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41 results for "judaea"
1. Septuagint, Malachi, None (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 14
2. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.42, 14.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
2.42. Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 14.6. He extended the borders of his nation,and gained full control of the country.
3. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 7.18-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 14
4. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 7.18-7.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 14
5. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 75, 91 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188
91. and yet no one, not even of those immoderately cruel tyrants, nor of the more treacherous and hypocritical oppressors was ever able to bring any real accusation against the multitude of those called Essenes or Holy. But everyone being subdued by the virtue of these men, looked up to them as free by nature, and not subject to the frown of any human being, and have celebrated their manner of messing together, and their fellowship with one another beyond all description in respect of its mutual good faith, which is an ample proof of a perfect and very happy life. XIV.
6. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188
7. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 191
4.12. "סְפֵק הַחֻלִּין, זוֹ טָהֳרַת פְּרִישׁוּת. סְפֵק שְׁרָצִים, כִּשְׁעַת מְצִיאָתָן. סְפֵק נְגָעִים, בַּתְּחִלָּה טָהוֹר, עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה. מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה, סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. סְפֵק נְזִירוּת, מֻתָּר. סְפֵק בְּכוֹרוֹת, אֶחָד בְּכוֹרֵי אָדָם וְאֶחָד בְּכוֹרֵי בְהֵמָה, בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה, שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה: \n", 4.12. "\"A condition of doubt concerning non-sacred food\"--this refers to the cleanness practiced by Pharisees. \"A condition of doubt concerning a sheretz\" –according [to their condition at] the time they are found. \"A condition of doubt concerning negaim\" it is deemed clean in the beginning before it had been determined to be unclean, but after it had been determined to be unclean, a condition of doubt is deemed unclean. \"A condition of doubt concerning a nazirite vow\" [in such a condition of doubt he] is permitted [all that is forbidden to a nazirite]. \"A condition of doubt concerning first-borns\" whether they are human firstborn or firstborn of cattle, whether the firstborn of an unclean beast or a clean one, for the one who wishes to extract from his fellow bears the burden of proof.",
8. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
5.6. "שְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת חֲשָׁאִים, וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים, לִשְׁכַּת חֲשָׁאִים יִרְאֵי חֵטְא נוֹתְנִים לְתוֹכָה בַּחֲשַׁאי, וַעֲנִיִּים בְּנֵי טוֹבִים מִתְפַּרְנְסִים מִתוֹכָהּ בַּחֲשַׁאי. לִשְׁכַּת הַכֵּלִים, כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא מִתְנַדֵּב כֶּלִי, זוֹרְקוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ. וְאַחַת לִשְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, גִּזְבָּרִין פּוֹתְחִין אוֹתָהּ. וְכָל כְּלִי שֶׁמּוֹצְאִין בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ לְבֶדֶק הַבַּיִת, מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ. וְהַשְּׁאָר נִמְכָּרִין בִּדְמֵיהֶן וְנוֹפְלִין לְלִשְׁכַּת בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת: \n", 5.6. "There were two chambers in the Temple, one the chamber of secret gifts and the other the chamber of the vessels. The chamber of secret gifts: sin-fearing persons used to put their gifts there in secret, and the poor who were descended of the virtuous were secretly supported from them. The chamber of the vessels: whoever offered a vessel as a gift would throw it in, and once in thirty days the treasurers opened it; and any vessel they found in it that was of use for the repair of the temple they left there, but the others were sold and their price went to the chamber of the repair of the temple.",
9. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 189
4.9. "נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן: \n", 4.9. "How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.",
10. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 191
3.4. "אֵינָהּ מַסְפֶּקֶת לִשְׁתּוֹת עַד שֶׁפָּנֶיהָ מוֹרִיקוֹת וְעֵינֶיהָ בּוֹלְטוֹת וְהִיא מִתְמַלֵּאת גִּידִין, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים הוֹצִיאוּהָ הוֹצִיאוּהָ, שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא הָעֲזָרָה. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ זְכוּת, הָיְתָה תוֹלָה לָהּ. יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁנָה אַחַת, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. מִכָּאן אוֹמֵר בֶּן עַזַּאי, חַיָּב אָדָם לְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, שֶׁאִם תִּשְׁתֶּה, תֵּדַע שֶׁהַזְּכוּת תּוֹלָה לָהּ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ מְלַמְּדָהּ תִּפְלוּת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, רוֹצָה אִשָּׁה בְקַב וְתִפְלוּת מִתִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין וּפְרִישׁוּת. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חָסִיד שׁוֹטֶה, וְרָשָׁע עָרוּם, וְאִשָּׁה פְרוּשָׁה, וּמַכּוֹת פְּרוּשִׁין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְכַלֵּי עוֹלָם: \n", 3.4. "She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world.",
11. Josephus Flavius, Life, 196-198, 190 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 56
12. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
10.3. "כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 10.3. "How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival.",
13. Mishnah, Hagigah, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
2.4. "עֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁאִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁיּוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו, וּמֻתָּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וּבְתַעֲנִית, שֶׁלֹּא לְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִין עֲצֶרֶת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת: \n" 2.4. "Atzeret (Shavuot) which fell on a Friday: Bet Shammai say: the day of the slaughter [of the wholly burnt offerings] is after Shabbat. And Bet Hillel say: the day of the slaughter is not after Shabbat. They agree, however, that if it falls on Shabbat, the day of the slaughter is after Shabbat. The high priest does not [in that case] put on his [special] garments, and mourning and fasting are permitted, in order not to confirm the view of those who say that Atzeret is after Shabbat."
14. New Testament, Acts, 2.27, 5.34, 13.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188, 189
2.27. 5.34. Ἀναστὰς δέ τις ἐν τῷ συνεδρίῳ Φαρισαῖος ὀνόματι Γαμαλιήλ, νομοδιδάσκαλος τίμιος παντὶ τῷ λαῷ, ἐκέλευσεν ἔξω βραχὺ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ποιῆσαι, 13.35. διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν· 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 5.34. But one stood up in the council, a Pharisee named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, honored by all the people, and commanded to take the apostles out a little while. 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.'
15. New Testament, Titus, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188
1.8. ἀλλὰ φιλόξενον, φιλάγαθον, σώφρονα, δίκαιον, ὅσιον, ἐγκρατῆ, ἀντεχόμενον τοῦ κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν πιστοῦ λόγου, 1.8. but given to hospitality, as a lover of good, sober-minded, fair, holy, self-controlled;
16. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
6.2. "אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בִצְדוֹקִי אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיָה דָר עִמָּנוּ בְּמָבוֹי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, מַהֲרוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים לַמָּבוֹי, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֵר, מַהֲרוּ וַעֲשׂוּ צָרְכֵיכֶם בַּמָּבוֹי עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם: \n", 6.2. "Rabban Gamaliel said: A Sadducee once lived with us in the same alley in Jerusalem and father told us: “Hurry up and carry out all vessels into the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”. Rabbi Judah said [the instruction was given] in different language: “Hurry up and perform all of your needs in the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”.",
17. New Testament, Mark, 3.6, 8.15, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 14
3.6. Καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 8.15. καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων Ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου. 12.13. Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod." 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words.
18. New Testament, Matthew, 22.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 14
22.16. καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν λέγοντας Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις, καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός, οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων· 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone.
19. Mishnah, Demai, 2.3-2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 190
2.3. "הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו לִהְיוֹת חָבֵר, אֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר לְעַם הָאָרֶץ לַח וְיָבֵשׁ, וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ לַח, וְאֵינוֹ מִתְאָרֵח אֵצֶל עַם הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא מְאָרְחוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בִּכְסוּתוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף לֹא יְגַדֵּל בְּהֵמָה דַקָּה, וְלֹא יְהֵא פָרוּץ בִּנְדָרִים וּבִשְׂחוֹק, וְלֹא יְהֵא מִטַּמֵּא לְמֵתִים, וּמְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא בָאוּ אֵלּוּ לַכְּלָל: \n" 2.4. "הַנַּחְתּוֹמִים, לֹא חִיְּבוּ אוֹתָם חֲכָמִים לְהַפְרִישׁ אֶלָּא כְדֵי תְרוּמַת מַעֲשֵׂר וְחַלָּה. הַחֶנְוָנִים אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לִמְכֹּר אֶת הַדְּמַאי. כָּל הַמַּשְׁפִּיעִין בְּמִדָּה גַסָּה, רַשָּׁאִין לִמְכֹּר אֶת הַדְּמַאי. אֵלּוּ הֵן הַמַּשְׁפִּיעִין בְּמִדָּה גַסָּה, כְּגוֹן הַסִּיטוֹנוֹת וּמוֹכְרֵי תְבוּאָה: \n", 2.5. "רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִמָּדֵד בְּגַסָּה וּמְדָדוֹ בְדַקָּה, טְפֵלָה דַקָּה לַגַּסָּה. אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִמָּדֵד בְּדַקָּה וּמָדַד בַּגַסָּה, טְפֵלָה גַסָּה לַדַּקָּה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא מִדָּה גַסָּה, בְּיָבֵשׁ, שְׁלשֶׁת קַבִּין, וּבְלַח, דִּינָר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, סַלֵּי תְאֵנִים וְסַלֵּי עֲנָבִים וְקֻפּוֹת שֶׁל יָרָק, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא מוֹכְרָן אַכְסָרָה, פָּטוּר: \n", 2.3. "One who takes upon himself to become a “chaver” may not sell to an am haaretz either moist or dry [produce], nor may he buy from him moist [produce], nor may he be the guest of an am haaretz, nor may he host an am haaretz as a guest while [the am haaretz] is wearing his own garment. Rabbi Judah says: he may not also raise small animals, nor may make a lot of vows or merriment, nor may he defile himself by contact with the dead. Rather he should be an attendant at the house of study. They said to him: these [requirements] do not come within the general rule [of being a chaver]." 2.4. "Bakers the sages did not obligate them to separate [from demai produce] any more than suffices for terumat maaser and for hallah. Grocers may not sell demai [produce]. All [merchants] who supply in large quantities may sell demai. Who are those who supply in large quantities? Those such as wholesalers and grain-sellers.", 2.5. "Rabbi Meir says: [if produce] which is usually measured out [for sale] in a large [quantity] was measured out in a small [quantity], the small quantity is treated as if it was a large [quantity]. If [produce] which is usually measured out for sale in a small [quantity] was measured out in a large [quantity], the large [quantity] is treated as if it was a small [quantity]. What is considered a large quantity? For dry [produce] three kavs, and for liquids, the value of one dinar. Rabbi Yose says: baskets of figs, baskets of grapes, and bushels of vegetables when he sells them in lumps, they are exempt [from the rules of demai].",
20. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.5-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 189, 191
4.5. "תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁבְּעֶזְרָא וְשֶׁבְּדָנִיֵּאל, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעִבְרִית שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ תַּרְגּוּם, וּכְתָב עִבְרִי, אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתְּבֶנּוּ אַשּׁוּרִית, עַל הָעוֹר, וּבִדְיוֹ: \n", 4.6. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, וְכִי אֵין לָנוּ עַל הַפְּרוּשִׁים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד. הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹמְרִים, עַצְמוֹת חֲמוֹר טְהוֹרִים וְעַצְמוֹת יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל טְמֵאִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ תַּרְוָדוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲבִיבִין, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.7. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת הַנִּצּוֹק. אוֹמְרִים הַפְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, צְדוֹקִים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הַבָּאָה מִבֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת. אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, חַיָּבִין. וְעַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, פְּטוּרִין. מָה אִם שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵינִי חַיָּב בָּהֶם מִצְוֹת, הֲרֵי אֲנִי חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. עַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב בָּהֶן מִצְוֹת, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֱהֵא חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם, לֹא. אִם אֲמַרְתֶּם בְּשׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם דַּעַת, תֹּאמְרוּ בְּעַבְדִּי וּבַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דָּעַת. שֶׁאִם אַקְנִיטֵם, יֵלֵךְ וְיַדְלִיק גְּדִישׁוֹ שֶׁל אַחֵר וֶאֱהֵא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם: \n", 4.8. "אָמַר צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, קוֹבֵל אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם משֶׁה בַּגֵּט. אוֹמְרִים פְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ, צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם הַשֵּׁם בַּדַּף, וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל מִלְמַעְלָן וְאֶת הַשֵּׁם מִלְּמַטָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה) וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁלָּקָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (שם ט), ה' הַצַּדִּיק: \n", 4.5. "The Aramaic sections in Ezra and Daniel defile the hands. If an Aramaic section was written in Hebrew, or a Hebrew section was written in Aramaic, or [Hebrew which was written with] Hebrew script, it does not defile the hands. It never defiles the hands until it is written in the Assyrian script, on parchment, and in ink.", 4.6. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands.", 4.7. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?", 4.8. "A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27).",
21. Mishnah, Niddah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
4.2. "בְּנוֹת צְדוֹקִין, בִּזְמַן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכוּתִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיִשְׂרְאֵלִית. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הֵן כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן: \n", 4.2. "The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers.",
22. Tosefta, Kelim, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.304, 13.372-13.374, 14.41, 15.372-15.379, 18.18, 18.116-18.119, 20.97-20.98, 20.167-20.172, 20.200-20.201 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 56, 189, 192, 193
4.304. Accordingly, he delivered these books to the priest, with the ark; into which he also put the ten commandments, written on two tables. He delivered to them the tabernacle also, and exhorted the people, that when they had conquered the land, and were settled in it, they should not forget the injuries of the Amalekites, but make war against them, and inflict punishment upon them for what mischief they did them when they were in the wilderness; 13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing. 13.373. At this he was in a rage, and slew of them about six thousand. He also built a partition-wall of wood round the altar and the temple, as far as that partition within which it was only lawful for the priests to enter; and by this means he obstructed the multitude from coming at him. 13.374. He also maintained foreigners of Pisidiae and Cilicia; for as to the Syrians, he was at war with them, and so made no use of them. He also overcame the Arabians, such as the Moabites and Gileadites, and made them bring tribute. Moreover, he demolished Amathus, while Theodorus durst not fight with him; 14.41. and there it was that he heard the causes of the Jews, and of their governors Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were at difference one with another, as also of the nation against them both, which did not desire to be under kingly’ government, because the form of government they received from their forefathers was that of subjection to the priests of that God whom they worshipped; and [they complained], that though these two were the posterity of priests, yet did they seek to change the government of their nation to another form, in order to enslave them. 15.372. However, it is but fit to set down here the reasons wherefore Herod had these Essenes in such honor, and thought higher of them than their mortal nature required; nor will this account be unsuitable to the nature of this history, as it will show the opinion men had of these Essenes. 15.373. 5. Now there was one of these Essenes, whose name was Manahem, who had this testimony, that he not only conducted his life after an excellent manner, but had the foreknowledge of future events given him by God also. This man once saw Herod when he was a child, and going to school, and saluted him as king of the Jews; 15.374. but he, thinking that either he did not know him, or that he was in jest, put him in mind that he was but a private man; but Manahem smiled to himself, and clapped him on his backside with his hand, and said, “However that be, thou wilt be king, and wilt begin thy reign happily, for God finds thee worthy of it. And do thou remember the blows that Manahem hath given thee, as being a signal of the change of thy fortune. 15.375. And truly this will be the best reasoning for thee, that thou love justice [towards men], and piety towards God, and clemency towards thy citizens; yet do I know how thy whole conduct will be, that thou wilt not be such a one, 15.376. for thou wilt excel all men in happiness, and obtain an everlasting reputation, but wilt forget piety and righteousness; and these crimes will not be concealed from God, at the conclusion of thy life, when thou wilt find that he will be mindful of them, and punish time for them.” 15.377. Now at that time Herod did not at all attend to what Manahem said, as having no hopes of such advancement; but a little afterward, when he was so fortunate as to be advanced to the dignity of king, and was in the height of his dominion, he sent for Manahem, and asked him how long he should reign. 15.378. Manahem did not tell him the full length of his reign; wherefore, upon that silence of his, he asked him further, whether he should reign ten years or not? He replied, “Yes, twenty, nay, thirty years;” but did not assign the just determinate limit of his reign. Herod was satisfied with these replies, and gave Manahem his hand, and dismissed him; and from that time he continued to honor all the Essenes. 15.379. We have thought it proper to relate these facts to our readers, how strange soever they be, and to declare what hath happened among us, because many of these Essenes have, by their excellent virtue, been thought worthy of this knowledge of divine revelations. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.116. 2. Now some of the Jews thought that the destruction of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, that was called the Baptist: 18.117. for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety towards God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purification of the body; supposing still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness. 18.118. Now when [many] others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved [or pleased] by hearing his words, Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion, (for they seemed ready to do any thing he should advise,) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. 18.119. Accordingly he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death. Now the Jews had an opinion that the destruction of this army was sent as a punishment upon Herod, and a mark of God’s displeasure to him. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it; 20.98. and many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them; who, falling upon them unexpectedly, slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, and cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. 20.167. 6. These works, that were done by the robbers, filled the city with all sorts of impiety. And now these impostors and deceivers persuaded the multitude to follow them into the wilderness, 20.168. and pretended that they would exhibit manifest wonders and signs, that should be performed by the providence of God. And many that were prevailed on by them suffered the punishments of their folly; for Felix brought them back, and then punished them. 20.169. Moreover, there came out of Egypt about this time to Jerusalem one that said he was a prophet, and advised the multitude of the common people to go along with him to the Mount of Olives, as it was called, which lay over against the city, and at the distance of five furlongs. 20.170. He said further, that he would show them from hence how, at his command, the walls of Jerusalem would fall down; and he promised them that he would procure them an entrance into the city through those walls, when they were fallen down. 20.171. Now when Felix was informed of these things, he ordered his soldiers to take their weapons, and came against them with a great number of horsemen and footmen from Jerusalem, and attacked the Egyptian and the people that were with him. He also slew four hundred of them, and took two hundred alive. 20.172. But the Egyptian himself escaped out of the fight, but did not appear any more. And again the robbers stirred up the people to make war with the Romans, and said they ought not to obey them at all; and when any persons would not comply with them, they set fire to their villages, and plundered them. 20.200. when, therefore, Aus was of this disposition, he thought he had now a proper opportunity [to exercise his authority]. Festus was now dead, and Albinus was but upon the road; so he assembled the sanhedrim of judges, and brought before them the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James, and some others, [or, some of his companions]; and when he had formed an accusation against them as breakers of the law, he delivered them to be stoned: 20.201. but as for those who seemed the most equitable of the citizens, and such as were the most uneasy at the breach of the laws, they disliked what was done; they also sent to the king [Agrippa], desiring him to send to Aus that he should act so no more, for that what he had already done was not to be justified;
24. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
3.8. "נתנן עד שלא הוצת האור ברובה או משנעשית אפר פסולה. נטל עצם או שחור וקדש בו הרי זה לא עשה כלום אם יש עליו אבק כל שהוא אם מגופה כותשו ומקדש בו וכשר. וחולקין אותו לשלשה חלקים אחד ניתן בחיל ואחד ניתן בהר המשחה ואחד מתחלק לכל המשמרות זה שמתחלק לכל המשמרות היו ישראל מזין הימנו. זה שניתן בהר המשחה היו כהנים מקדשין בו. זה שניתן בחיל היו משמרין שנאמר (במדבר יט) והיתה לעדת בני ישראל למשמרת. ",
25. Tosefta, Peah, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
4.6. "שתי חזקות בא\"י נשיאות כפים וחילוק גרנות ובסוריא ועד מקום ששלוחי ר\"ח מגיעים נשיאות כפים אבל לא חילוק גרנות ובבל כסוריא ר\"ש בן אליעזר אומר אף באלכסנדריא בראשונה כשהיה שם ב\"ד.",
26. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 187, 189
1.8. "איזו היא אצבע צרדה זו אצבע גדולה של ימין בפה [ולא] בנבל ולא בכנור מה היו אומרים (תהילים קכ״ז:א׳) שיר המעלות לשלמה אם ה' לא יבנה בית וגו' לא היו ישנים כל הלילה אלא שקורין כנגד כהן גדול [כדי] לעסקו בתורה כך היו נוהגין בגבולין אחר חורבן הבית זכר למקדש אבל חוטאין [היו].", 2.7. "אמר ר\"ע [סח לי שמעון בן ליגא] אני ותינוק אחד מבני בניהם [היינו מלקטים עשבים בשדה ראיתיו] ששחק ובכה אמרתי לו [על] מה בכית אמר לי על כבוד בית אבא שגלה [אמרתי לו על] מה שחקת אמר לסוף שעתיד הקב\"ה [לשמח את בניו אמרתי לו מה] ראית אמר מעלה עשן כנגדי אמרתי לו [הראו] לי אמר לי שבועה היא בידינו שאין מראין אותו לכל אדם. אמר רבי יוחנן בן נורי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך בדרך [מצאני זקן אחד ואמר לי משל בית אבטינס אני בתחלה כשהיו בית אבא צנועין היו מוסרין מגילותיהן זה לזה עכשיו הילך מגילה זו והזהר בה שהיא מגילת סמנים] וכשבאתי והרצתי [דברים] לפני ר' עקיבה אמר לי מעתה אסור לספר בגנותן של אלו מכאן אמר בן עזאי משלך יתנו לך בשמך יקראוך ובמקומך יושיבוך [אין שכחה לפני המקום אין] אדם נוגע במוכן לחבירו.",
27. Tosefta, Shevi It, 2.18 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119, 2.145, 2.258-2.263 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 56, 171, 193
2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.258. 4. There was also another body of wicked men gotten together, not so impure in their actions, but more wicked in their intentions, which laid waste the happy state of the city no less than did these murderers. 2.259. These were such men as deceived and deluded the people under pretense of Divine inspiration, but were for procuring innovations and changes of the government; and these prevailed with the multitude to act like madmen, and went before them into the wilderness, as pretending that God would there show them the signals of liberty. 2.260. But Felix thought this procedure was to be the beginning of a revolt; so he sent some horsemen and footmen both armed, who destroyed a great number of them. 2.261. 5. But there was an Egyptian false prophet that did the Jews more mischief than the former; for he was a cheat, and pretended to be a prophet also, and got together thirty thousand men that were deluded by him; 2.262. these he led round about from the wilderness to the mount which was called the Mount of Olives, and was ready to break into Jerusalem by force from that place; and if he could but once conquer the Roman garrison and the people, he intended to domineer over them by the assistance of those guards of his that were to break into the city with him. 2.263. But Felix prevented his attempt, and met him with his Roman soldiers, while all the people assisted him in his attack upon them, insomuch that when it came to a battle, the Egyptian ran away, with a few others, while the greatest part of those that were with him were either destroyed or taken alive; but the rest of the multitude were dispersed every one to their own homes, and there concealed themselves.
29. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.188, 2.165, 2.185-2.186, 2.194 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 56
1.188. although, as he says, all the priests of the Jews took tithes of the products of the earth, and managed public affairs, and were in number not above fifteen hundred at the most.” 2.165. but our legislator had no regard to any of these forms, but he ordained our government to be what, by a strained expression, may be termed a Theocracy, by ascribing the authority and the power to God, 2.185. And where shall we find a better or more righteous constitution than ours, while this makes us esteem God to be the governor of the universe, and permits the priests in general to be the administrators of the principal affairs, and withal intrusts the government over the other priests to the chief high priest himself! 2.186. which priests our legislator, at their first appointment, did not advance to that dignity for their riches, or any abundance of other possessions, or any plenty they had as the gifts of fortune; but he intrusted the principal management of divine worship to those that exceeded others in an ability to persuade men, and in prudence of conduct. 2.194. His business must be to offer sacrifices to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controversies, and to punish those that are convicted of injustice; while he that does not submit to him shall be subject to the same punishment, as if he had been guilty of impiety towards God himself.
30. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 192
31. Palestinian Talmud, Sotah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 191
32. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 187
33. Babylonian Talmud, Kiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 192
31a. b she persuades him with /b many b statements /b of encouragement and does not treat him harshly. b Therefore, /b in the mitzva of: “Honor your father and your mother” (Exodus 20:11), b the Holy One, Blessed be He, preceded /b the mention of b the honor /b due one’s b father before /b mentioning the b honor /b due one’s b mother. /b The verse emphasizes the duty that does not come naturally. Similarly, b it is revealed and known before the One Who spoke and the world came into being that a son fears his father more than his mother, because /b his father b teaches him Torah, /b and consequently he is strict with him. b Therefore, /b in the verse: “A man shall fear his mother and his father” (Leviticus 19:3), b the Holy One, Blessed be He, preceded /b the mention of b fear of the mother before /b the mention of b fear of the father. /b , b A i tanna /i taught /b a i baraita /i b before Rav Naḥman: When a person causes his father and mother suffering, the Holy One, Blessed be He, says: I did well in not dwelling among them, for if I had dwelled among them they would have caused Me suffering /b as well, as it were. b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: Anyone who transgresses in private, it is /b considered b as though he is pushing away the feet of the Divine Presence, /b i.e., he distances God from him, so to speak. b As it is stated: “So says the Lord: The heaven is My throne and the earth is My footstool” /b (Isaiah 66:1). When someone sins in secret, he demonstrates that he thinks God is absent from that place, and it is as though he pushes His feet away from the earth.,With regard to the same issue, b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: /b It is b prohibited for a person to walk /b even b four cubits with an upright posture, /b which is considered an arrogant manner, b as it is stated: “The entire world is full of His glory” /b (Isaiah 6:3). One who walks in an arrogant manner indicates a lack of regard for the glory and honor of God that is surrounding him, and thereby chases God from that place, as it were. The Gemara relates: b Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, would not walk four cubits with an uncovered head. He said: The Divine Presence is above my head, /b and I must act respectfully., b The son of one widow asked Rabbi Eliezer: /b If my b father says /b to me: b Give me water to drink, and /b my b mother /b also b says /b to me: b Give me water to drink, which of them /b should I honor b first? /b Rabbi Eliezer b said to him: Set /b aside b the honor of your mother, and perform the honor of your father, as you and your mother are /b both b obligated in the honor of your father. He came before Rabbi Yehoshua and /b asked him the same question, and Rabbi Yehoshua b said this /b same answer b to him. /b ,The man b said to him: My teacher, /b if one’s mother b is divorced, what is /b the i halakha /i ? Rabbi Yehoshua b said to him: From your eyelashes, /b which are filled with tears, b it is evident that you are the son of a widow, /b and you have no father. Why, then, are you asking this question as though it were relevant for you? Consequently, Rabbi Yehoshua answered him sarcastically: b Pour water for them into a pitcher and squawk at them as /b one does to summon b chickens. /b In other words, if one’s mother is divorced, the same honor is due to both parents, and neither takes precedence.,§ b Ulla the Great interpreted /b a verse b homiletically at the entrance to the house of the i Nasi /i . What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “All the kings of the earth shall give You thanks, O Lord, for they have heard the words of Your mouth” /b (Psalms 138:4)? It b is not stated: The word of Your mouth, /b in the singular. b Rather, /b the verse uses the expression: b “The words of Your mouth,” /b in the plural. To what is this phrase referring? b When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: “I am /b the Lord your God” (Exodus 20:2), b and, /b in the same verse: b “You shall have no /b other gods before Me,” b the nations of the world said: He teaches /b this b for His own honor, /b as both statements entail respect for God., b Once He said: “Honor your father and your mother” /b (Exodus 20:11), b they returned and conceded /b the truth b of the first statements, /b which is why the verse uses the plural expression: “Words of Your mouth,” i.e., all the words of God’s mouth. b Rava said: /b This can be derived b from here: “The beginning of Your word is truth” /b (Psalms 119:160). Is b the beginning of Your word /b truth b but not the end of Your word? Rather, from the end of Your word it is apparent /b to everyone b that the beginning of Your word is truth. /b ,The Sages b raised a dilemma before Rav Ulla: How far /b must one go to fulfill the mitzva of b honoring one’s father and mother? /b Rav Ulla b said to them: Go and see what one gentile did in Ashkelon, and his name was Dama ben Netina. Once the Sages sought /b to purchase b merchandise [ i perakmatya /i ] /b from him b for six hundred thousand /b gold dinars’ b profit, but the key /b for the container in which the merchandise was kept b was placed under his father’s head, /b and he was sleeping at the time. b And /b Dama ben Netina would b not disturb /b his father by waking him, although he could have made a substantial profit., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: They asked Rabbi Eliezer: How far /b must one go to fulfill the mitzva b of honoring one’s father and mother? /b Rabbi Eliezer b said to them: Go and see what one gentile did for his father in Ashkelon, and /b the b name /b of the son b was Dama ben Netina. /b Once b the Sages wished /b to purchase precious b stones from him for the ephod /b of the High Priest b for six hundred thousand /b gold dinars’ b profit, and Rav Kahana taught /b that it was b eight hundred thousand /b gold dinars’ profit. b And the key /b to the chest holding the jewels b was placed under his father’s head, and he /b would b not disturb him. /b , b The next year the Holy One, Blessed be He, gave /b Dama ben Netina b his reward, as a red heifer was born in his herd, /b and the Jews needed it. When b the Sages of Israel came to him he said to them: I know, /b concerning b you, that if I /b were to b ask for all the money in the world you /b would b give /b it b to me. But I ask only that money that I lost due to /b the b honor of Father. /b , b And Rabbi Ḥanina says: And if /b this is related about b one who is not commanded /b by the Torah to honor his father, as Dama was a gentile, b and /b nevertheless when b he performs /b the mitzva he is given b this /b great reward, b all the more so /b is one rewarded who is b commanded /b to fulfill a mitzva b and performs /b it. b As Rabbi Ḥanina says: Greater /b is one who b is commanded /b to do a mitzva b and performs /b it b than one who is not commanded /b to do a mitzva b and performs /b it., b Rav Yosef, /b who was blind, b said: At first I would say: /b If b someone would tell me /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, who says: A blind person is exempt from /b fulfilling b the mitzvot, I would make a festive day for the rabbis, as I am not commanded and yet I perform /b the mitzvot. This means my reward is very great. b Now that I have heard that which Rabbi Ḥanina says: Greater /b is one who b is commanded /b to do a mitzva b and performs /b it b than one who is not commanded /b to do a mitzva b and performs /b it, b on the contrary: /b If b someone would tell me /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, /b and a blind person is obligated in mitzvot, b I would make a festive day for the rabbis. /b , b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: Once /b Dama ben Netina b was wearing a fine cloak [ i sirkon /i ] of gold, and was sitting among the nobles /b of b Rome. And his mother came to him and tore /b his garment b from him and smacked him on the head and spat in his face, and /b yet b he did not embarrass her. /b , b Avimi, son of Rabbi Abbahu, taught: There is /b a type of son b who feeds his father pheasant [ i pasyonei /i ] and /b yet this behavior b causes him to be removed from the World, /b i.e., the World-to-Come; b and there is /b one b who makes him grind with a millstone, /b which is difficult work,
34. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 192, 193
16b. הראשונים היו נשיאים ושניים להם אב ב"ד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שלשה מזוגות הראשונים שאמרו שלא לסמוך ושנים מזוגות האחרונים שאמרו לסמוך (הראשונים) היו נשיאים ושניים להם אבות ב"ד דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד ושמעון בן שטח נשיא,מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן אמר רבי יהודה בן טבאי אראה בנחמה אם לא הרגתי עד זומם להוציא מלבן של צדוקין שהיו אומרים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיהרג הנידון,אמר לו שמעון בן שטח אראה בנחמה אם לא שפכת דם נקי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין לוקין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין משלמין ממון עד שיזומו שניהם,מיד קבל עליו יהודה בן טבאי שאינו מורה הלכה אלא בפני שמעון בן שטח,כל ימיו של יהודה בן טבאי היה משתטח על קברו של אותו הרוג והיה קולו נשמע כסבורין העם לומר שקולו של הרוג הוא אמר להם קולי הוא תדעו שלמחר הוא מת ואין קולו נשמע,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ודלמא פיוסי פייסיה או בדינא תבעי',מני הא אי אמרת בשלמא רבי מאיר דאמר שמעון בן שטח אב ב"ד ר"י בן טבאי נשיא היינו דקא מורי הלכה בפני שמעון בן שטח אלא אי אמרת רבנן דאמרי יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד שמעון בן שטח נשיא אב ב"ד בפני נשיא מי מורה הלכה,לא מאי קבל עליו דקאמר לאצטרופי דאפי' אצטרופי נמי לא מצטריפנא:,יצא מנחם ונכנס שמאי כו': להיכן יצא אביי אמר יצא לתרבות רעה רבא אמר יצא לעבודת המלך תניא נמי הכי יצא מנחם לעבודת המלך ויצאו עמו שמונים זוגות תלמידים לבושין סיריקון,אמר רב שמן בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אל תהא שבות קלה בעיניך שהרי סמיכה אינה אלא משום שבות ונחלקו בה גדולי הדור,פשיטא שבות מצוה אצטריכא ליה,הא נמי פשיטא לאפוקי ממאן דאמר בסמיכה גופה פליגי קא משמע לן בשבות הוא דפליגי,אמר רמי בר חמא שמע מינה סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן דאי ס"ד לא בעינן בכל כחו מאי קא עביד ליסמוך,מיתיבי (ויקרא א, ב) דבר אל בני ישראל וסמך בני ישראל סומכין ואין בנות ישראל סומכות רבי יוסי ור' (ישמעאל) [שמעון] אומרים בנות ישראל סומכות רשות,אמר רבי יוסי סח לי אבא אלעזר פעם אחת היה לנו עגל של זבחי שלמים והביאנוהו לעזרת נשים וסמכו עליו נשים לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים אלא כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים ואי ס"ד סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן משום נחת רוח דנשים עבדינן עבודה בקדשים אלא לאו ש"מ לא בעינן בכל כחו,לעולם אימא לך בעינן בכל כחו דאמר להו אקפו ידייכו אי הכי לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים תיפוק ליה דאינה לסמיכה כלל,א"ר אמי חדא ועוד קאמר חדא דליתא לסמיכה כלל ועוד כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה צדדין אסורין דאי ס"ד צדדין מותרין לסמוך לצדדין אלא לאו שמע מינה צדדין אסורין 16b. b The first /b members of each pair b served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i . /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: Three of the first pairs who say not to place hands and two of the last pairs who say to place hands served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i ; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say /b the opposite: b Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i and Shimon ben Shataḥ /b was the b i Nasi /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b Who is the i tanna /i /b who taught b that which the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai said: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if I did not kill a conspiring witness. /b This means that Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai sentenced a conspiring witness to death, in order b to counter the views of the Sadducees, who would say: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless the sentenced one has been executed. /b Their views opposed the traditional view, which maintains that conspiring witnesses are executed only if the one sentenced by their testimony has not yet been executed., b Shimon ben Shataḥ said to him: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if you did not shed innocent blood, as the Sages said: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless they are both found to be conspirators; /b if only one is found to be a conspirator, he is not executed. b And they are not flogged /b if they are liable to such a penalty, b unless they are both found to be conspirators. And /b if they testified falsely that someone owed money, b they do not pay money unless they are both found to be conspirators. /b ,Hearing this, b Yehuda ben Tabbai immediately accepted upon himself not to rule /b on any matter of b law unless he was in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ, /b as he realized he could not rely on his own judgment.,The i baraita /i further relates: b All of Yehuda ben Tabbai’s days, he would prostrate himself on the grave of that executed /b individual, to request forgiveness, b and his voice was heard /b weeping. b The people thought that it was the voice of that executed /b person, rising from his grave. Yehuda ben Tabbai b said to them: It is my voice, /b and b you /b shall b know /b that it is so, b for tomorrow, /b i.e., sometime in the future, b he will die, and his voice will no /b longer b be heard. /b Yehuda ben Tabbai was referring to himself, but he did not want to mention something negative about himself in direct terms., b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: /b This provides no conclusive proof that the voice was not that of the executed man, as b perhaps /b ben Tabbai b appeased /b the executed individual in the World-to-Come. b Or, /b alternatively, the latter may have b prosecuted him by the law /b of Heaven, and that is why his voice can no longer be heard.,The Gemara returns to its original question: b Whose /b opinion does b this /b i baraita /i follow? b Granted, if you say /b it is in accordance b with /b that of b Rabbi Meir, /b who b said /b that b Shimon ben Shataḥ was deputy i Nasi /i /b while b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai was i Nasi /i , that /b explains why b he /b had previously b issued a halakhic ruling in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ /b to execute the conspiring witness, and only after that unfortunate incident did he undertake to issue rulings only in the presence of his colleague. b But if you say /b that the i baraita /i is in accordance with b the Sages, who said: Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i /b and b Shimon ben Shataḥ /b the b i Nasi /i , /b why did he need to make such a commitment? b May /b the b deputy i Nasi /i issue a halakhic ruling in the presence of /b the b i Nasi /i ? /b ,The Gemara refutes this: b No; what /b did he mean by b accepting upon himself /b not to rule on his own? b He spoke /b with regard b to joining /b the ruling of others: b Even /b with regard to b joining /b the ruling of others, b I will also not join /b until I have first heard the view of Shimon ben Shataḥ.,§ It is taught in the mishna: b Menaḥem departed and Shammai entered. /b The Gemara asks: b To where did /b Menaḥem b depart? Abaye said: He departed and went astray. /b Therefore, the mishna did not wish to delve into the details of his case. b Rava said: He departed for the king’s service. /b He received a post from the king and had to leave the court. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Menaḥem departed for the king’s service, and eighty pairs of students dressed in silk robes left with him /b to work for the king, and that they no longer studied Torah.,§ b Rav Shemen bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: A rabbinic decree [ i shevut /i ] should never be taken lightly in your eyes, since placing hands /b on the head of an offering on a Festival b is prohibited only as a rabbinic decree /b because it is considered making use of an animal, which is not considered a prohibited labor but merely resembles one, and yet b the greatest /b scholars b of each generation disputed it. /b ,The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: This b is obvious. /b Since it is an accepted rabbinic decree, why should people take it lightly? The Gemara answers: It was b necessary for him /b to state it because it is b a rabbinic decree related to a mitzva. /b In other words, although this rabbinic decree of placing the hands on an animal is not performed for one’s own sake but for the purpose of a mitzva, it was nevertheless a serious matter in the eyes of the Sages.,The Gemara remains puzzled: b This too is obvious. /b In that case as well, the act is prohibited by the Sages. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement comes b to exclude /b the opinion b of the one who said /b that b they disagree with regard to the actual /b obligation of b placing hands, /b i.e., whether or not obligatory peace-offerings require placing the hands. b He /b therefore b teaches us /b that b it is a rabbinic decree /b that is the subject b of their dispute, /b not the requirement itself., b Rami bar Ḥama said: /b You can b learn from here, /b from this dispute, that the mitzva of b placing hands /b requires not only placing one’s hands on the animal’s head, but b we also require /b that one places his hands b with all his strength. For if it enters your mind /b that b we do not require all his strength, what /b prohibition b does one violate /b by placing his hands? b Let him place /b them on a Festival as well, as this does not resemble a prohibited action at all., b The Gemara raises an objection /b to this from a i baraita /i : b “Speak to the children of [ i benei /i ] Israel” /b (Leviticus 1:2). The word i benei /i literally means: Sons of. And it states nearby: b “And he shall place /b his hand on the head of the burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1:4), from which we learn that b the sons of Israel place /b their hands, b but the daughters of Israel do not place /b them. b Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yishmael say: It is optional for the daughters of Israel to place /b their hands. They may place their hands if they so choose, although they are not obligated to do so., b Rabbi Yosei said: /b The Sage b Abba Elazar related to me /b the following incident: b On one occasion, we had a calf for a peace-offering, and we brought it to the Women’s Courtyard, and women placed /b their hands b on it. /b We did this b not because there /b is an obligation of b placing hands in /b the case of b women, but in order to please the women, /b by allowing them to sacrifice an offering, in all of its particulars, as men do. Now, b if it enters your mind /b that b we require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b would b we perform work with consecrated /b offerings b in order to please /b the b women? /b Placing one’s hands forcefully on an animal is considered performing work with it, and if one does it without being obligated to do so, he has thereby performed work with an offering. b Rather, isn’t it /b correct to b conclude from this /b that b we do not require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength? /b ,The Gemara rejects this: b Actually, I /b could b say to you /b that b we do require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b but here they allowed women to place their hands b by saying to them: Ease your hands /b and do not press forcefully, so that their hand placing should not constitute work. The Gemara retorts: b If so, /b then the reason formulated as: b Not because there /b is an obligation to b place hands in /b the case of b women, /b is irrelevant to this law. b Let him derive /b the permission for women to do so from the reason that b it is not /b considered b placing hands at all. /b If placing hands must be performed with all one’s strength, this action the women are performing does not constitute placing hands., b Rabbi Ami said: He stated one /b reason b and another. One /b reason is b that it is not /b considered b placing hands at all, /b as it is not performed with all of one’s strength; b and another /b reason is that they allowed it b in order to please the women. /b , b Rav Pappa said: Learn from this /b that anything upon which one may not place objects or upon which one may not sit on Shabbat, its b sides are /b likewise b prohibited, for if it enters your mind /b to say that the b sides are permitted, /b they could have told the women b to place /b their hands b on the sides, /b i.e., on the head of the animal rather than on its back, as the head of the animal is considered as if it were one of its sides. b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from this /b that the b sides are prohibited? /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 189
33b. או דילמא נוגעת היתה ולא סתרה,אמר רבא לפום חורפא שבשתא נהי נמי דסתרה כמה תסתור תסתור שבעה דיה כבועלה,תסתור יום אחד (ויקרא טו, כח) ואחר תטהר אמר רחמנא אחר אחר לכולן שלא תהא טומאה מפסקת ביניהם,וליטעמיך זב גופיה היכי סתר לטהרתו אמר רחמנא שלא תהא טומאה מפסקת ביניהן,אלא מאי אית לך למימר שלא תהא טומאת זיבה מפסקת ביניהן הכא נמי שלא תהא טומאת זיבה מפסקת ביניהן,ואין חייבין עליהן על ביאת מקדש וכו' רב פפא איקלע לתואך אמר אי איכא צורבא מרבנן הכא איזיל אקבל אפיה אמרה ליה ההיא סבתא איכא הכא צורבא מרבנן ורב שמואל שמיה ותני מתניתא יהא רעוא דתהוי כוותיה,אמר מדקמברכי לי בגוויה ש"מ ירא שמים הוא אזל לגביה רמא ליה תורא רמא ליה מתני' אהדדי תנן אין חייבין עליהן על ביאת מקדש ואין שורפין עליהן את התרומה מפני שטומאתה ספק אלמא מספיקא לא שרפינן תרומה,ורמינהי על ששה ספקות שורפין את התרומה על ספק בגדי עם הארץ,אמר רב פפא יהא רעוא דלתאכיל האי תורא לשלמא הכא במאי עסקינן בכותי חבר,כותי חבר בועל נדה משוית ליה,שבקיה ואתא לקמיה דרב שימי בר אשי אמר ליה מאי טעמא לא משנית ליה בכותי שטבל ועלה ודרס על בגדי חבר ואזלו בגדי חבר ונגעו בתרומה,דאי משום טומאת עם הארץ הא טביל ליה ואי משום בועל נדה ספק בעל בקרוב ספק לא בעל בקרוב,ואם תמצי לומר בעל בקרוב ספק השלימתו ירוק ספק לא השלימתו והוי ספק ספיקא ואספק ספיקא לא שרפינן תרומה,ותיפוק ליה משום בגדי עם הארץ דאמר מר בגדי עם הארץ מדרס לפרושין אמר ליה בכותי ערום, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בנות צדוקין בזמן שנהגו ללכת בדרכי אבותיהן הרי הן ככותיות פרשו ללכת בדרכי ישראל הרי הן כישראלית רבי יוסי אומר לעולם הן כישראלית עד שיפרשו ללכת בדרכי אבותיהן, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איבעיא להו סתמא מאי ת"ש בנות צדוקין בזמן שנוהגות ללכת בדרכי אבותיהן הרי הן ככותיות הא סתמא כישראלית אימא סיפא פרשו ללכת בדרכי ישראל הרי הן כישראלית הא סתמא ככותיות אלא מהא ליכא למשמע מיניה,ת"ש דתנן ר' יוסי אומר לעולם הן כישראלית עד שיפרשו ללכת בדרכי אבותיהן מכלל דת"ק סבר סתמא ככותיות ש"מ,תנו רבנן מעשה בצדוקי אחד שספר עם כהן גדול בשוק ונתזה צנורא מפיו ונפלה לכהן גדול על בגדיו והוריקו פניו של כהן גדול וקדם אצל אשתו,אמרה לו אף על פי שנשי צדוקים הן מתיראות מן הפרושים ומראות דם לחכמים,אמר רבי יוסי בקיאין אנו בהן יותר מן הכל והן מראות דם לחכמים חוץ מאשה אחת שהיתה בשכונתינו שלא הראת דם לחכמים ומתה,ותיפוק ליה משום צנורא דעם הארץ אמר אביי בצדוקי חבר אמר רבא צדוקי חבר בועל נדה משוית ליה אלא אמר רבא 33b. b Or perhaps /b it is because b she was touching /b the semen, b and /b if so b she has not /b thereby b negated /b her count, just as a i zav /i does not negate his count if he touches semen., b Rava says: Commensurate with the sharpness /b of Rami bar Ḥama is the extent of his b error, /b as this is not a dilemma at all, since b even /b if one could suggest b that /b a i zava /i who discharges semen has b indeed negated /b her count, one must ask: b How much should she negate? /b If one suggests b she should negate /b all b seven /b days of her counting, this is untenable, as b it is enough for her /b that she should negate her count b like /b the man who b engages in intercourse with her, /b i.e., like a i zav /i who discharges semen, who negates only one day.,And if one suggests that b she should negate one day /b alone, this too is untenable, as b the Merciful One states: /b “But if she is purified from her i ziva /i then she shall count to herself seven days, b and after that she shall be pure” /b (Leviticus 15:28). The word b “after” /b indicates that she shall be pure only b after all of them, /b i.e., after seven consecutive clean days, such b that there should be no impurity separating between them. /b If so, there cannot be a situation where a i zava /i negates a single day, and consequently it cannot be that a i zava /i who discharges semen negates any part of her count.,The Gemara rejects Rava’s response: b And according to your reasoning, how does a i zav /i himself negate /b only one day from his count due to a seminal emission? After all, b the Merciful One states: /b “And when the i zav /i is purified of his i ziva /i , then he shall count for himself seven days for his purification, and wash his clothes, and bathe his flesh in running water, and he shall be pure” (Leviticus 15:13). The phrase: “Seven days b for his purification,” /b indicates b that there should be no impurity separating between them. /b , b Rather, what have you to say? /b The verse means only b that there should not be an impurity of i ziva /i separating between them. Here too, /b with regard to a i zava /i , the verse means only b that there should not be an impurity of i ziva /i separating between them; /b a discharge of semen is not included in this restriction. It is therefore possible that a discharge of semen from a i zava /i negates only one day from her count. Accordingly, the dilemma raised by Rami bar Ḥama remains in place.,§ The mishna teaches: b But /b one who enters the Temple while wearing b those /b garments upon which a Samaritan had lain b is not liable /b to bring an offering b for entering the Temple, /b nor does one burn i teruma /i that came into contact with those garments, because their impurity is uncertain. In connection to these i halakhot /i , the Gemara relates that b Rav Pappa happened /b to come b to /b the city of b Tavakh. He said: If there is a Torah scholar here I will go and greet him. A certain elderly woman said to him: There is a Torah scholar here and Rav Shmuel is his name, and he teaches i mishnayot /i ; may it be /b God’s b will that you should be like him. /b ,Rav Pappa b said /b to himself: b From /b the fact b that they bless me through /b this Rav Shmuel that I should be like him, I may b conclude from it /b that b he is a God-fearing /b individual. Rav Pappa b went to /b visit b him, /b and Rav Shmuel b raised a bull for him, /b i.e., he slaughtered a bull in honor of Rav Pappa, and he also b raised /b a difficulty between two b i mishnayot /i /b that apparently contradict b one another: We learn /b in the mishna: One who enters the Temple while wearing b those /b garments upon which a Samaritan had lain is b not liable /b to bring an offering b for entering the Temple, nor does one burn i teruma /i /b that came into contact with b those /b garments, b because their impurity is uncertain. Evidently, we do not burn i teruma /i due to uncertain /b impurity., b And /b one can b raise a contradiction /b from another mishna ( i Teharot /i 4:5): b For six /b cases of b uncertain /b impurity b one burns the i teruma /i /b if it came into contact with them, or if a person came into contact with them and subsequently touched the i teruma /i . One of these is b for the uncertain /b case b of the garments of one who is unreliable with regard to ritual impurity [ i am ha’aretz /i ]. /b Such garments impart impurity through contact and through carrying, due to a concern that the wife of the i am ha’aretz /i might have sat on them while she was menstruating. Evidently, one burns i teruma /i due to uncertain impurity., b Rav Pappa /b began his response with a supplication and b said: May it be /b God’s b will that this bull shall be eaten peacefully, /b i.e., that I will provide a satisfactory resolution of this contradiction. Since the bull was slaughtered in my honor, failing to resolve the contradiction might spoil the meal. Rav Pappa continued: b Here we are dealing with a Samaritan /b who is b devoted to the meticulous observance of mitzvot, especially i halakhot /i of ritual purity, i teruma /i , and tithes [ i ḥaver /i ]. /b There is therefore less concern with regard to his ritual purity than that of an i am ha’aretz /i . Consequently, the mishna here states that i teruma /i is not burned on account of him.,Rav Shmuel rejected this response: Since the mishna is referring to men who engage in intercourse with menstruating women, b are you equating a Samaritan i ḥaver /i /b with a man who b engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman? /b ,Rav Pappa b left /b Rav Shmuel in embarrassment b and came before Rav Shimi bar Ashi, /b to whom he related this incident. Rav Shimi bar Ashi b said to him: What is the reason /b that b you did not respond to him /b that the ruling of the mishna is stated b with regard to a Samaritan who immersed /b in a ritual bath b and arose /b from his impure status, b and /b subsequently b trod on the garments of a i ḥaver /i , /b which means they are now considered the bedding of the Samaritan, b and /b then those b garments of /b the b i ḥaver /i went and touched i teruma /i ? /b In such a case one does not burn the i teruma /i ., b As, if /b one would say to burn it b due to the impurity of an i am ha’aretz /i , he /b has b immersed /b in a ritual bath. b And if /b one were to suggest that it should be burned b because /b the Samaritan is one who b engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman, /b this too is an unsatisfactory reason. This is because it is b uncertain /b whether b he recently engaged in intercourse /b with his wife, in which case his immersion does not remove his impurity; and it is b uncertain /b whether b he did not recently engage in intercourse /b with his wife, in which case he is in fact pure., b And /b even b if you say /b that b he recently engaged in intercourse /b with his wife, another uncertainty remains: It is b uncertain /b whether his wife began counting seven days from an emission of green blood and ignored any subsequent emission of red blood and b completed /b her count for the b green /b blood, which would mean that she was in fact a menstruating woman when she engaged in sexual intercourse with her husband; and it is b uncertain /b whether b she did not complete /b a count of seven days from the emission of the green blood, rather from the emission of red blood, in which case she was not a menstruating woman when her husband engaged in intercourse with her. b And /b therefore b this is a compound uncertainty, and /b there is a principle that b one does not burn i teruma /i on /b account of b a compound uncertainty. /b ,Rav Pappa raised an objection to Rav Shimi bar Ashi: b And let /b one b derive /b that the garments of the i ḥaver /i are impure b because /b they came into contact with the b garments of an i am ha’aretz /i . As the Master said: /b The b garments of an i am ha’aretz /i /b are considered impure with the ritual impurity imparted by the b treading /b of a i zav /i , which means they impart impurity to people and to garments, b for individuals who are scrupulous with regard to impurity [ i perushin /i ]. /b Rav Shimi bar Ashi b said to /b Rav Pappa: The mishna is referring b to a naked Samaritan. /b Consequently, none of his garments came into contact with the garments of the i ḥaver /i ., strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to b Sadducee girls, when they were accustomed to follow in the ways of their /b Sadducee b ancestors their /b status b is like /b that of b Samaritan women, /b whose i halakha /i was discussed in the previous mishna. If the Sadducee women b abandoned /b the customs of their ancestors in order b to follow in the ways of the Jewish people /b their status b is like /b that of b a Jewish woman. Rabbi Yosei says: Their /b status b is always like /b that of b a Jewish woman, until they will abandon /b the ways of the Jewish people in order b to follow in the ways of their /b Sadducee b ancestors. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What /b is the i halakha /i in b an unspecified /b case, i.e., when the custom of a Sadducee woman is unknown? The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b evidence from the mishna: With regard to b Sadducee girls, when they are accustomed to follow in the ways of their /b Sadducee b ancestors their /b status b is like /b that of b Samaritan women. /b It can be inferred from the mishna b that /b in b an unspecified /b case their status b is like /b that of b a Jewish woman. /b The Gemara rejects this suggestion: b Say the latter clause: /b If the Sadducee women b abandoned /b the customs of their ancestors in order b to follow in the ways of the Jewish people their /b status b is like /b that of b a Jewish woman. /b One may infer from this b that /b in b an unspecified /b case their status b is like /b that of b Samaritan women. Rather, no /b inference is b to be learned from this /b mishna.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b the last clause of the mishna, b as we learned /b in the mishna that b Rabbi Yosei says: Their /b status b is always like /b that of b a Jewish woman, until they will abandon /b the ways of the Jewish people in order b to follow in the ways of their /b Sadducee b ancestors. By inference, /b one may conclude b that the first i tanna /i holds /b that in b an unspecified /b case their status b is like /b that of b Samaritan women. /b The Gemara affirms: b Conclude from it /b that this is the case.,§ b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving a certain Sadducee who was conversing with the High Priest in the marketplace, and /b as he was speaking, b saliva [ i tzinora /i ] sprayed from his mouth and fell onto the garments of the High Priest. And the face of the High Priest turned green, /b as he feared that his garments had been rendered ritually impure. b And he rushed to /b the Sadducee’s b wife /b to inquire whether she properly observed the i halakhot /i of menstruation, in which case his garments were not rendered impure by the saliva of her husband, as he is not considered one who engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman., b She said to him: Even though /b women such as myself b are the wives of Sadducees, /b who do not follow in the ways of the i perushim /i , b they are scared of the i perushim /i and they show /b their b blood to the Sages /b when an uncertainty arises. The garments of the High Priest are therefore pure, as the Sadducee wives properly observe the i halakhot /i of menstruation., b Rabbi Yosei says: We are familiar with the /b wives of Sadducees b more so than everyone /b else, as they are our neighbors, b and /b I can testify that b they /b all b show /b their b blood to the Sages, except for a certain woman who was /b living b in our neighborhood who did not show /b her b blood to the Sages, and she died, /b as a punishment for her behavior.,The Gemara objects: b And let /b the High Priest b derive /b that his garments are impure b due to the saliva of an i am ha’aretz /i , /b which imparts impurity. b Abaye said: /b That case involved b a Sadducee i ḥaver /i , /b who was particular with regard to the i halakhot /i of ritual purity. b Rava said: Are you equating a Sadducee i ḥaver /i /b with a man who b engages in intercourse with a menstruating woman? /b After all, the High Priest was initially concerned that the Sadducee might engage in intercourse with his wife while she is still menstruating. b Rather, Rava said: /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188
99b. זמר בכל יום זמר בכל יום אמר רב יצחק בר אבודימי מאי קרא שנאמר (משלי טז, כו) נפש עמל עמלה לו כי אכף עליו פיהו הוא עמל במקום זה ותורתו עומלת לו במקום אחר,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם לעמל נברא שנאמר (איוב ה, ז) כי אדם לעמל יולד איני יודע אם לעמל פה נברא אם לעמל מלאכה נברא כשהוא אומר כי אכף עליו פיהו הוי אומר לעמל פה נברא ועדיין איני יודע אם לעמל תורה אם לעמל שיחה כשהוא אומר (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך הוי אומר לעמל תורה נברא והיינו דאמר רבא כולהו גופי דרופתקי נינהו טובי לדזכי דהוי דרופתקי דאורייתא,(משלי ו, לב) ונואף אשה חסר לב אמר ריש לקיש זה הלומד תורה לפרקים שנאמר (משלי כב, יח) כי נעים כי תשמרם בבטנך יכונו יחדיו על שפתיך,ת"ר (במדבר טו, ל) והנפש אשר תעשה ביד רמה זה מנשה בן חזקיה שהיה יושב ודורש בהגדות של דופי,אמר וכי לא היה לו למשה לכתוב אלא (בראשית לו, כב) ואחות לוטן תמנע ותמנע היתה פלגש לאליפז (בראשית ל, יד) וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים וימצא דודאים בשדה יצאה ב"ק ואמרה לו (תהלים נ, כ-כא) תשב באחיך תדבר בבן אמך תתן דופי אלה עשית והחרשתי דמית היות אהיה כמוך אוכיחך ואערכה לעיניך,ועליו מפורש בקבלה (ישעיהו ה, יח) הוי מושכי העון בחבלי השוא וכעבות העגלה חטאה מאי כעבות העגלה א"ר אסי יצר הרע בתחלה דומה לחוט של כוביא ולבסוף דומה לעבות העגלה,דאתן עלה מיהת אחות לוטן תמנע מאי היא תמנע בת מלכים הואי דכתיב (בראשית לו, כט) אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע וכל אלוף מלכותא בלא תאגא היא,בעיא לאיגיורי באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו אמרה מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת נפק מינה עמלק דצערינהו לישראל מאי טעמא דלא איבעי להו לרחקה,וילך ראובן בימי קציר חטים אמר רבא בר' יצחק אמר רב מכאן לצדיקים שאין פושטין ידיהן בגזל וימצא דודאים בשדה מאי דודאים אמר רב יברוחי לוי אמר סיגלי ר' יונתן אמר (סיבסוך) [סביסקי]:,א"ר אלכסנדרי כל העוסק בתורה לשמה משים שלום בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ה) או יחזק במעוזי יעשה שלום לי שלום יעשה לי:,רב אמר כאילו בנה פלטרין של מעלה ושל מטה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ואשים דברי בפיך ובצל ידי כסיתיך לנטוע שמים וליסד ארץ (אמר ריש לקיש) [רבי יוחנן אמר] אף מגין על כל העולם כולו שנאמר ובצל ידי כסיתיך ולוי אמר אף מקרב את הגאולה שנאמר (ישעיהו נא, טז) ולאמר לציון עמי אתה,אמר ריש לקיש כל המלמד את בן חבירו תורה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאו שנאמר (בראשית יב, ה) ואת הנפש אשר עשו בחרן ר' (אליעזר) אומר כאילו עשאן לדברי תורה שנאמר (דברים כט, ח) ושמרתם את דברי הברית הזאת ועשיתם אותם רבא אמר כאילו עשאו לעצמו שנאמר ועשיתם אותם אל תקרי אותם אלא אתם,אמר רבי אבהו כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה שנאמר (שמות יז, ה) ומטך אשר הכית בו את היאר וכי משה הכהו והלא אהרן הכהו אלא לומר לך כל המעשה את חבירו לדבר מצוה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה:,אפיקורוס: רב ור' חנינא אמרי תרוייהו זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן ור' יהושע בן לוי אמרי זה המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו אפיקורוס הוי מגלה פנים בתורה כגון מאי כגון מנשה בן חזקיה,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא מגלה פנים בתורה רב ור' חנינא אמרי זה המבזה ת"ח רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי זה המבזה את חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם,בשלמא למ"ד המבזה תלמיד חכם עצמו מגלה פנים בתורה הוי מבזה חבירו בפני ת"ח אפיקורוס הוי אלא למ"ד מבזה חבירו בפני תלמיד חכם מגלה פנים בתורה הוי אפיקורוס כגון מאן אמר רב יוסף כגון הני דאמרי מאי אהנו לן רבנן לדידהו קרו לדידהו תנו,אמר ליה אביי האי מגלה פנים בתורה נמי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לג, כה) אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מהכא נמי שמע מינה שנאמר (בראשית יח, כו) ונשאתי לכל המקום בעבורם,אלא כגון דיתיב קמיה רביה ונפלה ליה שמעתא בדוכתא אחריתי ואמר הכי אמרינן התם ולא אמר הכי אמר מר רבא אמר כגון הני דבי בנימין אסיא דאמרי מאי אהני לן רבנן מעולם 99b. b Sing every day, sing every day, /b i.e., review your studies like a song that one sings over and over. b Rav Yitzḥak bar Avudimi says: /b From b what verse /b is this derived? It is b as it is stated: “The hunger of the laborer labors for him; for his mouth presses upon him” /b (Proverbs 16:26), i.e., he exhausts his mouth through constant review and study. b He labors /b in Torah b in this place, /b this world, b and his Torah labors for him in another place, /b the World-to-Come., b Rabbi Elazar says: Every man was created for labor, as it is stated: “Man is born for toil” /b (Job 5:7). Based on this verse, b I do not know whether he was created for toil of the mouth, /b speech, or b whether he was created for the toil of labor. When /b the verse b states: “For his mouth presses upon him” /b (Proverbs 16:26), b you must say /b that b he was created for toil of the mouth. And still I do not know /b with regard to the toil of the mouth b whether it is for the toil of Torah or for the toil of conversation. When /b the verse b states: “This Torah scroll shall not depart from your mouth” /b (Joshua 1:8), b you must say /b that b he was created for the toil of Torah. And that is /b the meaning of b what Rava said: All bodies are like receptacles /b to store items until use. b Happy is one who is privileged, who is a receptacle for Torah. /b ,The verse states: b “He who commits adultery with a woman lacks understanding” /b (Proverbs 6:32). b Reish Lakish says: This is /b a reference to b one who studies Torah intermittently, /b who is like an adulterer, who sins with the other woman intermittently, b as it is stated /b about words of Torah: b “For it is a pleasant thing if you keep them within your belly; let them be established on your lips” /b (Proverbs 22:18) and keep the Torah always available.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that with regard to the verse: b “But the person who acts high-handedly, /b whether he is born in the land, or a stranger, that person blasphemes the Lord” (Numbers 15:30), b this /b is a reference to b Manasseh ben Hezekiah, /b king of Israel, b who would sit and teach flawed /b interpretations of Torah b narratives. /b ,Manasseh b said: But did Moses need to write only /b insignificant matters that teach nothing, for example: b “And Lotan’s sister was Timna” /b (Genesis 36:22), or: b “And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz, /b son of Esau” (Genesis 36:12), or: b “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest and found i duda’im /i in the field” /b (Genesis 30:14)? b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother’s son. These things you have done, and should I have kept silence, you would imagine that I was like you, but I will reprove you, and set the matter before your eyes” /b (Psalms 50:20–21). The verses in the Torah are not empty matters, with regard to which you can decide their import., b And about /b Manasseh ben Hezekiah b it is stated explicitly in the /b texts of b tradition, /b the Prophets: b “Woe unto them who draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as with a cart rope” /b (Isaiah 5:18). b What /b is the meaning of the phrase b “as with a cart rope”? Rabbi Asi says: /b This is a reference to b the evil inclination. Initially, it seems like /b a flimsy b spinning [ i kuveya /i ] thread and ultimately it seems like /b a sturdy b cart rope. /b ,Manasseh began by mocking a few verses and ultimately violated the entire Torah. The Gemara asks: With regard to that verse b that we came to /b discuss, b in any event, what is /b the significance of the phrase in the verse b “And Lotan’s sister was Timna”? /b The Gemara explains: b Timna was the daughter of kings, as it is written: “The chief of Lotan” /b (Genesis 36:29), and: b “The chief of Timna” /b (Genesis 36:40), b and each chief is /b a member of b a monarchy, /b albeit b without a crown. /b That is why they are called chief and not king.,Timna b sought to convert. She came before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine of Eliphaz, son of Esau, and said, /b referring to herself: b It is preferable that she will be a maidservant for this nation, and she will not be a noblewoman for another nation. /b Ultimately, b Amalek, /b son of Eliphaz, b emerged from her, /b and that tribe b afflicted the Jewish people. What is the reason /b that the Jewish people were punished by suffering at the hand of Amalek? It is due to the fact b that they should not have rejected her /b when she sought to convert. Therefore, the verse is significant., b “And Reuben went in the days of the wheat harvest” /b (Genesis 30:14). b Rava, son of Rabbi Yitzḥak, says /b that b Rav says: From here /b it can be seen b that the righteous do not extend their hands /b to engage b in robbery /b even of small items, as rather than taking wheat, Reuben took only the ownerless i duda’im /i . The verse continues: b “And he found i duda’im /i in the field.” /b The Gemara asks: b What are i duda’im /i ? Rav says: /b They are a plant called b i yavruḥei /i . Levi says: /b They are b violets. Rabbi Yonatan says: /b They are b i seviskei /i . /b ,§ Apropos the significance of Torah study, b Rabbi Alexandri says: Anyone who engages in /b the study of b Torah for its own sake introduces peace into the /b heavenly b entourage above and into the /b earthly b entourage below, as it is stated: “Or let him take hold of My stronghold [ i ma’uzi /i ], that he may make peace with Me; and he shall make peace with Me” /b (Isaiah 27:5). One who observes the Torah, which is called i oz /i , introduces peace, even before the presence of God, as it were., b Rav says: /b It is b as though he built a palace of /b heaven b above and of /b earth b below, as it is stated: “And I have placed My words in your mouth, and I have covered you in the shadow of My hand, to plant the heavens and lay the foundations of the earth, /b and say to Zion, you are My people” (Isaiah 51:16). One who has the word of God placed in his mouth through Torah study has established heaven and earth. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b One who engages in Torah study b also protects the entire world, as it is stated: “And I have covered you in the shadow of My hand.” And Levi says: He also advances /b the coming of b the redemption, as it is stated: “And say to Zion, you are My people.” /b , b Reish Lakish said: /b With regard to b anyone who teaches Torah to the son of another, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he formed /b that student, b as it is stated: /b “And Abram took Sarai his wife… b and the souls that they formed in Haran” /b (Genesis 12:5). They are given credit for forming the students to whom they taught Torah. b Rabbi Elazar says: /b It is b as though he fashioned [ i asa’an /i ] the words of Torah /b themselves, b as it is stated: “Observe the words of this covet, i va’asitem otam /i ” /b (Deuteronomy 29:8), indicating that studying the Torah is like fashioning it. b Rava says: /b It is b as though he fashioned himself, as it is stated: “ i Va’asitem otam /i .” Do not read /b “ i va’asitem b otam /b /i b ” /b as: And you shall fashion them; b rather, /b read it as i va’asitem b atem /b /i b , /b meaning: You shall fashion yourself., b Rabbi Abbahu says: /b With regard to b anyone who causes another to /b engage in b a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he performed it /b himself, b as it is stated: /b “And the Lord said to Moses… b and your rod, with which you struck the river, /b take in your hand and go” (Exodus 17:5). b And /b was it b Moses /b who b struck /b the river? b But isn’t /b it written explicitly (see Exodus 7:19–20) that b Aaron struck /b the river? b Rather, /b that verse serves b to say to you: Anyone who causes another to /b engage in b a matter of a mitzva, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as though he performed it /b himself.,§ The mishna teaches that those who have no share in the World-to-Come include b an i epikoros /i . Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina both say: This /b is b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This /b is b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says /b that b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna, b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt is /b characterized as one b who interprets the Torah inappropriately, /b due to his lowering of the status of a Torah scholar. b But according to the one who says /b that b one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is /b the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna, how would he characterize one b who interprets the Torah inappropriately? Like what /b individual does such a person conduct himself? He is b like Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, /b who would teach flawed interpretations of Torah narratives., b And there are those who teach /b this dispute b with regard to the latter clause /b of the i baraita /i : From here Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i said: b One who interprets the Torah /b inappropriately has no share in the World-to-Come. b Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say: This /b is b one who treats a Torah scholar with contempt. Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: This /b is b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says /b that b one who treats a Torah scholar himself with contempt is /b the one mentioned in the i baraita /i who b interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b characterized as the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna. b But according to the one who says /b that b one who treats another with contempt before a Torah scholar is /b the one mentioned in the i baraita /i who b interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, how would he characterize the b i epikoros /i /b mentioned in the mishna? b Like whom /b does he conduct himself? b Rav Yosef says: /b It is referring to one who conducts himself b like those who say: /b In b what /b manner b have the Sages benefited us /b with all their Torah study? b They read /b the Bible b for their /b own benefit and b they study /b the Mishna b for their /b own benefit., b Abaye said to him: That /b person who questions the benefit provided by Sages is b also /b in the category of one b who interprets the Torah /b inappropriately, since with that statement he repudiates the Torah itself, b as it is written: “If not for My covet, I would not have appointed day and night, the laws of heaven and earth” /b (Jeremiah 33:25). The eternal covet of the Torah is responsible for maintaining the existence of the entire world. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: From here too conclude /b the same concept b from it, as it is stated: /b “If I find in Sodom fifty just men within the city, b then I will spare the entire place for their sakes” /b (Genesis 18:26). The righteous protect the place where they reside., b Rather, /b the i epikoros /i mentioned in the mishna is referring to one who conducts himself b like one who sits before his teacher and a i halakha /i /b that he learned b from another place happens to fall /b into his consciousness b and /b the student b says: This is what we say there, and he does not say /b deferentially: b This is what the Master said, /b even if he did not learn that matter from his teacher. b Rava said: /b The term i epikoros /i is referring to one who conducts himself b like those from the house of Binyamin the doctor, who say: /b In b what /b manner b have the Sages benefited us /b with all their Torah study? b Never /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 191
21b. אומר בן עזאי חייב אדם ללמד את וכו' ר' אליעזר אומר כל המלמד את בתו תורה מלמדה תיפלות תיפלות ס"ד אלא אימא כאילו למדה תיפלות,א"ר אבהו מ"ט דר"א דכתיב (משלי ח, יב) אני חכמה שכנתי ערמה כיון שנכנסה חכמה באדם נכנסה עמו ערמומית,ורבנן האי אני חכמה מאי עבדי ליה מיבעי ליה לכדרבי יוסי בר' חנינא דא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שמעמיד עצמו ערום עליהן שנאמר אני חכמה שכנתי ערמה א"ר יוחנן אין דברי תורה מתקיימין אלא במי שמשים עצמו כמי שאינו שנאמר (איוב כח, יב) והחכמה מאין תמצא,רבי יהושע אומר רוצה אשה וכו' מאי קאמר הכי קאמר רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות עמו מתשעת קבין ופרישות,הוא היה אומר חסיד שוטה כו' היכי דמי חסיד שוטה כגון דקא טבעה איתתא בנהרא ואמר לאו אורח ארעא לאיסתכולי בה ואצולה,היכי דמי רשע ערום אמר רבי יוחנן זה המטעים דבריו לדיין קודם שיבא בעל דין חברו ר' אבהו אומר זה הנותן דינר לעני להשלים לו מאתים זוז דתנן מי שיש לו מאתים זוז לא יטול לקט שכחה ופאה ומעשר עני היה לו מאתים חסר דינר אפילו אלף נותנין לו כאחת הרי זה יטול,רבי אסי אמר רבי יוחנן זה המשיא עצה למכור בנכסים מועטין דאמר רבי אסי א"ר יוחנן יתומים שקדמו ומכרו בנכסים מועטין מה שמכרו מכרו,אביי אמר זה המשיא עצה למכור בנכסים כרבן שמעון בן גמליאל דתניא נכסי לך ואחריך לפלוני וירד הראשון ומכר ואכל השני מוציא מיד הלקוחות דברי רבי רשב"ג אומר אין לשני אלא מה ששייר ראשון,רב יוסף בר חמא אמר רב ששת זה המכריע אחרים באורחותיו רבי זריקא אמר רב הונא זה המיקל לעצמו ומחמיר לאחרים עולא אמר זה 21b. § The mishna states: From here b ben Azzai states: A person is obligated to teach /b his daughter Torah, so that if she drinks and does not die immediately, she will know that some merit of hers has delayed her punishment. b Rabbi Eliezer says: Anyone who teaches his daughter Torah is teaching her promiscuity. /b The Gemara asks: Could it b enter your mind /b to say that teaching one’s daughter Torah is actually teaching her b promiscuity? Rather, say: /b It is considered b as if he taught her promiscuity. /b , b Rabbi Abbahu says: What is the reason for Rabbi Eliezer’s /b statement? It is b as it is written: “I, wisdom, dwell with cunning” /b (Proverbs 8:12), which indicates that b once wisdom enters into a person, cunning enters with it. /b Rabbi Eliezer fears that the woman will use the cunning she achieves by learning the wisdom of the Torah to engage in promiscuous behavior.,The Gemara asks: b And the Rabbis /b who disagree with him, b what do they do with this /b verse: b “I, wisdom, /b dwell with cunning [ i orma /i ]”; how do they interpret it? The Gemara responds: b He requires that /b verse b for that which Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, /b states, interpreting the word “ i orma /i ” as nakedness rather than cunningness, b as Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The matters of Torah do not endure except in one who stands naked for them, as it is stated: “I, wisdom, dwell with nakedness [ i orma /i ]” /b (Proverbs 8:12). This means that wisdom dwells only in one who is prepared to give away all of his possessions for the sake of Torah study. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: The matters of Torah do not endure except in one who considers himself as one who does not /b exist, b as it is stated: “But wisdom, it can be found in nothingness” /b (Job 28:12).,§ The mishna states that b Rabbi Yehoshua says: A woman desires /b to receive the amount of a i kav /i of food and a sexual relation-ship rather than to receive nine i kav /i of food and abstinence. The Gemara asks: b What is he saying? This is what /b Rabbi Yehoshua b is saying: A woman desires to /b receive the amount of b a i kav /i /b of food b and with it a sexual relationship, /b i.e., her husband’s availability to fulfill her sexual desires, rather b than nine i kav /i /b of food b and /b with it b abstinence, /b and since her desires are of a sexual nature, it is undesirable for her to study Torah.,§ The mishna continues: b He, /b Rabbi Yehoshua, b would say: A foolish man of piety, /b and a conniving wicked person, and an abstinent woman, and those who injure themselves out of false abstinence; all these are people who erode the world. The Gemara asks: b Who is considered a foolish man of piety? For example, /b it is one who sees b that a woman is drowning in a river, and he says: /b It is b not proper conduct to look at her /b while she is undressed b and save her. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Who is considered a conniving wicked person? Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is one who presents his statement to the judge before the other litigant comes /b and thereby prejudices the judge in his favor. b Rabbi Abbahu says: This /b is referring to b one who gives a dinar to a poor man /b in order b to complete /b the sum of b two hundred dinars for him, /b so that he will no longer be entitled to receive charity, b as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Pe’a /i 8:8): b One who has two hundred dinars may not collect gleanings, forgotten /b sheaves, b i pe’a /i , and /b the b poor man’s tithe, /b since he is not defined as poor. However, if b he has two hundred less /b one b dinar, even /b if b he is given one thousand /b dinars b at once, he may collect. /b , b Rabbi Asi /b says that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b A conniving wicked person is b one who provides advice /b to male orphans b to sell from the small quantity of property /b left to them by their father, before it is appropriated by the court for the purpose of providing for the daughters, who do not inherit property. This causes the daughters to lose their right to sustece, because although it is improper to do so, the sale is valid, b as Rabbi Asi says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to male b orphans who preemptively sold /b the property b from a small estate, that which they sold, they sold, /b and the sons retain the money., b Abaye says: /b A conniving wicked person b is one who provides advice to sell property in accordance with /b the ruling of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to one who said: b My property /b is given b to you, and after you /b die, b to so-and-so, and the first /b beneficiary b entered /b the property b and sold /b it b and consumed /b the profits, b the second /b beneficiary b repossesses /b the property b from the purchasers, /b as the property belongs to him after the death of the first beneficiary; b this is the statement of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: The second /b beneficiary receives b only that which the first /b beneficiary b left, /b since his sale is valid. However, it is not permitted to sell the property i ab initio /i , since the giver intended for the second beneficiary to receive the property., b Rav Yosef bar Ḥama /b says that b Rav Sheshet says: /b A conniving wicked person is b one who persuades others with his ways, /b convincing others to mimic his seemingly righteous behavior, in order to hide his faults. b Rabbi Zerika /b says that b Rav Huna says: /b A conniving wicked person is b one who is lenient /b in the i halakha /i b for himself and strict for others. Ulla says: This /b
38. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 189
19b. מי איכא מידי דאנן לא מצינן למעבד ושלוחי דידן מצו עבדי הכי קאמרי ליה משביעין אנו עליך על דעתינו ועל דעת בית דין,הוא פורש ובוכה והן פורשין ובוכין וכו' הוא פורש ובוכה שחשדוהו צדוקי והם פורשין ובוכין דא"ר יהושע בן לוי כל החושד בכשרים לוקה בגופו,וכל כך למה שלא יתקן מבחוץ ויכניס כדרך שהצדוקין עושין,ת"ר מעשה בצדוקי אחד שהתקין מבחוץ והכניס ביציאתו היה שמח שמחה גדולה פגע בו אביו אמר לו בני אף על פי שצדוקין אנו מתיראין אנו מן הפרושים אמר לו כל ימי הייתי מצטער על המקרא הזה (ויקרא טז, ב) כי בענן אראה על הכפורת אמרתי מתי יבוא לידי ואקיימנו עכשיו שבא לידי לא אקיימנו,אמרו לא היו ימים מועטין עד שמת והוטל באשפה והיו תולעין יוצאין מחוטמו ויש אומרים ביציאתו ניגף דתני רבי חייא כמין קול נשמע בעזרה שבא מלאך וחבטו על פניו ונכנסו אחיו הכהנים ומצאו ככף רגל עגל בין כתפיו שנאמר (יחזקאל א, ז) ורגליהם רגל ישרה וכף רגליהם ככף רגל עגל,א"ר זכריה בן קבוטל וכו' מתני ליה רב חנן בר רבא לחייא בר רב קמיה דרב א"ר זכריה בן קפוטל ומחוי ליה רב בידיה קבוטל ונימא ליה מימר ק"ש הוה קרי,וכי האי גוונא מי שרי והא"ר יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא הקורא את שמע לא ירמוז בעיניו ולא יקרוץ בשפתותיו ולא יורה באצבעותיו ותניא רבי אלעזר חסמא אומר הקורא את שמע ומרמז בעיניו ומקרץ בשפתותיו ומראה באצבעו עליו הכתוב אומר (ישעיהו מג, כב) ולא אותי קראת יעקב,לא קשיא הא בפרק ראשון הא בפרק שני,ת"ר (דברים ו, ז) ודברת בם בם ולא בתפלה ודברת בם בם יש לך רשות לדבר ולא בדברים אחרים,רבי אחא אומר ודברת בם עשה אותן קבע ואל תעשם עראי אמר רבא השח שיחת חולין עובר בעשה שנאמר ודברת בם בם ולא בדברים אחרים רב אחא בר יעקב אמר עובר בלאו שנאמר (קהלת א, ח) כל הדברים יגעים לא יוכל איש לדבר, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big בקש להתנמנם פרחי כהונה מכין לפניו באצבע צרדא ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג עמוד והפג אחת על הרצפה ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן השחיטה, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי צרדא אמר רב יהודה צרתה דדא מאי היא גודל מחוי רב הונא ואזל קלא בכולי בי רב,ואומרים לו אישי כ"ג הפג אחת על הרצפה וכו' אמר רב יצחק על חדת מאי היא אמרי ליה אחוי קידה,ומעסיקין אותו עד שיגיע זמן שחיטה (וכו') תנא לא היו מעסיקין אותו לא בנבל ולא בכנור אלא בפה ומה היו אומרין (תהלים קכז, א) אם ה' לא יבנה בית שוא עמלו בוניו בו,מיקירי ירושלים לא היו ישנין כל הלילה כדי שישמע כ"ג קול הברה ולא תהא שינה חוטפתו תניא אבא שאול אמר אף בגבולין היו עושין כן זכר למקדש אלא שהיו חוטאין,אמר אביי ואיתימא ר"נ בר יצחק תרגומא נהרדעא דא"ל אליהו לרב יהודה אחוה דרב סלא חסידא אמריתו אמאי לא אתי משיח והא האידנא יומא דכיפורי הוא ואבעול כמה בתולתא בנהרדעא אמר ליה הקב"ה מאי אמר אמר ליה 19b. b is there any matter that we are unable to perform and our agents are able to perform? /b The role of the agent is to perform a task on behalf of the one who commissioned him. The agent cannot perform a task that the one who commissioned him is unable to perform. Since it is prohibited for Israelites to enter the priests’ courtyard and to perform the sacrificial rites, clearly the priests are not agents representing the Israelites. The language of the mishna in which the court Elders address the High Priest as their agent apparently contradicts that understanding. The Gemara answers: b This is what they say to him: We administer an oath to you according to our understanding and the understanding of the court, /b cautioning him that he cannot rationalize violating the oath by claiming that he took the oath based on his own interpretation. He is bound by the understanding of the court. The mishna does not address the nature of the High Priest’s agency.,§ The mishna continues: After this oath, b he would leave /b them b and cry and they would leave /b him b and cry. /b The Gemara explains: b He turned aside and cried /b due to the indignity b that they suspected him /b of being b a Sadducee; and they turned aside and cried, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: One who suspects the innocent /b of indiscretion b is afflicted in his body. /b The High Priest might in fact be beyond reproach and they may have suspected him falsely.,The Gemara asks: b And why /b were the Elders b so /b insistent that the High Priest take an oath? The Gemara explains: So that b he would not prepare /b the incense and light it b outside /b in the Sanctuary, before entering the Holy of Holies, b and bring /b the coal pan with the incense already burning on it b into /b the Holy of Holies b in the manner /b that b the Sadducees did. /b Since the High Priest is alone inside the Sanctuary and there is no way to ascertain whether he is in fact performing the service in the proper manner, the Elders insisted that he take an oath to perform it according to their instructions., b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : There was b an incident involving a /b certain b Sadducee /b who was appointed as High Priest, b who prepared the incense outside /b and then b brought /b it into the Holy of Holies. b Upon his emergence he was overjoyed /b that he had succeeded. b The father of /b that Sadducee b met him and said to him: My son, although we are Sadducees /b and you performed the service in accordance with our opinion, b we fear the Pharisees /b and do not actually implement that procedure in practice. The son b said to his /b father: b All my days I have been troubled over this verse: “For I will appear in the cloud above the Ark cover” /b (Leviticus 16:2). The Sadducees interpreted this verse to mean that God will appear above the Ark cover, i.e., will enter the Holy of Holies, only after the incense cloud is already there. b I said: When will /b the opportunity b become available to me, and I will fulfill it /b according to the Sadducee interpretation? b Now that /b the opportunity b has become available to me, /b will b I not fulfill it? /b ,The Sages b said: Not /b even b a few days /b passed b until he died and was laid out in the garbage /b dump, b and worms were coming out of his nose /b in punishment for his actions. b And some say /b that b he was struck /b as soon b as he emerged /b from the Holy of Holies, b as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: A type of sound was heard in the /b Temple b courtyard, as an angel came and struck him in the face. And his fellow priests came in /b to remove him from there b and they found the likeness of a footprint of a calf between his shoulders. /b That is the mark left by an angel striking, b as it is stated /b with regard to angels: b “And their feet were straight feet, and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot” /b (Ezekiel 1:7).,§ It was taught in the mishna that b Rabbi Zekharya ben Kevutal /b says: Many times I read before the High Priest from the book of Daniel. b Rav Ḥa bar Rava taught this to Ḥiyya bar Rav before Rav /b in the following manner: b Rabbi Zekharya bar Kefutal said, and Rav demonstrated with his hand /b that the name should be pronounced b Kevutal. /b The Gemara asks: Why did Rav demonstrate his point with a gesture? b Let him /b simply b say it. /b The Gemara answers: Rav b was reciting i Shema /i /b at that moment and could not interrupt i Shema /i by speaking.,The Gemara asks: b And is /b interrupting in a manner b of that sort, /b by gesturing, b permitted /b during i Shema /i ? b Didn’t Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta say: One who is reciting i Shema /i should neither make allusions with his eyes, nor open and close /b his mouth b with his lips /b to convey a message, b nor gesture with his fingers? And it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Elazar Ḥisma says: Concerning one who recites i Shema /i and makes allusions with his eyes, or opens and closes /b his mouth b with his lips, or gestures with his fingers, the verse says: “And you did not call out to Me, O Jacob” /b (Isaiah 43:22). By signaling while reciting i Shema /i he behaves contemptuously toward God, and it is tantamount to not having recited i Shema /i before Him. How, then, could Rav gesture while reading i Shema /i ?,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b prohibition to interrupt one’s recitation of i Shema /i with a gesture applies b in /b the course of reciting the b first paragraph /b of i Shema /i , which is more fundamental; b that /b case where Rav gestured was b in /b the course of reciting the b second paragraph /b of i Shema /i , where gesturing to convey a significant message is permitted.,Apropos interruptions in the course of reciting i Shema /i , the Gemara cites a i baraita /i in which b the Sages taught: /b “And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart; and you shall teach them diligently unto your children, b and you shall talk of them /b when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you arise” (Deuteronomy 6:6–7). This means that in the course b of /b reciting b them, /b the study of Torah and the recitation of i Shema /i , it is permitted to interrupt to state a significant matter, b but not /b in the course b of /b reciting the i Amida /i b prayer, /b which may not be interrupted for any kind of speech. Another interpretation of the verse is: b And you shall talk of them /b is to emphasize that b it is permitted /b to interrupt i Shema /i b to speak these matters /b of Torah, but not to speak b other matters /b that may lead to levity., b Rabbi Aḥa says: Talk of them /b means one must b render them, /b the words of Torah, b a permanent /b fixture, b and not render them a temporary /b exercise. b Rava said: One who engages in idle chatter /b without Torah or any particular purpose b violates /b a b positive /b commandment, b as it is stated: And you shall talk of them; /b talk b of them and not of other matters. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: /b Furthermore, b one /b even b violates a negative /b commandment, b as it is stated: “All these matters are wearisome; no man can ever state them” /b (Ecclesiastes 1:8). The phrase: No man can ever state them, is understood as a prohibition against engaging in idle chatter., strong MISHNA: /strong If the High Priest b sought to sleep /b at night, b the young priests /b would b snap the middle [ i tzerada /i ] finger /b against the thumb b before him, and they /b would b say to him /b every so often: b My Master, High Priest. Stand /b from your bed b and chill /b yourself b once on the floor /b and overcome your drowsiness. b And they /b would b engage him /b in various ways b until the time would arrive to slaughter the /b daily offering., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b is the b i tzerada /i /b finger mentioned in the mishna? b Rav Yehuda said: It is the rival [ i tzara /i ] of that [ i da /i ] /b one. Which finger b is it? /b i Tzerada /i is the rival of b the thumb; /b it is the middle finger. The middle finger would be strongly positioned against the thumb, and when one separates them, the finger hits the palm, creating a sound. b Rav Huna demonstrated /b the loud noise that could be achieved by snapping with the middle finger, and b the sound traveled throughout Rav’s study hall. /b The sound created was loud enough to keep the High Priest awake.,It was taught in the mishna that b they said to him: My Master, High Priest. /b Stand from your bed and b chill /b yourself b once on the floor /b and overcome your drowsiness. b Rav Yitzḥak said /b that they said to the High Priest: b Introduce something new. /b The Gemara asks: b What is it /b that they asked him to introduce? b They say to him: Demonstrate /b how to perform the ceremonial b bowing /b [ b i kidda /i ]. /b This was a form of bowing that was difficult to perform, in which the High Priest was expert. The thought was that the exercise would keep him awake.,The mishna continues: b And they /b would b engage him /b in different ways b until the time to slaughter the /b daily offering b would arrive. /b It was b taught: They would not occupy him with a harp or a lyre, /b which may not be played on a Festival, b but /b would sing b with /b their b mouths. And what would they say? /b They would say this verse: b “Unless the Lord builds the house, its builders labor in vain on it; /b unless the Lord watches over the city, the watchman keeps vigil in vain” (Psalms 127:1). The message to the High Priest was that his service must be performed for the sake of Heaven for it to be accepted by God; otherwise his efforts would be in vain.,The Gemara relates that b the prominent /b men b of Jerusalem would not sleep the entire night /b but instead engaged in Torah study, b so that /b the b High Priest would hear /b the b sound of noise /b in the city b and sleep would not overcome him /b in the silence of the sleeping city. b It was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Abba Shaul said: They would do so even in the outlying areas /b and stay awake all night b in acknowledgment of the Temple; however, /b the result was b that they would sin, /b as the men and women would participate in games together to pass the time, leading to transgression., b Abaye said, and some say /b it was b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b who said: b Interpret /b that statement as referring to b Neharde’a, as Elijah /b the Prophet b said to Rav Yehuda, brother /b of b Rav Salla Ḥasida: You have said /b and wondered: b Why has the Messiah not come? /b Why is that surprising? b Isn’t today Yom Kippur, and relations were had with several virgins in Neharde’a, /b as the men and women stayed awake all night and that led to promiscuity? Rav Yehuda b said to him: What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, say /b about those sins committed by the Jewish people? b He said: /b This is what God said:
39. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
65a. b And this is as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Shekalim /i 13b): b Petaḥya /b was responsible b for the nests /b of birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a i zav /i , a i zava /i , a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaḥya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. b This /b Sage b is Mordekhai; /b and b why was he called Petaḥya, /b which resembles the word for opening [ i petaḥ /i ]? The reason is b that he would open, /b i.e., elucidate, difficult b topics and interpret them /b to the people, b and /b because b he knew /b all b seventy languages /b known in that region at the time.,The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaḥya? b All /b of the members of the b Sanhedrin also know /b all b seventy languages. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b They b place on the /b Great b Sanhedrin only /b men b of wisdom, and of /b pleasant b appearance, and of /b high b stature, and of /b suitable b age /b so that they will be respected. b And /b they must also be b masters of sorcery, /b i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, b and /b they must b know /b all b seventy languages /b in order b that the Sanhedrin will not /b need to b hear /b testimony b from the mouth of a translator /b in a case where a witness speaks a different language.,The Gemara answers: b Rather, /b Petaḥya was unique b as /b he not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to b combine /b various b languages and interpret /b them. b This is /b the meaning of that b which is written with regard to Mordekhai: “Bilshan” /b (Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [ i balil /i ] languages [ i lashon /i ]., strong MISHNA: /strong b How would they perform /b the rite of the harvest of the i omer /i ? b Emissaries of the court /b would b emerge on the eve of the festival /b of Passover b and fashion /b the stalks of barley into b sheaves while /b the stalks were still b attached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reap /b them. The residents of b all the towns adjacent to /b the site of the harvest b would assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare. /b , b Once it grew dark, /b the court emissary b says to /b those assembled: b Did the sun set? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: b Did the sun set? /b They again b say: Yes. /b The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with b this sickle? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: With b this sickle? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in b this basket? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: In b this basket? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b ,If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs b on Shabbat, /b the court emissary b says to /b the assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: On b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary says to those assembled: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say to him /b in response: b Cut. /b The emissary repeats: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say /b to him: b Cut. /b ,The emissary asks b three times with regard to each and every matter, and /b the assembly b says to him: Yes, yes, yes. /b The mishna asks: b Why do I /b need those involved to publicize each stage of the rite b to that extent? /b The mishna answers: It is b due to the Boethusians, as they /b deny the validity of the Oral Law and b would say: There is no harvest of the i omer /i at the conclusion of the /b first b Festival /b day of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the i omer /i harvest., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited /b as well: b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month, the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. b And /b furthermore, b from the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period.,The Gemara discusses the i baraita /i : b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. The Gemara explains b that the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bring /b the b daily offering, /b in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. b What /b verse did the Sadducees b expound? “The one lamb shall you offer [ i ta’aseh /i ] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoon” /b (Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.,The Gemara asks: b What /b did the Sages b reply /b to refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: b My food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, /b of a pleasing aroma unto Me, b you shall observe [ i tishmeru /i ] /b to offer to Me in its due season” (Numbers 28:2). The term: “You shall observe” is in the plural form, which indicates that b all of the /b daily offerings b should come from collection of the /b Temple treasury b chamber. /b Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.,The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the i baraita /i : b From the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period. b As the Boethusians would say /b that the festival of b i Shavuot /i /b always occurs b after Shabbat, /b on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the i omer /i offering and the festival of i Shavuot /i that follows seven weeks later: “And you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ], from the day that you brought the sheaf [ i omer /i ] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete” (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase “from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ]” literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.,At the time, b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined /b the discussion with the Boethusians b and said to them: Fools! From where /b have b you /b derived this? b And there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [ i mefatpet /i ] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that i Shavuot /i is /b only b one day. /b Therefore, b he arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days. /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b recited this verse /b in response b to /b that old man: b “It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seir” /b (Deuteronomy 1:2).
40. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
115b. הא כיצד נחלה ממשמשת והולכת עד ראובן ולימא עד יעקב אמר אביי גמירי דלא כלה שבטא,אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל האומר תירש בת עם בת הבן אפילו נשיא שבישראל אין שומעין לו שאינן אלא מעשה צדוקין דתניא בארבעה ועשרים בטבת תבנא לדיננא שהיו צדוקין אומרין תירש הבת עם בת הבן,נטפל להן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שוטים מנין זה לכם ולא היה אדם שהחזירו דבר חוץ מזקן אחד שהיה מפטפט כנגדו ואומר ומה בת בנו הבאה מכח בנו תירשנו בתו הבאה מכחו לא כל שכן,קרא עליו את המקרא הזה (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי יושבי הארץ לוטן ושובל וצבעון וענה וכתיב (בראשית לו, כד) אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ענה,ודלמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבה אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר רב פפא אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו רבה אמר קרא (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,אמר ליה רבי בכך אתה פוטרני אמר לו שוטה 115b. The Gemara asks: b How so, /b i.e., how is the investigation performed when he has no offspring at all? The Gemara answers: The family lineage that determines the b inheritance is successively examined up to Reuben, /b son of Jacob, i.e., the heirs are determined by investigating the family genealogy, and that investigation can extend all the way to Reuben, son of our forefather Jacob. The Gemara asks: b And let /b it b say: Until Jacob /b himself, rather than until Reuben, since if none of Reuven’s descendants survive, one would have to examine Jacob’s descendants. b Abaye said /b in reply: It b is learned /b as a tradition b that a tribe will not be eliminated /b entirely, and some descendants will always remain.,§ b Rav Huna says /b that b Rav says: /b With regard to b anyone who says /b that b a daughter /b of the deceased b should inherit /b the estate of her father along b with the daughter of the son /b of the deceased, b even /b if he is b a prince of the Jewish people, /b one b should not listen to him, as this is nothing other than an act of the Sadducees, /b and runs counter to the ruling of the mishna that the descendants of a son inherit before a daughter. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i in i Megillat Ta’anit /i , which describes various minor holidays on which it is forbidden to fast or eulogize: b On the twenty-fourth of Tevet, we returned to our law, /b i.e., the i halakha /i was reestablished in accordance with the opinion of the Sages after having been dictated by the Sadducees. b As the Sadducees would say: A daughter should inherit /b the estate of her father along b with the daughter of the son /b of the deceased.,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined them /b to discuss their ruling, and b said to them: Imbeciles, from where /b do b you /b derive b this /b ruling? b And there was no person that answered him anything, except for one old /b man b who was chattering at him and saying /b that it is an i a fortiori /i inference: b And just as a daughter of /b the deceased’s b son, who comes /b to claim her inheritance from her grandfather b by virtue of his son, inherits /b her grandfather’s property, so too, with regard to the deceased’s own b daughter, who comes /b to inherit b by virtue of /b the deceased, b all the more so /b is it b not /b clear that she should inherit his property?,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b recited this verse about him: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan and Shobal and Zibeon and Anah” /b (Genesis 36:20), b and it is written: “And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah” /b (Genesis 36:24). The first verse portrays Zibeon and Anah as brothers, while the second states that they are father and son. b Rather, /b this b teaches that Zibeon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother and begot Anah, /b so that he was both Anah’s father and his brother. From the fact that the first verse equates Zibeon and Anah by referring to both of them as Seir’s sons despite Anah being a grandson of Seir, it is clear that grandchildren are equal to children, contrary to the Sadducees’ assertion.,The Gemara interrupts the recounting of the i baraita /i and questions Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’s inference: b But perhaps there were two /b people named b Anah, /b so that one Anah was Zibeon’s son, and the other his brother? b Rabba said: I will state a matter /b that even b King Shapur did not state. And who is /b this King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be a moniker for someone else. He is b Shmuel, /b whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. b Some state /b a different version, that it was b Rav Pappa /b who b said: I will state a matter /b that even b King Shapur did not state. And who is /b this King Shapur? He is b Rabba. The verse /b goes on to b state: “This is Anah” /b (Genesis 36:24), indicating that b he is /b the same b Anah /b mentioned b initially, /b earlier in the verse. Accordingly, there was only one Anah, who was both Zibeon’s brother and Zibeon’s son.,The i baraita /i continues: The Sadducee b said to /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: b My teacher, you dismiss me with this /b retort? I agree that the son of a son precedes a daughter, as the verse you quoted suggests; I am asserting that a daughter inherits together with the daughter of a son, and the verse you quoted has no bearing on that claim. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b said to him: Imbecile, /b
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Qmmt, 0  Tagged with subjects: •judaea, region of,rabbinic Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 189