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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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98 results for "mediterranean"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.2-20.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 176
20.2. "אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃", 20.2. "לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃", 20.3. "לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ", 20.4. "לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ", 20.5. "לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃", 20.2. "I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.", 20.3. "Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.", 20.4. "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;", 20.5. "thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;",
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.6-5.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 176
5.6. "אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃", 5.7. "לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ׃", 5.8. "לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃", 5.9. "לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃", 5.6. "I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.", 5.7. "Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.", 5.8. "Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, even any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.", 5.9. "Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me,",
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 28.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 236
28.22. "וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּתְלוֹצָצוּ פֶּן־יֶחְזְקוּ מוֹסְרֵיכֶם כִּי־כָלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה שָׁמַעְתִּי מֵאֵת אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת עַל־כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 28.22. "Now therefore be ye not scoffers, Lest your bands be made strong; For an extermination wholly determined have I heard from the Lord, the GOD of hosts, Upon the whole land.",
4. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 1.1.5, 1.2.15-1.2.16, 1.2.18, 1.3.5, 1.5.16, 1.9.28, 2.4.14, 3.2.4, 3.2.8, 3.4.33, 4.2.12, 5.4.16, 5.4.26, 5.6.3, 5.7.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •rome/romans, dominates mediterranean Found in books: Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 17
1.1.5. ὅστις δʼ ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν παρὰ βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτὸν πάντας οὕτω διατιθεὶς ἀπεπέμπετο ὥστε αὐτῷ μᾶλλον φίλους εἶναι ἢ βασιλεῖ. καὶ τῶν παρʼ ἑαυτῷ δὲ βαρβάρων ἐπεμελεῖτο ὡς πολεμεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ εἴησαν καὶ εὐνοϊκῶς ἔχοιεν αὐτῷ. 1.2.15. ἐκέλευσε δὲ τοὺς Ἕλληνας ὡς νόμος αὐτοῖς εἰς μάχην οὕτω ταχθῆναι καὶ στῆναι, συντάξαι δʼ ἕκαστον τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ. ἐτάχθησαν οὖν ἐπὶ τεττάρων· εἶχε δὲ τὸ μὲν δεξιὸν Μένων καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ, τὸ δὲ εὐώνυμον Κλέαρχος καὶ οἱ ἐκείνου, τὸ δὲ μέσον οἱ ἄλλοι στρατηγοί. 1.2.16. ἐθεώρει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς βαρβάρους· οἱ δὲ παρήλαυνον τεταγμένοι κατὰ ἴλας καὶ κατὰ τάξεις· εἶτα δὲ τοὺς Ἕλληνας, παρελαύνων ἐφʼ ἅρματος καὶ ἡ Κίλισσα ἐφʼ ἁρμαμάξης. εἶχον δὲ πάντες κράνη χαλκᾶ καὶ χιτῶνας φοινικοῦς καὶ κνημῖδας καὶ τὰς ἀσπίδας ἐκκεκαλυμμένας. 1.2.18. τῶν δὲ βαρβάρων φόβος πολύς, καὶ ἥ τε Κίλισσα ἔφυγεν ἐπὶ τῆς ἁρμαμάξης καὶ οἱ ἐκ τῆς ἀγορᾶς καταλιπόντες τὰ ὤνια ἔφυγον. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες σὺν γέλωτι ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνὰς ἦλθον. ἡ δὲ Κίλισσα ἰδοῦσα τὴν λαμπρότητα καὶ τὴν τάξιν τοῦ στρατεύματος ἐθαύμασε. Κῦρος δὲ ἥσθη τὸν ἐκ τῶν Ἑλλήνων εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους φόβον ἰδών. 1.3.5. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑμεῖς οὐ βούλεσθε συμπορεύεσθαι, ἀνάγκη δή μοι ἢ ὑμᾶς προδόντα τῇ Κύρου φιλίᾳ χρῆσθαι ἢ πρὸς ἐκεῖνον ψευσάμενον μεθʼ ὑμῶν εἶναι. εἰ μὲν δὴ δίκαια ποιήσω οὐκ οἶδα, αἱρήσομαι δʼ οὖν ὑμᾶς καὶ σὺν ὑμῖν ὅ τι ἂν δέῃ πείσομαι. καὶ οὔποτε ἐρεῖ οὐδεὶς ὡς ἐγὼ Ἕλληνας ἀγαγὼν εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους, προδοὺς τοὺς Ἕλληνας τὴν τῶν βαρβάρων φιλίαν εἱλόμην, 1.5.16. Κλέαρχε καὶ Πρόξενε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι οἱ παρόντες Ἕλληνες, οὐκ ἴστε ὅ τι ποιεῖτε. εἰ γάρ τινα ἀλλήλοις μάχην συνάψετε, νομίζετε ἐν τῇδε τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐμέ τε κατακεκόψεσθαι καὶ ὑμᾶς οὐ πολὺ ἐμοῦ ὕστερον· κακῶς γὰρ τῶν ἡμετέρων ἐχόντων πάντες οὗτοι οὓς ὁρᾶτε βάρβαροι πολεμιώτεροι ἡμῖν ἔσονται τῶν παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντων. 1.9.28. εἰ δὲ δή ποτε πορεύοιτο καὶ πλεῖστοι μέλλοιεν ὄψεσθαι, προσκαλῶν τοὺς φίλους ἐσπουδαιολογεῖτο, ὡς δηλοίη οὓς τιμᾷ. ὥστε ἐγὼ μέν γε, ἐξ ὧν ἀκούω, οὐδένα κρίνω ὑπὸ πλειόνων πεφιλῆσθαι οὔτε Ἑλλήνων οὔτε βαρβάρων. 2.4.14. οἱ μὲν οὖν Ἕλληνες παρʼ αὐτὴν ἐσκήνησαν ἐγγὺς παραδείσου μεγάλου καὶ καλοῦ καὶ δασέος παντοίων δένδρων, οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι διαβεβηκότες τὸν Τίγρητα· οὐ μέντοι καταφανεῖς ἦσαν. 3.2.4. ἐπὶ τούτῳ Κλεάνωρ ὁ Ὀρχομένιος ἀνέστη καὶ ἔλεξεν ὧδε. ἀλλʼ ὁρᾶτε μέν, ὦ ἄνδρες, τὴν βασιλέως ἐπιορκίαν καὶ ἀσέβειαν, ὁρᾶτε δὲ τὴν Τισσαφέρνους ἀπιστίαν, ὅστις λέγων ὡς γείτων τε εἴη τῆς Ἑλλάδος καὶ περὶ πλείστου ἂν ποιήσαιτο σῶσαι ἡμᾶς, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις αὐτὸς ὀμόσας ἡμῖν, αὐτὸς δεξιὰς δούς, αὐτὸς ἐξαπατήσας συνέλαβε τοὺς στρατηγούς, καὶ οὐδὲ Δία ξένιον ᾐδέσθη, ἀλλὰ Κλεάρχῳ καὶ ὁμοτράπεζος γενόμενος αὐτοῖς τούτοις ἐξαπατήσας τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀπολώλεκεν. 3.2.8. τὴν μὲν τῶν βαρβάρων ἐπιορκίαν τε καὶ ἀπιστίαν λέγει μὲν Κλεάνωρ, ἐπίστασθε δὲ καὶ ὑμεῖς οἶμαι. εἰ μὲν οὖν βουλόμεθα πάλιν αὐτοῖς διὰ φιλίας ἰέναι, ἀνάγκη ἡμᾶς πολλὴν ἀθυμίαν ἔχειν, ὁρῶντας καὶ τοὺς στρατηγούς, οἳ διὰ πίστεως αὐτοῖς ἑαυτοὺς ἐνεχείρισαν, οἷα πεπόνθασιν· εἰ μέντοι διανοούμεθα σὺν τοῖς ὅπλοις ὧν τε πεποιήκασι δίκην ἐπιθεῖναι αὐτοῖς καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν διὰ παντὸς πολέμου αὐτοῖς ἰέναι, σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς πολλαὶ ἡμῖν καὶ καλαὶ ἐλπίδες εἰσὶ σωτηρίας. 3.4.33. ἐπεὶ δὲ κατεσκήνησαν καὶ ἐπεχείρησαν αὐτοῖς ἀκροβολίζεσθαι οἱ βάρβαροι πρὸς τὴν κώμην προσιόντες, πολὺ περιῆσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες· πολὺ γὰρ διέφερεν ἐκ χώρας ὁρμῶντας ἀλέξασθαι ἢ πορευομένους ἐπιοῦσι τοῖς πολεμίοις μάχεσθαι. 4.2.12. καὶ τέως μὲν αὐτοὺς ἀναβαίνοντας ὅπῃ ἐδύναντο ἕκαστος οἱ βάρβαροι ἐτόξευον καὶ ἔβαλλον, ἐγγὺς δʼ οὐ προσίεντο, ἀλλὰ φυγῇ λείπουσι τὸ χωρίον. καὶ τοῦτόν τε παρεληλύθεσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες καὶ ἕτερον ὁρῶσιν ἔμπροσθεν λόφον κατεχόμενον ἐπὶ τοῦτον αὖθις ἐδόκει πορεύεσθαι. 5.4.16. εἵποντο δʼ αὐτοῖς καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τινές, οὐ ταχθέντες ὑπὸ τῶν στρατηγῶν, ἀλλὰ ἁρπαγῆς ἕνεκεν. οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι προσιόντων τέως μὲν ἡσύχαζον· ἐπεὶ δʼ ἐγγὺς ἐγένοντο τοῦ χωρίου, ἐκδραμόντες τρέπονται αὐτούς, καὶ ἀπέκτειναν συχνοὺς τῶν βαρβάρων καὶ τῶν ξυναναβάντων Ἑλλήνων τινάς, καὶ ἐδίωκον μέχρι οὗ εἶδον τοὺς Ἕλληνας βοηθοῦντας· 5.4.26. ἐπεὶ δὲ οὐχ ὑφίεντο οἱ Ἕλληνες, ἀλλὰ ὁμόσε ἐχώρουν, ἔφευγον οἱ βάρβαροι καὶ ἐντεῦθεν, λιπόντες ἅπαντες τὸ χωρίον. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς αὐτῶν ὁ ἐν τῷ μόσσυνι τῷ ἐπʼ ἄκρου ᾠκοδομημένῳ, ὃν τρέφουσι πάντες κοινῇ αὐτοῦ μένοντα καὶ φυλάττουσιν, οὐκ ἤθελεν ἐξελθεῖν, οὐδὲ ὁ ἐν τῷ πρότερον αἱρεθέντι χωρίῳ, ἀλλʼ αὐτοῦ σὺν τοῖς μοσσύνοις κατεκαύθησαν. 5.6.3. ἀναστὰς δὲ Ἑκατώνυμος πρῶτον μὲν ἀπελογήσατο περὶ οὗ εἶπεν ὡς τὸν Παφλαγόνα φίλον ποιήσοιντο, ὅτι οὐχ ὡς τοῖς Ἕλλησι πολεμησόντων σφῶν εἴποι, ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἐξὸν τοῖς βαρβάροις φίλους εἶναι τοὺς Ἕλληνας αἱρήσονται. ἐπεὶ δὲ ξυμβουλεύειν ἐκέλευον, ἐπευξάμενος εἶπεν ὧδε. 5.7.6. ὑμεῖς δέ, ἔφη, ἴστε δήπου ὅθεν ἥλιος ἀνίσχει καὶ ὅπου δύεται, καὶ ὅτι ἐὰν μέν τις εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα μέλλῃ ἰέναι, πρὸς ἑσπέραν δεῖ πορεύεσθαι· ἢν δέ τις βούληται εἰς τοὺς βαρβάρους, τοὔμπαλιν πρὸς ἕω. ἔστιν οὖν ὅστις τοῦτο ἂν δύναιτο ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατῆσαι ὡς ἥλιος ἔνθεν μὲν ἀνίσχει, δύεται δὲ ἐνταῦθα, ἔνθα δὲ δύεται, ἀνίσχει δʼ ἐντεῦθεν; 1.1.5. Again, when any of the King’s court came to visit him, he treated them all in such a way that when he sent them back they were more devoted to him than to the King. He also took care that the barbarians Barbarians is a convenient, but not an accurate, translation for βάρβαροι, which was simply the name the Greeks gave, without implying reproach, to all peoples who were not Greeks. In general, then, it meant foreigners ; in most cases in the Anabasis (as here) it could be translated Persians. of his own province should be capable soldiers and should feel kindly toward him. 2.4.14. The Greeks accordingly encamped beside this city, near a large and beautiful park, thickly covered with all sorts of trees, while the barbarians had crossed the Tigris before encamping, and were not within sight of the Greeks. 3.2.4. Then Cleanor the Orchomenian arose and spoke as follows: Come, fellow-soldiers, you see the perjury and impiety of the King; you see likewise the faithlessness of Tissaphernes. It was Tissaphernes who said Xen. Anab. 2.3.18 . that he was a neighbour of Greece and that he would do his utmost to save us; it was none other than he who gave us his oaths to confirm these words; and then he, Tissaphernes, the very man who had given such pledges, was the very man who deceived and seized our generals. More than that, he did not even reverence Zeus, the god of hospitality; instead, he entertained Clearchus at his own table Xen. Anab. 2.5.27 and then made that very act the means of deceiving and destroying the generals. 3.2.8. The perjury and faithlessness of the barbarians has been spoken of by Cleanor and is understood, I imagine, by the rest of you. If, then, it is our desire to be again on terms of friendship with them, we must needs feel great despondency when we see the fate of our generals, who trustingly put themselves in their hands; but if our intention is to rely upon our arms, and not only to inflict punishment upon them for their past deeds, but henceforth to wage implacable war with them, we have—the gods willing—many fair hopes of deliverance. 3.4.33. When they had encamped, and the barbarians, approaching toward the village, essayed to attack them at long range, the Greeks had much the better of it; for to occupy a position and therefrom ward off an attack was a very different thing from being on the march and fighting with the enemy as they followed after. 4.2.12. For a while, as the Greeks were climbing up by whatever way they severally could, the barbarians discharged arrows and other missiles upon them; they did not let them get near, however, but took to flight and abandoned the place. No sooner had the Greeks passed by this hill, than they saw a second one ahead similarly occupied by the enemy, and decided to proceed against this one in its turn. 5.4.16. The attacking party was followed by some of the Greeks, not under orders from their generals, but seeking plunder. As they approached, the enemy for a time kept quiet; but when they had got near the stronghold, they sallied forth and put them to flight, killing a considerable number of the barbarians and some of the Greeks who had gone up the hill with them, and pursuing the rest until they saw the Greeks coming to the rescue; 5.4.26. As the Greeks, however, refused to give way, but kept pushing on to close quarters, the barbarians took to flight from that point also, every man of them abandoning the fortress. Their king in his wooden tower built upon the citadel, whom all the people jointly maintain and guard in his abiding place there, refused to come forth, as did also the commander of the stronghold i. e., the one mentioned above, 14, 23. which had been captured earlier, so they were burned up where they were, along with their towers. 5.6.3. Then Hecatonymus rose and, in the first place, defended himself in the matter of his remark that they would make a friend of the Paphlagonian, by saying that he did not mean that his own people would make war upon the Greeks, but rather that despite the opportunity they had to be friends of the barbarians they would choose the Greeks instead. But when they told him to proceed to give some advice, he began with a prayer to the gods as follows:
5. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.29.81 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 184
6. Polybius, Histories, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gruen (2020), Ethnicity in the Ancient World - Did it matter, 69
6.3.5. συμβαίνει δὴ τοὺς πλείστους τῶν βουλομένων διδασκαλικῶς ἡμῖν ὑποδεικνύειν περὶ τῶν τοιούτων τρία γένη λέγειν πολιτειῶν, ὧν τὸ μὲν καλοῦσι βασιλείαν, τὸ δʼ ἀριστοκρατίαν, τὸ δὲ τρίτον δημοκρατίαν. 6.3.5.  Most of those whose object it has been to instruct us methodically concerning such matters, distinguish three kinds of constitutions, which they call kingship, aristocracy, and democracy.
7. Cicero, Letters, 6.2.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41
8. Cicero, On Duties, 1.129 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 201
1.129. Quibus in rebus duo maxime sunt fugienda, ne quid effeminatum aut molle et ne quid durum aut rusticum sit. Nec vero histrionibus oratoribusque concedendum est, ut iis haec apta sint, nobis dissoluta. Scaenicorum quidem mos tantam habet vetere disciplina verecundiam, ut in scaenam sine subligaculo prodeat nemo; verentur enim, ne, si quo casn evenerit, ut corporis partes quaedam aperiantur, aspiciantur non decore. Nostro quidem more cum parentibus puberes filii, cum soceris generi non lavantur. Retinenda igitur est huius generis verecundia, praesertim natura ipsa magistra et duce. 1.129.  In these matters we must avoid especially the two extremes — our conduct and speech should not be effeminate and over-nice, on the one hand, nor coarse and boorish, on the other. And we surely must not admit that, while this rule applies to actors and orators, it is not binding upon us. As for stage-people, their custom, because of its traditional discipline, carries modesty to such a point that an actor would never step out upon the stage without a breech-cloth on, for fear he might make an improper exhibition, if by some accident certain parts of his person should happen to become exposed. And in our own custom grown sons do not bathe with their fathers, nor sons-in‑law with their fathers-in‑law. We must, therefore, keep to the path of this sort of modesty, especially when Nature is our teacher and guide.
9. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 3.639-3.640 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 140
3.639. Cum, custode foris tunicas servante puellae, 3.640. rend=
10. Livy, History, 23.18.12, 38.8, 38.14 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman •women, religious activities in ancient greco-roman mediterranean Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 146; Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 30
11. Ovid, Fasti, 4.139-4.150 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 126
4.139. vos quoque sub viridi myrto iubet ipsa lavari: 4.140. causaque, cur iubeat (discite!), certa subest 4.141. litore siccabat rorantes nuda capillos: 4.142. viderunt satyri, turba proterva, deam. 4.143. sensit et opposita texit sua corpora myrto: 4.144. tuta fuit facto vosque referre iubet. 4.145. discite nunc, quare Fortunae tura Virili 4.146. detis eo, calida qui locus umet aqua. 4.147. accipit ille locus posito velamine cunctas 4.148. et vitium nudi corporis omne videt; 4.149. ut tegat hoc celetque viros, Fortuna Virilis 4.150. praestat et hoc parvo ture rogata facit, 4.139. She commands you too to bathe, under the green myrtle, 4.140. And there’s a particular reason for her command (learn, now!). 4.141. Naked, on the shore, she was drying her dripping hair: 4.142. The Satyrs, that wanton crowd, spied the goddess. 4.143. She sensed it, and hid her body with a screen of myrtle: 4.144. Doing so, she was safe: she commands that you do so too. 4.145. Learn now why you offer incense to Fortuna Virilis, 4.146. In that place that steams with heated water. 4.147. All women remove their clothes on entering, 4.148. And every blemish on their bodies is seen: 4.149. Virile Fortune undertakes to hide those from the men, 4.150. And she does this at the behest of a little incense.
12. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.3.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 40
13. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •women, religious activities in ancient greco-roman mediterranean Found in books: Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 39
3.6. ἐκ τούτων γάρ εἰσιν οἱ ἐνδύνοιτες εἰς τὰς οἰκίας καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντες γυναικάρια σεσωρευμένα ἁμαρτίαις, ἀγόμενα ἐπιθυμίαις ποικίλαις, 3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts,
14. Mishnah, Sheviit, 8.11 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 120, 201
8.11. "מֶרְחָץ שֶׁהֻסְּקָה בְּתֶבֶן אוֹ בְקַשׁ שֶׁל שְׁבִיעִית, מֻתָּר לִרְחֹץ בָּהּ. וְאִם מִתְחַשֵּׁב הוּא, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִרְחֹץ: \n", 8.11. "A bathhouse that is heated with straw or stubble [grown during] the Sabbatical year, one is allowed to bath in it. But if he is an important person [whose actions will be influential], he may not bathe [in it].",
15. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
16. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 155
7.8. "הָיוּ בָהּ מוּמִין וְעוֹדָהּ בְּבֵית אָבִיהָ, הָאָב צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁמִּשֶּׁנִּתְאָרְסָה נוֹלְדוּ בָהּ מוּמִין הַלָּלוּ וְנִסְתַּחֲפָה שָׂדֵהוּ. נִכְנְסָה לִרְשׁוּת הַבַּעַל, הַבַּעַל צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁעַד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְאָרְסָה הָיוּ בָהּ מוּמִין אֵלּוּ וְהָיָה מִקָּחוֹ מֶקַּח טָעוּת, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמוּמִין שֶׁבַּסֵּתֶר. אֲבָל בְּמוּמִין שֶׁבַּגָּלוּי, אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן. וְאִם יֵשׁ מֶרְחָץ בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, אַף מוּמִין שֶׁבַּסֵּתֶר אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִטְעֹן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בוֹדְקָהּ בִּקְרוֹבוֹתָיו: \n", 7.8. "If she had bodily defects while she was still in her father’s house, her father must produce proof that these defects arose after she had been betrothed and that [consequently] it was the husband’s field that was flooded. If she was brought into her husband’s domain, [and the defects were discovered there] the husband must produce proof that these defects existed before she had been betrothed and [that consequently] his bargain was made in error the words of Rabbi Meir. The Sages say: To what does this apply? Only to concealed defects; but with regard to defects that are exposed he cannot make any claim. And if there was a bath-house in the town he cannot make any claim even about concealed defects, because he [is assumed to have had her] examined by his female relatives.",
17. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 142
3.5. "הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת: \n", 3.5. "If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits.",
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.181 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171
5.181. There were, moreover, several groves of trees, and long walks through them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen statues, through which the water ran out. There were withal many dove-courts of tame pigeons about the canals.
19. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.328-15.330, 16.163-16.164 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171, 182
15.328. But then this magnificent temper of his, and that submissive behavior and liberality which he exercised towards Caesar, and the most powerful men of Rome, obliged him to transgress the customs of his nation, and to set aside many of their laws, and by building cities after an extravagant manner, and erecting temples,— 15.329. not in Judea indeed, for that would not have been borne, it being forbidden for us to pay any honor to images, or representations of animals, after the manner of the Greeks; but still he did thus in the country [properly] out of our bounds, and in the cities thereof. 15.330. The apology which he made to the Jews for these things was this: That all was done, not out of his own inclinations, but by the commands and injunctions of others, in order to please Caesar and the Romans, as though he had not the Jewish customs so much in his eye as he had the honor of those Romans, while yet he had himself entirely in view all the while, and indeed was very ambitious to leave great monuments of his government to posterity; whence it was that he was so zealous in building such fine cities, and spent such vast sums of money upon them. 16.163. it seemed good to me and my counselors, according to the sentence and oath of the people of Rome, that the Jews have liberty to make use of their own customs, according to the law of their forefathers, as they made use of them under Hyrcanus the high priest of the Almighty God; and that their sacred money be not touched, but be sent to Jerusalem, and that it be committed to the care of the receivers at Jerusalem; and that they be not obliged to go before any judge on the Sabbath day, nor on the day of the preparation to it, after the ninth hour. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
20. Martial, Epigrams, 1.62, 3.68, 7.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 33, 146, 155
21. Martial, Epigrams, 1.62, 3.68, 7.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 33, 146, 155
22. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 37.41 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 164
37.41.  And I know that Harmodius and Aristogeiton have served as slaves in Persia, and that fifteen hundred statues of Demetrius of Phalerum have all been pulled down by the Athenians on one and the same day. Aye, they have even dared to empty chamber-pots on King Philip. Yes, the Athenians poured urine on his statue — but he poured on their city blood and ashes and dust. In fact it was enough to arouse righteous indignation that they should class the same man now among the gods and now not even among human beings.
23. Juvenal, Satires, 5.85-5.91, 6.309-6.310 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 36, 164
24. Josephus Flavius, Life, 66-67, 65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171
25. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 53
4.6. הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ, לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַנְּסָרִים וְאֶת הַסַּפְסָלִים וְאֶת הַוִּילָאוֹת. בִּזְמַן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ, הוּא וְכָל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, הֲרֵי כֻלָּן מְכוּרִין. בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ, לֹא מָכַר אֶת הַמְּגֻרוֹת שֶׁל מַיִם וְלֹא אֶת הָאוֹצָרוֹת שֶׁל עֵצִים. 4.6. "If a man sold a bath house, he has not sold the planks or the benches or the curtains. But if he had said: “It and all that is in it”, all these are sold also. In neither case has he sold the water containers or the stores of wood.",
26. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4-3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 143
3.4. "שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:", 3.5. "הַגּוֹיִם הָעוֹבְדִים אֶת הֶהָרִים וְאֶת הַגְּבָעוֹת, הֵן מֻתָּרִין וּמַה שֶּׁעֲלֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז) לֹא תַחְמֹד כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב עֲלֵיהֶם וְלָקַחְתָּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי אוֹמֵר, (שם יב) אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עַל הֶהָרִים, וְלֹא הֶהָרִים אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֱלֹהֵיהֶם עַל הַגְּבָעוֹת, וְלֹא הַגְּבָעוֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה אֲשֵׁרָה אֲסוּרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ תְּפִיסַת יָד אָדָם, וְכֹל שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ תְּפִיסַת יְדֵי אָדָם אָסוּר. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אֲנִי אוֹבִין וְאָדוּן לְפָנֶיךָ. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא הַר גָּבוֹהַּ וְגִבְעָה נִשָּׂאָה וְעֵץ רַעֲנָן, דַּע שֶׁיֶּשׁ שָׁם עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:", 3.4. "Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.", 3.5. "If idolaters worship mountains and hills these are permitted; but what is upon them is prohibited, as it is says, “you shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them and take them” (Deut. 7:25). Rabbi Yose the Galilean says: [it says] “their gods on the mountains” (Deut. 12:, not their mountains which are their gods; “their gods on the hills” (ibid.), not their hills which are their gods. And why is an asherah prohibited? Because there was manual labour connected with it, and whatever has manual labour connected with it is prohibited. Rabbi Akiba said: let me expound and decide [the interpretation] before you: wherever you find a high mountain or elevated hill or green tree, know that an idolatrous object is there.",
27. Seneca The Younger, De Vita Beata (Dialogorum Liber Vii), 7.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
28. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.20, 6.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 142, 246
6.17. "המל צריך ברכה לעצמו על המילה אבי הבן צריך ברכה לעצמו ברוך אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להכניסו בבריתו של אברהם אבינו והעומדין אומרים כשם [שהכנסיתו לברית כן תכניסהו] לתורה לחופה ולמעשים טובים המברך אומר אשר קידש ידיד מבטן וחוק בשארו שם וצאצאיו חתם באות ברית קודש על כן בשכר זאת אל חי חלקנו צורנו צוה להציל ידידות שארנו משחת למען בריתו אשר שם בבשרנו ברוך כורת הברית.",
29. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 172
30. Tosefta, Ketuvot, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 144
7.6. "כל אלו נשים שעברו על הדת צריכות התראה ויוצאות שלא בכתובה לא התרה בהן יוציא ויתן כתובה כל אלו שאמרו יוציא ויתן כתובה אין צריך לומר מאתים לבתולה ומנה לאלמנה יתר על כן אפילו כתובתה מאה מנה איבדה את הכל ונוטלת בלאיות שמוצאה לפניה.", 7.6. "All of these women that transgressed custom need [a formal, legal] warning [in order to] go out without the ketubah. If they were not warned, he sends her out and pays her ketubah—and they don't need to [this about] say 200 for a virgin or 100 for a non-virgin [that of course if she leaves without her ketubah she doesn't get this money], but even more than this, even if her ketubah is 100 maneh, she can lose it all and receive only the rags that she can find in front of her.",
31. Tosefta, Niddah, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
6.9. "קורדום שנגנב בתוך הבית מטמא למפרע עד שיאמר בדקתי את המקום הזה רשב\"ג מטהר שאנו אומרים שמא השאילו לאחר ושכחה שמא הניחו בזוית ונגנב אחרים אומרים משום רבי נתן כל הכתמים הנמצאים במרחצאות של נשים טמאין בית המרחץ של כותים מטמא באהל מפני שקוברין שם את הנפלים רבי יהודה מטהר מפני שחולדה וברדלס גוררין אותם מיד.",
32. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, a b c d\n0 .8 .8 8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 143
33. Tosefta, Sotah, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 144
34. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 34.17, 36.42.121 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 33, 184
35. Tosefta, Shevi It, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 120
36. Tacitus, Histories, 1.72 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 140
1.72.  Equal delight, but for different reasons, was felt when the destruction of Tigellinus was secured. ofonius Tigellinus was of obscure parentage; his youth had been infamous and in his old age he was profligate. Command of the city watch and of the praetorians and other prizes which belong to virtue he had obtained by vices as the quicker course; then, afterwards, he practised cruelty and later greed, offences which belong to maturity. He also corrupted Nero so that he was ready for any wickedness; he dared certain acts without Nero's knowledge and finally deserted and betrayed him. So no one was more persistently demanded for punishment from different motives, both by those who hated Nero and by those who regretted him. Under Galba Tigellinus had been protected by the influence of Titus Vinius, who claimed that Tigellinus had saved his daughter. He undoubtedly had saved her, not, however, prompted by mercy (he had killed so many victims!) but to secure a refuge for the future, since the worst of rascals in their distrust of the present and fear of a change always try to secure private gratitude as an off-set to public detestation, having no regard for innocence, but wishing to obtain mutual impunity in wrong-doing. These facts made the people more hostile toward him, and their old hatred was increased by their recent dislike for Titus Vinius. They rushed from every part of the city to the Palatine and the fora, and, pouring into the circus and theatres where the common people have the greatest licence, they broke out into seditious cries, until finally Tigellinus, at the baths of Sinuessa, receiving the message that the hour of his supreme necessity had come, amid the embraces and kisses of his mistresses, shamefully delaying his end, finally cut his throat with a razor, still further defiling a notorious life by a tardy and ignominious death.
37. Tacitus, Agricola, 21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41, 146
38. Suetonius, Nero, 12.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 33
39. Suetonius, Augustus, 82 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
40. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 56.1-56.2, 86.4-86.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 36, 136, 211
41. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 172
42. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14, 10.23-10.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 53, 147
10.23. To Trajan. The people of Prusa, Sir, have a public bath which is in a neglected and dilapidated state. They wish, with your kind permission, to restore it; but I think a new one ought to be built, and I reckon that you can safely comply with their wishes. The money for its erection will be forthcoming, for first there are the sums I spoke of * which I have already begun to claim and demand from private individuals, and secondly there is the money usually collected for a free distribution of oil which they are now prepared to utilise for the construction of a new bath. Besides, the dignity of the city and the glory of your reign demand its erection. 10.24. Trajan to Pliny. If the construction of a new bath will not cripple the fices of Prusa, we can indulge their wishes, only it must be understood that no new imposts are to be raised to meet the cost, and that their contributions for necessary expenses shall not show any falling off.
43. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.5.14, 10.23-10.24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 53, 147
10.23. To Trajan. The people of Prusa, Sir, have a public bath which is in a neglected and dilapidated state. They wish, with your kind permission, to restore it; but I think a new one ought to be built, and I reckon that you can safely comply with their wishes. The money for its erection will be forthcoming, for first there are the sums I spoke of * which I have already begun to claim and demand from private individuals, and secondly there is the money usually collected for a free distribution of oil which they are now prepared to utilise for the construction of a new bath. Besides, the dignity of the city and the glory of your reign demand its erection. 10.24. Trajan to Pliny. If the construction of a new bath will not cripple the fices of Prusa, we can indulge their wishes, only it must be understood that no new imposts are to be raised to meet the cost, and that their contributions for necessary expenses shall not show any falling off.
44. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 37, 258 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 142, 143
45. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 144, 146
46. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 125, 147
47. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.3.3-2.3.5, 6.23-6.28 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 33, 41, 53
2.3.3. κεκόσμηται δὲ ἡ πηγὴ λίθῳ λευκῷ, καὶ πεποιημένα ἐστὶν οἰκήματα σπηλαίοις κατὰ ταὐτά, ἐξ ὧν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐς κρήνην ὕπαιθρον ῥεῖ πιεῖν τε ἡδὺ καὶ τὸν Κορίνθιον χαλκὸν διάπυρον καὶ θερμὸν ὄντα ὑπὸ ὕδατος τούτου βάπτεσθαι λέγουσιν, ἐπεὶ χαλκός γε οὐκ ἔστι Κορινθίοις. ἔτι γε δὴ καὶ Ἀπόλλωνος ἄγαλμα πρὸς τῇ Πειρήνῃ καὶ περίβολός ἐστιν, ἐν δὲ αὐτῷ γραφὴ τὸ Ὀδυσσέως ἐς τοὺς μνηστῆρας ἔχουσα τόλμημα. 2.3.4. αὖθις δʼ ἰοῦσιν ἐπὶ Λεχαίου τὴν εὐθεῖαν χαλκοῦς καθήμενός ἐστιν Ἑρμῆς, παρέστηκε δέ οἱ κριός, ὅτι Ἑρμῆς μάλιστα δοκεῖ θεῶν ἐφορᾶν καὶ αὔξειν ποίμνας, καθὰ δὴ καὶ Ὅμηρος ἐν Ἰλιάδι ἐποίησεν υἱὸν Φόρβαντος πολυμήλου, τόν ῥα μάλιστα Ἑρμείας Τρώων ἐφίλει καὶ κτῆσιν ὄπασσε· Hom. Il. 14.490 τὸν δὲ ἐν τελετῇ Μητρὸς ἐπὶ Ἑρμῇ λεγόμενον καὶ τῷ κριῷ λόγον ἐπιστάμενος οὐ λέγω. μετὰ δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ Ποσειδῶν καὶ Λευκοθέα καὶ ἐπὶ δελφῖνός ἐστιν ὁ Παλαίμων. 2.3.5. λουτρὰ δὲ ἔστι μὲν πολλαχοῦ Κορινθίοις καὶ ἄλλα, τὰ μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ κοινοῦ, τὸ δὲ βασιλέως Ἀδριανοῦ κατασκευάσαντος· τὸ δὲ ὀνομαστότατον αὐτῶν πλησίον τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος. τοῦτο δὲ Εὐρυκλῆς ἐποίησεν ἀνὴρ Σπαρτιάτης λίθοις κοσμήσας καὶ ἄλλοις καὶ ὃν ἐν Κροκεαῖς χώρας τῆς Λακωνικῆς ὀρύσσουσιν. ἐν ἀριστερᾷ δὲ τῆς ἐσόδου Ποσειδῶν καὶ μετʼ αὐτὸν Ἄρτεμις θηρεύουσα ἕστηκε. κρῆναι δὲ πολλαὶ μὲν ἀνὰ τὴν πόλιν πεποίηνται πᾶσαν ἅτε ἀφθόνου ῥέοντός σφισιν ὕδατος καὶ ὃ δὴ βασιλεὺς Ἀδριανὸς ἐσήγαγεν ἐκ Στυμφήλου, θέας δὲ μάλιστα ἀξία ἡ παρὰ τὸ ἄγαλμα τὸ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος· καί οἱ Βελλεροφόντης ἔπεστι καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ ὁ διʼ ὁπλῆς ἵππου ῥεῖ τοῦ Πηγάσου. 2.3.3. The spring is ornamented with white marble, and there have been made chambers like caves, out of which the water flows into an open-air well. It Is pleasant to drink, and they say that the Corinthian bronze, when red-hot, is tempered by this water, since bronze . . . the Corinthians have not. Moreover near Peirene are an image and a sacred enclosure of Apollo; in the latter is a painting of the exploit of Odysseus against the suitors. 2.3.4. Proceeding on the direct road to Lechaeum we see a bronze image of a seated Hermes. By him stands a ram, for Hermes is the god who is thought most to care for and to increase flocks, as Homer puts it in the Iliad :— Son was he of Phorbas, the dearest of Trojans to Hermes, Rich in flocks, for the god vouchsafed him wealth in abundance. Hom. Il. 14.490 The story told at the mysteries of the Mother about Hermes and the ram I know but do not relate. After the image of Hermes come Poseidon, Leucothea, and Palaemon on a dolphin. 2.3.5. The Corinthians have baths in many parts of the city, some put up at the public charge and one by the emperor Hadrian. The most famous of them is near the Poseidon. It was made by the Spartan Eurycles, Probably a contemporary of Augustus. who beautified it with various kinds of stone, especially the one quarried at Croceae in Laconia . On the left of the entrance stands a Poseidon, and after him Artemis hunting. Throughout the city are many wells, for the Corinthians have a copious supply of flowing water, besides the water which the emperor Hadrian brought from Lake Stymphalus, but the most noteworthy is the one by the side of the image of Artemis. Over it is a Bellerophontes, and the water flows through the hoof of the horse Pegasus.
48. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 189
49. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
50. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 218
51. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 143
52. Palestinian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
53. Palestinian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
54. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 185
55. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 179
56. Anon., Didascalia Apostolorum, 3, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 155
57. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 56 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •women, religious activities in ancient greco-roman mediterranean Found in books: Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 39, 40
56. And he took me unto another pit, and I stooped and looked and saw mire and worms welling up, and souls wallowing there, and a great gnashing of teeth was heard thence from them. And that man said unto me: These are the souls of women which forsook their husbands and committed adultery with others, and are brought into this torment. Another pit he showed me whereinto I stooped and looked and saw souls hanging, some by the tongue, some by the hair, some by the hands, and some head downward by the feet, and tormented (smoked) with smoke and brimstone; concerning whom that man that was with me answered me: The souls which are hanged by the tongue are slanderers, that uttered Lying and shameful words, and were not ashamed, and they that are hanged by the hair are unblushing ones which had no modesty and went about in the world bareheaded; and they that are hanged by the hands, these are they that took away and stole other men's goods, and never gave aught to the needy nor helped the afflicted, but did so, desiring to take all, and had no thought at all of justice or of the law; and they that hang upside down by the feet, these are they that lightly and readily ran in evil ways and disorderly paths, not visiting the sick nor escorting them that depart this life, and therefore each and every soul receiveth that which was done by it. (Syr. omits almost the whole section.)
58. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 14.5, 37.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136, 143
14.5. וַיִּיצֶר ב' יְצִירוֹת, יְצִירָה בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה, וִיצִירָה לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים לֹא כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, אֲבָל לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגוֹמֵר בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר, שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא אוֹמֵר בְּמֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל (יחזקאל לז, ח): רָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹנָתָן אֵין לְמֵדִין מִמֵּתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל. וּלְמָה הָיוּ מֵתֵי יְחֶזְקֵאל דּוֹמִים, לְזֶה שֶׁהוּא נִכְנָס לְמֶרְחָץ מַה שֶּׁהוּא פּוֹשֵׁט רִאשׁוֹן הוּא לוֹבֵשׁ אַחֲרוֹן. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶה, כָּךְ יְצִירָתוֹ בָּעוֹלָם הַבָּא. בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, כָּךְ אַף לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא מַתְחִיל בְּעוֹר וּבְבָשָׂר וְגוֹמֵר בְּגִידִים וּבַעֲצָמוֹת, שֶׁכֵּן אִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, י): הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי. הִתַּכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּתִּיכֵנִי. וְכַגְּבִנָּה הִקְפֵּאתַנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא תַּקְפִּיאֵנִי. (איוב י, יא): עוֹר וּבָשָׂר הִלְבַּשְׁתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תַּלְבִּישֵׁנִי. וּבַעֲצָמוֹת וְגִידִים סוֹכַכְתַּנִי, אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא תְּשׂכְכֵנִי, לִקְעָרָה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה חָלָב עַד שֶׁלֹא נָתַן מְסוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ, הֶחָלָב רוֹפֵף, מִשֶּׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָהּ מְסוֹ, הֲרֵי הֶחָלָב קָפוּי וְעוֹמֵד, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אָמַר: הֲלֹא כֶחָלָב תַּתִּיכֵנִי וגו' עוֹר וּבָשָׂר וגו' (איוב י, יב): חַיִּים וָחֶסֶד עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי וּפְקֻדָּתְךָ שָׁמְרָה רוּחִי. 37.4. וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה (בראשית י, י), חֶרֶן וּנְצִיבִין וְקַטּוֹסְפִין. בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר, זוֹ בָּבֶל, לָמָה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שִׁנְעָר אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקֵישׁ שֶׁשָּׁם נִנְעֲרוּ מֵתֵי דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהִיא מְנֹעֶרֶת מִן הַמִּצְווֹת, בְּלֹא תְּרוּמָה וּבְלֹא מַעַשְׂרוֹת וּבְלֹא שְׁבִיעִית. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהֵם מֵתִים בְּתַשְׁנִיק, בְּלֹא נֵר וּבְלֹא מֶרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר שֶׁשָֹּׂרֶיהָ מֵתִים נְעָרִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁשָֹּׂרֶיהָ מַבִּיטִין בַּתּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁהֵם נְעָרִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שִׁנְעָר, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה שׂוֹנֵא וְעָר לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְאֵי זֶה זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַר. (בראשית י, יא): מִן הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר, מִן הָעֵצָה הַהִיא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן בָּאִים לַחְלֹק עַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא פָּנָה מֵאַרְצוֹ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתְּ יָצָאתָה לְךָ מֵאַרְבַּע, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁאֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ לְךָ וְנוֹתֵן לְךָ אַרְבַּע, וַיִּבֶן אֶת נִינְוֵה וְאֶת רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת כָּלַח וְאֶת רֶסֶן, תְּלַתְסַר, וְלֹא עָשָׂה, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּא וְנִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמָּהֶן. בְּחֻרְבַּן בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶתְמוֹל אֶפְרוֹחַ עַכְשָׁו בֵּיצָה, אֶתְמוֹל מַפְרִיחַ מִצְווֹת וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, עַכְשָׁו מְכוֹנָן כַּבֵּיצָה, אֶתְמְהָא, לְפִיכָךְ (תהלים פג, ט): הָיוּ זְרוֹעַ לִבְנֵי לוֹט סֶלָה, לִלְוָט. (בראשית י, יב): וְאֶת רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח וגו', אֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים אִם רֶסֶן הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה וְאִם נִינְוֵה הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה, מִן מַה דִּכְתִיב (יונה ג, ג): וְנִינְוֵה הָיְתָה עִיר גְּדוֹלָה לֵאלֹהִים מַהֲלַךְ שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים, הֱוֵי נִינְוֵה הִיא הַגְּדוֹלָה.
59. Gellius, Attic Nights, 10.3.1-10.3.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 155
60. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
61. Tertullian, Apology, 42.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 126, 189
42.4. possum.
62. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 15.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 189
63. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 3.44 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 201
64. Tertullian, On The Games, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 189
8. To follow out my plan in regard to places: the circus is chiefly consecrated to the Sun, whose temple stands in the middle of it, and whose image shines forth from its temple summit; for they have not thought it proper to pay sacred honours underneath a roof to an object they have itself in open space. Those who assert that the first spectacle was exhibited by Circe, and in honour of the Sun her father, as they will have it, maintain also the name of circus was derived from her. Plainly, then, the enchantress did this in the name of the parties whose priestess she was - I mean the demons and spirits of evil. What an aggregation of idolatries you see, accordingly, in the decoration of the place! Every ornament of the circus is a temple by itself. The eggs are regarded as sacred to the Castors, by men who are not ashamed to profess faith in their production from the egg of a swan, which was no other than Jupiter himself. The Dolphins vomit forth in honour of Neptune. Images of Sessia, so called as the goddess of sowing; of Messia, so called as the goddess of reaping; of Tutulina, so called as the fruit-protecting deity - load the pillars. In front of these you have three altars to these three gods - Great, Mighty, Victorious. They reckon these of Samo-Thrace. The huge Obelisk, as Hermeteles affirms, is set up in public to the Sun; its inscription, like its origin, belongs to Egyptian superstition. Cheerless were the demon-gathering without their Mater Magna; and so she presides there over the Euripus. Consus, as we have mentioned, lies hidden under ground at the Murcian Goals. These two sprang from an idol. For they will have it that Murcia is the goddess of love; and to her, at that spot, they have consecrated a temple. See, Christian, how many impure names have taken possession of the circus! You have nothing to do with a sacred place which is teted by such multitudes of diabolic spirits. And speaking of places, this is the suitable occasion for some remarks in anticipation of a point that some will raise. What, then, you say; shall I be in danger of pollution if I go to the circus when the games are not being celebrated? There is no law forbidding the mere places to us. For not only the places for show-gatherings, but even the temples, may be entered without any peril of his religion by the servant of God, if he has only some honest reason for it, unconnected with their proper business and official duties. Why, even the streets and the market-place, and the baths, and the taverns, and our very dwelling-places, are not altogether free from idols. Satan and his angels have filled the whole world. It is not by merely being in the world, however, that we lapse from God, but by touching and tainting ourselves with the world's sins. I shall break with my Maker, that is, by going to the Capitol or the temple of Serapis to sacrifice or adore, as I shall also do by going as a spectator to the circus and the theatre. The places in themselves do not contaminate, but what is done in them; from this even the places themselves, we maintain, become defiled. The polluted things pollute us. It is on this account that we set before you to whom places of the kind are dedicated, that we may prove the things which are done in them to belong to the idol-patrons to whom the very places are sacred.
65. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.5.31-3.5.32 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 218
66. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 144
15a. יכול אני לבעול כמה בעילות בלא דם או דלמא דשמואל לא שכיחא אמר להו דשמואל לא שכיח וחיישינן שמא באמבטי עיברה,והאמר שמואל כל שכבת זרע שאינו יורה כחץ אינו מזרעת מעיקרא נמי יורה כחץ הוה,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יהושע בן חנניה שהיה עומד על גב מעלה בהר הבית וראהו בן זומא ולא עמד מלפניו אמר לו מאין ולאין בן זומא אמר לו צופה הייתי בין מים העליונים למים התחתונים ואין בין זה לזה אלא שלש אצבעות בלבד שנאמר (בראשית א, ב) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים כיונה שמרחפת על בניה ואינה נוגעת אמר להן רבי יהושע לתלמידיו עדיין בן זומא מבחוץ,מכדי ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים אימת הוי ביום הראשון הבדלה ביום שני הוא דהואי דכתיב (בראשית א, ו) ויהי מבדיל בין מים למים וכמה אמר רב אחא בר יעקב כמלא נימא ורבנן אמרי כי גודא דגמלא מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אסי אמר כתרי גלימי דפריסי אהדדי ואמרי לה כתרי כסי דסחיפי אהדדי,אחר קיצץ בנטיעות עליו הכתוב אומר (קהלת ה, ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך מאי היא חזא מיטטרון דאתיהבא ליה רשותא למיתב למיכתב זכוותא דישראל אמר גמירא דלמעלה לא הוי לא ישיבה ולא תחרות ולא עורף ולא עיפוי שמא חס ושלום ב' רשויות הן,אפקוהו למיטטרון ומחיוהו שיתין פולסי דנורא א"ל מ"ט כי חזיתיה לא קמת מקמיה איתיהיבא ליה רשותא למימחק זכוותא דאחר יצתה בת קול ואמרה (ירמיהו ג, יד) שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,אמר הואיל ואיטריד ההוא גברא מההוא עלמא ליפוק ליתהני בהאי עלמא נפק אחר לתרבות רעה נפק אשכח זונה תבעה אמרה ליה ולאו אלישע בן אבויה את עקר פוגלא ממישרא בשבת ויהב לה אמרה אחר הוא,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה א"ל מאי דכתיב (קהלת ז, יד) גם את זה לעומת זה עשה האלהים אמר לו כל מה שברא הקב"ה ברא כנגדו ברא הרים ברא גבעות ברא ימים ברא נהרות,אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא ברא צדיקים ברא רשעים ברא גן עדן ברא גיהנם כל אחד ואחד יש לו ב' חלקים אחד בגן עדן ואחד בגיהנם זכה צדיק נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגן עדן נתחייב רשע נטל חלקו וחלק חברו בגיהנם,אמר רב משרשיא מאי קראה גבי צדיקים כתיב (ישעיהו סא, ז) לכן בארצם משנה יירשו גבי רשעים כתיב (ירמיהו יז, יח) ומשנה שברון שברם,שאל אחר את ר"מ לאחר שיצא לתרבות רעה מאי דכתיב (איוב כח, יז) לא יערכנה זהב וזכוכית ותמורתה כלי פז אמר לו אלו דברי תורה שקשין לקנותן ככלי זהב וכלי פז ונוחין לאבדן ככלי זכוכית אמר לו ר"ע רבך לא אמר כך אלא מה כלי זהב וכלי זכוכית אע"פ שנשברו יש להם תקנה אף ת"ח אע"פ שסרח יש לו תקנה אמר לו אף אתה חזור בך אמר לו כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,ת"ר מעשה באחר שהיה רוכב על הסוס בשבת והיה רבי מאיר מהלך אחריו ללמוד תורה מפיו אמר לו מאיר חזור לאחריך שכבר שיערתי בעקבי סוסי עד כאן תחום שבת א"ל אף אתה חזור בך א"ל ולא כבר אמרתי לך כבר שמעתי מאחורי הפרגוד שובו בנים שובבים חוץ מאחר,תקפיה עייליה לבי מדרשא א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ישעיהו מח, כב) אין שלום אמר ה' לרשעים עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל לינוקא פסוק לי פסוקך אמר לו (ירמיהו ב, כב) כי אם תכבסי בנתר ותרבי לך בורית נכתם עונך לפני עייליה לבי כנישתא אחריתי א"ל 15a. b I can engage in intercourse several times without blood. /b In other words, I can have relations with a woman while leaving her hymen intact. If this is so, it is possible that the assumed virgin had intercourse in this manner and is forbidden to the High Priest. b Or, perhaps /b a person who can act like b Shmuel is not common /b and the i halakha /i is not concerned with this case. b He said to them: /b One like b Shmuel is not common, and we are concerned that she may have conceived in a bath. /b Perhaps she washed in a bath that contained a man’s semen, from which she became impregnated while remaining a virgin.,The Gemara asks: How could she possibly become pregt in such a manner? b Didn’t Shmuel say: Any semen that is not shot like an arrow cannot fertilize? /b The Gemara answers: This does not mean that it must be shot like an arrow at the moment of fertilization. Even if b initially, /b when released from the male, b it was shot as an arrow, /b it can b also /b fertilize a woman at a later moment.,With regard to the fate of ben Zoma, b the Sages taught: There was once an incident with regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya, who was standing on a step on the Temple Mount, and ben Zoma saw him and did not stand before him /b to honor him, as he was deep in thought. Rabbi Yehoshua b said to him: From where /b do you come b and where are you going, ben Zoma, /b i.e., what is on your mind? b He said to him: /b In my thoughts b I was looking upon /b the act of Creation, at the gap b between the upper waters and the lower waters, as there is only /b the breadth of b a mere three fingers between them, as it is stated: “And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters” /b (Genesis 1:2), b like a dove hovering over its young without touching /b them. b Rabbi Yehoshua said to his students /b who had overheard this exchange: b Ben Zoma is still outside; /b he has not yet achieved full understanding of these matters.,The Gemara explains: b Now, /b this verse: b “And the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters,” when was /b it stated? b On the first day, /b whereas b the division /b of the waters b occurred on the second day, as it is written: “And let it divide the waters from the waters” /b (Genesis 1:6). How, then, could ben Zoma derive a proof from the former verse? The Gemara asks: b And how much, /b in fact, is the gap between them? b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: Like the thickness of a thread; and the Rabbis said: Like /b the gap between b the boards of a bridge. Mar Zutra, and some say /b it was b Rav Asi, said: Like two robes spread one over the other, /b with a slight gap in between. b And some said: Like two cups placed one upon the other. /b ,§ The Gemara stated earlier that b i Aḥer /i chopped down the saplings, /b becoming a heretic. b With regard to him, the verse states: “Do not let your mouth bring your flesh into guilt” /b (Ecclesiastes 5:5). The Gemara poses a question: b What was /b it that led him to heresy? b He saw /b the angel b Mitatron, who was granted permission to sit and write the merits /b of b Israel. He said: /b There is b a tradition /b that in the world b above there is no sitting; no competition; no /b turning one’s b back before Him, /b i.e., all face the Divine Presence; b and no lethargy. /b Seeing that someone other than God was seated above, b he said: Perhaps, /b the Gemara here interjects, b Heaven forbid, there are two authorities, /b and there is another source of power in control of the world in addition to God. Such thoughts led i Aḥer /i to heresy.,The Gemara relates: b They removed Mitatron /b from his place in heaven b and smote him /b with b sixty rods [ i pulsei /i ] of fire, /b so that others would not make mistake that i Aḥer /i made. b They said /b to the angel: b What is the reason /b that b when you saw /b Elisha ben Avuya b you did not stand before him? /b Despite this conduct, since Mitatron was personally involved, he b was granted permission to erase the merits of i Aḥer /i /b and cause him to stumble in any manner. b A Divine Voice went forth saying: “Return, rebellious children” /b (Jeremiah 3:22), b apart from i Aḥer /i . /b ,Upon hearing this, Elisha ben Avuya b said: Since that man, /b meaning himself, b has been banished from that world, let him go out and enjoy this world. i Aḥer /i went astray. He went /b and b found a prostitute /b and b solicited her /b for intercourse. b She said to him: And /b are b you not Elisha ben Avuya? /b Shall a person of your stature perform such an act? b He uprooted a radish from a patch /b of radishes b on Shabbat and gave it to her, /b to demonstrate that he no longer observed the Torah. The prostitute b said: He is other /b than he was. He is not the same Elisha ben Avuya, he is i Aḥer /i , other.,The Gemara relates: b i Aḥer /i asked Rabbi Meir /b a question, b after he had gone astray. He said to him: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “God has made even the one as well as the other” /b (Ecclesiastes 7:14)? Rabbi Meir b said to him: Everything that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created, He created /b a similar creation b corresponding to it. He created mountains, He created hills; He created seas, He created rivers. /b , i Aḥer /i b said to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, but /b explained the verse as follows: Everything has its opposite: b He created the righteous, He created the wicked; He created the Garden of Eden, He created Gehenna. Each and every /b person b has two portions, one in the Garden of Eden and one in Gehenna. /b If he b merits /b it, by becoming b righteous, he takes his portion and the portion of his /b wicked b colleague in the Garden of Eden; /b if he is found b culpable /b by becoming b wicked, he takes his portion and the portion of his colleague in Gehenna. /b , b Rav Mesharshiyya said: What is the verse /b from which it is derived? b With regard to the righteous, it is stated: “Therefore in their land they shall possess double” /b (Isaiah 61:7); whereas b with regard to the wicked, it is stated: “And destroy them with double destruction” /b (Jeremiah 17:18); therefore, each receives a double portion., b i Aḥer /i asked Rabbi Meir /b another question, again b after he had gone astray. What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “Gold and glass cannot equal it; neither shall its exchange be vessels of fine gold” /b (Job 28:17)? If it is referring to the praise and honor of the Torah, it should have compared it only to gold, not to glass. b He said to him: /b This is referring to b words of Torah, which are as difficult to acquire as gilded vessels and vessels of fine gold but are as easy to lose as glass vessels. /b i Aḥer /i b said to him: Rabbi Akiva, your teacher, did not say so, but /b taught as follows: b Just as golden vessels and glass vessels have a remedy even when they have broken, /b as they can be melted down and made into new vessels, b so too a Torah scholar, although he has transgressed, has a remedy. /b Rabbi Meir b said to him: /b If so, b you too, return /b from your ways. b He said to him: I have already heard /b the following declaration b behind the /b dividing b curtain, /b which conceals God from the world: b “Return, rebellious children,” /b (Jeremiah 3:22) b apart from i Aḥer /i . /b ,The Gemara cites a related story: b The Sages taught: There was once an incident involving i Aḥer /i , who was riding on a horse on Shabbat, and Rabbi Meir was walking behind him to learn Torah from him. /b After a while, i Aḥer /i b said to him: Meir, turn back, for I have already estimated /b and measured b according to the steps of my horse /b that b the Shabbat boundary ends here, /b and you may therefore venture no further. Rabbi Meir b said to him: You, too, return /b to the correct path. b He said to him: But have I not already told you /b that b I have already heard behind the /b dividing b curtain: “Return, rebellious children,” apart from i Aḥer /i ? /b ,Nevertheless, Rabbi Meir b took hold of him /b and b brought him to the study hall. /b i Aḥer /i b said to a child, /b by way of divination: b Recite your verse /b that you studied today b to me. He recited /b the following verse b to him: “There is no peace, said the Lord, concerning the wicked” /b (Isaiah 48:22). b He brought him to another study hall. /b i Aḥer /i b said to a child: Recite your verse to me. He recited to him: “For though you wash with niter, and take for you much soap, yet your iniquity is marked before Me” /b (Jeremiah 2:22). b He brought him to another study hall. /b i Aḥer /i b said to /b
67. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kraemer (2010), Unreliable Witnesses: Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean, 64
31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. b What is the verse /b from which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; b You are He Who took me out [ i gozi /i ] of my mother’s womb” /b (Psalms 71:6). b From where may /b it b be inferred that this /b word: b “ i Gozi /i ,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ i gozi /i ] your hair and cast it away” /b (Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., b And Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable? /b It is comparable b to a nut placed in a basin /b full b of water, /b floating on top of the water. If b a person puts his finger on top of /b the nut, b it sinks /b either b in this direction or in that direction. /b ,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : During b the first three months /b of pregcy, the b fetus resides in the lower compartment /b of the womb; in the b middle /b three months, the b fetus resides in the middle compartment; /b and during the b last /b three months of pregcy the b fetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this is /b what causes b labor pains. /b ,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: b And this is /b the explanation for b that which we learned /b in a i baraita /i : b The labor pains experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a female are greater than /b those b experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a male. /b The Gemara will explain this below., b And Rabbi Elazar says: What is the verse /b from which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b “When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth” /b (Psalms 139:15). Since it b is not stated: I resided /b in the lowest parts of the earth, b but rather: “I was woven together /b in the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about b the labor pains experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a female, /b that they b are greater than those experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a male? /b The Gemara answers: b This /b one, a male fetus, b emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse. /b Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. b And that /b one, a female fetus, b emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse, /b i.e., facing upward. Consequently, b that /b one, a female fetus, b turns its face around /b before it is born, b but this /b one, a male fetus, b does not turn its face around /b before it is born.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : During b the first three months /b of pregcy, b sexual intercourse is difficult /b and harmful b for the woman and is also difficult for the offspring. /b During the b middle /b three months, intercourse is b difficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring. /b During the b last /b three months, sexual intercourse is b beneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b ,The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who engages in intercourse /b with his wife b on the ninetieth day /b of her pregcy, b it is as though he spills /b her b blood. /b The Gemara asks: b How does one know /b that it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? b Rather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercourse /b with his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, b and /b rely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b “The Lord preserves the simple” /b (Psalms 116:6).,§ b The Sages taught: There are three partners in /b the creation of b a person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from which /b the following body parts are formed: The b bones, /b the b sinews, /b the b nails, /b the b brain that is in its head, and /b the b white of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from which /b are formed the b skin, /b the b flesh, /b the b hair, and /b the b black of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul, /b his b countece [ i ukelaster /i ], eyesight, hearing of the ear, /b the capability of b speech /b of b the mouth, /b the capability of b walking /b with b the legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b , b And when /b a person’s b time to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part of /b the person’s b father and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: This /b is in accordance with the adage b that people say: Remove the salt /b from a piece of meat, b and /b you may then b toss the meat to a dog, /b as it has become worthless.,§ b Rav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number” /b (Job 9:10)? b Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood /b is that if one b puts an article in a flask, /b even if the flask is b tied and its opening /b faces b upward, it is uncertain whether /b the item b is preserved /b from getting lost, b and it is uncertain whether it is not preserved /b from being lost. b But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its opening /b faces b downward, and /b yet the fetus b is preserved. /b , b Another matter /b that demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when b a person places his articles on a scale /b to be measured, b the heavier /b the item b is, /b the more b it descends. But /b when b the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b forms a fetus, b the heavier the offspring gets, /b the more b it ascends upward /b in the womb., b Rabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well” /b (Psalms 139:14)? b Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood /b is that when b a person plants seeds /b of different species b in /b one b garden bed, each and every one /b of the seeds b emerges /b as a grown plant b according to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all of /b the seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, b emerge /b when the offspring is formed b as one /b sex., b Alternatively, /b when b a dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ i leyora /i ], they all emerge as one color /b of dye, b whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, /b and b each and every one /b of the seeds b emerges as its own type. /b In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., b Rav Yosef taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: /b “And on that day you shall say: b I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me” /b (Isaiah 12:1)? b With regard to what /b matter b is the verse speaking? /b ,It is referring, for example, b to two people who left /b their homes to go b on a business /b trip. b A thorn penetrated /b the body b of one of them, /b and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. b He started blaspheming and cursing /b in frustration. b After a period of time, he heard that the ship of the other /b person b had sunk in the sea, /b and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then b started thanking /b God b and praising /b Him for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. b Therefore, it is stated /b at the end of the verse: b “Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b , b And this /b statement b is /b identical to b that which Rabbi Elazar said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: /b “Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, b Who does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever” /b (Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that b even the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miracle /b that was performed for b him. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “You measure [ i zerita /i ] my going about [ i orḥi /i ] and my lying down [ i riv’i /i ], and are acquainted with all my ways” /b (Psalms 139:3)? This verse b teaches that a person is not created from the entire drop /b of semen, b but from its clear /b part. i Zerita /i can mean to winnow, while i orḥi /i and i riv’i /i can both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. b The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: /b This matter is comparable b to a person who winnows /b grain b in the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b ,This is b in accordance with /b a statement b of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is written /b in one of King David’s psalms: b “For You have girded me [ i vatazreni /i ] with strength for battle” /b (II Samuel 22:40), without the letter i alef /i in i vatazreni /i ; b and it is written /b in another psalm: b “Who girds me [ i hame’azreni /i ] with strength” /b (Psalms 18:33), with an i alef /i in i hame’azreini /i . What is the difference between these two expressions? b David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ i zeiritani /i ], /b i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, b and You have girded me [ i zeraztani /i ] with strength. /b , b Rabbi Abbahu taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written /b in Balaam’s blessing: b “Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ i rova /i ] of Israel” /b (Numbers 23:10)? The verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ i revi’iyyoteihem /i ], /b anticipating the time b when the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b , b And /b it was b due to this matter /b that b the eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: Should /b God, b who is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blinded /b as a divine punishment, b as it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut” /b (Numbers 24:3)., b And this /b statement b is /b the same as that b which Rabbi Yoḥa said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written, /b with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b “And he lay with her that night” /b (Genesis 30:16)? The verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act. /b The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, b as it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ i garem /i ] donkey” /b (Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s b donkey /b toward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby b causing [ i garam /i ] /b Leah’s conceiving b Issachar. /b ,§ b Rabbi Yitzḥak says /b that b Rabbi Ami says: /b The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the b woman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male, /b and if the b man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male” /b (Leviticus 12:2)., b The Sages taught: At first, /b people b would say /b that if the b woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, /b and if the b man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explain /b from which verse this b matter /b is derived, b until Rabbi Tzadok came and explained /b that b it /b is derived from the following verse: b “These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah” /b (Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse b attributes the males to the females, /b as the males are called: The sons of Leah, b and /b it attributes b the females to the males, /b in that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b “And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons” /b (I Chronicles 8:40). b Is it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
68. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
17b. ומה נחש שממית ומרבה טומאה טהור שרץ שאינו ממית ומרבה טומאה אינו דין שיהא טהור ולא היא מידי דהוה אקוץ בעלמא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל עיר שאין בה שנים לדבר ואחד לשמוע אין מושיבין בה סנהדרי ובביתר הוו שלשה וביבנה ארבעה רבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע ור"ע ושמעון התימני דן לפניהם בקרקע,מיתיבי שלישית חכמה רביעית אין למעלה הימנה הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא שניה חכמה שלישית אין למעלה הימנה,למידין לפני חכמים לוי מרבי דנין לפני חכמים שמעון בן עזאי ושמעון בן זומא וחנן המצרי וחנניא בן חכינאי רב נחמן בר יצחק מתני חמשה שמעון שמעון ושמעון חנן וחנניה,רבותינו שבבבל רב ושמואל רבותינו שבארץ ישראל רבי אבא דייני גולה קרנא דייני דארץ ישראל רבי אמי ורבי אסי דייני דפומבדיתא רב פפא בר שמואל דייני דנהרדעא רב אדא בר מניומי סבי דסורא רב הונא ורב חסדא סבי דפומבדיתא רב יהודה ורב עינא חריפי דפומבדיתא עיפה ואבימי בני רחבה אמוראי דפומבדיתא רבה ורב יוסף אמוראי דנהרדעי רב חמא,נהרבלאי מתנו רמי בר ברבי אמרי בי רב רב הונא והאמר רב הונא אמרי בי רב אלא רב המנונא אמרי במערבא רבי ירמיה שלחו מתם ר' יוסי בר חנינא מחכו עלה במערבא ר' אלעזר,והא שלחו מתם לדברי רבי יוסי בר חנינא אלא איפוך שלחו מתם ר' אלעזר מחכו עלה במערבא רבי יוסי בר חנינא:,וכמה יהא בעיר ויהא ראויה לסנהדרין מאה ועשרים וכו': מאה ועשרים מאי עבידתייהו עשרים ושלשה כנגד סנהדרי קטנה ושלש שורות של עשרים ושלשה הרי תשעים ותרתי ועשרה בטלנין של בית הכנסת הרי מאה ותרי,ושני סופרים ושני חזנין ושני בעלי דינין ושני עדים ושני זוממין ושני זוממי זוממין הרי מאה וארביסר,ותניא כל עיר שאין בה עשרה דברים הללו אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לדור בתוכה בית דין מכין ועונשין וקופה של צדקה נגבית בשנים ומתחלקת בשלשה ובית הכנסת ובית המרחץ וביהכ"ס רופא ואומן ולבלר (וטבח) ומלמד תינוקות משום ר' עקיבא אמרו אף מיני פירא מפני שמיני פירא מאירין את העינים:,ר' נחמיה אומר וכו': תניא רבי אומר 17b. b If a snake, which kills /b other creatures whose carcasses are impure b and /b thereby b increases impurity /b in the world, is itself nevertheless b pure, /b as it is not included in the list of impure creeping animals, then concerning b a creeping animal that does not kill and /b does not b increase impurity, isn’t it logical that it should be pure? /b This argument is rejected: b But it is not so; /b the logic of the i halakha /i of a creeping animal is b just as it is /b concerning the i halakha /i b with regard to an ordinary thorn, /b which can injure people or animals and can even kill and thereby increase impurity, but is nevertheless pure. It is therefore apparent that this consideration is not relevant to the i halakhot /i of impurity.,§ b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b With regard to b any city that does not have /b among its residents b two /b men who are able b to speak /b all seventy languages b and one /b additional man who is able b to listen /b to and understand statements made in all the languages, even if he cannot speak all of them, b they do not place /b a lesser b Sanhedrin /b there. The members of the Sanhedrin do not all need to know all of the languages, but there must be at least this minimum number. b And in Beitar there were three /b individuals who were able to speak all seventy languages, b and in Yavne /b there were b four, /b and they were: b Rabbi Eliezer, and Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Akiva, and Shimon HaTimni, /b who was not an ordained Sage, and he would therefore b deliberate before /b the other judges while seated b on the ground, /b not among the rows of Sages.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to this from a i baraita /i : b A third, /b i.e., a Sanhedrin that has three individuals who can speak all seventy languages, is b a wise /b Sanhedrin, and if it also has b a fourth /b such person, b there is no /b court b above it, /b meaning that there is no need for additional language experts. Apparently the minimum requirement is three people who can speak the languages, not two. The Gemara answers: Rav b states /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion of b the following i tanna /i , as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : A Sanhedrin that has b a second /b language expert b is wise; /b and if it also has b a third, there is no /b court b above it. /b ,§ Since the i baraita /i stated that Shimon HaTimni would deliberate before them on the ground, the Gemara now lists various standard formulations used to introduce the statements of various Sages throughout the generations. If a source says: b It was learned from the Sages, /b the intention is that this was a statement made by the Sage b Levi /b who sat before and learned b from Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. If it says: They b deliberated before the Sages, /b this is referring to b Shimon ben Azzai, and Shimon ben Zoma, and Ḥa the Egyptian, and Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b would b teach five /b names for this list: b Shimon /b ben Azzai, b Shimon /b ben Zoma, b and Shimon /b HaTimni, b Ḥa /b the Egyptian, b and Ḥaya /b ben Ḥakhinai.,The expression: b Our Rabbis that are in Babylonia, /b is referring to b Rav and Shmuel. /b The expression: b Our Rabbis that are in Eretz Yisrael, /b is referring to b Rabbi Abba. /b The expression: b The judges of the Diaspora, /b is a reference to the Sage b Karna. /b The phrase: b The judges of Eretz Yisrael, /b is a reference to b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi. /b The phrase: b The judges of Pumbedita, /b is referring to b Rav Pappa bar Shmuel, /b who was the head of the court there, and: b The judges of Neharde’a, /b is a reference to the court headed by b Rav Adda bar Minyumi. /b The term: b The Elders of Sura, /b is referring to b Rav Huna and Rav Ḥisda, /b and: b The Elders of Pumbedita, /b is referring to b Rav Yehuda and Rav Eina. The sharp ones of Pumbedita /b are b Eifa and Avimi, the sons of Raḥava. /b The expression: b The i amora’im /i of Pumbedita, /b is referring to b Rabba and Rav Yosef, /b and the phrase: b The i amora’im /i of Neharde’a, /b is referring to b Rav Ḥama. /b ,If it says: The Sages b of Neharbela taught, /b this is referring to b Rami bar Berabi, /b and the statement: b They say /b in b the school of Rav, /b is a reference to b Rav Huna. /b The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t Rav Huna /b sometimes b say /b with regard to a given i halakha /i : b They say /b in b the school of Rav? /b From this, it is apparent that a statement introduced by that formula cannot be made by Rav Huna himself, as Rav Huna quotes someone else with that introduction. The Gemara responds: b Rather, /b the expression: They say in the school of Rav, must be referring to b Rav Hamnuna. /b The formula: b They say in the West, /b i.e., Eretz Yisrael, is referring to b Rabbi Yirmeya; /b the expression: b They sent /b a message b from there, /b meaning from Eretz Yisrael, is referring to b Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina; /b and the statement: b They laughed at it in the West, /b means that b Rabbi Elazar /b did not accept a particular opinion.,The Gemara asks: b But /b in one instance it is reported that: b They sent /b a message b from there /b that began: b According to the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina. /b This indicates that the expression: They sent from there, is not itself a reference to a statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina. The Gemara answers: b Rather, reverse /b the statements. The phrase: b They sent from there, /b is a reference to b Rabbi Elazar, /b and: b They laughed at it in the West, /b means that b Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina /b did not accept a particular opinion.,§ The mishna teaches: b And how many /b men must b be in the city for /b it b to be eligible for /b a lesser b Sanhedrin? /b The opinion of the first i tanna /i is that there must be b 120 /b men. The Gemara asks: b What is the relevance of /b the number b 120? /b The Gemara explains that b 23 /b are needed to b correspond to /b the number of members of the b lesser Sanhedrin, and /b it is necessary for there to be b three rows of 23 /b students who sit before the lesser Sanhedrin to learn and also to advise them; that b is /b a total of b 92 /b people. b And /b since there also need to be b 10 idlers of the synagogue, /b people who are free from urgent work and are always sitting in the synagogue to take care of its repair and the other needs of the public, that b would be 102. /b , b And /b in addition there are b two scribes /b required for the Sanhedrin, b and two bailiffs, and two litigants /b who will come to be judged. b And /b there are b two witnesses /b for one side, b and two /b witnesses who could render those witnesses b conspiring /b witnesses by testifying that they were elsewhere at the time of the alleged incident, b and two /b additional witnesses could testify against the witnesses who rendered the first witnesses b conspiring /b witnesses, rendering the second pair b conspiring /b witnesses. All of these are necessary in order for a trial to take place, as is described in Deuteronomy 19:15–21. Therefore, b there are /b so far a total of b 114 /b men who must be in the city., b And /b it b is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A Torah scholar is not permitted to reside in any city that does not have these ten things: A court that /b has the authority to b flog and punish /b transgressors; b and /b a charity b fund /b for which monies b are collected by two /b people b and distributed by three, /b as required by i halakha /i . This leads to a requirement for another three people in the city. b And a synagogue; and a bathhouse; and /b a public b bathroom; a doctor; and a bloodletter; and a scribe /b [ b i velavlar /i /b ] to write sacred scrolls and necessary documents; b and /b a ritual b slaughterer; and a teacher of young children. /b With these additional requirements there are a minimum of 120 men who must be residents of the city. b They said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: /b The city must b also /b have b varieties of fruit, because varieties of fruit illuminate the eyes. /b ,The mishna teaches that b Rabbi Neḥemya says: /b There must be 230 men in the city in order for it to be eligible for a lesser Sanhedrin, corresponding to the ministers of tens appointed in the wilderness by Moses at the suggestion of his father-in-law, Yitro (see Exodus 18:21). Each member of the Sanhedrin can be viewed as a judge with responsibility for ten men. It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: /b
69. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 93
46a. לענין צירוף טומאה בפסח ובשאר ימות השנה איכא פלוגתא,היכי דמי כגון דאיכא פחות מכביצה אוכלין ונגעו בהאי בצק בפסח דאיסורו חשוב מצטרף בשאר ימות השנה דבקפידא תליא מילתא אם מקפיד עליו מצטרף אם רוצה בקיומו הרי הוא כעריבה,מתקיף לה רבא מי קתני מצטרף והא חוצץ קתני אלא אמר רבא וכן להעלות טהרה לעריבה,היכי דמי כגון דאיטמי הך עריבה ובעי לאטבולי בפסח דאיסורו חשוב חוצץ ולא סלקא לה טבילה בשאר ימות השנה בקפידא תליא מילתא אי מקפיד עליו חוצץ ואם רוצה בקיומו הרי הוא כעריבה,מתקיף לה רב פפא מי קתני וכן לענין טהרה הא לענין טומאה קתני אלא אמר רב פפא וכן לענין להוריד טומאה לעריבה,היכי דמי כגון דנגע שרץ בהאי בצק בפסח דאיסורו חשוב חוצץ ולא נחתה לה טומאה בשאר ימות השנה דבקפידא תליא אם מקפיד עליו חוצץ אם רוצה בקיומו הרי הוא כעריבה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בצק החרש אם יש כיוצא בו שהחמיץ הרי זה אסור:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אם אין שם כיוצא בו מהו א"ר אבהו אמר ר' שמעון בן לקיש כדי שילך אדם ממגדל נוניא לטבריא מיל,ונימא מיל הא קמ"ל דשיעורא דמיל כממגדל נוניא ועד טבריא,א"ר אבהו אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש לגבל ולתפלה ולנטילת ידים ארבעה מילין,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אייבו אמרה וארבעה אמר בה וחדא מינייהו עבוד דתנן וכולן שעיבדן או שהילך בהן כדי עבודה טהורין חוץ מעור האדם וכמה כדי עבודה א"ר (אינייא) א"ר ינאי כדי הילוך ארבעה מילין,א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא לא שנו אלא לפניו אבל לאחריו אפילו מיל אינו חוזר אמר רב אחא ומינה מיל הוא דאינו חוזר הא פחות ממיל חוזר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כיצד מפרישין חלה בטומאה ביו"ט,ר"א אומר לא תקרא לה שם עד שתאפה בן בתירא אומר תטיל בצונן א"ר יהושע 46a. b with regard to the combination /b of two pieces vis-à-vis b ritual impurity during Passover, /b when it depends upon their volume. However, b during the rest of the year there is a distinction /b based upon whether the owner is particular about it or not.,The Gemara explains: b What are the circumstances /b of the mishna’s case? It is a case b where there is less than an egg-bulk of /b ritually impure b food, and it touched this dough /b in the bowl, and then it came into contact with ritually pure food. b During Passover, /b when b the prohibition /b that applies to the dough causes it to be considered b significant /b although it is a very small quantity, b it combines /b with the first piece of food. Together they are the size of an egg-bulk, which is able to transmit the ritual impurity of foods. However, b during the rest of the year, when /b there is no prohibition that imparts this significance to the dough, b the matter is dependent on /b the owner’s b particularity; if he is particular about it, /b i.e., he does not want the dough to be there, it is considered food rather than part of the bowl, and b it combines /b with the other piece of food. However, b if one prefers its /b continued b presence /b in its current location, b it is /b considered b like /b part of b the kneading bowl /b itself, rather than food., b Rava strongly objects to this: Was /b the language b taught /b in the mishna: b Combines? Didn’t /b the mishna b teach /b that b it interposes? /b Abaye’s explanation does not account for this term. b Rather, Rava said /b that the mishna should be understood as saying: b And so too /b with regard to b purifying the kneading bowl /b via immersion.,The Gemara explains: b What are the circumstances /b of the mishna’s case? It is a case b where the kneading bowl became ritually impure, and /b one b wishes to immerse it. During Passover, when the prohibition /b of an olive-bulk of leaven causes it to be considered b significant, it interposes /b between the water and the kneading bowl, b and the immersion is ineffective. /b However, b during the rest of the year, the matter depends upon /b whether or not the owner is b particular /b about it. b If he is particular about /b the dough and wishes to remove it, b it interposes /b between the water and the bowl. However, b if /b the owner b desires it to be present, it is /b considered b like /b part of the b kneading bowl /b itself, and it does not interpose between the water and the bowl., b Rav Pappa strongly objects to this: Was /b the language b taught /b in the mishna: b And similarly with regard to ritual purity? Didn’t /b the mishna b teach: And similarly with regard to ritual impurity? Rather, Rav Pappa said /b the mishna should be understood as saying: b And similarly with regard to the transfer of ritual impurity to the kneading bowl /b via this dough.,The Gemara explains: b What are the circumstances /b of the mishna’s case? It is a case b where /b the carcass of b a creeping animal touched this dough. During Passover, when its prohibition /b causes the dough to be considered b significant, it interposes /b between the bowl and the creeping animal, and b ritual impurity does not descend to the kneading bowl, /b i.e., the kneading bowl does not become impure. b During the rest of the year, when it depends /b upon whether one is b particular /b about the presence of the dough, b if he is particular about it, it interposes /b between the bowl and the creeping animal and prevents the bowl from becoming impure. However, b if he desires it to be present, it is /b considered b like /b it is part of b the kneading bowl /b itself. Therefore, the entire bowl becomes ritually impure when the carcass of the creeping animal touches the dough., strong MISHNA: /strong b Deaf dough /b is dough for which it is difficult to determine if it has been leavened. It is comparable to a deaf-mute, who cannot communicate. b If there is /b dough b similar to it /b in that water was added to both at the same time, b which became leavened, /b the deaf dough b is prohibited. /b Although it has not shown external signs of becoming leavened, it can be presumed that the deaf dough has also become leavened., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara seeks to clarify the ruling of the mishna: b If there is no /b dough b similar to it, what is /b the i halakha /i ? b Rabbi Abbahu said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: /b According to the Sages, leavening occurs in the time it takes b a person /b to b walk /b the distance b from Migdal Nunaya /b to b Tiberias, /b which is b a i mil /i , /b two thousand cubits.,The Gemara asks about this formulation: Why is it necessary to mention the distance between these two places? b Let us say /b that leavening begins after the time it takes a person to walk a b i mil /i . /b The Gemara answers: b This /b statement incidentally b teaches us that the length of a i mil /i /b is the distance b from Migdal Nunaya to Tiberias. /b , b Rabbi Abbahu said /b that b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: With regard to a kneader, /b i.e., one who kneads dough for others and should maintain the ritual purity of the dough; b and /b similarly, b with regard to /b washing one’s hands for b prayer /b ( i Arukh /i ), b and with regard to washing hands /b before eating, one must search either for a ritual bath to immerse the vessel he is using to knead the dough, or for water to purify his hands, provided that water is accessible within the time it takes to walk b four i mil /i , /b eight thousand cubits., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Ayvu said /b this i halakha /i , b and he said it /b about b four /b cases, as opposed to the three cases mentioned previously. b And one of them /b pertained to the b tanning /b of hides, which lasts for the time that it takes a person to walk four i mil /i . b As we learned /b in a mishna: b And all /b types of thin, soft hides, which have the status of flesh with regard to ritual impurity because their texture is similar to flesh, b that were tanned /b in order to be made into leather, b or that one trod upon /b for as long as necessary b for /b the b leatherworking /b process, b are ritually pure. /b They are considered to be leather and are no longer considered like the flesh of the animal, b except for /b the b skin of a human /b corpse, which always remains ritually impure. The Gemara asks: b How much /b time must one tread upon b a hide for the leatherworking /b process? b Rabbi Ayvu said that Rabbi Yannai said: /b It is the amount of time it takes to b walk four i mil /i . /b , b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: They taught /b that one must search for water to wash one’s hands before eating or prayer for the amount of time it takes to walk four i mil /i b only /b when the water b is before him, /b in the direction that he is traveling. b However, /b when it is b behind him, he need not return even a i mil /i . Rav Aḥa said: From this /b statement one may infer that b he /b need b not return a i mil /i , but he must return less than one i mil /i /b in order to obtain water., strong MISHNA: /strong b How does one separate i ḥalla /i in ritual impurity during the Festival /b day of Passover? Ordinarily, one may separate ritually pure i ḥalla /i from dough and give it to a priest immediately so that he may eat it. Ritually impure i ḥalla /i is unfit for a priest and must be burned, yet it is prohibited to bake or burn anything that is not fit to be eaten during the Festival day. However, it is also prohibited to wait and burn it after the Festival day, since it will become leavened in the meantime., b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b A woman b should not designate it /b as i ḥalla /i prior to baking; rather, she should refrain from doing so b until it is baked. /b In other words, she should wait until she has baked all of the dough, and there is no risk of it becoming leavened. Only then should she separate i ḥalla /i from it. The portion of i ḥalla /i may then be kept until after the Festival day, when it may be burned. b Ben Beteira says: She should /b separate the i ḥalla /i before it is baked, and b place /b the dough b in cold /b water so that it will not become leavened. b Rabbi Yehoshua said: /b
70. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 125
22a. משמשת וראתה נדה אינה צריכה טבילה אבל בעל קרי גרידא מחייב לא תימא מברך אלא מהרהר,ומי אית ליה לרבי יהודה הרהור והתניא בעל קרי שאין לו מים לטבול קורא קריאת שמע ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ואוכל פתו ומברך לאחריה ואינו מברך לפניה אבל מהרהר בלבו ואינו מוציא בשפתיו דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בין כך ובין כך מוציא בשפתיו,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עשאן ר' יהודה כהלכות דרך ארץ,דתניא (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וכתיב בתריה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מה להלן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע אף כאן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע,מכאן אמרו הזבים והמצורעים ובאין על נדות מותרים לקרות בתורה ובנביאים ובכתובים לשנות במשנה וגמרא ובהלכות ובאגדות אבל בעלי קריין אסורים,רבי יוסי אומר שונה הוא ברגיליות ובלבד שלא יציע את המשנה רבי יונתן בן יוסף אומר מציע הוא את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא רבי נתן בן אבישלום אומר אף מציע את הגמרא ובלבד שלא יאמר אזכרות שבו רבי יוחנן הסנדלר תלמידו של רבי עקיבא משום ר"ע אומר לא יכנס למדרש כל עיקר ואמרי לה לא יכנס לבית המדרש כל עיקר ר' יהודה אומר שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ,מעשה ברבי יהודה שראה קרי והיה מהלך על גב הנהר אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו שנה לנו פרק אחד בהלכות דרך ארץ ירד וטבל ושנה להם אמרו לו לא כך למדתנו רבינו שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ אמר להם אע"פ שמיקל אני על אחרים מחמיר אני על עצמי:,תניא ר' יהודה בן בתירא היה אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה מעשה בתלמיד אחד שהיה מגמגם למעלה מרבי יהודה בן בתירא אמר ליה בני פתח פיך ויאירו דבריך שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' מה אש אינו מקבל טומאה אף דברי תורה אינן מקבלין טומאה,אמר מר מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא מסייע ליה לרבי אלעאי דאמר רבי אלעאי אמר ר' אחא בר יעקב משום רבינו הלכה מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא כתנאי מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה בן גמליאל אומר משום רבי חנינא בן גמליאל זה וזה אסור ואמרי לה זה וזה מותר,מ"ד זה וזה אסור כרבי יוחנן הסנדלר מ"ד זה וזה מותר כרבי יהודה בן בתירא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק נהוג עלמא כהני תלת סבי כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בד"ת,כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז דתניא רבי אלעאי אומר ראשית הגז אינו נוהג אלא בארץ,כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כדכתיב (דברים כב, ט) (כרמך) לא תזרע [כרמך] כלאים רבי יאשיה אומר לעולם אינו חייב עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד,כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בדברי תורה דתניא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה,כי אתא זעירי אמר בטלוה לטבילותא ואמרי לה בטלוה לנטילותא מאן דאמר בטלוה לטבילותא כרבי יהודה בן בתירא מאן דאמר בטלוה לנטילותא כי הא דרב חסדא לייט אמאן דמהדר אמיא בעידן צלותא:,תנו רבנן בעל קרי שנתנו עליו תשעה קבין מים טהור נחום איש גם זו לחשה לרבי עקיבא ורבי עקיבא לחשה לבן עזאי ובן עזאי יצא ושנאה לתלמידיו בשוק פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי בר אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבידא חד תני שנאה וחד תני לחשה,מאן דתני שנאה משום בטול תורה ומשום בטול פריה ורביה ומאן דתני לחשה שלא יהו תלמידי חכמים מצויים אצל נשותיהם כתרנגולים,אמר רבי ינאי שמעתי שמקילין בה ושמעתי שמחמירין בה וכל המחמיר בה על עצמו מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו,אמר ריב"ל מה טיבן של טובלי שחרין מה טיבן הא איהו דאמר בעל קרי אסור בדברי תורה הכי קאמר מה טיבן בארבעים סאה אפשר בתשעה קבין מה טיבן בטבילה אפשר בנתינה,אמר רבי חנינא גדר גדול גדרו בה דתניא מעשה באחד שתבע אשה לדבר עבירה אמרה לו ריקא יש לך ארבעים סאה שאתה טובל בהן מיד פירש,אמר להו רב הונא לרבנן רבותי מפני מה אתם מזלזלין בטבילה זו אי משום צינה אפשר במרחצאות,אמר ליה רב חסדא וכי יש טבילה בחמין אמר ליה רב אדא בר אהבה קאי כוותך,רבי זירא הוה יתיב באגנא דמיא בי מסותא אמר ליה לשמעיה זיל ואייתי לי תשעה קבין ושדי עלואי אמר ליה רבי חייא בר אבא למה ליה למר כולי האי והא יתיב בגווייהו אמר ליה כארבעים סאה מה ארבעים סאה בטבילה ולא בנתינה אף תשעה קבין בנתינה ולא בטבילה,רב נחמן תקן חצבא בת תשעה קבין כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי עקיבא ורבי יהודה גלוסטרא אמרו לא שנו אלא לחולה לאונסו אבל לחולה המרגיל ארבעים סאה,אמר רב יוסף אתבר חצביה דרב נחמן כי אתא רבין אמר באושא הוה עובדא 22a. that b a woman who engaged in intercourse and saw menstrual /b blood b is not required to immerse herself, but one who experienced a seminal emission alone, /b with no concurrent impurity, b is required to do so? /b If so, we must interpret Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna that one recites a blessing both beforehand and thereafter as follows: b Do not say /b that one b recites a blessing /b orally, but rather he means that b one contemplates /b those blessings in his heart.,The Gemara challenges this explanation: b And does Rabbi Yehuda maintain that /b there is validity to b contemplating /b in his heart? b Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who experienced a seminal emission and who has no water to immerse /b and purify himself b recites i Shema /i and neither recites the blessings /b of i Shema /i b beforehand nor thereafter? And /b when b he eats his bread, he recites the blessing thereafter, /b Grace after Meals, b but does not recite the blessing: /b Who brings forth bread from the earth, b beforehand. However, /b in the instances where he may not recite the blessing, b he contemplates /b it b in his heart rather than utter /b it b with his lips, /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b However b Rabbi Yehuda says: In either case, he utters /b all of the blessings b with his lips. /b Rabbi Yehuda does not consider contemplating the blessings in his heart a solution and permits them to be recited., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna should be interpreted in another way. b Rabbi Yehuda rendered /b the blessings b like i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , /b which according to some Sages were not considered to be in the same category as all other matters of Torah and therefore, one is permitted to engage in their study even after having experienced a seminal emission., b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : It is written: b “And you shall impart them to your children and your children’s children” /b (Deuteronomy 4:9), b and it is written thereafter: “The day that you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb” /b (Deuteronomy 4:10). b Just as below, /b the Revelation at Sinai was b in reverence, fear, quaking, and trembling, so too here, /b in every generation, Torah must be studied with a sense of b reverence, fear, quaking, and trembling. /b , b From here /b the Sages b stated: i Zavim /i , lepers, and those who engaged in intercourse with menstruating women, /b despite their severe impurity, b are permitted to read the Torah, Prophets, and Writings, and to study Mishna and Gemara and i halakhot /i and i aggada /i . However, those who experienced a seminal emission are prohibited /b from doing so. The reason for this distinction is that the cases of severe impurity are caused by ailment or other circumstances beyond his control and, as a result, they do not necessarily preclude a sense of reverence and awe as he studies Torah. This, however, is not the case with regard to impurity resulting from a seminal emission, which usually comes about due to frivolity and a lack of reverence and awe. Therefore, it is inappropriate for one who experiences a seminal emission to engage in matters of in Torah.,However, there are many opinions concerning the precise parameters of the Torah matters prohibited by this decree. b Rabbi Yosei says: /b One who experiences a seminal emission b studies /b i mishnayot /i that he is b accustomed /b to study, b as long as he does not expound upon a /b new b mishna /b to study it in depth. b Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef says: He expounds upon the mishna but he does not expound upon the Gemara, /b which is the in-depth analysis of the Torah. b Rabbi Natan ben Avishalom says: He may even expound upon the Gemara, as long as he does not utter /b the b mentions /b of God’s name b therein. Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler, Rabbi Akiva’s student, says in the name of Rabbi Akiva: /b One who experiences a seminal emission b may not enter into homiletic interpretation [ i midrash /i ] /b of verses b at all. Some say /b that he says: b He may not enter the study hall [ i beit hamidrash /i ] at all. Rabbi Yehuda says: He may study /b only b i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i . /b In terms of the problem raised above, apparently Rabbi Yehuda considers the legal status of the blessings to be parallel to the legal status of i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , and therefore one may utter them orally.,The Gemara relates b an incident involving Rabbi Yehuda /b himself, who b experienced a seminal emission and was walking along the riverbank /b with his disciples. b His disciples said to him: Rabbi, teach us a chapter from i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , /b as he maintained that even in a state of impurity, it is permitted. b He descended and immersed himself /b in the river b and taught them /b i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i . b They said to him: Did you not teach us, our teacher, that he may study i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i ? He said to them: Although I am lenient with others, /b and allow them to study it without immersion, b I am stringent with myself. /b ,Further elaborating on the issue of Torah study while in a state of impurity, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira would say: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure /b and therefore one who is impure is permitted to engage in Torah study. He implemented this i halakha /i in practice. The Gemara relates b an incident involving a student who was /b reciting i mishnayot /i and i baraitot /i b hesitantly before /b the study hall of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b The student experienced a seminal emission, and when he was asked to recite he did so in a rushed, uneven manner, as he did not want to utter the words of Torah explicitly. Rabbi Yehuda b said to him: My son, open your mouth and let your words illuminate, as matters of Torah do not become ritually impure, as it is stated: “Is not my word like fire, says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:29). b Just as fire does not become ritually impure, so too matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b ,In this i baraita /i b the Master said /b that one who is impure because of a seminal emission b expounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara. /b The Gemara notes: This statement b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai, /b as b Rabbi El’ai said /b that b Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said in the name of Rabbeinu, /b Rav b : The /b i halakha /i is that one who experienced a seminal emission b may expound upon the mishna but may not expound upon the Gemara. /b This dispute b is parallel a tannaitic /b dispute, as it was taught: One who experienced a seminal emission b expounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara; /b that is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: /b Both b this and that are prohibited. And some say /b that he said: Both b this and that are permitted. /b ,Comparing these opinions: b The one who said /b that both b this and that are prohibited /b holds b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler; the one who said /b that both b this and that are permitted /b holds b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b ,Summarizing the i halakha /i , b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The universally /b accepted b practice is in accordance with /b the opinions of b these three elders: In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai with regard to /b the i halakhot /i of b the first shearing, in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoshiya with regard to /b the laws of prohibited b diverse kinds, /b and b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard to matters of Torah. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai with regard to the first shearing, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi El’ai says: /b The obligation to set aside b the first shearing /b from the sheep for the priest b is only practiced in Eretz /b Yisrael and not in the Diaspora, and that is the accepted practice., b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoshiya with regard to diverse kinds, as it is written: “You shall not sow your vineyard with diverse kinds” /b (Deuteronomy 22:9). b Rabbi Yoshiya says: /b This means that b one /b who sows diverse kinds b is not liable /b by Torah law b until he sows wheat and barley and a /b grape b pit with a single hand motion, /b meaning that while sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously., b In accordance with Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard to /b one who experiences a seminal emission is permitted to engage in b matters of Torah, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b ,And the Gemara relates: b When Ze’iri came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he /b succinctly capsulated this i halakha /i and b said: They abolished ritual immersion, and some say that /b he said: b They abolished ritual washing of the hands. /b The Gemara explains: b The one who says /b that b they abolished immersion /b holds in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira /b that one who experienced a seminal emission is not required to immerse. b And the one who says /b that b they abolished washing of the hands /b holds b in accordance with that which Rav Ḥisda cursed one who /b goes out of his way b to seek water at the time of prayer. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who experienced a seminal emission who had nine i kav /i of /b drawn b water poured over him, /b that is sufficient to render him b ritually pure /b and he need not immerse himself in a ritual bath. The Gemara relates: b Naḥum of Gam Zo whispered /b this i halakha /i to b Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Akiva whispered it to /b his student b ben Azzai, and ben Azzai went out and taught it to his students /b publicly b in the marketplace. Two i amora’im /i in Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, disagreed /b as to the correct version of the conclusion of the incident. b One taught: /b Ben Azzai b taught it /b to his students in the market. b And the other taught: Ben Azzai /b also b whispered it /b to his students.,The Gemara explains the rationale behind the two versions of this incident. b The /b Sage b who taught /b that ben Azzai b taught /b the law openly in the market held that the leniency was b due to /b concern that the i halakhot /i requiring ritual immersion would promote b dereliction /b in the study b of Torah. /b The ruling of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira eases the way for an individual who experienced a seminal emission to study Torah. This was b also due to /b concern that the i halakhot /i requiring ritual immersion would promote b the suspension of procreation, /b as one might abstain from marital relations to avoid the immersion required thereafter. b And the /b Sage, b who taught /b that ben Azzai only b whispered /b this i halakha /i to his students, held that he did so b in order that Torah scholars would not be with their wives like roosters. /b If the purification process was that simple, Torah scholars would engage in sexual activity constantly, which would distract them from their studies.,With regard to this ritual immersion, b Rabbi Yannai said: I heard that there are those who are lenient with regard to it and I have heard that there are those who are stringent with regard to it. /b The i halakha /i in this matter was never conclusively established b and anyone who /b accepts b upon himself to be stringent with regard to it, they prolong for him his days and years. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the essence of those who immerse themselves in the morning? /b The Gemara retorts: How can one ask b what is their essence? Isn’t he /b the one b who said /b that b one who experiences a seminal emission is prohibited from /b engaging in b matters of Torah /b and is required to immerse himself in the morning? Rather, b this is /b what b he /b meant to b say: What is the essence of /b immersion in a ritual bath of b forty i se’a /i /b of water when b it is possible /b to purify oneself b with nine i kav /i ? /b Furthermore, b what is the essence of immersion /b when b it is /b also b possible /b to purify oneself by b pouring /b water?,Regarding this, b Rabbi Ḥanina said: They established a massive fence /b protecting one from sinning with their decree that one must immerse himself in forty i se’a /i of water. b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : There was b an incident involving one who solicited a woman to /b commit b a sinful act. She said to him: Good-for-nothing. Do you have forty i se’a /i in which to immerse /b and purify b yourself /b afterwards? He b immediately desisted. /b The obligation to immerse oneself caused individuals to refrain from transgression., b Rav Huna said to the Sages: Gentlemen, why do you disdain this immersion? If it is because /b it is difficult for you to immerse in the b cold /b waters of the ritual bath, b it is possible /b to purify oneself by immersing oneself in the heated b bathhouses, /b which are unfit for immersion for other forms of ritual impurity but are fit for immersion in this case., b Rabbi Ḥisda said to him: Is there ritual immersion in hot water? /b Rav Huna b said to him: /b Indeed, doubts with regard to the fitness of baths have been raised, and b Rav Adda bar Ahava holds in accordance with your /b opinion. Nevertheless, I remain convinced that it is permitted.,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Zeira was sitting in a tub of water in the bathhouse. He said to his attendant: Go and get nine i kav /i /b of water b and pour /b it b over me /b so that I may purify myself from the impurity caused by a seminal emission. b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to him: Why does my master /b require b all of this? Aren’t you seated in /b at least nine i kav /i of water in the tub. b He said to him: /b The law of nine i kav /i b parallels /b the law of b forty i se’a /i , /b in that their i halakhot /i are exclusive. b Just as forty i se’a /i /b can only purify an individual through b immersion and not through pouring, so too nine i kav /i /b can only purify one who experienced a seminal emission b through pouring and not through immersion. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rav Naḥman prepared a jug /b with a capacity b of nine i kav /i /b so that his students could pour water over themselves and become pure. b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yehuda Gelostera said: /b The i halakha /i that one who experienced a seminal emission can be purified by pouring nine i kav /i b was only taught for a sick person /b who experienced the emission b involuntarily. However, a sick person /b who experienced a b normal /b seminal emission in the course of marital relations, is required to immerse himself in b forty i se’a /i . /b , b Rav Yosef said: /b In that case, b Rav Naḥman’s jug is broken, /b meaning it is no longer of any use, as few people fall into the category of sick people who experienced seminal emissions. Nevertheless, b when Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: In Usha there was an incident /b
71. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 136
147b. דלהשתטף כל גופו אפי' לכתחילה שפיר דמי מני ר"ש היא דתניא לא ישתטף אדם בין בחמין בין בצונן דברי ר"מ ר"ש מתיר ר' יהודה אומר בחמין אסור בצונן מותר:,ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות: רישא רבותא קמ"ל וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל רישא רבותא קמ"ל דאפילו הני דלא נפישי בהו מיא כיון דחד הוא אתי לידי סחיטה וסיפא רבותא קמ"ל אפילו הני דנפישי בהו מיא כיון דרבים נינהו מדכרי אהדדי:,תנו רבנן מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומניחה בחלון ולא ימסרנה לאוליירין מפני שחשודים על אותו דבר רבי שמעון אומר מסתפג באלונטית אחת ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף הלכתא מאי אמר ליה הא ר' שמעון הא רבי הא שמואל הא ר' יוחנן,ר' שמעון הא דאמרן רבי דתניא אמר רבי כשהיינו למדין תורה אצל ר' שמעון בתקוע היינו מעלין שמן ואלונטית מחצר לגג ומגג לקרפף עד שהיינו מגיעין אצל מעין שהיינו רוחצין בו שמואל דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו ר' יוחנן דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן הלכה מסתפג אדם באלונטית ומביאה בידו לתוך ביתו,ומי א"ר יוחנן הכי והא"ר יוחנן הלכה כסתם משנה ותנן ונסתפג אפילו בעשר אלונטיות לא יביאם בידו ההוא כבן חכינאי מתני לה,א"ר חייא בר אבא אר"י האוליירין מביאין בלרי נשים לבי בני ובלבד שיתכסה בהן ראשן ורובן סכניתא צריך לקשר ב' ראשיה למטה א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן למטה מכתפיים אמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא כי מעבריתו מאני לבני חילא שרביבו בהו למטה מכתפיים:,סכין וממשמשין: ת"ר סכין וממשמשין בבני מעיים בשבת ובלבד שלא יעשה כדרך שהוא עושה בחול היכי עביד ר' חמא בר חנינא אמר סך ואח"כ ממשמש ר' יוחנן אמר סך וממשמש בבת אחת:,אבל לא מתעמלין: א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אסור לעמוד בקרקעיתה של דיומסת מפני שמעמלת ומרפא אמר ר' יהודה אמר רב כל ימיה של דיומסת עשרים ואחד יום ועצרת מן המנין איבעיא להו עצרת (בתחלה) להאי גיסא או להאי גיסא ת"ש דאמר שמואל כולהו שקייני מדיבחא ועד עצרתא מעלו דילמא התם הוא דכמה דקריר עלמא מעלי אבל הכא משום הבלא הוא כיון דחמים עלמא טפי מעלי,אמר רבי חלבו חמרא דפרוגייתא ומיא דדיומסת קיפחו עשרת השבטים מישראל,רבי אלעזר בן ערך איקלע להתם אימשיך בתרייהו איעקר תלמודיה כי הדר אתא קם למיקרי בספרא בעא למיקרא (שמות יב, ב) החדש הזה לכם אמר החרש היה לבם בעו רבנן רחמי עליה והדר תלמודיה,והיינו דתנן ר' נהוראי אומר הוי גולה למקום תורה ואל תאמר שהיא תבא אחריך שחבריך יקיימוה בידך ואל בינתך אל תשען תנא לא ר' נהוראי שמו אלא ר' נחמיה שמו ואמרי לה ר' אלעזר בן ערך שמו ולמה נקרא שמו ר' נהוראי שמנהיר עיני חכמים בהלכה:,אבל לא מתגררין: ת"ר אין גוררין במגררת בשבת רשב"ג אומר אם היו רגליו מלוכלכות בטיט ובצואה גורר כדרכו ואינו חושש רב שמואל בר יהודה עבדא ליה אימיה מגררתא דכספא:,אין יורדין לקורדימא וכו': מאי טעמא משום פיקא:,ואין עושין אפיקטויזין בשבת: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא בסם אבל ביד מותר תניא רבי נחמיה אומר אף בחול אסור מפני הפסד אוכלין:,ואין מעצבין את הקטן: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן לפופי ינוקא בשבת שפיר דמי והאנן תנן אין מעצבין התם בחומרי שדרה דמיחזי כבונה:,ואין מחזירין את השבר: אמר רבי חנא בגדתאה אמר שמואל 147b. that b rinsing one’s entire body /b by pouring water on it rather than bathing in the standard fashion may b well /b be done b even i ab initio /i /b . The Gemara asks: According to b whose /b opinion is our mishna? The Gemara answers: b It is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may not rinse himself /b on Shabbat, b neither with hot /b water b nor with cold /b water; this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon permits /b rinsing one’s body even with hot water. b Rabbi Yehuda says /b that there is a distinction: b With hot /b water b it is prohibited /b and b with cold /b water b it is permitted. /b ,The mishna addressed the permissibility of drying oneself with a towel after bathing on Shabbat, and added the phrase: b And dried himself off even with ten towels. /b The Gemara comments on the formulation of the mishna: b The first clause teaches us a novel /b concept, b and the latter clause teaches us a novel /b concept. The Gemara explains: b The first clause: /b One who…dried himself even with ten towels may not carry them, b teaches us a novel /b concept, b that /b the prohibition applies b even /b to b these /b towels, b which do not have much water /b absorbed b in them. /b The reason for this is that b since he is one /b person, b he /b may b come to squeeze /b them. b And the latter clause teaches us a novel /b concept, that b even these /b ten people may carry the towel that they have all used, despite the fact b that they have /b absorbed b much water /b and the towel is very wet. The reason for this is that b since they are many /b people, b they remind each other /b not to wring the towel., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may dry himself with a towel /b on Shabbat b and leave it in the window /b of the bathhouse; b and one may not give it to the bath attendants, because they are suspect in this matter /b of wringing out towels. b Rabbi Shimon says: One may dry himself with a single towel and carry it in his hand into his home, /b and there is no concern lest he wring out the water., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: What is the i halakha /i /b with regard to carrying a towel home after using it to dry himself? Rav Yosef b said to him: There is Rabbi Shimon, there is Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b there is Shmuel, /b and b there is Rabbi Yoḥa, /b all of whom permit it.,The Gemara elaborates: b Rabbi Shimon /b rules leniently, b as we have /b already b stated /b that he permits bathing and drying oneself with a towel and then bringing it home. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi agrees, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: When we would study Torah with Rabbi Shimon in Tekoa, we would carry oil and towels from the courtyard to the roof and from the roof into an enclosure /b similar to a courtyard b until we reached the spring in which we would bathe, /b without passing through a public domain. In Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, it is permitted to carry a towel both before and after using it to dry oneself. b Shmuel /b is also lenient, as b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said /b explicitly: b One may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his home. Rabbi Yoḥa /b is also lenient, as b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b The b i halakha /i /b is that b one may dry himself with a towel and carry it in his hand into his house. /b ,The Gemara challenges this last point: b And did Rabbi Yoḥa /b really b say that? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa state /b a principle that b the i halakha /i is in accordance with an unattributed mishna, /b in which the name of the i tanna /i who issued the rulings does not appear? b And we learned /b explicitly in our mishna, which is unattributed, that if one bathed b and dried himself even with ten towels, he may not carry them in his hand. /b The Gemara answers: Rabbi Yoḥa’s version of the mishna does not teach this i halakha /i unattributed; rather, it b teaches it in accordance with /b the opinion of b ben Ḥakhinai, /b which is the opinion of an individual Sage that is not the accepted i halakha /i ., b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Bath attendants may bring women’s bathing garments [ i balarei /i ] to the bathhouse /b on Shabbat b as long as they cover their heads and the majority of their bodies with them, /b so that they are being worn rather than carried. With regard to the b large scarf /b that is worn draped over one’s shoulders, b one must tie its two ends /b together b below /b so that it will not fall. b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b This means that one must tie it b below the shoulders. /b In a similar vein, b Rava said to the inhabitants of /b his city, b Meḥoza: When you transport clothing for the soldiers /b who are staying in the city, b extend them beneath your shoulders /b so that you will wear them like a garment and not simply carry them.,We learned in the mishna: b One may smear oil and rub /b a person’s body by hand on Shabbat. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may smear oil /b on b and rub /b his b intestinal /b area b on Shabbat, /b and it is not a prohibited form of healing, b provided he does not do so in the manner in which he does during the week. /b The Gemara asks: b How /b then b does one do /b this on Shabbat? b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One /b first b smears oil and afterward rubs /b the body. And b Rabbi Yoḥa said: One smears oil and rubs simultaneously. /b ,The mishna taught: b However, one may not exert himself /b on Shabbat. b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: It is prohibited to stand on the floor of /b the therapeutic bathhouse of b Deyomset /b on Shabbat, b because it warms and heals /b even if one is not bathing or exerting himself. b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: The entire period /b that bathing in b Deyomset /b is therapeutic b is twenty-one days; and i Shavuot /i is included. /b The Gemara b raises a dilemma: Is i Shavuot /i on this side, /b at the beginning, of the twenty-one-day period, b or on this side, /b at the end, of the twenty-one days? b Come /b and b hear /b a resolution to this dilemma from that which b Shmuel said: All /b medicinal b drinks are effective from Passover to i Shavuot /i ; /b apparently, the waters of the Deyomset are therapeutic in the time period leading up to i Shavuot /i . The Gemara rejects this proof: b Perhaps there, /b with regard to medicinal drinks, b it is /b so, because b the cooler the world, the better /b these drinks heal; b however, here, /b with regard to bathing, the therapeutic effect is b due to the heat, /b and therefore b the warmer the world, the better. /b The time period during which bathing is effective would only begin with i Shavuot /i .,Apropos Deyomset, the Gemara cites that b Rabbi Ḥelbo said: The wine of Phrygia [ i Perugaita /i ] and the water /b of b the Deyomset deprived Israel /b of the b ten /b lost b tribes. /b Because the members of these tribes were attracted to the pleasures of wine and bathing and did not occupy themselves with Torah, they were lost to the Jewish people.,The Gemara relates that once b Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh happened /b to come b there, /b to Phrygia and Deyomset, and b he was drawn after them, /b and b his /b Torah b learning was forgotten. When he returned, he stood to read from a /b Torah b scroll /b and b was supposed to read /b the verse: b “This month shall be for you [ i haḥodesh hazeh lakhem /i ]” /b (Exodus 12:2), but he had forgotten so much that he could barely remember how to read the Hebrew letters, and instead he read: b Have their hearts become deaf /b [ b i haḥeresh haya libbam /i ], /b interchanging the similar letters i reish /i for i dalet /i , i yod /i for i zayin /i , and i beit /i for i khaf /i . b The Sages /b prayed and b asked for /b God to have b mercy on him, and his learning was restored. /b , b And that is /b what b we learned /b in a mishna that b Rabbi Nehorai says: Exile yourself to a place of Torah and do not say that it will follow you, as /b if you are in a place of Torah, b your colleagues will establish it in your hands, and do not rely on your understanding /b alone. b It was taught: Rabbi Nehorai was not his name, but rather Rabbi Neḥemya was his name; and some say /b that b Rabbi Elazar ben Arakh was his name /b and his statement was based on the personal experience of forgetting his Torah due to his failure to exile himself to a place of Torah. b And why was he called Rabbi Nehorai? /b It was b because he would illuminate [ i manhir /i ] the eyes of the Sages in i halakha /i . /b ,The mishna taught: b However, one may not scrape /b off the oil on Shabbat. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One may not scrape /b his body b with a scraper on Shabbat. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: If one’s feet were dirty with mortar and excrement he may scrape /b them b in the usual manner /b with a scraper b and need not be concerned /b about violating a prohibition. b Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda’s mother made him a silver scraper /b to use on Shabbat to distinguish it from a weekday.,The mishna also taught that b one may not enter a swampy river /b full of mud on Shabbat. The Gemara explains: b What is the reason /b for this? b Due to the mud, /b as it is likely that one will slip and fall and come to violate the prohibitions of bathing and wringing out his clothes.,We also learned in the mishna that b one may not make a drug to induce vomiting /b on Shabbat. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: They only taught /b that this is prohibited b with a drug, /b which is considered a medicine; b however, /b inducing vomiting b by hand is permitted. It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Neḥemya says: Even during the week, /b if one need not vomit for medical reasons, b it is prohibited /b to induce vomiting b because /b it causes b loss of food. /b , b And /b we learned in the mishna that b one may not align a young /b infant’s bones in order to straighten them on Shabbat. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b With regard to b swaddling an infant /b on Shabbat, one may b well /b do so. The Gemara challenges this statement: b Didn’t we learn /b in the mishna that b one may not align /b an infant’s bones? The Gemara answers: b There, /b the mishna is referring to b the bones, /b vertebrae, b of the spine, because /b straightening them b appears like /b the prohibited labor of b building. /b ,We also learned in the mishna that b one may not reset a break /b in a bone on Shabbat. b Rav Ḥana of Baghdad said /b that b Shmuel said: /b
72. Philostratus, Pictures, 1.15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 184
73. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Commodus, 17.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41
74. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Elagabalus, 21.6, 30.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 36, 41
75. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Commodus, 17.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41
76. Anon., Midrash Psalms, 119.41 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
77. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Al. Sev., 39.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41
78. Libanius, Letters, 11.10 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
79. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.7.5-30.7.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 140, 146
80. Augustine, De Ordine Libri Duo, 1.8.25 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 36
81. Procopius, On Buildings, 1.11.21, 2.6.10-2.6.11, 2.8.24-2.8.25, 4.1.20-4.1.24, 4.10.21 (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 40, 41
82. John Moschus, Prat., 11  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 140
83. Papyri, P.Oxy., 1889, 43, 4441, 53-54, 892, 896  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 46, 53
84. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Antoninus Pius, 8.3  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41
85. Anon., Leges Publicae, 3.44  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 201
86. Anon., Kallah Rabbati Higge, 9.13  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 143
87. Anon., Tanchuma (Buber), None  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 147
88. Various, Anthologia Latina, 1.99-1.101  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 164
89. Anon., Derech Eretz Rabba, 7.11, 10.1, 10.4  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 143, 144, 246
90. Anon., Sefer Harazim, 3.16-3.35  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 246
93. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 146
94. Epigraphy, Cil, 3.324, 4.10677, 8.8926, 9.3677, 11.4781, 14.2121  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 41, 140, 155, 242
95. Anon., Anthologia Latina, 1.99-1.101  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 164
96. Anon., Sefer Raziel, 3.16-3.35  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 246
97. Anon., Semahot, 12.12  Tagged with subjects: •mediterranean, roman Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 201