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52 results for "jacob"
1. Septuagint, Genesis, 38.3, 38.6, 38.17, 38.24 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 232, 234, 235
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.8, 25.1-25.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231, 235
20.8. "קַח אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה וְהַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעֵדָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְדִבַּרְתֶּם אֶל־הַסֶּלַע לְעֵינֵיהֶם וְנָתַן מֵימָיו וְהוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם מַיִם מִן־הַסֶּלַע וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת־הָעֵדָה וְאֶת־בְּעִירָם׃", 25.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 25.1. "וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃", 25.2. "וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃", 25.3. "וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃", 20.8. "’Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock; so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’", 25.1. "And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab.", 25.2. "And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods.", 25.3. "And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel.", 25.4. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’", 25.5. "And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’",
3. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 2.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 234
2.13. "עָלָה הַפֹּרֵץ לִפְנֵיהֶם פָּרְצוּ וַיַּעֲבֹרוּ שַׁעַר וַיֵּצְאוּ בוֹ וַיַּעֲבֹר מַלְכָּם לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיהוָה בְּרֹאשָׁם׃", 2.13. "The breaker is gone up before them; They have broken forth and passed on, By the gate, and are gone out thereat; And their king is passed on before them, And the LORD at the head of them.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.4-1.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 25
1.4. "וַיהוָה הֵטִיל רוּחַ־גְּדוֹלָה אֶל־הַיָּם וַיְהִי סַעַר־גָּדוֹל בַּיָּם וְהָאֳנִיָּה חִשְּׁבָה לְהִשָּׁבֵר׃", 1.5. "וַיִּירְאוּ הַמַּלָּחִים וַיִּזְעֲקוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו וַיָּטִלוּ אֶת־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאֳנִיָּה אֶל־הַיָּם לְהָקֵל מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וְיוֹנָה יָרַד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי הַסְּפִינָה וַיִּשְׁכַּב וַיֵּרָדַם׃", 1.4. "But the LORD hurled a great wind into the sea, and there was a mighty tempest in the sea, so that the ship was like to be broken.", 1.5. "And the mariners were afraid, and cried every man unto his god; and they cast forth the wares that were in the ship into the sea, to lighten it unto them. But Jonah was gone down into the innermost parts of the ship; and he lay, and was fast asleep.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 22.12, 32.1, 37.32, 38.25, 38.28-38.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 135, 234, 235
22.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּשְׁלַח יָדְךָ אֶל־הַנַּעַר וְאַל־תַּעַשׂ לוֹ מְאוּמָּה כִּי עַתָּה יָדַעְתִּי כִּי־יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה וְלֹא חָשַׂכְתָּ אֶת־בִּנְךָ אֶת־יְחִידְךָ מִמֶּנִּי׃", 32.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב אֱלֹהֵי אָבִי אַבְרָהָם וֵאלֹהֵי אָבִי יִצְחָק יְהוָה הָאֹמֵר אֵלַי שׁוּב לְאַרְצְךָ וּלְמוֹלַדְתְּךָ וְאֵיטִיבָה עִמָּךְ׃", 32.1. "וַיַּשְׁכֵּם לָבָן בַּבֹּקֶר וַיְנַשֵּׁק לְבָנָיו וְלִבְנוֹתָיו וַיְבָרֶךְ אֶתְהֶם וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיָּשָׁב לָבָן לִמְקֹמוֹ׃", 37.32. "וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֶת־כְּתֹנֶת הַפַּסִּים וַיָּבִיאוּ אֶל־אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ זֹאת מָצָאנוּ הַכֶּר־נָא הַכְּתֹנֶת בִּנְךָ הִוא אִם־לֹא׃", 38.25. "הִוא מוּצֵאת וְהִיא שָׁלְחָה אֶל־חָמִיהָ לֵאמֹר לְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־אֵלֶּה לּוֹ אָנֹכִי הָרָה וַתֹּאמֶר הַכֶּר־נָא לְמִי הַחֹתֶמֶת וְהַפְּתִילִים וְהַמַּטֶּה הָאֵלֶּה׃", 38.28. "וַיְהִי בְלִדְתָּהּ וַיִּתֶּן־יָד וַתִּקַּח הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁר עַל־יָדוֹ שָׁנִי לֵאמֹר זֶה יָצָא רִאשֹׁנָה׃", 38.29. "וַיְהִי כְּמֵשִׁיב יָדוֹ וְהִנֵּה יָצָא אָחִיו וַתֹּאמֶר מַה־פָּרַצְתָּ עָלֶיךָ פָּרֶץ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ פָּרֶץ׃", 22.12. "And he said: ‘Lay not thy hand upon the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him; for now I know that thou art a God-fearing man, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me.’", 32.1. "And Laban arose early in the morning, kissed his sons and daughters, and blessed them; and then Laban went and returned to his place.", 37.32. "and they sent the coat of many colours, and they brought it to their father; and said: ‘This have we found. Know now whether it is thy son’s coat or not.’", 38.25. "When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, saying: ‘By the man, whose these are, am I with child’; and she said: ‘Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff.’", 38.28. "And it came to pass, when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying: ‘This came out first.’", 38.29. "And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold his brother came out; and she said: ‘Wherefore hast thou made a breach for thyself?’ Therefore his name was called Perez.", 38.30. "And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand; and his name was called Zerah.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 25.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
25.40. "And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 234
8. New Testament, Matthew, 8.18, 8.23-8.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 25
8.18. Ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὄχλον περὶ αὐτὸν ἐκέλευσεν ἀπελθεῖν εἰς τὸ πέραν. 8.23. Καὶ ἐμβάντι αὐτῷ εἰς πλοῖον ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 8.24. καὶ ἰδοὺ σεισμὸς μέγας ἐγένετο ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, ὥστε τὸ πλοῖον καλύπτεσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν κυμάτων· αὐτὸς δὲ ἐκάθευδεν. 8.25. καὶ προσελθόντες ἤγειραν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Κύριε, σῶσον, ἀπολλύμεθα. 8.26. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Τί δειλοί ἐστε, ὀλιγόπιστοι; τότε ἐγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τοῖς ἀνέμοις καὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη μεγάλη. 8.27. Οἱ δὲ ἄνθρωποι ἐθαύμασαν λέγοντες Ποταπός ἐστιν οὗτος ὅτι καὶ οἱ ἄνεμοι καὶ ἡ θάλασσα αὐτῷ ὑπακούουσιν; 8.18. Now when Jesus saw great multitudes around him, he gave the order to depart to the other side. 8.23. When he got into a boat, his disciples followed him. 8.24. Behold, a great tempest arose in the sea, so much that the boat was covered with the waves, but he was asleep. 8.25. They came to him, and woke him up, saying, "Save us, Lord! We are dying!" 8.26. He said to them, "Why are you fearful, oh you of little faith?" Then he got up, rebuked the wind and the sea, and there was a great calm. 8.27. The men marveled, saying, "What kind of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?"
9. New Testament, Mark, 4.35-4.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 25
4.35. Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὀψίας γενομένης Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν. 4.36. καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν ὄχλον παραλαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν ὡς ἦν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, καὶ ἄλλα πλοῖα ἦν μετʼ αὐτοῦ. 4.37. καὶ γίνεται λαῖλαψ μεγάλη ἀνέμου, καὶ τὰ κύματα ἐπέβαλλεν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, ὥστε ἤδη γεμίζεσθαι τὸ πλοῖον. 4.38. καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἐν τῇ πρύμνῃ ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων· καὶ ἐγείρουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἀπολλύμεθα; 4.39. καὶ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θαλάσσῃ Σιώπα, πεφίμωσο. καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη μεγάλη. 4.40. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί δειλοί ἐστε; οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν; 4.41. καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν, καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ; 4.35. On that day, when evening had come, he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side." 4.36. Leaving the multitude, they took him with them, even as he was, in the boat. Other small boats were also with him. 4.37. There arose a great wind storm, and the waves beat into the boat, so much that the boat was already filled. 4.38. He himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion, and they woke him up, and told him, "Teacher, don't you care that we are dying?" 4.39. He awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace! Be still!" The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4.40. He said to them, "Why are you so afraid? How is it that you have no faith?" 4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?"
10. New Testament, Luke, 8.22-8.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 25
8.22. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης, καὶ ἀνήχθησαν. 8.23. πλεόντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀφύπνωσεν. καὶ κατέβη λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου εἰς τὴν λίμνην, καὶ συνεπληροῦντο καὶ ἐκινδύνευον. 8.24. προσελθόντες δὲ διήγειραν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Ἐπιστάτα ἐπιστάτα, ἀπολλύμεθα· ὁ δὲ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ τῷ κλύδωνι τοῦ ὕδατος, καὶ ἐπαύσαντο, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη. 8.25. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν; φοβηθέντες δὲ ἐθαύμασαν, λέγοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ; 8.22. Now it happened on one of those days, that he entered into a boat, himself and his disciples, and he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side of the lake." So they launched out. 8.23. But as they sailed, he fell asleep. A wind storm came down on the lake, and they were taking on dangerous amounts of water. 8.24. They came to him, and awoke him, saying, "Master, master, we are dying!" He awoke, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water, and they ceased, and it was calm. 8.25. He said to them, "Where is your faith?" Being afraid they marveled, saying one to another, "Who is this, then, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him?"
11. New Testament, Hebrews, 8.5, 9.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
8.5. ?̔οἵτινες ὑποδείγματι καὶ σκιᾷ λατρεύουσιν τῶν ἐπουρανίων, καθὼς κεχρημάτισται Μωυσῆς μέλλων ἐπιτελεῖν τὴν σκηνήν,Ὅραγάρ, φησίν,ποιήσεις πάντα gt κατὰ τὸν τύπον τὸν δειχθέντα σοι ἐν τῷ ὄρει· 9.24. οὐ γὰρ εἰς χειροποίητα εἰσῆλθεν ἅγια Χριστός, ἀντίτυπα τῶν ἀληθινῶν, ἀλλʼ εἰς αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, νῦν ἐμφανισθῆναι τῷ προσώπῳ τοῦ θεοῦ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν· 8.5. who serve a copy and shadow of the heavenly things, even as Moses was warned by God when he was about to make the tabernacle, for he said, "See, you shall make everything according to the pattern that was shown to you on the mountain." 9.24. For Christ hasn't entered into holy places made with hands, which are representations of the true, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us;
12. New Testament, 1 Peter, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
3.21. ὃ καὶ ὑμᾶς ἀντίτυπον νῦν σώζει βάπτισμα, οὐ σαρκὸς ἀπόθεσις ῥύπου ἀλλὰ συνειδήσεως ἀγαθῆς ἐπερώτημα εἰς θεόν, διʼ ἀναστάσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, 3.21. This is a symbol of baptism, which now saves you - not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,
13. Tosefta, Sotah, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230
9.3. "נמצא סמוך לספר בעיר שיש בה עובדי כוכבים או בעיר שאין בה ב\"ד אם היה עיר עובדי כוכבים בינתים או סמוכה לירושלים לא היו מודדין אלא [מניחין] אותה ומודדין חוצה [לה].",
14. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 190
15. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, 38.6, 38.14 (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231, 232
16. Anon., Targum Onqelos, 38.14 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
17. Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, 159 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231, 235
18. Lucian, The Dance, 59 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 190
19. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 85.1, 85.4-85.5, 85.7, 85.9, 85.12-85.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 136, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235
85.1. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה מֵאֵת אֶחָיו (בראשית לח, א), (מלאכי ב, יא): בָּגְדָה יְהוּדָה וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה וגו', אֲמַר לֵיהּ כָּפַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה שְׁקַרְתְּ יְהוּדָה, וְתוֹעֵבָה נֶעֶשְׂתָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, יְהוּדָה נַעֲשָׂה חֻלִּין, (מלאכי ב, יא): כִּי חִלֵּל יְהוּדָה קֹדֶשׁ ה' אֲשֶׁר אָהֵב. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא, (מיכה א, טו): עֹד הַיֹּרֵשׁ אָבִיא לָךְ יוֹשֶׁבֶת מָרֵשָׁה עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, מַלְכָּן וּקְדוֹשָׁן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא כְּבוֹדָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד עֲדֻלָּם יָבוֹא, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לח, א): וַיֵּט עַד אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי. וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן פָּתַח (ירמיה כט, יא): כִּי אָנֹכִי יָדַעְתִּי אֶת הַמַּחֲשָׁבֹת, שְׁבָטִים הָיוּ עֲסוּקִין בִּמְכִירָתוֹ שֶׁל יוֹסֵף, וְיוֹסֵף הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, רְאוּבֵן הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וְיַעֲקֹב הָיָה עָסוּק בְּשַׂקּוֹ וּבְתַעֲנִיתוֹ, וִיהוּדָה הָיָה עָסוּק לִקַּח לוֹ אִשָּׁה, וְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָיָה עוֹסֵק בּוֹרֵא אוֹרוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִיא וַיֵּרֶד יְהוּדָה. (ישעיה סו, ז): בְּטֶרֶם תָּחִיל יָלָדָה, קֹדֶם שֶׁלֹא נוֹלַד מְשַׁעְבֵּד הָרִאשׁוֹן נוֹלַד גּוֹאֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן, וַיְהִי בָּעֵת הַהִוא, מַה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן, וְהַמְּדָנִים מָכְרוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל מִצְרַיִם. 85.1. סוּמְכוּס אוֹמֵר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, מִנַּיִן שֶׁאֵין הָעֻבָּר נִכָּר בִּמְעֵי הָאִשָּׁה אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים, מֵהָכָא (בראשית לח, כד): וַיְהִי כְּמִשְׁלשׁ חֳדָשִׁים, רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי לֹא סוֹף שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא רֻבּוֹ שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן וְרֻבּוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרוֹן וְאֶמְצָעִי שָׁלֵם, וְלֹא סוֹף דָּבָר שְׁלשָׁה שְׁלֵמִים. (בראשית לח, כד): וְגַם הִנֵּה הָרָה לִזְנוּנִים, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מְטַפַּחַת עַל כְּרֵסָהּ וְאוֹמֶרֶת מְלָכִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת, גּוֹאֲלִים אֲנִי מְעֻבֶּרֶת. (בראשית לח, כד): הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְשָׁאָה תַּלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל רַבִּי מֵאִיר אָמַר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, תָּמָר בִּתּוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם הָיְתָה, דִּכְתִיב (ויקרא כא, ט): וּבַת אִישׁ כֹּהֵן, לְפִיכָךְ הוֹצִיאוּהָ וְתִשָֹּׂרֵף. 85.4. וַיֵּט עַד אִישׁ עֲדֻלָּמִי וּשְׁמוֹ חִירָה (בראשית לח, א), רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי חִירָה הוּא חִירָם שֶׁהָיָה בִּימֵי דָּוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א ה, טו): כִּי אֹהֵב הָיָה חִירָם לְדָוִד כָּל הַיָּמִים, לָמוּד הָיָה הָאִישׁ הַזֶּה לִהְיוֹת אוֹהֵב לַשֵּׁבֶט הַזֶּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר חִירָם אַחֵר הָיָה. עַל דַּעְתְּהוֹן דְּרַבָּנָן חָיָה קָרוֹב לְאֶלֶף וּמָאתַיִם שָׁנָה, וְעַל דַּעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה חָיָה קָרוֹב לַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה. (בראשית לח, ב): וַיַּרְא שָׁם יְהוּדָה בַּת אִישׁ כְּנַעֲנִי וּשְׁמוֹ שׁוּעַ, בַּר גַּבְרָא תַּגָּרָא, בּוֹצִינָא דְאַתְרָא. (בראשית לח, ג): וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא שְׁמוֹ עֵר, שֶׁהוּעַר מִן הָעוֹלָם. (בראשית לח, ד): וַתַּהַר עוֹד וגו' אוֹנָן, שֶׁהֵבִיא אֲנִינָה לְעַצְמוֹ. (בראשית לח, ה): וַתַּהַר עוֹד וגו' שֵׁלָה, שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּלְשֵׁל מִן הָעוֹלָם. וַתּוֹסֶף עוֹד וגו' כְזִיב, פָּסְקַת שֵׁם מָקוֹם. (בראשית לח, ז): וַיְהִי עֵר בְּכוֹר יְהוּדָה רַע בְּעֵינֵי ה', שֶׁהָיָה חוֹרֵשׁ בְּגַנּוֹת וּמְעָרֶה לָאַשְׁפּוֹת. 85.5. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְאוֹנָן וגו' (בראשית לח, ח), יְהוּדָה הִתְחִיל בְּמִצְוַת יִבּוּם תְּחִלָּה, תָּנֵי כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלַל הֶתֵּר וְנֶאֶסְרָה וְחָזַר וְהֻתְּרָה לֹא לְהֶתֵּרָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן חָזַר אֶלָּא לְהֶתֵּרָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי, יְבָמָה לְפִי שֶׁהָיְתָה בִּכְלַל הֶתֵּר וְנֶאֶסְרָה וְחָזְרָה וְהֻתְּרָה, יָכוֹל תַּחֲזֹר לְהֶתֵּרָהּ הָרִאשׁוֹן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (דברים כה, ה): יְבָמָהּ יָבֹא עָלֶיהָ, מִצְוָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲלַפְתָּא יִבֵּם אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וְחָמֵשׁ בְּעִילוֹת בָּעַל וְדֶרֶךְ סָדִין בָּעַל, וְנָטַע חָמֵשׁ נְטִיעוֹת בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, וּמַאן נִינְהוּ, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי מְנַחֵם בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי וְרַבִּי אַבְדִּימוֹס בֶּן רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַוְיָן עֵינוֹהִי זְמוֹרָן וְדָמְיָין לְאִמֵּיהּ. (בראשית לח, ט): וַיֵּדַע אוֹנָן, הָיָה דָּשׁ מִבִּפְנִים וְזוֹרֶה מִבַּחוּץ. (בראשית לח, יא): וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה לְתָמָר כַּלָּתוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נַחַשׁ יֵשׁ סִימָן, (בראשית לח, יא\): כִּי אָמַר פֶּן יָמוּת גַּם הוּא כְּאֶחָיו. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי בַּיִת תִּינוֹק וְאִשָּׁה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נַחַשׁ יֵשׁ סִימָן. 85.7. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף (בראשית לח, יד), שְׁתַּיִם הֵן שֶׁנִּתְכַּסּוּ בְּצָעִיף, תָּמָר וְרִבְקָה, וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן יָלְדוּ תְּאוֹמִים, רִבְקָה (בראשית כד, סה): וַתִּקַּח הַצָּעִיף וַתִּתְכָּס. תָּמָר, וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף. וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, אָמַר רַבִּי אַמֵּי חָזַרְנוּ עַל כָּל הַמִּקְרָא וְלֹא מָצָאנוּ מָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ פֶּתַח עֵינַיִם, וּמַה הוּא בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, אֶלָּא מְלַמֵּד שֶׁתָּלְתָה עֵינֶיהָ בְּפֶתַח שֶׁכָּל הָעֵינַיִם תְּלוּיוֹת בּוֹ, וְאָמְרָה יְהִי רָצוֹן מִלְּפָנֶיךָ ה' אֱלֹהַי שֶׁלֹא אֵצֵא מִן הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה רֵיקָנִית. דָּבָר אַחֵר, בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁפָּתְחָה לוֹ אֶת הָעַיִן, אָמְרָה לוֹ טְהוֹרָה אֲנִי וּפְנוּיָה אָנִי. 85.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מָה הָעֵרָבוֹן אֲשֶׁר אֶתֶּן וגו' (בראשית לח, יח), אָמַר רַבִּי חוּנְיָא נִצְנְצָה בָּהּ רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, חוֹתָמְךָ, זוֹ מַלְכוּת, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שיר השירים ח, ו): שִׂימֵנִי כַחוֹתָם עַל לִבֶּךָ, (ירמיה כב, כד): כִּי אִם יִהְיֶה כָּנְיָהוּ בֶן יְהוֹיָקִים מֶלֶךְ יְהוּדָה חוֹתָם עַל יַד יְמִינִי. וּפְתִילֶךָ, זוֹ סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁהֵן מְצֻיָּנִין בִּפְתִיל, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות לט, לא): פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת. וּמַטְּךָ, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, א): וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֶּזַע יִשָּׁי, (תהלים קי, ב): מַטֵּה עֻזְךָ יִשְׁלַח ה' מִצִּיּוֹן. וַיִּתֶּן לָהּ וגו' וַתַּהַר לוֹ, גִּבּוֹרִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ וְצַדִּיקִים כַּיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. (בראשית לח, כ): וַיִּשְׁלַח יְהוּדָה וגו', יְהוּדָה בַּר נַחְמָן בְּשֵׁם רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ (משלי ח, ל לא): מְשַׂחֶקֶת בְּתֵבֵל אַרְצוֹ, מְשַׂחֶקֶת לְפָנָיו בְּכָל עֵת, הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא מְשַׂחֶקֶת עַל הַבְּרִיּוֹת. אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִיהוּדָה אַתָּה רִמִּיתָ בְּאָבִיךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים, חַיֶּיךָ שֶׁתָּמָר מְרַמָּה בְּךָ בִּגְדִי עִזִּים. 85.12. וַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וגו' (בראשית לח, כו), רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק בִּשְׁלשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת הוֹפִיעָה רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם, בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמוּאֵל, בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שְׁלֹמֹה. בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁם, וַיַּכֵּר יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר צָדְקָה מִמֶּנִּי, מַהוּ מִמֶּנִּי, רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ מְעִידִים מַה שֶּׁבַּגָּלוּי, וַאֲנִי מֵעִיד עָלָיו מַה שֶּׁבַּסֵּתֶר. בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שְׁלֹמֹה (מלכים א ג, כז): הִיא אִמּוֹ, מִי אָמַר, אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּת קוֹל צוֹוַחַת וְאוֹמֶרֶת הִיא אִמּוֹ וַדַּאי. בְּבֵית דִּינוֹ שֶׁל שְׁמוּאֵל (שמואל א יב, ג ה): הִנְנִי עֲנוּ בִי וַיֹּאמֶר עֵד ה' בָּכֶם וַיֹּאמֶר עֵד, יָצְתָה בַּת קוֹל וְאָמְרָה עֵד, מַהוּ אוֹמֵר בִּבְנֵי עֵלִי (שמואל א ב, יז): וַתְּהִי חַטַּאת הַנְּעָרִים גְּדוֹלָה וגו' וּכְתִיב (שמואל א יב, כב): אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁכְּבוּן אֶת הַנָּשִׁים הַצֹּבְאוֹת וגו', אֶפְשָׁר כֵּן בָּנָיו שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה, אֱמֹר מֵעַתָּה עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיוּ מַשְׁהִין אֶת קִנֵּיהֶם לְשִׁילוֹ לְהִטָּהֵר וְהֵן מַשְׁהִין אוֹתָן חוּץ לְבָתֵּיהֶם לַיְלָה אֶחָד, הֶעֱלָה עֲלֵיהֶם הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ שִׁמְּשׁוּ עִמָּהֶן. וְדִכְוָתָהּ (שמואל א ח, ג): וְלֹא הָלְכוּ בָנָיו בִּדְרָכָיו וַיִּטּוּ אַחֲרֵי הַבָּצַע, אֶפְשָׁר בָּנָיו שֶׁל שְׁמוּאֵל הַצַּדִּיק הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ הַמַּעֲשֶׂה, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה מַבְרַכְתָּא הָיְתָה עוֹבֶרֶת בִּבְאֵר שֶׁבַע וְהָיוּ מַנִּיחִין צָרְכֵי צִבּוּר וְעוֹסְקִין בְּצָרְכֵי עַצְמָן, וּמִכֹּחַ אוֹתוֹ מַעֲשֶׂה מַעֲלֶה הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ לָקְחוּ שֹׁחַד. וְדִכְוָתָהּ (בראשית לח, יד): וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם, כְּדִכְתִיב לְעֵיל. 85.13. וַיְהִי בְּעֵת לִדְתָּהּ (בראשית לח, כז), כָּאן חֲסֵרִים וּלְהַלָּן מְלֵאִים, (בראשית לח, כז): וְהִנֵּה תְאוֹמִים בְּבִטְנָהּ, תְּאוֹמִים מָלֵא, כָּאן שְׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים, וּלְהַלָּן (בראשית כה, כד): כְּתִיב: תוֹמִם חָסֵר, אֶחָד צַדִּיק וְאֶחָד רָשָׁע. (בראשית לח, כח): וַיְהִי בְלִדְתָּהּ וַיִּתֶּן יָד, אָמַר רָבָא בַּר רַב חִסְדָּא שְׁלשָׁה נֶאֱמָנִין לְאַלְּתַּר, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, הַחַיָּה וְהַשַּׁיָּרָא וְהַמְטַהֶרֶת אֶת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ. חַיָּה, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית לח, כח): וַתִּקַּח הַמְיַלֶּדֶת וַתִּקְשֹׁר עַל יָדוֹ שָׁנִי לֵאמֹר זֶה יָצָא רִאשֹׁנָה. שַׁיָּירָא, כִּדְאָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן אֲחוּי דְּרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר זַבְדִי בְּשֵׁם רַב, תִּינוֹק כָּל זְמַן שֶׁמֻּשְׁלָךְ בַּשּׁוּק אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ מְעִידִין עָלָיו, נֶאֱסַף מִן הַשּׁוּק צָרִיךְ שְׁנֵי עֵדִים. וְהַמְטַהֶרֶת אֶת חֲבֶרְתָּהּ, כְּדִתְנַן שָׁלשׁ נָשִׁים יְשֵׁנוֹת בְּמִטָּה אַחַת וְדָם תַּחַת אַחַת מֵהֶן, כֻּלָּן טְמֵאוֹת, בָּדְקָה אַחַת וּמָצְאָה דָּם, הִיא בִּלְבַד טְמֵאָה, אָמַר רָבָא בִּלְבַד מֵעֵת לְעֵת. 85.9. "'And he said what is the guarantee that I shall give etc.' - Rabbi Hunya said: The Ruach HaKodesh [prophetic spirit] glimmered within her, your seal is Royalty, as it is said (Song of Songs 8:6): \"Set me as a seal upon thy heart\". (Jeremiah 22:24) \"As I live, saith the LORD, though Coniah the son of Jehoiakim king of Judah were the signet upon My right hand\". \"And thy cord\", that is the Sanhedrin, who are found in the cord, as it is said (Exodus 39:31) \"A cord of blue\". \"And thy staff\", that is the Messiah, as it is said (Isaiah 11:1): \"And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse\". (Psalms 110:2) \"The rod of Thy strength the LORD will send out of Zion\". \"And he gave them to her etc\". \"And she conceived by him\", Heroes like so, and Righteous ones like so. \"And Judah sent etc.\" Yehuda Bar Nachman said in the name of Reish Lakish (Proverbs 8:31): \"Playing in His habitable earth\" (Proverbs 8:30) \"Playing always before Him\", the Torah, that delights his creations. The Holy One Blessed be He said to Judah: You lied to your father, with a goat kid, so too, Tamar lies to you with a goat kid. ",
20. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 88 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230
21. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Shimeon Ben Yohai, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan nan
22. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 10.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
23. Origen, Homilies On Genesis, 10.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
24. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
59a. נוח לו לאדם שיבא על ספק אשת איש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים מנ"ל מדדרש רבא דדרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו מקרעים בשרי לא היה דמי שותת לארץ,ולא עוד אלא אפילו בשעה שעוסקין בנגעים ואהלות אומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה ואני אומר להם מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין את פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעוה"ב,(ואמר) מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ר"ש חסידא ואמרי לה א"ר יוחנן משום רשב"י נוח לו לאדם שיפיל עצמו לכבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים מנ"ל מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, כה) היא מוצאת והיא שלחה אל חמיה,אמר רב חננא בריה דרב אידי מאי דכתיב (ויקרא כה, יז) ולא תונו איש את עמיתו עם שאתך בתורה ובמצות אל תונהו אמר רב לעולם יהא אדם זהיר באונאת אשתו שמתוך שדמעתה מצויה אונאתה קרובה,א"ר אלעזר מיום שנחרב בית המקדש ננעלו שערי תפלה שנאמר (איכה ג, ח) גם כי אזעק ואשוע שתם תפלתי ואע"פ ששערי תפלה ננעלו שערי דמעות לא ננעלו שנאמר (תהלים לט, יג) שמעה תפלתי ה' ושועתי האזינה אל דמעתי אל תחרש,ואמר רב כל ההולך בעצת אשתו נופל בגיהנם שנאמר (מלכים א כא, כה) רק לא היה כאחאב וגו' א"ל רב פפא לאביי והא אמרי אינשי איתתך גוצא גחין ותלחוש לה לא קשיא הא במילי דעלמא והא במילי דביתא לישנא אחרינא הא במילי דשמיא והא במילי דעלמא,אמר רב חסדא כל השערים ננעלים חוץ משערי אונאה שנאמר (עמוס ז, ז) הנה ה' נצב על חומת אנך ובידו אנך א"ר אלעזר הכל נפרע בידי שליח חוץ מאונאה שנאמר ובידו אנך,א"ר אבהו ג' אין הפרגוד ננעל בפניהם אונאה וגזל וע"ז אונאה דכתיב ובידו אנך גזל דכתיב (ירמיהו ו, ז) חמס ושוד ישמע בה על פני תמיד ע"ז דכתיב (ישעיהו סה, ג) העם המכעיסים אותי על פני תמיד [וגו'],אמר רב יהודה לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתבואה בתוך ביתו שאין מריבה מצויה בתוך ביתו של אדם אלא על עסקי תבואה שנאמר (תהלים קמז, יד) השם גבולך שלום חלב חטים ישביעך אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי כמשלם שערי מכדא נקיש ואתי תיגרא בביתא,ואמר רב חיננא בר פפא לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בתבואה בתוך ביתו שלא נקראו ישראל דלים אלא על עסקי תבואה שנאמר (שופטים ו, ג) והיה אם זרע ישראל וגו' וכתיב (שופטים ו, ד) ויחנו עליהם וגו' וכתיב (שופטים ו, ו) וידל ישראל מאד מפני מדין,(וא"ר) חלבו לעולם יהא אדם זהיר בכבוד אשתו שאין ברכה מצויה בתוך ביתו של אדם אלא בשביל אשתו שנאמר (בראשית יב, טז) ולאברם הטיב בעבורה והיינו דאמר להו רבא לבני מחוזא אוקירו לנשייכו כי היכי דתתעתרו,תנן התם חתכו חוליות ונתן חול בין חוליא לחוליא ר"א מטהר וחכמים מטמאין 59a. b It is preferable for a person to engage in intercourse with a woman /b whose b married /b status is b uncertain and not humiliate another in public. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this? The Gemara answers: It is b from that which Rava interpreted, as Rava interpreted: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered…they tore and did not cease [ i damu /i ]” /b (Psalms 35:15)? The term “ i damu /i ” can also be understood as a reference to blood. Concerning the fasting he undertook to atone for his sin with Bathsheba (see II Samuel, chapters 11–12), b David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You that if /b my tormenters b were to tear my flesh, my blood [ i dami /i ] would not flow to the ground, /b due to excessive fasting., b And moreover, /b they torment me to the extent that b even at the time /b when b they are engaged /b in the public study of the i halakhot /i b of leprous sores and tents /b in which there is a corpse, i.e., halakhic matters that have no connection to my sin, b they say to me: David, one who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his death /b is effected b with what /b form of execution? b And I say to them: One who engages in intercourse with a married woman /b before witnesses and with forewarning, b his death is by strangulation, but he /b still b has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another in public has no share in the World-to-Come. /b The transgression of you, who humiliate me, is more severe than my transgression., b And Mar Zutra bar Toviyya says /b that b Rav says; and some say Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida says; and some say Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is more comfortable for a person to cast himself into a fiery furnace, /b than to b humiliate another in public /b to avoid being cast into the furnace. b From where do we /b derive this? b From Tamar, /b daughter-in-law of Judah. When she was taken out to be burned, she did not reveal that she was pregt with Judah’s child. Rather, she left the decision to him, to avoid humiliating him in public, b as it is written: /b “And Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. b When she was brought forth, she sent to her father-in-law, /b saying: I am pregt by the man to whom these belong. And she said: Examine these, whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff?” (Genesis 38:24–25).,§ b Rav Ḥina, son of Rav Idi, says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “And you shall not mistreat each man his colleague [ i amito /i ]” /b (Leviticus 25:17)? The word i amito /i is interpreted as a contraction of i im ito /i , meaning: One who is with him. b With /b one who is b with you in /b observance of b Torah and mitzvot, you shall not mistreat /b him. b Rav says: A person must always be careful about mistreatment of his wife. Since her tear is easily /b elicited, punishment for b her mistreatment is immediate. /b , b Rabbi Elazar says: Since the day the Temple was destroyed the gates of prayer were locked, /b and prayer is not accepted as it once was, b as it is stated /b in lament of the Temple’s destruction: b “Though I plead and call out, He shuts out my prayer” /b (Lamentations 3:8). Yet, b despite /b the fact b that the gates of prayer were locked /b with the destruction of the Temple, b the gates of tears were not locked, /b and one who cries before God may rest assured that his prayers will be answered, b as it is stated: “Hear my prayer, Lord, and give ear to my pleading, keep not silence at my tears” /b (Psalms 39:13)., b And Rav says: /b Nevertheless, b anyone who follows the counsel of his wife descends into Gehenna, as it is stated: “But there was none like Ahab, /b who did give himself over to do that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, whom Jezebel his wife incited” (I Kings 21:25). b Rav Pappa said to Abaye: But don’t people say /b a popular proverb: If b your wife is short, stoop and whisper to her /b and consult with her? The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult, /b as b this /b statement of Rav instructs that one not follow her counsel b in general matters; and that /b proverb instructs that one follow her counsel b in household matters. /b The Gemara presents b another version /b of this distinction: b This /b statement of Rav maintains that one should not follow her counsel b in divine matters; and that /b proverb maintains that one should follow her counsel b in general matters. /b , b Rav Ḥisda says: All the gates /b of Heaven are apt to be b locked, except for the gates /b of prayer for victims b of /b verbal b mistreatment, as it is stated: “And behold, the Lord stood upon a wall built with a plumb line, and a plumb line in His hand” /b (Amos 7:7). God stands with the scales of justice in His hand to determine if one has been subjected to injustice. b Rabbi Elazar says: /b In response to b all /b transgressions, God b punishes /b the perpetrator b by means of an agent, except for mistreatment [ i ona’a /i ], as it is stated: “And a plumb line [ i anakh /i ] in His hand.” /b The term for mistreatment and the term for plumb line are spelled in a similar manner, indicating that God Himself inflicts retribution., b Rabbi Abbahu says: /b There are b three /b sins b before /b whose transgressors b the curtain [ i hapargod /i ] /b between the world and the Divine Presence b is not locked; /b their sins reach the Divine Presence. They are: Verbal b mistreatment, robbery, and idol worship. Mistreatment, as it is stated: “And a plumb line in His hand”; robbery, as it is stated: “Violence and robbery are heard in her, they are before Me continually” /b (Jeremiah 6:7); b idol worship, as it is stated: “A people that angers Me before Me continually; /b that sacrifice in gardens, and burn incense upon bricks” (Isaiah 65:3).,Apropos the topic of how man should approach his household, b Rav Yehuda says: A person must always be careful about /b ensuring that there is b grain inside his house, as discord is found in a person’s house only over matters of grain, as it is stated: “He makes your borders peace; He gives you plenty with the finest wheat” /b (Psalms 147:14). If there is the finest wheat in your house, there will be peace there. b Rav Pappa said: This /b is in accordance with the adage b that people say: When the barley is emptied from the jug, quarrel knocks and enters the house. /b , b And Rav Ḥina bar Pappa says: A person must always be careful about /b ensuring that there is b grain inside his house, as the Jewish people were characterized as poor only over matters of grain, as it is stated: “And it was, if Israel sowed, /b and Midian and the children of the east ascended” (Judges 6:3); b and it is written: “And they encamped against them /b and they destroyed the crops of the land” (Judges 6:4); b and it is /b further b written: “And Israel was greatly impoverished due to Midian” /b (Judges 6:6)., b And Rabbi Ḥelbo says: A person must always be careful about /b sustaining b the honor of his wife, as blessing is found in a person’s house only because of his wife, as it is stated /b in allusion to this: b “And he dealt well with Abram for her sake, /b and he had sheep and oxen” (Genesis 12:16). b And that is what Rava said to the residents of Meḥoza, /b where he lived: b Honor your wives, so that you will become rich. /b ,§ Apropos the topic of verbal mistreatment, b we learned /b in a mishna b there /b ( i Kelim /i 5:10): If b one cut /b an earthenware oven widthwise b into segments, and placed sand between each and every segment, Rabbi Eliezer deems it ritually pure. /b Because of the sand, its legal status is not that of a complete vessel, and therefore it is not susceptible to ritual impurity. b And the Rabbis deem it ritually impure, /b as it is functionally a complete oven.
25. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230
50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. b is analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition is /b only when it is the size of an b olive-bulk, so too, /b the requirement to b return it is /b only when it is the size of an b olive-bulk. /b ,Another opinion on this issue b was taught /b in a i baraita /i . b Rabbi Natan says: /b The minimum measure for both b this and that, /b leaven and sacrificial meat, is b two egg-bulks /b of prohibited material, b but the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b ,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b “And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light, /b but b heavy clouds [ i yekarot /i ] and thickness [ i vekippaon /i ]” /b (Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of the expression b “ i yekarot vekippaon /i ”? /b , b Rabbi Elazar said: This is /b the b light /b currently provided by the sun, b which is significant /b [ b i yakar /i ] in this world and insignificant /b [ b i kafuy /i ] in the World-to-Come, /b when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: This /b expression refers to the tractates of b i Nega’im /i and i Oholot /i , which are weighty [ i yekarim /i ] /b owing to their difficulty b in this world, /b as they are among the most complex subjects, b but /b will be b easy [ i kefuyin /i ] in the World-to-Come, /b when people will be much wiser., b And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who are /b considered b important [ i yekarim /i ] in this world and unimportant /b [ b i kefuyim /i ] in the World-to-Come. /b This is b like /b the incident involving b Rav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, /b who b became ill and /b was about to b expire. When he returned /b to good health, b his father said to him: What did you see /b when you were about to die? b He said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above, /b i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were b below, /b insignificant, while b those below, /b i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were b above. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world. /b The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: b And where are we, /b the Torah scholars, b there? /b Rav Yosef responded: b Just as we are /b regarded b here, so are we /b regarded b there. /b ,Rav Yosef added: b And I heard that they were saying /b in that world: b Praiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And I /b also b heard that they were saying: Those executed by the government /b enjoy such an exalted status that b no one can stand in their enclosure. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And who are these /b martyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? b If you say /b that he was referring to b Rabbi Akiva and his colleagues, /b who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status b due /b only b to /b the fact that b they were martyred by /b the Roman b government and nothing more? /b These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. b Rather, /b it is referring to b the martyrs of Lod, /b Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b “On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ i metzillot hasus /i ]: Holy unto the Lord” /b (Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of the expression b i metzillot hasus /i ? /b , b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalem /b by b as much as /b the distance that b a horse can run /b the entire time b it casts a shadow [ i metzeil /i ]. /b Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., b Rabbi Elazar said: All /b decorative b bells [ i metzillot /i ] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God, /b i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish people /b will b take /b from gentiles who wage war against them, b up to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ i metzeil /i ], /b i.e., half a day, b will be sanctified for God. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who said /b that this expression refers to b all spoils that the Jewish people /b will b take, this is as it is written /b in the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b “And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said these /b other b two /b explanations, b what /b is the meaning of: b “And the pots in the Lord’s house”? /b The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse b is saying something else: /b It is prophesying that in the future b the Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donations /b to the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: b Granted, according to the one who said /b that this expression refers to b spoils, this is as it is written /b in the next verse: b “And /b on that day b there shall no longer be a merchant [ i kena’ani /i ] in the house of the Lord of hosts” /b (Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. b However, according to the ones who said these /b other b two /b explanations, b what /b is the meaning of the expression: b “There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said: /b The word i kena’ani /i is in fact a contraction of the phrase: b There is no poor person here [ i ein kan ani /i ]. /b In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., b And from where do we /b derive b that a merchant can be called a i kena’ani /i ? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain i kena’ani /i … /b and he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). b What is /b the meaning of the word b i kena’ani /i /b in this context? b If you say /b it refers to b an actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaac /b not to marry a Canaanite woman, and b Isaac warned Jacob /b to the same effect, b and /b nonetheless b Judah went and married /b a Canaanite woman? b Rather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: /b She was b the daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ i kena’an /i ], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves /b to oppress” (Hosea 12:8). b And if you wish, say /b instead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b “Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ i kieha /i ] are the honorable of the earth” /b (Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b “And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one” /b (Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: b Is that to say that now He is not one? /b , b Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. /b In b this world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Come /b one will b always /b recite: b Blessed…Who is good and does good. /b There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one b and His name one.” /b The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the word b one /b in this context? b Is that to say that now His name is not one? /b , b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world, /b God’s name that b is written with /b the letters b i yod /i /b and b i heh /i is read /b as i Adonai /i , which begins with the letters b i alef /i /b and b i dalet /i . /b God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. b However, in the World-to-Come it will all be one, /b as God’s name will be both b read with /b the letters b i yod /i /b and b i heh /i and written with /b the letters b i yod /i /b and b i heh /i . /b , b Rava thought to expound /b upon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public b lecture /b before one of the Festivals. b A certain old man said to him: /b The word b forever is written /b in the verse: “This is My name forever [ i le’olam /i ]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter i vav /i , such that it can be read i le’alem /i , to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., b Rabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written /b in the verse: b “This is My name forever,” /b implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b “And this is My memorial unto all generations” /b (Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I, /b i.e., My name, is b not read as I am written. I am written with /b the letters b i yod /i /b and b i heh /i , and I am read with /b the letters b i alef /i /b and b i dalet /i . /b ,, strong MISHNA: /strong In b a place where /b the people were b accustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, one /b may b do /b so on that day. In b a place where /b the people were b accustomed not to perform /b labor, b one /b may b not do /b so. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one b travels from a place where /b people b perform /b labor on Passover eve b to a place where /b people b do not perform /b labor, b or from a place where /b people b do not perform /b labor on Passover eve b to a place where /b people b perform /b labor, the Sages b impose upon him the stringencies of /b both b the place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went. /b In both cases, he may not perform labor.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
43b. אמר רב גידל אמר רב האי סמלק מברכין עלויה בורא עצי בשמים אמר רב חננאל אמר רב הני חלפי דימא מברכין עלייהו בורא עצי בשמים אמר מר זוטרא מאי קראה (יהושע ב, ו) והיא העלתם הגגה ותטמנם בפשתי העץ,(רב משרשיא אמר) האי נרקום דגנוניתא מברכין עלויה בורא עצי בשמים דדברא בורא עשבי בשמים אמר רב ששת הני סיגלי מברכין עלייהו בורא עשבי בשמים אמר מר זוטרא האי מאן דמורח באתרוגא או בחבושא אומר ברוך שנתן ריח טוב בפירות,אמר רב יהודה האי מאן דנפיק ביומי ניסן וחזי אילני דקא מלבלבי אומר ברוך שלא חיסר בעולמו כלום וברא בו בריות טובות ואילנות טובות להתנאות בהן בני אדם אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב מנין שמברכין על הריח שנאמר (תהלים קנ, ו) כל הנשמה תהלל יה איזהו דבר שהנשמה נהנית ממנו ואין הגוף נהנה ממנו הוי אומר זה הריח,ואמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב עתידים בחורי ישראל שיתנו ריח טוב כלבנון שנאמר (הושע יד, ז) ילכו יונקותיו ויהי כזית הודו וריח לו כלבנון:,ואמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב מאי דכתיב (קהלת ג, יא) את הכל עשה יפה בעתו מלמד שכל אחד ואחד יפה לו הקב"ה אומנתו בפניו,אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי תלה ליה קורא לדבר אחר ואיהו דידיה עביד,ואמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב אבוקה כשנים וירח כשלשה איבעיא להו אבוקה כשנים בהדי דידיה או דילמא אבוקה כשנים לבר מדידיה ת"ש וירח כשלשה אי אמרת בשלמא בהדי דידיה שפיר אלא אי אמרת לבר מדידיה ארבעה למה לי והאמר מר לאחד נראה ומזיק לשנים נראה ואינו מזיק לשלשה אינו נראה כל עיקר אלא לאו שמע מינה אבוקה כשנים בהדי דידיה שמע מינה:,ואמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא ואמרי לה אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי נוח לו לאדם שיפיל עצמו לתוך כבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חברו ברבים מנלן מתמר שנאמר (בראשית לח, כה) היא מוצאת וגו':,ת"ר הביאו לפניו שמן והדס ב"ש אומרים מברך על השמן ואח"כ מברך על ההדס וב"ה אומרים מברך על ההדס ואח"כ מברך על השמן אמר ר"ג אני אכריע שמן זכינו לריחו וזכינו לסיכתו הדס לריחו זכינו לסיכתו לא זכינו א"ר יוחנן הלכה כדברי המכריע,רב פפא איקלע לבי רב הונא בריה דרב איקא אייתו לקמייהו שמן והדס שקל רב פפא בריך אהדס ברישא והדר בריך אשמן אמר ליה לא סבר לה מר הלכה כדברי המכריע אמר ליה הכי אמר רבא הלכה כב"ה ולא היא לאשתמוטי נפשיה הוא דעבד,ת"ר הביאו לפניהם שמן ויין ב"ש אומרים אוחז השמן בימינו ואת היין בשמאלו מברך על השמן וחוזר ומברך על היין ב"ה אומרים אוחז את היין בימינו ואת השמן בשמאלו מברך על היין וחוזר ומברך על השמן וטחו בראש השמש ואם שמש ת"ח הוא טחו בכותל מפני שגנאי לתלמיד חכם לצאת לשוק כשהוא מבושם,ת"ר ששה דברים גנאי לו לתלמיד חכם אל יצא כשהוא מבושם לשוק ואל יצא יחידי בלילה ואל יצא במנעלים המטולאים ואל יספר עם אשה בשוק ואל יסב בחבורה של עמי הארץ ואל יכנס באחרונה לבית המדרש ויש אומרים אף לא יפסיע פסיעה גסה ואל יהלך בקומה זקופה,אל יצא כשהוא מבושם לשוק א"ר אבא בריה דר' חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן במקום שחשודים על משכב זכור אמר רב ששת לא אמרן אלא בבגדו אבל בגופו זיעה מעברא ליה אמר רב פפא ושערו כבגדו דמי ואמרי לה כגופו דמי,ואל יצא יחידי בלילה משום חשדא ולא אמרן אלא דלא קביע ליה עידנא אבל קביע ליה עידנא מידע ידיע דלעידניה קא אזיל,ואל יצא במנעלים המטולאים מסייע ליה לרבי חייא בר אבא דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא גנאי הוא לתלמיד חכם שיצא במנעלים המטולאים איני והא ר' חייא בר אבא נפיק אמר מר זוטרא בריה דרב נחמן בטלאי על גבי טלאי ולא אמרן אלא בפנתא אבל בגילדא לית לן בה ובפנתא לא אמרן אלא באורחא אבל בביתא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא בימות החמה אבל בימות הגשמים לית לן בה,ואל יספר עם אשה בשוק אמר רב חסדא ואפילו היא אשתו תניא נמי הכא אפילו היא אשתו ואפילו היא בתו ואפילו היא אחותו לפי שאין הכל בקיאין בקרובותיו,ואל יסב בחבורה של עמי הארץ מאי טעמא דילמא אתי לאמשוכי בתרייהו,ואל יכנס אחרונה לבית המדרש משום דקרו ליה פושע,וי"א אף לא יפסיע פסיעה גסה דאמר מר פסיעה גסה נוטלת אחד מת"ק ממאור עיניו של אדם מאי תקנתיה להדריה בקדושא דבי שמשי,ואל יהלך בקומה זקופה דאמר מר המהלך בקומה זקופה אפילו ארבע אמות כאילו דוחק רגלי שכינה דכתיב (ישעיהו ו, ג) מלא כל הארץ כבודו: 43b. b Rav Giddel said /b that b Rav said: Over this jasmine [ i simlak /i ], one recites: Who creates fragrant trees. Rav Ḥael said /b that b Rav said: Over these spikenards, /b which grow next to b the sea, one recites: Who creates fragrant trees. Mar Zutra said: What is the verse /b from which we derive that even a plant with soft stalks can be called a tree? From the verse: b “She had taken them up to the roof and hidden them under the trees of flax” /b (Joshua 2:6); evidently, even stalks of flax are called “trees.”, b Rav Mesharshiya said: Over this garden daffodil one recites: Who creates fragrant trees, /b while over a wild daffodil that grows b in the field, /b one recites: b Who creates fragrant plants. Rav Sheshet said: Over /b fragrant b violets one recites: Who creates fragrant plants. Mar Zutra said: One who smells a citron [ i etrog /i ] or a quince recites: Blessed…who gave pleasant fragrance in fruits. /b ,On a related topic, the Gemara cites that b Rav Yehuda said: One who goes out during Nisan and sees trees that are blossoming recites: Blessed…who has withheld nothing from His world, and has created in it beautiful creatures and trees for human beings to enjoy. Rav Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said: From where /b is it derived b that one recites a blessing over scent? As it is stated: “Let every soul praise the Lord” /b (Psalms 150:6). He explains the verse: b What is it from which the soul derives benefit and the body does not derive benefit from it? You must say: That is scent. /b Even over items from which only the soul derives benefit, one must recite a blessing and praise God., b And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said: The young men of Israel are destined to emit a sweet scent as the Lebanon, as it is stated: “His branches shall spread and his beauty will be as the olive tree, and his fragrance as Lebanon” /b (Hosea 14:7)., b And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “He has made everything beautiful in its time, /b and he has placed the world in their heart, yet so man cannot find out the work that God has done from the beginning even to the end” (Ecclesiastes 3:11)? This b teaches that each and every individual, God has made his work pleasant for him in his own eyes. /b In that way, each individual will be satisfied with his work, enabling the world to function properly., b Rav Pappa said: This is /b the proverb b that people say: Hang a heart of palm on a pig, and he will /b continue b to perform his /b standard activities. Although hearts of palm are a delicacy, a pig will roll it in the mud as is his wont. Every creature has its own particular tastes, and one cannot draw conclusions with regard to one based on the standards of another., b And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said: /b For one walking on a dark path, if he has b a torch /b in his hand, b it is like two /b were walking on that path b and /b the light of the b moon is like three. /b The Gemara b raises a dilemma: Is a torch like two including /b the one carrying the torch b or perhaps a torch is like two besides him /b for a total of three? b Come and hear /b a proof from that which Rav said: b And the moon is like three. Granted, if you say /b three b including him, /b it works out b well. However, if you say /b three b besides him, why do I need four, /b what purpose do they serve? b Didn’t the Master say: To one /b walking alone, a demon b can be seen and cause /b him b harm. To two /b people, a demon can be seen b and /b does not b cause /b them b harm. To three /b people, b it cannot be seen at all. /b Four people are no better than three. b Rather, can’t we learn from this /b that b a torch is like two, /b means two b including him. /b The Gemara comments: Indeed, b conclude from this. /b , b And Rav Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said; and some say Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said; and some say Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is preferable, /b from an ethical perspective, b for one to throw himself into a fiery furnace rather than humiliate another in public. From where do we /b derive this? b From Tamar, /b the daughter-in-law of Judah, when she was taken out to be burned, b as it is stated: “As she was brought forth, /b she sent to her father-in-law, saying I am pregt by the man to whom these belong, and she said examine these, to whom does this seal, cord and staff belong?” (Genesis 38:25). Despite her dire situation, she did not reveal that she was pregt with Judah’s child; rather, she left the decision to him, to avoid humiliating him in public., b The Sages taught: /b If b they brought before him /b both scented b oil and /b a b myrtle /b branch, b Beit Shammai say: One recites a blessing over the oil /b first b and over the myrtle /b branch b thereafter /b . b And Beit Hillel say: One recites a blessing over the myrtle /b branch first b and over the oil thereafter. Rabban Gamliel said: I will decide /b this dispute in favor of the opinion of Beit Shammai, that one should recite a blessing over the oil first, as it is more significant. With regard to b oil; we are privileged /b to enjoy b its fragrance and we are privileged /b to enjoy it by b anointing /b ourselves with b it. /b With regard to the b myrtle /b branch; b we are privileged /b to enjoy b its fragrance, we are not privileged /b to enjoy it by b anointing /b ourselves with b it. Rabbi Yoḥa said: The i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b the decisor, /b Rabban Gamliel.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Pappa happened /b to come b to the house of Rav Huna, son of Rav Ika. They brought before him /b both scented b oil and /b a b myrtle /b branch. b Rav Pappa took and recited a blessing /b over the b myrtle branch first and then recited a blessing /b over the b oil. /b Rav Huna b said to him: /b And b does the Master not hold /b that b the i halakha /i is in accordance /b with the opinion of b the decisor? /b If so, you should have recited a blessing over the oil first. Rav Pappa said: b Rava said the following: The i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Beit Hillel. /b The Gemara comments: b That is not so, /b as Rava did not issue that ruling. b Rather, Rav Pappa did /b this b in order to extricate himself /b from an unpleasant situation and justify his conduct., b Our Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : If b they brought before them /b both scented b oil and wine, Beit Shammai say: He grasps the oil in his right /b hand, since he recites a blessing over the oil first, b and the wine in his left /b hand. b He recites a blessing over the oil and then he recites a blessing over the wine. Beit Hillel say /b the opposite: b He grasps the wine in his right /b hand b and the oil in his left /b hand. b He recites a blessing over the wine and then he recites a blessing over the oil. And /b after he has recited a blessing over the oil and anointed his hands with it, b he smears /b it b on the head of the servant /b so that his hands will not remain perfumed. b And if the servant is a Torah scholar, he smears /b the oil b on the wall, as it is unbecoming for a Torah scholar to go out perfumed into the marketplace. /b ,Tangential to the mention of conduct unbecoming a Torah scholar, b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Six things are disgraceful for a Torah scholar: He may not go out perfumed into the marketplace; he may not go out /b of his house b alone at night; he may not go out /b wearing b patched shoes; he may not converse with a woman in the marketplace; he may not recline /b and participate in a meal b in the company of ignoramuses; and he may not be the last to enter the study hall. And some say /b that b he may not take long strides and he may not walk with an upright posture. /b ,The Gemara elaborates on the statements of the i baraita /i . b He may not go out perfumed into the marketplace; Rabbi Abba, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b This prohibition only applies b in a place where they are suspected of homosexuality. /b One who goes out into the marketplace perfumed, will arouse suspicion. b Rav Sheshet said: We only said this with regard to his clothing /b that was perfumed, b but with regard to his body, /b it is permitted, as b his sweat causes the fragrance to dissipate. Rav Pappa said: /b In this regard, b his hair is /b considered b like his clothing. And some say: His hair is /b considered b like his body. /b , b He may not go out /b of his house b alone at night because of suspicion /b of promiscuity. b And /b therefore b this was only /b prohibited b if he does not have a set time /b during the night to study with his teacher, b but /b if b he has a set time, /b everyone b knows that he is going to /b study with his teacher at b his set time, /b and they will not be suspicious of him., b He may not go out /b wearing b patched shoes. /b This b supports /b the statement of b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: It is disgraceful for a Torah scholar to go out /b wearing b patched shoes. /b The Gemara challenges: b Is that so? Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba /b himself b go out /b wearing patched shoes? b Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: /b It is only prohibited when the shoe has b a patch upon a patch. And we only said this with regard to /b patches on b the upper /b part of the shoe b but /b if the patch is b on the sole, this does not /b apply. b And with regard to /b patches on b the upper /b part of the shoe, b we only said this /b when he is out b on the road, but in his house, we need not /b be concerned. b And we only said this with regard to the summer /b when the patches would be visible to all, b but during the rainy season, /b when the mud obscures the view of the patches, b we need not /b be concerned., b He may not converse with a woman in the marketplace. Rav Ḥisda said: Even if she is his wife. This was also taught /b in a i baraita /i : One may not converse with a woman in the market, b even if she is his wife, even if she is his daughter and even if she is his sister, /b for b not everyone is well-versed in /b the identity of b his female relatives /b and they will suspect that he is talking to women who are not his relatives., b He may not recline /b and participate in a meal b in the company of ignoramuses. /b The Gemara explains: b What is the reason? Perhaps he will be drawn after them /b and emulate them., b He may not be the last to enter the study hall. /b The Gemara explains: b Because they /b will b call him negligent, /b in other words, careless and lazy., b And some say he may not take long strides, as the Master said: A long stride takes /b away b one five-hundredth of a person’s eyesight. /b The Gemara asks: b What is his remedy /b if he took long strides? The Gemara responds: b He can restore it /b by drinking the wine of b i kiddush /i on /b Shabbat b eve. /b , b And he may not walk with an upright posture, /b but slightly bowed, b as the Master said: One who walks with an upright posture /b and in an arrogant manner, b even four cubits, /b it is b as if he is pushing away the feet of the Divine Presence, /b as b it is written: “The entire world is full of His glory” /b (Isaiah 6:3). One who walks in an arrogant way shows a lack of regard for the glory and honor of God that is surrounding him, and thereby chases God from that place.
27. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
10b. עבדות אני נותן לכם שנאמר (מלכים א יב, ז) וידברו אליו לאמר אם היום תהיה עבד לעם הזה:,ת"ר (ויקרא ד, כב) אשר נשיא יחטא אמר ריב"ז אשרי הדור שהנשיא שלו מביא קרבן על שגגתו אם נשיא שלו מביא קרבן צריך אתה לומר מהו הדיוט ואם על שגגתו מביא קרבן צריך אתה לומר מהו זדונו,מתקיף לה רבא בריה דרבה אלא מעתה דכתי' (ויקרא ה, טז) ואת אשר חטא מן הקדש ישלם ובירבעם בן נבט דכתיב ביה (מלכים א יד, טז) אשר חטא ואשר החטיא הכי נמי דאשרי הדור הוא שאני הכא דשני קרא בדבוריה,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, יד) יש הבל אשר נעשה על הארץ וגו' אשריהם לצדיקים שמגיע אליהם כמעשה הרשעים של עולם הבא בעולם הזה אוי להם לרשעים שמגיע אליהם כמעשה הצדיקים של עולם הבא בעולם הזה,אמר רבא אטו צדיקי אי אכלי תרי עלמי מי סני להו אלא אמר רבא אשריהם לצדיקים שמגיע אליהם כמעשה הרשעים של עולם הזה בעולם הזה אוי להם לרשעים שמגיע אליהם כמעשה הצדיקים של עולם הזה בעולם הזה,רב פפא ורב הונא בריה דרב יהושע אתו לקמיה דרבא אמר להו אוקימתון מסכתא פלן ומסכתא פלן אמרו ליה אין איעתריתו פורתא אמרו ליה אין דזבנן קטינא דארעא קרי עלייהו אשריהם לצדיקים שמגיע אליהם כמעשה הרשעים שבעולם הזה בעולם הזה,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (הושע יד, י) כי ישרים דרכי ה' וצדיקים ילכו בם ופושעים יכשלו בם משל לשני בני אדם שצלו פסחיהם אחד אכלו לשום מצוה ואחד אכלו לשום אכילה גסה זה שאכלו לשום מצוה צדיקים ילכו בם זה שאכלו לשום אכילה גסה ופושעים יכשלו בם,א"ל ריש לקיש רשע קרית ליה נהי דלא עביד מצוה מן המובחר פסח מי לא קאכיל אלא משל לשני בני אדם זה אשתו ואחותו עמו בבית וזה אשתו ואחותו עמו בבית אחד נזדמנה לו אשתו ואחד נזדמנה לו אחותו זה שנזדמנה לו אשתו צדיקים ילכו בם וזה שנזדמנה לו אחותו ופושעים יכשלו בם,מי דמי אנן קאמרינן חדא דרך והכא שני דרכים אלא משל ללוט ושתי בנותיו הן שנתכוונו לשם מצוה צדיקים ילכו בם הוא שנתכוון לשם עבירה ופושעים יכשלו בם,ודלמא הוא נמי לשם מצוה הוא מכוין א"ר יוחנן כל הפסוק הזה לשם עבירה נאמר,(בראשית יג, י) וישא לוט (בראשית לט, ז) ותשא אשת אדניו את עיניה את עיניו (בראשית לד, ד) ויאמר שמשון [וגו'] אותה קח לי כי היא ישרה בעיני וירא (בראשית לד, ב) וירא אותה שכם בן חמור את כל ככר הירדן (משלי ו, כו) כי בעד אשה זונה עד ככר לחם כי כלה משקה (הושע ב, ז) אלכה אחרי מאהבי נותני לחמי ומימי צמרי ופשתי שמני ושקויי,והא מינס אניס תנא משום רבי יוסי בר רבי חוני למה נקוד על וי"ו שבקומה של בכירה לומר לך שבשכבה לא ידע אבל בקומה ידע ומאי ה"ל למעבד מאי דהוה הוה נפקא מינה דלפניא אחרינא לא איבעי ליה למישתי,דרש רבה מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, יט) אח נפשע מקרית עוז ומדינים כבריח ארמון אח נפשע מקרית עוז זה לוט שפירש מאברהם ומדינים כבריח ארמון שהטיל מדינים בין ישראל לעמון שנאמר (דברים כג, ד) לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה',דרש רבא ואיתימא ר' יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, א) לתאוה יבקש נפרד (ובכל) [בכל] תושיה יתגלע לתאוה יבקש נפרד זה לוט שנפרד מאברהם (ובכל) [בכל] תושיה יתגלע שנתגלה קלונו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות דתנן עמוני ומואבי אסורין איסור עולם,ואמר עולא תמר זנתה וזימרי זינה תמר זנתה יצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים זימרי זינה נפלו כמה רבבות מישראל אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק גדולה עבירה לשמה ממצוה שלא לשמה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כד) תבורך מנשים יעל אשת חבר הקיני מנשים באהל תבורך מאן נינהו נשים באהל שרה רבקה רחל ולאה,איני והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפילו שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה אימא כמצוה שלא לשמה,אמר רבי יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותה שעה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב וגו' והא קא מיתהניא מעבירה אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחאי אפילו טובתם של רשעים רעה היא אצל צדיקים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפילו שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה שבשכר מ"ב קרבנות שהקריב בלק הרשע זכה ויצתה ממנו רות דאמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא רות בת בנו של עגלון בן בנו של בלק מלך מואב,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מנין שאין הקב"ה מקפח אפילו שכר שיחה נאה מהכא דאילו בכירה דקרייה מואב אמר ליה רחמנא למשה (דברים ב, ט) אל תצר את מואב ואל תתגר בם מלחמה מלחמה 10b. b I am granting you servitude, as it is stated: “And they spoke to him saying: If you will be a servant to this people today” /b (I Kings 12:7). This explains the phrase “in an independent house.”,§ b The Sages taught: /b The verse states concerning a king: b “When [ i asher /i ] a king sins” /b (Leviticus 4:22). b Rabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai said: Happy [ i ashrei /i ] is the generation whose king /b feels the need to b bring an offering for his unwitting /b transgression. b If /b the generation’s b king brings an offering, you must say /b all the more so b what a commoner /b will do to atone for his sin, i.e., he will certainly bring an offering. b And if /b the king b brings an offering for his unwitting /b transgression, b you must say /b all the more so b what /b he will do to atone for b his intentional /b transgression, i.e., he will certainly repent., b Rava, son of Rabba, objects to this: If that is so, /b and the term i asher /i is interpreted in that manner, then concerning that b which is written: “And he shall pay for that which [ i asher /i ] he has sinned from the sacred item” /b (Leviticus 5:16), b and with regard to Jeroboam, son of Nevat, about whom it is written: “Who [ i asher /i ] sinned and caused others to sin” /b (I Kings 14:16), b so too /b is the interpretation b that this generation is happy? /b The Gemara answers: b Here, /b in the case of a king who brings an offering, it b is different, as the verse altered its formulation; /b in parallel verses, the term “if” is utilized, e.g., in the verse: “If the anointed priest shall sin” (Leviticus 4:3). In the other instances, i asher /i is the standard formulation.,Apropos the homiletic interpretation of the term i asher /i , b Rav Naḥman bar Ḥisda interpreted /b a verse homiletically: b What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “There is a vanity that is [ i asher /i ] performed upon the earth; /b that there are [ i asher /i ] righteous men to whom it happens according to [ i asher /i ] the action of the wicked, and there are wicked men to whom it happens according to the action of the righteous” (Ecclesiastes 8:14)? b Happy [ i ashrei /i ] are the righteous, to whom it happens in this world according to the experiences of the wicked in the World-to-Come, /b i.e., they suffer in this world. b Woe unto the wicked, to whom it happens in this world according to the experiences of the righteous in the World-to-Come, /b i.e., they enjoy this world., b Rava said: Is that to say that if the righteous enjoyed two worlds it would be awful for them? /b Why must the righteous suffer in this world? b Rather, Rava said /b as follows: b Happy are the righteous to whom it happens in this world according to the experiences of the wicked in this world, /b i.e., happy are the righteous who enjoy this world as well. b Woe to the wicked, to whom it happens in this world according to the experiences of the righteous in this world, /b i.e., like the many righteous people who suffer in this world.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Pappa and Rav Huna, son of Rav Yehoshua, came before Rava. /b Rava b said to them: Have you mastered this tractate and that tractate? They said to him: Yes. /b Rava said to them: b Have you become somewhat wealthy? They said to him: Yes, as /b each of b us bought a parcel of land /b from which we earn our livelihoods. Rava b proclaimed about them: Happy are the righteous, to whom it happens in this world according to /b the goodness resulting from b the actions of the wicked in this world. /b ,§ b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “For the ways of the Lord are right, and the righteous will walk in them and transgressors will stumble in them” /b (Hosea 14:10)? It is b comparable to /b an incident involving b two people who roasted their Paschal offerings. One ate it for the sake of /b the b mitzva, and /b the other b one ate it /b with gusto, b for the sake of excessive eating. /b With regard to b that /b person b who ate it for the sake of /b the b mitzva, /b it is written: b “The righteous will walk in them.” /b With regard to b that /b person b who ate it for the sake of excessive eating, /b it is written: b “And transgressors will stumble in them.” /b , b Reish Lakish said to /b Rabba bar bar Ḥana: b Did you call /b the one who ate the Paschal offering for the sake of excessive eating b wicked? Although he did not perform /b the b mitzva /b in the b ideal /b manner, b didn’t he eat /b the b Paschal offering? /b Since he fulfilled the mitzva, how can he be characterized as a transgressor? b Rather, /b it is b analogous to /b an incident involving b two people; this /b one has b his wife and his sister with him in /b a dark b house and that /b one has b his wife and his sister with him in /b a dark b house. One /b of them, b his wife happened /b to come b to him /b and he engaged in intercourse with her, b and /b the other b one, his sister happened /b to come b to him /b and he engaged in intercourse with her. With regard to b that /b one, b to whom his wife happened /b to come, it is written: b “The righteous will walk in them.” /b With regard to b that /b one, b to whom his sister happened /b to come, it is written: b “And transgressors will stumble in them.” /b ,The Gemara asks: b Are these /b matters b comparable? /b In the verse, b we are speaking of one path /b upon which both the righteous and the wicked walk, b and here, /b in the incident mentioned by Reish Lakish, there are b two paths, /b as the two people are not performing the same action. b Rather, /b it is b analogous to /b the incident involving b Lot and his two daughters /b (see Genesis 19:30–38): With regard to the daughters, b who, /b when engaging in intercourse with their father, b intended /b their action b for the sake of a mitzva, /b as they believed that the world had been destroyed and that only they remained alive, it is written: b “The righteous will walk in them.” /b With regard to Lot, b who intended /b his action b for the sake of a transgression, /b it is written: b “And transgressors will stumble in them.” /b ,The Gemara challenges: b Perhaps /b Lot b too intended /b his action b for the sake of a mitzva. Rabbi Yoḥa says /b that b this entire verse: /b “And Lot cast his eyes and beheld the entire plain of the Jordan that it was well watered everywhere” (Genesis 13:10), b is stated in the context of transgression. /b ,He explains: b “And Lot cast /b his eyes” is an allusion to the verse: b “His master’s wife cast her eyes /b upon Joseph and said: Lie with me” (Genesis 39:7). b “His eyes” /b is an allusion to the verse: b “And Samson said: Get her for me, as she is pleasing to my eyes” /b (Judges 14:3). b “And beheld” /b is an allusion to the verse: b “And Shechem, son of Hamor, /b the prince of the land, b beheld her; /b and he took her and lay with her” (Genesis 34:2). b “The entire plain [ i kikar /i ] of the Jordan” /b is an allusion to the verse: b “For on account of a prostitute a man is brought to a loaf [ i kikar /i ] of bread” /b (Proverbs 6:26). b “That it was well watered [ i mashke /i ] everywhere” /b is an allusion to the verse b “I will follow my lovers, givers of my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink [ i veshikkuyai /i ]” /b (Hosea 2:7).,The Gemara asks: Why is Lot accused of wrongdoing? b Wasn’t he /b the victim of b circumstances beyond his control, /b as he was drunk and asleep? It is b taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Ḥoni: Why is it dotted over /b the letter b i vav /i that /b is in the word b “ i bekumah /i ” /b written with regard to Lot’s b elder /b daughter in the verse: “And he knew not when she lay down, nor when she arose [ i bekumah /i ]” (Genesis 19:33)? It is b to say to you that when she lay down he did not know; but when she arose, he knew. /b Therefore, his action was not completely beyond his control. The Gemara asks: b And what was he to do? What was, was. /b The Gemara answers: He should have b derived from it that on the following night he should not drink. /b Since he drank again, this indicates that he did so with intent to engage in intercourse with his other daughter.,Apropos Lot, b Rabba taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “A brother betrayed a strong city, and their contentions are like the bars of a castle” /b (Proverbs 18:19)? b “A brother betrayed a strong city”; that is Lot, who parted from Abraham. “And their contentions are like the bars of a castle” /b is stated b because he, /b i.e., Lot, b introduced contention between Israel and Ammon, as it is stated: “An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord” /b (Deuteronomy 23:4)., b Rava taught, and some say /b it was b Rabbi Yitzḥak /b who taught: b What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “He that separates himself seeks his own desire, and snarls against all sound wisdom” /b (Proverbs 18:1)? b “He that separates himself seeks his own desire”; that is Lot, who separated from Abraham /b to pursue his lust. b “And snarls [ i yitgalla /i ] against all sound wisdom”; his shame was revealed [ i shenitgalla /i ] in synagogues and study halls, /b where the i halakha /i concerning his offspring is taught; b as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Yevamot /i 76a): b An Ammonite and a Moabite, /b descendants of Lot, b are forbidden /b with b a permanent prohibition. /b ,§ b And Ulla says: Tamar engaged in licentiousness /b with Judah (see Genesis, chapter 38), b and Zimri engaged in licentiousness /b with Cozbi (see Numbers 25:6–9). b Tamar engaged in licentiousness, /b and b kings and prophets emerged from her. Zimri engaged in licentiousness, /b and b tens of thousands from the Jewish people fell. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: A transgression /b performed b for the sake of /b Heaven b is greater than a mitzva /b performed b not for its own sake, as it is stated: “Blessed above women shall be Yael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, above women in the tent shall she be blessed” /b (Judges 5:24). b Who are /b these b “women in the tent”? /b They are b Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah, /b and Yael is more blessed than they are. Apparently, a mitzva performed not for its own sake is a negative phenomenon.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah /b study b and /b the performance of b mitzvot, even /b if he does so b not for its /b own b sake, as through /b the performance of mitzvot b not for its /b own b sake, /b one gains understanding and b comes /b to perform them b for its /b own b sake. /b Apparently, even when performed not for its own sake a mitzva is still a positive phenomenon. The Gemara emends the statement: b Say /b that the status of a transgression performed for the sake of Heaven is b like /b that of b a mitzva /b performed b not for its /b own b sake. /b ,Apropos Yael, b Rabbi Yoḥa says: That wicked /b man Sisera b performed seven /b acts of b intercourse /b with Yael b at that time, as it is stated: “Between her legs he crouched, he fell, he lay; /b between her legs he crouched, he fell; where he crouched, there he fell dead” (Judges 5:27). Each of the seven verbs is a euphemism for intercourse. The Gemara asks: b But didn’t she experience pleasure from /b the b transgression /b of engaging in intercourse with Sisera? Why does the verse praise her? b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: Even the good /b provided b by the wicked is bad for the righteous, /b so Yael did not experience any pleasure from her intercourse with Sisera., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah /b study b and /b the performance of b mitzvot, even /b if he does so b not for its own sake, as through /b the performance of mitzvot b not for its own sake, /b one gains understanding and b comes /b to perform them b for its own sake. /b Proof for this can be adduced from the incident involving Balak, b as in reward for the forty-two offerings that Balak the wicked sacrificed /b to God, despite the fact that he did this in order to curse the Jewish people (see Numbers, chapter 23), b he merited and Ruth emerged from him, as Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: Ruth was the daughter of the son of Eglon, the son of the son of Balak, king of Moab. /b ,§ Apropos Lot and his daughters, b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: From where /b is it derived b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not withhold even /b the b reward for euphemistic speech? /b It is derived b from here, as the elder /b daughter b called her son Moab, /b an allusion to the fact that the child is from her own father [ i me’av /i ], and b the Merciful One said to Moses: “Be not at enmity with Moab, neither contend with them in battle” /b (Deuteronomy 2:9). From this it may be inferred: b It is /b in b battle /b
28. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230, 231
10b. אלא ויקריא מלמד שהקריא אברהם אבינו לשמו של הקב"ה בפה כל עובר ושב כיצד לאחר שאכלו ושתו עמדו לברכו אמר להם וכי משלי אכלתם משל אלהי עולם אכלתם הודו ושבחו וברכו למי שאמר והיה העולם,(בראשית לח, טו) ויראה יהודה ויחשבה לזונה כי כסתה פניה משום דכסתה פניה חשבה לזונה,א"ר אלעזר שכסתה פניה בבית חמיה דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל כלה שהיא צנועה בבית חמיה זוכה ויוצאין ממנה מלכים ונביאים מנלן מתמר נביאים דכתיב (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ מלכים מדוד ואמר רבי לוי דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו אמוץ ואמציה אחים הוו,(בראשית לח, כה) היא מוצאת היא מיתוצאת מיבעי ליה א"ר אלעזר לאחר שנמצאו סימניה בא סמאל וריחקן בא גבריאל וקירבן,היינו דכתיב (תהלים נו, א) למנצח על יונת אלם רחוקים לדוד מכתם א"ר יוחנן משעה שנתרחקו סימניה נעשית כיונה אילמת לדוד מכתם שיצא ממנה דוד שהיה מך ותם לכל דבר אחר מכתם שהיתה מכתו תמה שנולד כשהוא מהול דבר אחר מכתם כשם שבקטנותו הקטין עצמו אצל מי שגדול ממנו ללמוד תורה כך בגדולתו,(בראשית לח, כה) והיא שלחה אל חמיה לאמר לאיש אשר אלה לו אנכי הרה ותימא ליה מימר אמר רב זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא ואמרי לה אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי נוח לו לאדם שיפיל עצמו לתוך כבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חבירו ברבים מנלן מתמר,(בראשית לח, כה) הכר נא א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא בהכר בישר לאביו בהכר בישרוהו בהכר בישר (בראשית לז, לב) הכר נא הכתנת בנך היא בהכר בישרוהו הכר נא למי,נא אין נא אלא לשון בקשה אמרה ליה בבקשה ממך הכר פני בוראך ואל תעלים עיניך ממני,(בראשית לח, כו) ויכר יהודה ויאמר צדקה ממני היינו דאמר רב חנין בר ביזנא א"ר שמעון חסידא יוסף שקדש ש"ש בסתר זכה והוסיפו לו אות אחת משמו של הקב"ה דכתיב (תהלים פא, ו) עדות ביהוסף שמו,יהודה שקדש ש"ש בפרהסיא זכה ונקרא כולו על שמו של הקב"ה כיון שהודה ואמר צדקה ממני יצתה בת קול ואמרה אתה הצלת תמר ושני בניה מן האור חייך שאני מציל בזכותך ג' מבניך מן האור מאן נינהו חנניה מישאל ועזריה,צדקה ממני מנא ידע יצתה בת קול ואמרה ממני יצאו כבושים,(בראשית לח, כו) ולא יסף עוד לדעתה אמר שמואל סבא חמוה דרב שמואל בר אמי משמיה דרב שמואל בר אמי כיון שידעה שוב לא פסק ממנה כתיב הכא ולא יסף עוד לדעתה וכתיב התם (דברים ה, יט) קול גדול ולא יסף,אבשלום נתגאה בשערו וכו' ת"ר אבשלום בשערו מרד שנאמר (שמואל ב יד, כה) וכאבשלום לא היה איש יפה וגו' ובגלחו את ראשו (וגו') והיה מקץ ימים לימים אשר יגלח כי כבד עליו וגלחו ושקל את שער ראשו מאתים שקלים באבן המלך תנא אבן שאנשי טבריא ואנשי ציפורי שוקלים בה,לפיכך נתלה בשערו שנאמר (שמואל ב יח, ט) ויקרא אבשלום לפני עבדי דוד ואבשלום רוכב על הפרד ויבא הפרד תחת שובך האלה הגדולה ויאחז ראשו באלה ויותן בין השמים ובין הארץ והפרד אשר תחתיו עבר [שקל ספסירא בעא למיפסקיה] תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל באותה שעה נבקע שאול מתחתיו,(שמואל ב יט, א) וירגז המלך ויעל על עליית השער ויבך וכה אמר בלכתו בני אבשלום בני בני [אבשלום] מי יתן מותי אני תחתיך אבשלום בני בני והמלך לאט את פניו ויזעק המלך קול גדול בני אבשלום אבשלום בני בני הני תמניא בני למה שבעה דאסקיה משבעה מדורי גיהנם ואידך איכא דאמרי דקריב רישיה לגבי גופיה ואיכא דאמרי דאייתיה לעלמא דאתי,(שמואל ב יח, יח) ואבשלום לקח ויצב לו בחייו מאי לקח אמר ריש לקיש שלקח מקח רע לעצמו את מצבת אשר בעמק המלך וגו' א"ר חנינא בר פפא בעצה עמוקה של מלכו של עולם 10b. but b rather /b as b i vayyakri /i , and he caused /b others b to call. /b This b teaches that Abraham our forefather caused the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, to be called /b out b in the mouth of all passersby. How so? After /b the guests of Abraham b ate and drank, they arose to bless him. He said to them: But did you eat from /b what is b mine? /b Rather, b you ate from /b the food of b the God of the world. /b Therefore, b you /b should b thank and praise and bless the One Who spoke and the world was /b created. In this way, Abraham caused everyone to call out to God.,The Gemara continues its discussion of the incident of Judah and Tamar. It is written: b “When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a prostitute, for she had covered her face” /b (Genesis 38:15). The Gemara asks: b Because she had covered her face he thought her to be a prostitute? /b Prostitutes usually uncover their faces in order to attract men., b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The verse means b that /b Tamar b covered her face in the home of her father-in-law, /b Judah. Therefore, he did not recognize her when her face was uncovered. b As Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says /b that b Rabbi Yonatan says: Any daughter-in-law who is modest in the house of her father-in-law merits that kings and prophets emerge from her. From where do we /b derive this? b From Tamar. Prophets /b emerged from her, b as it is written: “The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz” /b (Isaiah 1:1). b Kings /b emerged from her, as seen b from David. And Rabbi Levi says: This matter is a tradition /b that b we /b received b from our ancestors: Amoz, /b father of Isaiah, b and Amaziah, /b king of Judea, b were brothers. /b This indi-cates that Isaiah was also from the house of David and therefore a descendant of Tamar.,The verse describes Tamar’s court hearing: b “When she was brought forth [ i mutzet /i ], /b she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man whose these are, am I with child” (Genesis 38:25). The Gemara comments: b It should have /b stated: b When she was i mitutzet /i . /b The word i mutzet /i also carries the implication of being found. What then, is taught by the use of that term? b Rabbi Elazar says: After her signs, /b which she was using to prove that she was impregnated by Judah, b were brought out, /b the evil angel b Samael came and distanced them /b from each other in an attempt to prevent Judah’s admission and Tamar’s survival, which would enable the birth of King David. The angel b Gabriel /b then b came and moved /b the signs b closer /b again. Therefore, the word i mutzet /i is used, as it alludes to the signs being found again.,The Gemara comments: b This is as it is written: “For the leader, upon i yonat eilem reḥokim /i , a psalm [ i mikhtam /i ] of David” /b (Psalms 56:1). b Rabbi Yoḥa says /b the verse means: b From the moment that her signs were distanced [ i reḥokim /i ], she became like a mute dove [ i yona illemet /i ]. /b And the phrase b “a psalm [ i mikhtam /i ] of David” /b means: The one b from whom David emerged, as he was modest [ i makh /i ] and flawless [ i tam /i ] with everyone. Alternatively, i mikhtam /i /b indicates b that i makkato /i , /b the place on his body that would have required wounding [ i makka /i ], b was complete [ i tama /i ], /b i.e., b that /b David b was born circumcised. Alternatively, i mikhtam /i /b indicates that b just as in his youth /b David b made himself small in front of one who was greater than him /b in order b to learn Torah /b from that person, b so too, when he became great /b and was crowned king, he still behaved in this manner, so that his modesty, i makh /i , was complete, i tam /i , all of his life.,The verse concerning Tamar then states: b “She sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man whose these are, am I with child” /b (Genesis 38:25). The Gemara comments: b And let her say to him /b explicitly that she was impregnated by him. b Rav Zutra bar Tuviyya says /b that b Rav says, and some say Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida says, and some say /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is more amenable for a person to throw himself into a fiery furnace /b if faced with the choice of publicly embarrassing another or remaining silent even if it leads to being burned, b and not humiliate another in public. From where do we /b derive this? b From Tamar, /b as she was prepared to be burned if Judah did not confess, rather than humiliate him in public.,The verse continues: “And she said: b Discern, please, /b whose are these, the signet, and the cords, and the staff” (Genesis 38:25). b Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: With /b use of the word b discern /b Judah b informed his father /b that Joseph was lost, and also b with /b use of the word b discern they informed /b Judah about the signs. The Gemara explains: b With /b the word b discern he informed /b Jacob his father when he brought him the coat of Joseph and said to his father: “And they sent the coat of many colors, and they brought it to their father; and said: This have we found. b Discern now whether it is your son’s coat /b or not” (Genesis 37:32). b With /b the word b discern they informed him: /b “And she said: b Discern, please, whose are /b these.”,It states: “Discern, b please [ i na /i ].” /b The word b i na /i /b is b nothing other /b than b a language of request. /b The Gemara explains: b She said to him: I request of you: Discern the image of your Creator /b in every person, b and do not avert your eyes from me. /b ,The verse states: b “And Judah acknowledged them, and said: She is more righteous than I; /b forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son” (Genesis 38:26). b This is /b the same b as Rav Ḥanin bar Bizna says /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida says: Joseph, who sanctified the name of Heaven in private /b by not committing adultery with the wife of Potiphar, b merited that one letter from the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, was added to his /b name, b as it is written: “He appointed it in Joseph [ i bihosef /i ] for a testimony in his name, /b when He went forth against the land of Egypt” (Psalms 81:6). In this verse the name Joseph is written with an additional letter i heh /i , found in the ineffable name of God.,He continues: b Judah, who sanctified the name of Heaven in public, merited that his entire /b name b is called by the name of the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b for all the letters of the ineffable name of God are included within the name of Judah, with the addition of the letter i dalet /i . b When he confessed and said: “She is more righteous than I,” a Divine Voice went forth and said: You saved Tamar and her two children /b in her womb b from /b being burned by b the fire. /b By b your life, /b i.e., b in your merit, I will save three of your children from the fire. /b And b who are they? Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah /b (see Daniel, chapter 3).,Judah said: b “She is more righteous than I [ i mimmenni /i ].” /b The word “ i mimmenni /i ” can also be understood as “from me,” with Judah thereby admitting that he is the father. The Gemara asks: b From where did he know /b that it was in fact from him that Tamar was pregt? The Gemara answers: b A Divine Voice went forth and said: From Me these hidden /b matters b emerged, /b and this woman will be the mother of royalty, which requires that Judah be the father.,The same verse continues: b “And he knew her [ i leda’atah /i ] again no more [ i velo yasaf /i ],” /b seemingly indicating that Judah did not engage in sexual intercourse with Tamar again. b Shmuel the Elder, father-in-law of Rav Shmuel bar Ami, says in the name of Rav Shmuel bar Ami: /b The verse actually means that b once he knew /b of b her /b that her intentions were for the sake of Heaven, b he did not desist from /b engaging in sexual intercourse with b her again, /b as b it is written here: “ i Velo yasaf od leda’atah /i ,” and it is written there /b at the giving of the Torah: “These words the Lord spoke unto all your assembly in the mount out of the midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness, b with a great voice and it went on no more [ i velo yasaf /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 5:18), which is interpreted to mean: A great voice that did not cease.,§ The mishna teaches: b Absalom was /b excessively b proud of his hair, /b and therefore he was hung by his hair. b The Sages taught /b ( i Tosefta /i 3:16): b Absalom rebelled /b and sinned b due to his hair, as it is stated: /b “Now in all Israel b there was none /b to be so much praised b as Absalom for his beauty; /b from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him. b And when he shaved his head, as it was at every year’s end that he shaved it; because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he shaved it, and he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred shekels, by the king’s stone” /b (II Samuel 14:25–26). What is the king’s stone? The Sages b taught: A stone with which the people of Tiberias and the people of Tzippori weigh /b items.,The i baraita /i continues: And since he was proud of his hair, b therefore, he was hung by his hair, as it is stated /b in the verse describing the battle between the forces of David and Absalom: b “And Absalom chanced to meet the servants of David. And Absalom was riding upon his mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great terebinth, and his head caught hold of the terebinth, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was under him went on” /b (II Samuel 18:9). After he was spotted by the opposing troops, Absalom b took a sword [ i safseira /i ] and wanted to cut his hair /b to save himself. b The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: At that moment, /b the gates of b the netherworld opened beneath him /b and he was afraid to fall into it, so he did not cut his hair, and he was killed by the opposing troops.,It is written with regard to David’s reaction after he learns of the death of Absalom: b “And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept; and as he went about he said: O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died in your place, O Absalom, my son, my son” /b (II Samuel 19:1), and a few verses later it adds: b “And the king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice: O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son” /b (II Samuel 19:5). The Gemara asks: b Why /b are there b these eight /b mentions of b “my son” /b by David, i.e., to what do they correspond? The Gemara answers: b Seven /b times he said “my son,” by b which he raised him up from the seven chambers of Gehenna. And /b as for b the other, /b eighth, time, b some say that /b David b brought /b the b head /b of Absalom b close to /b Absalom’s b body, and some say that /b with this eighth mention David b brought /b Absalom b to the World-to-Come. /b ,It is written there: b “Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himself /b the pillar, which is in the king’s valley; for he said: I have no son to keep my name in remembrance” (II Samuel 18:18). The Gemara asks: b What did /b Absalom b take? Reish Lakish says: He engaged in a bad transaction for himself /b by accepting bad advice for which he was punished. The verse continues: b “The pillar, which is in the king’s valley [ i be’emek hammelekh /i ].” Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa says: /b This alludes to the pillar that is b in the deep [ i amukka /i ] counsel of the King [ i melekh /i ] of the universe, /b as God had already decreed in the aftermath of the incident with Bathsheba that this would occur.
29. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 232
14a. משל דאחשורוש והמן למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם לאחד היה לו תל בתוך שדהו ולאחד היה לו חריץ בתוך שדהו בעל חריץ אמר מי יתן לי תל זה בדמים בעל התל אמר מי יתן לי חריץ זה בדמים,לימים נזדווגו זה אצל זה אמר לו בעל חריץ לבעל התל מכור לי תילך אמר לו טול אותה בחנם והלואי,ויסר המלך את טבעתו אמר רבי אבא בר כהנא גדולה הסרת טבעת יותר מארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות שנתנבאו להן לישראל שכולן לא החזירום למוטב ואילו הסרת טבעת החזירתן למוטב,ת"ר ארבעים ושמונה נביאים ושבע נביאות נתנבאו להם לישראל ולא פחתו ולא הותירו על מה שכתוב בתורה חוץ ממקרא מגילה,מאי דרוש אמר רבי חייא בר אבין אמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה ומה מעבדות לחירות אמרי' שירה ממיתה לחיים לא כל שכן,אי הכי הלל נמי נימא לפי שאין אומרים הלל על נס שבחוצה לארץ יציאת מצרים דנס שבחוצה לארץ היכי אמרינן שירה,כדתניא עד שלא נכנסו ישראל לארץ הוכשרו כל ארצות לומר שירה משנכנסו ישראל לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה,רב נחמן אמר קרייתא זו הלילא רבא אמר בשלמא התם (תהלים קיג, א) הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי פרעה אלא הכא הללו עבדי ה' ולא עבדי אחשורוש אכתי עבדי אחשורוש אנן,בין לרבא בין לר"נ קשיא והא תניא משנכנסו לארץ לא הוכשרו כל הארצות לומר שירה כיון שגלו חזרו להכשירן הראשון,ותו ליכא והכתיב (שמואל א א, א) ויהי איש אחד מן הרמתים צופים אחד ממאתים צופים שנתנבאו להם לישראל,מיהוה טובא הוו כדתניא הרבה נביאים עמדו להם לישראל כפלים כיוצאי מצרים אלא נבואה שהוצרכה לדורות נכתבה ושלא הוצרכה לא נכתבה,רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר אדם הבא משתי רמות שצופות זו את זו רבי חנין אמר אדם הבא מבני אדם שעומדין ברומו של עולם ומאן נינהו בני קרח דכתיב (במדבר כו, יא) ובני קרח לא מתו תנא משום רבינו מקום נתבצר להם בגיהנם ועמדו עליו,שבע נביאות מאן נינהו שרה מרים דבורה חנה אביגיל חולדה ואסתר שרה דכתיב (בראשית יא, כט) אבי מלכה ואבי יסכה ואמר ר' יצחק יסכה זו שרה ולמה נקרא שמה יסכה שסכתה ברוח הקדש שנאמר (בראשית כא, יב) כל אשר תאמר אליך שרה שמע בקולה ד"א יסכה שהכל סוכין ביופיה,מרים דכתיב (שמות טו, כ) ותקח מרים הנביאה אחות אהרן ולא אחות משה אמר ר"נ אמר רב שהיתה מתנבאה כשהיא אחות אהרן ואומרת עתידה אמי שתלד בן שיושיע את ישראל ובשעה שנולד נתמלא כל הבית כולו אורה עמד אביה ונשקה על ראשה אמר לה בתי נתקיימה נבואתיך,וכיון שהשליכוהו ליאור עמד אביה וטפחה על ראשה ואמר לה בתי היכן נבואתיך היינו דכתיב (שמות ב, ד) ותתצב אחותו מרחוק לדעה לדעת מה יהא בסוף נבואתה,דבורה דכתיב (שופטים ד, ד) ודבורה אשה נביאה אשת לפידות מאי אשת לפידות שהיתה עושה פתילות למקדש,(שופטים ד, ה) והיא יושבת תחת תומר מאי שנא תחת תומר אמר ר' שמעון בן אבשלום משום יחוד דבר אחר מה תמר זה אין לו אלא לב אחד אף ישראל שבאותו הדור לא היה להם אלא לב אחד לאביהן שבשמים,חנה דכתיב (שמואל א ב, א) ותתפלל חנה ותאמר עלץ לבי בה' רמה קרני בה' רמה קרני ולא רמה פכי דוד ושלמה שנמשחו בקרן נמשכה מלכותן שאול ויהוא שנמשחו בפך לא נמשכה מלכותן,(שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך אמר רב יהודה בר מנשיא אל תקרי בלתך אלא לבלותך שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו אבל הקדוש ברוך הוא מבלה מעשה ידיו,(שמואל א ב, ב) ואין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו אדם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים אבל הקב"ה צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים,אביגיל דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיה היא רוכבת על החמור ויורדת בסתר ההר בסתר ההר מן ההר מיבעי ליה,אמר רבה בר שמואל על עסקי דם הבא מן הסתרים נטלה דם והראתה לו אמר לה וכי מראין דם בלילה אמרה לו וכי דנין דיני נפשות בלילה אמר לה 14a. The actions of b Ahasuerus and Haman /b can be understood with b a parable; to what may they be compared? To two individuals, one /b of whom b had a mound in the middle of his field and the other /b of whom b had a ditch in the middle of his field, /b each one suffering from his own predicament. b The owner of the ditch, /b noticing the other’s mound of dirt, b said /b to himself: b Who will give me this mound /b of dirt suitable for filling in my ditch; I would even be willing to pay b for /b it with b money, /b and b the owner of the mound, /b noticing the other’s ditch, b said /b to himself: b Who will give me this ditch for money, /b so that I may use it to remove the mound of earth from my property?,At a later point, b one day, they /b happened to have b met one another. The owner of the ditch said to the owner of the mound: Sell me your mound /b so I can fill in my ditch. The mound’s owner, anxious to rid himself of the excess dirt on his property, b said to him: Take it for free; if only /b you had done so sooner. Similarly, Ahasuerus himself wanted to destroy the Jews. As he was delighted that Haman had similar aspirations and was willing to do the job for him, he demanded no money from him.,§ The verse states: b “And the king removed his ring /b from his hand” (Esther 3:10). b Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: The removal of /b Ahasuerus’s b ring /b for the sealing of Haman’s decree b was more effective than the forty-eight prophets and the seven prophetesses who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. As, they were all unable to return /b the Jewish people b to the right way, but the removal of /b Ahasuerus’s b ring returned them to the right way, /b since it brought them to repentance., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, and they neither subtracted from nor added onto what is written in the Torah, /b introducing no changes or additions to the mitzvot b except for the reading of the Megilla, /b which they added as an obligation for all future generations.,The Gemara asks: b What exposition /b led them to determine that this was a proper mode of action? On what basis did they add this mitzva? b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said /b that they reasoned as follows: b If, /b when recalling the exodus from Egypt, in which the Jews were delivered b from slavery to freedom, we recite songs /b of praise, the Song of the Sea and the hymns of i hallel /i , then, in order to properly recall the miracle of Purim and commemorate God’s delivering us b from death to life, /b is it b not all the more so /b the case that we must sing God’s praise by reading the story in the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: b If so, /b our obligation should be at least as great as when we recall the exodus from Egypt, and b let us also recite i hallel /i /b on Purim. The Gemara answers: i Hallel /i is not said on Purim, b because i hallel /i is not recited on a miracle /b that occurred b outside Eretz /b Yisrael. The Gemara asks: If so, with regard to b the exodus from Egypt /b as well, b which was a miracle /b that occurred b outside Eretz /b Yisrael, b how are we able to recite songs /b of praise?,The Gemara answers: b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Prior to /b the time when b the Jewish people entered Eretz /b Yisrael, b all lands were /b deemed b fit /b for b songs /b of praise b to be recited /b for miracles performed within their borders, as all lands were treated equally. But b after the Jewish people entered Eretz /b Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, b and all the /b other b lands were no longer /b deemed b fit /b for b songs /b of praise b to be recited /b for miracles performed within them., b Rav Naḥman said /b an alternative answer as to why i hallel /i is not recited on Purim: b The reading of /b the Megilla itself b is /b an act of reciting b i hallel /i . Rava said /b a third reason why i hallel /i is not recited on Purim: b Granted /b that i hallel /i is said b there, /b when recalling the exodus from Egypt, as after the salvation there, they could recite the phrase in i hallel /i : b “Give praise, O servants of the Lord” /b (Psalms 113:1); after their servitude to Pharaoh ended with their salvation, they were truly servants of the Lord b and not servants of Pharaoh. But /b can it be said b here, /b after the limited salvation commemorated on Purim: b “Give praise, O servants of the Lord,” /b which would indicate that after the salvation the Jewish people were only servants of the Lord b and not servants of Ahasuerus? /b No, even after the miracle of Purim, b we were still the servants of Ahasuerus, /b as the Jews remained in exile under Persian rule, and consequently the salvation, which was incomplete, did not merit an obligation to say i hallel /i .,The Gemara asks: b Both according to /b the opinion of b Rava and according to /b the opinion of b Rav Naḥman, /b this is b difficult. Isn’t it taught /b in the i baraita /i cited earlier: b After the Jewish people entered Eretz /b Yisrael, that land became endowed with greater sanctity, b and all the /b other b lands were no longer /b deemed b fit /b for b songs /b of praise b to be recited /b for miracles performed within them. Therefore, there should be no i hallel /i obligation on Purim for the miracle performed outside of the land of Israel, and Rav Naḥman’s and Rava’s alternative explanations are incorrect. The Gemara answers: They understood differently, as it can be argued that b when /b the people b were exiled /b from Eretz Yisrael, the other lands b returned to their initial suitability, /b and were once again deemed fit for reciting i hallel /i on miracles performed within them.,With regard to the statement that forty-eight prophets and seven prophetesses prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people, the Gemara asks: b Is there no one else? Isn’t it written /b with regard to Samuel’s father, Elkanah: b “And there was a certain [ i eḥad /i ] man from Ramathaim-zophim” /b (I Samuel 1:1), which is expounded as follows to indicate that Elkanah was a prophet: He was b one [ i eḥad /i ] of two hundred [ i mata’im /i ] prophets [ i tzofim /i ] who prophesied on behalf of the Jewish people. /b If so, why was it stated here that there were only forty-eight prophets?,The Gemara answers: In fact, b there were more /b prophets, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Many prophets arose for the Jewish people, /b numbering b double the /b number of Israelites b who left Egypt. However, /b only a portion of the prophecies were recorded, because only b prophecy that was needed for /b future b generations was written /b down in the Bible for posterity, b but that which was not needed, /b as it was not pertinent to later generations, b was not written. /b Therefore, the fifty-five prophets recorded in the Bible, although not the only prophets of the Jewish people, were the only ones recorded, due to their eternal messages., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b another explanation of the verse “And there was a certain man from Ramathaim-zophim”: b A man who comes from two heights [ i ramot /i ] that face [ i tzofot /i ] one another. Rabbi Ḥanin said /b an additional interpretation: b A man who descends from people who stood at the height of [ i rumo /i ] the world. /b The Gemara asks: b And who are these /b people? The Gemara answers: These are the b sons of Korah, as it is written: “But the sons of Korah did not die” /b (Numbers 26:11), and with regard to them b it is taught in the name of our teacher, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: A high b place was set aside for them in Gehenna, /b as the sons of Korah repented in their hearts, and were consequently not propelled very far down in Gehenna when the earth opened to swallow Korah and his followers; b and they stood on /b this high place and sung to the Lord. They alone stood at the height of the lower world.,§ The Gemara asks with regard to the prophetesses recorded in the i baraita /i : b Who were the seven prophetesses? /b The Gemara answers: b Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther. /b The Gemara offers textual support: b Sarah, as it is written: /b “Haran, b the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah” /b (Genesis 11:29). b And Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Iscah is /b in fact b Sarah. And why was she called Iscah? For she saw [ i sakhta /i ] by means of divine inspiration, as it is stated: “In all that Sarah has said to you, hearken to her voice” /b (Genesis 21:12). b Alternatively, /b Sarah was also called b Iscah, for all gazed [ i sokhin /i ] upon her beauty. /b , b Miriam /b was a prophetess, b as it is written /b explicitly: b “And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took /b a timbrel in her hand” (Exodus 15:20). The Gemara asks: Was she the sister only of Aaron, b and not the sister of Moses? /b Why does the verse mention only one of her brothers? b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rav said: For she prophesied when she was the sister of Aaron, /b i.e., she prophesied since her youth, even before Moses was born, b and she would say: My mother is destined to bear a son who will deliver the Jewish people /b to salvation. b And at the time when /b Moses b was born the entire house was filled with light, /b and b her father stood and kissed her on the head, /b and b said to her: My daughter, your prophecy has been fulfilled. /b , b But once /b Moses b was cast into the river, her father arose and rapped her on the head, saying to her: My daughter, where is your prophecy /b now, as it looked as though the young Moses would soon meet his end. b This is /b the meaning of b that /b which b is written /b with regard to Miriam’s watching Moses in the river: b “And his sister stood at a distance to know /b what would be done to him” b ( /b Exodus 2:4), i.e., b to know what would be with the end of her prophecy, /b as she had prophesied that her brother was destined to be the savior of the Jewish people., b Deborah /b was a prophetess, b as it is written /b explicitly: b “And Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth” /b (Judges 4:4). The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of b “the wife of Lappidoth”? /b The Gemara answers: b For she used to make wicks for the Sanctuary, /b and due to the flames [ i lappidot /i ] on these wicks she was called the wife of Lappidoth, literally, a woman of flames.,With regard to Deborah, it says: b “And she sat under a palm tree” /b (Judges 4:5). The Gemara asks: b What is different /b and unique with regard to her sitting b “under a palm tree” /b that there is a need for it to be written? b Rabbi Shimon ben Avshalom said: /b It is b due to /b the prohibition against b being alone together /b with a man. Since men would come before her for judgment, she established for herself a place out in the open and visible to all, in order to avoid a situation in which she would be secluded with a man behind closed doors. b Alternatively, /b the verse means: b Just as a palm tree has only one heart, /b as a palm tree does not send out separate branches, but rather has only one main trunk, b so too, the Jewish people in that generation had only one heart, /b directed b to their Father in Heaven. /b , b Hannah /b was a prophetess, b as it is written: “And Hannah prayed and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord” /b (I Samuel 2:1), and her words were prophecy, in that she said: b “My horn is exalted,” and not: My pitcher is exalted. /b As, with regard to b David and Solomon, who were anointed /b with oil b from a horn, their kingship continued, /b whereas with regard to b Saul and Jehu, who were anointed /b with oil b from a pitcher, their kingship did not continue. /b This demonstrates that Hannah was a prophetess, as she prophesied that only those anointed with oil from a horn will merit that their kingships continue.,Apropos the song of Hannah, the Gemara further explains her words: b “There is none sacred as the Lord; for there is none beside You [ i biltekha /i ]” /b (I Samuel 2:2). b Rav Yehuda bar Menashya said: Do not read /b it as b i biltekha /i , /b “beside You,” b but rather /b read it as b i levalotekha /i , /b to outlast You. b As the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is unlike the attribute of flesh and blood. /b It is an attribute of man that b his handiwork outlasts him /b and continues to exist even after he dies, b but the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His handiwork, /b as He exists eternally.,Hannah further said: b “Neither is there any rock [ i tzur /i ] like our God” /b (I Samuel 2:1). This can be understood as saying that b there is no artist [ i tzayyar /i ] like our God. /b How is He better than all other artists? b Man fashions a form upon a wall, but is unable to endow it with breath and a soul, /b or fill it with b innards and intestines, whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions a form /b of a fetus b inside the form /b of its mother, rather than on a flat surface, b and endows it with breath and a soul /b and fills it with b innards and intestines. /b , b Abigail /b was a prophetess, b as it is written: “And it was so, as she rode on the donkey, and came down by the covert of the mountain” /b (I Samuel 25:20). The Gemara asks: Why does it say: b “By the covert [ i beseter /i ] of the mountain”? It should have said: From the mountain. /b ,The Gemara answers that in fact this must be understood as an allusion to something else. b Rabba bar Shmuel said: Abigail, /b in her attempt to prevent David from killing her husband Nabal, came to David and questioned him b on account of /b menstrual b blood that comes from the hidden parts [ i setarim /i ] /b of a body. How so? b She took /b a blood-stained cloth b and showed it to him, /b asking him to rule on her status, whether or not she was ritually impure as a menstruating woman. b He said to her: Is blood shown at night? /b One does not examine blood-stained cloths at night, as it is difficult to distinguish between the different shades by candlelight. b She said to him: /b If so, you should also remember another i halakha /i : b Are /b cases of b capital law tried at night? /b Since one does not try capital cases at night, you cannot condemn Nabal to death at night. David b said to her: /b
30. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
23b. ומדינים כבריח ארמון אח נפשע מקרית עוז זה לוט שפירש מאברהם ומדינים כבריח ארמון שהטיל מדינים כבריחין וארמון (דברים כג, ד) לא יבא עמוני ומואבי בקהל ה',דרש רבא ואיתימא רבי יצחק מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, א) לתאוה יבקש נפרד ובכל תושיה יתגלע לתאוה יבקש נפרד זה לוט ובכל תושיה יתגלע שנתגלה קלונו בבתי כנסיות ובבתי מדרשות דתנן עמוני ומואבי אסורין ואיסורן איסור עולם,אמר עולא תמר זינתה זמרי זינה,תמר זינתה יצאו ממנה מלכים ונביאים זמרי זינה נפלו עליו כמה רבבות מישראל,אמר ר"נ בר יצחק גדולה עבירה לשמה ממצוה שלא לשמה והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן,אלא אימא כמצוה שלא לשמה דכתיב (שופטים ה, כד) תבורך מנשים יעל אשת חבר הקני מנשים באהל תבורך מאן נשים שבאהל שרה רבקה רחל ולאה,א"ר יוחנן שבע בעילות בעל אותו רשע באותה שעה שנאמר (שופטים ה, כז) בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב וגו',והא קא מתהניא מבעילה דיליה א"ר יוחנן כל טובתן של רשעים אינה אלא רעה אצל צדיקים,שנאמר (בראשית לא, כט) השמר לך מדבר עם יעקב מטוב ועד רע בשלמא רע שפיר אלא טוב אמאי לא אלא לאו ש"מ טובתו רעה היא ש"מ:,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות אפי' שלא לשמן שמתוך שלא לשמן בא לשמן שבשכר מ"ב קרבנות שהקריב בלק הרשע זכה ויצאה ממנו רות וא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא רות בת בנו של עגלון מלך מואב היתה,א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן מנין שאין הקב"ה מקפח אפי' שכר שיחה נאה דאילו בכירה דקריתיה מואב א"ל רחמנא (דברים ב, ט) אל תצר את מואב ואל תתגר בם מלחמה מלחמה הוא דלא אבל צעורי צערינן,ואילו צעירה דקריתיה בן עמי אמר ליה (דברים ב, יט) אל תצורם ואל תתגר בם אפילו צעורי לא תצערינן כלל,א"ר חייא בר אבין א"ר יהושע בן קרחה לעולם יקדים אדם לדבר מצוה שבשכר לילה אחת שקדמתה בכירה לצעירה 23b. b and their contentions are like the bars of a castle” /b (Proverbs 18:19)? b “A brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city,” this is Lot, /b called Abraham’s brother (see Genesis 14:14), b who separated from Abraham. “And their contentions are like the bars of a castle,” /b this is b because /b Lot b brought contention /b between the Jewish people and his own descendants b like bars, /b which lock the gates of b a castle. /b Just as no one can enter a locked castle, so too Lot’s descendants, Ammon and Moab, were prevented from joining the Jewish people, as it states: b “An Ammonite and a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the Lord” /b (Deuteronomy 23:4).,On the same issue, b Rava expounded /b a verse b homiletically, and some say /b it was b Rabbi Yitzḥak: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “He who separates himself seeks his own desire, and snarls against all sound wisdom” /b (Proverbs 18:1)? b “He who separates himself seeks his own desire,” this is Lot, /b who separated from Abraham. b “And snarls [ i yitgala /i ] against all sound wisdom,” /b this too describes Lot, b as his shame was /b eventually b revealed [ i nitgala /i ] in the synagogues, /b when his actions recorded in the Torah are read in public, b and in the study halls, /b where the i halakhot /i of his descendants are taught. b As we learned /b in a mishna: b An Ammonite and a Moabite are prohibited /b from entering the congregation by marrying a Jewish woman, b and their prohibition is permanent. /b ,§ In relation to the preceding discussion with regard to the daughters of Lot, who acted in a wanton manner for the sake of a mitzva, the Gemara cites that which b Ulla said: Tamar engaged in licentious /b sexual intercourse with her father-in-law, Judah (see Genesis, chapter 38), and b Zimri /b ben Salu also b engaged in licentious /b sexual intercourse with a Midianite woman (see Numbers, chapter 25).,Yet despite the similarity between their actions, b Tamar engaged in licentious /b sexual intercourse for the sake of a mitzva, to have children, and therefore she merited that b kings /b of the House of David b descended from her. /b King David’s lineage traces back to Tamar’s son Peretz (see Ruth 4:18–22). b And /b she also merited to be the ancestor of b prophets, /b e.g., Isaiah, who was related to the royal family. Conversely, with regard to b Zimri, /b who b engaged in licentious /b sexual intercourse for the purpose of a transgression, b several multitudes of Israel fell due to him; /b twenty-four thousand in a plague (see Numbers 25:9). This shows that a great deal depends on one’s intentions.,§ b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Greater is a transgression /b committed b for its own sake, /b i.e., for the sake of Heaven, b than a mitzva /b performed b not for its own sake. /b The Gemara questions this comparison: b But didn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Rav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, as /b it is b through /b acts performed b not for their own sake /b that good deeds b for their own sake come /b about? How, then, can any transgression be considered greater than a mitzva not for the sake of Heaven?, b Rather, /b one must emend the above statement and b say /b as follows: A transgression for the sake of Heaven is b equivalent to a mitzva not for its own sake. /b The proof is b as it is written: “Blessed above women shall Yael be, the wife of Hever the Kenite, above women in the tent she shall be blessed” /b (Judges 5:24), and it is taught: b Who are /b these b “women in the tent?” /b They are b Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah. /b Yael’s forbidden intercourse with Sisera for the sake of Heaven is compared to the sexual intercourse in which the Matriarchs engaged.,The Gemara asks: How is it derived that Yael engaged in sexual intercourse with Sisera? As b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That wicked one, /b Sisera, b engaged in seven acts of sexual intercourse /b with Yael b at that time, as it is stated: “Between her feet he sunk, he fell, he lay; /b between her feet he sunk, he fell; where he sunk, there he fell down dead” (Judges 5:27). Each mention of falling is referring to another act of intercourse.,The Gemara asks: b But /b Yael at least b enjoyed the sexual intercourse /b with b him; /b why is the verse so effusive in her praise? b Rabbi Yoḥa said: All the good of the wicked, /b i.e., anything good received from wicked people, b is nothing other /b than b evil for the righteous, /b and therefore she certainly derived no pleasure from the act.,The Gemara asks: From where is this principle derived? b As /b it b is stated /b in the verse that God warned Laban the Aramean, when he was chasing Jacob: b “Guard yourself from speaking to Jacob, from good to evil” /b (Genesis 31:24). b Granted, /b with regard to the warning against speaking b evil, /b it is b fine /b that Laban was warned not to harm Jacob. b However, why shouldn’t /b he say anything b good /b to Jacob? b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from /b this verse that even Laban’s b good is bad /b in Jacob’s eyes? The Gemara concludes: b Learn from this /b that it is so.,§ The Gemara returns to analyze in greater detail b the /b above matter b itself. Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: A person should always occupy himself with Torah and mitzvot even not for their own sake, as through /b these acts performed b not for their own sake, /b good deeds b for their own sake come /b about. The proof for this is b that in reward for the forty-two offerings that the wicked Balak sacrificed /b (see Numbers, chapter 23), although he did not do so for the sake of Heaven but to facilitate the cursing of the Jewish people, nevertheless b he merited that Ruth descended from him. /b Not only was he the forebear of a righteous convert, but also of King David. b And /b this is as b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Ruth was the daughter of the son of Eglon, king of Moab, /b who descended from Balak, king of Moab., b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: From where /b is it derived b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not deprive /b one of b even /b the b reward for proper speech, /b i.e., for speaking in a refined manner? b As while /b there is the case of Lot’s b elder /b daughter, b who called /b her son b Moab [ i mo’av /i ], /b which alludes to his shameful origins, as i me’av /i means: From father, b and the Merciful One says to /b Moses: b “Do not besiege Moab, nor contend with them in war” /b (Deuteronomy 2:9), which indicates: It is b war that is not /b permitted; b however, /b with regard to b harassing, /b the Jews were permitted b to harass them. /b , b And while /b there is the case of Lot’s b younger /b daughter, b who called /b her son b Ben-Ami, /b son of my people, without explicitly mentioning her father. With regard to her descendants, God b said to /b Moses: b “Do not harass them, nor contend with them” /b (Deuteronomy 2:19), which means b even /b as far as b harassing /b is concerned, b you may not harass them at all. /b , b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: A person should always come first /b with regard b to a matter of a mitzva, as in reward of /b the b one night that the elder /b daughter of Lot b preceded the younger /b for the sake of a mitzva,
31. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 233
13a. מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big היד המרבה לבדוק בנשים משובחת ובאנשים תקצץ, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ש נשים ומאי שנא אנשים נשים לאו בנות הרגשה נינהו משובחות אנשים דבני הרגשה נינהו תקצץ,אי הכי מאי איריא מרבה כי לא מרבה נמי כי קתני מרבה אנשים,תנא בד"א לענין שכבת זרע אבל לענין זוב אף הוא משובח כנשים,ואפי' לענין שכבת זרע אם בא לבדוק בצרור או בחרס בודק,ובמטלית לא והתניא בודק עצמו במטלית ובכל דבר שרוצה כדאמר אביי במטלית עבה הכא נמי במטלית עבה,והיכא איתמר דאביי אהא דתנן היה אוכל בתרומה והרגיש שנזדעזעו איבריו אוחז באמתו ובולע את התרומה,אוחז והתניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמר אביי במטלית עבה,רבא אמר אפילו תימא במטלית רכה כיון דעקר עקר ואביי חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי ורבא לא חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי, ולא והתניא הא למה זה דומה לנותן אצבע בעין שכל זמן שאצבע בעין עין מדמעת וחוזרת ומדמעת,ורבא כל אחמומי והדר אחמומי בשעתיה לא שכיח,גופא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמה ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר והלא נצוצות נתזין על רגליו ונראה ככרות שפכה ונמצא מוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים,אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,תניא אידך אמר להן רבי אליעזר לחכמים אפשר יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה וישתין או ישתין בעפר תיחוח ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,הי אמר להו ברישא אילימא קמייתא אמר להו ברישא בתר דאמר להו איסורא הדר אמר להו תקנתא,אלא הא אמר להו ברישא ואמרו ליה אין לו מקום גבוה ועפר תיחוח מאי אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,וכל כך למה מפני שמוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה דא"ר יוחנן כל המוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה חייב מיתה שנאמר (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' (את) אשר עשה וימת גם אותו,רבי יצחק ורבי אמי אמרי כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, ה) הנחמים באלים תחת כל עץ רענן שוחטי הילדים בנחלים תחת סעיפי הסלעים אל תקרי שוחטי אלא סוחטי,רב אסי אמר כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתיב הכא תחת כל עץ רענן וכתיב התם (דברים יב, ב) על ההרים הרמים ותחת כל עץ רענן,רב יהודה ושמואל הוו קיימי אאיגרא דבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אמר ליה רב יהודה לשמואל צריך אני להשתין א"ל שיננא אחוז באמתך והשתן לחוץ,היכי עביד הכי והתניא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם,אמר אביי עשאו כבולשת דתנן בולשת שנכנס לעיר בשעת שלום חביות פתוחות אסורות סתומות מותרות בשעת מלחמה אלו ואלו מותרות לפי שאין להן פנאי לנסך אלמא דכיון דבעיתי לא אתי לנסוכי הכא נמי כיון דבעיתי לא אתי להרהורי,והכא מאי ביעתותא איכא איבעית אימא ביעתותא דליליא ודאיגרא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דרביה ואב"א ביעתותא דשכינה ואיבעית אימא אימתא דמריה עליה דקרי שמואל עליה אין זה ילוד אשה,ואיבעית אימא נשוי הוה דאמר רב נחמן אם היה נשוי מותר,ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דתני אבא בריה דרבי בנימין בר חייא אבל מסייע בביצים מלמטה ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן גבול יש לו מעטרה ולמטה מותר 13a. strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to b any hand that is diligent to examine /b bodily emissions to ascertain ritual impurity, b among women /b such a hand b is praiseworthy. But among men /b such a hand b should be severed, /b as this action is apt to lead to a seminal emission for naught., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about b women and what is different /b about b men, /b that women are praised for examining for bodily emissions while men are castigated for the same? The Gemara answers: b Women are not susceptible to /b sexual b arousal /b by this action, and therefore when a woman is diligent to examine herself she is considered b praiseworthy; /b whereas b men, who are susceptible to /b sexual b arousal /b and may experience a seminal emission as a result of this contact, may not do so, and the hand of a man who conducts frequent examinations for emissions b should be severed. /b ,The Gemara asks: b If so, why /b does the mishna state b specifically /b among men that only the hand that is b diligent /b to examine, i.e., that does so often, should be severed? Even b when /b a man b is not diligent /b to examine, but does so occasionally, this action is b also /b apt to cause a seminal emission. The Gemara answers: b When /b the mishna b teaches: /b Any hand that is b diligent /b to examine, it states this only b with regard to women, /b as men should not examine even occasionally.,The Gemara continues to discuss the examination of men for seminal emissions. It is b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b In what /b case b is this statement, /b that men should not examine themselves, b said? /b It is said b with regard to /b an examination for b semen. But with regard to /b a man who examines himself for gonorrhea-like b discharge [ i zov /i ], he too is praiseworthy /b for examining diligently, b as women /b are. The reason is that a man who experiences two such discharges is ritually impure but is not obligated to bring an offering, whereas one who experiences three such emissions must bring an offering as a i zav /i . Therefore, it is important for a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge to examine and count his emissions carefully.,The i baraita /i adds: b And even with regard to semen, if one wants to examine /b himself b with a rock or with /b a piece of b earthenware, /b which are hard and will not warm the body, b he may examine /b himself in this manner.,The Gemara asks: b And /b may a man b not /b examine himself b with /b a linen b cloth? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : A man b may examine himself with a cloth, /b to see if he has emitted semen, b or with any /b similar b item that he wants? /b The Gemara answers: Just b as Abaye said, /b with regard to a different issue, that it is referring b to a coarse cloth, /b which will not warm one’s body, b here too, /b the i baraita /i is referring b to a coarse cloth, /b which will not lead to a seminal emission.,The Gemara asks: b And where was /b this statement b of Abaye stated? /b It was stated b with regard to that which we learned /b in a mishna (40a): If a priest b was eating i teruma /i and he sensed that his limbs quaked, /b indicating that a seminal emission was imminent, he should firmly b hold his penis /b to prevent the emission from leaving his body, b and swallow the i teruma /i /b while ritually pure.,A difficulty was raised with regard to this mishna: May he actually b hold /b his penis? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b With regard to b anyone who holds his penis and urinates, /b it is considered b as though he is bringing a flood to the world, /b as masturbation was one of the sins that led to the flood ( i Sanhedrin /i 108b)? b Abaye says /b in resolution of this difficulty that the mishna is referring to one who holds his penis b with a coarse cloth. /b , b Rava says /b with regard to that mishna: b You /b may b even say /b that it is referring to a priest who holds his penis b with a soft cloth, /b and the reason it is permitted is that b once /b the semen b has /b already been b uprooted /b from his body, it is b uprooted, /b and his subsequent holding of the penis, even with a soft cloth, does not increase the emission of semen. b And Abaye /b prohibits the use of a soft cloth even here, as he is b concerned /b that b perhaps /b due to the contact of this cloth one might b come to increase /b the emission of semen. b But Rava is not concerned /b that b perhaps /b one might b come to increase /b the emission.,The Gemara asks: b And /b is Rava b not /b concerned for this possibility? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b To what is this /b repeated examination of a man b comparable? To /b one who b places a finger in /b his b eye, for as long as /b the b finger /b is b in the eye, /b the b eye will tear and continue to tear. /b Here too, the priest’s action will lead to an increased emission of semen.,The Gemara answers: b And Rava /b would claim that if the priest’s limbs were not quaking and the semen was coming out in drops, there is indeed a concern that an examination might increase the emission. But when he feels his limbs quaking, this concern does not apply. The reason is that with regard to b any warming /b of the body that leads to a seminal emission b and /b that is b then /b followed by another b warming at the time /b when the semen is being uprooted, it is b uncommon /b for the latter warming to increase the emission. Consequently, in this case the priest may hold his penis even with a soft cloth.,The Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rabbi Eliezer says: /b With regard to b anyone who holds /b his b penis and urinates, /b it is considered b as though he is bringing a flood to the world. /b The Rabbis b said to Rabbi Eliezer: But /b if one does not hold his penis, b small drops are sprayed on his legs, and he appears as one whose penis has been severed. /b A man with that affliction is incapable of fathering children. People who see urine on his legs might suspect that he is suffering from that condition b and as a result /b they will b cast aspersions about his children /b and say b that they are children born from a forbidden relationship [ i mamzerim /i ]. /b ,Rabbi Eliezer b said to them: It is preferable that /b people b cast aspersions about his children that they are i mamzerim /i , and he should not render himself wicked /b even b one moment before the Omnipresent. /b ,With regard to the same issue, it b is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer said to /b the other b Rabbis /b in response: It is b possible /b for one to avoid spraying urine on his legs. How so? b Let a person stand on an elevated place and urinate /b downward, b or urinate into /b an area where there is b loose soil, /b which absorbs the urine, so that it does not ricochet upward, b and he should not render himself wicked /b even b one moment before the Omnipresent. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Which /b of these replies b did /b Rabbi Eliezer b say to /b the Rabbis b first? If we say /b that it was the b first /b statement, i.e., that one should not hold his penis even if people might cast aspersions about his children, that he b said to /b the Rabbis b first, /b and subsequently he told them that there was a way to avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, this is difficult; b after saying to them /b that it is b a prohibition, would he then say to them /b a practical b remedy? /b By saying that one can avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, Rabbi Eliezer indicated that if one cannot do so he may hold his penis, which contradicts his other statement., b Rather, /b clearly b he said this /b practical solution b to /b the Rabbis b first, and they /b then b said to him: /b If b one does not have an elevated place or loose earth /b upon which he can urinate, b what /b should he do? In response to this question, b he said to them: It is preferable /b that people b cast aspersions about his children that they are i mamzerim /i , and he should not render himself wicked /b even b one moment before the Omnipresent. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b why must one refrain b to that extent /b from holding his penis? b Because /b as the result of holding his penis b he /b might b emit semen for naught. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who emits semen for naught is liable /b to receive the punishment of b death /b at the hand of Heaven, b as it is stated /b with regard to O, son of Judah: “And it came to pass, when he engaged in intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother. b And the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him also” /b (Genesis 38:9–10)., b Rabbi Yitzḥak and Rabbi Ami say: /b One who emits semen for naught is considered b as though he sheds blood, as it is stated: /b “But draw near here, you sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the harlot…Are you not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood, b you that inflame yourselves among the terebinths, under every leafy tree, that slay [ i shoḥatei /i ] the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks?” /b (Isaiah 57:3–5). b Do not read /b this word as b i shoḥatei /i ; rather, /b read it as b i soḥatei /i , /b i.e., one who squeezes out [ i soḥet /i ] semen is considered to have shed the blood of the children who could have been born from that seed., b Rav Asi says: /b It is considered b as though he worships idols, /b as b it is written here: “Under every leafy tree,” and it is written there, /b with regard to the mitzva of eradicating idols from Eretz Yisrael: “You shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess worshipped their gods, b upon the high mountains, /b and upon the hills, b and under every leafy tree” /b (Deuteronomy 12:2).,§ With regard to the issue of holding one’s penis for the purpose of urinating, the Gemara relates that b Rav Yehuda and Shmuel were standing on the roof of the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. Rav Yehuda said to Shmuel: /b What can I do? b I need to urinate. /b Shmuel b said to him: i Shina /i , hold your penis, /b so that the water does not fall onto the synagogue roof, b and urinate outward, /b away from the synagogue.,The Gemara asks: b How could /b Rav Yehuda b do so? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b With regard to b anyone who holds his penis and urinates, /b it is considered b as though he is bringing a flood to the world? /b , b Abaye says: /b The Sages b rendered /b the halakhic status of this situation b like /b that of b a troop of marauders, as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Avoda Zara /i 70b): With regard to b a troop of marauders that entered a town, /b if they did so b in a time of peace, open casks /b of wine b are forbidden, /b in case the marauders used the wine for libations in idol worship, whereas b sealed /b casks b are permitted. In a time of war, /b both b these and those are permitted, because /b the marauders b do not have leisure to pour libations. Evidently, since /b these marauders b are afraid, they will not come to pour libations. Here too, /b in this incident involving Rav Yehuda, b since he is afraid he will not come to have /b sexual b thoughts. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And what fear is there here, /b in the case of Rav Yehuda? The Gemara explains: b If you wish, say /b that there is b the fear of the night and of the roof, /b i.e., that he might fall. b And if you wish, say /b that b the awe of his teacher, /b Shmuel, is upon him. b And if you wish, say /b that b the awe of the Divine Presence /b that dwells in the synagogue is upon Rav Yehuda. b And if you wish, say /b that b the awe of his Master, /b God, is upon him. Rav Yehuda was renowned for his fear of Heaven, b as Shmuel declared about /b him: b This one is not born of a woman, /b but is like an angel., b And if you wish, say /b a different answer, that Rav Yehuda was allowed to hold his penis while urinating because he b was married; as Rav Naḥman said: If one is married, /b it is b permitted /b for him to hold his penis while urinating, as his improper sexual urges are not as strong., b And if you wish, say /b that Shmuel b ruled for /b Rav Yehuda b in accordance with this /b i baraita /i , b which Abba, son of Rabbi Binyamin bar Ḥiyya, teaches: /b One may not hold the penis itself while urinating, b but /b a man who wishes to urinate b may assist /b the process b by /b holding the b testicles from below. /b Shmuel instructed Rav Yehuda to act in this manner. b And if you wish, say /b that b Shmuel ruled /b for Rav Yehuda b in accordance with that which Rabbi Abbahu said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: There is /b a clear b demarcation /b in the prohibition against holding one’s penis while urinating: b From the corona and below, /b toward the tip of the penis, it is b permitted /b to hold, as this will not lead to arousal.
32. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 233
34b. והא תמר בביאה ראשונה איעברא א"ל תמר באצבע מעכה דאמר רבי יצחק כל מועכות של בית רבי תמר שמן ולמה נקרא שמן תמר ע"ש תמר שמעכה באצבעה והא הוו ער ואונן ער ואונן שמשו שלא כדרכן,מיתיבי כל עשרים וארבעה חדש דש מבפנים וזורה מבחוץ דברי ר' אליעזר א"ל הללו אינו אלא כמעשה ער ואונן,כמעשה ער ואונן ולא כמעשה ער ואונן כמעשה ער ואונן דכתיב (בראשית לח, ט) והיה אם בא אל אשת אחיו ושחת ארצה ולא כמעשה ער ואונן דאילו התם שלא כדרכה והכא כדרכה,בשלמא אונן דכתיב ביה ושחת ארצה אלא ער מנלן אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דכתיב (בראשית לח, י) וימת גם אותו אף הוא באותו מיתה מת בשלמא אונן משום לא לו יהיה הזרע אלא ער מ"ט עבד הכי כדי שלא תתעבר ויכחיש יפיה,ת"ר (ויקרא טו, כד) אותה פרט לכלה דברי רבי יהודה וחכ"א פרט לשלא כדרכה אמר ליה הון בריה דרב נחמן לרב נחמן לימא קא סבר רבי יהודה התורה חסה על תכשיטי כלה אמר ליה לפי שאין אשה מתעברת מביאה ראשונה,במאי קמיפלגי רבנן סברי שכבת זרע פרט להעראה אותה פרט לשלא כדרכה ורבי יהודה סבר שלא כדרכה והעראה משכבת זרע נפקא אותה פרט לכלה,כי אתא רבין א"ר יוחנן כל ששהתה אחר בעלה עשר שנים ונשאת שוב אינה יולדת אמר רב נחמן לא שנו אלא שאין דעתה להנשא אבל דעתה להנשא מתעברת אמר ליה רבא לבת רב חסדא קא מרנני רבנן אבתריך אמרה ליה אנא דעתאי עלך הואי,ההיא דאתיא לקמיה דרב יוסף אמרה לו ר' אנא שהיתי אחר בעלי עשר שנים וילדתי א"ל בתי אל תוציאי לעז על דברי חכמים אמרה ליה לנכרי נבעלתי,אמר שמואל וכולן צריכות להמתין שלשה חדשים חוץ מגיורת ומשוחררת קטנה אבל קטנה בת ישראל צריכה להמתין ג' חדשים,ובמאי אי במיאון והאמר שמואל דלא בעיא ואי בגט האמרה שמואל חדא זימנא דאמר שמואל מיאנה בו אינה צריכה להמתין שלשה חדשים נתן לה גט צריכה להמתין שלשה חדשים אלא בזנות 34b. b But didn’t Tamar become pregt from the first act of intercourse, /b despite the fact that she was a virgin at the time of her sexual act with Judah? Rav Naḥman b said: Tamar broke /b her hymen b with her finger /b prior to intercourse, and it is due to this that she became pregt from the first act of intercourse, b as Rabbi Yitzḥak said: All of those /b women b from the household of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b who break /b their hymens b are named Tamar /b by nickname. b And why are they named Tamar? /b They are called this b on account of Tamar, who broke /b her hymen b with her finger. /b The Gemara wonders about the proof from Tamar itself: b But weren’t there Er and O, /b her previous husbands, who presumably engaged in sexual intercourse with her? The Gemara responds: b Er and O engaged in sexual intercourse in an atypical manner, /b i.e., anal intercourse, and therefore she was still a virgin.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : After a woman gives birth, her husband b penetrates inside and spills /b his semen b outside /b for b the entire twenty-four months /b during which the baby is breastfeeding, so that his wife not become pregt, as that would terminate her milk production and the child might die. This is b the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. They said to him: These /b acts b are nothing other /b than acts b similar to those of Er and O, /b which are prohibited. Regardless, it can be deduced from here that Er and O engaged in normative sexual intercourse with Tamar, only they did not fully complete the sexual act.,The Gemara answers: The i Tosefta /i actually means that what they did was b similar to the act of Er and O /b in some ways, but b not similar to the act of Er and O /b in other ways. The Gemara elaborates: b It was similar to the act of Er and O /b in that there was a spilling of semen, b as it is written: “And it came to pass when he had intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground” /b (Genesis 38:9). Yet it was b not similar to the act of Er and O, as there /b Er and O engaged in sexual intercourse in b an atypical manner, /b i.e., anal intercourse, b while here /b the i Tosefta /i is referring to sexual intercourse b in a typical manner. /b ,The Gemara continues to clarify what took place: b Granted, O /b engaged in unnatural sexual intercourse with her, b as it is written with regard to his /b act: b “That he spilled it on the ground” /b (Genesis 38:9). b However, from where do we /b derive that b Er /b engaged in unnatural sexual intercourse with her? b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: As it is written /b with regard to O: b “And He slew him also” /b (Genesis 38:10). This indicates that b he, too, died the same death /b for performing the same transgression as his brother. The Gemara asks: b Granted, O /b engaged in anal intercourse because he did not want Tamar to give birth b as /b “he knew that b the seed would not be his” /b (Genesis 38:9). b However, /b with regard to b Er, what is the reason he acted /b in b this /b way? The Gemara responds: He did so in order b that she not become pregt and become less beautiful /b as a result of her pregcy., b The Sages taught: /b The verse states: “And the woman, b with whom /b a man shall lie giving seed, they shall both bathe themselves in water, and be unclean until the evening” (Leviticus 15:18). The extra term b “with whom” /b comes b to exclude a bride /b who does not become ritually impure; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: It excludes /b the case of sexual intercourse performed b in an atypical manner. Hon, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Naḥman: Shall we say that Rabbi Yehuda holds: The Torah spared a bride’s adornments, /b including her make-up, and therefore exempted her from submersion in water, as that might cause them ruin? Rav Naḥman b said to him: /b That is not the reason. Rather, b it is because a woman does not become pregt from the first act of intercourse. /b Therefore, that act of intercourse would not cause ritual impurity, as it is not considered intercourse that can result in the implanting of seed.,The Gemara asks: b With regard to what do /b Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis b disagree? The Rabbis hold /b that the phrase b “giving seed” excludes the initial stage of intercourse, /b during which there is no emission of semen. And the extra phrase b “with whom” excludes intercourse that is performed in an atypical way. Rabbi Yehuda, /b on the other hand, b holds that /b the exclusion of both b atypical /b sexual intercourse b and the initial stage of intercourse were derived from /b the phrase b “giving seed,” /b as neither of these are sexual acts that might bring about the birth of a seed, i.e., a child. The phrase b “with whom” /b then b excludes a bride. /b ,On the topic of intercourse that cannot result in conception, the Gemara relates the following: b When Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Any /b woman who b waits after her husband /b has died or divorced her for b ten years /b without intercourse b and is then married can no longer bear children. Rav Naḥman said: They taught /b this principle b only /b with regard to cases b where she did not intend to get married /b at a later time, b but /b if b she intended to get married /b at some point, b she can become pregt /b later on. b Rava said to /b his wife, the b daughter of Rav Ḥisda: The Sages are gossiping about you. /b From the time she was widowed from her first husband until the time that she was married to Rava, more than ten years passed, yet she bore him children. It seemed as though she had engaged in intercourse in the meantime. b She said to him: My mind was on you. /b Indeed, it is told that already as a young girl she prophesized that she would marry Rava.,The Gemara relates: b A certain /b woman b who came before Rav Yosef said to him: My teacher, I waited after my husband’s /b death for b ten years, and /b nevertheless b I gave birth. He said to her: My daughter, do not cast aspersions on the statement of the Sages. She said to him /b in confession: b I had sexual intercourse with a gentile /b during those ten years.,§ b Shmuel said: And all of those /b women who had sexual intercourse, and there is therefore a concern that they might be pregt, b must wait three months /b before marrying so as to differentiate between a child born from the previous intercourse and a child born from this marriage, b except for a female convert /b who is a minor b and a female released slave who is a minor. /b Although it is possible that they had sexual intercourse, they cannot become pregt in any case. b However, a female Israelite who was a minor /b and had intercourse b must wait three months /b like all other women.,The Gemara asks: b And with regard to what /b situation is this statement referring? b If it is /b referring to a minor who was released from her marriage b by refusal, /b as a minor girl who was married to a man by her mother or brothers may refuse to remain married to her husband until reaching majority, b but didn’t Shmuel say that she is not required /b to wait three months? b And if /b it is referring to a woman who received b a bill of divorce /b as a minor, b didn’t Shmuel /b already b state /b this i halakha /i b one time? /b Why would he repeat this ruling, b as Shmuel said: A female minor who refused /b her husband b need not wait three months /b before her second marriage, but if b he gave her a bill of divorce, she must wait three months, /b so as not to make a distinction between an adult divorcée and a minor divorcée. b Rather, /b it must be that this is referring to a female minor who was involved in b licentious sexual intercourse. /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 231
67b. שבאו לינשא משיאין את היתומה ואחר כך משיאין את היתום מפני שבושתה של אשה מרובה משל איש:,ת"ר יתום שבא לישא שוכרין לו בית ומציעין לו מטה וכל כלי תשמישו ואחר כך משיאין לו אשה שנאמר (דברים טו, ח) די מחסורו אשר יחסר לו די מחסורו זה הבית אשר יחסר זה מטה ושלחן לו זו אשה וכן הוא אומר (בראשית ב, יח) אעשה לו עזר כנגדו:,תנו רבנן די מחסורו אתה מצווה עליו לפרנסו ואי אתה מצווה עליו לעשרו אשר יחסר לו אפילו סוס לרכוב עליו ועבד לרוץ לפניו אמרו עליו על הלל הזקן שלקח לעני בן טובים אחד סוס לרכוב עליו ועבד לרוץ לפניו פעם אחת לא מצא עבד לרוץ לפניו ורץ לפניו שלשה מילין:,תנו רבנן מעשה באנשי גליל העליון שלקחו לעני בן טובים אחד מציפורי ליטרא בשר בכל יום ליטרא בשר מאי רבותא אמר רב הונא ליטרא בשר משל עופות ואיבעית אימא בליטרא בשר ממש רב אשי אמר התם כפר קטן היה בכל יומא הוה מפסדי חיותא אמטולתיה:,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי נחמיה אמר ליה במה אתה סועד א"ל בבשר שמן ויין ישן רצונך שתגלגל עמי בעדשים גלגל עמו בעדשים ומת אמר אוי לו לזה שהרגו נחמיה אדרבה אוי לו לנחמיה שהרגו לזה מיבעי ליה אלא איהו הוא דלא איבעי ליה לפנוקי נפשיה כולי האי,ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבא אמר לו במה אתה סועד אמר לו בתרנגולת פטומה ויין ישן אמר ליה ולא חיישת לדוחקא דציבורא א"ל אטו מדידהו קאכילנא מדרחמנא קאכילנא דתנינא (תהלים קמה, טו) עיני כל אליך ישברו ואתה נותן להם את אכלם בעתו בעתם לא נאמר אלא בעתו מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נותן הקב"ה פרנסתו בעתו,אדהכי אתאי אחתיה דרבא דלא חזיא ליה תליסרי שני ואתיא ליה תרנגולת פטומה ויין ישן אמר מאי דקמא א"ל נענתי לך קום אכול,תנו רבנן אין לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס נותנין לו לשום הלואה וחוזרין ונותנין לו לשום מתנה דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים נותנין לו לשום מתנה וחוזרין ונותנין לו לשום הלואה לשום מתנה הא לא שקיל אמר רבא לפתוח לו לשום מתנה,יש לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס נותנין לו לשום מתנה וחוזרין ונפרעין ממנו חוזרין ונפרעין הימנו תו לא שקיל אמר רב פפא לאחר מיתה ר"ש אומר יש לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס אין נזקקין לו אין לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס אומרים לו הבא משכון וטול כדי שתזוח דעתו עליו,ת"ר (דברים טו, ח) העבט זה שאין לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס שנותנים לו לשום הלואה וחוזרין ונותנין לו לשום מתנה תעביטנו זה שיש לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס שנותנין לו לשום מתנה וחוזרין ונפרעין הימנו לאחר מיתה דברי ר' יהודה,וחכ"א יש לו ואינו רוצה להתפרנס אין נזקקין לו ואלא מה אני מקיים תעביטנו דברה תורה כלשון בני אדם,מר עוקבא הוה עניא בשיבבותיה דהוה רגיל כל יומא דשדי ליה ארבעה זוזי בצינורא דדשא יום אחד אמר איזיל איחזי מאן קעביד בי ההוא טיבותא ההוא יומא נגהא ליה למר עוקבא לבי מדרשא אתיא דביתהו בהדיה,כיון דחזיוה דקא מצלי ליה לדשא נפק בתרייהו רהוט מקמיה עיילי לההוא אתונא דהוה גרופה נורא הוה קא מיקליין כרעיה דמר עוקבא אמרה ליה דביתהו שקול כרעיך אותיב אכרעאי חלש דעתיה אמרה ליה אנא שכיחנא בגויה דביתא ומקרבא אהנייתי,ומאי כולי האי דאמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא בר ביזנא אמר ר"ש חסידא ואמרי לה א"ר יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי נוח לו לאדם שימסור עצמו לתוך כבשן האש ואל ילבין פני חברו ברבים מנא לן מתמר דכתיב (בראשית לח, כה) היא מוצאת,מר עוקבא הוה עניא בשיבבותיה דהוה רגיל לשדורי ליה ארבע מאה זוזי כל מעלי יומא דכיפורא יומא חד שדרינהו ניהליה ביד בריה אתא אמר ליה לא צריך אמר מאי חזית חזאי דקא מזלפי ליה יין ישן אמר מפנק כולי האי עייפינהו ושדרינהו ניהליה,כי קא ניחא נפשיה אמר אייתו לי חושבנאי דצדקה אשכח דהוה כתיב ביה שבעת אלפי דינרי סיאנקי אמר זוודאי קלילי ואורחא רחיקתא קם בזבזיה לפלגיה ממוניה היכי עביד הכי והאמר ר' אילעאי באושא התקינו המבזבז אל יבזבז יותר מחומש הני מילי מחיים שמא ירד מנכסיו אבל לאחר מיתה לית לן בה:,רבי אבא הוה צייר זוזי בסודריה ושדי ליה לאחוריה וממצי נפשיה לבי עניי ומצלי עיניה מרמאי,רבי חנינא הוה ההוא עניא דהוה רגיל לשדורי ליה ארבעה זוזי כל מעלי שבתא יומא חד שדרינהו ניהליה ביד דביתהו אתאי אמרה ליה לא צריך מאי חזית שמעי דהוה קאמרי ליה במה אתה סועד 67b. b who have come /b to appeal to the charity fund b to be married /b off, the administrators b marry /b off b the orphan girl /b first b and afterward /b they b marry /b off b the orphan boy, because the humiliation of a woman /b who is not married b is greater than that of /b an unmarried b man. /b , b The Sages taught: /b Concerning b an orphan /b boy b who has come to marry, /b the community tries its utmost to provide for all of his needs. The charities b rent a house for him, arrange for him a bed and all his utensils, and thereafter /b they b marry him a wife, as it is stated: /b “But you shall surely open your hand to him, and shall surely lend him b sufficient for his deficiency in that which is deficient for him” /b (Deuteronomy 15:8). With regard to the phrase b “sufficient for his deficiency,” this /b is referring to b the house. “Which is deficient”; this /b is referring to a b bed and table. “For him [ i lo /i ]”; this /b is referring to b a wife. And similarly /b the verse b states: “I will make him [ i lo /i ] a helpmate for him” /b (Genesis 2:18), when God created a wife for Adam.,Concerning this issue, b the Sages taught: “Sufficient for his deficiency”; /b this teaches that b you are commanded with respect to /b the pauper b to support him, but you are not commanded with respect to him to make him wealthy, /b as the obligation encompasses only that which he lacks, as indicated by the word deficient. However, the verse also states: b “Which is deficient for him”; /b this includes b even a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him /b for the sake of his stature, if necessary. For someone accustomed to these advantages, their absences constitute a true deficiency, not an extravagant indulgence. The Gemara relates: b They said about Hillel the Elder that he obtained for a poor person of noble descent a horse upon which to ride and a servant to run in front of him. One time he did not find a servant to run in front of him, and /b Hillel himself b ran in front of him /b for b three i mil /i , /b to fulfill the dictate “which is deficient for him.”, b The Sages taught: /b There was b an incident involving the people of the Upper Galilee, who bought for a poor person of noble descent from /b the city of b Tzippori a i litra /i of meat every day. /b The Gemara asks: If they provided him with the reasonable ration of b a i litra /i of meat, what is the novelty /b in this incident? Why does it bear repeating? b Rav Huna said: /b It was b a i litra /i of meat of poultry, /b which is very expensive. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b for /b the weight of b a i litra /i /b of coins, they bought him b actual /b red b meat. /b The price of ordinary meat was so expensive that they had to pay the exorbitant price of a i litra /i of coins. b Rav Ashi said /b they did not spend a i litra /i of coins for him. Rather, b there, /b in the Galilee, b it was a small village, /b and b every day they would lose /b an entire b animal /b just b for him. /b They would slaughter an animal daily, simply to provide him with fresh meat, although there was otherwise no market for such a plentiful supply of meat in the village.,The Gemara relates another incident concerning charity. b A certain /b person b came before Rabbi Neḥemya /b to request charity. b He said to him: On what do you /b normally b dine? He said to him: /b I usually dine b on fatty meat and aged wine. /b Rabbi Neḥemya asked him: b Is it your wish to belittle yourself /b and partake together b with me in /b a meal of b lentils, /b which is my regular food? b He partook with him of lentils, and he died, /b since he was not accustomed to this food. Rabbi Neḥemya b said: Woe to this one who was killed /b by b Neḥemya. /b The Gemara wonders: b On the contrary, /b Rabbi Neḥemya b should have said: Woe to Neḥemya who killed this one. /b The Gemara responds: b Rather, /b Rabbi Neḥemya meant that it was b he, /b the pauper, b who should not have pampered himself so /b much. The poor man was to blame for his own death. His excessive indulgence rendered him incapable of digesting simple foods such as lentils.,The Gemara relates another story. b A certain person came before Rava /b to request charity. b He said to him: On what do you /b normally b dine? He said to him: On a fattened hen and aged wine. He said to him: And were you not concerned for /b causing b a burden to the community /b by expecting such opulent foods? b He said to him: Is that to say /b that it is b from their /b funds that b I eat? I eat from /b the support of b the Merciful One. /b This would seem to be a reasonable argument, b as we /b already b learned /b that in the verse b “the eyes of all wait for You, and You give them their food in its time” /b (Psalms 145:15), the phrase: b At their time, is /b not b stated, rather “in its time.” /b This b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, gives each and every one his /b personally appropriate b sustece at its proper time, /b and the community is merely His agent in discharging His will. Therefore, the man is justified in maintaining his standard., b In the meantime, /b while they were talking, b Rava’s sister, who had not seen him for thirteen years, came. And /b as a gift, b she brought him a fattened hen and aged wine. Rava said /b to himself: b What is this that /b happened b in front of me /b that suddenly I am brought food that I do not usually eat? He then understood that this was a providential response to what he had earlier said to the man. Rava b said to him: I have responded [ i na’aneti /i ] to your /b contention. b Arise /b and b eat. /b ,§ b The Sages taught: /b If an individual b does not have /b sufficient means of support b and does not want to be supported /b from charity funds, the charities b provide him /b funds b as a loan /b in a dignified manner, b and /b then they b go back and give /b the funds b to him as a gift; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: /b They b give him /b funds b as a gift, and /b then they b go back and give /b the funds b to him as a loan. /b The Gemara wonders about the Rabbis’ ruling: How can we give it b as a gift? /b After all, b he does not /b want to b take it /b as a gift. The Gemara answers that b Rava said: /b The Rabbis’ instruction is b to begin /b discussions b with him /b by offering the assistance b as a gift. /b If he refuses, the charities give it to him as a loan, but they treat it as a gift and refrain from attempting to collect a debt.,If b he has /b sufficient funds of his own b but does not want to support himself /b by his own funds without the assistance of charity, the charities b give him /b aid b as a gift, and then /b they b go back and collect /b the debt b from him. /b The Gemara asks: How can the administrators of the fund b go back and collect from him? /b Would their efforts not be in vain, as b subsequently he would not take /b their support, knowing that he would still have to pay for it? b Rav Pappa said: /b The charities collect the accrued debt from his estate only b after /b his b death. /b The i baraita /i continues: b Rabbi Shimon says, /b disputing the opinion of the Rabbis: If b he has /b sufficient funds b and does not want to be supported /b by his own means, they b do not get involved with him, /b as the community is not obligated to support him. If b he does not have and does not want to be supported /b from charity, the charities b say to him: Bring collateral and take /b a loan, b so that his mindset should be raised for him, /b with the false impression that he is not receiving a handout.,The Gemara cites a dispute related to the previous discussions. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the double expression in the Torah: “You shall open your hand to him [ i ha’avet ta’avitenu /i ]” (Deuteronomy 15:8). b “ i Ha’avet /i ”; this /b is referring to one b who does not have /b funds b and does not want to be supported /b by charity. The policy is b that /b the charities b provide him /b funds b as a loan and go back and give /b the funds b to him as a gift. “ i Ta’avitenu /i ”; this /b is referring to one b who has /b means b and does not want to support /b himself. The policy is b that /b the charities b provide /b money b as a gift, and then /b they b go back and collect from /b his estate b after /b his b death. /b This is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b And the Rabbis say: /b If b he has /b money b and does not want to support /b himself, they b do not get involved with him. /b The i baraita /i asks: b How then do I uphold /b the double expression b “ i ha’avet ta’avitenu /i ”? /b The i baraita /i answers: b The Torah spoke in the language of men, /b and the double form does not have halakhic significance.,The Gemara recounts another incident related to charity. b Mar Ukva /b had b a pauper in his neighborhood, /b and Mar Ukva b was accustomed every day to toss four dinars for him into the /b slot adjacent to the b hinge of the door. One day /b the poor person b said: I will go /b and b see who is doing this service for me. That day Mar Ukva was delayed in the study hall, /b and b his wife came with him /b to distribute the charity., b When /b the people in the poor man’s house b saw that /b someone b was turning the door, /b the pauper b went out after them /b to see who it was. Mar Ukva and his wife b ran /b away b from before him /b so that he would not determine their identity, and b they entered a certain furnace whose fire was /b already b raked /b over and tempered but was still burning. b Mar Ukva’s legs were being singed, /b and b his wife said to him: Raise your legs and set them on my legs, /b which are not burned. Understanding that only his wife was spared from burns, because she was more worthy, Mar Ukva b became distraught. /b By way of explanation, b she said to him: I am /b normally b found inside the house, and /b when I give charity, b my assistance is ready /b and immediate, insofar as I distribute actual food items. Since you distribute money, which is not as readily helpful, my aid is greater than yours.,The Gemara asks: b And what /b is b all this? /b Why did they go to such extreme lengths to avoid being discovered? The Gemara answers: It is b as Mar Zutra bar Toviya said /b that b Rav said, and some say /b that b Rav Huna bar Bizna said /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said, and some say /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: It is preferable for a person to deliver himself into a fiery furnace so that /b he b not whiten /b the b face /b of, i.e., embarrass, b his friend in public. From where do we /b derive this? b From the /b conduct of b Tamar, as it is written: /b “And Judah said: Bring her forth, and let her be burnt. When b she was brought forth, /b she sent to her father-in-law, saying: By the man, whose these are, am I with child” (Genesis 38:24–25). Although Tamar was taken to be executed by burning, she privately and directly appealed to Judah, rather than publicly identifying him as the father of her unborn children and causing him embarrassment.,The Gemara relates another incident involving Mar Ukva. b Mar Ukva /b had another b pauper in his neighborhood, /b and Mar Ukva b was accustomed to send to him four hundred dinars every /b year on the b eve of Yom Kippur. One day he sent /b the money b to him by the hand of his son. /b The son b returned /b and b said to him: /b The poor individual b does not need /b the charity. Mar Ukva b said: What did you see /b that prompted you to say this? He said to him: b I saw them spilling old wine /b on the ground b for him, /b to give the room a pleasant smell. Mar Ukva b said: /b If he is b pampered this much /b and requires even this luxury, then he needs even more money. b He doubled /b the funds b and sent them to him. /b , b When /b Mar Ukva b was dying, he said: Bring me my charity records. He found that it was written there /b that he had given b seven thousand /b fine, b i siankei /i , /b i.e., gold, b dinars, /b to charity. b He said: My provisions are light, and the way is far. /b This meager sum is insufficient for me to merit the World-to-Come. b He got up /b and b spent half /b of b his /b remaining b money /b on charity. The Gemara asks: b How did he do this? But didn’t Rabbi Ilai say: In Usha they instituted: One who spends /b money on charity, b he should not spend more than one-fifth /b of his money for this purpose. The Gemara answers: b This /b restriction on giving too much charity b applies /b only b while he is alive, /b because b perhaps he will descend from his holdings /b and become destitute. Therefore, for his own ficial security, he should never distribute more than one-fifth. b But after death, we have no /b problem b with it. /b One need not save money in his estate anymore.,The Gemara recounts more stories related to charity. b Rabbi Abba would wrap coins in his scarf and toss /b the money b behind him /b over his shoulder. b And /b he b would place himself at the homes of the poor /b without being seen, so the poor could receive the aid without being embarrassed. b And he would incline his eyes /b just enough so he could safeguard the handouts b from swindlers /b who might take the money dishonestly., b Rabbi Ḥanina /b knew b a certain pauper /b and b was accustomed to send to him four dinars /b on b every Shabbat eve. One day he sent it in the hand of his wife. She came /b back home and b said to him: /b The man b does not need /b charity. Rabbi Ḥanina asked her: b What did you see /b that prompted you to say this? She said to him: b I heard them saying to him /b inside the house: b With what do you /b normally b dine: /b
34. John Chrysostom, Against The Jews, 1.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 247
35. Anon., Exodus Rabbah, 16.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230
16.4. דָּבָר אַחֵר, מִשְׁכוּ וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן, הֲדָא הוּא דִּכְתִיב (משלי טז, יא): פֶּלֶס וּמֹאזְנֵי מִשְׁפָּט לַה', וְכֵן מָצִינוּ משֶׁה וּשְׁמוּאֵל שָׁוִין כְּאַחַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים צט, ו): משֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן בְּכֹהֲנָיו וּשְׁמוּאֵל בְּקֹרְאֵי שְׁמוֹ, בּוֹא וּרְאֵה כַּמָּה בֵּין משֶׁה לִשְׁמוּאֵל, משֶׁה הָיָה נִכְנַס וּבָא אֵצֶל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לִשְׁמֹעַ הַדִּבּוּר, וְאֵצֶל שְׁמוּאֵל הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א ג, י): וַיָּבֹא ה' וַיִּתְיַצֵּב, לָמָּה כָּךְ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּדִין וּבִצְדָקָה אֲנִי בָּא עִם הָאָדָם. משֶׁה הָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וּמִי שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ דִּין בָּא אֶצְלוֹ וְנִדּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות יח, יג): וַיֵּשֶׁב משֶׁה לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הָעָם, אֲבָל שְׁמוּאֵל הָיָה טוֹרֵחַ בְּכָל מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה וְשׁוֹפֵט, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹא יִצְטָעֲרוּ לָבוֹא אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א ז, טז): וְהָלַךְ מִדֵּי שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא משֶׁה שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד לָדוּן אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל יָבוֹא אֶצְלִי לְאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לִשְׁמֹעַ הַדִּבּוּר, אֲבָל שְׁמוּאֵל שֶׁהָלַךְ אֵצֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּעֲיָרוֹת וְדָן אוֹתָם, אֲנִי הוֹלֵךְ וּמְדַבֵּר עִמּוֹ, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי טז, יא): פֶּלֶס וּמֹאזְנֵי מִשְׁפָּט לַה': וְכֵן מָצִינוּ בִּיהוּדָה עַל שֶׁהִצִּיל שָׁלשׁ נְפָשׁוֹת, תָּמָר וּשְׁנֵי בָּנֶיהָ מִן הָאֵשׁ, הִצִּיל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא שְׁלשֶׁת בָּנָיו מִן הָאֵשׁ, וּמִי הֵם חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה, הֱוֵי, פֶּלֶס וּמֹאזְנֵי מִשְׁפָּט לַה': וְכֵן בְּמִצְרַיִם הָיוּ מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה הַמִּצְרִי הוֹלֵךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר וְתוֹפֵס אַיָּל אוֹ צְבִי וְשׁוֹחֲטוֹ, וְשׂוֹפֵת אֶת הַסִּיר וּמְבַשֵּׁל וְאוֹכֵל, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאִין וְלֹא טוֹעֲמִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות טז, ג): בְּשִׁבְתֵּנוּ עַל סִיר הַבָּשָׂר בְּאָכְלֵנוּ לֶחֶם לָשׂבַע, לֹא כְתִיב בְּאָכְלֵנוּ מִסִּיר הַבָּשָׂר, אֶלָּא בְּשִׁבְתֵּנוּ, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין לַחְמָם בְּלֹא בָשָׂר, אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אַתֶּם זִנַּקְתֶּם אֶת בָּנַי בַּבָּשָׂר שֶׁהֱיִיתֶם אוֹכְלִין וְלֹא הֱיִיתֶם נוֹתְנִין לָהֶם, אַף אֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבָנַי שֶׁיִּשְׁחֲטוּ אֶת הַצֹּאן שֶׁאַתֶּם מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים לָהֶן וְהֵן אוֹכְלִין וְאַתֶּם נְמֵסִים, לָמָה, שֶׁאֲנִי דַּיָּן אֱמֶת, הֱוֵי: פֶּלֶס וּמֹאזְנֵי מִשְׁפָּט לַה', לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: מִשְׁכוּ וּקְחוּ לָכֶם צֹאן.
36. Ephrem, Commentary On Genesis, 34.3 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 137
37. Augustine, De Catechizandis Rudibus, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 23
38. John Chrysostom, Homilies On Acts, 30.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 247
39. Jerome, Commentary On Ezekiel, 34.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 247
40. Anon., Midrash Hagadol, 371, 644, 648, 646  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 232
41. Ephrem The Syrian, Madrashe On Abraham Qidunaya, 10-12, 14-15, 7-9, 13  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 269
42. Ephrem The Syrian, Madrashe On Nisibis, 2  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh, memra on ephrem Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 263
43. Ephrem The Syrian, Madrashe On Faith, 49  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh, memra on ephrem Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 263
44. Ephrem The Syrian, Madrashe Against Heresies, 40  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh, memra on ephrem Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 263
46. Synesios, Encomium On Baldness, 13.4  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 190
47. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Q20, None  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 234
48. Anon., Shemoneh Esreh, 1.2.5  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 230
49. Anon., Memra, 122  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serug Found in books: Kaplan (2015), My Perfect One: Typology and Early Rabbinic Interpretation of Song of Songs, 25
50. Anon., Fragmentary Targum, 38.5  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 234
51. Procopius of Gaza, Ad Gen 15.15-16 166N7, 20.8  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 235
52. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 26.3  Tagged with subjects: •jacob of serugh Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009), The Exegetical Encounter between Jews and Christians in Late Antiquity, 135