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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
laertius, as source for pythagoreanism, diogenes Wolfsdorf (2020) 700
laertius, diogenes Agri (2022) 23, 24
Amendola (2022) 56, 64, 88
Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 177, 180, 299
Bett (2019) 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 38, 49, 50, 52, 62, 75, 76, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 108, 115, 116, 119, 122, 199
Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 193
Brouwer (2013) 10, 13, 19, 23, 25, 27, 30, 38, 39, 40, 44, 46, 48, 61, 65, 70, 82, 108, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 134, 138, 139, 140, 141, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
Bryan (2018) 85, 164, 209, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 259, 261, 270, 318
Cornelli (2013) 17, 20, 47, 65, 66, 68, 74, 79, 96, 124, 132, 136, 137, 138, 142, 154, 157, 161, 162, 164, 166, 167, 168, 170, 245, 246, 255, 264, 309, 310, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 321, 330, 371, 373, 375, 379, 380, 394, 395, 430, 447, 454, 464
Del Lucchese (2019) 59, 130, 173, 184, 206, 224, 225, 229
Dillon and Timotin (2015) 30, 32
Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 37, 73, 77, 79, 82, 108, 139
Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 227
Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 305, 421
Erler et al (2021) 117, 119, 123, 232
Frede and Laks (2001) 14, 25
Frey and Levison (2014) 52, 53, 276, 289
Geljon and Runia (2013) 29, 90, 99, 101, 107, 108, 109, 127, 128, 136, 138, 144, 156, 177, 184, 202, 215, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 244, 246
Geljon and Runia (2019) 109, 121, 122, 153, 155, 163, 188, 215, 220, 222, 256, 263, 270, 271, 272, 282, 288, 294
Gorain (2019) 45
Gygax (2016) 67, 89, 125
Huffman (2019) 5, 53, 54, 55, 56, 63, 64, 69, 281
Iricinschi et al. (2013) 371
James (2021) 31, 32, 33, 34, 51, 52, 69, 77, 78, 79
Janowitz (2002) 9
Johnson and Parker (2009) 236
Johnston and Struck (2005) 181, 182
Joosse (2021) 38, 47
Karfíková (2012) 321
König (2012) 238, 248, 330, 343
Levine Allison and Crossan (2006) 37, 85, 133, 136, 137, 144, 386
Linjamaa (2019) 53
Long (2006) 131, 132, 135, 153, 257, 271, 325, 326, 329, 343
Martens (2003) 21, 22
Moss (2012) 33, 45, 176
Motta and Petrucci (2022) 14, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 67, 69, 84, 88, 91, 97, 130, 149
Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022) 33
Niehoff (2011) 33, 41
Raaflaub Ober and Wallace (2007) 64, 65
Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 184
Taylor and Hay (2020) 29, 30, 110, 116, 126, 129, 148, 149, 167, 179, 279, 292, 302
Wardy and Warren (2018) 85, 164, 209, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 259, 261, 270, 303, 318, 324
Čulík-Baird (2022) 81, 87
laertius, lives of the famous philosophers, diogenes McGowan (1999) 73, 75
laertius, pseudo-diotogenes, diogenes Huffman (2019) 67

List of validated texts:
29 validated results for "laertius"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 3.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019) 270; Karfíková (2012) 321

3.18. וְקוֹץ וְדַרְדַּר תַּצְמִיחַ לָךְ וְאָכַלְתָּ אֶת־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה׃''. None
3.18. Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field.''. None
2. Plato, Crito, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 139; Martens (2003) 22

46b. ΣΩ. ὦ φίλε Κρίτων, ἡ προθυμία σου πολλοῦ ἀξία εἰ μετά τινος ὀρθότητος εἴη· εἰ δὲ μή, ὅσῳ μείζων τοσούτῳ χαλεπωτέρα. σκοπεῖσθαι οὖν χρὴ ἡμᾶς εἴτε ταῦτα πρακτέον εἴτε μή· ὡς ἐγὼ οὐ νῦν πρῶτον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀεὶ τοιοῦτος οἷος τῶν ἐμῶν μηδενὶ ἄλλῳ πείθεσθαι ἢ τῷ λόγῳ ὃς ἄν μοι λογιζομένῳ βέλτιστος φαίνηται. τοὺς δὴ λόγους οὓς ἐν τῷ ἔμπροσθεν ἔλεγον οὐ δύναμαι νῦν ἐκβαλεῖν, ἐπειδή μοι ἥδε ἡ τύχη γέγονεν, ἀλλὰ σχεδόν τι ὅμοιοι φαίνονταί μοι,''. None
46b. Socrates. My dear Crito, your eagerness is worth a great deal, if it should prove to be rightly directed; but otherwise, the greater it is, the more hard to bear. So we must examine the question whether we ought to do this or not; for I am not only now but always a man who follows nothing but the reasoning which on consideration seems to me best. Aud I cannot, now that this has happened to us, discard the arguments I used to advance, but they seem to me much the same as ever,''. None
3. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 85; Wardy and Warren (2018) 85

462b. ΣΩ. καὶ νῦν δὴ τούτων ὁπότερον βούλει ποίει, ἐρώτα ἢ ἀποκρίνου. ΠΩΛ. ἀλλὰ ποιήσω ταῦτα. καί μοι ἀπόκριναι, ὦ Σώκρατες· ἐπειδὴ Γοργίας ἀπορεῖν σοι δοκεῖ περὶ τῆς ῥητορικῆς, σὺ αὐτὴν τίνα φῂς εἶναι; ΣΩ. ἆρα ἐρωτᾷς ἥντινα τέχνην φημὶ εἶναι; ΠΩΛ. ἔγωγε. ΣΩ. οὐδεμία ἔμοιγε δοκεῖ, ὦ Πῶλε, ὥς γε πρὸς σὲ τἀληθῆ εἰρῆσθαι. ΠΩΛ. ἀλλὰ τί σοι δοκεῖ ἡ ῥητορικὴ εἶναι; ΣΩ. πρᾶγμα ὃ φῂς σὺ ποιῆσαι τέχνην ἐν τῷ συγγράμματι''. None
462b. Soc. So now, take whichever course you like: either put questions, or answer them. Pol. Well, I will do as you say. So answer me this, Socrates: since you think that Gorgias is at a loss about rhetoric, what is your own account of it? Soc. Are you asking what art I call it? Pol. Yes. Soc. None at all, I consider, Polus, if you would have the honest truth. Pol. But what do you consider rhetoric to be?''. None
4. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 85; Wardy and Warren (2018) 85

259e. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν, ὅπερ νῦν προυθέμεθα σκέψασθαι, τὸν λόγον ὅπῃ καλῶς ἔχει λέγειν τε καὶ γράφειν καὶ ὅπῃ μή, σκεπτέον. ΦΑΙ. δῆλον. ΣΩ. ἆρʼ οὖν οὐχ ὑπάρχειν δεῖ τοῖς εὖ γε καὶ καλῶς ῥηθησομένοις τὴν τοῦ λέγοντος διάνοιαν εἰδυῖαν τὸ ἀληθὲς ὧν ἂν ἐρεῖν πέρι μέλλῃ; ΦΑΙ. οὑτωσὶ περὶ τούτου ἀκήκοα, ὦ φίλε Σώκρατες, οὐκ''. None
259e. Socrates. We should, then, as we were proposing just now, discuss the theory of good (or bad) speaking and writing. Phaedrus. Clearly. Socrates. If a speech is to be good, must not the mind of the speaker know the truth about the matters of which he is to speak?''. None
5. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 261; Wardy and Warren (2018) 261

6. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164

7. Cicero, De Finibus, 4.5, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164, 270; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164, 270

4.5. \xa0One of these departments is the science that is held to give rules for the formation of moral character; this part, which is the foundation of our present discussion, I\xa0defer. For I\xa0shall consider later the question, what is the End of Goods. For the present I\xa0only say that the topic of what I\xa0think may fitly be entitled Civic Science (the adjective in Greek is politikos) was handled with authority and fullness by the early Peripatetics and Academics, who agreed in substance though they differed in terminology."What a vast amount they have written on politics and on jurisprudence! how many precepts of oratory they have left us in their treatises, and how many examples in their discourses! In the first place, even the topics that required close reasoning they handled in a neat and polished manner, employing now definition, now division; as indeed your school does also, but your style is rather out-atâ\x80\x91elbows, while theirs is noticeably elegant. <
5.87. \xa0On this your cousin and\xa0I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm. <''. None
8. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 4.5, 5.87 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164, 270; Erler et al (2021) 123; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164, 270

4.5. quarum cum una sit, qua mores conformari confirmari (' emendqvisse videtur A, Man.' Mdv. ) putantur, differo eam partem, quae quasi stirps est huius quaestionis. qui sit enim finis bonorum, mox, hoc loco tantum dico, a veteribus Peripateticis Academicisque, qui re consentientes vocabulis differebant, eum locum, quem civilem recte appellaturi videmur, Graeci politiko/n, graviter et copiose esse tractatum. Quam multa illi de re publica scripserunt, quam multa de legibus! quam multa non solum praecepta in artibus, sed etiam exempla in orationibus bene dicendi reliquerunt! primum enim ipsa illa, quae subtiliter disserenda erant, polite apteque dixerunt tum definientes, tum partientes, ut vestri etiam; sed vos squalidius, illorum vides quam niteat oratio." '
5.87. quare hoc hoc atque hoc Non. videndum est, possitne nobis hoc ratio philosophorum dare. pollicetur certe. nisi enim id faceret, cur Plato Aegyptum peragravit, ut a sacerdotibus barbaris numeros et caelestia acciperet? cur post Tarentum ad Archytam? cur ad reliquos Pythagoreos, Echecratem, Timaeum, Arionem, Locros, ut, cum Socratem expressisset, adiungeret Pythagoreorum disciplinam eaque, quae Socrates repudiabat, addisceret? cur ipse Pythagoras et Aegyptum lustravit et Persarum magos adiit? cur tantas regiones barbarorum pedibus obiit, tot maria transmisit? cur haec eadem Democritus? qui —vere falsone, quaerere mittimus quaerere mittimus Se. quereremus BER queremus V quae- rere nolumus C.F.W. Mue. —dicitur oculis se se oculis BE privasse; privavisse R certe, ut quam minime animus a cogitationibus abduceretur, patrimonium neglexit, agros deseruit incultos, quid quaerens aliud nisi vitam beatam? beatam vitam R quam si etiam in rerum cognitione ponebat, tamen ex illa investigatione naturae consequi volebat, bono ut esset animo. id enim ille id enim ille R ideo enim ille BE id ille V id est enim illi summum bonum; eu)qumi/an cet. coni. Mdv. summum bonum eu)qumi/an et saepe a)qambi/an appellat, id est animum terrore liberum.'". None
4.5. \xa0One of these departments is the science that is held to give rules for the formation of moral character; this part, which is the foundation of our present discussion, I\xa0defer. For I\xa0shall consider later the question, what is the End of Goods. For the present I\xa0only say that the topic of what I\xa0think may fitly be entitled Civic Science (the adjective in Greek is politikos) was handled with authority and fullness by the early Peripatetics and Academics, who agreed in substance though they differed in terminology."What a vast amount they have written on politics and on jurisprudence! how many precepts of oratory they have left us in their treatises, and how many examples in their discourses! In the first place, even the topics that required close reasoning they handled in a neat and polished manner, employing now definition, now division; as indeed your school does also, but your style is rather out-atâ\x80\x91elbows, while theirs is noticeably elegant. <
5.87. \xa0On this your cousin and\xa0I are agreed. Hence what we have to consider is this, can the systems of the philosophers give us happiness? They certainly profess to do so. Whether it not so, why did Plato travel through Egypt to learn arithmetic and astronomy from barbarian priests? Why did he later visit Archytas at Tarentum, or the other Pythagoreans, Echecrates, Timaeus and Arion, at Locri, intending to append to his picture of Socrates an account of the Pythagorean system and to extend his studies into those branches which Socrates repudiated? Why did Pythagoras himself scour Egypt and visit the Persian magi? why did he travel on foot through those vast barbarian lands and sail across those many seas? Why did Democritus do the same? It is related of Democritus (whether truly or falsely we are not concerned to inquire) that he deprived himself of eyesight; and it is certain that in order that his mind should be distracted as little as possible from reflection, he neglected his paternal estate and left his land uncultivated, engrossed in the search for what else but happiness? Even if he supposed happiness to consist in knowledge, still he designed that his study of natural philosophy should bring him cheerfulness of mind; since that is his conception of the Chief Good, which he entitles euthumia, or often athambia, that is freedom from alarm. <''. None
9. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.16, 2.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 270; Frey and Levison (2014) 53; Moss (2012) 33; Wardy and Warren (2018) 270

1.16. "Well, I too," I replied, "think I have come at the right moment, as you say. For here are you, three leaders of three schools of philosophy, met in congress. In fact we only want Marcus Piso to have every considerable school represented." "Oh," rejoined Cotta, "if what is said in the book which our master Antiochus lately dedicated to our good Balbus here is true, you have no need to regret the absence of your friend Piso. Antiochus holds the view that the doctrines of the Stoics, though differing in form of expression, agree in substance with those of the Peripatetics. I should like to know your opinion of the book, Balbus." "My opinion?" said Balbus, "Why, I am surprised that a man of first-rate intellect like Antiochus should have failed to see what a gulf divides the Stoics, who distinguish expediency and right not in name only but in essential nature, from the Peripatetics, who class the right and the expedient together, and only recognize differences of quantity or degree, not of kind, between them. This is not a slight verbal discrepancy but a fundamental difference of doctrine. ' "
2.18. Yet even man's intelligence must lead us to infer the existence of a mind in the universe, and that a mind of surpassing ability, and in fact divine. Otherwise, whence did man 'pick up' (as Socrates says in Xenophon) the intelligence that he possesses? If anyone asks the question, whence do we get the moisture and the heat diffused throughout the body, and the actual earthy substance of the flesh, and lastly the breath of life within us, it is manifest that we have derived the one from earth, the other from water, and the other from the air which we inhale in breathing. But where did we find, whence did we abstract, that other part of us which surpasses all of these, I mean our reason, or, if you like to employ several terms to denote it, our intelligence, deliberation, thought, wisdom? Is the world to contain each of the other elements but not this one, the most precious of them all? Yet beyond question nothing exists among all things that is superior to the world, nothing that is more excellent or more beautiful; and not merely does nothing superior to it exist, but nothing superior can even be conceived. And if there be nothing superior to reason and wisdom, these faculties must necessarily be possessed by that being which we admit to be superior to all others. "'. None
10. Cicero, On Duties, 1.128 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 254; Wardy and Warren (2018) 254

1.128. Nec vero audiendi sunt Cynici, aut si qui filerunt Stoici paene Cynici, qui reprehendunt et irrident, quod ea, quae turpia non sint, verbis flagitiosa ducamus, illa autem, quae turpia sint, nominibus appellemus suis. Latrocinari, fraudare, adulterare re turpe est, sed dicitur non obscene; liberis dare operam re honestum est, nomine obscenum; pluraque in ear sententiam ab eisdem contra verecundiam disputantur. Nos autem naturam sequamur et ab omni, quod abhorret ab oculorum auriumque approbatione, fugiamus; status incessus, sessio accubitio, vultus oculi manuum motus teneat illud decorum.''. None
1.128. \xa0But we should give no heed to the Cynics (or to some Stoics who are practically Cynics) who censure and ridicule us for holding that the mere mention of some actions that are not immoral is shameful, while other things that are immoral we call by their real names. Robbery, fraud, and adultery, for example, are immoral in deed, but it is not indecent to name them. To beget children in wedlock is in deed morally right; to speak of it is indecent. And they assail modesty with a great many other arguments to the same purport. But as for us, let us follow Nature and shun everything that is offensive to our eyes or our ears. So, in standing or walking, in sitting or reclining, in our expression, our eyes, or the movements of our hands, let us preserve what we have called "propriety." <''. None
11. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 244, 245, 270; Wardy and Warren (2018) 244, 245, 270

12. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164; Erler et al (2021) 123; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164

13. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.1-15.37, 15.39-15.44, 15.46-15.55, 15.57-15.64, 15.66-15.75, 15.77-15.103, 15.105-15.117, 15.119-15.125, 15.127-15.134, 15.136-15.146, 15.148-15.156, 15.158-15.169, 15.171-15.177, 15.179-15.197, 15.199-15.216, 15.218-15.231, 15.233-15.243, 15.245-15.269, 15.271-15.284, 15.286-15.304, 15.306-15.315, 15.317-15.320, 15.322-15.324, 15.326-15.327, 15.329-15.337, 15.339-15.346, 15.348-15.357, 15.359-15.360, 15.362-15.377, 15.379-15.389, 15.391-15.406, 15.408-15.415, 15.417-15.428, 15.430-15.440, 15.442-15.454, 15.456-15.469, 15.471-15.478 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164; Cornelli (2013) 167; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164

15.1. Quaeritur interea quis tantae pondera molis 15.2. sustineat tantoque queat succedere regi: 15.3. destinat imperio clarum praenuntia veri 15.4. fama Numam; non ille satis cognosse Sabinae 15.5. gentis habet ritus: animo maiora capaci 15.6. concipit et, quae sit rerum natura, requirit. 15.7. Huius amor curae, patria Curibusque relictis, 15.8. fecit ut Herculei penetraret ad hospitis urbem. 15.9. Graia quis Italicis auctor posuisset in oris
15.10. moenia, quaerenti sic e senioribus unus
15.11. rettulit indigenis, veteris non inscius aevi:
15.12. “Dives ab Oceano bubus Iove natus Hiberis
15.13. litora felici tenuisse Lacinia cursu
15.14. fertur et, armento teneras errante per herbas,
15.15. ipse domum magni nec inhospita tecta Crotonis
15.16. intrasse et requie longum relevasse laborem
15.18. hic locus urbis erit”; promissaque vera fuerunt.
15.19. Nam fuit Argolico generatus Alemone quidam 15.20. Myscelos, illius dis acceptissimus aevi. 15.21. Hunc super incumbens pressum gravitate soporis 15.22. claviger adloquitur: “Lapidosas Aesaris undas 15.23. i, pete diversi! Patrias, age, desere sedes!” 15.24. et, nisi paruerit multa ac metuenda minatur; 15.25. post ea discedunt pariter somnusque deusque. 15.26. Surgit Alemonides tacitaque recentia mente 15.27. visa refert, pugnatque diu sententia secum: 15.28. numen abire iubet, prohibent discedere leges, 15.29. poenaque mors posita est patriam mutare volenti. 15.30. Candidus Oceano nitidum caput abdiderat Sol, 15.31. et caput extulerat densissima sidereum Nox: 15.32. visus adesse idem deus est eademque monere 15.33. et, nisi paruerit, plura et graviora minari. 15.34. Pertimuit patriumque simul transferre parabat 15.35. in sedes penetrale novas: fit murmur in urbe, 15.36. spretarumque agitur legum reus; utque peracta est 15.37. causa prior crimenque patens sine teste probatum,
15.39. “o cui ius caeli bis sex fecere labores, 15.40. fer, precor” inquit, “opem! nam tu mihi criminis auctor.” 15.41. Mos erat antiquus niveis atrisque lapillis, 15.42. his damnare reos, illis absolvere culpa; 15.43. tunc quoque sic lata est sententia tristis, et omnis 15.44. calculus inmitem demittitur ater in urnam.
15.46. omnibus e nigro color est mutatus in album, 15.47. candidaque Herculeo sententia numine facta 15.48. solvit Alemoniden. Grates agit ille parenti 15.49. Amphitryoniadae, ventisque faventibus aequor 15.50. navigat Ionium, Sallentinumque Neretum 15.51. praeterit et Sybarin Lacedaemoniumque Tarentum 15.51. praeterit et Sybarin Crimisenque et Iapygis arva; 15.52. Thurinosque sinus Crimisenque et Iapygis arva 15.53. vixque pererratis, quae spectant litora, terris, 15.54. invenit Aesarei fatalia fluminis ora 15.55. nec procul hinc tumulum, sub quo sacrata Crotonis
15.57. condidit et nomen tumulati traxit in urbem.” 15.58. Talia constabat certa primordia fama 15.59. esse loci positaeque Italis in finibus urbis. 15.60. Vir fuit hic, ortu Samius, sed fugerat una 15.61. et Samon et dominos odioque tyrannidis exsul 15.62. sponte erat, isque, licet caeli regione remotos, 15.63. mente deos adiit et quae natura negabat 15.64. visibus humanis, oculis ea pectoris hausit,
15.66. in medium discenda dabat coetusque silentum 15.67. dictaque mirantum magni primordia mundi 15.68. et rerum causas et, quid natura, docebat, 15.69. quid deus, unde nives, quae fulminis esset origo, 15.70. Iuppiter an venti discussa nube tonarent, 15.71. quid quateret terras, qua sidera lege mearent — 15.72. et quodcumque latet; primusque animalia mensis 15.73. arguit imponi, primus quoque talibus ora 15.74. docta quidem solvit, sed non et credita, verbis: 15.75. “Parcite, mortales, dapibus temerare nefandis
15.77. pondere poma suo tumidaeque in vitibus uvae, 15.78. sunt herbae dulces, sunt quae mitescere flamma 15.79. mollirique queant; nec vobis lacteus umor 15.80. eripitur, nec mella thymi redolentia flore: 15.81. prodiga divitias alimentaque mitia tellus 15.82. suggerit atque epulas sine caede et sanguine praebet. 15.83. Carne ferae sedant ieiunia, nec tamen omnes: 15.84. quippe equus et pecudes armentaque gramine vivunt. 15.85. At quibus ingenium est inmansuetumque ferumque, 15.86. Armeniae tigres iracundique leones 15.87. cumque lupis ursi, dapibus cum sanguine gaudent. 15.88. Heu quantum scelus est in viscera viscera condi 15.89. congestoque avidum pinguescere corpore corpus 15.90. alteriusque animantem animantis vivere leto! 15.91. Scilicet in tantis opibus, quas optima matrum 15.92. terra parit, nil te nisi tristia mandere saevo 15.93. vulnera dente iuvat ritusque referre Cyclopum, 15.94. nec, nisi perdideris alium, placare voracis 15.95. et male morati poteris ieiunia ventris? 15.96. At vetus illa aetas, cui fecimus aurea nomen, 15.97. fetibus arboreis et, quas humus educat, herbis 15.98. fortunata fuit nec polluit ora cruore. 15.99. Tunc et aves tutae movere per aera pennas,
15.100. et lepus impavidus mediis erravit in arvis,
15.101. nec sua credulitas piscem suspenderat hamo:
15.102. cuncta sine insidiis nullamque timentia fraudem
15.103. plenaque pacis erant. Postquam non utilis auctor

15.105. corporeasque dapes avidam demersit in alvum,
15.106. fecit iter sceleri, primoque e caede ferarum
15.107. incaluisse potest maculatum sanguine ferrum
15.108. (idque satis fuerat), nostrumque petentia letum
15.109. corpora missa neci salva pietate fatemur:
15.110. sed quam danda neci, tam non epulanda fuerunt.
15.111. Longius inde nefas abiit, et prima putatur
15.112. hostia sus meruisse mori, quia semina pando
15.113. eruerit rostro spemque interceperit anni.
15.114. Vite caper morsa Bacchi mactatus ad aras
15.115. dicitur ultoris; nocuit sua culpa duobus!
15.116. Quid meruistis oves, placidum pecus, inque tuendos
15.117. natum homines, pleno quae fertis in ubere nectar,

15.119. praebetis vitaque magis quam morte iuvatis?
15.120. Quid meruere boves, animal sine fraude dolisque,
15.121. innocuum, simplex, natum tolerare labores?
15.122. Inmemor est demum nec frugum munere dignus,
15.123. qui potuit curvi dempto modo pondere aratri
15.124. ruricolam mactare suum, qui trita labore
15.125. illa, quibus totiens durum renovaverat arvum,

15.127. Nec satis est, quod tale nefas committitur: ipsos
15.128. inscripsere deos sceleri, numenque supernum
15.129. caede laboriferi credunt gaudere iuvenci.
15.130. Victima labe carens et praestantissima forma
15.131. (nam placuisse nocet) vittis insignis et auro
15.132. sistitur ante aras auditque ignara precantem
15.133. imponique suae videt inter cornua fronti,
15.134. quas coluit, fruges percussaque sanguine cultros

15.136. Protinus ereptas viventi pectore fibras
15.137. inspiciunt mentesque deum scrutantur in illis:
15.138. unde (fames homini vetitorum tanta ciborum!)
15.139. audetis vesci, genus o mortale? Quod, oro,
15.140. ne facite, et monitis animos advertite nostris!
15.141. Cumque boum dabitis caesorum membra palato,
15.142. mandere vos vestros scite et sentite colonos.
15.143. Et quoniam deus ora movet, sequar ora moventem
15.144. rite deum Delphosque meos ipsumque recludam
15.145. aethera et augustae reserabo oracula mentis.
15.146. Magna nec ingeniis investigata priorum

15.148. astra, iuvat terris et inerti sede relicta
15.149. nube vehi validique umeris insistere Atlantis
15.150. palantesque homines passim ac rationis egentes
15.151. despectare procul trepidosque obitumque timentes
15.152. sic exhortari seriemque evolvere fati:
15.153. O genus attonitum gelidae formidine mortis,
15.154. quid Styga, quid manes et nomina vana timetis,
15.155. materiem vatum, falsique pericula mundi?
15.156. Corpora, sive rogus flamma, seu tabe vetustas

15.158. Morte carent animae, semperque priore relicta
15.159. sede novis domibus vivunt habitantque receptae.
15.160. Ipse ego (nam memini) Troiani tempore belli
15.161. Panthoides Euphorbus eram, cui pectore quondam
15.162. haesit in adverso gravis hasta minoris Atridae:
15.163. cognovi clipeum, laevae gestamina nostrae,
15.164. nuper Abanteis templo Iunonis in Argis.
15.165. Omnia mutantur, nihil interit: errat et illinc
15.166. huc venit, hinc illuc, et quoslibet occupat artus
15.167. spiritus eque feris humana in corpora transit
15.168. inque feras noster nec tempore deperit ullo;
15.169. utque novis facilis signatur cera figuris

15.171. sed tamen ipsa eadem est: animam sic semper eandem
15.172. esse, sed in varias doceo migrare figuras.
15.173. Ergo, ne pietas sit victa cupidine ventris,
15.174. parcite, vaticinor, cognatas caede nefanda
15.175. exturbare animas, nec sanguine sanguis alatur!
15.176. Et quoniam magno feror aequore plenaque ventis
15.177. vela dedi: nihil est toto, quod perstet, in orbe.

15.179. ipsa quoque adsiduo labuntur tempora motu,
15.180. non secus ac flumen, neque enim consistere flumen
15.181. nec levis hora potest, sed ut unda impellitur unda
15.182. urgeturque eadem veniente urgetque priorem,
15.183. tempora sic fugiunt pariter pariterque sequuntur
15.184. et nova sunt semper; nam quod fuit ante, relictum est,
15.185. fitque quod haud fuerat, momentaque cuncta novantur.
15.186. Cernis et emensas in lucem tendere noctes,
15.187. et iubar hoc nitidum nigrae succedere nocti.
15.188. Nec color est idem caelo, cum lassa quiete
15.189. cuncta iacent media, cumque albo Lucifer exit
15.190. clarus equo rursusque alius, cum praevia lucis
15.191. tradendum Phoebo Pallantias inficit orbem.
15.192. Ipse dei clipeus, terra cum tollitur ima,
15.193. mane rubet, terraque, rubet cum conditur ima,
15.194. candidus in summo est, melior natura quod illic
15.195. aetheris est terraeque procul contagia fugit.
15.196. Nec par aut eadem nocturnae forma Dianae
15.197. esse potest umquam, semperque hodierna sequente,

15.199. Quid? non in species succedere quattuor annum 15.200. adspicis, aetatis peragentem imitamina nostrae? 15.201. Nam tener ac lactens puerique simillimus aevo 15.202. vere novo est: tunc herba nitens et roboris expers 15.203. turget et insolida est et spe delectat agrestes. 15.204. Omnia tunc florent, florumque coloribus almus 15.205. ludit ager, neque adhuc virtus in frondibus ulla est. 15.206. Transit in aestatem post ver robustior annus 15.207. fitque valens iuvenis: neque enim robustior aetas 15.208. ulla nec uberior, nec quae magis ardeat, ulla est. 15.209. Excipit autumnus, posito fervore iuventae 15.210. maturus mitisque, inter iuvenemque senemque 15.211. temperie medius, sparsus quoque tempora canis. 15.212. Inde senilis hiems tremulo venit horrida passu, 15.213. aut spoliata suos, aut quos habet, alba capillos. 15.214. Nostra quoque ipsorum semper requieque sine ulla 15.215. corpora vertuntur, nec, quod fuimusve sumusve, 15.216. cras erimus; fuit illa dies, qua semina tantum
15.218. Artifices natura manus admovit et angi 15.219. corpora visceribus distentae condita matris 15.220. noluit eque domo vacuas emisit in auras. 15.221. Editus in lucem iacuit sine viribus infans; 15.222. mox quadrupes rituque tulit sua membra ferarum, 15.223. paulatimque tremens et nondum poplite firmo 15.224. constitit adiutis aliquo conamine nervis. 15.225. Inde valens veloxque fuit spatiumque iuventae 15.226. transit et emeritis medii quoque temporis annis 15.227. labitur occiduae per iter declive senectae. 15.228. Subruit haec aevi demoliturque prioris 15.229. robora, fletque Milon senior, cum spectat ies 15.230. (illos, qui fuerant solidorum mole tororum 15.231. Herculeis similes!) fluidos pendere lacertos;
15.233. Tyndaris et secum, cur sit bis rapta, requirit. 15.234. Tempus edax rerum, tuque, invidiosa vetustas, 15.235. omnia destruitis, vitiataque dentibus aevi 15.236. paulatim lenta consumitis omnia morte. 15.237. Haec quoque non perstant, quae nos elementa vocamus, 15.238. quasque vices peragant, (animos adhibete!) docebo. 15.239. Quattuor aeternus genitalia corpora mundus 15.240. continet; ex illis duo sunt onerosa suoque 15.241. pondere in inferius, tellus atque unda, feruntur, 15.242. et totidem gravitate carent nulloque premente 15.243. alta petunt, aer atque aere purior ignis.
15.245. ex ipsis et in ipsa cadunt, resolutaque tellus 15.246. in liquidas rarescit aquas, tenuatus in auras 15.247. aeraque umor abit, dempto quoque pondere rursus 15.248. in superos aer tenuissimus emicat ignes. 15.249. Inde retro redeunt, idemque retexitur ordo; 15.250. ignis enim densum spissatus in aera transit, 15.251. hic in aquas, tellus glomerata cogitur unda. 15.252. Nec species sua cuique manet, rerumque novatrix 15.253. ex aliis alias reddit natura figuras: 15.254. nec perit in toto quicquam, mihi credite, mundo, 15.255. sed variat faciemque novat, nascique vocatur 15.256. incipere esse aliud, quam quod fuit ante, morique 15.257. desinere illud idem. Cum sint huc forsitan illa, 15.258. haec translata illuc, summa tamen omnia constant. 15.259. Nil equidem durare diu sub imagine eadem 15.260. crediderim: sic ad ferrum venistis ab auro, 15.261. saecula, sic totiens versa est fortuna locorum. 15.262. Vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam solidissima tellus, 15.263. esse fretum, vidi factas ex aequore terras: 15.264. et procul a pelago conchae iacuere marinae, 15.265. et vetus inventa est in montibus ancora summis. 15.266. Quodque fuit campus, vallem decursus aquarum 15.267. fecit, et eluvie mons est deductus in aequor, 15.268. eque paludosa siccis humus aret harenis, 15.269. quaeque sitim tulerant, stagnata paludibus ument.
15.271. clausit, et antiquis tam multa tremoribus orbis 15.272. flumina prosiliunt aut excaecata residunt. 15.273. Sic ubi terreno Lycus est epotus hiatu, 15.274. exsistit procul hinc alioque renascitur ore: 15.275. Sic modo combibitur, tecto modo gurgite lapsus 15.276. redditur Argolicis ingens Erasinus in arvis, 15.277. et Mysum, capitisque sui ripaeque prioris 15.278. paenituisse ferunt, alia nunc ire Caicum; 15.279. nec non Sicanias volvens Ameus harenas 15.280. nunc fluit, interdum suppressis fontibus aret. 15.281. Ante bibebatur, nunc, quas contingere nolis, 15.282. fundit Anigros aquas, postquam, nisi vatibus omnis 15.283. eripienda fides, illic lavere bimembres 15.284. vulnera, clavigeri quae fecerat Herculis arcus.
15.286. qui fuerat dulcis, salibus vitiatur amaris? 15.287. Fluctibus ambitae fuerant Antissa Pharosque 15.288. et Phoenissa Tyros, quarum nunc insula nulla est. 15.289. Leucada continuam veteres habuere coloni: 15.290. nunc freta circueunt. Zancle quoque iuncta fuisse 15.291. dicitur Italiae, donec confinia pontus 15.292. abstulit et media tellurem reppulit unda. 15.293. Si quaeras Helicen et Burin, Achaidas urbes, 15.294. invenies sub aquis, et adhuc ostendere nautae 15.295. inclinata solent cum moenibus oppida mersis. 15.296. Est prope Pittheam tumulus Troezena, sine ullis 15.297. arduus arboribus, quondam planissima campi 15.298. area, nunc tumulus; nam (res horrenda relatu!) 15.299. vis fera ventorum, caecis inclusa cavernis, 15.300. exspirare aliqua cupiens luctataque frustra 15.301. liberiore frui caelo, cum carcere rima 15.302. nulla foret toto nec pervia flatibus esset, 15.303. extentam tumefecit humum, ceu spiritus oris 15.304. tendere vesicam solet aut derepta bicorni
15.306. collis habet speciem longoque induruit aevo. 15.307. Plurima cum subeant audita et cognita nobis, 15.308. pauca super referam. Quid? non et lympha figuras 15.309. datque capitque novas? Medio tua, corniger Ammon, 15.310. unda die gelida est, ortuque obituque calescit. 15.311. Admotis Athamanas aquis accendere lignum 15.312. narratur, minimos cum luna recessit in orbes. 15.313. Flumen habent Cicones, quod potum saxea reddit 15.314. viscera, quod tactis inducit marmora rebus. 15.315. Crathis et huic Sybaris, nostris conterminus oris
15.317. Quodque magis mirum est, sunt qui non corpora tantum, 15.318. verum animos etiam valeant mutare liquores. 15.319. Cui non audita est obscenae Salmacis undae 15.320. Aethiopesque lacus? Quos siquis faucibus hausit,
15.322. Clitorio quicumque sitim de fonte levavit, 15.323. vina fugit gaudetque meris abstemius undis, 15.324. seu vis est in aqua calido contraria vino,
15.326. Proetidas attonitas postquam per carmen et herbas 15.327. eripuit furiis, purgamina mentis in illas
15.329. Huic fluit effectu dispar Lyncestius amnis; 15.330. quem quicumque parum moderato gutture traxit, 15.331. haud aliter titubat, quam si mera vina bibisset. 15.332. Est locus Arcadiae (Pheneum dixere priores), 15.333. ambiguis suspectus aquis, quas nocte timeto: 15.334. nocte nocent potae, sine noxa luce bibuntur. 15.335. Sic alias aliasque lacus et flumina vires 15.336. concipiunt, tempusque fuit, quo navit in undis, 15.337. nunc sedet Ortygie. Timuit concursibus Argo
15.339. quae nunc inmotae perstant ventisque resistunt. 15.340. Nec, quae sulphureis ardet fornacibus, Aetne 15.341. ignea semper erit, neque enim fuit ignea semper. 15.342. Nam sive est animal tellus et vivit habetque 15.343. spiramenta locis flammam exhalantia multis, 15.344. spirandi mutare vias, quotiensque movetur, 15.345. has finire potest, illas aperire cavernas; 15.346. sive leves imis venti cohibentur in antris
15.348. materiam iactant, ea concipit ictibus ignem, 15.349. antra relinquentur sedatis frigida ventis; 15.350. sive bitumineae rapiunt incendia vires 15.351. luteave exiguis ardescunt sulphura fumis: 15.352. nempe ubi terra cibos alimentaque pinguia flammae 15.353. non dabit absumptis per longum viribus aevum 15.354. naturaeque suum nutrimen deerit edaci, 15.355. non feret illa famem desertaque deseret ignis. 15.356. Esse viros fama est in Hyperborea Pallene, 15.357. qui soleant levibus velari corpora plumis,
15.359. Haud equidem credo: sparsae quoque membra venenis 15.360. exercere artes Scythides memorantur easdem.
15.362. nonne vides, quaecumque mora fluidoque calore 15.363. corpora tabescunt, in parva animalia verti? 15.364. I quoque, delectos mactatos obrue tauros 15.365. (cognita res usu) de putri viscere passim 15.366. florilegae nascuntur apes, quae more parentum 15.367. rura colunt operique favent in spemque laborant; 15.368. pressus humo bellator equus crabronis origo est; 15.369. concava litoreo si demas bracchia cancro, 15.370. cetera supponas terrae, de parte sepulta 15.371. scorpius exibit caudaque minabitur unca; 15.372. quaeque solent canis frondes intexere filis 15.373. agrestes tineae (res observata colonis) 15.374. ferali mutant cum papilione figuram. 15.375. Semina limus habet virides generantia ranas, 15.376. et generat truncas pedibus, mox apta natando 15.377. cura dat, utque eadem sint longis saltibus apta,
15.379. Nec catulus, partu quem reddidit ursa recenti, 15.380. sed male viva caro est: lambendo mater in artus 15.381. fingit et in formam, quantam capit ipsa, reducit. 15.382. Nonne vides, quos cera tegit sexangula, fetus 15.383. melliferarum apium sine membris corpora nasci 15.384. et serosque pedes serasque adsumere pennas? 15.385. Iunonis volucrem, quae cauda sidera portat, 15.386. armigerumque Iovis Cythereiadasque columbas 15.387. et genus omne avium mediis e partibus ovi, 15.388. ni sciret fieri, quis nasci posse putaret? 15.389. Sunt qui, cum clauso putrefacta est spina sepulcro,

15.391. Haec tamen ex aliis generis primordia ducunt:
15.392. una est, quae reparet seque ipsa reseminet, ales.
15.393. Assyrii phoenica vocant; non fruge neque herbis,
15.394. sed turis lacrimis et suco vivit amomi.
15.395. Haec ubi quinque suae complevit saecula vitae,
15.396. ilicis in ramis tremulaeque cacumine palmae
15.397. unguibus et puro nidum sibi construit ore.
15.398. Quo simul ac casias et nardi lenis aristas
15.399. quassaque cum fulva substravit cinnama murra, 15.400. se super imponit finitque in odoribus aevum. 15.401. Inde ferunt, totidem qui vivere debeat annos, 15.402. corpore de patrio parvum phoenica renasci. 15.403. Cum dedit huic aetas vires, onerique ferendo est, 15.404. ponderibus nidi ramos levat arboris altae 15.405. fertque pius cunasque suas patriumque sepulcrum, 15.406. perque leves auras Hyperionis urbe potitus
15.408. Si tamen est aliquid mirae novitatis in istis, 15.409. alternare vices et quae modo femina tergo 15.410. passa marem est, nunc esse marem miremur hyaenam; 15.411. id quoque, quod ventis animal nutritur et aura, 15.412. protinus adsimulat, tetigit quoscumque colores. 15.413. Victa racemifero lyncas dedit India Baccho: 15.414. e quibus, ut memorant, quidquid vesica remisit, 15.415. vertitur in lapides et congelat aere tacto.
15.417. tempore, durescit: mollis fuit herba sub undis. 15.418. Desinet ante dies et in alto Phoebus anhelos 15.419. aequore tinget equos, quam consequar omnia verbis 15.420. in species translata novas: sic tempora verti 15.421. cernimus atque illas adsumere robora gentes, 15.422. concidere has. Sic magna fuit censuque virisque 15.423. perque decem potuit tantum dare sanguinis annos, 15.424. nunc humilis veteres tantummodo Troia ruinas 15.425. et pro divitiis tumulos ostendit avorum. 15.426. Clara fuit Sparte, magnae viguere Mycenae, 15.427. nec non et Cecropis nec non Amphionis arces. 15.428. Vile solum Sparte est, altae cecidere Mycenae,
15.430. Quid Pandioniae restant, nisi nomen, Athenae? 15.431. Nunc quoque Dardaniam fama est consurgere Romam, 15.432. Appenninigenae quae proxima Thybridis undis 15.433. mole sub ingenti rerum fundamina ponit: 15.434. haec igitur formam crescendo mutat et olim 15.435. immensi caput orbis erit. Sic dicere vates 15.436. faticinasque ferunt sortes quantumque recordor, 15.437. dixerat Aeneae, cum res Troiana labaret, 15.438. Priamides Helenus flenti dubioque salutis: 15.439. “Nate dea, si nota satis praesagia nostrae 15.440. mentis habes, non tota cadet te sospite Troia!
15.442. Pergama rapta feres, donec Troiaeque tibique 15.443. externum patrio contingat amicius arvum. 15.444. Urbem etiam cerno Phrygios debere nepotes, 15.445. quanta nec est nec erit nec visa prioribus annis. 15.446. Hanc alii proceres per saecula longa potentem, 15.447. sed dominam rerum de sanguine natus Iuli 15.448. efficiet; quo cum tellus erit usa, fruentur 15.449. aetheriae sedes, caelumque erit exitus illi.” 15.450. Haec Helenum cecinisse penatigero Aeneae 15.451. mente memor refero, cognataque moenia laetor 15.452. crescere et utiliter Phrygibus vicisse Pelasgos. 15.453. Ne tamen oblitis ad metam tendere longe 15.454. exspatiemur equis, caelum et quodcumque sub illo est,
15.456. nos quoque, pars mundi, quoniam non corpora solum, 15.457. verum etiam volucres animae sumus inque ferinas 15.458. possumus ire domos pecudumque in corpora condi, 15.459. corpora, quae possunt animas habuisse parentum
15.460. aut fratrum aut aliquo iunctorum foedere nobis
15.461. aut hominum certe, tuta esse et honesta sinamus
15.462. neve Thyesteis cumulemus viscera mensis!
15.463. Quam male consuescit, quam se parat ille cruori
15.464. impius humano, vituli qui guttura cultro
15.465. rumpit et inmotas praebet mugitibus aures,
15.466. aut qui vagitus similes puerilibus haedum
15.467. edentem iugulare potest, aut alite vesci,
15.468. cui dedit ipse cibos! Quantum est, quod desit in istis
15.469. ad plenum facinus? Quo transitus inde paratur?
15.471. horriferum contra borean ovis arma ministret, 15.472. ubera dent saturae manibus pressanda capellae! 15.473. Retia cum pedicis laqueosque artesque dolosas 15.474. tollite nec volucrem viscata fallite virga, 15.475. nec formidatis cervos includite pennis, 15.476. nec celate cibis uncos fallacibus hamos! 15.477. Perdite, siqua nocent, verum haec quoque perdite tantum: 15.478. ora vacent epulis alimentaque mitia carpant!”' '. None
15.1. While this was happening, they began to seek 15.2. for one who could endure the weight of such 15.3. a task and could succeed a king so great; 15.4. and Fame, the harbinger of truth, destined 15.5. illustrious Numa for the sovereign power. 15.6. It did not satisfy his heart to know 15.7. only the Sabine ceremonials, 15.8. and he conceived in his expansive mind 15.9. much greater views, examining the depth
15.10. and cause of things. His country and his care
15.11. forgotten, this desire led him to visit
15.12. the city that once welcomed Hercules .
15.13. Numa desired to know what founder built
15.14. a Grecian city on Italian shores.
15.15. One of the old inhabitants, who was well
15.16. acquainted with past history, replied:
15.18. turned from the ocean and with favoring wind' "
15.19. 'Tis said he landed on Lacinian shores." '15.20. And, while the herd strayed in the tender grass, 15.21. he visited the house, the friendly home, 15.22. of far-famed Croton . There he rested from 15.23. his arduous labors. At the time of hi 15.24. departure, he said, ‘Here in future day 15.25. hall be a city of your numerous race.’ 15.26. The passing years have proved the promise true, 15.27. for Myscelus, choosing that site, marked out' "15.28. a city's walls. Argive Alemon's son," '15.29. of all men in his generation, he 15.30. was most acceptable to the heavenly gods. 15.31. Bending over him once at dawn, while he 15.32. was overwhelmed with drowsiness of sleep, 15.33. the huge club-bearer Hercules addressed 15.34. him thus: ‘Come now, desert your native shores. 15.35. Go quickly to the pebbly flowing stream 15.36. of distant Aesar.’ And he threatened ill 15.37. in fearful words, unless he should obey.' "
15.39. Alemon's son, arising from his couch," '15.40. pondered his recent vision thoughtfully, 15.41. with his conclusions at cross purposes.— 15.42. the god commanded him to quit that land, 15.43. the laws forbade departure, threatening death 15.44. to all who sought to leave their native land.
15.46. his shining head, and darkest Night had then 15.47. put forth her starry face; and at that time 15.48. it seemed as if the same god Hercule 15.49. was present and repeating his commands, 15.50. threatening still more and graver penalties, 15.51. if he should fail to obey. Now sore afraid 15.52. he set about to move his household god 15.53. to a new settlement, but rumors then 15.54. followed him through the city, and he wa 15.55. accused of holding statutes in contempt.
15.57. when his offense was evidently proved, 15.58. even without a witness. Then he raised 15.59. his face and hands up to the gods above 15.60. and suppliant in neglected garb, exclaimed, 15.61. ‘Oh mighty Hercules , for whom alone 15.62. the twice six labors gave the privilege 15.63. of heavenly residence, give me your aid, 15.64. for you were the true cause of my offence.’
15.66. to vote with chosen pebbles, white and black. 15.67. The white absolved, the black condemned the man. 15.68. And so that day the fateful votes were given—: 15.69. all cast into the cruel urn were black! 15.70. Soon as that urn inverted poured forth all 15.71. the pebbles to be counted, every one 15.72. was changed completely from its black to white, 15.73. and so the vote adjudged him innocent. 15.74. By that most fortunate aid of Hercule' "15.75. he was exempted from the country's law." '
15.77. with favoring wind sailed on the Ionian sea, 15.78. past Sallentine Neretum, Sybaris , 15.79. Spartan Tarentum, and the Sirine Bay, 15.80. Crimisa, and on beyond the Iapygian fields. 15.81. Then, skirting shores which face these lands, he found' "15.82. the place foretold the river Aesar's mouth," '15.83. and found not far away a burial mound 15.84. which covered with its soil the hallowed bone 15.85. of Croton .—There, upon the appointed land, 15.86. he built up walls—and he conferred the name 15.87. of Croton, who was there entombed, on hi 15.88. new city, which has ever since been called 15.89. Crotona .” By tradition it is known 15.90. uch strange deeds caused that city to be built, 15.91. by men of Greece upon the Italian coast. 15.92. Here lived a man, by birth a Samian. 15.93. He had fled from Samos and the ruling class, 15.94. a voluntary exile, for his hate 15.95. against all tyranny. He had the gift 15.96. of holding mental converse with the gods, 15.97. who live far distant in the highth of heaven; 15.98. and all that Nature has denied to man 15.99. and human vision, he reviewed with eye
15.100. of his enlightened soul. And, when he had
15.101. examined all things in his careful mind
15.102. with watchful study, he released his thought
15.103. to knowledge of the public.

15.105. to crowds of people, silent and amazed,
15.106. while he revealed to them the origin
15.107. of this vast universe, the cause of things,
15.108. what is nature, what a god, whence came the snow,
15.109. the cause of lightning—was it Jupiter
15.110. or did the winds, that thundered when the cloud
15.111. was rent asunder, cause the lightning flash?
15.112. What shook the earth, what laws controlled the star
15.113. as they were moved—and every hidden thing
15.114. he was the first man to forbid the use' "
15.115. of any animal's flesh as human food," '
15.116. he was the first to speak with learned lips,
15.117. though not believed in this, exhorting them.—

15.119. pollution of your bodies with such food,
15.120. for there are grain and good fruits which bear down
15.121. the branches by their weight, and ripened grape
15.122. upon the vines, and herbs—those sweet by nature
15.123. and those which will grow tender and mellow with
15.124. a fire, and flowing milk is not denied,
15.125. nor honey, redolent of blossoming thyme.

15.127. affording dainties without slaughter, death,
15.128. and bloodshed. Dull beasts delight to satisfy
15.129. their hunger with torn flesh; and yet not all:
15.130. horses and sheep and cattle live on grass.
15.131. But all the savage animals—the fierce
15.132. Armenian tigers and ferocious lions,
15.133. and bears, together with the roving wolves—
15.134. delight in viands reeking with warm blood.

15.136. vitals in vitals gorged, one greedy body' "
15.137. fattening with plunder of another's flesh," "
15.138. a living being fed on another's life!" '
15.139. In that abundance, which our Earth, the best
15.140. of mothers, will afford have you no joy,
15.141. unless your savage teeth can gnaw
15.142. the piteous flesh of some flayed animal
15.143. to reenact the Cyclopean crime?
15.144. And can you not appease the hungry void—' "
15.145. the perverted craving of a stomach's greed," '
15.146. unless you first destroy another life?

15.148. of ‘Golden,’ was so blest in fruit of trees,
15.149. and in the good herbs which the earth produced
15.150. that it never would pollute the mouth with blood.
15.151. The birds then safely moved their wings in air,
15.152. the timid hares would wander in the field
15.153. with no fear, and their own credulity
15.154. had not suspended fishes from the hook.
15.155. All life was safe from treacherous wiles,
15.156. fearing no injury, a peaceful world.

15.158. (it does not matter who it might have been)
15.159. envied the ways of lions and gulped into
15.160. his greedy paunch stuff from a carcass vile.
15.161. He opened the foul paths of wickedness.
15.162. It may be that in killing beasts of prey
15.163. our steel was for the first time warmed with blood.
15.164. And that could be defended, for I hold
15.165. that predatory creatures which attempt
15.166. destruction of mankind, are put to death
15.167. without evasion of the sacred laws:
15.168. but, though with justice they are put to death,
15.169. that cannot be a cause for eating them.

15.171. was thought to have deserved death as the first
15.172. of victims, for with her long turned-up snout
15.173. he spoiled the good hope of a harvest year.
15.174. The ravenous goat, that gnawed a sprouting vine,
15.175. was led for slaughter to the altar fire
15.176. of angry Bacchus. It was their own fault
15.177. that surely caused the ruin of those two.

15.179. harmless and useful for the good of man
15.180. with nectar in full udders? Their soft wool
15.181. affords the warmest coverings for our use,
15.182. their life and not their death would help us more.
15.183. Why have the oxen of the field deserved
15.184. a sad end—innocent, without deceit,
15.185. and harmless, without guile, born to endure
15.186. hard labor? Without gratitude is he,
15.187. unworthy of the gift of harvest fields,
15.188. who, after he relieved his worker from
15.189. weight of the curving plow could butcher him,
15.190. could sever with an axe that toil worn neck,
15.191. by which so often with hard work the ground
15.192. had been turned up, so many harvests reared.
15.193. For some, even crimes like these are not enough,
15.194. they have imputed to the gods themselve
15.195. abomination—they believe a god
15.196. in heaven above, rejoices at the death
15.197. of a laborious ox.

15.199. of blemish and most beautiful in form 15.200. (perfection brings destruction) is adorned 15.201. with garlands and with gilded horns before 15.202. the altar. In his ignorance he hear 15.203. one praying, and he sees the very grain 15.204. he labored to produce, fixed on his head 15.205. between the horns, and felled, he stains with blood 15.206. the knife which just before he may have seen 15.207. reflected in clear water. Instantly 15.208. they snatch out entrails from his throbbing form, 15.209. and seek in them intentions of the gods. 15.210. Then, in your lust for a forbidden food 15.211. you will presume to batten on his flesh, 15.212. O race of mortals! Do not eat such food! 15.213. Give your attention to my serious words; 15.214. and, when you next present the slaughtered flesh 15.215. of oxen to your palates, know and feel 15.216. that you gnaw your fellow tillers of the soil.
15.218. I will obey the god who urges me, 15.219. and will disclose to you the heavens above, 15.220. and I will even reveal the oracle 15.221. of the Divine Will. I will sing to you 15.222. of things most wonderful, which never were 15.223. investigated by the intellect 15.224. of ancient times and things which have been long 15.225. concealed from man. In fancy I delight 15.226. to float among the stars or take my stand' "15.227. on mighty Atlas' shoulders, and to look" '15.228. afar down on men wandering here and there— 15.229. afraid in life yet dreading unknown death, 15.230. and in these words exhort them and reveal 15.231. the sequence of events ordained by fate!
15.233. alarms of icy death, afraid of Styx, 15.234. fearful of moving shadows and empty names—' "15.235. of subjects harped on by the poets' tales," '15.236. the fabled perils of a fancied life? 15.237. Whether the funeral pile consumes your flesh 15.238. with hot flames, or old age dissolves it with 15.239. a gradual wasting power, be well assured 15.240. the body cannot meet with further ill. 15.241. And souls are all exempt from power of death. 15.242. When they have left their first corporeal home, 15.243. they always find and live in newer homes.
15.245. that in the days of the great Trojan War, 15.246. I was Euphorbus, son of Panthous. 15.247. In my opposing breast was planted then 15.248. the heavy spear-point of the younger son 15.249. of Atreus. Not long past I recognised 15.250. the shield, once burden of my left arm, where' "15.251. it hung in Juno 's temple at ancient Argos ," '15.252. the realm of Abas. Everything must change: 15.253. but nothing perishes. The moving soul 15.254. may wander, coming from that spot to this, 15.255. from this to that—in changed possession live 15.256. in any limbs whatever. It may pa 15.257. from beasts to human bodies, and again 15.258. to those of beasts. The soul will never die, 15.259. in the long lapse of time. As pliant wax 15.260. is moulded to new forms and does not stay 15.261. as it has been nor keep the self same form 15.262. yet is the selfsame wax, be well assured 15.263. the soul is always the same spirit, though 15.264. it passes into different forms. Therefore, 15.265. that natural love may not be vanquished by 15.266. unnatural craving of the appetite, 15.267. I warn you, stop expelling kindred soul 15.268. by deeds abhorrent as cold murder.—Let 15.269. not blood be nourished with its kindred blood!
15.271. and I have given my full sails to the wind, 15.272. nothing in all the world remains unchanged. 15.273. All things are in a state of flux, all shape 15.274. receive a changing nature. Time itself 15.275. glides on with constant motion, ever a 15.276. a flowing river. Neither river nor 15.277. the fleeting hour can stop its constant course. 15.278. But, as each wave drives on a wave, as each 15.279. is pressed by that which follows, and must pre 15.280. on that before it, so the moments fly, 15.281. and others follow, so they are renewed. 15.282. The moment which moved on before is past, 15.283. and that which was not, now exists in Time, 15.284. and every one comes, goes, and is replaced.
15.286. on to the dawn, then brilliant light of day 15.287. ucceeds the dark night. There is not the same 15.288. appearance in the heavens,: when all thing 15.289. for weariness are resting in vast night, 15.290. as when bright Lucifer rides his white steed. 15.291. And only think of that most glorious change,' "15.292. when loved Aurora, Pallas' daughter, come" '15.293. before the day and tints the world, almost 15.294. delivered to bright Phoebus. Even the disk 15.295. of that god, rising from beneath the earth, 15.296. is of a ruddy color in the dawn 15.297. and ruddy when concealed beneath the world. 15.298. When highest, it is a most brilliant white, 15.299. for there the ether is quite purified, 15.300. and far away avoids infection from' "15.301. impurities of earth. Diana's form" '15.302. at night remains not equal nor the same!' "15.303. 'Tis less today than it will be tomorrow," '15.304. if she is waxing; greater, if she wanes.
15.306. four seasons, imitating human life:' "15.307. in early Spring it has a nursling's way" '15.308. resembling infancy, for at that time 15.309. the blade is shooting and devoid of strength. 15.310. Its flaccid substance swelling gives delight, 15.311. to every watching husbandman, alive 15.312. in expectation. Then all things are rich 15.313. in blossom, and the genial meadow smile 15.314. with tints of blooming flowers; but not as yet 15.315. is there a sign of vigor in the leaves.
15.317. it passes into Summer, and its youth 15.318. becomes robust. Indeed of all the year 15.319. the Summer is most vigorous and most 15.320. abounds with glowing and life-giving warmth.
15.322. removed, that ripe and mellow time succeed 15.323. between youth and old age, and a few white hair 15.324. are sprinkled here and there upon his brow.
15.326. follows, repulsive, strips of graceful lock 15.327. or white with those he has retained so long.
15.329. we are not now what we were yesterday 15.330. or we shall be tomorrow. And there wa 15.331. a time when we were only seeds of man,' "15.332. mere hopes that lived within a mother's womb." '15.333. But Nature changed us with her skilfull touch, 15.334. determined that our bodies should not be 15.335. held in such narrow room, below the entrail 15.336. in our distended parent; and in time 15.337. he brought us forth into the vacant air.
15.339. Then on all fours he lifts his body up, 15.340. feeling his way, like any young wild beast, 15.341. and then by slow degrees he stands upright, 15.342. weak-kneed and trembling, steadied by support 15.343. of some convenient prop. And soon more strong 15.344. and swift he passes through the hours of youth, 15.345. and, when the years of middle age are past, 15.346. lides down the steep path of declining age.
15.348. of former years: and Milon, now grown old, 15.349. weeps, when he sees his arms, which once were firm 15.350. with muscles big as those of Hercules, 15.351. hang flabby at his side: and Helen weeps, 15.352. when in the glass she sees her wrinkled face, 15.353. and wonders why two heroes fell in love 15.354. and carried her away.—O Time, 15.355. devourer of all things, and envious Age, 15.356. together you destroy all that exist 15.357. and, slowly gnawing, bring on lingering death.
15.359. do not endure. Now listen well to me, 15.360. and I will show the ways in which they change.
15.362. four elemental parts. And two of these 15.363. are heavy—earth and water—and are borne 15.364. downwards by weight. The other two devoid 15.365. of weight, are air and—even lighter—fire: 15.366. and, if these two are not constrained, they seek 15.367. the higher regions. These four elements, 15.368. though far apart in space, are all derived 15.369. from one another. Earth dissolve 15.370. as flowing water! Water, thinned still more, 15.371. departs as wind and air; and the light air, 15.372. till losing weight, sparkles on high as fire. 15.373. But they return, along their former way: 15.374. the fire, assuming weight, is changed to air; 15.375. and then, more dense, that air is changed again 15.376. to water; and that water, still more dense, 15.377. compacts itself again as primal earth.
15.379. and Nature, the renewer of all things, 15.380. continually changes every form 15.381. into some other shape. Believe my word, 15.382. in all this universe of vast extent, 15.383. not one thing ever perished. All have changed 15.384. appearance. Men say a certain thing is born, 15.385. if it takes a different form from what it had; 15.386. and yet they say, that certain thing has died, 15.387. if it no longer keeps the self same shape. 15.388. Though distant things move near, and near things far, 15.389. always the sum of all things is unchanged.

15.391. remains long under the same form unchanged.
15.392. Look at the change of times from gold to iron,:
15.393. look at the change in places. I have seen
15.394. what had been solid earth become salt waves,
15.395. and I have seen dry land made from the deep;
15.396. and, far away from ocean, sea-shells strewn,
15.397. and on the mountain-tops old anchors found.
15.398. Water has made that which was once a plain
15.399. into a valley, and the mountain ha 15.400. been levelled by the floods down to a plain. 15.401. A former marshland is now parched dry sand, 15.402. and places which endured severest drought 15.403. are wet with standing pools. Here Nature ha 15.404. opened fresh springs, but there has shut them up; 15.405. rivers aroused by ancient earthquakes have 15.406. rushed out or vanished, as they lost their depth.
15.408. a chasm in the earth, it rushes forth 15.409. at a distance and is reborn a different stream. 15.410. The Erasinus now flows down into a cave, 15.411. now runs beneath the ground a darkened course, 15.412. then rises lordly in the Argolic fields. 15.413. They say the Mysus, wearied of his spring 15.414. and of his former banks, appears elsewhere 15.415. and takes another name, the Caicus .
15.417. now smoothly rolling, at another time 15.418. is quenched, because its fountain springs are dry. 15.419. The water of the Anigros formerly 15.420. was used for drinking, but it pours out now 15.421. foul water which you would decline to touch, 15.422. because (unless all credit is denied 15.423. to poets) long ago the Centaurs, those 15.424. trange mortals double-limbed, bathed in the stream 15.425. wounds which club-bearing Hercules had made 15.426. with his strong bow.—Yes, does not Hypani 15.427. descending fresh from mountains of Sarmatia , 15.428. become embittered with the taste of salt?
15.430. were once surrounded by the wavy sea: 15.431. they are not islands now. Long years ago 15.432. Leucas was mainland, if we can believe 15.433. what the old timers there will tell, but now 15.434. the waves sweep round it. Zancle was a part 15.435. of Italy , until the sea cut off 15.436. the neighboring land with strong waves in between. 15.437. Should you seek Helice and Buris, those 15.438. two cities of Achaea , you will find 15.439. them underneath the waves, where sailors point 15.440. to sloping roofs and streets in the clear deep.
15.442. quite bare of trees, was once a level plain, 15.443. but now is a hill, for (dreadful even to tell) 15.444. the raging power of winds, long pent in deep, 15.445. dark caverns, tried to find a proper vent, 15.446. long struggling to attain free sky. 15.447. Finding no opening from the prison-caves, 15.448. imperious to their force, they raised the earth, 15.449. exactly as pent air breathed from the mouth 15.450. inflates a bladder, or the bottle-hide 15.451. tripped off the two-horned goats. The swollen earth 15.452. remained on that spot and has ever since 15.453. appearance of a high hill hardened by 15.454. the flight of time.
15.456. that I have heard and known, I will add a few. 15.457. Why, does not water give and take strange forms? 15.458. Your wave, O horned Ammon, will turn cold 15.459. at mid-day, but is always mild and warm
15.460. at sun-rise and at sun-set. I have heard
15.461. that Athamanians kindle wood, if they
15.462. pour water on it, when the waning moon
15.463. has shrunk away into her smallest orb.
15.464. The people of Ciconia have a stream' "
15.465. which turns the drinker's entrails into stone," '
15.466. which changes into marble all it raves.
15.467. The Achaean Crathis and the Sybaris ,
15.468. which flow not far from here, will turn the hair
15.469. to something like clear amber or bright gold.
15.471. which change not only bodies but the minds: 15.472. who has no knowledge of the Salmaci 15.473. and of its ill famed waves? Who has not 15.474. heard of the lakes of Aethiopia: 15.475. how those who drink of them go raving mad 15.476. or fall in a deep sleep, most wonderful 15.477. in heaviness. Whoever quenches thirst 15.478. from the Clitorian spring will hate all wine,' '. None
14. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 318; Wardy and Warren (2018) 318

15. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 21.9, 83.9, 113.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 124; Bryan (2018) 318; Geljon and Runia (2019) 256, 263; Wardy and Warren (2018) 318

21.9. There is no reason why you should hold that these words belong to Epicurus alone; they are public property. I think we ought to do in philosophy as they are wont to do in the Senate: when someone has made a motion, of which I approve to a certain extent, I ask him to make his motion in two parts, and I vote for the part which I approve. So I am all the more glad to repeat the distinguished words of Epicurus, in order that I may prove to those who have recourse to him through a bad motive, thinking that they will have in him a screen for their own vices, that they must live honourably, no matter what school they follow.
113.23. Now do not imagine that I am the first one of our school who does not speak from rules but has his own opinion: Cleanthes and his pupil Chrysippus could not agree in defining the act of walking. Cleanthes held that it was spirit transmitted to the feet from the primal essence, while Chrysippus maintained that it was the primal essence in itself.11 Why, then, following the example of Chrysippus himself, should not every man claim his own freedom, and laugh down all these "living things," – so numerous that the universe itself cannot contain them? ' '. None
16. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 209; Wardy and Warren (2018) 209

17. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 55.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 318; Wardy and Warren (2018) 318

55.3. 2. \xa0and in order that they might have no other excuse for being absent, he commanded that no court or other meeting which required their attendance should be held at that time. He also fixed by law the number of senators necessary for passing decrees, according to the several kinds of decrees, â\x80\x94 to state only the chief points of the matter; and he increased the fines of those who without good excuse stayed away from the sessions.,3. \xa0And since many such offences had regularly gone unpunished owing to the large number of those who were liable to punishment, he commanded that if many were guilty, they should draw lots and one out of every five, according as the lot should fall, should incur the fine. He had the names of all the senators entered on a tablet and posted; and this practice, originating with him, is still observed each year.,4. \xa0Such were the measures he took to compel the attendance of the senators; but if on any occasion, as the result of some accident, fewer assembled than the occasion demanded, â\x80\x94 and it should be explained that at every session, except when the emperor himself was present, the number of those in attendance was accurately counted, both at that time and later, for practically every matter of business, â\x80\x94 the senators would proceed with their deliberations and their decision would be recorded, though it would not go into effect as if regularly passed, but instead, their action was what was termed auctoritas, the purpose of which was to make known their will.,5. \xa0For such is the general force of this word; to translate it into Greek by a term that will always be applicable is impossible. This same custom prevailed in case they ever assembled in haste at any but the usual place, or on any but the appointed day, or without a legal summons, or if by reason of the opposition of some of the tribunes a decree could not be passed and yet they were unwilling that their opinion should remain unknown; afterwards the resolution would be ratified according to established precedent and would receive the name of a decree.,6. \xa0This method, strictly followed for a long period by the men of old time, has in a way already become null and void, as has also the special privilege of the praetors. For they, becoming indigt that they could bring no proposal before the senate, though they outranked the tribunes, received from Augustus the right to do so, but in the course of time were deprived of it. \xa0These and the other laws which Augustus enacted at this time he had inscribed on tablets and posted in the senate before bringing them up for consideration, and he allowed the senators to enter the chamber in groups of two and read them, so that if any provision did not please them, or if they could advise anything better, they might speak.''. None
18. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 250; Wardy and Warren (2018) 250

19. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 23; Bryan (2018) 250; Motta and Petrucci (2022) 91; Wardy and Warren (2018) 250

20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 248; Wardy and Warren (2018) 248

21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bett (2019) 199; Brouwer (2013) 157; Bryan (2018) 164, 209; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164, 209

22. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius • Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Famous Philosophers

 Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015) 30; McGowan (1999) 75

23. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.4, 1.19, 1.76, 1.112, 1.114, 2.87, 2.109-2.110, 2.113-2.120, 3.5-3.6, 3.9-3.14, 3.25-3.26, 3.37, 3.48, 3.65-3.66, 4.17, 4.22, 4.33, 4.39-4.40, 5.12, 5.78, 6.103-6.105, 7.1-7.34, 7.36, 7.38-7.41, 7.57-7.58, 7.82, 7.87, 7.89, 7.127, 7.134, 7.136-7.139, 7.142, 7.148-7.151, 7.156, 7.160-7.167, 7.174, 7.187-7.188, 8.6, 8.9, 8.12, 8.15, 8.19, 8.24-8.35, 9.23, 9.105, 10.5-10.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius • Diogenes Laertius, • Diogenes Laertius, as source for Pythagoreanism • λόγος, used by Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Amendola (2022) 88; Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 180; Bett (2019) 28, 50, 52, 199; Brouwer (2013) 19, 23, 25, 27, 38, 40, 46, 48, 61, 82, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 134, 138, 139, 140, 141, 154, 156, 157; Bryan (2018) 85, 164, 209, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 259, 270, 318; Cornelli (2013) 47, 68, 74, 79, 96, 124, 137, 138, 157, 245, 255, 309, 310, 317, 321, 330, 371, 373, 375, 379, 380, 394, 395, 447, 454, 464; Del Lucchese (2019) 184, 229; Dürr (2022) 46; Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 37; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 421; Erler et al (2021) 117, 232; Frede and Laks (2001) 14; Geljon and Runia (2013) 108, 215, 225, 230; Geljon and Runia (2019) 121, 256, 263, 272; Huffman (2019) 53, 54, 55, 56, 63, 69, 281; James (2021) 31, 33, 52, 78; Johnston and Struck (2005) 181, 182; König (2012) 238; Lloyd (1989) 52, 101; Motta and Petrucci (2022) 39, 44, 46, 91, 130, 149; Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022) 33; Niehoff (2011) 33; Wardy and Warren (2018) 85, 164, 209, 242, 243, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 259, 270, 303, 318; Wolfsdorf (2020) 700; Čulík-Baird (2022) 81

1.76. Pamphila in the second book of her Memorabilia narrates that, as his son Tyrraeus sat in a barber's shop in Cyme, a smith killed him with a blow from an axe. When the people of Cyme sent the murderer to Pittacus, he, on learning the story, set him at liberty and declared that It is better to pardon now than to repent later. Heraclitus, however, says that it was Alcaeus whom he set at liberty when he had got him in his power, and that what he said was: Mercy is better than vengeance.Among the laws which he made is one providing that for any offence committed in a state of intoxication the penalty should be doubled; his object was to discourage drunkenness, wine being abundant in the island. One of his sayings is, It is hard to be good, which is cited by Simonides in this form: Pittacus's maxim, 'Truly to become a virtuous man is hard.'" '
1.112. He also compiled prose works On Sacrifices and the Cretan Constitution, also On Minos and Rhadamanthus, running to about 4000 lines. At Athens again he founded the sanctuary of the Solemn Gods (Semnai Theai), as Lobon of Argos tells us in his work On Poets. He is stated to have been the first who purified houses and fields, and the first who founded sanctuaries. Some are found to maintain that he did not go to sleep but withdrew himself for a while, engaged in gathering simples.There is extant a letter of his to Solon the lawgiver, containing a scheme of government which Minos drew up for the Cretans. But Demetrius of Magnesia, in his work on poets and writers of the same name, endeavours to discredit the letter on the ground that it is late and not written in the Cretan dialect but in Attic, and New Attic too. However, I have found another letter by him which runs as follows:Epimenides to Solon' "
1.114. This is the tenor of the letter. But Demetrius reports a story that he received from the Nymphs food of a special sort and kept it in a cow's hoof; that he took small doses of this food, which was entirely absorbed into his system, and he was never seen to eat. Timaeus mentions him in his second book. Some writers say that the Cretans sacrifice to him as a god; for they say that he had superhuman foresight. For instance, when he saw Munichia, at Athens, he said the Athenians did not know how many evils that place would bring upon them; for, if they did, they would destroy it even if they had to do so with their teeth. And this he said so long before the event. It is also stated that he was the first to call himself Aeacus; that he foretold to the Lacedaemonians their defeat by the Arcadians; and that he claimed that his soul had passed through many incarnations." '
2.87. The one state is agreeable and the other repellent to all living things. However, the bodily pleasure which is the end is, according to Panaetius in his work On the Sects, not the settled pleasure following the removal of pains, or the sort of freedom from discomfort which Epicurus accepts and maintains to be the end. They also hold that there is a difference between end and happiness. Our end is particular pleasure, whereas happiness is the sum total of all particular pleasures, in which are included both past and future pleasures.
2.109. Eubulides kept up a controversy with Aristotle and said much to discredit him.Among other members the school of Eubulides included Alexinus of Elis, a man very fond of controversy, for which reason he was called Elenxinus. In particular he kept up a controversy with Zeno. Hermippus says of him that he left Elis and removed to Olympia, where he studied philosophy. His pupils inquired why he took up his abode here, and were told that it was his intention to found a school which should be called the Olympian school. But as their provisions ran short and they found the place unhealthy, they left it, and for the rest of his days Alexinus lived in solitude with a single servant. And some time afterwards, as he was swimming in the Alpheus, the point of a reed ran into him, and of this injury he died. 2.110. I have composed the following lines upon him:It was not then a vain tale that once an unfortunate man, while diving, pierced his foot somehow with a nail; since that great man Alexinus, before he could cross the Alpheus, was pricked by a reed and met his death.He has written not only a reply to Zeno but other works, including one against Ephorus the historian.To the school of Eubulides also belonged Euphantus of Olynthus, who wrote a history of his own times. He was besides a poet and wrote several tragedies, with which he made a great reputation at the festivals. He taught King Antigonus and dedicated to him a work On Kingship which was very popular. He died of old age.
2.113. 11. STILPOStilpo, a citizen of Megara in Greece, was a pupil of some of the followers of Euclides, although others make him a pupil of Euclides himself, and furthermore of Thrasymachus of Corinth, who was the friend of Ichthyas, according to Heraclides. And so far did he excel all the rest in inventiveness and sophistry that nearly the whole of Greece was attracted to him and joined the school of Megara. On this let me cite the exact words of Philippus the Megarian philosopher: for from Theophrastus he drew away the theorist Metrodorus and Timagoras of Gela, from Aristotle the Cyrenaic philosopher, Clitarchus, and Simmias; and as for the dialecticians themselves, he gained over Paeonius from Aristides; Diphilus of Bosphorus, the son of Euphantus, and Myrmex, the son of Exaenetus, who had both come to refute him, he made his devoted adherents. 2.114. And besides these he won over Phrasidemus the Peripatetic, an accomplished physicist, and Alcimus the rhetorician, the first orator in all Greece; Crates, too, and many others he got into his toils, and, what is more, along with these, he carried off Zeno the Phoenician.He was also an authority on politics.He married a wife, and had a mistress named Nicarete, as Onetor has somewhere stated. He had a profligate daughter, who was married to his friend Simmias of Syracuse. And, as she would not live by rule, some one told Stilpo that she was a disgrace to him. To this he replied, Not so, any more than I am an honour to her.' "2.115. Ptolemy Soter, they say, made much of him, and when he had got possession of Megara, offered him a sum of money and invited him to return with him to Egypt. But Stilpo would only accept a very moderate sum, and he declined the proposed journey, and removed to Aegina until Ptolemy set sail. Again, when Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, had taken Megara, he took measures that Stilpo's house should be preserved and all his plundered property restored to him. But when he requested that a schedule of the lost property should be drawn up, Stilpo denied that he had lost anything which really belonged to him, for no one had taken away his learning, while he still had his eloquence and knowledge." '2.116. And conversing upon the duty of doing good to men he made such an impression on the king that he became eager to hear him. There is a story that he once used the following argument concerning the Athena of Phidias: Is it not Athena the daughter of Zeus who is a goddess? And when the other said Yes, he went on, But this at least is not by Zeus but by Phidias, and, this being granted, he concluded, This then is not a god. For this he was summoned before the Areopagus; he did not deny the charge, but contended that the reasoning was correct, for that Athena was no god but a goddess; it was the male divinities who were gods. However, the story goes that the Areopagites ordered him to quit the city, and that thereupon Theodorus, whose nickname was Θεός, said in derision, Whence did Stilpo learn this? and how could he tell whether she was a god or a goddess? But in truth Theodorus was most impudent, and Stilpo most ingenious.' "2.117. When Crates asked him whether the gods take delight in prayers and adorations, he is said to have replied, Don't put such a question in the street, simpleton, but when we are alone! It is said that Bion, when he was asked the same question whether there are gods, replied:Will you not scatter the crowd from me, O much-enduring elder?In character Stilpo was simple and unaffected, and he could readily adapt himself to the plain man. For instance, when Crates the Cynic did not answer the question put to him and only insulted the questioner, I knew, said Stilpo, that you would utter anything rather than what you ought." '2.118. And once when Crates held out a fig to him when putting a question, he took the fig and ate it. Upon which the other exclaimed, O Heracles, I have lost the fig, and Stilpo remarked, Not only that but your question as well, for which the fig was payment in advance. Again, on seeing Crates shrivelled with cold in the winter, he said, You seem to me, Crates, to want a new coat, i.e. to be wanting in sense as well. And the other being annoyed replied with the following burlesque:And Stilpo I saw enduring toilsome woes in Megara, where men say that the bed of Typhos is. There he would ever be wrangling, and many comrades about him, wasting time in the verbal pursuit of virtue. 2.119. It is said that at Athens he so attracted the public that people would run together from the workshops to look at him. And when some one said, Stilpo, they stare at you as if you were some strange creature. No, indeed, said he, but as if I were a genuine man. And, being a consummate master of controversy, he used to demolish even the ideas, and say that he who asserted the existence of Man meant no individual; he did not mean this man or that. For why should he mean the one more than the other? Therefore neither does he mean this individual man. Again, vegetable is not what is shown to me, for vegetable existed ten thousand years ago. Therefore this is not vegetable. The story goes that while in the middle of an argument with Crates he hurried off to buy fish, and, when Crates tried to detain him and urged that he was leaving the argument, his answer was, Not I. I keep the argument though I am leaving you; for the argument will remain, but the fish will soon be sold.' "2.120. Nine dialogues of his are extant written in frigid style, Moschus, Aristippus or Callias, Ptolemy, Chaerecrates, Metrocles, Anaximenes, Epigenes, To his Daughter, Aristotle. Heraclides relates that Zeno, the founder of the Stoic school, was one of Stilpo's pupils; Hermippus that Stilpo died at a great age after taking wine to hasten his end.I have written an epitaph on him also:Surely you know Stilpo the Megarian; old age and then disease laid him low, a formidable pair. But he found in wine a charioteer too strong for that evil team; he quaffed it eagerly and was borne along.He was also ridiculed by Sophilus the Comic poet in his drama The Wedding:What Charinus says is just Stilpo's stoppers." '
3.5. and that he applied himself to painting and wrote poems, first dithyrambs, afterwards lyric poems and tragedies. He had, they say, a weak voice; this is confirmed by Timotheus the Athenian in his book On Lives. It is stated that Socrates in a dream saw a cygnet on his knees, which all at once put forth plumage, and flew away after uttering a loud sweet note. And the next day Plato was introduced as a pupil, and thereupon he recognized in him the swan of his dream.At first he used to study philosophy in the Academy, and afterwards in the garden at Colonus (as Alexander states in his Successions of Philosophers), as a follower of Heraclitus. Afterwards, when he was about to compete for the prize with a tragedy, he listened to Socrates in front of the theatre of Dionysus, and then consigned his poems to the flames, with the words:Come hither, O fire-god, Plato now has need of thee. 3.6. From that time onward, having reached his twentieth year (so it is said), he was the pupil of Socrates. When Socrates was gone, he attached himself to Cratylus the Heraclitean, and to Hermogenes who professed the philosophy of Parmenides. Then at the age of twenty-eight, according to Hermodorus, he withdrew to Megara to Euclides, with certain other disciples of Socrates. Next he proceeded to Cyrene on a visit to Theodorus the mathematician, thence to Italy to see the Pythagorean philosophers Philolaus and Eurytus, and thence to Egypt to see those who interpreted the will of the gods; and Euripides is said to have accompanied him thither. There he fell sick and was cured by the priests, who treated him with sea-water, and for this reason he cited the line:The sea doth wash away all human ills.
3.9. Some authorities, amongst them Satyrus, say that he wrote to Dion in Sicily instructing him to purchase three Pythagorean books from Philolaus for 100 minae. For they say he was well off, having received from Dionysius over eighty talents. This is stated by Onetor in an essay upon the theme, Whether a wise man will make money. Further, he derived great assistance from Epicharmus the Comic poet, for he transcribed a great deal from him, as Alcimus says in the essays dedicated to Amyntas, of which there are four. In the first of them he writes thus:It is evident that Plato often employs the words of Epicharmus. Just consider. Plato asserts that the object of sense is that which never abides in quality or quantity, but is ever in flux and change. 3.10. The assumption is that the things from which you take away number are no longer equal nor determinate, nor have they quantity or quality. These are the things to which becoming always, and being never, belongs. But the object of thought is something constant from which nothing is subtracted, to which nothing is added. This is the nature of the eternal things, the attribute of which is to be ever alike and the same. And indeed Epicharmus has expressed himself plainly about objects of sense and objects of thought.a. But gods there always were; never at any time were they wanting, while things in this world are always alike, and are brought about through the same agencies.b. Yet it is said that Chaos was the first-born of the gods.a. How so? If indeed there was nothing out of which, or into which, it could come first.b. What! Then did nothing come first after all?a. No, by Zeus, nor second either, 3.11. at least of the things which we are thus talking about now; on the contrary, they existed from all eternity. . . .a. But suppose some one chooses to add a single pebble to a heap containing either an odd or an even number, whichever you please, or to take away one of those already there; do you think the number of pebbles would remain the same?b. Not I.a. Nor yet, if one chooses to add to a cubit-measure another length, or cut off some of what was there already, would the original measure still exist?b. of course not.a. Now consider mankind in this same way. One man grows, and another again shrinks; and they are all undergoing change the whole time. But a thing which naturally changes and never remains in the same state must ever be different from that which has thus changed. And even so you and I were one pair of men yesterday, are another to-day, and again will be another to-morrow, and will never remain ourselves, by this same argument. 3.12. Again, Alcimus makes this further statement: There are some things, say the wise, which the soul perceives through the body, as in seeing and hearing; there are other things which it discerns by itself without the aid of the body. Hence it follows that of existing things some are objects of sense and others objects of thought. Hence Plato said that, if we wish to take in at one glance the principles underlying the universe, we must first distinguish the ideas by themselves, for example, likeness, unity and plurality, magnitude, rest and motion; next we must assume the existence of 3.13. beauty, goodness, justice and the like, each existing in and for itself; in the third place we must see how many of the ideas are relative to other ideas, as are knowledge, or magnitude, or ownership, remembering that the things within our experience bear the same names as those ideas because they partake of them; I mean that things which partake of justice are just, things which partake of beauty are beautiful. Each one of the ideas is eternal, it is a notion, and moreover is incapable of change. Hence Plato says that they stand in nature like archetypes, and that all things else bear a resemblance to the ideas because they are copies of these archetypes. Now here are the words of Epicharmus about the good and about the ideas:' "3.14. a. Is flute-playing a thing?b. Most certainly.a. Is man then flute-playing?b. By no means.a. Come, let me see, what is a flute-player? Whom do you take him to be? Is he not a man?b. Most certainly.a. Well, don't you think the same would be the case with the good? Is not the good in itself a thing? And does not he who has learnt that thing and knows it at once become good? For, just as he becomes a flute-player by learning flute-playing, or a dancer when he has learnt dancing, or a plaiter when he has learnt plaiting, in the same way, if he has learnt anything of the sort, whatever you like, he would not be one with the craft but he would be the craftsman." '
3.25. He was also the first philosopher who controverted the speech of Lysias, the son of Cephalus, which he has set out word for word in the Phaedrus, and the first to study the significance of grammar. And, as he was the first to attack the views of almost all his predecessors, the question is raised why he makes no mention of Democritus. Neanthes of Cyzicus says that, on his going to Olympia, the eyes of all the Greeks were turned towards him, and there he met Dion, who was about to make his expedition against Dionysius. In the first book of the Memorabilia of Favorinus there is a statement that Mithradates the Persian set up a statue of Plato in the Academy and inscribed upon it these words: Mithradates the Persian, the son of Orontobates, dedicated to the Muses a likeness of Plato made by Silanion. 3.26. Heraclides declares that in his youth he was so modest and orderly that he was never seen to laugh outright. In spite of this he too was ridiculed by the Comic poets. At any rate Theopompus in his Hedychares says:There is not anything that is truly one, even the number two is scarcely one, according to Plato.Moreover, Anaxandrides in his Theseus says:He was eating olives exactly like Plato.Then there is Timon who puns on his name thus:As Plato placed strange platitudes.
3.37. Nowhere in his writings does Plato mention himself by name, except in the dialogue On the Soul and the Apology. Aristotle remarks that the style of the dialogues is half-way between poetry and prose. And according to Favorinus, when Plato read the dialogue On the Soul, Aristotle alone stayed to the end; the rest of the audience got up and went away. Some say that Philippus of Opus copied out the Laws, which were left upon waxen tablets, and it is said that he was the author of the Epinomis. Euphorion and Panaetius relate that the beginning of the Republic was found several times revised and rewritten, and the Republic itself Aristoxenus declares to have been nearly all of it included in the Controversies of Protagoras.
3.48. They say that Zeno the Eleatic was the first to write dialogues. But, according to Favorinus in his Memorabilia, Aristotle in the first book of his dialogue On Poets asserts that it was Alexamenus of Styra or Teos. In my opinion Plato, who brought this form of writing to perfection, ought to be adjudged the prize for its invention as well as for its embellishment. A dialogue is a discourse consisting of question and answer on some philosophical or political subject, with due regard to the characters of the persons introduced and the choice of diction. Dialectic is the art of discourse by which we either refute or establish some proposition by means of question and answer on the part of the interlocutors.
3.65. The right interpretation of his dialogues includes three things: first, the meaning of every statement must be explained; next, its purpose, whether it is made for a primary reason or by way of illustration, and whether to establish his own doctrines or to refute his interlocutor; in the third place it remains to examine its truth.And since certain critical marks are affixed to his works let us now say a word about these. The cross × is taken to indicate peculiar expressions and figures of speech, and generally any idiom of Platonic usage; the diple (<) calls attention to doctrines and opinions characteristic of Plato;' "3.66. the dotted cross (⨰) denotes select passages and beauties of style; the dotted diple (⋗) editors' corrections of the text; the dotted obelus (÷) passages suspected without reason; the dotted antisigma (Ꜿ) repetitions and proposals for transpositions; the ceraunium the philosophical school; the asterisk (∗) an agreement of doctrine; the obelus (−) a spurious passage. So much for the critical marks and his writings in general. As Antigonus of Carystus says in his Life of Zeno, when the writings were first edited with critical marks, their possessors charged a certain fee to anyone who wished to consult them." '
4.17. Antigonus of Carystus in his Biographies says that his father was foremost among the citizens and kept horses to compete in the chariot-race; that Polemo himself had been defendant in an action brought by his wife, who charged him with cruelty owing to the irregularities of his life; but that, from the time when he began to study philosophy, he acquired such strength of character as always to maintain the same unruffled calm of demeanour. Nay more, he never lost control of his voice. This in fact accounts for the fascination which he exercised over Crantor. Certain it is that, when a mad dog bit him in the back of his thigh, he did not even turn pale, but remained undisturbed by all the clamour which arose in the city at the news of what had happened. In the theatre too he was singularly unmoved.
4.22. Hence Arcesilaus, who had quitted Theophrastus and gone over to their school, said of them that they were gods or a remt of the Golden Age. They did not side with the popular party, but were such as Dionysodorus the flute-player is said to have claimed to be, when he boasted that no one ever heard his melodies, as those of Ismenias were heard, either on shipboard or at the fountain. According to Antigonus, their common table was in the house of Crantor; and these two and Arcesilaus lived in harmony together. Arcesilaus and Crantor shared the same house, while Polemo and Crates lived with Lysicles, one of the citizens. Crates, as already stated, was the favourite of Polemo and Arcesilaus of Crantor.
4.33. Some represent him as emulous of Pyrrho as well. He was devoted to dialectic and adopted the methods of argument introduced by the Eretrian school. On account of this Ariston said of him:Plato the head of him, Pyrrho the tail, midway Diodorus.And Timon speaks of him thus:Having the lead of Menedemus at his heart, he will run either to that mass of flesh, Pyrrho, or to Diodorus.And a little farther on he introduces him as saying:I shall swim to Pyrrho and to crooked Diodorus.He was highly axiomatic and concise, and in his discourse fond of distinguishing the meaning of terms. He was satirical enough, and outspoken.
4.39. And whereas many persons courted Antigonus and went to meet him whenever he came to Athens, Arcesilaus remained at home, not wishing to thrust himself upon his acquaintance. He was on the best of terms with Hierocles, the commandant in Munichia and Piraeus, and at every festival would go down to see him. And though Hierocles joined in urging him to pay his respects to Antigonus, he was not prevailed upon, but, after going as far as the gates, turned back. And after the battle at sea, when many went to Antigonus or wrote him flattering letters, he held his peace. However, on behalf of his native city, he did go to Demetrias as envoy to Antigonus, but failed in his mission. He spent his time wholly in the Academy, shunning politics. 4.40. Once indeed, when at Athens, he stopped too long in the Piraeus, discussing themes, out of friendship for Hierocles, and for this he was censured by certain persons. He was very lavish, in short another Aristippus, and he was fond of dining well, but only with those who shared his tastes. He lived openly with Theodete and Phila, the Elean courtesans, and to those who censured him he quoted the maxims of Aristippus. He was also fond of boys and very susceptible. Hence he was accused by Ariston of Chios, the Stoic, and his followers, who called him a corrupter of youth and a shameless teacher of immorality.
5.12. but, until Nicanor shall arrive, Aristomenes, Timarchus, Hipparchus, Dioteles and (if he consent and if circumstances permit him) Theophrastus shall take charge as well of Herpyllis and the children as of the property. And when the girl shall be grown up she shall be given in marriage to Nicanor; but if anything happen to the girl (which heaven forbid and no such thing will happen) before her marriage, or when she is married but before there are children, Nicanor shall have full powers, both with regard to the child and with regard to everything else, to administer in a manner worthy both of himself and of us. Nicanor shall take charge of the girl and of the boy Nicomachus as he shall think fit in all that concerns them as if he were father and brother. And if anything should happen to Nicanor (which heaven forbid!) either before he marries the girl, or when he has married her but before there are children, any arrangements that he may make shall be valid.' "
5.78. And in the official list the year in which he was archon was styled the year of lawlessness, according to this same Favorinus.Hermippus tells us that upon the death of Casander, being in fear of Antigonus, he fled to Ptolemy Soter. There he spent a considerable time and advised Ptolemy, among other things, to invest with sovereign power his children by Eurydice. To this Ptolemy would not agree, but bestowed the diadem on his son by Berenice, who, after Ptolemy's death, thought fit to detain Demetrius as a prisoner in the country until some decision should be taken concerning him. There he lived in great dejection, and somehow, in his sleep, received an asp-bite on the hand which proved fatal. He is buried in the district of Busiris near Diospolis." "
6.103. Such are the lives of the several Cynics. But we will go on to append the doctrines which they held in common – if, that is, we decide that Cynicism is really a philosophy, and not, as some maintain, just a way of life. They are content then, like Ariston of Chios, to do away with the subjects of Logic and Physics and to devote their whole attention to Ethics. And what some assert of Socrates, Diocles records of Diogenes, representing him as saying: We must inquire intoWhate'er of good or ill within our halls is wrought.They also dispense with the ordinary subjects of instruction. At least Antisthenes used to say that those who had attained discretion had better not study literature, lest they should be perverted by alien influences." "6.104. So they get rid of geometry and music and all such studies. Anyhow, when somebody showed Diogenes a clock, he pronounced it a serviceable instrument to save one from being late for dinner. Again, to a man who gave a musical recital before him he said:By men's minds states are ordered well, and households,Not by the lyre's twanged strings or flute's trilled notes.They hold further that Life according to Virtue is the End to be sought, as Antisthenes says in his Heracles: exactly like the Stoics. For indeed there is a certain close relationship between the two schools. Hence it has been said that Cynicism is a short cut to virtue; and after the same pattern did Zeno of Citium live his life." '6.105. They also hold that we should live frugally, eating food for nourishment only and wearing a single garment. Wealth and fame and high birth they despise. Some at all events are vegetarians and drink cold water only and are content with any kind of shelter or tubs, like Diogenes, who used to say that it was the privilege of the gods to need nothing and of god-like men to want but little.They hold, further, that virtue can be taught, as Antisthenes maintains in his Heracles, and when once acquired cannot be lost; and that the wise man is worthy to be loved, impeccable, and a friend to his like; and that we should entrust nothing to fortune. Whatever is intermediate between Virtue and Vice they, in agreement with Ariston of Chios, account indifferent.So much, then, for the Cynics. We must now pass on to the Stoics, whose founder was Zeno, a disciple of Crates.
7.1. BOOK 7: 1. ZENOZeno, the son of Mnaseas (or Demeas), was a native of Citium in Cyprus, a Greek city which had received Phoenician settlers. He had a wry neck, says Timotheus of Athens in his book On Lives. Moreover, Apollonius of Tyre says he was lean, fairly tall, and swarthy – hence some one called him an Egyptian vine-branch, according to Chrysippus in the first book of his Proverbs. He had thick legs; he was flabby and delicate. Hence Persaeus in his Convivial Reminiscences relates that he declined most invitations to dinner. They say he was fond of eating green figs and of basking in the sun.' "7.2. He was a pupil of Crates, as stated above. Next they say he attended the lectures of Stilpo and Xenocrates for ten years – so Timocrates says in his Dion – and Polemo as well. It is stated by Hecato and by Apollonius of Tyre in his first book on Zeno that he consulted the oracle to know what he should do to attain the best life, and that the god's response was that he should take on the complexion of the dead. Whereupon, perceiving what this meant, he studied ancient authors. Now the way he came across Crates was this. He was shipwrecked on a voyage from Phoenicia to Peiraeus with a cargo of purple. He went up into Athens and sat down in a bookseller's shop, being then a man of thirty." "7.3. As he went on reading the second book of Xenophon's Memorabilia, he was so pleased that he inquired where men like Socrates were to be found. Crates passed by in the nick of time, so the bookseller pointed to him and said, Follow yonder man. From that day he became Crates's pupil, showing in other respects a strong bent for philosophy, though with too much native modesty to assimilate Cynic shamelessness. Hence Crates, desirous of curing this defect in him, gave him a potful of lentil-soup to carry through the Ceramicus; and when he saw that he was ashamed and tried to keep it out of sight, with a blow of his staff he broke the pot. As Zeno took to flight with the lentil-soup flowing down his legs, Why run away, my little Phoenician? quoth Crates, nothing terrible has befallen you." "7.4. For a certain space, then, he was instructed by Crates, and when at this time he had written his Republic, some said in jest that he had written it on Cynosura, i.e. on the dog's tail. Besides the Republic he wrote the following works:of Life according to Nature.of Impulse, or Human Nature.of Emotions.of Duty.of Law.of Greek Education.of Vision.of the Whole World.of Signs.Pythagorean Questions.Universals.of Varieties of Style.Homeric Problems, in five books.of the Reading of Poetry.There are also by him:A Handbook of Rhetoric.Solutions.Two books of Refutations.Recollections of Crates.Ethics.This is a list of his writings. But at last he left Crates, and the men above mentioned were his masters for twenty years. Hence he is reported to have said, I made a prosperous voyage when I suffered shipwreck. But others attribute this saying of his to the time when he was under Crates." '7.5. A different version of the story is that he was staying at Athens when he heard his ship was wrecked and said, It is well done of thee, Fortune, thus to drive me to philosophy. But some say that he disposed of his cargo in Athens, before he turned his attention to philosophy.He used then to discourse, pacing up and down in the Stoa Poikile, which is also called the stoa or Portico of Pisianax, but which received its name from the painting of Polygnotus; his object being to keep the spot clear of a concourse of idlers. It was the spot where in the time of the Thirty 1400 Athenian citizens had been put to death. Hither, then, people came henceforth to hear Zeno, and this is why they were known as men of the Stoa, or Stoics; and the same name was given to his followers, who had formerly been known as Zenonians. So it is stated by Epicurus in his letters. According to Eratosthenes in his eighth book On the Old Comedy, the name of Stoic had formerly been applied to the poets who passed their time there, and they had made the name of Stoic still more famous. 7.6. The people of Athens held Zeno in high honour, as is proved by their depositing with him the keys of the city walls, and their honouring him with a golden crown and a bronze statue. This last mark of respect was also shown to him by citizens of his native town, who deemed his statue an ornament to their city, and the men of Citium living in Sidon were also proud to claim him for their own. Antigonus (Gonatas) also favoured him, and whenever he came to Athens would hear him lecture and often invited him to come to his court. This offer he declined but dispatched thither one of his friends, Persaeus, the son of Demetrius and a native of Citium, who flourished in the 130th Olympiad, at which time Zeno was already an old man. According to Apollonius of Tyre in his work upon Zeno, the letter of Antigonus was couched in the following terms:' "7.7. King Antigonus to Zeno the philosopher, greeting.While in fortune and fame I deem myself your superior, in reason and education I own myself inferior, as well as in the perfect happiness which you have attained. Wherefore I have decided to ask you to pay me a visit, being persuaded that you will not refuse the request. By all means, then, do your best to hold conference with me, understanding clearly that you will not be the instructor of myself alone but of all the Macedonians taken together. For it is obvious that whoever instructs the ruler of Macedonia and guides him in the paths of virtue will also be training his subjects to be good men. As is the ruler, such for the most part it may be expected that his subjects will become.And Zeno's reply is as follows:" '7.8. Zeno to King Antigonus, greeting.I welcome your love of learning in so far as you cleave to that true education which tends to advantage and not to that popular counterfeit of it which serves only to corrupt morals. But if anyone has yearned for philosophy, turning away from much-vaunted pleasure which renders effeminate the souls of some of the young, it is evident that not by nature only, but also by the bent of his will he is inclined to nobility of character. But if a noble nature be aided by moderate exercise and further receive ungrudging instruction, it easily comes to acquire virtue in perfection. 7.9. But I am constrained by bodily weakness, due to old age, for I am eighty years old; and for that reason I am unable to join you. But I send you certain companions of my studies whose mental powers are not inferior to mine, while their bodily strength is far greater, and if you associate with these you will in no way fall short of the conditions necessary to perfect happiness.So he sent Persaeus and Philonides the Theban; and Epicurus in his letter to his brother Aristobulus mentions them both as living with Antigonus. I have thought it well to append the decree also which the Athenians passed concerning him. It reads as follows:
7.10. In the archonship of Arrhenides, in the fifth prytany of the tribe Acamantis on the twenty-first day of Maemacterion, at the twenty-third plenary assembly of the prytany, one of the presidents, Hippo, the son of Cratistoteles, of the deme Xypetaeon, and his co-presidents put the question to the vote; Thraso, the son of Thraso of the deme Anacaea, moved:Whereas Zeno of Citium, son of Mnaseas, has for many years been devoted to philosophy in the city and has continued to be a man of worth in all other respects, exhorting to virtue and temperance those of the youth who come to him to be taught, directing them to what is best, affording to all in his own conduct a pattern for imitation in perfect consistency with his teaching, it has seemed good to the people –
7.11. and may it turn out well – to bestow praise upon Zeno of Citium, the son of Mnaseas, and to crown him with a golden crown according to the law, for his goodness and temperance, and to build him a tomb in the Ceramicus at the public cost. And that for the making of the crown and the building of the tomb, the people shall now elect five commissioners from all Athenians, and the Secretary of State shall inscribe this decree on two stone pillars and it shall be lawful for him to set up one in the Academy and the other in the Lyceum. And that the magistrate presiding over the administration shall apportion the expense incurred upon the pillars, that all may know that the Athenian people honour the good both in their life and after their death.
7.12. Thraso of the deme Anacaea, Philocles of Peiraeus, Phaedrus of Anaphlystus, Medon of Acharnae, Micythus of Sypalettus, and Dion of Paeania have been elected commissioners for the making of the crown and the building.These are the terms of the decree.Antigonus of Carystus tells us that he never denied that he was a citizen of Citium. For when he was one of those who contributed to the restoration of the baths and his name was inscribed upon the pillar as Zeno the philosopher, he requested that the words of Citium should be added. He made a hollow lid for a flask and used to carry about money in it, in order that there might be provision at hand for the necessities of his master Crates.
7.13. It is said that he had more than a thousand talents when he came to Greece, and that he lent this money on bottomry. He used to eat little loaves and honey and to drink a little wine of good bouquet. He rarely employed men-servants; once or twice indeed he might have a young girl to wait on him in order not to seem a misogynist. He shared the same house with Persaeus, and when the latter brought in a little flute-player he lost no time in leading her straight to Persaeus. They tell us he readily adapted himself to circumstances, so much so that King Antigonus often broke in on him with a noisy party, and once took him along with other revellers to Aristocles the musician; Zeno, however, in a little while gave them the slip.
7.14. He disliked, they say, to be brought too near to people, so that he would take the end seat of a couch, thus saving himself at any rate from one half of such inconvenience. Nor indeed would he walk about with more than two or three. He would occasionally ask the bystanders for coppers, in order that, for fear of being asked to give, people might desist from mobbing him, as Cleanthes says in his work On Bronze. When several persons stood about him in the Colonnade he pointed to the wooden railing at the top round the altar and said, This was once open to all, but because it was found to be a hindrance it was railed off. If you then will take yourselves off out of the way you will be the less annoyance to us.When Demochares, the son of Laches, greeted him and told him he had only to speak or write for anything he wanted to Antigonus, who would be sure to grant all his requests, Zeno after hearing this would have nothing more to do with him.' "
7.15. After Zeno's death Antigonus is reported to have said, What an audience I have lost. Hence too he employed Thraso as his agent to request the Athenians to bury Zeno in the Ceramicus. And when asked why he admired him, Because, said he, the many ample gifts I offered him never made him conceited nor yet appear poor-spirited.His bent was towards inquiry, and he was an exact reasoner on all subjects. Hence the words of Timon in his Silli:A Phoenician too I saw, a pampered old woman ensconced in gloomy pride, longing for all things; but the meshes of her subtle web have perished, and she had no more intelligence than a banjo." "
7.16. He used to dispute very carefully with Philo the logician and study along with him. Hence Zeno, who was the junior, had as great an admiration for Philo as his master Diodorus. And he had about him certain ragged dirty fellows, as Timon says in these lines:The while he got together a crowd of ignorant serfs, who surpassed all men in beggary and were the emptiest of townsfolk.Zeno himself was sour and of a frowning countece. He was very niggardly too, clinging to meanness unworthy of a Greek, on the plea of economy, If he pitched into anyone he would do it concisely, and not effusively, keeping him rather at arm's length. I mean, for example, his remark upon the fop showing himself off." "
7.17. When he was slowly picking his way across a watercourse, With good reason, quoth Zeno, he looks askance at the mud, for he can't see his face in it. When a certain Cynic declared he had no oil in his flask and begged some of him, Zeno refused to give him any. However, as the man went away, Zeno bade him consider which of the two was the more impudent. Being enamoured of Chremonides, as he and Cleanthes were sitting beside the youth, he got up, and upon Cleanthes expressing surprise, Good physicians tell us, said he, that the best cure for inflammation is repose. When of two reclining next to each other over the wine, the one who was neighbour to Zeno kicked the guest below him, Zeno himself nudged the man with his knee, and upon the man turning round, inquired, How do you think your neighbour liked what you did to him?" '
7.18. To a lover of boys he remarked, Just as schoolmasters lose their common-sense by spending all their time with boys, so it is with people like you. He used to say that the very exact expressions used by those who avoided solecisms were like the coins struck by Alexander: they were beautiful in appearance and well-rounded like the coins, but none the better on that account. Words of the opposite kind he would compare to the Attic tetradrachms, which, though struck carelessly and inartistically, nevertheless outweighed the ornate phrases. When his pupil Ariston discoursed at length in an uninspired manner, sometimes in a headstrong and over-confident way. Your father, said he, must have been drunk when he begat you. Hence he would call him a chatterbox, being himself concise in speech.' "
7.19. There was a gourmand so greedy that he left nothing for his table companions. A large fish having been served, Zeno took it up as if he were about to eat the whole. When the other looked at him, What do you suppose, said he, those who live with you feel every day, if you cannot put up with my gourmandise in this single instance? A youth was putting a question with more curiosity than became his years, whereupon Zeno led him to a mirror, and bade him look in it; after which he inquired if he thought it became anyone who looked like that to ask such questions. Some one said that he did not in general agree with Antisthenes, whereupon Zeno produced that author's essay on Sophocles, and asked him if he thought it had any excellence; to which the reply was that he did not know. Then are you not ashamed, quoth he, to pick out and mention anything wrong said by Antisthenes, while you suppress his good things without giving them a thought?" '7.20. Some one having said that he thought the chain-arguments of the philosophers seemed brief and curt, Zeno replied, You are quite right; indeed, the very syllables ought, if possible, to be clipped. Some one remarked to him about Polemo, that his discourse was different from the subject he announced. He replied with a frown, Well, what value would you have set upon what was given out? He said that when conversing we ought to be earnest and, like actors, we should have a loud voice and great strength; but we ought not to open the mouth too wide, which is what your senseless chatterbox does. Telling periods, he said, unlike the works of good craftsmen, should need no pause for the contemplation of their excellences; on the contrary, the hearer should be so absorbed in the discourse itself as to have no leisure even to take notes. 7.21. Once when a young man was talking a good deal, he said, Your ears have slid down and merged in your tongue. To the fair youth, who gave it as his opinion that the wise man would not fall in love, his reply was: Then who can be more hapless than you fair youths? He used to say that even of philosophers the greater number were in most things unwise, while about small and casual things they were quite ignorant. And he used to cite the saying of Caphisius, who, when one of his pupils was endeavouring to blow the flute lustily, gave him a slap and told him that to play well does not depend on loudness, though playing loudly may follow upon playing well. And to a youth who was talking somewhat saucily his rejoinder was, I would rather not tell you what I am thinking, my lad. 7.22. A Rhodian, who was handsome and rich, but nothing more, insisted on joining his class; but so unwelcome was this pupil, that first of all Zeno made him sit on the benches that were dusty, that he might soil his cloak, and then he consigned him to the place where the beggars sat, that he might rub shoulders with their rags; so at last the young man went away. Nothing, he declared, was more unbecoming than arrogance, especially in the young. He used also to say that it was not the words and expressions that we ought to remember, but we should exercise our mind in disposing to advantage of what we hear, instead of, as it were, tasting a well-cooked dish or well-dressed meal. The young, he thought, should behave with perfect propriety in walk, gait and dress, and he used continually to quote the lines of Euripides about Capaneus:Large means had he, yet not the haughtinessThat springs from wealth, nor cherished prouder thoughtsof vain ambition than the poorest man. 7.23. Again he would say that if we want to master the sciences there is nothing so fatal as conceit, and again there is nothing we stand so much in need of as time. To the question Who is a friend? his answer was, A second self (alter ego). We are told that he was once chastising a slave for stealing, and when the latter pleaded that it was his fate to steal, Yes, and to be beaten too, said Zeno. Beauty he called the flower of chastity, while according to others it was chastity which he called the flower of beauty. Once when he saw the slave of one of his acquaintance marked with weals, I see, said he, the imprints of your anger. To one who had been drenched with unguent, Who is this, quoth he, who smells of woman? When Dionysius the Renegade asked, Why am I the only pupil you do not correct? the reply was, Because I mistrust you. To a stripling who was talking nonsense his words were, The reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen the more and talk the less. 7.24. One day at a banquet he was reclining in silence and was asked the reason: whereupon he bade his critic carry word to the king that there was one present who knew how to hold his tongue. Now those who inquired of him were ambassadors from King Ptolemy, and they wanted to know what message they should take back from him to the king. On being asked how he felt about abuse, he replied, As an envoy feels who is dismissed without an answer. Apollonius of Tyre tells us how, when Crates laid hold on him by the cloak to drag him from Stilpo, Zeno said, The right way to seize a philosopher, Crates, is by the ears: persuade me then and drag me off by them; but, if you use violence, my body will be with you, but my mind with Stilpo.' "7.25. According to Hippobotus he forgathered with Diodorus, with whom he worked hard at dialectic. And when he was already making progress, he would enter Polemo's school: so far from all self-conceit was he. In consequence Polemo is said to have addressed him thus: You slip in, Zeno, by the garden door – I'm quite aware of it – you filch my doctrines and give them a Phoenician make-up. A dialectician once showed him seven logical forms concerned with the sophism known as The Reaper, and Zeno asked him how much he wanted for them. Being told a hundred drachmas, he promptly paid two hundred: to such lengths would he go in his love of learning. They say too that he first introduced the word Duty and wrote a treatise on the subject. It is said, moreover, that he corrected Hesiod's lines thus:He is best of all men who follows good advice: good too is he who finds out all things for himself." '7.26. The reason he gave for this was that the man capable of giving a proper hearing to what is said and profiting by it was superior to him who discovers everything himself. For the one had merely a right apprehension, the other in obeying good counsel superadded conduct.When he was asked why he, though so austere, relaxed at a drinking-party, he said, Lupins too are bitter, but when they are soaked become sweet. Hecato too in the second book of his Anecdotes says that he indulged freely at such gatherings. And he would say, Better to trip with the feet than with the tongue. Well-being is attained by little and little, and nevertheless it is no little thing itself. Others attribute this to Socrates.' "7.27. He showed the utmost endurance, and the greatest frugality; the food he used required no fire to dress, and the cloak he wore was thin. Hence it was said of him:The cold of winter and the ceaseless rainCome powerless against him: weak the dartof the fierce summer sun or racking painTo bend that iron frame. He stands apartUnspoiled by public feast and jollity:Patient, unwearied night and day doth heCling to his studies of philosophy.Nay more: the comic poets by their very jests at his expense praised him without intending it. Thus Philemon says in a play, Philosophers:This man adopts a new philosophy.He teaches to go hungry: yet he getsDisciples. One sole loaf of bread his food;His best dessert dried figs; water his drink.Others attribute these lines to Poseidippus.By this time he had almost become a proverb. At all events, More temperate than Zeno the philosopher was a current saying about him. Poseidippus also writes in his Men Transported:So that for ten whole daysMore temperate than Zeno's self he seemed." '7.28. And in very truth in this species of virtue and in dignity he surpassed all mankind, ay, and in happiness; for he was ninety-eight when he died and had enjoyed good health without an ailment to the last. Persaeus, however, in his ethical lectures makes him die at the age of seventy-two, having come to Athens at the age of twenty-two. But Apollonius says that he presided over the school for fifty-eight years. The manner of his death was as follows. As he was leaving the school he tripped and fell, breaking a toe. Striking the ground with his fist, he quoted the line from the Niobe:I come, I come, why dost thou call for me?and died on the spot through holding his breath. 7.29. The Athenians buried him in the Ceramicus and honoured him in the decrees already cited above, adding their testimony of his goodness. Here is the epitaph composed for him by Antipater of Sidon:Here lies great Zeno, dear to Citium, who scaled high Olympus, though he piled not Pelion on Ossa, nor toiled at the labours of Heracles, but this was the path he found out to the stars – the way of temperance alone.' "7.30. Here too is another by Zenodotus the Stoic, a pupil of Diogenes:Thou madest self-sufficiency thy rule,Eschewing haughty wealth, O godlike Zeno,With aspect grave and hoary brow serene.A manly doctrine thine: and by thy prudenceWith much toil thou didst found a great new school,Chaste parent of unfearing liberty.And if thy native country was Phoenicia,What need to slight thee? came not Cadmus thence,Who gave to Greece her books and art of writing?And Athenaeus the epigrammatist speaks of all the Stoics in common as follows:O ye who've learnt the doctrines of the StoaAnd have committed to your books divineThe best of human learning, teaching menThat the mind's virtue is the only good!She only it is who keeps the lives of menAnd cities, – safer than high gates and walls.But those who place their happiness in pleasureAre led by the least worthy of the Muses." "7.31. We have ourselves mentioned the manner of Zeno's death in the Pammetros (a collection of poems in various metres):The story goes that Zeno of Citium after enduring many hardships by reason of old age was set free, some say by ceasing to take food; others say that once when he had tripped he beat with his hand upon the earth and cried, I come of my own accord; why then call me?For there are some who hold this to have been the manner of his death.So much then concerning his death.Demetrius the Magnesian, in his work on Men of the Same Name, says of him: his father, Mnaseas, being a merchant often went to Athens and brought away many books about Socrates for Zeno while still a boy." '7.32. Hence he had been well trained even before he left his native place. And thus it came about that on his arrival at Athens he attached himself to Crates. And it seems, he adds, that, when the rest were at a loss how to express their views, Zeno framed a definition of the end. They say that he was in the habit of swearing by capers just as Socrates used to swear by the dog. Some there are, and among them Cassius the Sceptic and his disciples, who accuse Zeno at length. Their first count is that in the beginning of his Republic he pronounced the ordinary education useless: the next is that he applies to all men who are not virtuous the opprobrious epithets of foemen, enemies, slaves, and aliens to one another, parents to children, brothers to brothers, friends to friends. 7.33. Again, in the Republic, making an invidious contrast, he declares the good alone to be true citizens or friends or kindred or free men; and accordingly in the view of the Stoics parents and children are enemies, not being wise. Again, it is objected, in the Republic he lays down community of wives, and at line 200 prohibits the building of sanctuaries, law-courts and gymnasia in cities; while as regards a currency he writes that we should not think it need be introduced either for purposes of exchange or for travelling abroad. Further, he bids men and women wear the same dress and keep no part of the body entirely covered. 7.34. That the Republic is the work of Zeno is attested by Chrysippus in his De Republica. And he discussed amatory subjects in the beginning of that book of his which is entitled The Art of Love. Moreover, he writes much the same in his Interludes. So much for the criticisms to be found not only in Cassius but in Isidorus of Pergamum, the rhetorician. Isidorus likewise affirms that the passages disapproved by the school were expunged from his works by Athenodorus the Stoic, who was in charge of the Pergamene library; and that afterwards, when Athenodorus was detected and compromised, they were replaced. So much concerning the passages in his writings which are regarded as spurious.' "
7.36. of the many disciples of Zeno the following are the most famous: Persaeus, son of Demetrius, of Citium, whom some call a pupil and others one of the household, one of those sent him by Antigonus to act as secretary; he had been tutor to Antigonus's son Halcyoneus. And Antigonus once, wishing to make trial of him, caused some false news to be brought to him that his estate had been ravaged by the enemy, and as his countece fell, Do you see, said he, that wealth is not a matter of indifference?The following works are by Persaeus:of Kingship.The Spartan Constitution.of Marriage.of Impiety.Thyestes.of Love.Exhortations.Interludes.Four books of Anecdotes.Memorabilia.A Reply to Plato's Laws in seven books." '
7.38. And furthermore the following according to Hippobotus were pupils of Zeno: Philonides of Thebes; Callippus of Corinth; Posidonius of Alexandria; Athenodorus of Soli; and Zeno of Sidon.I have decided to give a general account of all the Stoic doctrines in the life of Zeno because he was the founder of the School. I have already given a list of his numerous writings, in which he has spoken as has no other of the Stoics. And his tenets in general are as follows. In accordance with my usual practice a summary statement must suffice. 7.39. Philosophic doctrine, say the Stoics, falls into three parts: one physical, another ethical, and the third logical. Zeno of Citium was the first to make this division in his Exposition of Doctrine, and Chrysippus too did so in the first book of his Exposition of Doctrine and the first book of his Physics; and so too Apollodorus and Syllus in the first part of their Introductions to Stoic Doctrine, as also Eudromus in his Elementary Treatise on Ethics, Diogenes the Babylonian, and Posidonius.These parts are called by Apollodorus Heads of Commonplace; by Chrysippus and Eudromus specific divisions; by others generic divisions. 7.40. Philosophy, they say, is like an animal, Logic corresponding to the bones and sinews, Ethics to the fleshy parts, Physics to the soul. Another simile they use is that of an egg: the shell is Logic, next comes the white, Ethics, and the yolk in the centre is Physics. Or, again, they liken Philosophy to a fertile field: Logic being the encircling fence, Ethics the crop, Physics the soil or the trees. Or, again, to a city strongly walled and governed by reason.No single part, some Stoics declare, is independent of any other part, but all blend together. Nor was it usual to teach them separately. Others, however, start their course with Logic, go on to Physics, and finish with Ethics; and among those who so do are Zeno in his treatise On Exposition, Chrysippus, Archedemus and Eudromus. 7.41. Diogenes of Ptolemas, it is true, begins with Ethics; but Apollodorus puts Ethics second, while Panaetius and Posidonius begin with Physics, as stated by Phanias, the pupil of Posidonius, in the first book of his Lectures of Posidonius. Cleanthes makes not three, but six parts, Dialectic, Rhetoric, Ethics, Politics, Physics, Theology. But others say that these are divisions not of philosophic exposition, but of philosophy itself: so, for instance, Zeno of Tarsus. Some divide the logical part of the system into the two sciences of rhetoric and dialectic; while some would add that which deals with definitions and another part concerning canons or criteria: some, however, dispense with the part about definitions.
7.57. Seven of the letters are vowels, a, e, ē i, o, u, ō, and six are mutes, b, g, d, k, p, t. There is a difference between voice and speech; because, while voice may include mere noise, speech is always articulate. Speech again differs from a sentence or statement, because the latter always signifies something, whereas a spoken word, as for example βλίτυρι, may be unintelligible – which a sentence never is. And to frame a sentence is more than mere utterance, for while vocal sounds are uttered, things are meant, that is, are matters of discourse. 7.58. There are, as stated by Diogenes in his treatise on Language and by Chrysippus, five parts of speech: proper name, common noun, verb, conjunction, article. To these Antipater in his work On Words and their Meaning adds another part, the mean.A common noun or appellative is defined by Diogenes as part of a sentence signifying a common quality, e.g. man, horse; whereas a name is a part of speech expressing a quality peculiar to an individual, e.g. Diogenes, Socrates. A verb is, according to Diogenes, a part of speech signifying an isolated predicate, or, as others define it, an un-declined part of a sentence, signifying something that can be attached to one or more subjects, e.g. I write, I speak. A conjunction is an indeclinable part of speech, binding the various parts of a statement together; and an article is a declinable part of speech, distinguishing the genders and numbers of nouns, e.g. ὁ, ἡ, τό, οἱ, αἱ, τά.
7.82. There are also certain insoluble arguments: the Veiled Men, the Concealed, Sorites, Horned Folk, the Nobodies. The Veiled is as follows: . . . It cannot be that if two is few, three is not so likewise, nor that if two or three are few, four is not so; and so on up to ten. But two is few, therefore so also is ten. . . . The Nobody argument is an argument whose major premiss consists of an indefinite and a definite clause, followed by a minor premiss and conclusion; for example, If anyone is here, he is not in Rhodes; but there is some one here, therefore there is not anyone in Rhodes. . . .
7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe.
7.89. By the nature with which our life ought to be in accord, Chrysippus understands both universal nature and more particularly the nature of man, whereas Cleanthes takes the nature of the universe alone as that which should be followed, without adding the nature of the individual.And virtue, he holds, is a harmonious disposition, choice-worthy for its own sake and not from hope or fear or any external motive. Moreover, it is in virtue that happiness consists; for virtue is the state of mind which tends to make the whole of life harmonious. When a rational being is perverted, this is due to the deceptiveness of external pursuits or sometimes to the influence of associates. For the starting-points of nature are never perverse.

7.127. It is a tenet of theirs that between virtue and vice there is nothing intermediate, whereas according to the Peripatetics there is, namely, the state of moral improvement. For, say the Stoics, just as a stick must be either straight or crooked, so a man must be either just or unjust. Nor again are there degrees of justice and injustice; and the same rule applies to the other virtues. Further, while Chrysippus holds that virtue can be lost, Cleanthes maintains that it cannot. According to the former it may be lost in consequence of drunkenness or melancholy; the latter takes it to be inalienable owing to the certainty of our mental apprehension. And virtue in itself they hold to be worthy of choice for its own sake. At all events we are ashamed of bad conduct as if we knew that nothing is really good but the morally beautiful. Moreover, they hold that it is in itself sufficient to ensure well-being: thus Zeno, and Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Virtues, and Hecato in the second book of his treatise On Goods:

7.134. They hold that there are two principles in the universe, the active principle and the passive. The passive principle, then, is a substance without quality, i.e. matter, whereas the active is the reason inherent in this substance, that is God. For he is everlasting and is the artificer of each several thing throughout the whole extent of matter. This doctrine is laid down by Zeno of Citium in his treatise On Existence, Cleanthes in his work On Atoms, Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics towards the end, Archedemus in his treatise On Elements, and Posidonius in the second book of his Physical Exposition. There is a difference, according to them, between principles and elements; the former being without generation or destruction, whereas the elements are destroyed when all things are resolved into fire. Moreover, the principles are incorporeal and destitute of form, while the elements have been endowed with form.

7.136. In the beginning he was by himself; he transformed the whole of substance through air into water, and just as in animal generation the seed has a moist vehicle, so in cosmic moisture God, who is the seminal reason of the universe, remains behind in the moisture as such an agent, adapting matter to himself with a view to the next stage of creation. Thereupon he created first of all the four elements, fire, water, air, earth. They are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, and by Archedemus in a work On Elements. An element is defined as that from which particular things first come to be at their birth and into which they are finally resolved.
7.137. The four elements together constitute unqualified substance or matter. Fire is the hot element, water the moist, air the cold, earth the dry. Not but what the quality of dryness is also found in the air. Fire has the uppermost place; it is also called aether, and in it the sphere of the fixed stars is first created; then comes the sphere of the planets, next to that the air, then the water, and lowest of all the earth, which is at the centre of all things.The term universe or cosmos is used by them in three senses: (1) of God himself, the individual being whose quality is derived from the whole of substance; he is indestructible and ingenerable, being the artificer of this orderly arrangement, who at stated periods of time absorbs into himself the whole of substance and again creates it from himself. (2)
7.138. Again, they give the name of cosmos to the orderly arrangement of the heavenly bodies in itself as such; and (3) in the third place to that whole of which these two are parts. Again, the cosmos is defined as the individual being qualifying the whole of substance, or, in the words of Posidonius in his elementary treatise on Celestial Phenomena, a system made up of heaven and earth and the natures in them, or, again, as a system constituted by gods and men and all things created for their sake. By heaven is meant the extreme circumference or ring in which the deity has his seat.The world, in their view, is ordered by reason and providence: so says Chrysippus in the fifth book of his treatise On Providence and Posidonius in his work On the Gods, book iii. – inasmuch as reason pervades every part of it, just as does the soul in us. Only there is a difference of degree; in some parts there is more of it, in others less.
7.139. For through some parts it passes as a hold or containing force, as is the case with our bones and sinews; while through others it passes as intelligence, as in the ruling part of the soul. Thus, then, the whole world is a living being, endowed with soul and reason, and having aether for its ruling principle: so says Antipater of Tyre in the eighth book of his treatise On the Cosmos. Chrysippus in the first book of his work On Providence and Posidonius in his book On the Gods say that the heaven, but Cleanthes that the sun, is the ruling power of the world. Chrysippus, however, in the course of the same work gives a somewhat different account, namely, that it is the purer part of the aether; the same which they declare to be preeminently God and always to have, as it were in sensible fashion, pervaded all that is in the air, all animals and plants, and also the earth itself, as a principle of cohesion.

7.142. The world, they hold, comes into being when its substance has first been converted from fire through air into moisture and then the coarser part of the moisture has condensed as earth, while that whose particles are fine has been turned into air, and this process of rarefaction goes on increasing till it generates fire. Thereupon out of these elements animals and plants and all other natural kinds are formed by their mixture. The generation and the destruction of the world are discussed by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, by Posidonius in the first book of his work On the Cosmos, by Cleanthes, and by Antipater in his tenth book On the Cosmos. Panaetius, however, maintained that the world is indestructible.The doctrine that the world is a living being, rational, animate and intelligent, is laid down by Chrysippus in the first book of his treatise On Providence, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius.

7.148. The substance of God is declared by Zeno to be the whole world and the heaven, as well as by Chrysippus in his first book of the Gods, and by Posidonius in his first book with the same title. Again, Antipater in the seventh book of his work On the Cosmos says that the substance of God is akin to air, while Boethus in his work On Nature speaks of the sphere of the fixed stars as the substance of God. Now the term Nature is used by them to mean sometimes that which holds the world together, sometimes that which causes terrestrial things to spring up. Nature is defined as a force moving of itself, producing and preserving in being its offspring in accordance with seminal principles within definite periods, and effecting results homogeneous with their sources.
7.149. Nature, they hold, aims both at utility and at pleasure, as is clear from the analogy of human craftsmanship. That all things happen by fate or destiny is maintained by Chrysippus in his treatise De fato, by Posidonius in his De fato, book ii., by Zeno and by Boethus in his De fato, book i. Fate is defined as an endless chain of causation, whereby things are, or as the reason or formula by which the world goes on. What is more, they say that divination in all its forms is a real and substantial fact, if there is really Providence. And they prove it to be actually a science on the evidence of certain results: so Zeno, Chrysippus in the second book of his De divinatione, Athenodorus, and Posidonius in the second book of his Physical Discourse and the fifth book of his De divinatione. But Panaetius denies that divination has any real existence.
7.150. The primary matter they make the substratum of all things: so Chrysippus in the first book of his Physics, and Zeno. By matter is meant that out of which anything whatsoever is produced. Both substance and matter are terms used in a twofold sense according as they signify (1) universal or (2) particular substance or matter. The former neither increases nor diminishes, while the matter of particular things both increases and diminishes. Body according to them is substance which is finite: so Antipater in his second book On Substance, and Apollodorus in his Physics. Matter can also be acted upon, as the same author says, for if it were immutable, the things which are produced would never have been produced out of it. Hence the further doctrine that matter is divisible ad infinitum. Chrysippus says that the division is not ad infinitum, but itself infinite; for there is nothing infinitely small to which the division can extend. But nevertheless the division goes on without ceasing.' "
7.151. Hence, again, their explanation of the mixture of two substances is, according to Chrysippus in the third book of his Physics, that they permeate each other through and through, and that the particles of the one do not merely surround those of the other or lie beside them. Thus, if a little drop of wine be thrown into the sea, it will be equally diffused over the whole sea for a while and then will be blended with it.Also they hold that there are daemons (δαίμονες) who are in sympathy with mankind and watch over human affairs. They believe too in heroes, that is, the souls of the righteous that have survived their bodies.of the changes which go on in the air, they describe winter as the cooling of the air above the earth due to the sun's departure to a distance from the earth; spring as the right temperature of the air consequent upon his approach to us;" '

7.156. And there are five terrestrial zones: first, the northern zone which is beyond the arctic circle, uninhabitable because of the cold; second, a temperate zone; a third, uninhabitable because of great heats, called the torrid zone; fourth, a counter-temperate zone; fifth, the southern zone, uninhabitable because of its cold.Nature in their view is an artistically working fire, going on its way to create; which is equivalent to a fiery, creative, or fashioning breath. And the soul is a nature capable of perception. And they regard it as the breath of life, congenital with us; from which they infer first that it is a body and secondly that it survives death. Yet it is perishable, though the soul of the universe, of which the individual souls of animals are parts, is indestructible.

7.160. 2. ARISTONAriston the Bald, of Chios, who was also called the Siren, declared the end of action to be a life of perfect indifference to everything which is neither virtue nor vice; recognizing no distinction whatever in things indifferent, but treating them all alike. The wise man he compared to a good actor, who, if called upon to take the part of a Thersites or of an Agamemnon, will impersonate them both becomingly. He wished to discard both Logic and Physics, saying that Physics was beyond our reach and Logic did not concern us: all that did concern us was Ethics.' "
7.161. Dialectical reasonings, he said, are like spiders' webs, which, though they seem to display some artistic workmanship, are yet of no use. He would not admit a plurality of virtues with Zeno, nor again with the Megarians one single virtue called by many names; but he treated virtue in accordance with the category of relative modes. Teaching this sort of philosophy, and lecturing in the Cynosarges, he acquired such influence as to be called the founder of a sect. At any rate Miltiades and Diphilus were denominated Aristoneans. He was a plausible speaker and suited the taste of the general public. Hence Timon's verse about him:One who from wily Ariston's line boasts his descent." "
7.162. After meeting Polemo, says Diocles of Magnesia, while Zeno was suffering from a protracted illness, he recanted his views. The Stoic doctrine to which he attached most importance was the wise man's refusal to hold mere opinions. And against this doctrine Persaeus was contending when he induced one of a pair of twins to deposit a certain sum with Ariston and afterwards got the other to reclaim it. Ariston being thus reduced to perplexity was refuted. He was at variance with Arcesilaus; and one day when he saw an abortion in the shape of a bull with a uterus, he said, Alas, here Arcesilaus has had given into his hand an argument against the evidence of the senses." "
7.163. When some Academic alleged that he had no certainty of anything, Ariston said, Do you not even see your neighbour sitting by you? and when the other answered No, he rejoined,Who can have blinded you? who robbed you of luminous eyesight?The books attributed to him are as follows:Exhortations, two books.of Zeno's Doctrines.Dialogues.Lectures, six books.Dissertations on Philosophy, seven books.Dissertations on Love.Commonplaces on Vainglory.Notebooks, twenty-five volumes.Memorabilia, three books.Anecdotes, eleven books.Against the Rhetoricians.An Answer to the Counter-pleas of Alexinus.Against the Dialecticians, three books.Letters to Cleanthes, four books.Panaetius and Sosicrates consider the Letters to be alone genuine; all the other works named they attribute to Ariston the Peripatetic." '
7.164. The story goes that being bald he had a sunstroke and so came to his end. I have composed a trifling poem upon him in limping iambics as follows:Wherefore, Ariston, when old and bald did you let the sun roast your forehead? Thus seeking warmth more than was reasonable, you lit unwillingly upon the chill reality of Death.There was also another Ariston, a native of Iulis; a third, a musician of Athens; a fourth, a tragic poet; a fifth, of Halae, author of treatises on rhetoric; a sixth, a Peripatetic philosopher of Alexandria.
7.165. 3. HERILLUSHerillus of Carthage declared the end of action to be Knowledge, that is, so to live always as to make the scientific life the standard in all things and not to be misled by ignorance. Knowledge he defined as a habit of mind, not to be upset by argument, in the acceptance of presentations. Sometimes he used to say there was no single end of action, but it shifted according to varying circumstances and objects, as the same bronze might become a statue either of Alexander or of Socrates. He made a distinction between end-in-chief and subordinate end: even the unwise may aim at the latter, but only the wise seek the true end of life. Everything that lies between virtue and vice he pronounced indifferent. His writings, though they do not occupy much space, are full of vigour and contain some controversial passages in reply to Zeno.
7.166. He is said to have had many admirers when a boy; and as Zeno wished to drive them away, he compelled Herillus to have his head shaved, which disgusted them.His books are the following:of Training.of the Passions.Concerning Opinion or Belief.The Legislator.The Obstetrician.The Challenger.The Teacher.The Reviser.The Controller.Hermes.Medea.Dialogues.Ethical Themes.
7.167. 4. DIONYSIUSDionysiusDionysius, the Renegade, declared that pleasure was the end of action; this under the trying circumstance of an attack of ophthalmia. For so violent was his suffering that he could not bring himself to call pain a thing indifferent.He was the son of Theophantus and a native of Heraclea. At first, as Diocles relates, he was a pupil of his fellow-townsman, Heraclides, next of Alexinus and Menedemus, and lastly of Zeno. At the outset of his career he was fond of literature and tried his hand at all kinds of poetry; afterwards he took Aratus for his model, whom he strove to imitate. When he fell away from Zeno, he went over to the Cyrenaics, and used to frequent houses of ill fame and indulge in all other excesses without disguise. After living till he was nearly eighty years of age, he committed suicide by starving himself.The following works are attributed to him:of Apathy, two booksOn Training, two books.of Pleasure, four books.of Wealth, Popularity and RevengeHow to live amongst Men.of Prosperity.of Ancient Kings.of those who are Praised.of the Customs of Barbarians.These three, then, are the heterodox Stoics. The legitimate successor to Zeno, however, was Cleanthes: of whom we have now to speak.' "

7.174. To the solitary man who talked to himself he remarked, You are not talking to a bad man. When some one twitted him on his old age, his reply was, I too am ready to depart; but when again I consider that I am in all points in good health and that I can still write and read, I am content to wait. We are told that he wrote down Zeno's lectures on oyster-shells and the blade-bones of oxen through lack of money to buy paper. Such was he; and yet, although Zeno had many other eminent disciples, he was able to succeed him in the headship of the school.He has left some very fine writings, which are as follows:of Time.of Zeno's Natural Philosophy, two books.Interpretations of Heraclitus, four books.De Sensu.of Art.A Reply to Democritus.A Reply to Aristarchus.A Reply to Herillus.of Impulse, two books." '

7.187. Again: If anyone is in Megara, he is not in Athens: now there is a man in Megara, therefore there is not a man in Athens. Again: If you say something, it passes through your lips: now you say wagon, consequently a wagon passes through your lips. And further: If you never lost something, you have it still; but you never lost horns, ergo you have horns. Others attribute this to Eubulides.There are people who run Chrysippus down as having written much in a tone that is gross and indecent. For in his work On the ancient Natural Philosophers at line 600 or thereabouts he interprets the story of Hera and Zeus coarsely, with details which no one would soil his lips by repeating.
7.188. Indeed, his interpretation of the story is condemned as most indecent. He may be commending physical doctrine; but the language used is more appropriate to street-walkers than to deities; and it is moreover not even mentioned by bibliographers, who wrote on the titles of books. What Chrysippus makes of it is not to be found in Polemo nor Hypsicrates, no, nor even in Antigonus. It is his own invention. Again, in his Republic he permits marriage with mothers and daughters and sons. He says the same in his work On Things for their own Sake not Desirable, right at the outset. In the third book of his treatise On Justice, at about line 1000, he permits eating of the corpses of the dead. And in the second book of his On the Means of Livelihood, where he professes to be considering a priori how the wise man is to get his living, occur the words:' "
8.6. There are some who insist, absurdly enough, that Pythagoras left no writings whatever. At all events Heraclitus, the physicist, almost shouts in our ear, Pythagoras, son of Mnesarchus, practised inquiry beyond all other men, and in this selection of his writings made himself a wisdom of his own, showing much learning but poor workmanship. The occasion of this remark was the opening words of Pythagoras's treatise On Nature, namely, Nay, I swear by the air I breathe, I swear by the water I drink, I will never suffer censure on account of this work. Pythagoras in fact wrote three books. On Education, On Statesmanship, and On Nature." '
8.9. The contents in general of the aforesaid three treatises of Pythagoras are as follows. He forbids us to pray for ourselves, because we do not know what will help us. Drinking he calls, in a word, a snare, and he discounteces all excess, saying that no one should go beyond due proportion either in drinking or in eating. of sexual indulgence, too, he says, Keep to the winter for sexual pleasures, in summer abstain; they are less harmful in autumn and spring, but they are always harmful and not conducive to health. Asked once when a man should consort with a woman, he replied, When you want to lose what strength you have.
8.12. and further that Pythagoras spent most of his time upon the arithmetical aspect of geometry; he also discovered the musical intervals on the monochord. Nor did he neglect even medicine. We are told by Apollodorus the calculator that he offered a sacrifice of oxen on finding that in a right-angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the squares on the sides containing the right angle. And there is an epigram running as follows:What time Pythagoras that famed figure found,For which the noble offering he brought.He is also said to have been the first to diet athletes on meat, trying first with Eurymenes – so we learn from Favorinus in the third book of his Memorabilia – whereas in former times they had trained on dried figs, on butter, and even on wheatmeal, as we are told by the same Favorinus in the eighth book of his Miscellaneous History.
8.15. Down to the time of Philolaus it was not possible to acquire knowledge of any Pythagorean doctrine, and Philolaus alone brought out those three celebrated books which Plato sent a hundred minas to purchase. Not less than six hundred persons went to his evening lectures; and those who were privileged to see him wrote to their friends congratulating themselves on a great piece of good fortune. Moreover, the Metapontines named his house the Temple of Demeter and his porch the Museum, so we learn from Favorinus in his Miscellaneous History. And the rest of the Pythagoreans used to say that not all his doctrines were for all men to hear, our authority for this being Aristoxenus in the tenth book of his Rules of Pedagogy,
8.19. Above all, he forbade as food red mullet and blacktail, and he enjoined abstinence from the hearts of animals and from beans, and sometimes, according to Aristotle, even from paunch and gurnard. Some say that he contented himself with just some honey or a honeycomb or bread, never touching wine in the daytime, and with greens boiled or raw for dainties, and fish but rarely. His robe was white and spotless, his quilts of white wool, for linen had not yet reached those parts.
8.24. to respect all divination, to sing to the lyre and by hymns to show due gratitude to gods and to good men. To abstain from beans because they are flatulent and partake most of the breath of life; and besides, it is better for the stomach if they are not taken, and this again will make our dreams in sleep smooth and untroubled.Alexander in his Successions of Philosophers says that he found in the Pythagorean memoirs the following tenets as well. 8.25. The principle of all things is the monad or unit; arising from this monad the undefined dyad or two serves as material substratum to the monad, which is cause; from the monad and the undefined dyad spring numbers; from numbers, points; from points, lines; from lines, plane figures; from plane figures, solid figures; from solid figures, sensible bodies, the elements of which are four, fire, water, earth and air; these elements interchange and turn into one another completely, and combine to produce a universe animate, intelligent, spherical, with the earth at its centre, the earth itself too being spherical and inhabited round about. There are also antipodes, and our down is their up. 8.26. Light and darkness have equal part in the universe, so have hot and cold, and dry and moist; and of these, if hot preponderates, we have summer; if cold, winter; if dry, spring; if moist, late autumn. If all are in equilibrium, we have the best periods of the year, of which the freshness of spring constitutes the healthy season, and the decay of late autumn the unhealthy. So too, in the day, freshness belongs to the morning, and decay to the evening, which is therefore more unhealthy. The air about the earth is stagt and unwholesome, and all within it is mortal; but the uppermost air is ever-moved and pure and healthy, and all within it is immortal and consequently divine.' "8.27. The sun, the moon, and the other stars are gods; for, in them, there is a preponderance of heat, and heat is the cause of life. The moon is illumined by the sun. Gods and men are akin, inasmuch as man partakes of heat; therefore God takes thought for man. Fate is the cause of things being thus ordered both as a whole and separately. The sun's ray penetrates through the aether, whether cold or dense – the air they call cold aether, and the sea and moisture dense aether – and this ray descends even to the depths and for this reason quickens all things." '8.28. All things live which partake of heat – this is why plants are living things – but all have not soul, which is a detached part of aether, partly the hot and partly the cold, for it partakes of cold aether too. Soul is distinct from life; it is immortal, since that from which it is detached is immortal. Living creatures are reproduced from one another by germination; there is no such thing as spontaneous generation from earth. The germ is a clot of brain containing hot vapour within it; and this, when brought to the womb, throws out, from the brain, ichor, fluid and blood, whence are formed flesh, sinews, bones, hairs, and the whole of the body, while soul and sense come from the vapour within. 8.29. First congealing in about forty days, it receives form and, according to the ratios of harmony, in seven, nine, or at the most ten, months, the mature child is brought forth. It has in it all the relations constituting life, and these, forming a continuous series, keep it together according to the ratios of harmony, each appearing at regulated intervals. Sense generally, and sight in particular, is a certain unusually hot vapour. This is why it is said to see through air and water, because the hot aether is resisted by the cold; for, if the vapour in the eyes had been cold, it would have been dissipated on meeting the air, its like. As it is, in certain lines he calls the eyes the portals of the sun. His conclusion is the same with regard to hearing and the other senses. 8.30. The soul of man, he says, is divided into three parts, intelligence, reason, and passion. Intelligence and passion are possessed by other animals as well, but reason by man alone. The seat of the soul extends from the heart to the brain; the part of it which is in the heart is passion, while the parts located in the brain are reason and intelligence. The senses are distillations from these. Reason is immortal, all else mortal. The soul draws nourishment from the blood; the faculties of the soul are winds, for they as well as the soul are invisible, just as the aether is invisible. 8.31. The veins, arteries, and sinews are the bonds of the soul. But when it is strong and settled down into itself, reasonings and deeds become its bonds. When cast out upon the earth, it wanders in the air like the body. Hermes is the steward of souls, and for that reason is called Hermes the Escorter, Hermes the Keeper of the Gate, and Hermes of the Underworld, since it is he who brings in the souls from their bodies both by land and sea; and the pure are taken into the uppermost region, but the impure are not permitted to approach the pure or each other, but are bound by the Furies in bonds unbreakable. 8.32. The whole air is full of souls which are called genii or heroes; these are they who send men dreams and signs of future disease and health, and not to men alone, but to sheep also and cattle as well; and it is to them that purifications and lustrations, all divination, omens and the like, have reference. The most momentous thing in human life is the art of winning the soul to good or to evil. Blest are the men who acquire a good soul; they can never be at rest, nor ever keep the same course two days together. 8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries.' "8.34. According to Aristotle in his work On the Pythagoreans, Pythagoras counselled abstinence from beans either because they are like the genitals, or because they are like the gates of Hades . . . as being alone unjointed, or because they are injurious, or because they are like the form of the universe, or because they belong to oligarchy, since they are used in election by lot. He bade his disciples not to pick up fallen crumbs, either in order to accustom them not to eat immoderately, or because connected with a person's death; nay, even, according to Aristophanes, crumbs belong to the heroes, for in his Heroes he says:Nor taste ye of what falls beneath the board !Another of his precepts was not to eat white cocks, as being sacred to the Month and wearing suppliant garb – now supplication ranked with things good – sacred to the Month because they announce the time of day; and again white represents the nature of the good, black the nature of evil. Not to touch such fish as were sacred; for it is not right that gods and men should be allotted the same things, any more than free men and slaves." '8.35. Not to break bread; for once friends used to meet over one loaf, as the barbarians do even to this day; and you should not divide bread which brings them together; some give as the explanation of this that it has reference to the judgement of the dead in Hades, others that bread makes cowards in war, others again that it is from it that the whole world begins.He held that the most beautiful figure is the sphere among solids, and the circle among plane figures. Old age may be compared to everything that is decreasing, while youth is one with increase. Health means retention of the form, disease its destruction. of salt he said it should be brought to table to remind us of what is right; for salt preserves whatever it finds, and it arises from the purest sources, sun and sea.' "
9.23. Hence Timon says of him:And the strength of high-souled Parmenides, of no diverse opinions, who introduced thought instead of imagination's deceit.It was about him that Plato wrote a dialogue with the title Parmenides or Concerning Ideas.He flourished in the 69th Olympiad. He is believed to have been the first to detect the identity of Hesperus, the evening-star, and Phosphorus, the morning-star; so Favorinus in the fifth book of his Memorabilia; but others attribute this to Pythagoras, whereas Callimachus holds that the poem in question was not the work of Pythagoras. Parmenides is said to have served his native city as a legislator: so we learn from Speusippus in his book On Philosophers. Also to have been the first to use the argument known as Achilles and the tortoise: so Favorinus tells us in his Miscellaneous History.There was also another Parmenides, a rhetorician who wrote a treatise on his art." '
9.105. We see that a man moves, and that he perishes; how it happens we do not know. We merely object to accepting the unknown substance behind phenomena. When we say a picture has projections, we are describing what is apparent; but if we say that it has no projections, we are then speaking, not of what is apparent, but of something else. This is what makes Timon say in his Python that he has not gone outside what is customary. And again in the Conceits he says:But the apparent is omnipotent wherever it goes;and in his work On the Senses, I do not lay it down that honey is sweet, but I admit that it appears to be so.' "
10.5. Furthermore that he extolled Idomeneus, Herodotus, and Timocrates, who had published his esoteric doctrines, and flattered them for that very reason. Also that in his letters he wrote to Leontion, O Lord Apollo, my dear little Leontion, with what tumultuous applause we were inspired as we read your letter. Then again to Themista, the wife of Leonteus: I am quite ready, if you do not come to see me, to spin thrice on my own axis and be propelled to any place that you, including Themista, agree upon; and to the beautiful Pythocles he writes: I will sit down and await thy divine advent, my heart's desire. And, as Theodorus says in the fourth book of his work, Against Epicurus, in another letter to Themista he thinks he preaches to her." '10.6. It is added that he corresponded with many courtesans, and especially with Leontion, of whom Metrodorus also was enamoured. It is observed too that in his treatise On the Ethical End he writes in these terms: I know not how to conceive the good, apart from the pleasures of taste, sexual pleasures, the pleasures of sound and the pleasures of beautiful form. And in his letter to Pythocles: Hoist all sail, my dear boy, and steer clear of all culture. Epictetus calls him preacher of effeminacy and showers abuse on him.Again there was Timocrates, the brother of Metrodorus, who was his disciple and then left the school. He in the book entitled Merriment asserts that Epicurus vomited twice a day from over-indulgence, and goes on to say that he himself had much ado to escape from those notorious midnight philosophizings and the confraternity with all its secrets;' ". None
24. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 19, 37, 42-45 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164; Cornelli (2013) 96, 132, 166; Erler et al (2021) 117; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164

19. Through this he achieved great reputation, he drew great audiences from the city, not only of men, but also of women, among whom was a specially illustrious person named Theano. He also drew audiences from among the neighboring barbarians, among whom were magnates and kings. What he told his audiences cannot be said with certainty, for he enjoined silence upon his hearers. But the following is a matter of general information. He taught that the soul was immortal and that after death it transmigrated into other animated bodies. After certain specified periods, the same events occur again; that nothing was entirely new; that all animated beings were kin, and should be considered as belonging to one great family. Pythagoras was the first one to introduce these teachings into Greece. 37. His utterances were of two kinds, plain or symbolical. His teaching was twofold: of his disciples some were called Students, and others Hearers. The Students learned the fuller and more exactly elaborate reasons of science, while the Hearers heard only the chief heads of learning, without more detailed explanations. 42. He had also another kind of symbol, such as, pass not over a balance; that is, Shun avarice. Poke not the fire with a sword, that is, we ought not to excite a man full of fire and anger with sharp language. Pluck not a crown, meant not to violate the laws, which are the crowns of cities. Eat not the heart, signified not to afflict ourselves with sorrows. Do not sit upon a pack-measure, meant, do not live ignobly. On starting a journey, do not turn back, meant, that this life should not be regretted, when near the bourne of death. Do not walk in the public way, meant, to avoid the opinions of the multitude, adopting those of the learned and the few. Receive not swallows into your house, meant, not to admit under the same roof garrulous and intemperate men. Help a man to take up a burden, but not to lay it down, meant, to encourage no one to be indolent, but to apply oneself to labor and virtue. Do not carry the images of the Gods in rings, signified that one should not at once to the vulgar reveal one's opinions about the Gods, or discourse about them. offer libations to the Gods, just to the ears of the cup, meant, that we ought to worship and celebrate the Gods with music, for that penetrates through the ears. Do not eat those things that are unlawful, sexual or increase, beginning nor end, nor the first basis of all things.
25. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 141; Bryan (2018) 245; Wardy and Warren (2018) 245

26. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 164; Cornelli (2013) 245; Wardy and Warren (2018) 164

27. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 245; Wardy and Warren (2018) 245

28. Strabo, Geography, 1.15, 13.614, 16.2.4
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 246, 247, 248; Wardy and Warren (2018) 246, 247, 248

16.2.4. Seleucis is the best of the above-mentioned portions of Syria. It is called and is a Tetrapolis, and derives its name from the four distinguished cities which it contains; for there are more than four cities, but the four largest are Antioch Epidaphne, Seleuceia in Pieria, Apameia, and Laodiceia. They were called Sisters from the concord which existed between them. They were founded by Seleucus Nicator. The largest bore the name of his father, and the strongest his own. of the others, Apameia had its name from his wife Apama, and Laodiceia from his mother.In conformity with its character of Tetrapolis, Seleucis, according to Poseidonius, was divided into four satrapies; Coele-Syria into the same number, but Commagene, like Mesopotamia, consisted of one.Antioch also is a Tetrapolis, consisting (as the name implies) of four portions, each of which has its own, and all of them a common wall.Seleucus Nicator founded the first of these portions, transferring thither settlers from Antigonia, which a short time before Antigonus, son of Philip, had built near it. The second was built by the general body of settlers; the third by Seleucus, the son of Callinicus; the fourth by Antiochus, the son of Epiphanes.' '. None
29. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Diogenes Laertius • Diogenes Laertius,

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 27, 40, 124, 141; Bryan (2018) 242, 243, 245, 247, 248; Del Lucchese (2019) 184, 206; Frey and Levison (2014) 52, 53; Geljon and Runia (2013) 227; Geljon and Runia (2019) 256, 263; Wardy and Warren (2018) 242, 243, 245, 247, 248

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