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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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subject book bibliographic info
mattathias Ben-Eliyahu (2019), Identity and Territory : Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity. 44
Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1088, 1102, 1106, 1124, 1126, 1130, 1134
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 32, 34
Honigman (2014), Tales of High Priests and Taxes : The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV 6, 66, 147, 163, 170, 171, 172, 173, 178, 179, 180, 185, 211, 249, 255, 281, 282, 284, 291, 313, 314, 397, 449, 458
Jonquière (2007), Prayer in Josephus Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity, 266
Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 362, 575
mattathias, antigonus Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 3, 92, 94, 96, 98, 99, 100, 104, 107, 125, 126, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 152
Hachlili (2005), Jewish Funerary Customs, Practices And Rites In The Second Temple Period, 301
mattathias, antigonus ii Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 38, 60, 61, 62, 92
mattathias, hasmonean Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 40, 43, 324, 326
mattathias, hasmonean priest Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 36, 162, 169
mattathias, his eulogy of the fathers Honigman (2014), Tales of High Priests and Taxes : The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV 147, 178
mattathias, maccabee Geljon and Vos (2014), Violence in Ancient Christianity: Victims and Perpetrators 46
mattathias, onias iii, and Honigman (2014), Tales of High Priests and Taxes : The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV 177, 178
mattathias, the hasmonean Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 43, 44, 45, 47, 105, 109
mattathias, the maccabee Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 65

List of validated texts:
4 validated results for "mattathias"
1. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.11-1.15, 1.41, 1.43-1.48, 1.52, 1.54, 1.60-1.61, 1.64, 2.1, 2.7, 2.16, 2.18-2.20, 2.22-2.65, 2.67-2.68, 6.21, 7.5, 13.3, 14.4-14.15, 14.29, 14.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antigonus Mattathias • Mattathias • Mattathias (Hasmonean) • Mattathias the Hasmonean • Mattathias, his Eulogy of the Fathers • Onias III, and Mattathias

 Found in books: Ben-Eliyahu (2019), Identity and Territory : Jewish Perceptions of Space in Antiquity. 44; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1088, 1106, 1124, 1130; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 32; Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 43, 44, 45, 47, 105, 107, 109; Honigman (2014), Tales of High Priests and Taxes : The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV 6, 147, 163, 170, 171, 172, 173, 178, 179, 180, 211, 249, 255, 281, 282, 284, 313, 397; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 40, 43, 324, 326; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 362, 575; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115

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1.11 In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us." 1.12 This proposal pleased them, 1.13 and some of the people eagerly went to the king. He authorized them to observe the ordices of the Gentiles. 1.14 So they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, according to Gentile custom, 1.15 and removed the marks of circumcision, and abandoned the holy covet. They joined with the Gentiles and sold themselves to do evil.
1.41
Then the king wrote to his whole kingdom that all should be one people,
1.43
All the Gentiles accepted the command of the king. Many even from Israel gladly adopted his religion; they sacrificed to idols and profaned the sabbath. 1.44 And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land, 1.45 to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts, 1.46 to defile the sanctuary and the priests, 1.47 to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals, 1.48 and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane,
1.52
Many of the people, every one who forsook the law, joined them, and they did evil in the land;
1.54
Now on the fifteenth day of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-fifth year, they erected a desolating sacrilege upon the altar of burnt offering. They also built altars in the surrounding cities of Judah,
1.60
According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised, 1.61 and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks.
1.64
And very great wrath came upon Israel.
2.1
In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein.
2.7
and said, "Alas! Why was I born to see this,the ruin of my people, the ruin of the holy city,and to dwell there when it was given over to the enemy,the sanctuary given over to aliens?

2.16
Many from Israel came to them; and Mattathias and his sons were assembled.

2.18
Now be the first to come and do what the king commands, as all the Gentiles and the men of Judah and those that are left in Jerusalem have done. Then you and your sons will be numbered among the friends of the king, and you and your sons will be honored with silver and gold and many gifts."
2.19
But Mattathias answered and said in a loud voice: "Even if all the nations that live under the rule of the king obey him, and have chosen to do his commandments, departing each one from the religion of his fathers, 2.20 yet I and my sons and my brothers will live by the covet of our fathers.
2.22
We will not obey the kings words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left." 2.23 When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice upon the altar in Modein, according to the kings command. 2.24 When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.25 At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar. 2.26 Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27 Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me!" 2.28 And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city. 2.29 Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there, 2.30 they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31 And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32 Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33 And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live." 2.34 But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day." 2.35 Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36 But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places, 2.37 for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly." 2.38 So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 2.39 When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply. 2.40 And each said to his neighbor: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordices, they will quickly destroy us from the earth." 2.41 So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places." 2.42 Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 2.43 And all who became fugitives to escape their troubles joined them and reinforced them. 2.44 They organized an army, and struck down sinners in their anger and lawless men in their wrath; the survivors fled to the Gentiles for safety. 2.45 And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars; 2.46 they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel. 2.47 They hunted down the arrogant men, and the work prospered in their hands. 2.48 They rescued the law out of the hands of the Gentiles and kings, and they never let the sinner gain the upper hand. 2.49 Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50 Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51 Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52 Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53 Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54 Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55 Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56 Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57 David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58 Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59 Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60 Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61 And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62 Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63 Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64 My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 2.65 Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father.
2.67
You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people. 2.68 Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands." 2 In those days Mattathias the son of John, son of Simeon, a priest of the sons of Joarib, moved from Jerusalem and settled in Modein., He had five sons, John surnamed Gaddi,, Simon called Thassi,, Judas called Maccabeus,, Eleazar called Avaran, and Jonathan called Apphus., He saw the blasphemies being committed in Judah and Jerusalem,, and said, "Alas! Why was I born to see this,the ruin of my people, the ruin of the holy city,and to dwell there when it was given over to the enemy,the sanctuary given over to aliens?, Her temple has become like a man without honor;, her glorious vessels have been carried into captivity. Her babes have been killed in her streets,her youths by the sword of the foe., What nation has not inherited her palaces and has not seized her spoils?, All her adornment has been taken away;no longer free, she has become a slave., And behold, our holy place, our beauty,and our glory have been laid waste;the Gentiles have profaned it., Why should we live any longer?", And Mattathias and his sons rent their clothes, put on sackcloth, and mourned greatly.,Then the kings officers who were enforcing the apostasy came to the city of Modein to make them offer sacrifice., Many from Israel came to them; and Mattathias and his sons were assembled., Then the kings officers spoke to Mattathias as follows: "You are a leader, honored and great in this city, and supported by sons and brothers., Now be the first to come and do what the king commands, as all the Gentiles and the men of Judah and those that are left in Jerusalem have done. Then you and your sons will be numbered among the friends of the king, and you and your sons will be honored with silver and gold and many gifts.",But Mattathias answered and said in a loud voice: "Even if all the nations that live under the rule of the king obey him, and have chosen to do his commandments, departing each one from the religion of his fathers,, yet I and my sons and my brothers will live by the covet of our fathers., Far be it from us to desert the law and the ordices., We will not obey the kings words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left.",When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice upon the altar in Modein, according to the kings command., When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar., At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar., Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu.,Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me!", And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city.,Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there,, they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them., And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness., Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day., And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live.", But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day.", Then the enemy hastened to attack them., But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places,, for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly.", So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons.,When Mattathias and his friends learned of it, they mourned for them deeply., And each said to his neighbor: "If we all do as our brethren have done and refuse to fight with the Gentiles for our lives and for our ordices, they will quickly destroy us from the earth.", So they made this decision that day: "Let us fight against every man who comes to attack us on the sabbath day; let us not all die as our brethren died in their hiding places.",Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law., And all who became fugitives to escape their troubles joined them and reinforced them., They organized an army, and struck down sinners in their anger and lawless men in their wrath; the survivors fled to the Gentiles for safety., And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars;, they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel., They hunted down the arrogant men, and the work prospered in their hands., They rescued the law out of the hands of the Gentiles and kings, and they never let the sinner gain the upper hand.,Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger., Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers.,Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name., Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness?, Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt., Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood., Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel., Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land., David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever., Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven., Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame., Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions.,And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength., Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms., Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish., My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor.,Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father., Judas Maccabeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples., You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people., Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands.",Then he blessed them, and was gathered to his fathers., He died in the one hundred and forty-sixth year and was buried in the tomb of his fathers at Modein. And all Israel mourned for him with great lamentation. 3 Then Judas his son, who was called Maccabeus, took command in his place., All his brothers and all who had joined his father helped him; they gladly fought for Israel., He extended the glory of his people. Like a giant he put on his breastplate;he girded on his armor of war and waged battles,protecting the host by his sword., He was like a lion in his deeds,like a lions cub roaring for prey., He searched out and pursued the lawless;he burned those who troubled his people., Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;all the evildoers were confounded;and deliverance prospered by his hand., He embittered many kings,but he made Jacob glad by his deeds,and his memory is blessed for ever., He went through the cities of Judah;he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;thus he turned away wrath from Israel., He was renowned to the ends of the earth;he gathered in those who were perishing.,But Apollonius gathered together Gentiles and a large force from Samaria to fight against Israel., When Judas learned of it, he went out to meet him, and he defeated and killed him. Many were wounded and fell, and the rest fled., Then they seized their spoils; and Judas took the sword of Apollonius, and used it in battle the rest of his life.,Now when Seron, the commander of the Syrian army, heard that Judas had gathered a large company, including a body of faithful men who stayed with him and went out to battle,, he said, "I will make a name for myself and win honor in the kingdom. I will make war on Judas and his companions, who scorn the kings command.", And again a strong army of ungodly men went up with him to help him, to take vengeance on the sons of Israel.,When he approached the ascent of Beth-horon, Judas went out to meet him with a small company., But when they saw the army coming to meet them, they said to Judas, "How can we, few as we are, fight against so great and strong a multitude? And we are faint, for we have eaten nothing today.", Judas replied, "It is easy for many to be hemmed in by few, for in the sight of Heaven there is no difference between saving by many or by few., It is not on the size of the army that victory in battle depends, but strength comes from Heaven., They come against us in great pride and lawlessness to destroy us and our wives and our children, and to despoil us;, but we fight for our lives and our laws., He himself will crush them before us; as for you, do not be afraid of them.",When he finished speaking, he rushed suddenly against Seron and his army, and they were crushed before him., They pursued them down the descent of Beth-horon to the plain; eight hundred of them fell, and the rest fled into the land of the Philistines., Then Judas and his brothers began to be feared, and terror fell upon the Gentiles round about them., His fame reached the king, and the Gentiles talked of the battles of Judas.,When king Antiochus heard these reports, he was greatly angered; and he sent and gathered all the forces of his kingdom, a very strong army., And he opened his coffers and gave a years pay to his forces, and ordered them to be ready for any need., Then he saw that the money in the treasury was exhausted, and that the revenues from the country were small because of the dissension and disaster which he had caused in the land by abolishing the laws that had existed from the earliest days., He feared that he might not have such funds as he had before for his expenses and for the gifts which he used to give more lavishly than preceding kings., He was greatly perplexed in mind, and determined to go to Persia and collect the revenues from those regions and raise a large fund.,He left Lysias, a distinguished man of royal lineage, in charge of the kings affairs from the river Euphrates to the borders of Egypt., Lysias was also to take care of Antiochus his son until he returned., And he turned over to Lysias half of his troops and the elephants, and gave him orders about all that he wanted done. As for the residents of Judea and Jerusalem,, Lysias was to send a force against them to wipe out and destroy the strength of Israel and the remt of Jerusalem; he was to banish the memory of them from the place,, settle aliens in all their territory, and distribute their land., Then the king took the remaining half of his troops and departed from Antioch his capital in the one hundred and forty-seventh year. He crossed the Euphrates river and went through the upper provinces.,Lysias chose Ptolemy the son of Dorymenes, and Nicanor and Gorgias, mighty men among the friends of the king,, and sent with them forty thousand infantry and seven thousand cavalry to go into the land of Judah and destroy it, as the king had commanded., so they departed with their entire force, and when they arrived they encamped near Emmaus in the plain., When the traders of the region heard what was said to them, they took silver and gold in immense amounts, and fetters, and went to the camp to get the sons of Israel for slaves. And forces from Syria and the land of the Philistines joined with them.,Now Judas and his brothers saw that misfortunes had increased and that the forces were encamped in their territory. They also learned what the king had commanded to do to the people to cause their final destruction., But they said to one another, "Let us repair the destruction of our people, and fight for our people and the sanctuary.", And the congregation assembled to be ready for battle, and to pray and ask for mercy and compassion., Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness;not one of her children went in or out. The sanctuary was trampled down,and the sons of aliens held the citadel;it was a lodging place for the Gentiles. Joy was taken from Jacob;the flute and the harp ceased to play.,So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah., They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes., And they opened the book of the law to inquire into those matters about which the Gentiles were consulting the images of their idols., They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days;, and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, "What shall we do with these?Where shall we take them?, Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation., And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us., How will we be able to withstand them,if thou dost not help us?",Then they sounded the trumpets and gave a loud shout., After this Judas appointed leaders of the people, in charge of thousands and hundreds and fifties and tens., And he said to those who were building houses, or were betrothed, or were planting vineyards, or were fainthearted, that each should return to his home, according to the law., Then the army marched out and encamped to the south of Emmaus.,And Judas said, "Gird yourselves and be valiant. Be ready early in the morning to fight with these Gentiles who have assembled against us to destroy us and our sanctuary., It is better for us to die in battle than to see the misfortunes of our nation and of the sanctuary., But as his will in heaven may be, so he will do." 4 Now Gorgias took five thousand infantry and a thousand picked cavalry, and this division moved out by night, to fall upon the camp of the Jews and attack them suddenly. Men from the citadel were his guides., But Judas heard of it, and he and his mighty men moved out to attack the kings force in Emmaus, while the division was still absent from the camp., When Gorgias entered the camp of Judas by night, he found no one there, so he looked for them in the hills, because he said, "These men are fleeing from us.",At daybreak Judas appeared in the plain with three thousand men, but they did not have armor and swords such as they desired., And they saw the camp of the Gentiles, strong and fortified, with cavalry round about it; and these men were trained in war., But Judas said to the men who were with him, "Do not fear their numbers or be afraid when they charge., Remember how our fathers were saved at the Red Sea, when Pharaoh with his forces pursued them., And now let us cry to Heaven, to see whether he will favor us and remember his covet with our fathers and crush this army before us today., Then all the Gentiles will know that there is one who redeems and saves Israel.",When the foreigners looked up and saw them coming against them,, they went forth from their camp to battle. Then the men with Judas blew their trumpets, and engaged in battle. The Gentiles were crushed and fled into the plain,, and all those in the rear fell by the sword. They pursued them to Gazara, and to the plains of Idumea, and to Azotus and Jamnia; and three thousand of them fell., Then Judas and his force turned back from pursuing them,, and he said to the people, "Do not be greedy for plunder, for there is a battle before us;, Gorgias and his force are near us in the hills. But stand now against our enemies and fight them, and afterward seize the plunder boldly.",Just as Judas was finishing this speech, a detachment appeared, coming out of the hills., They saw that their army had been put to flight, and that the Jews were burning the camp, for the smoke that was seen showed what had happened., When they perceived this they were greatly frightened, and when they also saw the army of Judas drawn up in the plain for battle,, they all fled into the land of the Philistines., Then Judas returned to plunder the camp, and they seized much gold and silver, and cloth dyed blue and sea purple, and great riches., On their return they sang hymns and praises to Heaven, for he is good, for his mercy endures for ever., Thus Israel had a great deliverance that day.,Those of the foreigners who escaped went and reported to Lysias all that had happened., When he heard it, he was perplexed and discouraged, for things had not happened to Israel as he had intended, nor had they turned out as the king had commanded him., But the next year he mustered sixty thousand picked infantrymen and five thousand cavalry to subdue them., They came into Idumea and encamped at Beth-zur, and Judas met them with ten thousand men.,When he saw that the army was strong, he prayed, saying, "Blessed art thou, O Savior of Israel, who didst crush the attack of the mighty warrior by the hand of thy servant David, and didst give the camp of the Philistines into the hands of Jonathan, the son of Saul, and of the man who carried his armor., So do thou hem in this army by the hand of thy people Israel, and let them be ashamed of their troops and their cavalry., Fill them with cowardice; melt the boldness of their strength; let them tremble in their destruction., Strike them down with the sword of those who love thee, and let all who know thy name praise thee with hymns.",Then both sides attacked, and there fell of the army of Lysias five thousand men; they fell in action., And when Lysias saw the rout of his troops and observed the boldness which inspired those of Judas, and how ready they were either to live or to die nobly, he departed to Antioch and enlisted mercenaries, to invade Judea again with an even larger army.,Then said Judas and his brothers, "Behold, our enemies are crushed; let us go up to cleanse the sanctuary and dedicate it.", So all the army assembled and they went up to Mount Zion., And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins., Then they rent their clothes, and mourned with great lamentation, and sprinkled themselves with ashes., They fell face down on the ground, and sounded the signal on the trumpets, and cried out to Heaven., Then Judas detailed men to fight against those in the citadel until he had cleansed the sanctuary.,He chose blameless priests devoted to the law,, and they cleansed the sanctuary and removed the defiled stones to an unclean place., They deliberated what to do about the altar of burnt offering, which had been profaned., And they thought it best to tear it down, lest it bring reproach upon them, for the Gentiles had defiled it. So they tore down the altar,, and stored the stones in a convenient place on the temple hill until there should come a prophet to tell what to do with them., Then they took unhewn stones, as the law directs, and built a new altar like the former one., They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts., They made new holy vessels, and brought the lampstand, the altar of incense, and the table into the temple., Then they burned incense on the altar and lighted the lamps on the lampstand, and these gave light in the temple., They placed the bread on the table and hung up the curtains. Thus they finished all the work they had undertaken.,Early in the morning on the twenty-fifth day of the ninth month, which is the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and forty-eighth year,, they rose and offered sacrifice, as the law directs, on the new altar of burnt offering which they had built., At the very season and on the very day that the Gentiles had profaned it, it was dedicated with songs and harps and lutes and cymbals., All the people fell on their faces and worshiped and blessed Heaven, who had prospered them., So they celebrated the dedication of the altar for eight days, and offered burnt offerings with gladness; they offered a sacrifice of deliverance and praise., They decorated the front of the temple with golden crowns and small shields; they restored the gates and the chambers for the priests, and furnished them with doors., There was very great gladness among the people, and the reproach of the Gentiles was removed.,Then Judas and his brothers and all the assembly of Israel determined that every year at that season the days of dedication of the altar should be observed with gladness and joy for eight days, beginning with the twenty-fifth day of the month of Chislev.,At that time they fortified Mount Zion with high walls and strong towers round about, to keep the Gentiles from coming and trampling them down as they had done before., And he stationed a garrison there to hold it. He also fortified Beth-zur, so that the people might have a stronghold that faced Idumea. 5 When the Gentiles round about heard that the altar had been built and the sanctuary dedicated as it was before, they became very angry,, and they determined to destroy the descendants of Jacob who lived among them. So they began to kill and destroy among the people., But Judas made war on the sons of Esau in Idumea, at Akrabattene, because they kept lying in wait for Israel. He dealt them a heavy blow and humbled them and despoiled them., He also remembered the wickedness of the sons of Baean, who were a trap and a snare to the people and ambushed them on the highways., They were shut up by him in their towers; and he encamped against them, vowed their complete destruction, and burned with fire their towers and all who were in them., Then he crossed over to attack the Ammonites, where he found a strong band and many people with Timothy as their leader., He engaged in many battles with them and they were crushed before him; he struck them down., He also took Jazer and its villages; then he returned to Judea.,Now the Gentiles in Gilead gathered together against the Israelites who lived in their territory, and planned to destroy them. But they fled to the stronghold of Dathema,, and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us., They are preparing to come and capture the stronghold to which we have fled, and Timothy is leading their forces., Now then come and rescue us from their hands, for many of us have fallen,, and all our brethren who were in the land of Tob have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there.",While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report;, they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, "to annihilate us.", When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies., Then Judas said to Simon his brother, "Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead.", But he left Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, a leader of the people, with the rest of the forces, in Judea to guard it;, and he gave them this command, "Take charge of this people, but do not engage in battle with the Gentiles until we return.", Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead.,so Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him., He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them., Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judea with great rejoicing.,Judas Maccabeus and Jonathan his brother crossed the Jordan and went three days journey into the wilderness., They encountered the Nabateans, who met them peaceably and told them all that had happened to their brethren in Gilead:, "Many of them have been shut up in Bozrah and Bosor, in Alema and Chaspho, Maked and Carnaim" -- all these cities were strong and large--, "and some have been shut up in the other cities of Gilead; the enemy are getting ready to attack the strongholds tomorrow and take and destroy all these men in one day.",Then Judas and his army quickly turned back by the wilderness road to Bozrah; and he took the city, and killed every male by the edge of the sword; then he seized all its spoils and burned it with fire., He departed from there at night, and they went all the way to the stronghold of Dathema., At dawn they looked up, and behold, a large company, that could not be counted, carrying ladders and engines of war to capture the stronghold, and attacking the Jews within., So Judas saw that the battle had begun and that the cry of the city went up to Heaven with trumpets and loud shouts,, and he said to the men of his forces, "Fight today for your brethren!", Then he came up behind them in three companies, who sounded their trumpets and cried aloud in prayer., And when the army of Timothy realized that it was Maccabeus, they fled before him, and he dealt them a heavy blow. As many as eight thousand of them fell that day.,Next he turned aside to Alema, and fought against it and took it; and he killed every male in it, plundered it, and burned it with fire., From there he marched on and took Chaspho, Maked, and Bosor, and the other cities of Gilead.,After these things Timothy gathered another army and encamped opposite Raphon, on the other side of the stream., Judas sent men to spy out the camp, and they reported to him, "All the Gentiles around us have gathered to him; it is a very large force., They also have hired Arabs to help them, and they are encamped across the stream, ready to come and fight against you." And Judas went to meet them.,Now as Judas and his army drew near to the stream of water, Timothy said to the officers of his forces, "If he crosses over to us first, we will not be able to resist him, for he will surely defeat us., But if he shows fear and camps on the other side of the river, we will cross over to him and defeat him.", When Judas approached the stream of water, he stationed the scribes of the people at the stream and gave them this command, "Permit no man to encamp, but make them all enter the battle.", Then he crossed over against them first, and the whole army followed him. All the Gentiles were defeated before him, and they threw away their arms and fled into the sacred precincts at Carnaim., But he took the city and burned the sacred precincts with fire, together with all who were in them. Thus Carnaim was conquered; they could stand before Judas no longer.,Then Judas gathered together all the Israelites in Gilead, the small and the great, with their wives and children and goods, a very large company, to go to the land of Judah., So they came to Ephron. This was a large and very strong city on the road, and they could not go round it to the right or to the left; they had to go through it., But the men of the city shut them out and blocked up the gates with stones., And Judas sent them this friendly message, "Let us pass through your land to get to our land. No one will do you harm; we will simply pass by on foot." But they refused to open to him., Then Judas ordered proclamation to be made to the army that each should encamp where he was., So the men of the forces encamped, and he fought against the city all that day and all the night, and the city was delivered into his hands., He destroyed every male by the edge of the sword, and razed and plundered the city. Then he passed through the city over the slain.,And they crossed the Jordan into the large plain before Beth-shan., And Judas kept rallying the laggards and encouraging the people all the way till he came to the land of Judah., So they went up to Mount Zion with gladness and joy, and offered burnt offerings, because not one of them had fallen before they returned in safety.,Now while Judas and Jonathan were in Gilead and Simon his brother was in Galilee before Ptolemais,, Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, the commanders of the forces, heard of their brave deeds and of the heroic war they had fought., So they said, "Let us also make a name for ourselves; let us go and make war on the Gentiles around us.", And they issued orders to the men of the forces that were with them, and they marched against Jamnia., And Gorgias and his men came out of the city to meet them in battle., Then Joseph and Azariah were routed, and were pursued to the borders of Judea; as many as two thousand of the people of Israel fell that day., Thus the people suffered a great rout because, thinking to do a brave deed, they did not listen to Judas and his brothers., But they did not belong to the family of those men through whom deliverance was given to Israel.,The man Judas and his brothers were greatly honored in all Israel and among all the Gentiles, wherever their name was heard., Men gathered to them and praised them.,Then Judas and his brothers went forth and fought the sons of Esau in the land to the south. He struck Hebron and its villages and tore down its strongholds and burned its towers round about., Then he marched off to go into the land of the Philistines, and passed through Marisa., On that day some priests, who wished to do a brave deed, fell in battle, for they went out to battle unwisely., But Judas turned aside to Azotus in the land of the Philistines; he tore down their altars, and the graven images of their gods he burned with fire; he plundered the cities and returned to the land of Judah.
6.21
But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them. 6 King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold., Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander, the son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks., So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not, because his plan became known to the men of the city, and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great grief departed from there to return to Babylon.,Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed;, that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down;, that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city.,When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned., He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying., So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry., I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power., But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason., I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land.",Then he called for Philip, one of his friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom., He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, that he might guide Antiochus his son and bring him up to be king., Thus Antiochus the king died there in the one hundred and forty-ninth year., And when Lysias learned that the king was dead, he set up Antiochus the kings son to reign. Lysias had brought him up as a boy, and he named him Eupator.,Now the men in the citadel kept hemming Israel in around the sanctuary. They were trying in every way to harm them and strengthen the Gentiles., So Judas decided to destroy them, and assembled all the people to besiege them., They gathered together and besieged the citadel in the one hundred and fiftieth year; and he built siege towers and other engines of war., But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them., They went to the king and said, "How long will you fail to do justice and to avenge our brethren?, We were happy to serve your father, to live by what he said and to follow his commands., For this reason the sons of our people besieged the citadel and became hostile to us; moreover, they have put to death as many of us as they have caught, and they have seized our inheritances., And not against us alone have they stretched out their hands, but also against all the lands on their borders., And behold, today they have encamped against the citadel in Jerusalem to take it; they have fortified both the sanctuary and Beth-zur;, and unless you quickly prevent them, they will do still greater things, and you will not be able to stop them.",The king was enraged when he heard this. He assembled all his friends, the commanders of his forces and those in authority., And mercenary forces came to him from other kingdoms and from islands of the seas., The number of his forces was a hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war., They came through Idumea and encamped against Beth-zur, and for many days they fought and built engines of war; but the Jews sallied out and burned these with fire, and fought manfully.,Then Judas marched away from the citadel and encamped at Beth-zechariah, opposite the camp of the king., Early in the morning the king rose and took his army by a forced march along the road to Beth-zechariah, and his troops made ready for battle and sounded their trumpets., They showed the elephants the juice of grapes and mulberries, to arouse them for battle., And they distributed the beasts among the phalanxes; with each elephant they stationed a thousand men armed with coats of mail, and with brass helmets on their heads; and five hundred picked horsemen were assigned to each beast., These took their position beforehand wherever the beast was; wherever it went they went with it, and they never left it., And upon the elephants were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened upon each beast by special harness, and upon each were four armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver., The rest of the horsemen were stationed on either side, on the two flanks of the army, to harass the enemy while being themselves protected by the phalanxes., When the sun shone upon the shields of gold and brass, the hills were ablaze with them and gleamed like flaming torches.,Now a part of the kings army was spread out on the high hills, and some troops were on the plain, and they advanced steadily and in good order., All who heard the noise made by their multitude, by the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms, trembled, for the army was very large and strong., But Judas and his army advanced to the battle, and six hundred men of the kings army fell., And Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the beasts was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was upon it., So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name., He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides., He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died., And when the Jews saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.,The soldiers of the kings army went up to Jerusalem against them, and the king encamped in Judea and at Mount Zion., He made peace with the men of Beth-zur, and they evacuated the city, because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land., So the king took Beth-zur and stationed a guard there to hold it., Then he encamped before the sanctuary for many days. He set up siege towers, engines of war to throw fire and stones, machines to shoot arrows, and catapults., The Jews also made engines of war to match theirs, and fought for many days., But they had no food in storage, because it was the seventh year; those who found safety in Judea from the Gentiles had consumed the last of the stores., Few men were left in the sanctuary, because famine had prevailed over the rest and they had been scattered, each to his own place.,Then Lysias heard that Philip, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up Antiochus his son to be king,, had returned from Persia and Media with the forces that had gone with the king, and that he was trying to seize control of the government., So he quickly gave orders to depart, and said to the king, to the commanders of the forces, and to the men, "We daily grow weaker, our food supply is scant, the place against which we are fighting is strong, and the affairs of the kingdom press urgently upon us., Now then let us come to terms with these men, and make peace with them and with all their nation,, and agree to let them live by their laws as they did before; for it was on account of their laws which we abolished that they became angry and did all these things.",The speech pleased the king and the commanders, and he sent to the Jews an offer of peace, and they accepted it., So the king and the commanders gave them their oath. On these conditions the Jews evacuated the stronghold., But when the king entered Mount Zion and saw what a strong fortress the place was, he broke the oath he had sworn and gave orders to tear down the wall all around., Then he departed with haste and returned to Antioch. He found Philip in control of the city, but he fought against him, and took the city by force.7.5 Then there came to him all the lawless and ungodly men of Israel; they were led by Alcimus, who wanted to be high priest.
13.3
he encouraged them, saying to them, "You yourselves know what great things I and my brothers and the house of my father have done for the laws and the sanctuary; you know also the wars and the difficulties which we have seen.
14.4
The land had rest all the days of Simon. He sought the good of his nation;his rule was pleasing to them,as was the honor shown him, all his days. 14.5 To crown all his honors he took Joppa for a harbor,and opened a way to the isles of the sea. 14.6 He extended the borders of his nation,and gained full control of the country. 14.7 He gathered a host of captives;he ruled over Gazara and Beth-zur and the citadel,and he removed its uncleanness from it;and there was none to oppose him. 14.8 They tilled their land in peace;the ground gave its increase,and the trees of the plains their fruit. 14.9 Old men sat in the streets;they all talked together of good things;and the youths donned the glories and garments of war. 14.10 He supplied the cities with food,and furnished them with the means of defense,till his renown spread to the ends of the earth. 14.11 He established peace in the land,and Israel rejoiced with great joy. 14.12 Each man sat under his vine and his fig tree,and there was none to make them afraid. 14.13 No one was left in the land to fight them,and the kings were crushed in those days. 14.14 He strengthened all the humble of his people;he sought out the law,and did away with every lawless and wicked man. 14.15 He made the sanctuary glorious,and added to the vessels of the sanctuary.
14.29
Since wars often occurred in the country, Simon the son of Mattathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib, and his brothers, exposed themselves to danger and resisted the enemies of their nation, in order that their sanctuary and the law might be perserved; and they brought great glory to their nation.

14.41
And the Jews and their priests decided that Simon should be their leader and high priest for ever, until a trustworthy prophet should arise, ' None
2. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 6.10-6.11, 7.14, 8.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antigonus Mattathias • Mattathias • Mattathias (Hasmonean)

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1124, 1126, 1134; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020), Religious Violence in the Ancient World: From Classical Athens to Late Antiquity, 34; Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 3; Honigman (2014), Tales of High Priests and Taxes : The Books of the Maccabees and the Judean Rebellion Against Antiochos IV 255; Schwartz (2008), 2 Maccabees, 324, 326; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 113, 115

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6.10 For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.'" "6.11 Others who had assembled in the caves near by, to observe the seventh day secretly, were betrayed to Philip and were all burned together, because their piety kept them from defending themselves, in view of their regard for that most holy day.'" "6 Not long after this, the king sent an Athenian senator to compel the Jews to forsake the laws of their fathers and cease to live by the laws of God,\',and also to pollute the temple in Jerusalem and call it the temple of Olympian Zeus, and to call the one in Gerizim the temple of Zeus the Friend of Strangers, as did the people who dwelt in that place.\',Harsh and utterly grievous was the onslaught of evil.",For the temple was filled with debauchery and reveling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots and had intercourse with women within the sacred precincts, and besides brought in things for sacrifice that were unfit.\', The altar was covered with abominable offerings which were forbidden by the laws.",A man could neither keep the sabbath, nor observe the feasts of his fathers, nor so much as confess himself to be a Jew.\',On the monthly celebration of the king\'s birthday, the Jews were taken, under bitter constraint, to partake of the sacrifices; and when the feast of Dionysus came, they were compelled to walk in the procession in honor of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy.\',At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,\',and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.\',For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.\',Others who had assembled in the caves near by, to observe the seventh day secretly, were betrayed to Philip and were all burned together, because their piety kept them from defending themselves, in view of their regard for that most holy day.\',Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.\',In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.\',For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,\', in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height.",Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.\', Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story.",Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine\'s flesh.\',But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,\',as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.\',Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,\',so that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.\',But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.\',Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, \'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,\',and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.\',For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.\',Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age\',and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.\'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.\',And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.\',When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: \'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.\',So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.\'7.14 And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!'" "7 It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine\'s flesh.\',One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, \'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.\',The king fell into a rage, and gave orders that pans and caldrons be heated.\',These were heated immediately, and he commanded that the tongue of their spokesman be cut out and that they scalp him and cut off his hands and feet, while the rest of the brothers and the mother looked on.\',When he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,\',The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.\'\',After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, \'Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?\',He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, \'No.\'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.\',And when he was at his last breath, he said, \'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.\',After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,\',and said nobly, \'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.\',As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man\'s spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.\',When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.\',And when he was near death, he said, \'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!\',Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him.",But he looked at the king, and said, \'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.\',Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!\',After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, \'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.\',But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!\',The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.\',She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman\'s reasoning with a man\'s courage, and said to them,\',I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.\',Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.\',Antiochus felt that he was being treated with contempt, and he was suspicious of her reproachful tone. The youngest brother being still alive, Antiochus not only appealed to him in words, but promised with oaths that he would make him rich and enviable if he would turn from the ways of his fathers, and that he would take him for his friend and entrust him with public affairs.\',Since the young man would not listen to him at all, the king called the mother to him and urged her to advise the youth to save himself.\',After much urging on his part, she undertook to persuade her son.\',But, leaning close to him, she spoke in their native tongue as follows, deriding the cruel tyrant: \'My son, have pity on me. I carried you nine months in my womb, and nursed you for three years, and have reared you and brought you up to this point in your life, and have taken care of you.\',I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.\',Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God\'s mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.\',While she was still speaking, the young man said, \'What are you waiting for? I will not obey the king\'s command, but I obey the command of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses.\',But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.\', For we are suffering because of our own sins.",And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.\',But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.\',You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.\',For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God\'s covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.\',I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,\',and through me and my brothers to bring to an end the wrath of the Almighty which has justly fallen on our whole nation.\',The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.\',So he died in his integrity, putting his whole trust in the Lord.\',Last of all, the mother died, after her sons.\',Let this be enough, then, about the eating of sacrifices and the extreme tortures.\'
8.6
Coming without warning, he would set fire to towns and villages. He captured strategic positions and put to flight not a few of the enemy.'" '" None
3. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 44-49 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mattathias • Mattathias the Hasmonean

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 45, 105; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 108

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44 Let us now praise famous men,and our fathers in their generations., The Lord apportioned to them great glory,his majesty from the beginning., There were those who ruled in their kingdoms,and were men renowned for their power,giving counsel by their understanding,and proclaiming prophecies;, leaders of the people in their deliberations and in understanding of learning for the people,wise in their words of instruction;, those who composed musical tunes,and set forth verses in writing;, rich men furnished with resources,living peaceably in their habitations --, all these were honored in their generations,and were the glory of their times., There are some of them who have left a name,so that men declare their praise., And there are some who have no memorial,who have perished as though they had not lived;they have become as though they had not been born,and so have their children after them., But these were men of mercy,whose righteous deeds have not been forgotten;, their prosperity will remain with their descendants,and their inheritance to their childrens children., Their descendants stand by the covets;their children also, for their sake., Their posterity will continue for ever,and their glory will not be blotted out., Their bodies were buried in peace,and their name lives to all generations., Peoples will declare their wisdom,and the congregation proclaims their praise., Enoch pleased the Lord, and was taken up;he was an example of repentance to all generations., Noah was found perfect and righteous;in the time of wrath he was taken in exchange;therefore a remt was left to the earth when the flood came., Everlasting covets were made with him that all flesh should not be blotted out by a flood., Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations,and no one has been found like him in glory;, he kept the law of the Most High,and was taken into covet with him;he established the covet in his flesh,and when he was tested he was found faithful., Therefore the Lord assured him by an oath that the nations would be blessed through his posterity;that he would multiply him like the dust of the earth,and exalt his posterity like the stars,and cause them to inherit from sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth., To Isaac also he gave the same assurance for the sake of Abraham his father., The blessing of all men and the covet he made to rest upon the head of Jacob;he acknowledged him with his blessings,and gave him his inheritance;he determined his portions,and distributed them among twelve tribes.'45 From his descendants the Lord brought forth a man of mercy,who found favor in the sight of all flesh and was beloved by God and man,Moses, whose memory is blessed., He made him equal in glory to the holy ones,and made him great in the fears of his enemies., By his words he caused signs to cease;the Lord glorified him in the presence of kings. He gave him commands for his people,and showed him part of his glory., He sanctified him through faithfulness and meekness;he chose him out of all mankind., He made him hear his voice,and led him into the thick darkness,and gave him the commandments face to face,the law of life and knowledge,to teach Jacob the covet,and Israel his judgments., He exalted Aaron, the brother of Moses,a holy man like him, of the tribe of Levi., He made an everlasting covet with him,and gave him the priesthood of the people. He blessed him with splendid vestments,and put a glorious robe upon him., He clothed him with superb perfection,and strengthened him with the symbols of authority,the linen breeches, the long robe, and the ephod., And he encircled him with pomegranates,with very many golden bells round about,to send forth a sound as he walked,to make their ringing heard in the temple as a reminder to the sons of his people;, with a holy garment, of gold and blue and purple, the work of an embroiderer;with the oracle of judgment, Urim and Thummim;, with twisted scarlet, the work of a craftsman;with precious stones engraved like signets,in a setting of gold, the work of a jeweler,for a reminder, in engraved letters,according to the number of the tribes of Israel;, with a gold crown upon his turban,inscribed like a signet with "Holiness," a distinction to be prized, the work of an expert,the delight of the eyes, richly adorned., Before his time there never were such beautiful things. No outsider ever put them on,but only his sons and his descendants perpetually., His sacrifices shall be wholly burned twice every day continually., Moses ordained him,and anointed him with holy oil;it was an everlasting covet for him and for his descendants all the days of heaven,to minister to the Lord and serve as priest and bless his people in his name., He chose him out of all the living to offer sacrifice to the Lord,incense and a pleasing odor as a memorial portion,to make atonement for the people., In his commandments he gave him authority and statutes and judgments,to teach Jacob the testimonies,and to enlighten Israel with his law., Outsiders conspired against him,and envied him in the wilderness,Dathan and Abiram and their men and the company of Korah, in wrath and anger., The Lord saw it and was not pleased,and in the wrath of his anger they were destroyed;he wrought wonders against them to consume them in flaming fire., He added glory to Aaron and gave him a heritage;he allotted to him the first of the first fruits,he prepared bread of first fruits in abundance;, for they eat the sacrifices to the Lord,which he gave to him and his descendants., But in the land of the people he has no inheritance,and he has no portion among the people;for the Lord himself is his portion and inheritance., Phinehas the son of Eleazar is the third in glory,for he was zealous in the fear of the Lord,and stood fast, when the people turned away,in the ready goodness of his soul,and made atonement for Israel., Therefore a covet of peace was established with him,that he should be leader of the sanctuary and of his people,that he and his descendants should have the dignity of the priesthood for ever., A covet was also established with David,the son of Jesse, of the tribe of Judah:the heritage of the king is from son to son only;so the heritage of Aaron is for his descendants., May the Lord grant you wisdom in your heart to judge his people in righteousness,so that their prosperity may not vanish,and that their glory may endure throughout their generations. 46 Joshua the son of Nun was mighty in war,and was the successor of Moses in prophesying. He became, in accordance with his name,a great savior of Gods elect,to take vengeance on the enemies that rose against them,so that he might give Israel its inheritance., How glorious he was when he lifted his hands and stretched out his sword against the cities!, Was not the sun held back by his hand?And did not one day become as long as two?, He called upon the Most High, the Mighty One,when enemies pressed him on every side,, and the great Lord answered him with hailstones of mighty power. He hurled down war upon that nation,and at the descent of Beth-horon he destroyed those who resisted,so that the nations might know his armament,that he was fighting in the sight of the Lord;for he wholly followed the Mighty One., And in the days of Moses he did a loyal deed,he and Caleb the son of Jephunneh:they withstood the congregation,restrained the people from sin,and stilled their wicked murmuring., And these two alone were preserved out of six hundred thousand people on foot,to bring them into their inheritance,into a land flowing with milk and honey., And the Lord gave Caleb strength,which remained with him to old age,so that he went up to the hill country,and his children obtained it for an inheritance;, so that all the sons of Israel might see that it is good to follow the Lord., The judges also, with their respective names,those whose hearts did not fall into idolatry and who did not turn away from the Lord -- may their memory be blessed!, By the law of the Lord he judged the congregation,and the Lord watched over Jacob., By his faithfulness he was proved to be a prophet,and by his words he became known as a trustworthy seer., He called upon the Lord, the Mighty One,when his enemies pressed him on every side,and he offered in sacrifice a sucking lamb., Then the Lord thundered from heaven,and made his voice heard with a mighty sound;, and he wiped out the leaders of the people of Tyre and all the rulers of the Philistines., Before the time of his eternal sleep,Samuel called men to witness before the Lord and his anointed:"I have not taken any ones property,not so much as a pair of shoes." And no man accused him., Even after he had fallen asleep he prophesied and revealed to the king his death,and lifted up his voice out of the earth in prophecy,to blot out the wickedness of the people. 47 And after him Nathan rose up to prophesy in the days of David., As the fat is selected from the peace offering,so David was selected from the sons of Israel., He played with lions as with young goats,and with bears as with lambs of the flock., In his youth did he not kill a giant,and take away reproach from the people,when he lifted his hand with a stone in the sling and struck down the boasting of Goliath?, For he appealed to the Lord, the Most High,and he gave him strength in his right hand to slay a man mighty in war,to exalt the power of his people., So they glorified him for his ten thousands,and praised him for the blessings of the Lord,when the glorious diadem was bestowed upon him., For he wiped out his enemies on every side,and annihilated his adversaries the Philistines;he crushed their power even to this day., In all that he did he gave thanks to the Holy One, the Most High, with ascriptions of glory;he sang praise with all his heart,and he loved his Maker., He placed singers before the altar,to make sweet melody with their voices., He gave beauty to the feasts,and arranged their times throughout the year,while they praised Gods holy name,and the sanctuary resounded from early morning., The Lord took away his sins,and exalted his power for ever;he gave him the covet of kings and a throne of glory in Israel., After him rose up a wise son who fared amply because of him;, Solomon reigned in days of peace,and God gave him rest on every side,that he might build a house for his name and prepare a sanctuary to stand for ever., How wise you became in your youth!You overflowed like a river with understanding., Your soul covered the earth,and you filled it with parables and riddles., Your name reached to far-off islands,and you were loved for your peace., For your songs and proverbs and parables,and for your interpretations, the countries marveled at you., In the name of the Lord God,who is called the God of Israel,you gathered gold like tin and amassed silver like lead., But you laid your loins beside women,and through your body you were brought into subjection., You put stain upon your honor,and defiled your posterity,so that you brought wrath upon your children and they were grieved at your folly,, so that the sovereignty was divided and a disobedient kingdom arose out of Ephraim., But the Lord will never give up his mercy,nor cause any of his works to perish;he will never blot out the descendants of his chosen one,nor destroy the posterity of him who loved him;so he gave a remt to Jacob,and to David a root of his stock., Solomon rested with his fathers,and left behind him one of his sons,ample in folly and lacking in understanding,Rehoboam, whose policy caused the people to revolt. Also Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who caused Israel to sin and gave to Ephraim a sinful way., Their sins became exceedingly many,so as to remove them from their land., For they sought out every sort of wickedness,till vengeance came upon them. 48 Then the prophet Elijah arose like a fire,and his word burned like a torch., He brought a famine upon them,and by his zeal he made them few in number., By the word of the Lord he shut up the heavens,and also three times brought down fire., How glorious you were, O Elijah, in your wondrous deeds!And who has the right to boast which you have?, You who raised a corpse from death and from Hades, by the word of the Most High;, who brought kings down to destruction,and famous men from their beds;, who heard rebuke at Sinai and judgments of vengeance at Horeb;, who anointed kings to inflict retribution,and prophets to succeed you., You who were taken up by a whirlwind of fire,in a chariot with horses of fire;, you who are ready at the appointed time, it is written,to calm the wrath of God before it breaks out in fury,to turn the heart of the father to the son,and to restore the tribes of Jacob., Blessed are those who saw you,and those who have been adorned in love;for we also shall surely live., It was Elijah who was covered by the whirlwind,and Elisha was filled with his spirit;in all his days he did not tremble before any ruler,and no one brought him into subjection., Nothing was too hard for him,and when he was dead his body prophesied., As in his life he did wonders,so in death his deeds were marvelous., For all this the people did not repent,and they did not forsake their sins,till they were carried away captive from their land and were scattered over all the earth;the people were left very few in number,but with rulers from the house of David., Some of them did what was pleasing to God,but others multiplied sins., Hezekiah fortified his city,and brought water into the midst of it;he tunneled the sheer rock with iron and built pools for water., In his days Sennacherib came up,and sent the Rabshakeh;he lifted up his hand against Zion and made great boasts in his arrogance., Then their hearts were shaken and their hands trembled,and they were in anguish, like women in travail., But they called upon the Lord who is merciful,spreading forth their hands toward him;and the Holy One quickly heard them from heaven,and delivered them by the hand of Isaiah., The Lord smote the camp of the Assyrians,and his angel wiped them out., For Hezekiah did what was pleasing to the Lord,and he held strongly to the ways of David his father,which Isaiah the prophet commanded,who was great and faithful in his vision., In his days the sun went backward,and he lengthened the life of the king., By the spirit of might he saw the last things,and comforted those who mourned in Zion., He revealed what was to occur to the end of time,and the hidden things before they came to pass. 49 The memory of Josiah is like a blending of incense prepared by the art of the perfumer;it is sweet as honey to every mouth,and like music at a banquet of wine., He was led aright in converting the people,and took away the abominations of iniquity., He set his heart upon the Lord;in the days of wicked men he strengthened godliness., Except David and Hezekiah and Josiah they all sinned greatly,for they forsook the law of the Most High;the kings of Judah came to an end;, for they gave their power to others,and their glory to a foreign nation,, who set fire to the chosen city of the sanctuary,and made her streets desolate,according to the word of Jeremiah., For they had afflicted him;yet he had been consecrated in the womb as prophet,to pluck up and afflict and destroy,and likewise to build and to plant., It was Ezekiel who saw the vision of glory which God showed him above the chariot of the cherubim., For God remembered his enemies with storm,and did good to those who directed their ways aright., May the bones of the twelve prophets revive from where they lie,for they comforted the people of Jacob and delivered them with confident hope., How shall we magnify Zerubbabel?He was like a signet on the right hand,, and so was Jeshua the son of Jozadak;in their days they built the house and raised a temple holy to the Lord,prepared for everlasting glory., The memory of Nehemiah also is lasting;he raised for us the walls that had fallen,and set up the gates and bars and rebuilt our ruined houses., No one like Enoch has been created on earth,for he was taken up from the earth., And no man like Joseph has been born,and his bones are cared for., Shem and Seth were honored among men,and Adam above every living being in the creation. ' None
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.253, 14.366 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Antigonus II Mattathias • Antigonus Mattathias • Mattathias • Mattathias the Maccabee

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 1106; Eckhardt (2011), Jewish Identity and Politics Between the Maccabees and Bar Kokhba: Groups, Normativity, and Rituals. 99; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 38; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 65

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12.253 ἐποικοδομήσας δὲ καὶ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ βωμὸν ὁ βασιλεὺς σύας ἐπ' αὐτοῦ κατέσφαξε, θυσίαν οὐ νόμιμον οὐδὲ πάτριον τῇ ̓Ιουδαίων θρησκείᾳ ταύτην ἐπιτελῶν. ἠνάγκασε δ' αὐτοὺς ἀφεμένους τὴν περὶ τὸν αὐτῶν θεὸν θρησκείαν τοὺς ὑπ' αὐτοῦ νομιζομένους σέβεσθαι, οἰκοδομήσαντας δὲ ἐν ἑκάστῃ πόλει καὶ κώμῃ τεμένη αὐτῶν καὶ βωμοὺς καθιδρύσαντας θύειν ἐπ' αὐτοῖς σῦς καθ' ἡμέραν." "
14.366
φοβούμενος δὲ τὸν ̔Υρκανόν, μὴ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῷ τὴν βασιλείαν ἀποκαταστήσῃ, παραστάς, ἐτηρεῖτο δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν Πάρθων, ἐπιτέμνει αὐτοῦ τὰ ὦτα πραγματευόμενος μηκέτ' αὖθις εἰς αὐτὸν ἀφικέσθαι τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην διὰ τὸ λελωβῆσθαι, τοῦ νόμου τῶν ὁλοκλήρων εἶναι τὴν τιμὴν ἀξιοῦντος."" None
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12.253 And when the king had built an idol altar upon God’s altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to the law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country. He also compelled them to forsake the worship which they paid their own God, and to adore those whom he took to be gods; and made them build temples, and raise idol altars in every city and village, and offer swine upon them every day.
14.366
but being afraid that Hyrcanus, who was under the guard of the Parthians, might have his kingdom restored to him by the multitude, he cut off his ears, and thereby took care that the high priesthood should never come to him any more, because he was maimed, while the law required that this dignity should belong to none but such as had all their members entire.'' None



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