Job 36:15)? This indicates that the afflicted one becomes stronger due to his affliction, as, if the intention was to deliver him from his affliction, it should have said: From His affliction, rather than “by His affliction.” The Gemara answers that the verse should be interpreted as follows: i Be’onyo /i , in other words, b as reward for his /b suffering from b affliction, He shall deliver him from the judgment of Gehenna, /b as is understood from the term i be’onyo /i , through the reward due to his affliction.,The Gemara challenges further: b But /b with regard to b that it is written: “The angel of the Lord encamps around those who fear Him and delivers them [ i vayeḥaltzem /i ]” /b (Psalms 34:8), doesn’t i vayeḥaltzem /i rather mean: He shall strengthen them? The Gemara answers: The verse means: b As a reward for those that fear Him, He shall deliver them from the judgment of Gehenna. /b Therefore, the Gemara interprets i vayeḥaltzem /i as “delivers them,” not as: Strengthens them.,The Gemara challenges further: b But /b with regard to b that which is written: /b “And the Lord will guide you, and satisfy your soul in drought, b and make your bones strong [ i yaḥalitz /i ]” /b (Isaiah 58:11), b and Rabbi Elazar said /b regarding that verse: b This is the greatest of blessings, and Rava said /b it means: b Strengthening of bones. /b This seems to indicate that the root of the word i ḥalitza /i is referring to strengthening. The Gemara answers: b Yes, it has this connotation, and it has this connotation, /b i.e., the root i ḥ-l-tz /i sometimes connotes removal and sometimes connotes strengthening. b But here, /b only one meaning is possible, as, b if it enters your mind /b that i ḥalitza /i here b connotes strengthening, then let the Merciful One write /b in the Torah: b She shall strengthen [ i ḥaletza /i ] his shoe on his foot [ i beraglo /i ], /b indicating that she should tighten the shoe on his foot, rather than stating: “From on his foot [ i me’al raglo /i ],” which indicates that she is removing something from his foot.,The Gemara responds: b If the Merciful One had written /b in the Torah: b On his foot [ i beraglo /i ], I would have said /b she must strengthen and tighten the shoe b on his foot, yes, but on his calf, no; /b and if his foot were amputated she may no longer perform i ḥalitza /i . Therefore, b the Merciful One writes /b in the Torah: b “From on his foot [ i me’al raglo /i ],” /b to teach that she may strengthen the shoe b even on his calf, /b which is part of the leg, or i regel /i , above the foot. The Gemara answers: b If so, /b and i ḥalitza /i really means strengthening, b let the Merciful One write /b in the Torah: She shall strengthen his shoe b on the upper part of his foot [ i beme’al raglo /i ], /b indicating that the shoe can also be tightened on the area of the calf. b What /b then b is /b the meaning of b “from on his foot [ i me’al raglo /i ],” /b which is written in the verse? b Learn from here /b that in this context the word i ḥalitza /i clearly b indicates removal, /b meaning that the mitzva of i ḥalitza /i is for the i yevama /i to remove the shoe of the i yavam /i and not to tighten it on his foot.,Parenthetical to this discussion, the Gemara relates: b A certain heretic said to Rabban Gamliel: /b You, the children of Israel, are b a nation whose Master removed [ i ḥalatz /i ] Himself from them, /b for God has left you in much the same way in which a i yavam /i would perform i ḥalitza /i with his i yevama /i , b as it is written: “With their flocks and with their herds they shall go to seek the Lord, but they shall not find Him. He has removed [ i ḥalatz /i ] Himself from them [ i meihem /i ]” /b (Hoshea 5:6). The heretic tried to use this verse as scriptural support that God has performed i ḥalitza /i with the Jewish people., b He, /b Rabban Gamliel, b said to him: Imbecile, does it say: He performed i ḥalitza /i to them [ i lahem /i ]? /b Rather, b it says “ i ḥalatz /i from them [ i meihem /i ],” /b meaning it is as if they, the Jewish people, performed i ḥalitza /i on Him. b But if a i yevama /i had her shoe removed by her i yevamin /i , does this have any significance? /b Here too, the meaning of the verse is that the nation of Israel abandoned God by removing themselves from Him, and this abandonment has no significance.,The Gemara analyzes the phrase used in the mishna that discusses the types of shoes that can be used for i ḥalitza /i . It was taught in the mishna that if he was wearing b a soft shoe [ i anpileya /i ] /b made of cloth for i ḥalitza /i , b her i ḥalitza /i is invalid. /b The Gemara explains: b That is to say that an i anpileya /i is not /b considered b a shoe. /b , b And we also learned /b similarly in a mishna ( i Shekalim /i 3:2): b The one who collects the funds /b of shekels donated to the Temple from the chamber and puts them it into baskets in order to be used b may not enter /b to collect the funds b wearing a garment [ i pargod /i ] that is cuffed [ i ḥafut /i ], nor wearing an i anpileya /i , and needless to say /b that he may not enter wearing b a shoe or a sandal, because one may not enter /b the Temple b courtyard wearing a shoe or a sandal. /b It is prohibited for the one collecting funds from the chamber to enter the chamber wearing a garment or footwear in which money could be hidden, lest people come to suspect that he hid in them funds collected from the chamber. In any case, the wording of the mishna indicates that an i anpileya /i is not considered a type of shoe, since it is permitted to enter the Temple wearing an i anpileya /i when there is no reason for suspicion, unlike a shoe or sandal, which can never be worn in the Temple., b And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i concerning what footwear is permitted on Yom Kippur, which seems to indicate otherwise: The halakha is b the same for a /b soft leather b shoe, and a /b hard leather b sandal, and an i anpileya /i , as one may not walk in them from one house to another, nor from one bed to another /b on Yom Kippur, due to the prohibition against wearing shoes, indicating that at least as far as Yom Kippur is concerned, an i anpileya /i is considered a shoe., b Abaye said: /b There, with regard to Yom Kippur, it is referring to an i anpileya /i b that has cushioning, and /b this is forbidden b due to the pleasure /b that one derives from cushioned footwear on a day when people are commanded to afflict themselves. b Rava said to him: But /b is footwear b that is not considered /b to be b shoes forbidden on Yom Kippur due to /b the b pleasure /b one derives from wearing them? b But Rabba bar Rav Huna would wrap a scarf on his feet and go out /b on Yom Kippur so his feet would not be injured, implying that there is no prohibition against wearing something comfortable on one’s foot, as long as it is not defined as a shoe. b Rather, Rava said: This /b is b not difficult. Here, /b when they said that an i anpileya /i has the status of a shoe, it is referring to b an i anpileya /i /b made b of leather. There, /b when they do not consider it a shoe, it is referring to b an i anpileya /i /b made b of cloth. /b ,The Gemara adds: b And so too, it is reasonable /b to distinguish in this manner, b as, if you do not say so, it /b is b difficult /b to reconcile the seeming contradiction between one statement about b Yom Kippur and /b another statement about b Yom Kippur. As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A person shall not walk /b while wearing b slippers [ i kordakisin /i ] within his house /b on Yom Kippur, b but he may walk /b while wearing b an i anpileya /i within his house. /b This would imply that wearing an i anpileya /i is permitted, but the i baraita /i quoted above taught that it is prohibited. b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from here /b that b here, /b where it indicates that an i anpileya /i is forbidden, it is referring b to an i anpileya /i /b made b of leather, /b as they are considered like a shoe, and b there, /b where an i anpileya /i is permitted, it is referring b to an i anpileya /i /b made b of cloth? /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from here /b that it is so.,It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rava: /b If b she performed i ḥalitza /i using a shoe whose seams were opened up, which /b still b covered most of the foot; /b or if she performed i ḥalitza /i b with a sandal /b whose sole b was /b partially b opened that /b still b held most of the foot; /b or if she performed i ḥalitza /i b with a sandal /b made b of cork [ i sha’am /i ], or of fibers /b from a tree; or b with a prosthetic foot of an amputee; /b or b with a felt shoe [ i muk /i ]; /b or b with a leg blanket /b that an amputee makes for his feet as a covering in which to put the stumps of his legs, which is not an actual shoe; or b with a leather i anpileya /i ; and /b likewise, a woman b who performs i ḥalitza /i /b with her i yavam /i when he is an b adult man, /b
8. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 7
9. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 7
10. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •min (pl. minim), as a specific group in late antiquity •min (pl. minim), as heretics Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018), Jewish-Christian Dialogues on Scripture in Late Antiquity: Heretic Narratives of the Babylonian Talmud, 7