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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
imagination Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 6, 7, 10, 145, 192, 223, 231
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 26, 337, 346, 447, 490
Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 29, 30
Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 64, 201, 261, 291, 292, 295, 304
Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 170, 171, 220, 328
Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 247
Gagne (2021), Cosmography and the Idea of Hyperborea in Ancient Greece, 7, 322, 349, 388
Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 79, 236, 237
Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 74, 208, 209, 210, 214
King (2006), Common to Body and Soul: Philosophical Approaches to Explaining Living Behaviour in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 126, 127, 134, 137, 148, 166, 198, 201, 214, 224
Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 109, 110, 218
König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 109, 110, 218
Leão and Lanzillotta (2019), A Man of Many Interests: Plutarch on Religion, Myth, and Magic, 151, 154, 156
Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 10, 50, 51, 52, 140, 147, 156, 171
Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 4, 70, 92, 158, 169, 170, 176, 189, 190, 191, 198, 201, 203, 207, 211, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 233, 239, 242, 243, 251, 253
Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 45, 67, 70, 72, 204, 285
Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 98, 103, 111, 120, 121, 122, 165, 182, 183
Schibli (2002), Hierocles of Alexandria, 243, 244, 319
Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 38, 43, 44, 45, 46, 61, 249, 254
van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 141, 144, 145, 149, 223, 224
imagination, and emotion Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 108, 109, 192
imagination, and linguistic intuition James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 106
imagination, and science Cueva et al. (2018b), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 2: Roman Novels and Other Important Texts, 101
imagination, and the holy spirit James (2021), Learning the Language of Scripture: Origen, Wisdom, and the Logic of Interpretation, 278, 280, 291
imagination, and, disgust Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 137, 138
imagination, and, eros Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 44
imagination, creation by d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 200, 286
imagination, diet, in ethnographic Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 505, 506, 508
imagination, empire, of the Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 232, 233, 238, 239, 242
imagination, existence, huparxis, ὕπαρξις‎, and d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 200
imagination, faculty of ibycus Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019), Greek Memories: Theories and Practices, 218, 234, 243, 245, 251, 252, 302, 322, 325, 327, 335
imagination, fastidium, and the Kaster(2005), Emotion, Restraint, and Community in Ancient Rome, 108, 109, 192
imagination, geometric Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 595, 600, 603, 604, 605
imagination, household management, phantasia Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 44, 99, 109
imagination, i, jew/jewish Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 6
imagination, imagined, martyrdom, martyr Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 10, 45, 46, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 130, 131, 132, 156, 157
imagination, impression, φαντασία Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 271, 278
imagination, in aristotle van der EIjk (2005), Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease, 170, 175, 179, 182
imagination, in testament of adam, religious identity, and aural Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 62, 63, 64, 65
imagination, may be needed as well as rational judgement, posidonius, stoic, ii, irrational Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 114
imagination, of mother Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 250
imagination, of place, self, and Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 17, 18, 31
imagination, of the nile sources, apollonius of tyana, and religious Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 297, 298, 300, 301, 306, 307
imagination, phantasia, iamblichus on φαντασία‎ d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 195, 200
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎ d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 182, 277, 280
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, and error d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 200
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, and intellect d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 194
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, and self-knowledge d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 172
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, and world soul d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 126, 131
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, in geometry d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 177
imagination, phantasia, φαντασία‎, using images, phantasmata, φαντάσματα‎, eidôla, εἴδωλα‎ d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 200
imagination, reason and Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 254
imagination, representation or Gerson and Wilberding (2022), The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus, 26, 117, 118, 194, 197, 198, 199, 212, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237, 238, 270, 277, 323, 326, 336, 343
imagination, spirit, effects of Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 94, 95, 97, 98
imagination, stores impressions Marmodoro and Prince (2015), Causation and Creation in Late Antiquity, 165
imagination, technologies of the Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 202
imagination, will, expansion of role in augustine, will in belief, perception, memory, thought, faith Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 47, 337
imagination, φαντασία Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 97, 98, 99, 100, 169, 170, 218
Kelsey (2021), Mind and World in Aristotle's De Anima 15
imagined, as saving the res publica, julius caesar, c. Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 81
imagined, audience Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 85, 167, 169, 170, 191, 201
imagined, by aristeas, demetrius of phalerum, as Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 82, 83, 94, 95
imagined, cicero, marcus tullius, rome Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 117, 118
imagined, community Barbato (2020), The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past, 8
Chrysanthou (2018), Plutarch's 'Parallel Lives': Narrative Technique and Moral Judgement. 37, 43, 51
imagined, countryside, charms Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 55, 56, 57, 74, 216, 217, 224, 270, 284, 285
imagined, earth Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 121, 122
imagined, futures, anxiety dreams and nightmares, anxiously Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 187, 188
imagined, in earlier times, numinousness Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 239, 240, 249, 250
imagined, in the letter of aristeas, jerusalem, as Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 53, 54, 56, 60, 61, 62
imagined, in the letter of aristeas, judea, as Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 53, 74, 524, 529, 540
imagined, invented, identity, constructed, construction, fictional Johnson Dupertuis and Shea (2018), Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction : Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives 83
imagined, pursuit or avoidance, chrysippus, stoic, already in antiquity, views seen as orthodox for stoics tended to be ascribed to chrysippus, the second judgement is about the appropriateness of actual or Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 31, 33
imagined, setting, longus Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 137, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 441
imagines Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 241, 242, 247, 248, 249, 251, 252, 258, 267, 288, 295, 622
Clark (2007), Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, 150, 151, 240
Culík-Baird (2022), Cicero and the Early Latin Poets, 36
Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 42, 49, 50, 51, 258
Mcclellan (2019), Paulinus Noster: Self and Symbols in the Letters of Paulinus of Nola, 128, 139, 264, 267
Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 36, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 73, 74
Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 21, 36, 115
Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 99
Viglietti and Gildenhard (2020), Divination, Prediction and the End of the Roman Republic, 53
imagines, amphiaraos, in philostratuss Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 312, 667, 679, 680
imagines, ancestral portraits Langlands (2018), Exemplary Ethics in Ancient Rome, 3, 94
imagines, curatores, ad Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 302
imagines, displayed in atria Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 94
imagines, horace, on Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 103
imagines, imago Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 130, 209
Mueller (2002), Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, 163, 164, 167, 168, 170, 173
imagines, imago / Bexley (2022), Seneca's Characters: Fictional Identities and Implied Human Selves, 110, 111, 145, 146, 147, 148
imagines, in funerals Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 86, 87, 106, 107, 138
imagines, in house Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 85, 94, 106, 186
imagines, italicae Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 709
imagines, lucian Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 117
König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 117
imagines, maiorum Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 25, 26, 82, 86, 134
imagines, mask, and Bexley (2022), Seneca's Characters: Fictional Identities and Implied Human Selves, 110, 111, 146
imagines, oneiros, in philostratuss Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 312, 679, 680
imagines, oropos, personification in philostratuss Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 312, 667
imagines, philostratus the elder Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 94, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 356
König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 94, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 356
imagines, philostratus the elder, his Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84
imagines, philostratus, the younger Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 71, 77
imagines, praecepta ad filium, on statuary and Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 104, 155
imagines, roman funeral masks Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47
imagines, rome from exile, ovid Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 102, 103, 106, 107, 121, 126, 176, 177, 188, 226
imagines, sallust, and Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 43, 44
imagines, sallust, on Langlands (2018), Exemplary Ethics in Ancient Rome, 3, 94
Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 106
imagines, scipio africanus, inspired by Langlands (2018), Exemplary Ethics in Ancient Rome, 3
imagines, tacitus, on Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 106
imagines, tullius cicero, m., on Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 87
imagining, advice from a respected figure, epicurus, and of Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 220
imagining, imagination, Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 4, 5, 32, 57, 76, 102, 146, 151, 162, 172, 173, 186, 200, 216, 244, 245, 246, 271, 283, 284, 285, 286, 291, 292, 293, 296, 297, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307
imagining, it absent, plutarch of chaeroneia, middle platonist, appreciating something more by Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 216
representation/imagination, multiplicity and multiformity within Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 8, 21, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 69, 216, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 241, 249, 269, 270, 305
‘imagined, communities’, anderson Williamson (2021), Urban Rituals in Sacred Landscapes in Hellenistic Asia Minor, 220

List of validated texts:
264 validated results for "imagines"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.3, 1.5-1.6, 1.9, 1.13-1.16, 4.10, 4.12, 4.16, 5.1, 5.12-5.13, 6.2, 6.8, 6.11, 7.3, 7.5, 7.7-7.9, 7.11, 8.11-8.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Image xvi, • Magen for Kedushta to Shabbat Naḥamu, dove image in • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Qedushta Shir ha-Shirim (Yannai), sensory imagery in • Second Isaiah, garment imagery in • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Song of Songs, dove (image) in • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, planting imagery in • Vineyard imagery, in Isaiah • Vineyard imagery, in Song of Songs • allusions, dove (image) • body,, imagery for • breast milk, image and likeness • dove (image) • eros, garden imagery and • exile, planting imagery of • garden imagery female lover and • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • garden imagery, in the Shivata for Dew • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • kedushtot, dove imagery in • missionary activities, images of

 Found in books: Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 211; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 216, 233, 234, 236; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 107, 108; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 50, 254, 257, 269, 308, 315, 350, 351; Penniman (2017), Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity, 156; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 331, 553, 578; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 105, 140, 146, 147, 148; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 286

sup>
1.3 לְרֵיחַ שְׁמָנֶיךָ טוֹבִים שֶׁמֶן תּוּרַק שְׁמֶךָ עַל־כֵּן עֲלָמוֹת אֲהֵבוּךָ׃
1.5
שְׁחוֹרָה אֲנִי וְנָאוָה בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם כְּאָהֳלֵי קֵדָר כִּירִיעוֹת שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 1.6 אַל־תִּרְאוּנִי שֶׁאֲנִי שְׁחַרְחֹרֶת שֶׁשֱּׁזָפַתְנִי הַשָּׁמֶשׁ בְּנֵי אִמִּי נִחֲרוּ־בִי שָׂמֻנִי נֹטֵרָה אֶת־הַכְּרָמִים כַּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לֹא נָטָרְתִּי׃
1.9
לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃
1.13
צְרוֹר הַמֹּר דּוֹדִי לִי בֵּין שָׁדַי יָלִין׃ 1.14 אֶשְׁכֹּל הַכֹּפֶר דּוֹדִי לִי בְּכַרְמֵי עֵין גֶּדִי׃ 1.15 הִנָּךְ יָפָה רַעְיָתִי הִנָּךְ יָפָה עֵינַיִךְ יוֹנִים׃ 1.16 הִנְּךָ יָפֶה דוֹדִי אַף נָעִים אַף־עַרְשֵׂנוּ רַעֲנָנָה׃' 4.12 גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃
4.16
עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃
5.1
בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃
5.1
דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃

5.12
עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃
5.13
לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃
6.2
דּוֹדִי יָרַד לְגַנּוֹ לַעֲרוּגוֹת הַבֹּשֶׂם לִרְעוֹת בַּגַּנִּים וְלִלְקֹט שׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃
6.8
שִׁשִּׁים הֵמָּה מְּלָכוֹת וּשְׁמֹנִים פִּילַגְשִׁים וַעֲלָמוֹת אֵין מִסְפָּר׃
6.11
אֶל־גִּנַּת אֱגוֹז יָרַדְתִּי לִרְאוֹת בְּאִבֵּי הַנָּחַל לִרְאוֹת הֲפָרְחָה הַגֶּפֶן הֵנֵצוּ הָרִמֹּנִים׃
7.3
שָׁרְרֵךְ אַגַּן הַסַּהַר אַל־יֶחְסַר הַמָּזֶג בִּטְנֵךְ עֲרֵמַת חִטִּים סוּגָה בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃
7.5
צַוָּארֵךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַשֵּׁן עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל־שַׁעַר בַּת־רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק׃
7.7
מַה־יָּפִית וּמַה־נָּעַמְתְּ אַהֲבָה בַּתַּעֲנוּגִים׃ 7.8 זֹאת קוֹמָתֵךְ דָּמְתָה לְתָמָר וְשָׁדַיִךְ לְאַשְׁכֹּלוֹת׃ 7.9 אָמַרְתִּי אֶעֱלֶה בְתָמָר אֹחֲזָה בְּסַנְסִנָּיו וְיִהְיוּ־נָא שָׁדַיִךְ כְּאֶשְׁכְּלוֹת הַגֶּפֶן וְרֵיחַ אַפֵּךְ כַּתַּפּוּחִים׃
7.11
אֲנִי לְדוֹדִי וְעָלַי תְּשׁוּקָתוֹ׃
8.11
כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְּבַעַל הָמוֹן נָתַן אֶת־הַכֶּרֶם לַנֹּטְרִים אִישׁ יָבִא בְּפִרְיוֹ אֶלֶף כָּסֶף׃ 8.12 כָּרְמִי שֶׁלִּי לְפָנָי הָאֶלֶף לְךָ שְׁלֹמֹה וּמָאתַיִם לְנֹטְרִים אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ׃'' None
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1.3 Thine ointments have a goodly fragrance; Thy name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore do the maidens love thee.
1.5
’I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon. 1.6 Look not upon me, that I am swarthy, That the sun hath tanned me; My mother’s sons were incensed against me, They made me keeper of the vineyards; But mine own vineyard have I not kept.’
1.9
I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots.
1.13
My beloved is unto me as a bag of myrrh, That lieth betwixt my breasts. 1.14 My beloved is unto me as a cluster of henna In the vineyards of En-gedi. 1.15 Behold, thou art fair, my love; behold, thou art fair; Thine eyes are as doves. . 1.16 Behold, thou art fair, my beloved, yea, pleasant; Also our couch is leafy.
4.10
How fair is thy love, my sister, my bride! How much better is thy love than wine! And the smell of thine ointments than all manner of spices!
4.12
A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed.
4.16
Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits.
5.1
I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved.

5.12
His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set.
5.13
His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh.
6.2
’My beloved is gone down into his garden, To the beds of spices, To feed in the gardens, And to gather lilies.
6.8
There are threescore queens, And fourscore concubines, And maidens without number.
6.11
I went down into the garden of nuts, To look at the green plants of the valley, To see whether the vine budded, And the pomegranates were in flower.
7.3
Thy navel is like a round goblet, wherein no mingled wine is wanting; Thy belly is like a heap of wheat Set about with lilies.
7.5
Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus.
7.7
How fair and how pleasant art thou, O love, for delights! . 7.8 This thy stature is like to a palm-tree, and thy breasts to clusters of grapes. 7.9 I said: ‘I will climb up into the palm-tree, I will take hold of the branches thereof; and let thy breasts be as clusters of the vine, And the smell of thy countece like apples;
7.11
I am my beloved’s, and his desire is toward me.,
8.11
Solomon had a vineyard at Baal-hamon; He gave over the vineyard unto keepers; Every one for the fruit thereof Brought in a thousand pieces of silver. 8.12 My vineyard, which is mine, is before me; Thou, O Solomon, shalt have the thousand, And those that keep the fruit thereof two hundred.'' None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15-4.19, 4.28, 6.4-6.5, 7.8, 22.9, 30.15, 33.4, 33.26-33.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Beth-El, Imagery in • Exodus imagery • Holy Rider image • Image of God • Image vi, • Image xvi, • Images • Images, Material for Idols • Song of Songs piyyutim, garden and Temple imagery in • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Tetragrammaton, The (Divine Name), merkavah imagery and • Tiberias, pagan imagery • animal imagery • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • image of God • image of God, and human hybridity • image, imagery • imagery, Exodus-related • imagery, bearing fruit • imago dei • merkavah imagery, Tetragrammaton related to • missionary activities, images of

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 148; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 159; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 43; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 71, 133; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 84; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 146; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 210; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 292; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 103, 106; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 481; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 49, 54; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 121; Nutzman (2022), Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine 31, 62, 63; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 83; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 319, 553, 556; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398, 399; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 434

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4.15 וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 4.16 פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17 תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18 תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19 וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
4.28
וַעֲבַדְתֶּם־שָׁם אֱלֹהִים מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם עֵץ וָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִרְאוּן וְלֹא יִשְׁמְעוּן וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּן וְלֹא יְרִיחֻן׃
6.4
שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5 וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃
7.8
כִּי מֵאַהֲבַת יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם וּמִשָּׁמְרוּ אֶת־הַשְּׁבֻעָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֵיכֶם הוֹצִיא יְהוָה אֶתְכֶם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וַיִּפְדְּךָ מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים מִיַּד פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרָיִם׃
22.9
לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃
30.15
רְאֵה נָתַתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ הַיּוֹם אֶת־הַחַיִּים וְאֶת־הַטּוֹב וְאֶת־הַמָּוֶת וְאֶת־הָרָע׃
33.4
תּוֹרָה צִוָּה־לָנוּ מֹשֶׁה מוֹרָשָׁה קְהִלַּת יַעֲקֹב׃
33.26
אֵין כָּאֵל יְשֻׁרוּן רֹכֵב שָׁמַיִם בְעֶזְרֶךָ וּבְגַאֲוָתוֹ שְׁחָקִים׃ 33.27 מְעֹנָה אֱלֹהֵי קֶדֶם וּמִתַּחַת זְרֹעֹת עוֹלָם וַיְגָרֶשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אוֹיֵב וַיֹּאמֶר הַשְׁמֵד׃'' None
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4.15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire— 4.16 lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, 4.17 the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven, 4.18 the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; . 4.19 and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
4.28
And there ye shall serve gods, the work of men’s hands, wood and stone, which neither see, nor hear, nor eat, nor smell.
6.4
HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE. 6.5 And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
7.8
but because the LORD loved you, and because He would keep the oath which He swore unto your fathers, hath the LORD brought you out with a mighty hand, and redeemed you out of the house of bondage, from the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt.
22.9
Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard.
30.15
See, I have set before thee this day life and good, and death and evil,
33.4
Moses commanded us a law, An inheritance of the congregation of Jacob.
33.26
There is none like unto God, O Jeshurun, Who rideth upon the heaven as thy help, And in His excellency on the skies. 33.27 The eternal God is a dwelling-place, And underneath are the everlasting arms; And He thrust out the enemy from before thee, And said: ‘Destroy.’'' None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.17, 3.8, 3.14, 4.22-4.23, 6.5-6.7, 7.1, 12.11, 15.3, 15.17, 15.25, 20.4-20.5, 20.23, 23.20-23.21, 24.8, 24.10, 33.18-33.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Artemis, ascent, imagery of • Audience, imagined • Avitus, signs and wonders of, depicted in biblical imagery • Beth-El, Imagery in • Clement of Alexandria, on the catechumenate,, milk/meat imagery • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • Exodus imagery • Ezekiel, Tragedian, OT throne imagery • God, image of • Helios image • Image (εἰκών) • Image of God • Image vi, • Image xvi, • Images • Images, Material for Idols • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Qedushta Shir ha-Shirim (Yannai), sensory imagery in • athletics imagery • financial imagery • image of God • image, imagery • imagery • imagery, Danielic • imagery, Exodus-related • imagery, Revelation • imagery, Sinai • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, conversion • imagery, scab • imagery, sowing/planting • merkavah imagery, devekut to • military imagery • milk/meat imagery used by Clement of Alexandria

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 122; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 129, 133, 148; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 73, 159; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 201; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 43; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 206; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 56; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 60, 64, 230, 232, 233; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 17, 52, 53, 86, 162; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 211; Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 85; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 215, 221, 246, 260, 285, 288; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 79; Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 192; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 74, 216; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 810; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 256; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62, 72, 81; Nutzman (2022), Contested Cures: Identity and Ritual Healing in Roman and Late Antique Palestine 33; Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 202; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 5, 6; Rosen-Zvi (2011), Demonic Desires: Yetzer Hara and the Problem of Evil in Late Antiquity. 17; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 13, 180, 182, 184; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 68, 504, 505, 518, 564, 578, 600; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 26, 40; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 322

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2.17 וַיָּבֹאוּ הָרֹעִים וַיְגָרְשׁוּם וַיָּקָם מֹשֶׁה וַיּוֹשִׁעָן וַיַּשְׁקְ אֶת־צֹאנָם׃
3.8
וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃
3.14
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃
4.22
וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 4.23 וָאֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ שַׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנִי וְיַעַבְדֵנִי וַתְּמָאֵן לְשַׁלְּחוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת־בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ׃
6.5
וְגַם אֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־נַאֲקַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר מִצְרַיִם מַעֲבִדִים אֹתָם וָאֶזְכֹּר אֶת־בְּרִיתִי׃ 6.6 לָכֵן אֱמֹר לִבְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲנִי יְהוָה וְהוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלֹת מִצְרַיִם וְהִצַּלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מֵעֲבֹדָתָם וְגָאַלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בִּזְרוֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבִשְׁפָטִים גְּדֹלִים׃ 6.7 וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם לִי לְעָם וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הַמּוֹצִיא אֶתְכֶם מִתַּחַת סִבְלוֹת מִצְרָיִם׃
7.1
וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַיַּעַשׂוּ כֵן כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וְלִפְנֵי עֲבָדָיו וַיְהִי לְתַנִּין׃
7.1
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה רְאֵה נְתַתִּיךָ אֱלֹהִים לְפַרְעֹה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ יִהְיֶה נְבִיאֶךָ׃
12.11
וְכָכָה תֹּאכְלוּ אֹתוֹ מָתְנֵיכֶם חֲגֻרִים נַעֲלֵיכֶם בְּרַגְלֵיכֶם וּמַקֶּלְכֶם בְּיֶדְכֶם וַאֲכַלְתֶּם אֹתוֹ בְּחִפָּזוֹן פֶּסַח הוּא לַיהוָה׃
15.3
יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃
15.17
תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃
15.25
וַיִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיּוֹרֵהוּ יְהוָה עֵץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַמַּיִם וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ׃
20.4
לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ 20.5 לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
20.23
וְלֹא־תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת עַל־מִזְבְּחִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ עָלָיו׃' '23.21 הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃
24.8
וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַדָּם וַיִּזְרֹק עַל־הָעָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה דַם־הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם עַל כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃
33.18
וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃ 33.19 וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃ 33.21 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃ 33.22 וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃ 33.23 וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃'' None
sup>
2.17 And the shepherds came and drove them away; but Moses stood up and helped them, and watered their flock.
3.8
and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
3.14
And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’
4.22
And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born. 4.23 And I have said unto thee: Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go. ‘Behold, I will slay thy first-born.’
6.5
And moreover I have heard the groaning of the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage; and I have remembered My covet. 6.6 Wherefore say unto the children of Israel: I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm, and with great judgments; 6.7 and I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God; and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.
7.1
And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘See, I have set thee in God’s stead to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet.
12.11
And thus shall ye eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and ye shall eat it in haste—it is the LORD’s passover.
15.3
The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name.
15.17
Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established.
15.25
And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordice, and there He proved them;
20.4
Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; 20.5 thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;
20.23
Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon.
23.20
Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. 23.21 Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him.
24.8
And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said: ‘Behold the blood of the covet, which the LORD hath made with you in agreement with all these words.’
24.10
and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet the like of a paved work of sapphire stone, and the like of the very heaven for clearness.
33.18
And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’ 33.19 And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’ 33.20 And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’ 33.21 And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock. 33.22 And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by. 33.23 And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’' ' None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.1-2.4, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.9, 1.11, 1.12, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.21, 1.22, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.30, 1.31, 2, 2.1, 2.2, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.16, 2.17, 2.18, 2.19, 2.20, 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.7, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 3.16, 3.19, 3.20, 3.21, 3.22, 3.24, 4, 4.25, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.24, 6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.9, 6.11, 6.12, 7, 7.11, 8, 9, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.13, 9.16, 9.20, 10, 11, 12.1, 15.1, 15.2, 17.7, 17.8, 18.12, 22.1, 28, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 28.18, 28.19, 28.21, 39.1, 40, 41, 49.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apocalyptic, Imagery • Augustine of Hippo, image of God • Augustine of Hippo, images • Christ, visible incarnation of, as image and word • Christology, Adam/Image- • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • Creation, in the image of God and Ex nihilo • Dream imagery, animals • Dream imagery, religious • Dream imagery, violation of sacred law • Enos, nautical imagery for • Ezekiel, Tragedian, OT throne imagery • God, Image of • God, human created according to the image of • God, image of • God,image of • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Humanity, In Image of God • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Image of God • Image vi, • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, Christ as Image of God • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Images, of Angels • Images, of God • Imago Dei • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • King as image/glory of gods • King as image/glory of gods, of Christ • Lamentations, impurity images in • Logos/God’s Word, Human mind as Logos’ likeness and image • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Murder, Diminishes the Image of God • Nile, River, poetic imagery involving • Procreation, And Creation in the Image • Procreation, Whoever Does Not Engage in Procreation Annuls/Diminishes the Image • Religion (Minoan), images of figures sleeping on stones • Revelation (Apocalypse of John), Son of Man imagery • Rhetoric, imagery • Son of Man, imagery in book of Revelation • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Sonship as being in God’s image and likeness • Teacher, images (or sage-) of personified Wisdom related to • Theology of the image • Wilderness/Desert, Imagery of • Womb imagery, combines elements of water and darkness • animal imagery • athletics imagery • body,, as image of God • breast milk, image and likeness • divine anger, sexual imagery • divine presence, merkavah imagery and • divine, image • eikôn [ Image ] • games imagery • garden imagery, in Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • humans, as image of God • image • image and likeness • image of God • image of God (in man) • image of God, Origen on • image of God, and adam’s image • image of God, and human hybridity • image of God, as the body • image of God, creation as • image of God, not exclusive to humans • image of God, political charge of • image of God, rabbinic exegesis of • image, , image of God in man, imago • image, imagery • imagery athletic • imagery, athletics • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, boat • imagery, citadel • imagery, conversion • imagery, crops • imagery, disease and healing • imagery, ensnare • imagery, flood • imagery, giving birth • imagery, harbour • imagery, light • imagery, marking/stamping • imagery, military • imagery, mud • imagery, of purity • imagery, rebelliousness • imagery, runners • imagery, sailors • imagery, seals • imagery, sowing • imagery, sowing/planting • imagery, storm • imagery, waves • imagery, wax • imagery, wrestling moves • imagination • imago Dei • imago Dei/image of God • imago dei • imago trinitatis • imago, Christi • merkavah imagery, devekut to • mind, image of God • mortality, imagery of • observed by, image and likeness of • passions, animal imagery and • personified Wisdom, Teacher (or sage) images of • prophetic, images • sectarian, ṣelem (Heb. “divine image”) • self-image, God’s image/humans • sexual imagery • solar (imagery) • vision, as mode of knowing, imago Dei, concept of • vision, as mode of knowing, incarnation of Christ, as image and word • woman, as imago dei

 Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 467; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 327, 337, 369; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160, 175, 180, 181, 182, 183, 186, 254, 269; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 203, 204, 205; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 144, 145, 146, 148, 154; Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 105, 176, 183; Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 344; Conybeare (2000), Abused Bodies in Roman Epic, 158; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 128, 129, 131, 134, 137, 141, 153; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 18, 56, 156, 157, 158, 182, 394, 404; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 74, 107, 210, 254; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 237, 270; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 6, 10, 23, 27, 28, 32, 38, 39, 43, 61, 64, 65, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 84, 88, 103, 109, 266, 270; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 97, 100, 109, 117, 134, 141, 143, 167, 181, 192, 194, 203, 205, 211, 233, 236, 250, 259, 260, 262; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 11, 17, 33, 48, 52, 86, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129, 146, 153, 156, 166, 214, 279; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197; Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 1206; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 65, 66, 186, 217, 284; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 216, 241, 243, 274; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 173, 176, 177, 188, 190, 207; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 221; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 203; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 51; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147, 150, 310; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 10, 44, 144, 221, 261, 274, 290, 325, 330, 331, 394, 395, 400, 408, 410, 412, 413, 415, 416, 427, 428, 429, 430, 433, 503, 580, 581, 595, 610, 647, 665, 810, 836, 838, 904, 947; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 50, 348, 399; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 54, 120; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 165, 170, 207, 208, 225, 230, 232; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 94; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 68, 87, 90, 91, 94, 96, 139, 145, 149, 178, 181, 182, 242, 260; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 39; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 5, 19, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 33, 110, 156, 157, 206, 210, 233, 246; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157, 158, 159, 161; Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 212, 213, 222; Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 234; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 30; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 36, 40, 322, 324, 372, 379, 397; Penniman (2017), Raised on Christian Milk: Food and the Formation of the Soul in Early Christianity, 250; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 311; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 6; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 12, 45, 72, 109, 159, 161, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 175, 177, 179, 183, 184, 185, 204, 250; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 70; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 13, 31, 129, 130; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 24, 89, 148; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 68, 141, 164, 328, 333, 510, 543, 545, 546, 547, 602; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 50, 102, 103, 104, 106, 200; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 86, 151; Rüpke and Woolf (2013), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. 100, 101; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 551; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 19; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 46; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99, 292, 654; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 25, 26, 40; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 512

sup>
1.
1 בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ׃
1.
1
וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לַיַּבָּשָׁה אֶרֶץ וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃

1.
2
וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃

1.
2
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃

1.
3
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר וַיְהִי־אוֹר׃'
1.
3
וּלְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וּלְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֶת־כָּל־יֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב לְאָכְלָה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃

1.
4
וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃

1.
5
וַיִּקְרָא אֱלֹהִים לָאוֹר יוֹם וְלַחֹשֶׁךְ קָרָא לָיְלָה וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם אֶחָד׃

1.
6
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃

1.
7
וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָרָקִיעַ וַיַּבְדֵּל בֵּין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מִתַּחַת לָרָקִיעַ וּבֵין הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃

1.
9
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִקָּווּ הַמַּיִם מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד וְתֵרָאֶה הַיַּבָּשָׁה וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.
1
1
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.
1
2
וַתּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע לְמִינֵהוּ וְעֵץ עֹשֶׂה־פְּרִי אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃
1.
1
4
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃
1.
1
5
וְהָיוּ לִמְאוֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃
1.
1
6
וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃

1.
2
1
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃


1.
2
2
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים לֵאמֹר פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הַמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וְהָעוֹף יִרֶב בָּאָרֶץ׃


1.
2
4
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תּוֹצֵא הָאָרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה לְמִינָהּ בְּהֵמָה וָרֶמֶשׂ וְחַיְתוֹ־אֶרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃


1.
2
5
וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֵת כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃


1.
2
6
וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃


1.
2
7
וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃


1.
2
8
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

1.
3
1
וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃
2.
1
וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃
2.
1
וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃
2.
2
וַיְכַל אֱלֹהִים בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וַיִּשְׁבֹּת בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃
2.
2
וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁמוֹת לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּלְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְכֹל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּלְאָדָם לֹא־מָצָא עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃

2.
7
וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃

2.
8
וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃

2.
9
וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃
2.
1
6
וַיְצַו יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָדָם לֵאמֹר מִכֹּל עֵץ־הַגָּן אָכֹל תֹּאכֵל׃
2.
1
7
וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃
2.
1
8
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃
2.
1
9
וַיִּצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיָּבֵא אֶל־הָאָדָם לִרְאוֹת מַה־יִּקְרָא־לוֹ וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִקְרָא־לוֹ הָאָדָם נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה הוּא שְׁמוֹ׃
2.
2
1
וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃
2.
2
2
וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃
2.
2
3
וַיֹּאמֶר הָאָדָם זֹאת הַפַּעַם עֶצֶם מֵעֲצָמַי וּבָשָׂר מִבְּשָׂרִי לְזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳחָה־זֹּאת׃
3.
1
וְהַנָּחָשׁ הָיָה עָרוּם מִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אַף כִּי־אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִכֹּל עֵץ הַגָּן׃
3.
1
וַיֹּאמֶר אֶת־קֹלְךָ שָׁמַעְתִּי בַּגָּן וָאִירָא כִּי־עֵירֹם אָנֹכִי וָאֵחָבֵא׃
3.
2
וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל־חָי׃
3.
2
וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ מִפְּרִי עֵץ־הַגָּן נֹאכֵל׃
3.
3
וּמִפְּרִי הָעֵץ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ־הַגָּן אָמַר אֱלֹהִים לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא תִגְּעוּ בּוֹ פֶּן־תְּמֻתוּן׃

3.
4
וַיֹּאמֶר הַנָּחָשׁ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לֹא־מוֹת תְּמֻתוּן׃

3.
5
כִּי יֹדֵעַ אֱלֹהִים כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְכֶם מִמֶּנּוּ וְנִפְקְחוּ עֵינֵיכֶם וִהְיִיתֶם כֵּאלֹהִים יֹדְעֵי טוֹב וָרָע׃

3.
7
וַתִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיֵּדְעוּ כִּי עֵירֻמִּם הֵם וַיִּתְפְּרוּ עֲלֵה תְאֵנָה וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם חֲגֹרֹת׃
3.
1
3
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לָאִשָּׁה מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂית וַתֹּאמֶר הָאִשָּׁה הַנָּחָשׁ הִשִּׁיאַנִי וָאֹכֵל׃
3.
1
4
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃
3.
1
5
וְאֵיבָה אָשִׁית בֵּינְךָ וּבֵין הָאִשָּׁה וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ וּבֵין זַרְעָהּ הוּא יְשׁוּפְךָ רֹאשׁ וְאַתָּה תְּשׁוּפֶנּוּ עָקֵב׃
3.
1
6
אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה אָמַר הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה עִצְּבוֹנֵךְ וְהֵרֹנֵךְ בְּעֶצֶב תֵּלְדִי בָנִים וְאֶל־אִישֵׁךְ תְּשׁוּקָתֵךְ וְהוּא יִמְשָׁל־בָּךְ׃
3.
1
9
בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
3.
2
1
וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לְאָדָם וּלְאִשְׁתּוֹ כָּתְנוֹת עוֹר וַיַּלְבִּשֵׁם׃
3.
2
2
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים הֵן הָאָדָם הָיָה כְּאַחַד מִמֶּנּוּ לָדַעַת טוֹב וָרָע וְעַתָּה פֶּן־יִשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וְלָקַח גַּם מֵעֵץ הַחַיִּים וְאָכַל וָחַי לְעֹלָם׃
3.
2
4
וַיְגָרֶשׁ אֶת־הָאָדָם וַיַּשְׁכֵּן מִקֶּדֶם לְגַן־עֵדֶן אֶת־הַכְּרֻבִים וְאֵת לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת לִשְׁמֹר אֶת־דֶּרֶךְ עֵץ הַחַיִּים׃
4.
2
5
וַיֵּדַע אָדָם עוֹד אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן וַתִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת כִּי שָׁת־לִי אֱלֹהִים זֶרַע אַחֵר תַּחַת הֶבֶל כִּי הֲרָגוֹ קָיִן׃
5.
1
וַיְחִי אֱנוֹשׁ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־קֵינָן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה וּשְׁמֹנֶה מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃
5.
1
זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם בְּיוֹם בְּרֹא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם בִּדְמוּת אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֹתוֹ׃
5.
2
וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־יֶרֶד שְׁתַּיִם וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃
5.
2
זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בְּרָאָם וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָם אָדָם בְּיוֹם הִבָּרְאָם׃
5.
3
וַיְחִי אָדָם שְׁלֹשִׁים וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בִּדְמוּתוֹ כְּצַלְמוֹ וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ שֵׁת׃
5.
3
וַיְחִי־לֶמֶךְ אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־נֹחַ חָמֵשׁ וְתִשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃
5.
4
וַיִּהְיוּ יְמֵי־אָדָם אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־שֵׁת שְׁמֹנֶה מֵאֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃
5.
2
4
וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃
6.
1
וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃
6.
1
וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃
6.
2
וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃
6.
2
מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ לְהַחֲיוֹת׃
6.
3
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃
6.
4
הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃
6.
5
וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃
6.
6
וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃

6.
9
אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃
6.
1
1
וַתִּשָּׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָס׃
6.
1
2
וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
7.
1
1
בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃
9.
1
וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃
9.
1
וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃
9.
2
וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃
9.
2
וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃
9.
3
כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃
9.
4
אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
9.
5
וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃
9.
6
שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃
9.
7
וְאַתֶּם פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃9.
1
3
אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃
9.
1
6
וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן וּרְאִיתִיהָ לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
1
2.
1
וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃
1
2.
1
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃
1
5.
1
אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃
1
5.
1
וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃
1
5.
2
וְאֶת־הַחִתִּי וְאֶת־הַפְּרִזִּי וְאֶת־הָרְפָאִים׃
1
5.
2
וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה מַה־תִּתֶּן־לִי וְאָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ עֲרִירִי וּבֶן־מֶשֶׁק בֵּיתִי הוּא דַּמֶּשֶׂק אֱלִיעֶזֶר׃
1
7.
7
וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ לְדֹרֹתָם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לִהְיוֹת לְךָ לֵאלֹהִים וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ׃
1
7.
8
וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֵת אֶרֶץ מְגֻרֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לַאֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים׃
1
8.
1
2
וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּהּ לֵאמֹר אַחֲרֵי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה־לִּי עֶדְנָה וַאדֹנִי זָקֵן׃
2
2.
1
וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃
2
2.
1
וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃
2
8.
1
1
וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃
2
8.
1
2
וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃
2
8.
1
3
וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃
2
8.
1
4
וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃
2
8.
1
5
וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃
2
8.
1
6
וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃
2
8.
1
7
וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
2
8.
1
8
וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃
2
8.
1
9
וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית־אֵל וְאוּלָם לוּז שֵׁם־הָעִיר לָרִאשֹׁנָה׃
2
8.
2
1
וְשַׁבְתִּי בְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־בֵּית אָבִי וְהָיָה יְהוָה לִי לֵאלֹהִים׃
3
9.
1
וְיוֹסֵף הוּרַד מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּקְנֵהוּ פּוֹטִיפַר סְרִיס פַּרְעֹה שַׂר הַטַּבָּחִים אִישׁ מִצְרִי מִיַּד הַיִּשְׁמְעֵאלִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹרִדֻהוּ שָׁמָּה׃
3
9.
1
וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל־יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם וְלֹא־שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ לִשְׁכַּב אֶצְלָהּ לִהְיוֹת עִמָּהּ׃
4
9.
9
גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃ ' None
sup>
1.
1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

1.
2
Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.

1.
3
And God said: ‘Let there be light.’ And there was light.

1.
4
And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.

1.
5
And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day.

1.
6
And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’

1.
7
And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament; and it was so.

1.
9
And God said: ‘Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so.
1.
1
1
And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.
1
2
And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, wherein is the seed thereof, after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
1.
1
4
And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;
1.
1
5
and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so.
1.
1
6
And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars.

1.
2
1
And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.


1.
2
2
And God blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’


1.
2
4
And God said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so.


1.
2
5
And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.


1.
2
6
And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’


1.
2
7
And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.


1.
2
8
And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’


1.
30
and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, I have given every green herb for food.’ And it was so.

1.
3
1
And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
2.
1
And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2.
2
And on the seventh day God finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.

2.
7
Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

2.
8
And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed.

2.
9
And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
2.

10
And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four heads.
2.
1
6
And the LORD God commanded the man, saying: ‘of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat;
2.
1
7
but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’
2.
1
8
And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’
2.
1
9
And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto the man to see what he would call them; and whatsoever the man would call every living creature, that was to be the name thereof.
2.
20
And the man gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found a help meet for him.
2.
2
1
And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof.
2.
2
2
And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man.
2.
2
3
And the man said: ‘This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.’
3.
1
Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman: ‘Yea, hath God said: Ye shall not eat of any tree of the garden?’
3.
2
And the woman said unto the serpent: ‘of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat;
3.
3
but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said: Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.’

3.
4
And the serpent said unto the woman: ‘Ye shall not surely die;

3.
5
for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as God, knowing good and evil.’

3.
7
And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves girdles.
3.
1
3
And the LORD God said unto the woman: ‘What is this thou hast done?’ And the woman said: ‘The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.’
3.
1
4
And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
3.
1
5
And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; they shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise their heel.’
3.
1
6
Unto the woman He said: ‘I will greatly multiply thy pain and thy travail; in pain thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.’
3.
1
9
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
3.
20
And the man called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living.
3.
2
1
And the LORD God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them.
3.
2
2
And the LORD God said: ‘Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever.’
3.
2
4
So He drove out the man; and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way to the tree of life.
4.
2
5
And Adam knew his wife again; and she bore a son, and called his name Seth: ‘for God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel; for Cain slew him.’
5.
1
This is the book of the generations of Adam. In the day that God created man, in the likeness of God made He him;
5.
2
male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam, in the day when they were created.
5.
3
And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image; and called his name Seth.
5.
4
And the days of Adam after he begot Seth were eight hundred years; and he begot sons and daughters.
5.
2
4
And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.
6.
1
And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,
6.
2
that the sons of nobles saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives, whomsoever they chose.
6.
3
And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’
6.
4
The Nephilim were in the earth in those days, and also after that, when the sons of nobles came in unto the daughters of men, and they bore children to them; the same were the mighty men that were of old, the men of renown.
6.
5
And the LORD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.
6.
6
And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.

6.
9
These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.
6.
1
1
And the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.
6.
1
2
And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. .
7.
1
1
In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
9.
1
And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them: ‘Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth.
9.
2
And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, and upon all wherewith the ground teemeth, and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered.
9.
3
Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all.
9.
4
Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.
9.
5
And surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, will I require the life of man.
9.
6
Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man.
9.
7
And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; swarm in the earth, and multiply therein.’ .'
9.
1
3
I have set My bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covet between Me and the earth.
9.
1
6
And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covet between God and every living creature of all flesh that is upon the earth.’
9.
20
And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.
1
2.
1
Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee.
1
5.
1
After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’
1
5.
2
And Abram said: ‘O Lord GOD, what wilt Thou give me, seeing I go hence childless, and he that shall be possessor of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?’
1
7.
7
And I will establish My covet between Me and thee and thy seed after thee throughout their generations for an everlasting covet, to be a God unto thee and to thy seed after thee.
1
7.
8
And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God.’
1
8.
1
2
And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’
2
2.
1
And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’
2
8.
1
1
And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep.
2
8.
1
2
And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it.
2
8.
1
3
And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed.
2
8.
1
4
And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed.
2
8.
1
5
And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’
2
8.
1
6
And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’
2
8.
1
7
And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’
2
8.
1
8
And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it.
2
8.
1
9
And he called the name of that place Beth-el, but the name of the city was Luz at the first.
2
8.
2
1
o that I come back to my father’s house in peace, then shall the LORD be my God,
3
9.
1
And Joseph was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh’s, the captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hand of the Ishmaelites, that had brought him down thither.
4
9.
9
Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up? ' None
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 14.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Vineyard imagery, in Ezekiel • Vineyard imagery, in Hosea • Vineyard imagery, in Jeremiah • Vineyard imagery, in Psalms • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs

 Found in books: Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 49; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 284

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14.7 יֵלְכוּ יֹנְקוֹתָיו וִיהִי כַזַּיִת הוֹדוֹ וְרֵיחַ לוֹ כַּלְּבָנוֹן׃'' None
sup>
14.7 His branches shall spread, And his beauty shall be as the olive-tree, And his fragrance as Lebanon.'' None
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.3, 11.45, 11.47, 12.2, 12.6, 16.6, 19.4, 19.18-19.19, 19.24, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • God, human created according to the image of • Image of God • Image vi, • Images • Images, Material for Idols • Lamentations, impurity images in • Song of Songs, dove (image) in • Temple, And the Conception of the Creation of humanity in Gods Image • allusions, dove (image) • animal imagery • connotations, imagery • connotations, images • divine anger, sexual imagery • dove (image) • grafting, as marriage imagery • image of God • image of God, and adam’s image • image of God, and human hybridity • image, imagery • imagery, fountain • imagery, mud • imagery, running • imago dei • kedushtot, dove imagery in • observed by, image and likeness of • sexual imagery

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 159; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 132, 133; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 44, 45; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 233; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 238, 239; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211; Hellholm et al. (2010), Ablution, Initiation, and Baptism: Late Antiquity, Early Judaism, and Early Christianity, 595; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29, 30, 121, 206, 240; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 180; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 46, 146; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 11, 26, 40

sup>
11.3 וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃
11.3
כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃
11.45
כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃
11.47
לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃
12.2
דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּוֺתָהּ תִּטְמָא׃
12.6
וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃
16.6
וְהִקְרִיב אַהֲרֹן אֶת־פַּר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ׃
19.4
אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃
19.18
לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.19 אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃
19.24
וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃
26.1
וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃26.1 לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ ' None
sup>
11.3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.
11.45
For I am the LORD that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. .
11.47
to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.
12.2
Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a woman be delivered, and bear a man-child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of the impurity of her sickness shall she be unclean.
12.6
And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest.
16.6
And Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering, which is for himself, and make atonement for himself, and for his house.
19.4
Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God.
19.18
Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD. 19.19 Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.
19.24
And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.
26.1
Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God.'' None
7. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 5.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • image

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 138; Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 194

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5.4 וְהָיָה זֶה שָׁלוֹם אַשּׁוּר כִּי־יָבוֹא בְאַרְצֵנוּ וְכִי יִדְרֹךְ בְּאַרְמְנֹתֵינוּ וַהֲקֵמֹנוּ עָלָיו שִׁבְעָה רֹעִים וּשְׁמֹנָה נְסִיכֵי אָדָם׃'' None
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5.4 And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, And when he shall tread in our palaces, Then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, And eight princes among men.'' None
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.2, 7.1, 14.7, 14.9, 20.17, 21.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Beth-El, Imagery in • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Image of God • Image vi, • Image, of God • Imago Dei • Wilderness/Desert, Imagery of • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, ensnare • imagery, giving birth • imagery, harbour • imagery, military • imagery, rebelliousness • imagery, storm

 Found in books: Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 84; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 167, 192, 194, 260; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 214; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 188; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 351; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 143; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 292; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 40, 441

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6.2 דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַפְלִא לִנְדֹּר נֶדֶר נָזִיר לְהַזִּיר לַיהוָה׃
6.2
וְהֵנִיף אוֹתָם הַכֹּהֵן תְּנוּפָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לַכֹּהֵן עַל חֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וְעַל שׁוֹק הַתְּרוּמָה וְאַחַר יִשְׁתֶּה הַנָּזִיר יָיִן׃
7.1
וַיְהִי בְּיוֹם כַּלּוֹת מֹשֶׁה לְהָקִים אֶת־הַמִּשְׁכָּן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וַיִּמְשָׁחֵם וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֹתָם׃
7.1
וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂאִים אֵת חֲנֻכַּת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ בְּיוֹם הִמָּשַׁח אֹתוֹ וַיַּקְרִיבוּ הַנְּשִׂיאִם אֶת־קָרְבָּנָם לִפְנֵי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃
14.7
וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר עָבַרְנוּ בָהּ לָתוּר אֹתָהּ טוֹבָה הָאָרֶץ מְאֹד מְאֹד׃
14.9
אַךְ בַּיהוָה אַל־תִּמְרֹדוּ וְאַתֶּם אַל־תִּירְאוּ אֶת־עַם הָאָרֶץ כִּי לַחְמֵנוּ הֵם סָר צִלָּם מֵעֲלֵיהֶם וַיהוָה אִתָּנוּ אַל־תִּירָאֻם׃
20.17
נַעְבְּרָה־נָּא בְאַרְצֶךָ לֹא נַעֲבֹר בְּשָׂדֶה וּבְכֶרֶם וְלֹא נִשְׁתֶּה מֵי בְאֵר דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ נֵלֵךְ לֹא נִטֶּה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול עַד אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲבֹר גְּבוּלֶךָ׃
21.8
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃'' None
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6.2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When either man or woman shall clearly utter a vow, the vow of a Nazirite, to consecrate himself unto the LORD,
7.1
And it came to pass on the day that Moses had made an end of setting up the tabernacle, and had anointed it and sanctified it, and all the furniture thereof, and the altar and all the vessels thereof, and had anointed them and sanctified them;
14.7
And they spoke unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, saying: ‘The land, which we passed through to spy it out, is an exceeding good land.
14.9
Only rebel not against the LORD, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they are bread for us; their defence is removed from over them, and the LORD is with us; fear them not.’
20.17
Let us pass, I pray thee, through thy land; we will not pass through field or through vineyard, neither will we drink of the water of the wells; we will go along the king’s highway, we will not turn aside to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed thy border.’
21.8
And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’'' None
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.9, 3.19, 8.22-8.25, 8.27-8.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • Image • Image of God • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, Christ as Image of God • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • Johannine Logos, messianic (kingly) image of • King as image/glory of gods • Man (Humanity), The Body as Gods Image • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • Teacher, image of Amun related to • Teacher, images (or sage-) of personified Wisdom related to • financial imagery • image • images/imagery, in catechesis • merkavah imagery, devekut to • personified Wisdom, Teacher (or sage) images of

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 206; Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 136; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 59, 60, 62, 64, 65, 66, 131, 185, 202, 247, 284, 316, 351; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 430; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 176; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 84, 86, 96, 175, 178; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 149, 266; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164

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3.19 יְהוָה בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד־אָרֶץ כּוֹנֵן שָׁמַיִם בִּתְבוּנָה׃
8.22
יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23 מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃ 8.24 בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃ 8.25 בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃
8.27
בַּהֲכִינוֹ שָׁמַיִם שָׁם אָנִי בְּחוּקוֹ חוּג עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם׃ 8.28 בְּאַמְּצוֹ שְׁחָקִים מִמָּעַל בַּעֲזוֹז עִינוֹת תְּהוֹם׃ 8.29 בְּשׂוּמוֹ לַיָּם חֻקּוֹ וּמַיִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ־פִיו בְּחוּקוֹ מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃' ' None
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3.19 The LORD by wisdom founded the earth; By understanding He established the heavens.
8.22
The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old. 8.23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was. 8.24 When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water. 8.25 Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;
8.27
When He established the heavens, I was there; When He set a circle upon the face of the deep, 8.28 When He made firm the skies above, When the fountains of the deep showed their might, 8.29 When He gave to the sea His decree, That the waters should not transgress His commandment, When He appointed the foundations of the earth; 8.30 Then I was by Him, as a nursling; And I was daily all delight, Playing always before Him,' ' None
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.3, 2.7, 8.5-8.8, 18.8-18.15, 31.3, 68.18, 74.1, 74.13-74.14, 77.15-77.20, 89.11, 89.15, 89.24, 89.28, 92.10, 104.1-104.2, 104.4, 110.1, 115.4-115.7, 135.15-135.18, 137.5, 144.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Beth-El, Imagery in • Image of God • Image vi, • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, Christ as Image of God • Image, of God • Images, Material for Idols • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • Johannine Logos, messianic (kingly) image of • Judas, deluded in self-image • King as image/glory of gods • King as image/glory of gods, of Christ • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Rhetoric, imagery • Second Isaiah, garment imagery in • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Sonship as being in God’s image and likeness • Temple, And the Conception of the Creation of humanity in Gods Image • Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim Yotzer Or blessing, light imagery in • allusions, dove (image) • animal imagery • bishops, in image of Christ • dove (image) • educational metaphor, bird imagery • educational metaphor, water imagery • garden imagery, in the Shivata for Dew • identity, constructed, construction, fictional, imagined, invented • image • image of God • image of God (in man) • image, imagery • imagery, Exodus-related • imagery, Revelation • kedushtot, dove imagery in • king, in image of Christ • king, in image of God • light imagery, in Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 128, 129, 143; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 131, 138; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 19, 60, 63, 64, 65, 66, 84, 85, 147, 233, 237; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 15, 32, 39; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 316; Hirshman (2009), The Stabilization of Rabbinic Culture, 100 C, 70; Johnson Dupertuis and Shea (2018), Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction : Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives 83; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 395, 410, 415, 431, 601, 810, 924, 947; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 308, 394; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 133, 134; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 67, 86, 87, 89, 92, 94, 182, 193, 194; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 325; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 83; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 89, 148; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 316, 318, 320, 548, 593, 603; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 100; Scopello (2008), The Gospel of Judas in Context: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Gospel of Judas, 37; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 105, 106, 149, 152; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398, 399; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 153

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1.3 וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל־פַּלְגֵי מָיִם אֲשֶׁר פִּרְיוֹ יִתֵּן בְּעִתּוֹ וְעָלֵהוּ לֹא־יִבּוֹל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה יַצְלִיחַ׃
2.7
אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃
8.5
מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃ 8.6 וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃ 8.7 תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃ 8.8 צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃
18.8
וַתִּגְעַשׁ וַתִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וּמוֹסְדֵי הָרִים יִרְגָּזוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ כִּי־חָרָה לוֹ׃ 18.9 עָלָה עָשָׁן בְּאַפּוֹ וְאֵשׁ־מִפִּיו תֹּאכֵל גֶּחָלִים בָּעֲרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ׃' '18.11 וַיִּרְכַּב עַל־כְּרוּב וַיָּעֹף וַיֵּדֶא עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רוּחַ׃ 18.12 יָשֶׁת חֹשֶׁךְ סִתְרוֹ סְבִיבוֹתָיו סֻכָּתוֹ חֶשְׁכַת־מַיִם עָבֵי שְׁחָקִים׃ 18.13 מִנֹּגַהּ נֶגְדּוֹ עָבָיו עָבְרוּ בָּרָד וְגַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ׃ 18.15 וַיִּשְׁלַח חִצָּיו וַיְפִיצֵם וּבְרָקִים רָב וַיְהֻמֵּם׃ 3
1.3
הַטֵּה אֵלַי אָזְנְךָ מְהֵרָה הַצִּילֵנִי הֱיֵה לִי לְצוּר־מָעוֹז לְבֵית מְצוּדוֹת לְהוֹשִׁיעֵנִי׃
68.18
רֶכֶב אֱלֹהִים רִבֹּתַיִם אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן אֲדֹנָי בָם סִינַי בַּקֹּדֶשׁ׃
74.1
מַשְׂכִּיל לְאָסָף לָמָה אֱלֹהִים זָנַחְתָּ לָנֶצַח יֶעְשַׁן אַפְּךָ בְּצֹאן מַרְעִיתֶךָ׃
74.1
עַד־מָתַי אֱלֹהִים יְחָרֶף צָר יְנָאֵץ אוֹיֵב שִׁמְךָ לָנֶצַח׃

74.13
אַתָּה פוֹרַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּיִם׃
74.14
אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּים׃
77.15
אַתָּה הָאֵל עֹשֵׂה פֶלֶא הוֹדַעְתָּ בָעַמִּים עֻזֶּךָ׃ 77.16 גָּאַלְתָּ בִּזְרוֹעַ עַמֶּךָ בְּנֵי־יַעֲקֹב וְיוֹסֵף סֶלָה׃ 77.17 רָאוּךָ מַּיִם אֱ\u200dלֹהִים רָאוּךָ מַּיִם יָחִילוּ אַף יִרְגְּזוּ תְהֹמוֹת׃ 77.18 זֹרְמוּ מַיִם עָבוֹת קוֹל נָתְנוּ שְׁחָקִים אַף־חֲצָצֶיךָ יִתְהַלָּכוּ׃ 77.19 קוֹל רַעַמְךָ בַּגַּלְגַּל הֵאִירוּ בְרָקִים תֵּבֵל רָגְזָה וַתִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ׃
89.11
אַתָּה דִכִּאתָ כֶחָלָל רָהַב בִּזְרוֹעַ עֻזְּךָ פִּזַּרְתָּ אוֹיְבֶיךָ׃
89.15
צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאֶךָ חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת יְקַדְּמוּ פָנֶיךָ׃
89.24
וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃
89.28
אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃
104.1
בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃
104.1
הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃ 104.2 עֹטֶה־אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה׃ 104.2 תָּשֶׁת־חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ־תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר׃
104.4
עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃
110.1
לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃
115.4
עֲ\u200dצַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5 פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃ 115.6 אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ אַף לָהֶם וְלֹא יְרִיחוּן׃ 115.7 יְדֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְמִישׁוּן רַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יְהַלֵּכוּ לֹא־יֶהְגּוּ בִּגְרוֹנָם׃
135.15
עֲצַבֵּי הַגּוֹיִם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 135.17 אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יַאֲזִינוּ אַף אֵין־יֶשׁ־רוּחַ בְּפִיהֶם׃ 135.18 כְּמוֹהֶם יִהְיוּ עֹשֵׂיהֶם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בֹּטֵחַ בָּהֶם׃
137.5
אִם־אֶשְׁכָּחֵךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם תִּשְׁכַּח יְמִינִי׃
144.4
אָדָם לַהֶבֶל דָּמָה יָמָיו כְּצֵל עוֹבֵר׃'' None
sup>
1.3 And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, that bringeth forth its fruit in its season, and whose leaf doth not wither; and in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper.' "
2.7
I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee." 8.5 What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him? 8.6 Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour. 8.7 Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet: 8.8 Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;
18.8
Then the earth did shake and quake, the foundations also of the mountains did tremble; they were shaken, because He was wroth. 18.9 Smoke arose up in His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth did devour; coals flamed forth from Him. 18.10 He bowed the heavens also, and came down; and thick darkness was under His feet. 18.11 And He rode upon a cherub, and did fly; yea, He did swoop down upon the wings of the wind. 18.12 He made darkness His hiding-place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies. 18.13 At the brightness before Him, there passed through His thick clouds Hailstones and coals of fire. 18.15 And He sent out His arrows, and scattered them; and He shot forth lightnings, and discomfited them. 3
1.3
Incline Thine ear unto me, deliver me speedily; Be Thou to me a rock of refuge, even a fortress of defence, to save me.
68.18
The chariots of God are myriads, even thousands upon thousands; The Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in holiness.
74.1
Maschil of Asaph. Why, O God, hast Thou cast us off for ever? Why doth Thine anger smoke against the flock of Thy pasture?

74.13
Thou didst break the sea in pieces by Thy strength; Thou didst shatter the heads of the sea-monsters in the waters.
74.14
Thou didst crush the heads of leviathan, Thou gavest him to be food to the folk inhabiting the wilderness.
77.15
Thou art the God that doest wonders; Thou hast made known Thy strength among the peoples. 77.16 Thou hast with Thine arm redeemed Thy people, The sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah 77.17 The waters saw Thee, O God; The waters saw Thee, they were in pain; The depths also trembled. 77.18 The clouds flooded forth waters; The skies sent out a sound; Thine arrows also went abroad. 77.19 The voice of Thy thunder was in the whirlwind; The lightnings lighted up the world; The earth trembled and shook. 77.20 Thy way was in the sea, And Thy path in the great waters, And Thy footsteps were not known.
89.11
Thou didst crush Rahab, as one that is slain; Thou didst scattered Thine enemies with the arm of Thy strength.
89.15
Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Thy throne; Mercy and truth go before Thee.
89.24
And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him.
89.28
I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth.
92.10
For, lo, Thine enemies, O LORD, For, lo, Thine enemies shall perish: All the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.
104.1
Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty. 104.2 Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;
104.4
Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.' "
110.1
A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'" "
115.4
Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." '115.5 They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not; 115.6 They have ears, but they hear not; Noses have they, but they smell not; 115.7 They have hands, but they handle not; Feet have they, but they walk not; Neither speak they with their throat. .' "
135.15
The idols of the nations are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." '135.17 They have ears, but they hear not; Neither is there any breath in their mouths. 135.18 They that make them shall be like unto them; Yea, every one that trusteth in them.
137.5
If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, Let my right hand forget her cunning.
144.4
Man is like unto a breath; His days are as a shadow that passeth away.' ' None
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 6.18, 6.23, 6.29, 6.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image xvi, • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • image

 Found in books: Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 321, 326

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6.18 וְאֶרֶז אֶל־הַבַּיִת פְּנִימָה מִקְלַעַת פְּקָעִים וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים הַכֹּל אֶרֶז אֵין אֶבֶן נִרְאָה׃
6.23
וַיַּעַשׂ בַּדְּבִיר שְׁנֵי כְרוּבִים עֲצֵי־שָׁמֶן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת קוֹמָתוֹ׃
6.29
וְאֵת כָּל־קִירוֹת הַבַּיִת מֵסַב קָלַע פִּתּוּחֵי מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים מִלִּפְנִים וְלַחִיצוֹן׃
6.32
וּשְׁתֵּי דַּלְתוֹת עֲצֵי־שֶׁמֶן וְקָלַע עֲלֵיהֶם מִקְלְעוֹת כְּרוּבִים וְתִמֹרוֹת וּפְטוּרֵי צִצִּים וְצִפָּה זָהָב וַיָּרֶד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים וְעַל־הַתִּמֹרוֹת אֶת־הַזָּהָב׃'' None
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6.18 And the cedar on the house within was carved with knops and open flowers; all was cedar; there was no stone seen.
6.23
And in the Sanctuary he made two cherubim of olive-wood, each ten cubits high.
6.29
And he carved all the walls of the house round about with carved figures of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, within and without.
6.32
And as for the two doors of olive-wood, he carved upon them carvings of cherubim and palm-trees and open flowers, and overlaid them with gold; and he spread the gold upon the cherubim, and upon the palm-trees.'' None
12. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 3.8, 5.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image of God • Lamentations, exile imagery in • animal imagery

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 151, 185; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 96

sup>
3.8 אַרְיֵה שָׁאָג מִי לֹא יִירָא אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה דִּבֶּר מִי לֹא יִנָּבֵא׃' ' None
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3.8 The lion hath roared, Who will not fear? The Lord GOD hath spoken, Who can but prophesy?
5.10
They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly.'' None
13. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.21, 1.26, 5.1-5.7, 6.1-6.13, 11.4, 11.6, 14.4-14.5, 14.11-14.15, 27.1, 35.1-35.7, 35.9, 40.3, 40.6, 40.9, 40.12, 44.9, 44.18, 46.9, 49.3, 49.7, 49.14, 51.9-51.11, 52.7, 52.11-52.12, 54.8, 54.10, 59.17, 61.1, 62.4, 63.17, 65.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Beth-El, Imagery in • Exodus imagery • Ezekiel, Tragedian, OT throne imagery • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Hadrian, historical image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Image of God • Image vi, • Image xvi, • Image, Christ as Image of God • Images • Jeremiah, book of, planting images in • Lamentations, exile imagery in • Lamentations, impurity images in • Magen for Kedushta to Shabbat Naḥamu, Lebanon image in • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Paul, as source of imagery • Revelation (Apocalypse of John), image of the sword of the mouth • Rhetoric, imagery • Second Isaiah, garment imagery in • Song of Songs piyyutim, garden and Temple imagery in • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Song of Songs, dove (image) in • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, planting imagery in • Tyre, tholos image in Eusebian Canon Tables and church of Paulinus at • Vineyard imagery, in Isaiah • Vineyard imagery, in Jeremiah • Vineyard imagery, in Song of Songs • Wilderness/Desert, Imagery of • Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim Yotzer Or blessing, light imagery in • Zion, garment imagery • allusions, dove (image) • animal imagery • dove (image) • eros, garden imagery and • exile, planting imagery of • garden imagery female lover and • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • image • image of God • image, imagery • imagery, Danielic • imagery, Exodus-related • imagery, Revelation • images/imagery, in catechesis • imago • kedushtot, dove imagery in • light imagery, in Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim • military imagery • missionary activities, images of • mortality, imagery of • redemption, crowning imagery and • religious identity, and aural imagination in Testament of Adam • sexual imagery • silluq,contains angelogical imagery in the Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim • solar (imagery) • tholos image in Eusebian Canon Tables

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 63, 64; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 503, 504; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 129, 133, 143; Binder (2012), Tertullian, on Idolatry and Mishnah Avodah Zarah: Questioning the Parting of the Ways Between Christians and Jews, 132, 177; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 42, 43, 203; Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 347, 348; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 128, 135, 138; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 436; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324; Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 137; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 254; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 15, 61, 64, 65, 66, 69, 147, 249; Hasan Rokem (2003), Tales of the Neighborhood Jewish Narrative Dialogues in Late Antiquity, 123; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 246; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 106, 107; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 408, 431, 504, 810, 945; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 48, 54, 350, 395, 396; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 46; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 93; Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 114; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 335; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 6; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 12; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 90, 99, 127, 129, 130, 184, 187; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 24; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 141, 303, 304, 308, 309, 310, 321, 334, 337, 504, 510, 593, 600; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55, 56, 105, 106, 126, 127, 130, 140, 149, 152, 164; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 292; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 282, 283, 286, 288; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 153; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 323, 327

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1.21 אֵיכָה הָיְתָה לְזוֹנָה קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה מְלֵאֲתִי מִשְׁפָּט צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ וְעַתָּה מְרַצְּחִים׃
1.26
וְאָשִׁיבָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן יִקָּרֵא לָךְ עִיר הַצֶּדֶק קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה׃
5.1
אָשִׁירָה נָּא לִידִידִי שִׁירַת דּוֹדִי לְכַרְמוֹ כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִידִי בְּקֶרֶן בֶּן־שָׁמֶן׃
5.1
כִּי עֲשֶׂרֶת צִמְדֵּי־כֶרֶם יַעֲשׂוּ בַּת אֶחָת וְזֶרַע חֹמֶר יַעֲשֶׂה אֵיפָה׃ 5.2 הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2 וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.3 וְיִנְהֹם עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָם וְנִבַּט לָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־חֹשֶׁךְ צַר וָאוֹר חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶיהָ׃ 5.3 וְעַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שִׁפְטוּ־נָא בֵּינִי וּבֵין כַּרְמִי׃ 5.4 מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד לְכַרְמִי וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי בּוֹ מַדּוּעַ קִוֵּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.5 וְעַתָּה אוֹדִיעָה־נָּא אֶתְכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה לְכַרְמִי הָסֵר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר פָּרֹץ גְּדֵרוֹ וְהָיָה לְמִרְמָס׃ 5.6 וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ בָתָה לֹא יִזָּמֵר וְלֹא יֵעָדֵר וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁיִת וְעַל הֶעָבִים אֲצַוֶּה מֵהַמְטִיר עָלָיו מָטָר׃ 5.7 כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃
6.1
בִּשְׁנַת־מוֹת הַמֶּלֶךְ עֻזִּיָּהוּ וָאֶרְאֶה אֶת־אֲדֹנָי יֹשֵׁב עַל־כִּסֵּא רָם וְנִשָּׂא וְשׁוּלָיו מְלֵאִים אֶת־הַהֵיכָל׃
6.1
הַשְׁמֵן לֵב־הָעָם הַזֶּה וְאָזְנָיו הַכְבֵּד וְעֵינָיו הָשַׁע פֶּן־יִרְאֶה בְעֵינָיו וּבְאָזְנָיו יִשְׁמָע וּלְבָבוֹ יָבִין וָשָׁב וְרָפָא לוֹ׃ 6.2 שְׂרָפִים עֹמְדִים מִמַּעַל לוֹ שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם שֵׁשׁ כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד בִּשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה פָנָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְכַסֶּה רַגְלָיו וּבִשְׁתַּיִם יְעוֹפֵף׃ 6.3 וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃ 6.4 וַיָּנֻעוּ אַמּוֹת הַסִּפִּים מִקּוֹל הַקּוֹרֵא וְהַבַּיִת יִמָּלֵא עָשָׁן׃ 6.5 וָאֹמַר אוֹי־לִי כִי־נִדְמֵיתִי כִּי אִישׁ טְמֵא־שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי וּבְתוֹךְ עַם־טְמֵא שְׂפָתַיִם אָנֹכִי יוֹשֵׁב כִּי אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת רָאוּ עֵינָי׃ 6.6 וַיָּעָף אֵלַי אֶחָד מִן־הַשְּׂרָפִים וּבְיָדוֹ רִצְפָּה בְּמֶלְקַחַיִם לָקַח מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.7 וַיַּגַּע עַל־פִּי וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה נָגַע זֶה עַל־שְׂפָתֶיךָ וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ וְחַטָּאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּר׃ 6.8 וָאֶשְׁמַע אֶת־קוֹל אֲדֹנָי אֹמֵר אֶת־מִי אֶשְׁלַח וּמִי יֵלֶךְ־לָנוּ וָאֹמַר הִנְנִי שְׁלָחֵנִי׃ 6.9 וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃' 6.11 וָאֹמַר עַד־מָתַי אֲדֹנָי וַיֹּאמֶר עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־שָׁאוּ עָרִים מֵאֵין יוֹשֵׁב וּבָתִּים מֵאֵין אָדָם וְהָאֲדָמָה תִּשָּׁאֶה שְׁמָמָה׃
6.12
וְרִחַק יְהוָה אֶת־הָאָדָם וְרַבָּה הָעֲזוּבָה בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ׃
6.13
וְעוֹד בָּהּ עֲשִׂרִיָּה וְשָׁבָה וְהָיְתָה לְבָעֵר כָּאֵלָה וְכָאַלּוֹן אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁלֶּכֶת מַצֶּבֶת בָּם זֶרַע קֹדֶשׁ מַצַּבְתָּהּ׃
11.4
וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃
11.6
וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃
14.4
וְנָשָׂאתָ הַמָּשָׁל הַזֶּה עַל־מֶלֶךְ בָּבֶל וְאָמָרְתָּ אֵיךְ שָׁבַת נֹגֵשׂ שָׁבְתָה מַדְהֵבָה׃ 14.5 שָׁבַר יְהוָה מַטֵּה רְשָׁעִים שֵׁבֶט מֹשְׁלִים׃
14.11
הוּרַד שְׁאוֹל גְּאוֹנֶךָ הֶמְיַת נְבָלֶיךָ תַּחְתֶּיךָ יֻצַּע רִמָּה וּמְכַסֶּיךָ תּוֹלֵעָה׃ 14.12 אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃ 14.13 וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃ 14.14 אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃ 14.15 אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃
27.1
בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃
27.1
כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃
3
5.1
וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשֻׁבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּ וְנָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃
3
5.1
יְשֻׂשׂוּם מִדְבָּר וְצִיָּה וְתָגֵל עֲרָבָה וְתִפְרַח כַּחֲבַצָּלֶת׃ 35.2 פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן־לָהּ הֲדַר הַכַּרְמֶל וְהַשָּׁרוֹן הֵמָּה יִרְאוּ כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הֲדַר אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 35.3 חַזְּקוּ יָדַיִם רָפוֹת וּבִרְכַּיִם כֹּשְׁלוֹת אַמֵּצוּ׃ 35.4 אִמְרוּ לְנִמְהֲרֵי־לֵב חִזְקוּ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם נָקָם יָבוֹא גְּמוּל אֱלֹהִים הוּא יָבוֹא וְיֹשַׁעֲכֶם׃ 35.5 אָז תִּפָּקַחְנָה עֵינֵי עִוְרִים וְאָזְנֵי חֵרְשִׁים תִּפָּתַחְנָה׃ 35.6 אָז יְדַלֵּג כָּאַיָּל פִּסֵּחַ וְתָרֹן לְשׁוֹן אִלֵּם כִּי־נִבְקְעוּ בַמִּדְבָּר מַיִם וּנְחָלִים בָּעֲרָבָה׃ 35.7 וְהָיָה הַשָּׁרָב לַאֲגַם וְצִמָּאוֹן לְמַבּוּעֵי מָיִם בִּנְוֵה תַנִּים רִבְצָהּ חָצִיר לְקָנֶה וָגֹמֶא׃
35.9
לֹא־יִהְיֶה שָׁם אַרְיֵה וּפְרִיץ חַיּוֹת בַּל־יַעֲלֶנָּה לֹא תִמָּצֵא שָׁם וְהָלְכוּ גְּאוּלִים׃
40.3
וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃
40.3
קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃
40.6
קוֹל אֹמֵר קְרָא וְאָמַר מָה אֶקְרָא כָּל־הַבָּשָׂר חָצִיר וְכָל־חַסְדּוֹ כְּצִיץ הַשָּׂדֶה׃
40.9
עַל הַר־גָּבֹהַ עֲלִי־לָךְ מְבַשֶּׂרֶת צִיּוֹן הָרִימִי בַכֹּחַ קוֹלֵךְ מְבַשֶּׂרֶת יְרוּשָׁלִָם הָרִימִי אַל־תִּירָאִי אִמְרִי לְעָרֵי יְהוּדָה הִנֵּה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃
40.12
מִי־מָדַד בְּשָׁעֳלוֹ מַיִם וְשָׁמַיִם בַּזֶּרֶת תִּכֵּן וְכָל בַּשָּׁלִשׁ עֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וְשָׁקַל בַּפֶּלֶס הָרִים וּגְבָעוֹת בְּמֹאזְנָיִם׃
44.9
יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃
44.18
לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃
46.9
זִכְרוּ רִאשֹׁנוֹת מֵעוֹלָם כִּי אָנֹכִי אֵל וְאֵין עוֹד אֱלֹהִים וְאֶפֶס כָּמוֹנִי׃
49.3
וַיֹּאמֶר לִי עַבְדִּי־אָתָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר־בְּךָ אֶתְפָּאָר׃
49.7
כֹּה אָמַר־יְהוָה גֹּאֵל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשׁוֹ לִבְזֹה־נֶפֶשׁ לִמְתָעֵב גּוֹי לְעֶבֶד מֹשְׁלִים מְלָכִים יִרְאוּ וָקָמוּ שָׂרִים וְיִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְמַעַן יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נֶאֱמָן קְדֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּבְחָרֶךָּ׃
49.14
וַתֹּאמֶר צִיּוֹן עֲזָבַנִי יְהוָה וַאדֹנָי שְׁכֵחָנִי׃
51.9
עוּרִי עוּרִי לִבְשִׁי־עֹז זְרוֹעַ יְהוָה עוּרִי כִּימֵי קֶדֶם דֹּרוֹת עוֹלָמִים הֲלוֹא אַתְּ־הִיא הַמַּחְצֶבֶת רַהַב מְחוֹלֶלֶת תַּנִּין׃ 51.11 וּפְדוּיֵי יְהוָה יְשׁוּבוּן וּבָאוּ צִיּוֹן בְּרִנָּה וְשִׂמְחַת עוֹלָם עַל־רֹאשָׁם שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יַשִּׂיגוּן נָסוּ יָגוֹן וַאֲנָחָה׃
52.7
מַה־נָּאווּ עַל־הֶהָרִים רַגְלֵי מְבַשֵּׂר מַשְׁמִיעַ שָׁלוֹם מְבַשֵּׂר טוֹב מַשְׁמִיעַ יְשׁוּעָה אֹמֵר לְצִיּוֹן מָלַךְ אֱלֹהָיִךְ׃
52.11
סוּרוּ סוּרוּ צְאוּ מִשָּׁם טָמֵא אַל־תִּגָּעוּ צְאוּ מִתּוֹכָהּ הִבָּרוּ נֹשְׂאֵי כְּלֵי יְהוָה׃ 52.12 כִּי לֹא בְחִפָּזוֹן תֵּצֵאוּ וּבִמְנוּסָה לֹא תֵלֵכוּן כִּי־הֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵיכֶם יְהוָה וּמְאַסִּפְכֶם אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
54.8
בְּשֶׁצֶף קֶצֶף הִסְתַּרְתִּי פָנַי רֶגַע מִמֵּךְ וּבְחֶסֶד עוֹלָם רִחַמְתִּיךְ אָמַר גֹּאֲלֵךְ יְהוָה׃
59.17
וַיִּלְבַּשׁ צְדָקָה כַּשִּׁרְיָן וְכוֹבַע יְשׁוּעָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי נָקָם תִּלְבֹּשֶׁת וַיַּעַט כַּמְעִיל קִנְאָה׃
61.1
רוּחַ אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה עָלָי יַעַן מָשַׁח יְהוָה אֹתִי לְבַשֵּׂר עֲנָוִים שְׁלָחַנִי לַחֲבֹשׁ לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב לִקְרֹא לִשְׁבוּיִם דְּרוֹר וְלַאֲסוּרִים פְּקַח־קוֹחַ׃
61.1
שׂוֹשׂ אָשִׂישׂ בַּיהוָה תָּגֵל נַפְשִׁי בֵּאלֹהַי כִּי הִלְבִּישַׁנִי בִּגְדֵי־יֶשַׁע מְעִיל צְדָקָה יְעָטָנִי כֶּחָתָן יְכַהֵן פְּאֵר וְכַכַּלָּה תַּעְדֶּה כֵלֶיהָ׃
62.4
לֹא־יֵאָמֵר לָךְ עוֹד עֲזוּבָה וּלְאַרְצֵךְ לֹא־יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שְׁמָמָה כִּי לָךְ יִקָּרֵא חֶפְצִי־בָהּ וּלְאַרְצֵךְ בְּעוּלָה כִּי־חָפֵץ יְהוָה בָּךְ וְאַרְצֵךְ תִּבָּעֵל׃
63.17
לָמָּה תַתְעֵנוּ יְהוָה מִדְּרָכֶיךָ תַּקְשִׁיחַ לִבֵּנוּ מִיִּרְאָתֶךָ שׁוּב לְמַעַן עֲבָדֶיךָ שִׁבְטֵי נַחֲלָתֶךָ׃
65.25
זְאֵב וְטָלֶה יִרְעוּ כְאֶחָד וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן וְנָחָשׁ עָפָר לַחְמוֹ לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי אָמַר יְהוָה׃'' None
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1.21 How is the faithful city Become a harlot! She that was full of justice, Righteousness lodged in her, But now murderers.
1.26
And I will restore thy judges as at the first, And thy counsellors as at the beginning; Afterward thou shalt be called The city of righteousness, The faithful city.
5.1
Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill; 5.2 And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. . 5.3 And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. 5.4 What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes? 5.5 And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down; 5.6 And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it. 5.7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry.
6.1
In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. 6.2 Above Him stood the seraphim; each one had six wings: with twain he covered his face and with twain he covered his feet, and with twain he did fly. 6.3 And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory. 6.4 And the posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke. 6.5 Then said I: Woe is me! for I am undone; Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For mine eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts. 6.6 Then flew unto me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar; 6.7 and he touched my mouth with it, and said: Lo, this hath touched thy lips; And thine iniquity is taken away, And thy sin expiated. 6.8 And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying: Whom shall I send, And who will go for us? Then I said: ‘Here am I; send me.’ 6.9 And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.
6.10
Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’
6.11
Then said I: ‘Lord, how long?’ And He answered: ‘Until cities be waste without inhabitant, and houses without man, And the land become utterly waste,
6.12
And the LORD have removed men far away, and the forsaken places be many in the midst of the land.
6.13
And if there be yet a tenth in it, it shall again be eaten up; as a terebinth, and as an oak, whose stock remaineth, when they cast their leaves, so the holy seed shall be the stock thereof.’
11.4
But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.
11.6
And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.
14.4
that thou shalt take up this parable against the king of Babylon, and say: How hath the oppressor ceased! The exactress of gold ceased! 14.5 The LORD hath broken the staff of the wicked, the sceptre of the rulers,
14.11
Thy pomp is brought down to the nether-world, And the noise of thy psalteries; the maggot is spread under thee, And the worms cover thee.’ 14.12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations! 14.13 And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north; 14.14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’ 14.15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit.
27.1
In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea.
3
5.1
The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad; And the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. 35.2 It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice, Even with joy and singing; The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, The excellency of Carmel and Sharon; They shall see the glory of the LORD, The excellency of our God. 35.3 Strengthen ye the weak hands, And make firm the tottering knees. 35.4 Say to them that are of a fearful heart: ‘Be strong, fear not’; Behold, your God will come with vengeance, With the recompense of God He will come and save you. 35.5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. 35.6 Then shall the lame man leap as a hart, And the tongue of the dumb shall sing; For in the wilderness shall waters break out, And streams in the desert. 35.7 And the parched land shall become a pool, And the thirsty ground springs of water; In the habitation of jackals herds shall lie down, It shall be an enclosure for reeds and rushes.
35.9
No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up thereon, They shall not be found there; But the redeemed shall walk there;
40.3
Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God.
40.6
Hark! one saith: ‘Proclaim!’ And he saith: ‘What shall I proclaim?’ ’All flesh is grass, And all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field;
40.9
O thou that tellest good tidings to Zion, Get thee up into the high mountain; O thou that tellest good tidings to Jerusalem, Lift up thy voice with strength; Lift it up, be not afraid; Say unto the cities of Judah: ‘Behold your God! ’
40.12
Who hath measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, And meted out heaven with the span, And comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, And weighed the mountains in scales, And the hills in a balance?
44.9
They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed.
44.18
They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand.
46.9
Remember the former things of old: That I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like Me;
49.3
And He said unto me: ‘Thou art My servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.’
49.7
Thus saith the LORD, The Redeemer of Israel, his Holy One, To him who is despised of men, To him who is abhorred of nations, To a servant of rulers: Kings shall see and arise, Princes, and they shall prostrate themselves; Because of the LORD that is faithful, Even the Holy One of Israel, who hath chosen thee.
49.14
But Zion said: ‘The LORD hath forsaken me, And the Lord hath forgotten me.’
51.9
Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; Awake, as in the days of old, The generations of ancient times. Art thou not it that hewed Rahab in pieces, That pierced the dragon? 51.10 Art thou not it that dried up the sea, The waters of the great deep; That made the depths of the sea a way For the redeemed to pass over? 51.11 And the ransomed of the LORD shall return, And come with singing unto Zion, And everlasting joy shall be upon their heads; They shall obtain gladness and joy, And sorrow and sighing shall flee away.
52.7
How beautiful upon the mountains Are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, That announceth peace, the harbinger of good tidings, That announceth salvation; That saith unto Zion: ‘Thy God reigneth! ’
52.11
Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, Touch no unclean thing; Go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, Ye that bear the vessels of the LORD. 52.12 For ye shall not go out in haste, Neither shall ye go by flight; For the LORD will go before you, And the God of Israel will be your rearward.
54.8
In a little wrath I hid My face from thee for a moment; But with everlasting kindness will I have compassion on thee, Saith the LORD thy Redeemer.
54.10
For the mountains may depart, and the hills be removed; but My kindness shall not depart from thee, neither shall My covet of peace be removed, saith the LORD that hath compassion on thee.
59.17
And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, And a helmet of salvation upon His head, And He put on garments of vengeance for clothing, And was clad with zeal as a cloak.
61.1
The spirit of the Lord God is upon me; Because the LORD hath anointed me To bring good tidings unto the humble; He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening of the eyes to them that are bound;
62.4
Thou shalt no more be termed Forsaken, Neither shall thy land any more be termed Desolate; But thou shalt be called, My delight is in her, And thy land, Espoused; For the LORD delighteth in thee, And thy land shall be espoused.
63.17
O LORD, why dost Thou make us to err from Thy ways, And hardenest our heart from Thy fear? Return for Thy servants’sake, The tribes of Thine inheritance.
65.25
The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, And the lion shall eat straw like the ox; And dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, Saith the LORD.' ' None
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.21, 5.21-5.22, 6.2, 10.5, 10.8, 10.14, 31.31-31.34, 33.11, 35.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dream imagery, animals • Dream imagery, religious • Dream imagery, violation of sacred law • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), wedding imagery and themes in • Image of God • Image vi, • Images, Material for Idols • King as image/glory of gods, of Christ • Second Isaiah, garment imagery in • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Vineyard imagery, in Ezekiel • Vineyard imagery, in Hosea • Vineyard imagery, in Isaiah • Vineyard imagery, in Jeremiah • Vineyard imagery, in Psalms • eros, garden imagery and • garden imagery female lover and • garden imagery, in The Grooms Qedushta • garden imagery, in the Shivata for Dew • image of God • image, imagery • imago dei • sexual imagery

 Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 378, 519, 530, 637, 638; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 269, 350; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 193; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 39; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 83, 85; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 42, 47, 105; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 282, 284; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 25, 153

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2.21 וְאָנֹכִי נְטַעְתִּיךְ שֹׂרֵק כֻּלֹּה זֶרַע אֱמֶת וְאֵיךְ נֶהְפַּכְתְּ לִי סוּרֵי הַגֶּפֶן נָכְרִיָּה׃
5.21
שִׁמְעוּ־נָא זֹאת עַם סָכָל וְאֵין לֵב עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ׃ 5.22 הַאוֹתִי לֹא־תִירָאוּ נְאֻם־יְהֹוָה אִם מִפָּנַי לֹא תָחִילוּ אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי חוֹל גְּבוּל לַיָּם חָק־עוֹלָם וְלֹא יַעַבְרֶנְהוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ וְלֹא יוּכָלוּ וְהָמוּ גַלָּיו וְלֹא יַעַבְרֻנְהוּ׃
6.2
הַנָּוָה וְהַמְּעֻנָּגָה דָּמִיתִי בַּת־צִיּוֹן׃
6.2
לָמָּה־זֶּה לִי לְבוֹנָה מִשְּׁבָא תָבוֹא וְקָנֶה הַטּוֹב מֵאֶרֶץ מֶרְחָק עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם לֹא לְרָצוֹן וְזִבְחֵיכֶם לֹא־עָרְבוּ לִי׃
10.5
כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃
10.8
וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃
10.14
נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃
31.31
הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32 לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 31.33 כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃ 31.34 וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃
33.11
קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃' ' None
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2.21 Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, Wholly a right seed; How then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto Me?
5.21
Hear now this, O foolish people, and without understanding, That have eyes, and see not, That have ears, and hear not: 5.22 Fear ye not Me? saith the LORD; Will ye not tremble at My presence? Who have placed the sand for the bound of the sea, An everlasting ordice, which it cannot pass; And though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet can they not prevail; Though they roar, yet can they not pass over it.
6.2
The comely and delicate one, The daughter of Zion, will I cut off.
10.5
They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good.
10.8
But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;
10.14
Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them.
31.31
Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; 31.32 not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD. 31.33 But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people; 31.34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.
33.11
the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD.' ' None
15. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.11, 1.13, 2.1, 2.6, 2.8, 3.29, 4.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Beth-El, Imagery in • Image of God • Image xvi, • Lamentations, exile imagery in • Lamentations, impurity images in • Magen for Kedushta to Shabbat Naḥamu, Lebanon image in • Rhetoric, imagery • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Song of Songs, dove (image) in • Tisha bAv lectionary cycle, planting imagery in • Zion, garment imagery • allusions, dove (image) • animal imagery • divine anger, sexual imagery • dove (image) • exile, planting imagery of • imagination • kedushtot, dove imagery in • redemption, crowning imagery and • sexual imagery

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 188; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 129; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 168; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 163; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 544; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 45, 54, 55, 124, 127, 140

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1.11 כָּל־עַמָּהּ נֶאֱנָחִים מְבַקְּשִׁים לֶחֶם נָתְנוּ מחמודיהם מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶם בְּאֹכֶל לְהָשִׁיב נָפֶשׁ רְאֵה יְהוָה וְהַבִּיטָה כִּי הָיִיתִי זוֹלֵלָה׃
1.13
מִמָּרוֹם שָׁלַח־אֵשׁ בְּעַצְמֹתַי וַיִּרְדֶּנָּה פָּרַשׂ רֶשֶׁת לְרַגְלַי הֱשִׁיבַנִי אָחוֹר נְתָנַנִי שֹׁמֵמָה כָּל־הַיּוֹם דָּוָה׃
2.1
אֵיכָה יָעִיב בְּאַפּוֹ אֲדֹנָי אֶת־בַּת־צִיּוֹן הִשְׁלִיךְ מִשָּׁמַיִם אֶרֶץ תִּפְאֶרֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא־זָכַר הֲדֹם־רַגְלָיו בְּיוֹם אַפּוֹ׃
2.1
יֵשְׁבוּ לָאָרֶץ יִדְּמוּ זִקְנֵי בַת־צִיּוֹן הֶעֱלוּ עָפָר עַל־רֹאשָׁם חָגְרוּ שַׂקִּים הוֹרִידוּ לָאָרֶץ רֹאשָׁן בְּתוּלֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃
2.6
וַיַּחְמֹס כַּגַּן שֻׂכּוֹ שִׁחֵת מוֹעֲדוֹ שִׁכַּח יְהוָה בְּצִיּוֹן מוֹעֵד וְשַׁבָּת וַיִּנְאַץ בְּזַעַם־אַפּוֹ מֶלֶךְ וְכֹהֵן׃
3.29
יִתֵּן בֶּעָפָר פִּיהוּ אוּלַי יֵשׁ תִּקְוָה׃
4.11
כִּלָּה יְהוָה אֶת־חֲמָתוֹ שָׁפַךְ חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וַיַּצֶּת־אֵשׁ בְּצִיּוֹן וַתֹּאכַל יְסוֹדֹתֶיהָ׃' ' None
sup>
1.11 All her people are sighing as they search for bread; they gave away their treasures for food to revive the soul; see, O Lord, and behold, how I have become worthless.
1.13
From above He has hurled fire into my bones, and it broke them; He has spread a net for my feet, He has turned me back, He has made me desolate and faint all day long.
2.1
How hath the Lord covered with a cloud The daughter of Zion in His anger! He hath cast down from heaven unto the earth The beauty of Israel, And hath not remembered His footstool In the day of His anger.
2.6
And He hath stripped His tabernacle, as if it were a garden, He hath destroyed His place of assembly; The LORD hath caused to be forgotten in Zion Appointed season and sabbath, And hath rejected in the indignation of His anger The king and the priest.
3.29
Let him put his mouth in the dust, If so be there may be hope.
4.11
The LORD hath accomplished His fury, He hath poured out His fierce anger; And He hath kindled a fire in Zion, Which hath devoured the foundations thereof.' ' None
16. Hesiod, Works And Days, 1, 123, 162, 170, 172-173, 287-292 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo (god), depiction/imagery of • Artemis, ascent, imagery of • Demeter, images and iconography • Golden Tablets, crossroads image in • Hades, underworld, image of Hades, critique • Thebes, mythic image of • belief, visual imagery as evidence • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • image • imagery, journey

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 87, 153; Folit-Weinberg (2022), Homer, Parmenides, and the Road to Demonstration, 183, 184; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 25; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 150; Konig (2022), The Folds of Olympus: Mountains in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture, 147; Schibli (2002), Hierocles of Alexandria, 342; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 110; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 79

sup>
1 μοῦσαι Πιερίηθεν ἀοιδῇσιν κλείουσαι
123
ἐσθλοί, ἀλεξίκακοι, φύλακες θνητῶν ἀνθρώπων,

162
τοὺς μὲν ὑφʼ ἑπταπύλῳ Θήβῃ, Καδμηίδι γαίῃ,

170
καὶ τοὶ μὲν ναίουσιν ἀκηδέα θυμὸν ἔχοντες

172
ὄλβιοι ἥρωες, τοῖσιν μελιηδέα καρπὸν
173
τρὶς ἔτεος θάλλοντα φέρει ζείδωρος ἄρουρα.
287
τὴν μέν τοι κακότητα καὶ ἰλαδὸν ἔστιν ἑλέσθαι 288 ῥηιδίως· λείη μὲν ὁδός, μάλα δʼ ἐγγύθι ναίει· 289 τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν 290 ἀθάνατοι· μακρὸς δὲ καὶ ὄρθιος οἶμος ἐς αὐτὴν 29
1
καὶ τρηχὺς τὸ πρῶτον· ἐπὴν δʼ εἰς ἄκρον ἵκηται, 292 ῥηιδίη δὴ ἔπειτα πέλει, χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα. ' None
sup>
1 Pierian Muses, with your songs of praise,
123
In plenty, while in death they seemed subdued

162
Fashioned upon the lavish land one more,

170
For fair-tressed Helen. They were screened as well

172
Live far from others. Thus they came to dwell,
173
Carefree, among the blessed isles, content
287
Perses, remember this, serve righteousne 288 And wholly sidestep the iniquity 289 of force. The son of Cronus made this act 290 For men - that fish, wild beasts and birds should eat 29
1
Each other, being lawless, but the pact 292 He made with humankind is very meet – ' None
17. Hesiod, Theogony, 27-28, 32-33, 70-71, 81-92, 134, 156-160, 173, 501-502, 617-735, 746-754, 797-798, 824-826, 985 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo (god), depiction/imagery of • Athena, images and iconography • Image, of God • Imagination (φαντασία) • King as image/glory of gods • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • Poseidon, images and iconography • Sphaleotas, images of • Zeus, images and iconography • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • belief, visual imagery as evidence • blinded images • chained images • cult images • cult images, and mobility • cult images, and speech • diet, in ethnographic imagination • gaze, of cult images • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • hobbling, of cult images • imagery, fire • imagery, gigantomachy • images • musical imagery in Alexandra, Sirens song • myth/mythology, depiction/imagery of • protection, against viewing divine images • sight, power of, of divine images • skin color, textual images

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 56, 84, 86, 87, 93; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 140; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 200; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 125; Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 169; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 58; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 338; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 136; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 6; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 27, 89, 206; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 158, 161, 162, 168, 172, 181; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 508

sup>
27 ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα, 28 ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι.
32
θέσπιν, ἵνα κλείοιμι τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τʼ ἐόντα. 33 καί μʼ ἐκέλονθʼ ὑμνεῖν μακάρων γένος αἰὲν ἐόντων,
70
ὑμνεύσαις, ἐρατὸς δὲ ποδῶν ὕπο δοῦπος ὀρώρει 71 νισσομένων πατέρʼ εἰς ὅν· ὃ δʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασιλεύει,
81
ὅν τινα τιμήσωσι Διὸς κοῦραι μεγάλοιο 82 γεινόμενόν τε ἴδωσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων, 83 τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείουσιν ἐέρσην, 84 τοῦ δʼ ἔπεʼ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα· οἱ δέ τε λαοὶ 85 πάντες ἐς αὐτὸν ὁρῶσι διακρίνοντα θέμιστας 86 ἰθείῃσι δίκῃσιν· ὃ δʼ ἀσφαλέως ἀγορεύων 87 αἶψά κε καὶ μέγα νεῖκος ἐπισταμένως κατέπαυσεν· 88 τοὔνεκα γὰρ βασιλῆες ἐχέφρονες, οὕνεκα λαοῖς 89 βλαπτομένοις ἀγορῆφι μετάτροπα ἔργα τελεῦσι 90 ῥηιδίως, μαλακοῖσι παραιφάμενοι ἐπέεσσιν. 91 ἐρχόμενον δʼ ἀνʼ ἀγῶνα θεὸν ὣς ἱλάσκονται 92 αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃ, μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν·
134
Κοῖόν τε Κρῖόν θʼ Ὑπερίονά τʼ Ἰαπετόν τε156 ἐξ ἀρχῆς· καὶ τῶν μὲν ὅπως τις πρῶτα γένοιτο, 157 πάντας ἀποκρύπτασκε, καὶ ἐς φάος οὐκ ἀνίεσκε, 158 Γαίης ἐν κευθμῶνι, κακῷ δʼ ἐπετέρπετο ἔργῳ 159 Οὐρανός. ἣ δʼ ἐντὸς στοναχίζετο Γαῖα πελώρη 160 στεινομένη· δολίην δὲ κακήν τʼ ἐφράσσατο τέχνην.
173
ὣς φάτο· γήθησεν δὲ μέγα φρεσὶ Γαῖα πελώρη·
501
λῦσε δὲ πατροκασιγνήτους ὀλοῶν ὑπὸ δεσμῶν 502 Οὐρανίδας, οὓς δῆσε πατὴρ ἀεσιφροσύνῃσιν·
617
Βριάρεῳ δʼ ὡς πρῶτα πατὴρ ὠδύσσατο θυμῷ 618 Κόττῳ τʼ ἠδὲ Γύῃ, δῆσεν κρατερῷ ἐνὶ δεσμῷ 619 ἠνορέην ὑπέροπλον ἀγώμενος ἠδὲ καὶ εἶδος 620 καὶ μέγεθος· κατένασσε δʼ ὑπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης. 621 ἔνθʼ οἵ γʼ ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες ὑπὸ χθονὶ ναιετάοντες 622 εἵατʼ ἐπʼ ἐσχατιῇ, μεγάλης ἐν πείρασι γαίης, 623 δηθὰ μάλʼ ἀχνύμενοι, κραδίῃ μέγα πένθος ἔχοντες. 624 ἀλλά σφεας Κρονίδης τε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι, 625 οὓς τέκεν ἠύκομος Ῥείη Κρόνου ἐν φιλότητι, 626 Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν ἀνήγαγον ἐς φάος αὖτις· 6
27
αὐτὴ γάρ σφιν ἅπαντα διηνεκέως κατέλεξε 628 σὺν κείνοις νίκην τε καὶ ἀγλαὸν εὖχος ἀρέσθαι. 629 δηρὸν γὰρ μάρναντο πόνον θυμαλγέʼ ἔχοντες 630 Τιτῆνές τε θεοὶ καὶ ὅσοι Κρόνου ἐξεγένοντο, 631 ἀντίον ἀλλήλοισι διὰ κρατερὰς ὑσμίνας, 6
32
οἳ μὲν ἀφʼ ὑψηλῆς Ὄθρυος Τιτῆνες ἀγαυοί, 633 οἳ δʼ ἄρʼ ἀπʼ Οὐλύμποιο θεοί, δωτῆρες ἐάων, 634 οὓς τέκεν ἠύκομος Ῥείη Κρόνῳ εὐνηθεῖσα. 635 οἵ ῥα τότʼ ἀλλήλοισι χόλον θυμαλγέʼ ἔχοντες 636 συνεχέως ἐμάχοντο δέκα πλείους ἐνιαυτούς· 637 οὐδέ τις ἦν ἔριδος χαλεπῆς λύσις οὐδὲ τελευτὴ 638 οὐδετέροις, ἶσον δὲ τέλος τέτατο πτολέμοιο. 639 ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ κείνοισι παρέσχεθεν ἄρμενα πάντα, 640 νέκταρ τʼ ἀμβροσίην τε, τά περ θεοὶ αὐτοὶ ἔδουσι, 641 πάντων ἐν στήθεσσιν ἀέξετο θυμὸς ἀγήνωρ. 642 ὡς νέκταρ τʼ ἐπάσαντο καὶ ἀμβροσίην ἐρατεινήν, 643 δὴ τότε τοῖς μετέειπε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε· 644 κέκλυτε μευ, Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀγλαὰ τέκνα, 645 ὄφρʼ εἴπω, τά με θυμὸς ἐνὶ στήθεσσι κελεύει. 646 ἤδη γὰρ μάλα δηρὸν ἐναντίοι ἀλλήλοισι 647 νίκης καὶ κράτεος πέρι μαρνάμεθʼ ἤματα πάντα 648 Τιτῆνές τε θεοὶ καὶ ὅσοι Κρόνου ἐκγενόμεσθα. 649 ὑμεῖς δὲ μεγάλην τε βίην καὶ χεῖρας ἀάπτους 650 φαίνετε Τιτήνεσσιν ἐναντίοι ἐν δαῒ λυγρῇ 651 μνησάμενοι φιλότητος ἐνηέος, ὅσσα παθόντες 652 ἐς φάος ἂψ ἀφίκεσθε δυσηλεγέος ὑπὸ δεσμοῦ 653 ἡμετέρας διὰ βουλὰς ὑπὸ ζόφου ἠερόεντος. 654 ὣς φάτο· τὸν δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἀμείβετο Κόττος ἀμύμων· 655 Δαιμόνιʼ, οὐκ ἀδάητα πιφαύσκεαι· ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ 656 ἴδμεν, ὅ τοι περὶ μὲν πραπίδες, περὶ δʼ ἐστὶ νόημα, 657 ἀλκτὴρ δʼ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀρῆς γένεο κρυεροῖο. 658 σῇσι δʼ ἐπιφροσύνῃσιν ὑπὸ ζόφου ἠερόεντος 659 ἄψορρον δʼ† ἐξαῦτις ἀμειλίκτων ὑπὸ δεσμῶν 660 ἠλύθομεν, Κρόνου υἱὲ ἄναξ, ἀνάελπτα παθόντες. 661 τῷ καὶ νῦν ἀτενεῖ τε νόῳ καὶ ἐπίφρονι βουλῇ 662 ῥυσόμεθα κράτος ὑμὸν ἐν αἰνῇ δηϊοτῆτι 663 μαρνάμενοι Τιτῆσιν ἀνὰ κρατερὰς ὑσμίνας. 664 ὣς φάτʼ· ἐπῄνεσσαν δὲ θεοί, δωτῆρες ἐάων, 665 μῦθον ἀκούσαντες· πολέμου δʼ ἐλιλαίετο θυμὸς 666 μᾶλλον ἔτʼ ἢ τὸ πάροιθε· μάχην δʼ ἀμέγαρτον ἔγειραν 667 πάντες, θήλειαι τε καὶ ἄρσενες, ἤματι κείνῳ, 669 οὕς τε Ζεὺς Ἐρέβευσφιν ὑπὸ χθονὸς ἧκε φόωσδε 6
70
δεινοί τε κρατεροί τε, βίην ὑπέροπλον ἔχοντες. 671 τῶν ἑκατὸν μὲν χεῖρες ἀπʼ ὤμων ἀίσσοντο 672 πᾶσιν ὁμῶς, κεφαλαὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ πεντήκοντα 673 ἐξ ὤμων ἐπέφυκον ἐπὶ στιβαροῖσι μέλεσσιν. 674 οἳ τότε Τιτήνεσσι κατέσταθεν ἐν δαῒ λυγρῇ 675 πέτρας ἠλιβάτους στιβαρῇς ἐν χερσὶν ἔχοντες. 676 Τιτῆνες δʼ ἑτέρωθεν ἐκαρτύναντο φάλαγγας 677 προφρονέως, χειρῶν τε βίης θʼ ἅμα ἔργον ἔφαινον 678 ἀμφότεροι· δεινὸν δὲ περίαχε πόντος ἀπείρων, 679 γῆ δὲ μέγʼ ἐσμαράγησεν, ἐπέστενε δʼ οὐρανὸς εὐρὺς 680 σειόμενος, πεδόθεν δὲ τινάσσετο μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος 6
81
ῥιπῇ ὕπʼ ἀθανάτων, ἔνοσις δʼ ἵκανε βαρεῖα 682 Τάρταρον ἠερόεντα, ποδῶν τʼ αἰπεῖα ἰωὴ 683 ἀσπέτου ἰωχμοῖο βολάων τε κρατεράων· 684 ὣς ἄρʼ ἐπʼ ἀλλήλοις ἵεσαν βέλεα στονόεντα. 685 φωνὴ δʼ ἀμφοτέρων ἵκετʼ οὐρανὸν ἀστερόεντα 686 κεκλομένων· οἳ δὲ ξύνισαν μεγάλῳ ἀλαλητῷ. 687 οὐδʼ ἄρʼ ἔτι Ζεὺς ἴσχεν ἑὸν μένος, ἀλλά νυ τοῦ γε 688 εἶθαρ μὲν μένεος πλῆντο φρένες, ἐκ δέ τε πᾶσαν 689 φαῖνε βίην· ἄμυδις δʼ ἄρʼ ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἠδʼ ἀπʼ Ὀλύμπου 690 ἀστράπτων ἔστειχε συνωχαδόν· οἱ δὲ κεραυνοὶ 691 ἴκταρ ἅμα βροντῇ τε καὶ ἀστεροπῇ ποτέοντο 692 χειρὸς ἄπο στιβαρῆς, ἱερὴν φλόγα εἰλυφόωντες 693 ταρφέες· ἀμφὶ δὲ γαῖα φερέσβιος ἐσμαράγιζε 694 καιομένη, λάκε δʼ ἀμφὶ πυρὶ μεγάλʼ ἄσπετος ὕλη. 695 ἔζεε δὲ χθὼν πᾶσα καὶ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥέεθρα 696 πόντος τʼ ἀτρύγετος· τοὺς δʼ ἄμφεπε θερμὸς ἀυτμὴ 697 Τιτῆνας χθονίους, φλὸξ δʼ αἰθέρα δῖαν ἵκανεν 698 ἄσπετος, ὄσσε δʼ ἄμερδε καὶ ἰφθίμων περ ἐόντων 699 αὐγὴ μαρμαίρουσα κεραυνοῦ τε στεροπῆς τε.
700
καῦμα δὲ θεσπέσιον κάτεχεν Χάος· εἴσατο δʼ ἄντα
701
ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδεῖν ἠδʼ οὔασι ὄσσαν ἀκοῦσαι
702
αὔτως, ὡς εἰ Γαῖα καὶ Οὐρανὸς εὐρὺς ὕπερθε
703
πίλνατο· τοῖος γάρ κε μέγας ὑπὸ δοῦπος ὀρώρει
704
τῆς μὲν ἐρειπομένης, τοῦ δʼ ὑψόθεν ἐξεριπόντος·
705
τόσσος δοῦπος ἔγεντο θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνιόντων.
706
σὺν δʼ ἄνεμοι ἔνοσίν τε κονίην τʼ ἐσφαράγιζον
707
βροντήν τε στεροπήν τε καὶ αἰθαλόεντα κεραυνόν,
708
κῆλα Διὸς μεγάλοιο, φέρον δʼ ἰαχήν τʼ ἐνοπήν τε
709
ἐς μέσον ἀμφοτέρων· ὄτοβος δʼ ἄπλητος ὀρώρει 710 σμερδαλέης ἔριδος, κάρτος δʼ ἀνεφαίνετο ἔργων. 711 ἐκλίνθη δὲ μάχη· πρὶν δʼ ἀλλήλοις ἐπέχοντες 712 ἐμμενέως ἐμάχοντο διὰ κρατερὰς ὑσμίνας. 713 οἳ δʼ ἄρʼ ἐνὶ πρώτοισι μάχην δριμεῖαν ἔγειραν 714 Κόττος τε Βριάρεώς τε Γύης τʼ ἄατος πολέμοιο, 715 οἵ ῥα τριηκοσίας πέτρας στιβαρῶν ἀπὸ χειρῶν 716 πέμπον ἐπασσυτέρας, κατὰ δʼ ἐσκίασαν βελέεσσι 717 Τιτῆνας, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ὑπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 718 πέμψαν καὶ δεσμοῖσιν ἐν ἀργαλέοισιν ἔδησαν 719 χερσὶν νικήσαντες ὑπερθύμους περ ἐόντας, 720 τόσσον ἔνερθʼ ὑπὸ γῆς, ὅσον οὐρανός ἐστʼ ἀπὸ γαίης· 721 τόσσον γάρ τʼ ἀπὸ γῆς ἐς Τάρταρον ἠερόεντα. 722 ἐννέα γὰρ νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα χάλκεος ἄκμων 723 οὐρανόθεν κατιὼν δεκάτῃ κʼ ἐς γαῖαν ἵκοιτο· 724 ἐννέα δʼ αὖ νύκτας τε καὶ ἤματα χάλκεος ἄκμων 725 ἐκ γαίης κατιὼν δεκάτῃ κʼ ἐς Τάρταρον ἵκοι. 726 τὸν πέρι χάλκεον ἕρκος ἐλήλαται· ἀμφὶ δέ μιν νὺξ 7
27
τριστοιχεὶ κέχυται περὶ δειρήν· αὐτὰρ ὕπερθεν 728 γῆς ῥίζαι πεφύασι καὶ ἀτρυγέτοιο θαλάσσης. 729 ἔνθα θεοὶ Τιτῆνες ὑπὸ ζόφῳ ἠερόεντι 730 κεκρύφαται βουλῇσι Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο 731 χώρῳ ἐν εὐρώεντι, πελώρης ἔσχατα γαίης. 7
32
τοῖς οὐκ ἐξιτόν ἐστι. θύρας δʼ ἐπέθηκε Ποσειδέων 733 χαλκείας, τεῖχος δὲ περοίχεται ἀμφοτέρωθεν. 734 ἔνθα Γύης Κόττος τε καὶ Ὀβριάρεως μεγάθυμος 735 ναίουσιν, φύλακες πιστοὶ Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο.
746
τῶν πρόσθʼ Ἰαπετοῖο πάις ἔχει οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν 747 ἑστηὼς κεφαλῇ τε καὶ ἀκαμάτῃσι χέρεσσιν 748 ἀστεμφέως, ὅθι Νύξ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἆσσον ἰοῦσαι 749 ἀλλήλας προσέειπον, ἀμειβόμεναι μέγαν οὐδὸν 750 χάλκεον· ἣ μὲν ἔσω καταβήσεται, ἣ δὲ θύραζε 751 ἔρχεται, οὐδέ ποτʼ ἀμφοτέρας δόμος ἐντὸς ἐέργει, 752 ἀλλʼ αἰεὶ ἑτέρη γε δόμων ἔκτοσθεν ἐοῦσα 753 γαῖαν ἐπιστρέφεται, ἣ δʼ αὖ δόμου ἐντὸς ἐοῦσα 754 μίμνει τὴν αὐτῆς ὥρην ὁδοῦ, ἔστʼ ἂν ἵκηται,
797
βρώσιος, ἀλλά τε κεῖται ἀνάπνευστος καὶ ἄναυδος 798 στρωτοῖς ἐν λεχέεσσι, κακὸν δέ ἑ κῶμα καλύπτει.
824
καὶ πόδες ἀκάματοι κρατεροῦ θεοῦ· ἐκ δέ οἱ ὤμων 825 ἣν ἑκατὸν κεφαλαὶ ὄφιος, δεινοῖο δράκοντος, 826 γλώσσῃσιν δνοφερῇσι λελιχμότες, ἐκ δέ οἱ ὄσσων
985
Αἰθιόπων βασιλῆα, καὶ Ἠμαθίωνα ἄνακτα. ' None
sup>
27 Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me: 28 “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity,
32
Spoke Zeus’s daughters. Then they gave to me 33 A sturdy laurel shoot, plucked from the ground,
70
Bright dancing-places and fine dwellings where 71 The Graces and Desire dwelt quite free
81
In heaven, once Cronus he’d subjugated 82 As to the immortals he disseminated 83 Their rights. Lord Zeus begat this company 84 of Muses, Thalia, Melpomene, 85 Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory, 86 And Polyhymnia, Calliope, 87 Urania, Erato: but the best 88 of all of them, deferred to by the rest 89 of all the Muses is Calliope 90 Because the kings blest by divinity 91 She serves. Each god-nursed king whom they adore, 92 Beholding him at birth, for him they pour
134
Who weakens all the gods and men and stun156 Divinities. She bore the Cyclopes – 157 Brontes, who gave the thunderbolt to Zeus, 158 And Steropes, who also for his use 159 Gave lightning, and Arges, so strong of heart. 160 The only thing that made them stand apart
173
They were the foulest of the progeny
501
Who grants them many fish with ease, although 502 She’ll take them back if she should will it so.
617
The trick and planned against humanity 618 Mischief: he took the white fat angrily, 619 Seeing the bones beneath it, and therefore 620 On fragrant shrines men burn bones evermore 621 For all the gods. “O son of Iapetus,” 622 Said Zeus, who drives the clouds, still furious, 623 “The cleverest of all humanity, 624 You’ve not forgotten your chicanery.” 625 Thenceforth he brooded on that trick, and so 626 He would not give to mortal men below 6
27
Voracious fire. Prometheus, though, secreted 628 It in a fennel-stalk and thereby cheated 629 Lord Zeus, who burned in furious rage when he 630 Saw radiant fire amongst humanity. 631 At once with evil he made mortals pay 6
32
For this: a modest maid was formed of clay 633 By the famous Limping God at his behest. 634 Bright-eyed Athene made sure she was dressed 635 In silver garments, and down from her head 636 A cleverly embroidered veil she spread, 637 Remarkable to see; she also laid 638 Upon her head a golden circlet made 639 By the Limping God himself, a courtesy 640 To Zeus, and all about these trappings she 641 Placed lovely wreaths of flowers freshly grown. 642 On it such curious craftsmanship was shown; 643 For it had many creatures that were raised 644 On land and in the sea – they brightly blazed 645 As if they lived. This piece of devilry, 646 The price to be paid by all humanity 647 For blessing, he brought out and set her where 648 The gods and men were standing. At the glare 649 of all that finery that Zeus’s child, 650 Grey-eyed Athene, gave to her she smiled. 651 Awe took them all at the sheer trickery, 652 To every man a liability. 653 She is the source of all the female nation, 654 To men a trouble and a great vexation, 655 Who never aids them in extremities, 656 Only in wealth. Just as a swarm of bee 657 Will feed their drones who always go astray – 658 They lay the honeycombs day after day 659 Until the sun has gone down in the West, 660 While in their hives the drones all take their rest 661 And reap the work of others as they lay 662 It all inside their bellies – in this way 663 High-thundering Zeus gave to all mortal men 664 This evil thing, but he gave, yet again, 665 A second evil for the good they’d had: 666 He who won’t wed since women make him sad, 667 When he grows old with nobody who could 668 Minister to him, though a livelihood 669 Is lacking while he lives, yet when he’s gone 6
70
His kin go to his house from hither and yon 671 To carve out his belongings. And yet he 672 Who opts for marriage, choosing carefully 673 A fitting wife, will find right from the first 674 Good wrangling with bad, for he who’s cursed 675 With wicked children lives with constant pain 676 Within his heart nor ever will regain 677 Relief. The will of Zeus one can’t mislead 678 Or overstep, for even the kindly deed 679 of Prometheus meant that he could not break free 680 of his deep wrath, but of necessity 6
81
Strong fetters held him tightly, even though 682 He knew so many wiles. But long ago 683 Uranus was profoundly furiou 684 With Gyes, Cottus and Briareus, 685 His sons, and shackled them most cruelly, 686 Jealous of their strong masculinity 687 And comeliness and great enormousness; 688 And then he made them dwell in dire distre 689 Beneath the earth at its periphery. 690 But they were brought back by the progeny 691 of Cronus and the richly-tressed godde 692 Rhea, because Earth, in a full addre 693 To them, advised it, for she said that thu 694 They’d win great praise and be victorious. 695 There had been stubborn, painful war among 696 The blessed gods: indeed the strife was long 697 Between Othrys’ noble divinitie 698 And those who grant mortals advantages, 699 The Olympians; ten years would it abide
700
With no conclusion clinched by either side:
701
The balance of the war dubiously swayed.
702
But when Lord Zeus before the gods arrayed
703
Ambrosia and nectar, they consumed
704
That godly food and all at once resumed
705
Their manly pride. Zeus said, “Bright progeny
706
of Earth and Heaven, hear what my heart bids me
707
To say. The Titans have been wrangling
708
With us so long in hope this war will bring
709
Them victory. Show to unyielding might 710 And face the Titans in this bitter fight. 711 Remember our kind counselling when we 712 Returned you from your dreadful misery 713 And cruel bondage back into the light.” 714 Good Cottus said, “Divine one, you are right. 715 We know well what you say, we know as well 716 That you returned us from a living hell 717 Where we were bound in grim obscurity; 718 Thus we enjoyed what we’d not hoped to see. 719 Now fixedly we’ll strive to aid you, Lord, 720 And be your allies in this dread discord 721 Against the Titans. Hearing what he said, 722 The gods applauded, for his words had fed 723 The spirit they had always felt for war 724 But now was even greater than before. 725 Then each god and goddess stirred up that day 726 Repellent war, the Titan gods and they 7
27
of Cronus born, and those who, strong and dread, 728 From Erebus’s gloom by Zeus were led 729 Up to the light, and each of those possessed 730 A hundred hands and fifty heads, all blessed 731 With robust limbs. The Titans then they faced 7
32
And in their mighty hands huge rocks they’d placed, 733 While, opposite, the Titans eagerly 734 Strengthened their ranks, and simultaneously 735 Both sides revealed their strength, and all around
746
They now engaged. Now Zeus held back his might 747 No longer, but at once he was aflame 748 With fury; from Olympus then he came, 749 Showing his strength and hurling lightning 750 Continually; his bolts went rocketing 751 Nonstop from his strong hand and, whirling, flashed 752 An awesome flame. The nurturing earth then crashed 753 And burned, the mighty forest crackling 754 Fortissimo, the whole earth smouldering,
797
Great-souled Obriareus, Cottus and Gyes, 798 The faithful guardians and orderlie
824
Whether descending when the day is done 825 Or climbing back to Heaven. Day peacefully 826 Roams through the earth and the broad backs of the sea,
985
Graces, fair-cheeked, Aglaea, Euphrosyne ' None
18. Homer, Iliad, 1.44-1.45, 1.62-1.66, 1.69-1.70, 1.80-1.100, 1.399-1.401, 1.423-1.425, 1.528-1.530, 2.34, 2.243, 2.284-2.286, 2.484-2.493, 4.406, 5.447-5.448, 5.902-5.904, 6.146-6.149, 8.245, 8.247, 8.249-8.250, 14.346-14.347, 15.187-15.193, 16.705-16.706, 18.518-18.519, 18.591-18.592, 18.599, 18.607, 22.460, 23.70-23.74, 23.205-23.207 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo (god), depiction/imagery of • Apollo, images and iconography • Apollos, New Testament image of • Artemis, images and iconography • Boeotia, fibula with pastoral and marine imagery from • Doctor’s Image • Dream imagery, distressing • Dream imagery, hunts, chases, races or journeys • Hephaestus, images and iconography • Hera, images and iconography • Image • Image, of God • Imagination • Imagination (φαντασία) • King as image/glory of gods • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • Rhetoric, imagery • Sphaleotas, images of • Thebes, mythic image of • Zeus, images and iconography • animal imagery • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • belief, visual imagery as evidence • chained images • circle imagery • cult images • cult images, and mobility • deceased person, image of • diet, in ethnographic imagination • financial imagery • gaze, of cult images • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • image schema • image, imagery • image, poetological • image, technological • image-schema • imagery, chariots • imagery, fire • imagery, journey • imagery, military • imagery, storms • images (eidola) • imagination • mirror image • numinousness, of divine imagery • protection, against viewing divine images • sight, power of, of divine images • skin color, textual images

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 231; Beck (2021), Repetition, Communication, and Meaning in the Ancient World, 51, 59; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 63, 295; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 8, 138; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 83, 87; Fowler (2014), Plato in the Third Sophistic, 87; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 19, 25, 267; Greensmith (2021), The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation, 297; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 198; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 242; Joosse (2021), Olympiodorus of Alexandria: Exegete, Teacher, Platonic Philosopher, 169; Jouanna (2018), Sophocles: A Study of His Theater in Its Political and Social Context, 150; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 11; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 56; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 128, 129, 381; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 186; Petridou (2016), Homo Patiens: Approaches to the Patient in the Ancient World, 347; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 48; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 12; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 274; Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 74; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 338; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 51, 52, 53, 135, 143, 244; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 6, 98, 161, 179; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 508

sup>
1.44 βῆ δὲ κατʼ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων χωόμενος κῆρ, 1.45 τόξʼ ὤμοισιν ἔχων ἀμφηρεφέα τε φαρέτρην·
1.62
ἀλλʼ ἄγε δή τινα μάντιν ἐρείομεν ἢ ἱερῆα 1.63 ἢ καὶ ὀνειροπόλον, καὶ γάρ τʼ ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν, 1.64 ὅς κʼ εἴποι ὅ τι τόσσον ἐχώσατο Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, 1.65 εἴτʼ ἄρʼ ὅ γʼ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται ἠδʼ ἑκατόμβης, 1.66 αἴ κέν πως ἀρνῶν κνίσης αἰγῶν τε τελείων
1.69
Κάλχας Θεστορίδης οἰωνοπόλων ὄχʼ ἄριστος, 1.70 ὃς ᾔδη τά τʼ ἐόντα τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τʼ ἐόντα,
1.80
κρείσσων γὰρ βασιλεὺς ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηϊ· 1.81 εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ, 1.82 ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσσῃ, 1.83 ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι· σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις. 1.84 τὸν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς· 1.85 θαρσήσας μάλα εἰπὲ θεοπρόπιον ὅ τι οἶσθα· 1.86 οὐ μὰ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα Διῒ φίλον, ᾧ τε σὺ Κάλχαν 1.87 εὐχόμενος Δαναοῖσι θεοπροπίας ἀναφαίνεις, 1.88 οὔ τις ἐμεῦ ζῶντος καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ δερκομένοιο 1.89 σοὶ κοίλῃς παρὰ νηυσί βαρείας χεῖρας ἐποίσει 1.90 συμπάντων Δαναῶν, οὐδʼ ἢν Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς, 1.91 ὃς νῦν πολλὸν ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν εὔχεται εἶναι. 1.92 καὶ τότε δὴ θάρσησε καὶ ηὔδα μάντις ἀμύμων· 1.93 οὔ τʼ ἄρ ὅ γʼ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται οὐδʼ ἑκατόμβης, 1.94 ἀλλʼ ἕνεκʼ ἀρητῆρος ὃν ἠτίμησʼ Ἀγαμέμνων, 1.95 οὐδʼ ἀπέλυσε θύγατρα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεδέξατʼ ἄποινα, 1.96 τοὔνεκʼ ἄρʼ ἄλγεʼ ἔδωκεν ἑκηβόλος ἠδʼ ἔτι δώσει· 1.97 οὐδʼ ὅ γε πρὶν Δαναοῖσιν ἀεικέα λοιγὸν ἀπώσει 1.98 πρίν γʼ ἀπὸ πατρὶ φίλῳ δόμεναι ἑλικώπιδα κούρην 1.99 ἀπριάτην ἀνάποινον, ἄγειν θʼ ἱερὴν ἑκατόμβην 1.100 ἐς Χρύσην· τότε κέν μιν ἱλασσάμενοι πεπίθοιμεν.
1.399
ὁππότε μιν ξυνδῆσαι Ὀλύμπιοι ἤθελον ἄλλοι 1.400 Ἥρη τʼ ἠδὲ Ποσειδάων καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη· 1.401 ἀλλὰ σὺ τόν γʼ ἐλθοῦσα θεὰ ὑπελύσαο δεσμῶν,
1.423
Ζεὺς γὰρ ἐς Ὠκεανὸν μετʼ ἀμύμονας Αἰθιοπῆας 1.424 χθιζὸς ἔβη κατὰ δαῖτα, θεοὶ δʼ ἅμα πάντες ἕποντο·
1.528
ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπʼ ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων· 1.529 ἀμβρόσιαι δʼ ἄρα χαῖται ἐπερρώσαντο ἄνακτος 1.530 κρατὸς ἀπʼ ἀθανάτοιο· μέγαν δʼ ἐλέλιξεν Ὄλυμπον.
2.34
αἱρείτω εὖτʼ ἄν σε μελίφρων ὕπνος ἀνήῃ.
2.243
ὣς φάτο νεικείων Ἀγαμέμνονα ποιμένα λαῶν,
2.284
Ἀτρεΐδη νῦν δή σε ἄναξ ἐθέλουσιν Ἀχαιοὶ 2.285 πᾶσιν ἐλέγχιστον θέμεναι μερόπεσσι βροτοῖσιν, 2.286 οὐδέ τοι ἐκτελέουσιν ὑπόσχεσιν ἥν περ ὑπέσταν
2.484
ἔσπετε νῦν μοι Μοῦσαι Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσαι· 2.485 ὑμεῖς γὰρ θεαί ἐστε πάρεστέ τε ἴστέ τε πάντα, 2.486 ἡμεῖς δὲ κλέος οἶον ἀκούομεν οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν· 2.487 οἵ τινες ἡγεμόνες Δαναῶν καὶ κοίρανοι ἦσαν· 2.488 πληθὺν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἐγὼ μυθήσομαι οὐδʼ ὀνομήνω, 2.489 οὐδʼ εἴ μοι δέκα μὲν γλῶσσαι, δέκα δὲ στόματʼ εἶεν, 2.490 φωνὴ δʼ ἄρρηκτος, χάλκεον δέ μοι ἦτορ ἐνείη, 2.491 εἰ μὴ Ὀλυμπιάδες Μοῦσαι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο 2.492 θυγατέρες μνησαίαθʼ ὅσοι ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθον· 2.493 ἀρχοὺς αὖ νηῶν ἐρέω νῆάς τε προπάσας.
4.406
ἡμεῖς καὶ Θήβης ἕδος εἵλομεν ἑπταπύλοιο
5.447
ἤτοι τὸν Λητώ τε καὶ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα 5.448 ἐν μεγάλῳ ἀδύτῳ ἀκέοντό τε κύδαινόν τε·
5.902
ὡς δʼ ὅτʼ ὀπὸς γάλα λευκὸν ἐπειγόμενος συνέπηξεν 5.903 ὑγρὸν ἐόν, μάλα δʼ ὦκα περιτρέφεται κυκόωντι, 5.904 ὣς ἄρα καρπαλίμως ἰήσατο θοῦρον Ἄρηα.
6.146
οἵη περ φύλλων γενεὴ τοίη δὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν. 6.147 φύλλα τὰ μέν τʼ ἄνεμος χαμάδις χέει, ἄλλα δέ θʼ ὕλη 6.148 τηλεθόωσα φύει, ἔαρος δʼ ἐπιγίγνεται ὥρη· 6.149 ὣς ἀνδρῶν γενεὴ ἣ μὲν φύει ἣ δʼ ἀπολήγει.
8.247
αὐτίκα δʼ αἰετὸν ἧκε τελειότατον πετεηνῶν,
8.249
πὰρ δὲ Διὸς βωμῷ περικαλλέϊ κάββαλε νεβρόν, 8.250 ἔνθα πανομφαίῳ Ζηνὶ ῥέζεσκον Ἀχαιοί.
14.346
ἦ ῥα καὶ ἀγκὰς ἔμαρπτε Κρόνου παῖς ἣν παράκοιτιν· 14.347 τοῖσι δʼ ὑπὸ χθὼν δῖα φύεν νεοθηλέα ποίην,
15.187
τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188 Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων. 15.189 τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται, ἕκαστος δʼ ἔμμορε τιμῆς· 15.190 ἤτοι ἐγὼν ἔλαχον πολιὴν ἅλα ναιέμεν αἰεὶ 15.191 παλλομένων, Ἀΐδης δʼ ἔλαχε ζόφον ἠερόεντα, 15.192 Ζεὺς δʼ ἔλαχʼ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι· 15.193 γαῖα δʼ ἔτι ξυνὴ πάντων καὶ μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος.
16.705
ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ τὸ τέταρτον ἐπέσσυτο δαίμονι ἶσος, 16.706 δεινὰ δʼ ὁμοκλήσας ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα·
18.518
καλὼ καὶ μεγάλω σὺν τεύχεσιν, ὥς τε θεώ περ 18.519 ἀμφὶς ἀριζήλω· λαοὶ δʼ ὑπολίζονες ἦσαν.
18.591
τῷ ἴκελον οἷόν ποτʼ ἐνὶ Κνωσῷ εὐρείῃ 18.592 Δαίδαλος ἤσκησεν καλλιπλοκάμῳ Ἀριάδνῃ.
18.599
οἳ δʼ ὁτὲ μὲν θρέξασκον ἐπισταμένοισι πόδεσσι
18.607
ἄντυγα πὰρ πυμάτην σάκεος πύκα ποιητοῖο.
22.460
ὣς φαμένη μεγάροιο διέσσυτο μαινάδι ἴση
23.70
οὐ μέν μευ ζώοντος ἀκήδεις, ἀλλὰ θανόντος· 23.71 θάπτέ με ὅττι τάχιστα πύλας Ἀΐδαο περήσω. 23.72 τῆλέ με εἴργουσι ψυχαὶ εἴδωλα καμόντων, 23.73 οὐδέ μέ πω μίσγεσθαι ὑπὲρ ποταμοῖο ἐῶσιν, 23.74 ἀλλʼ αὔτως ἀλάλημαι ἀνʼ εὐρυπυλὲς Ἄϊδος δῶ.
23.205
οὐχ ἕδος· εἶμι γὰρ αὖτις ἐπʼ Ὠκεανοῖο ῥέεθρα 23.206 Αἰθιόπων ἐς γαῖαν, ὅθι ῥέζουσʼ ἑκατόμβας 23.207 ἀθανάτοις, ἵνα δὴ καὶ ἐγὼ μεταδαίσομαι ἱρῶν.' ' None
sup>
1.44 fulfill this prayer for me: let the Danaans pay for my tears by your arrows So he spoke in prayer, and Phoebus Apollo heard him. Down from the peaks of Olympus he strode, angered at heart, bearing on his shoulders his bow and covered quiver. 1.45 The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs,
1.62
if war and pestilence alike are to ravage the Achaeans. But come, let us ask some seer or priest, or some reader of dreams—for a dream too is from Zeus—who might say why Phoebus Apollo is so angry, whether he finds fault with a vow or a hecatomb; 1.65 in hope that he may accept the savour of lambs and unblemished goats, and be willing to ward off the pestilence from us.
1.69
in hope that he may accept the savour of lambs and unblemished goats, and be willing to ward off the pestilence from us. When he had thus spoken he sat down, and among them arose Calchas son of Thestor, far the best of bird-diviners, who knew the things that were, and that were to be, and that had been before, 1.70 and who had guided the ships of the Achaeans to Ilios by his own prophetic powers which Phoebus Apollo had bestowed upon him. He with good intent addressed the gathering, and spoke among them:Achilles, dear to Zeus, you bid me declare the wrath of Apollo, the lord who strikes from afar.
1.80
Even if he swallows down his wrath for that day, yet afterwards he cherishes resentment in his heart till he brings it to fulfillment. Say then, if you will keep me safe. In answer to him spoke swift-footed Achilles:Take heart, and speak out whatever oracle you know; 1.85 for by Apollo, dear to Zeus, to whom you, Calchas, pray when you reveal oracles to the Danaans, no one, while I live and have sight on the earth, shall lay heavy hands on you beside the hollow ships, no one of the whole host of the Danaans, 1.90 not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. 1.94 not even if you name Agamemnon, who now claims to be far the best of the Achaeans. Then the blameless seer took heart, and spoke:It is not then because of a vow that he finds fault, nor because of a hecatomb, but because of the priest whom Agamemnon dishonoured, and did not release his daughter nor accept the ransom. 1.95 For this cause the god who strikes from afar has given woes and will still give them. He will not drive off from the Danaans the loathsome pestilence, until we give back to her dear father the bright-eyed maiden, unbought, unransomed, and lead a sacred hecatomb to Chryse. Then we might appease and persuade him. 1.100 When he had thus spoken he sat down, and among them arose the warrior, son of Atreus, wide-ruling Agamemnon, deeply troubled. With rage his black heart was wholly filled, and his eyes were like blazing fire. To Calchas first of all he spoke, and his look threatened evil:
1.399
For often I have heard you glorying in the halls of my father, and declaring that you alone among the immortals warded off shameful ruin from the son of Cronos, lord of the dark clouds, on the day when the other Olympians wished to put him in bonds, even Hera and Poseidon and Pallas Athene. 1.400 But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory,
1.423
But remain by your swift, sea-faring ships, and continue your wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain utterly from battle; for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, and all the gods followed with him; but on the twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus, 1.424 But remain by your swift, sea-faring ships, and continue your wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain utterly from battle; for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, and all the gods followed with him; but on the twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus, ' "
1.528
no word of mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, to which I bow my head. The son of Cronos spoke, and bowed his dark brow in assent, and the ambrosial locks waved from the king's immortal head; and he made great Olympus quake. " "1.529 no word of mine may be recalled, nor is false, nor unfulfilled, to which I bow my head. The son of Cronos spoke, and bowed his dark brow in assent, and the ambrosial locks waved from the king's immortal head; and he made great Olympus quake. " '1.530 /
2.34
For the immortals that have homes upon Olympus are no longer divided in counsel, since Hera hath bent the minds of all by her supplication, and over the Trojans hang woes by the will of Zeus. But do thou keep this in thy heart, nor let forgetfulness lay hold of thee, whenso honey-hearted sleep shall let thee go.
2.243
for he hath taken away, and keepeth his prize by his own arrogant act. of a surety there is naught of wrath in the heart of Achilles; nay, he heedeth not at all; else, son of Atreus, wouldest thou now work insolence for the last time. So spake Thersites, railing at Agamemnon, shepherd of the host. But quickly to his side came goodly Odysseus,
2.284
in the likeness of a herald, bade the host keep silence, that the sons of the Achaeans, both the nearest and the farthest, might hear his words, and lay to heart his counsel. He with good intent addressed their gathering and spake among them:Son of Atreus, now verily are the Achaeans minded to make thee, O king, 2.285 the most despised among all mortal men, nor will they fulfill the promise that they made to thee, while faring hitherward from Argos, the pasture-land of horses, that not until thou hadst sacked well-walled Ilios shouldest thou get thee home. For like little children or widow women
2.484
Even as a bull among the herd stands forth far the chiefest over all, for that he is pre-eminent among the gathering kine, even such did Zeus make Agamemnon on that day, pre-eminent among many, and chiefest amid warriors.Tell me now, ye Muses that have dwellings on Olympus— 2.485 for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths 2.490 and a voice unwearying, and though the heart within me were of bronze, did not the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis, call to my mind all them that came beneath Ilios. Now will I tell the captains of the ships and the ships in their order.of the Boeotians Peneleos and Leïtus were captains,
4.406
We declare ourselves to be better men by far than our fathers: we took the seat of Thebe of the seven gates, when we twain had gathered a lesser host against a stronger wall, putting our trust in the portents of the gods and in the aid of Zeus; whereas they perished through their own blind folly.
5.447
Aeneas then did Apollo set apart from the throng in sacred Pergamus where was his temple builded. There Leto and the archer Artemis healed him in the great sanctuary, and glorified him; but Apollo of the silver bow fashioned a wraith
5.902
and Paeëon spread thereon simples that slay pain, and healed him; for verily he was in no wise of mortal mould. Even as the juice of the fig speedily maketh to grow thick the white milk that is liquid, but is quickly curdled as a man stirreth it, even so swiftly healed he furious Ares.
6.146
Great-souled son of Tydeus, wherefore inquirest thou of my lineage? Even as are the generations of leaves, such are those also of men. As for the leaves, the wind scattereth some upon the earth, but the forest, as it bourgeons, putteth forth others when the season of spring is come; even so of men one generation springeth up and another passeth away.
8.247
So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.250 even where the Achaeans were wont to offer sacrifice to Zeus from whom all omens come. So they, when they saw that it was from Zeus that the bird was come, leapt the more upon the Trojans and bethought them of battle.Then might no man of the Danaans, for all they were so many, vaunt that he before the son of Tydeus guided his swift horses
14.346
albeit his sight is the keenest of all for beholding. Therewith the son of Cronos clasped his wife in his arms, and beneath them the divine earth made fresh-sprung grass to grow, and dewy lotus, and crocus, and hyacinth, thick and soft, that upbare them from the ground.
15.187
Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190 I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet
16.705
But when for the fourth time he rushed on like a god, then with a terrible cry Apollo spake to him winged words:Give back, Zeus-born Patroclus. It is not fated, I tell thee, that by thy spear the city of the lordly Trojans shall be laid waste, nay, nor by that of Achilles, who is better far than thou.
18.518
as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller.
18.591
Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other.
18.599
of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet
18.607
and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy,
22.460
So saying she hasted through the hall with throbbing heart as one beside herself, and with her went her handmaidens. But when she was come to the wall and the throng of men, then on the wall she stopped and looked, and was ware of him as he was dragged before the city; and swift horses
23.70
Not in my life wast thou unmindful of me, but now in my death! Bury me with all speed, that I pass within the gates of Hades. Afar do the spirits keep me aloof, the phantoms of men that have done with toils, neither suffer they me to join myself to them beyond the River, but vainly I wander through the wide-gated house of Hades.
23.205
I may not sit, for I must go back unto the streams of Oceanus, unto the land of the Ethiopians, where they are sacrificing hecatombs to the immortals, that I too may share in the sacred feast. But Achilles prayeth the North Wind and the noisy West Wind to come, and promiseth them fair offerings, that so ye may rouse the pyre to burn whereon lieth 23.207 I may not sit, for I must go back unto the streams of Oceanus, unto the land of the Ethiopians, where they are sacrificing hecatombs to the immortals, that I too may share in the sacred feast. But Achilles prayeth the North Wind and the noisy West Wind to come, and promiseth them fair offerings, that so ye may rouse the pyre to burn whereon lieth ' ' None
19. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, images and iconography • Ares, images and iconography • Delos, Charites next to Archaic image of Apollo • Demeter, images and iconography • Dream imagery, distressing • Dream imagery, hunts, chases, races or journeys • Hades, underworld, image of Hades, critique • Hermes, images and iconography • Image • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • aniconism,, in images • animal imagery, humans and animals • beard imagery • chained images • cloud imagery • cult images • cult images, and mobility • cult images, aniconic • diet, in ethnographic imagination • eidôla,, disjuncture of image and text • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • hobbling, of cult images • image, imagery • imagery, fire • imagery, gigantomachy • imagery, military • images • proportions, of divine images • sexuality, botanical imagery • skin color, textual images

 Found in books: Brule (2003), Women of Ancient Greece, 60, 61; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 493; Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 170; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 140, 237, 266; Greensmith (2021), The Resurrection of Homer in Imperial Greek Epic: Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica and the Poetics of Impersonation, 179; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 198; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 149; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 128, 381; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107; Pachoumi (2017), The Concepts of the Divine in the Greek Magical Papyri, 23; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6; Rutter and Sparkes (2012), Word and Image in Ancient Greece, 151; Schibli (2002), Hierocles of Alexandria, 175; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 110, 265, 283, 396; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 80, 99, 162, 163, 166; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 71; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 505, 508

20. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 160-166, 178-179, 1069-1071, 1080, 1082, 1087, 1090, 1098-1099, 1119-1120, 1152, 1156-1162, 1178-1181, 1186-1193 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, fire imagery • Aeschylus, river imagery • Anxiety dreams and nightmares, anxiously imagined futures • Apollo, images and iconography • Dream imagery, bizarre, surreal • Dream imagery, day-to-day objects/realistic scenes • Dream imagery, monsters, witches, demons • Trojan Women (Euripides), imagery • Zeus, images and iconography • animal imagery • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • barbarians, and swallow imagery • fire imagery, Agamemnon (Aeschylus) • fire imagery, Alexandra • imagery • musical imagery in Alexandra • wedding procession, nautical imagery in

 Found in books: Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 168, 187; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 32, 33, 36, 40, 46, 56, 100, 101, 102, 127, 130; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 5; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 125, 288; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 140, 354

sup>
160 Ζεύς, ὅστις ποτʼ ἐστίν, εἰ τόδʼ αὐ- 161 τῷ φίλον κεκλημένῳ, 162 τοῦτό νιν προσεννέπω. 163 οὐκ ἔχω προσεικάσαι 164 πάντʼ ἐπισταθμώμενος 165 πλὴν Διός, εἰ τὸ μάταν ἀπὸ φροντίδος ἄχθος 166 χρὴ βαλεῖν ἐτητύμως. Χορός
178
θέντα κυρίως ἔχειν. 179 στάζει δʼ ἔν θʼ ὕπνῳ πρὸ καρδίας
1069
ἐγὼ δʼ, ἐποικτίρω γάρ, οὐ θυμώσομαι.'1070 ἴθʼ, ὦ τάλαινα, τόνδʼ ἐρημώσασʼ ὄχον, 1071 εἴκουσʼ ἀνάγκῃ τῇδε καίνισον ζυγόν. Κασάνδρα
1080
Ἄπολλον Ἄπολλον
1082
ἀπώλεσας γὰρ οὐ μόλις τὸ δεύτερον. Χορός
1087
ἆ ποῖ ποτʼ ἤγαγές με; πρὸς ποίαν στέγην; Χορός
1090
μισόθεον μὲν οὖν, πολλὰ συνίστορα
1098
τὸ μὲν κλέος σοῦ μαντικὸν πεπυσμένοι 1099 ἦμεν· προφήτας δʼ οὔτινας ματεύομεν. Κασάνδρα
1119
ποίαν Ἐρινὺν τήνδε δώμασιν κέλῃ 1120 ἐπορθιάζειν; οὔ με φαιδρύνει λόγος.
1152
τὰ δʼ ἐπίφοβα δυσφάτῳ κλαγγᾷ
1156
ἰὼ γάμοι γάμοι Πάριδος ὀλέθριοι φίλων. 1157 ἰὼ Σκαμάνδρου πάτριον ποτόν. 1158 τότε μὲν ἀμφὶ σὰς ἀϊόνας τάλαινʼ 1159 ἠνυτόμαν τροφαῖς· 1
160
νῦν δʼ ἀμφὶ Κωκυτόν τε κἀχερουσίους 1161 ὄχθας ἔοικα θεσπιῳδήσειν τάχα. Χορός 1162 τί τόδε τορὸν ἄγαν ἔπος ἐφημίσω; 1
178
καὶ μὴν ὁ χρησμὸς οὐκέτʼ ἐκ καλυμμάτων 1179 ἔσται δεδορκὼς νεογάμου νύμφης δίκην· 1180 λαμπρὸς δʼ ἔοικεν ἡλίου πρὸς ἀντολὰς 1181 πνέων ἐσᾴξειν, ὥστε κύματος δίκην
1186
τὴν γὰρ στέγην τήνδʼ οὔποτʼ ἐκλείπει χορὸς 1187 ξύμφθογγος οὐκ εὔφωνος· οὐ γὰρ εὖ λέγει. 1188 καὶ μὴν πεπωκώς γʼ, ὡς θρασύνεσθαι πλέον, 1189 βρότειον αἷμα κῶμος ἐν δόμοις μένει, 1190 δύσπεμπτος ἔξω, συγγόνων Ἐρινύων. 1191 ὑμνοῦσι δʼ ὕμνον δώμασιν προσήμεναι 1192 πρώταρχον ἄτην· ἐν μέρει δʼ ἀπέπτυσαν 1193 εὐνὰς ἀδελφοῦ τῷ πατοῦντι δυσμενεῖς. ' None
sup>
160 Zeus, whosoe’er he be, — if that express 161 Aught dear to him on whom I call — 162 So do I him address. 163 I cannot liken out, by all 164 Admeasurement of powers, 165 Any but Zeus for refuge at such hours, 165 If veritably needs I must 166 From off my soul its vague care-burthen thrust.
178
In sleep, before the heart of each, 179 A woe-remembering travail sheds in dew
1069
But I, — for I compassionate, — will chafe not. '1070 Come, O unhappy one, this car vacating, 1071 Yielding to this necessity, prove yoke’s use! KASSANDRA.
1080
Apollon, Apollon,
1082
For thou hast quite, this second time, destroyed me. CHOROS.
1087
Ha, whither hast thou led me? to what roof now? CHOROS.
1090
God-hated, then! of many a crime it knew —
1090
How! How!
1098
Ay, we have heard of thy soothsaying glory, 1099 Doubtless: but prophets none are we in scent of! KASSANDRA.
1119
What this Erinus which i’ the house thou callest 1120 To raise her cry? Not me thy word enlightens!
1152
Thou strikest up in tune, yet all the while
1156
Ah me, the nuptials, the nuptials of Paris, the deadly to friends! 1157 Ah me, of Skamandros the draught 1158 Paternal! There once, to these ends, 1159 On thy banks was I brought, 1
160
The unhappy! And now, by Kokutos and Acheron’s shore 1161 I shall soon be, it seems, these my oracles singing once more! CHOROS. 1162 Why this word, plain too much, 1
178
Well then, the oracle from veils no longer 1179 Shall be outlooking, like a bride new-married: 1180 But bright it seems, against the sun’s uprisings 1181 Breathing, to penetrate thee: so as, wave-like,
1186
For, this same roof here — never quits a Choros 1187 One-voiced, not well-tuned since no 1188 And truly having drunk, to get more courage, 1189 Man’s blood — the Komos keeps within the household 1190 — Hard to be sent outside — of sister Furies: 1191 They hymn their hymn — within the house close sitting — 1192 The first beginning curse: in turn spit forth at 1193 The Brother’s bed, to him who spurned it hostile. ' None
21. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.4, 1.9-1.10, 1.20, 1.22, 1.26-1.28, 3.12, 3.14, 4.4-4.5, 8.2-8.3, 8.16, 9.2, 9.4, 10.1, 10.14-10.17, 11.19-11.20, 17.1-17.10, 19.14, 23.20, 28.2, 28.12-28.14, 29.3, 32.2, 34.25, 34.27, 36.26-36.27, 37.1-37.14, 43.5, 47.1-47.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apocalyptic, Imagery • Beth-El, Imagery in • Christology, Adam/Image- • Dream imagery, animals • Dream imagery, religious • Dream imagery, transgressive, taboo-breaking • Dream imagery, violation of sacred law • Ezekiel, Tragedian, OT throne imagery • Image • Image of God • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, Christ as Image of God • Image, of God • King as image/glory of gods • King as image/glory of gods, of Christ • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Nile, River, poetic imagery involving • Rhetoric, imagery • Song of Songs, garden imagery in • Spirit, effects of, imagination • Vineyard imagery, in Ezekiel • Vineyard imagery, in Hosea • Vineyard imagery, in Jeremiah • Vineyard imagery, in Psalms • Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim Yotzer Or blessing, light imagery in • animal imagery • garden imagery, in the Song of Songs • image • image of God • image, imagery • imagery • imagery, Exodus-related • imagery, Revelation • imagery, physical • imagination • light imagery, in Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim • light imagery, in Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim, in yotzerot • silluq,contains angelogical imagery in the Yotzer Shir ha-Shirim • theatre imagery • yotzer, yotzerot, imagery of light in

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 128, 129, 131, 143; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 246; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 138, 142; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 325; Estes (2020), The Tree of Life, 114, 210; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 8, 60, 61, 65, 84, 235; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 208; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 246, 260; Lavee (2017), The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity, 222; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 94, 95, 97, 98; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400, 503, 610, 810, 924, 945; Lieber (2014), A Vocabulary of Desire: The Song of Songs in the Early Synagogue, 47, 391, 395, 396; Lynskey (2021), Tyconius’ Book of Rules: An Ancient Invitation to Ecclesial Hermeneutics, 305; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 20; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 91, 92, 94, 183; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 39, 125; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 6; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 177; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 83, 85, 181, 183, 184, 185; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 148, 163; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 68, 141, 304, 305, 307, 308, 309, 310, 316, 319, 322, 324, 328, 329, 330, 537, 547, 556, 578; Salvesen et al. (2020), Israel in Egypt: The Land of Egypt as Concept and Reality for Jews in Antiquity and the Early Medieval Period, 552; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 284

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1.4 וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃
1.9
חֹבְרֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ כַּנְפֵיהֶם לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ בְלֶכְתָּן אִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ׃' 1.22 וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃
1.26
וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃ 1.27 וָאֵרֶא כְּעֵין חַשְׁמַל כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ בֵּית־לָהּ סָבִיב מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמָעְלָה וּמִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה רָאִיתִי כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב׃ 1.28 כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃
3.12
וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וָאֶשְׁמַע אַחֲרַי קוֹל רַעַשׁ גָּדוֹל בָּרוּךְ כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מִמְּקוֹמוֹ׃
3.14
וְרוּחַ נְשָׂאַתְנִי וַתִּקָּחֵנִי וָאֵלֵךְ מַר בַּחֲמַת רוּחִי וְיַד־יְהוָה עָלַי חָזָקָה׃
4.4
וְאַתָּה שְׁכַב עַל־צִדְּךָ הַשְּׂמָאלִי וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־עֲוֺן בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל עָלָיו מִסְפַּר הַיָּמִים אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁכַּב עָלָיו תִּשָּׂא אֶת־עֲוֺנָם׃ 4.5 וַאֲנִי נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־שְׁנֵי עֲוֺנָם לְמִסְפַּר יָמִים שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת וְתִשְׁעִים יוֹם וְנָשָׂאתָ עֲוֺן בֵּית־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
8.2
וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה דְמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה־אֵשׁ מִמַּרְאֵה מָתְנָיו וּלְמַטָּה אֵשׁ וּמִמָּתְנָיו וּלְמַעְלָה כְּמַרְאֵה־זֹהַר כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַלָה׃ 8.3 וַיִּשְׁלַח תַּבְנִית יָד וַיִּקָּחֵנִי בְּצִיצִת רֹאשִׁי וַתִּשָּׂא אֹתִי רוּחַ בֵּין־הָאָרֶץ וּבֵין הַשָּׁמַיִם וַתָּבֵא אֹתִי יְרוּשָׁלְַמָה בְּמַרְאוֹת אֱלֹהִים אֶל־פֶּתַח שַׁעַר הַפְּנִימִית הַפּוֹנֶה צָפוֹנָה אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם מוֹשַׁב סֵמֶל הַקִּנְאָה הַמַּקְנֶה׃
8.16
וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃
9.2
וְהִנֵּה שִׁשָּׁה אֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים מִדֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן אֲשֶׁר מָפְנֶה צָפוֹנָה וְאִישׁ כְּלִי מַפָּצוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וְאִישׁ־אֶחָד בְּתוֹכָם לָבֻשׁ בַּדִּים וְקֶסֶת הַסֹּפֵר בְּמָתְנָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ אֵצֶל מִזְבַּח הַנְּחֹשֶׁת׃
9.4
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אלו אֵלָיו עֲבֹר בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר בְּתוֹךְ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְהִתְוִיתָ תָּו עַל־מִצְחוֹת הָאֲנָשִׁים הַנֶּאֱנָחִים וְהַנֶּאֱנָקִים עַל כָּל־הַתּוֹעֵבוֹת הַנַּעֲשׂוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ׃
10.1
וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃
10.1
וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃

10.14
וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד פְּנֵי הָאֶחָד פְּנֵי הַכְּרוּב וּפְנֵי הַשֵּׁנִי פְּנֵי אָדָם וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פְּנֵי אַרְיֵה וְהָרְבִיעִי פְּנֵי־נָשֶׁר׃
10.15
וַיֵּרֹמּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר׃
10.16
וּבְלֶכֶת הַכְּרוּבִים יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבִשְׂאֵת הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם לָרוּם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים גַּם־הֵם מֵאֶצְלָם׃
10.17
בְּעָמְדָם יַעֲמֹדוּ וּבְרוֹמָם יֵרוֹמּוּ אוֹתָם כִּי רוּחַ הַחַיָּה בָּהֶם׃
11.19
וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב אֶחָד וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשָׂרָם וְנָתַתִּי לָהֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃
17.1
וְהִנֵּה שְׁתוּלָה הֲתִצְלָח הֲלוֹא כְגַעַת בָּהּ רוּחַ הַקָּדִים תִּיבַשׁ יָבֹשׁ עַל־עֲרֻגֹת צִמְחָהּ תִּיבָשׁ׃
17.1
וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃ 17.2 בֶּן־אָדָם חוּד חִידָה וּמְשֹׁל מָשָׁל אֶל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 17.2 וּפָרַשְׂתִּי עָלָיו רִשְׁתִּי וְנִתְפַּשׂ בִּמְצוּדָתִי וַהֲבִיאוֹתִיהוּ בָבֶלָה וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי אִתּוֹ שָׁם מַעֲלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָעַל־בִּי׃ 17.3 וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַנֶּשֶׁר הַגָּדוֹל גְּדוֹל הַכְּנָפַיִם אֶרֶךְ הָאֵבֶר מָלֵא הַנּוֹצָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הָרִקְמָה בָּא אֶל־הַלְּבָנוֹן וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צַמֶּרֶת הָאָרֶז׃ 17.4 אֵת רֹאשׁ יְנִיקוֹתָיו קָטָף וַיְבִיאֵהוּ אֶל־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בְּעִיר רֹכְלִים שָׂמוֹ׃ 17.5 וַיִּקַּח מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ בִּשְׂדֵה־זָרַע קָח עַל־מַיִם רַבִּים צַפְצָפָה שָׂמוֹ׃ 17.6 וַיִּצְמַח וַיְהִי לְגֶפֶן סֹרַחַת שִׁפְלַת קוֹמָה לִפְנוֹת דָּלִיּוֹתָיו אֵלָיו וְשָׁרָשָׁיו תַּחְתָּיו יִהְיוּ וַתְּהִי לְגֶפֶן וַתַּעַשׂ בַּדִּים וַתְּשַׁלַּח פֹּארוֹת׃ 17.7 וַיְהִי נֶשֶׁר־אֶחָד גָּדוֹל גְּדוֹל כְּנָפַיִם וְרַב־נוֹצָה וְהִנֵּה הַגֶּפֶן הַזֹּאת כָּפְנָה שָׁרֳשֶׁיהָ עָלָיו וְדָלִיּוֹתָיו שִׁלְחָה־לּוֹ לְהַשְׁקוֹת אוֹתָהּ מֵעֲרֻגוֹת מַטָּעָהּ׃ 17.8 אֶל־שָׂדֶה טּוֹב אֶל־מַיִם רַבִּים הִיא שְׁתוּלָה לַעֲשׂוֹת עָנָף וְלָשֵׂאת פֶּרִי לִהְיוֹת לְגֶפֶן אַדָּרֶת׃ 17.9 אֱמֹר כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה תִּצְלָח הֲלוֹא אֶת־שָׁרָשֶׁיהָ יְנַתֵּק וְאֶת־פִּרְיָהּ יְקוֹסֵס וְיָבֵשׁ כָּל־טַרְפֵּי צִמְחָהּ תִּיבָשׁ וְלֹא־בִזְרֹעַ גְּדוֹלָה וּבְעַם־רָב לְמַשְׂאוֹת אוֹתָהּ מִשָּׁרָשֶׁיהָ׃
19.14
וַתֵּצֵא אֵשׁ מִמַּטֵּה בַדֶּיהָ פִּרְיָהּ אָכָלָה וְלֹא־הָיָה בָהּ מַטֵּה־עֹז שֵׁבֶט לִמְשׁוֹל קִינָה הִיא וַתְּהִי לְקִינָה׃
2
8.2
בֶּן־אָדָם אֱמֹר לִנְגִיד צֹר כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה יַעַן גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ וַתֹּאמֶר אֵל אָנִי מוֹשַׁב אֱלֹהִים יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּלֵב יַמִּים וְאַתָּה אָדָם וְלֹא־אֵל וַתִּתֵּן לִבְּךָ כְּלֵב אֱלֹהִים׃
28.12
בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃ 28.13 בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃ 28.14 אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃
29.3
דַּבֵּר וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנְנִי עָלֶיךָ פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם הַתַּנִּים הַגָּדוֹל הָרֹבֵץ בְּתוֹךְ יְאֹרָיו אֲשֶׁר אָמַר לִי יְאֹרִי וַאֲנִי עֲשִׂיתִנִי׃
32.2
בְּתוֹךְ חַלְלֵי־חֶרֶב יִפֹּלוּ חֶרֶב נִתָּנָה מָשְׁכוּ אוֹתָהּ וְכָל־הֲמוֹנֶיהָ׃
32.2
בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־פַּרְעֹה מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו כְּפִיר גּוֹיִם נִדְמֵיתָ וְאַתָּה כַּתַּנִּים בַּיַּמִּים וַתָּגַח בְּנַהֲרוֹתֶיךָ וַתִּדְלַח־מַיִם בְּרַגְלֶיךָ וַתִּרְפֹּס נַהֲרוֹתָם׃
34.25
וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃
34.27
וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃
36.26
וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27 וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃
37.1
הָיְתָה עָלַי יַד־יְהוָה וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי בְרוּחַ יְהוָה וַיְנִיחֵנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַבִּקְעָה וְהִיא מְלֵאָה עֲצָמוֹת׃
37.1
וְהִנַּבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנִי וַתָּבוֹא בָהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּחְיוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ עַל־רַגְלֵיהֶם חַיִל גָּדוֹל מְאֹד־מְאֹד׃ 37.2 וְהֶעֱבִירַנִי עֲלֵיהֶם סָבִיב סָבִיב וְהִנֵּה רַבּוֹת מְאֹד עַל־פְּנֵי הַבִּקְעָה וְהִנֵּה יְבֵשׁוֹת מְאֹד׃ 37.2 וְהָיוּ הָעֵצִים אֲ\u200dשֶׁר־תִּכְתֹּב עֲלֵיהֶם בְּיָדְךָ לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃ 37.3 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הֲתִחְיֶינָה הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וָאֹמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה יָדָעְתָּ׃ 37.4 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא עַל־הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם הָעֲצָמוֹת הַיְבֵשׁוֹת שִׁמְעוּ דְּבַר־יְהוָה׃ 37.5 כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃ 37.6 וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 37.7 וְנִבֵּאתִי כַּאֲשֶׁר צֻוֵּיתִי וַיְהִי־קוֹל כְּהִנָּבְאִי וְהִנֵּה־רַעַשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּ עֲצָמוֹת עֶצֶם אֶל־עַצְמוֹ׃ 37.8 וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹר מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃ 37.9 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃
37.11
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי בֶּן־אָדָם הָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה כָּל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל הֵמָּה הִנֵּה אֹמְרִים יָבְשׁוּ עַצְמוֹתֵינוּ וְאָבְדָה תִקְוָתֵנוּ נִגְזַרְנוּ לָנוּ׃
37.12
לָכֵן הִנָּבֵא וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הִנֵּה אֲנִי פֹתֵחַ אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וְהַעֲלֵיתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
37.13
וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלוֹתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃
37.14
וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃
43.5
וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ וַתְּבִיאֵנִי אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִי וְהִנֵּה מָלֵא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה הַבָּיִת׃
47.1
וְהָיָה יעמדו עָמְדוּ עָלָיו דַּוָּגִים מֵעֵין גֶּדִי וְעַד־עֵין עֶגְלַיִם מִשְׁטוֹחַ לַחֲרָמִים יִהְיוּ לְמִינָה תִּהְיֶה דְגָתָם כִּדְגַת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל רַבָּה מְאֹד׃
47.1
וַיְשִׁבֵנִי אֶל־פֶּתַח הַבַּיִת וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם יֹצְאִים מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבַּיִת קָדִימָה כִּי־פְנֵי הַבַּיִת קָדִים וְהַמַּיִם יֹרְדִים מִתַּחַת מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית מִנֶּגֶב לַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃" 47.2 וַיּוֹצִאֵנִי דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפוֹנָה וַיְסִבֵּנִי דֶּרֶךְ חוּץ אֶל־שַׁעַר הַחוּץ דֶּרֶךְ הַפּוֹנֶה קָדִים וְהִנֵּה־מַיִם מְפַכִּים מִן־הַכָּתֵף הַיְמָנִית׃ 47.2 וּפְאַת־יָם הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל מִגְּבוּל עַד־נֹכַח לְבוֹא חֲמָת זֹאת פְּאַת־יָם׃ 47.3 בְּצֵאת־הָאִישׁ קָדִים וְקָו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף בָּאַמָּה וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי בַמַּיִם מֵי אָפְסָיִם׃ 47.4 וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי בַמַּיִם מַיִם בִּרְכָּיִם וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף וַיַּעֲבִרֵנִי מֵי מָתְנָיִם׃ 47.5 וַיָּמָד אֶלֶף נַחַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲבֹר כִּי־גָאוּ הַמַּיִם מֵי שָׂחוּ נַחַל אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יֵעָבֵר׃ 47.6 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הֲרָאִיתָ בֶן־אָדָם וַיּוֹלִכֵנִי וַיְשִׁבֵנִי שְׂפַת הַנָּחַל׃ 47.7 בְּשׁוּבֵנִי וְהִנֵּה אֶל־שְׂפַת הַנַּחַל עֵץ רַב מְאֹד מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה׃ 47.8 וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה יוֹצְאִים אֶל־הַגְּלִילָה הַקַּדְמוֹנָה וְיָרְדוּ עַל־הָעֲרָבָה וּבָאוּ הַיָּמָּה אֶל־הַיָּמָּה הַמּוּצָאִים ונרפאו וְנִרְפּוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 47.9 וְהָיָה כָל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲ\u200dשֶׁר־יִשְׁרֹץ אֶל כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא שָׁם נַחֲלַיִם יִחְיֶה וְהָיָה הַדָּגָה רַבָּה מְאֹד כִּי בָאוּ שָׁמָּה הַמַּיִם הָאֵלֶּה וְיֵרָפְאוּ וָחָי כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יָבוֹא שָׁמָּה הַנָּחַל׃
47.11
בצאתו בִּצֹּאתָיו וּגְבָאָיו וְלֹא יֵרָפְאוּ לְמֶלַח נִתָּנוּ׃
47.12
וְעַל־הַנַּחַל יַעֲלֶה עַל־שְׂפָתוֹ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה כָּל־עֵץ־מַאֲכָל לֹא־יִבּוֹל עָלֵהוּ וְלֹא־יִתֹּם פִּרְיוֹ לָחֳדָשָׁיו יְבַכֵּר כִּי מֵימָיו מִן־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הֵמָּה יוֹצְאִים והיו וְהָיָה פִרְיוֹ לְמַאֲכָל וְעָלֵהוּ לִתְרוּפָה׃'' None
sup>
1.4 And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire.
1.9
their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward. 1.10 As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle.
1.20
Whithersoever the spirit was to go, as the spirit was to go thither, so they went; and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.
1.22
And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above.
1.26
And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above. 1.27 And I saw as the colour of electrum, as the appearance of fire round about enclosing it, from the appearance of his loins and upward; and from the appearance of his loins and downward I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and there was brightness round about him. 1.28 As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke.
3.12
Then a spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great rushing: ‘Blessed be the glory of the LORD from His place’;
3.14
So a spirit lifted me up, and took me away; and I went in bitterness, in the heat of my spirit, and the hand of the LORD was strong upon me.
4.4
Moreover lie thou upon thy left side, and lay the iniquity of the house of Israel upon it; according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon it, thou shalt bear their iniquity. 4.5 For I have appointed the years of their iniquity to be unto thee a number of days, even three hundred and ninety days; so shalt thou bear the iniquity of the house of Israel.
8.2
Then I beheld, and lo a likeness as the appearance of fire: from the appearance of his loins and downward, fire; and from his loins and upward, as the appearance of brightness, as the colour of electrum. 8.3 And the form of a hand was put forth, and I was taken by a lock of my head; and a spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the gate of the inner court that looketh toward the north; where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy.
8.16
And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east.
9.2
And, behold, six men came from the way of the upper gate, which lieth toward the north, every man with his weapon of destruction in his hand; and one man in the midst of them clothed in linen, with a writer’s inkhorn on his side. And they went in, and stood beside the brazen altar.
9.4
And the LORD said unto him: ‘Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that are done in the midst thereof.’
10.1
Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.

10.14
And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.
10.15
And the cherubim mounted up—this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar.
10.16
And when the cherubim went, the wheels went beside them; and when the cherubim lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them.
10.17
When they stood, these stood, and when they mounted up, these mounted up with them; for the spirit of the living creature was in them.
11.19
And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh; 1
1.20
that they may walk in My statutes, and keep Mine ordices, and do them; and they shall be My people, and I will be their God.
17.1
And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying: 17.2 ’Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable unto the house of Israel, 17.3 and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: A great eagle with great wings And long pinions, Full of feathers, which had divers colours, Came unto Lebanon, And took the top of the cedar; 17.4 He cropped off the topmost of the young twigs thereof, And carried it into a land of traffic; He set it in a city of merchants. 17.5 He took also of the seed of the land, And planted it in a fruitful soil; He placed it beside many waters, He set it as a slip. 17.6 And it grew, and became a spreading vine of low stature, Whose tendrils might turn toward him, And the roots thereof be under him; So it became a vine, and brought forth branches, And shot forth sprigs. 17.7 There was also another great eagle with great wings And many feathers; And, behold, this vine did bend Its roots toward him, And shot forth its branches toward him, from the beds of its plantation, That he might water it. 17.8 It was planted in a good soil By many waters, That it might bring forth branches, and that it might bear fruit, That it might be a stately vine. 17.9 Say thou: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Shall it prosper? Shall he not pull up the roots thereof, And cut off the fruit thereof, that it wither, Yea, wither in all its sprouting leaves? Neither shall great power or much people be at hand When it is plucked up by the roots thereof.
17.10
Yea, behold, being planted, shall it prosper? Shall it not utterly wither, when the east wind toucheth it? In the beds where it grew it shall wither.’
19.14
And fire is gone out of the rod of her branches, It hath devoured her fruit, So that there is in her no strong rod To be a sceptre to rule.’ This is a lamentation, and it was for a lamentation.
23.20
And she doted upon concubinage with them, whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose issue is like the issue of horses.
2
8.2
’Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Because thy heart is lifted up, And thou hast said: I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, In the heart of the seas; Yet thou art man, and not God, Though thou didst set thy heart as the heart of God—
28.12
’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty, 28.13 thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared. 28.14 Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire.
29.3
peak, and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh King of Egypt, The great dragon that lieth In the midst of his rivers, That hath said: My river is mine own, And I have made it for myself.
32.2
’Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him: Thou didst liken thyself unto a young lion of the nations; Whereas thou art as a dragon in the seas; And thou didst gush forth with thy rivers, And didst trouble the waters with thy feet, And foul their rivers.
34.25
And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods.
34.27
And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them.
36.26
A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh. 36.27 And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them.
37.1
The hand of the LORD was upon me, and the LORD carried me out in a spirit, and set me down in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones; 37.2 and He caused me to pass by them round about, and, behold, there were very many in the open valley; and, lo, they were very dry. 37.3 And He said unto me: ‘Son of man, can these bones live?’ And I answered: ‘O Lord GOD, Thou knowest.’ 37.4 Then He said unto me: ‘Prophesy over these bones, and say unto them: O ye dry bones, hear the word of the LORD: 37.5 Thus saith the Lord GOD unto these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live. 37.6 And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’ 37.7 So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a commotion, and the bones came together, bone to its bone. 37.8 And I beheld, and, lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above; but there was no breath in them. 37.9 Then said He unto me: ‘Prophesy unto the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’
37.10
So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great host.
37.11
Then He said unto me: ‘Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel; behold, they say: Our bones are dried up, and our hope is lost; we are clean cut off.
37.12
Therefore prophesy, and say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Behold, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, O My people; and I will bring you into the land of Israel.
37.13
And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves, and caused you to come up out of your graves, O My people.
37.14
And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’
43.5
And a spirit took me up, and brought me into the inner court; and, behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house.
47.1
And he brought me back unto the door of the house; and, behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the forefront of the house looked toward the east; and the waters came down from under, from the right side of the house, on the south of the altar." 47.2 Then brought he me out by the way of the gate northward, and led me round by the way without unto the outer gate, by the way of the gate that looketh toward the east; and, behold, there trickled forth waters on the right side. 47.3 When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and he caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles. 47.4 Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees. Again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through waters that were to the loins. 47.5 Afterward he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not pass through; for the waters were risen, waters to swim in, a river that could not be passed through. 47.6 And he said unto me: ‘Hast thou seen this, O son of man?’ Then he led me, and caused me to return to the bank of the river. 47.7 Now when I had been brought back, behold, upon the bank of the river were very many trees on the one side and on the other. 47.8 Then said he unto me: ‘These waters issue forth toward the eastern region, and shall go down into the Arabah; and when they shall enter into the sea, into the sea of the putrid waters, the waters shall be healed. 47.9 And it shall come to pass, that every living creature wherewith it swarmeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come thither, that all things be healed and may live whithersoever the river cometh.
47.10
And it shall come to pass, that fishers shall stand by it from En-gedi even unto En-eglaim; there shall be a place for the spreading of nets; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many.
47.11
But the miry places thereof, and the marshes thereof, shall not be healed; they shall be given for salt.
47.12
And by the river upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for food, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail; it shall bring forth new fruit every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary; and the fruit thereof shall be for food, and the leaf thereof for healing.’ .' ' None
22. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletic images • eros (sexual desire), imagery of • financial imagery

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 8; Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 340; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 223

23. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery, military • images

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 233; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 179

24. Euripides, Bacchae, 275-276, 615, 633-634, 1348 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dream imagery, Dionysiac • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • chained images • cult images • cult images, and mobility • cult images, iconic • hobbling, of cult images

 Found in books: Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 261; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 145; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 148, 186; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 95, 168

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275 τὰ πρῶτʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι· Δημήτηρ θεά— 276 γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει·
615
οὐδέ σου συνῆψε χεῖρε δεσμίοισιν ἐν βρόχοις; Διόνυσος
633
δώματʼ ἔρρηξεν χαμᾶζε· συντεθράνωται δʼ ἅπαν 634 πικροτάτους ἰδόντι δεσμοὺς τοὺς ἐμούς· κόπου δʼ ὕπο
1348
ὀργὰς πρέπει θεοὺς οὐχ ὁμοιοῦσθαι βροτοῖς. Διόνυσος'' None
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275 are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it
615
Did he not tie your hands in binding knots? Dionysu
633
created a phantom in the courtyard. Pentheus rushed at it headlong, stabbing at the shining air, as though slaughtering me. Besides this, Bacchus inflicted other damage on him: he knocked his house to the ground, and everything was shattered into pieces, while he saw my bitter chains. From fatigue,
1348
Gods should not resemble mortals in their anger. Dionysu'' None
25. Euripides, Electra, 178-180 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Proitids, bestial imagery • votive images

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 281; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 237

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178 τάλαιν', οὐδ' ἱστᾶσα χοροὺς"179 ̓Αργείαις ἅμα νύμφαις' "180 εἱλικτὸν κρούσω πόδ' ἐμόν." "' None
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178 My unhappy heart beats fast, friends, but not at adornment or gold; nor will I set up choruses with the maidens of Argo'179 My unhappy heart beats fast, friends, but not at adornment or gold; nor will I set up choruses with the maidens of Argo 180 and beat my foot in the mazes of the dance. By tears I pass the night; tears are my unhappy care day by day. See if my filthy hair, ' None
26. Euripides, Hippolytus, 375-389, 413-418 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • anthropomorphism, conflation/split of divine image with cosmic principle • imagination

 Found in books: Liatsi (2021), Ethics in Ancient Greek Literature: Aspects of Ethical Reasoning from Homer to Aristotle and Beyond, 122, 124; Pucci (2016), Euripides' Revolution Under Cover: An Essay, 50, 52, 53, 56, 57, 61

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375 ἤδη ποτ' ἄλλως νυκτὸς ἐν μακρῷ χρόνῳ"376 θνητῶν ἐφρόντις' ᾗ διέφθαρται βίος." '377 καί μοι δοκοῦσιν οὐ κατὰ γνώμης φύσιν' "378 πράσσειν κάκιον: ἔστι γὰρ τό γ' εὖ φρονεῖν" "379 πολλοῖσιν: ἀλλὰ τῇδ' ἀθρητέον τόδε:" "380 τὰ χρήστ' ἐπιστάμεσθα καὶ γιγνώσκομεν," "381 οὐκ ἐκπονοῦμεν δ', οἱ μὲν ἀργίας ὕπο," "382 οἱ δ' ἡδονὴν προθέντες ἀντὶ τοῦ καλοῦ" "383 ἄλλην τιν'. εἰσὶ δ' ἡδοναὶ πολλαὶ βίου," '384 μακραί τε λέσχαι καὶ σχολή, τερπνὸν κακόν,' "385 αἰδώς τε. δισσαὶ δ' εἰσίν, ἡ μὲν οὐ κακή," "386 ἡ δ' ἄχθος οἴκων. εἰ δ' ὁ καιρὸς ἦν σαφής," "387 οὐκ ἂν δύ' ἤστην ταὔτ' ἔχοντε γράμματα." "388 ταῦτ' οὖν ἐπειδὴ τυγχάνω προγνοῦς' ἐγώ," "389 οὐκ ἔσθ' ὁποίῳ φαρμάκῳ διαφθερεῖν" 413 μισῶ δὲ καὶ τὰς σώφρονας μὲν ἐν λόγοις, 414 λάθρᾳ δὲ τόλμας οὐ καλὰς κεκτημένας:' "415 αἳ πῶς ποτ', ὦ δέσποινα ποντία Κύπρι," '416 βλέπουσιν ἐς πρόσωπα τῶν ξυνευνετῶν 417 οὐδὲ σκότον φρίσσουσι τὸν ξυνεργάτην' "418 τέραμνά τ' οἴκων μή ποτε φθογγὴν ἀφῇ;" "" None
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375 oft ere now in heedless mood through the long hours of night have I wondered why man’s life is spoiled; and it seems to me their evil case is not due to any natural fault of judgment, for there be many dowered with sense, but we must view the matter in this light;'376 oft ere now in heedless mood through the long hours of night have I wondered why man’s life is spoiled; and it seems to me their evil case is not due to any natural fault of judgment, for there be many dowered with sense, but we must view the matter in this light; 380 by teaching and experience we learn the right but neglect it in practice, some from sloth, others from preferring pleasure of some kind or other to duty. Now life has many pleasures, protracted talk, and leisure, that seductive evil; 385 likewise there is shame which is of two kinds, one a noble quality, the other a curse to families; but if for each its proper time were clearly known, these twain could not have had the selfsame letters to denote them.
413
this curse began to spread among our sex. For when the noble countece disgrace, poor folk of course will think that it is right. Those too I hate who make profession of purity, though in secret reckless sinners. 415 How can these, queen Cypris, ocean’s child, e’er look their husbands in the face? do they never feel one guilty thrill that their accomplice, night, or the chambers of their house will find a voice and speak? ' None
27. Euripides, Ion, 211 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plato, images • cult images • cult images, iconic • gaze, of cult images

 Found in books: Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 94; Ward (2021), Searching for the Divine in Plato and Aristotle: Philosophical Theoria and Traditional Practice, 121

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211 — λεύσσω Παλλάδ', ἐμὰν θεόν."" None
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211 I see Pallas, my own goddess. (Seventh) Choru'' None
28. Euripides, Trojan Women, 6-7, 308-310 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bacchic imagery • Imagery • Trojan Women (Euripides), fire imagery • Trojan Women (Euripides), imagery • fire imagery, Alexandra • fire imagery, Trojan trilogy (Euripides)

 Found in books: Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 148; Pillinger (2019), Cassandra and the Poetics of Prophecy in Greek and Latin Literature, 82, 87, 88, 122; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 328

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6 ὀρθοῖσιν ἔθεμεν κανόσιν, οὔποτ' ἐκ φρενῶν" "7 εὔνοι' ἀπέστη τῶν ἐμῶν Φρυγῶν πόλει:" 308 ̓́Ανεχε: πάρεχε.' 309 φῶς φέρ', ὤ: σέβω: φλέγω — ἰδού, ἰδού —" "" None
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6 et towers of stone about this land of Troy and ringed it round, never from my heart has passed away a kindly feeling for my Phrygian town, which now is smouldering and overthrown, a prey to Argive might. For, from his home beneath Parnassus ,
308
Bring the light, uplift and show its flame! I am doing the god’s service, see! see! making his shrine to glow with tapers bright.' 309 Bring the light, uplift and show its flame! I am doing the god’s service, see! see! making his shrine to glow with tapers bright. ' None
29. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 24.22 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery • imaginative literature, generally

 Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 795; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 71

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24.22 וְלֹא־זָכַר יוֹאָשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ הַחֶסֶד אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה יְהוֹיָדָע אָבִיו עִמּוֹ וַיַּהֲרֹג אֶת־בְּנוֹ וּכְמוֹתוֹ אָמַר יֵרֶא יְהוָה וְיִדְרֹשׁ׃'' None
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24.22 Thus Joash the king remembered not the kindness which Jehoiada his father had done to him, but slew his son. And when he died, he said: ‘The LORD look upon it, and require it.’'' None
30. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.13, 3.19, 3.21 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • humans, as image of God • image of God

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 131; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 32; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 25

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3.13 וְגַם כָּל־הָאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְשָׁתָה וְרָאָה טוֹב בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃
3.19
כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃
3.21
מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃'' None
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3.13 But also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy pleasure for all his labour, is the gift of God.
3.19
For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity.
3.21
Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?'' None
31. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.17 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image xvi, • Song of Songs, bride imagery in

 Found in books: Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 323; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 132

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2.17 הַס כָּל־בָּשָׂר מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה כִּי נֵעוֹר מִמְּעוֹן קָדְשׁוֹ׃'' None
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2.17 Be silent, all flesh, before the LORD; for He is aroused out of His holy habitation.'' None
32. Herodotus, Histories, 2.53, 2.139, 3.22-3.23, 5.82, 6.107.1, 7.17, 7.43 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollo, images and iconography • Artemis, S. Biagio at Metapontion, bestial and hunting imagery • Demeter, images and iconography • Dream imagery, bizarre, surreal • Dream imagery, contrary to nature, law or custom • Dream imagery, distressing • Dream imagery, sexual • Dream imagery, transgressive, taboo-breaking • Dream imagery, uncharacteristic behaviour • Dream imagery, violation of sacred law • Greek gods, in images • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • belief, visual imagery as evidence • diet, in ethnographic imagination • gaze, of cult images • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • imagination • sight, power of, of divine images • skin color, textual images • visual images, of Greeks and Persians

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 223; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 83; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 50, 201, 202; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 310; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 191, 193, 194, 202; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 274; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 3, 4, 97, 98; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 177; Wolfsdorf (2020), Early Greek Ethics, 508

6.107 οὗτοι μέν νυν τὴν πανσέληνον ἔμενον. τοῖσι δὲ βαρβάροισι κατηγέετο Ἱππίης ὁ Πεισιστράτου ἐς τὸν Μαραθῶνα, τῆς παροιχομένης νυκτὸς ὄψιν ἰδὼν τοιήνδε· ἐδόκεε ὁ Ἱππίης τῇ μητρὶ τῇ ἑωυτοῦ συνευνηθῆναι. συνεβάλετο ὦν ἐκ τοῦ ὀνείρου κατελθὼν ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας καὶ ἀνασωσάμενος τὴν ἀρχὴν τελευτήσειν ἐν τῇ ἑωυτοῦ γηραιός. ἐκ μὲν δὴ τῆς ὄψιος συνεβάλετο ταῦτα, τότε δὲ κατηγεόμενος τοῦτο μὲν τὰ ἀνδράποδα τὰ ἐξ Ἐρετρίης ἀπέβησε ἐς τὴν νῆσον τὴν Στυρέων, καλεομένην δὲ Αἰγλείην, τοῦτο δὲ καταγομένας ἐς τὸν Μαραθῶνα τὰς νέας ὅρμιζε οὗτος, ἐκβάντας τε ἐς γῆν τοὺς βαρβάρους διέτασσε. καί οἱ ταῦτα διέποντι ἐπῆλθε πταρεῖν τε καὶ βῆξαι μεζόνως ἢ ὡς ἐώθεε· οἷα δέ οἱ πρεσβυτέρῳ ἐόντι τῶν ὀδόντων οἱ πλεῦνες ἐσείοντο· τούτων ὦν ἕνα τῶν ὀδόντων ἐκβάλλει ὑπὸ βίης βήξας· ἐκπεσόντος δὲ ἐς τὴν ψάμμον αὐτοῦ ἐποιέετο σπουδὴν πολλὴν ἐξευρεῖν. ὡς δὲ οὐκ ἐφαίνετό οἱ ὁ ὀδών, ἀναστενάξας εἶπε πρὸς τοὺς παραστάτας “ἡ γῆ ἥδε οὐκ ἡμετέρη ἐστί, οὐδέ μιν δυνησόμεθα ὑποχειρίην ποιήσασθαι· ὁκόσον δέ τι μοι μέρος μετῆν, ὁ ὀδὼν μετέχει.”2.53 ἔνθεν δὲ ἐγένοντο ἕκαστος τῶν θεῶν, εἴτε αἰεὶ ἦσαν πάντες, ὁκοῖοί τε τινὲς τὰ εἴδεα, οὐκ ἠπιστέατο μέχρι οὗ πρώην τε καὶ χθὲς ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ. Ἡσίοδον γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρον ἡλικίην τετρακοσίοισι ἔτεσι δοκέω μευ πρεσβυτέρους γενέσθαι καὶ οὐ πλέοσι· οὗτοι δὲ εἰσὶ οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες. οἱ δὲ πρότερον ποιηταὶ λεγόμενοι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γενέσθαι ὕστερον, ἔμοιγε δοκέειν, ἐγένοντο. τούτων τὰ μὲν πρῶτα αἱ Δωδωνίδες ἱρεῖαι λέγουσι, τὰ δὲ ὕστερα τὰ ἐς Ἡσίοδόν τε καὶ Ὅμηρον ἔχοντα ἐγὼ λέγω.
2.139
τέλος δὲ τῆς ἀπαλλαγῆς τοῦ Αἰθίοπος ὧδε ἔλεγον γενέσθαι· ὄψιν ἐν τῷ ὕπνῳ τοιήνδε ἰδόντα αὐτὸν οἴχεσθαι φεύγοντα· ἐδόκέε οἱ ἄνδρα ἐπιστάντα συμβουλεύειν τοὺς ἱρέας τοὺς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ συλλέξαντα πάντας μέσους διαταμεῖν. ἰδόντα δὲ τὴν ὄψιν ταύτην λέγειν αὐτὸν ὡς πρόφασίν οἱ δοκέοι ταύτην τοὺς θεοὺς προδεικνύναι, ἵνα ἀσεβήσας περὶ τὰ ἱρὰ κακόν τι πρὸς θεῶν ἢ πρὸς ἀνθρώπων λάβοι· οὔκων ποιήσειν ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ γάρ οἱ ἐξεληλυθέναι τὸν χρόνον, ὁκόσον κεχρῆσθαι ἄρξαντα Αἰγύπτου ἐκχωρήσειν. ἐν γὰρ τῇ Αἰθιοπίῃ ἐόντι αὐτῷ τὰ μαντήια, τοῖσι χρέωνται Αἰθίοπες, ἀνεῖλε ὡς δέοι αὐτὸν Αἰγύπτου βασιλεῦσαι ἔτεα πεντήκοντα. ὡς ὦν ὁ χρόνος οὗτος ἐξήιε καὶ αὐτὸν ἡ ὄψις τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἐπετάρασσε, ἑκὼν ἀπαλλάσσετο ἐκ τῆς Αἰγύπτου ὁ Σαβακῶς.
3.22
ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ ἀνεὶς τὸ τόξον παρέδωκε τοῖσι ἥκουσι. λαβὼν δὲ τὸ εἷμα τὸ πορφύρεον εἰρώτα ὅ τι εἴη καὶ ὅκως πεποιημένον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὴν ἀληθείην περὶ τῆς πορφύρης καὶ τῆς βαφῆς, δολεροὺς μὲν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔφη εἶναι, δολερὰ δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ εἵματα. δεύτερα δὲ τὸν χρυσὸν εἰρώτα τὸν στρεπτὸν τὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ τὰ ψέλια· ἐξηγεομένων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὸν κόσμον αὐτοῦ, γελάσας ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ νομίσας εἶναι σφέα πέδας εἶπε ὡς παρʼ ἑωυτοῖσι εἰσὶ ῥωμαλεώτεραι τουτέων πέδαι. τρίτον δὲ εἰρώτα τὸ μύρον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῆς ποιήσιος πέρι καὶ ἀλείψιος, τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον τὸν καὶ περὶ τοῦ εἵματος εἶπε. ὡς δὲ ἐς τὸν οἶνον ἀπίκετο καὶ ἐπύθετο αὐτοῦ τὴν ποίησιν, ὑπερησθεὶς τῷ πόματι ἐπείρετο ὅ τι τε σιτέεται ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ χρόνον ὁκόσον μακρότατον ἀνὴρ Πέρσης ζώει. οἳ δὲ σιτέεσθαι μὲν τὸν ἄρτον εἶπον, ἐξηγησάμενοι τῶν πυρῶν τὴν φύσιν, ὀγδώκοντα δὲ ἔτεα ζόης πλήρωμα ἀνδρὶ μακρότατον προκεῖσθαι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Αἰθίοψ ἔφη οὐδὲν θωμάζειν εἰ σιτεόμενοι κόπρον ἔτεα ὀλίγα ζώουσι· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν τοσαῦτα δύνασθαι ζώειν σφέας, εἰ μὴ τῷ πόματι ἀνέφερον, φράζων τοῖσι Ἰχθυοφάγοισι τὸν οἶνον· τούτῳ γὰρ ἑωυτοὺς ὑπὸ Περσέων ἑσσοῦσθαι. 3.23 ἀντειρομένων δὲ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τῆς ζόης καὶ διαίτης πέρι, ἔτεα μὲν ἐς εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν τοὺς πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπικνέεσθαι, ὑπερβάλλειν δὲ τινὰς καὶ ταῦτα, σίτησιν δὲ εἶναι κρέα τε ἑφθὰ καὶ πόμα γάλα. θῶμα δὲ ποιευμένων τῶν κατασκόπων περὶ τῶν ἐτέων, ἐπὶ κρήνην σφι ἡγήσασθαι, ἀπʼ ἧς λουόμενοι λιπαρώτεροι ἐγίνοντο, κατά περ εἰ ἐλαίου εἴη· ὄζειν δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτῆς ὡς εἰ ἴων. ἀσθενὲς δὲ τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς κρήνης ταύτης οὕτω δή τι ἔλεγον εἶναι οἱ κατάσκοποι ὥστε μηδὲν οἷόν τʼ εἶναι ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐπιπλέειν, μήτε ξύλον μήτε τῶν ὅσα ξύλου ἐστὶ ἐλαφρότερα, ἀλλὰ πάντα σφέα χωρέειν ἐς βυσσόν. τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τοῦτο εἴ σφι ἐστὶ ἀληθέως οἷόν τι λέγεται, διὰ τοῦτο ἂν εἶεν, τούτῳ τὰ πάντα χρεώμενοι, μακρόβιοι. ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης δὲ ἀπαλλασσομένων, ἀγαγεῖν σφεας ἐς δεσμωτήριον ἀνδρῶν, ἔνθα τοὺς πάντας ἐν πέδῃσι χρυσέῃσι δεδέσθαι. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι πάντων ὁ χαλκὸς σπανιώτατον καὶ τιμιώτατον. θεησάμενοι δὲ καὶ τὸ δεσμωτήριον, ἐθεήσαντο καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου λεγομένην τράπεζαν.
5.82
ἡ δὲ ἔχθρη ἡ προοφειλομένη ἐς Ἀθηναίους ἐκ τῶν Αἰγινητέων ἐγένετο ἐξ ἀρχῆς τοιῆσδε. Ἐπιδαυρίοισι ἡ γῆ καρπὸν οὐδένα ἀνεδίδου. περὶ ταύτης ὦν τῆς συμφορῆς οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι ἐχρέωντο ἐν Δελφοῖσι· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη σφέας ἐκέλευε Δαμίης τε καὶ Αὐξησίης ἀγάλματα ἱδρύσασθαι καί σφι ἱδρυσαμένοισι ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. ἐπειρώτεον ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι κότερα χαλκοῦ ποιέωνται τὰ ἀγάλματα ἢ λίθου· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οὐδέτερα τούτων ἔα, ἀλλὰ ξύλου ἡμέρης ἐλαίης. ἐδέοντο ὦν οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι Ἀθηναίων ἐλαίην σφι δοῦναι ταμέσθαι, ἱρωτάτας δὴ κείνας νομίζοντες εἶναι. λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἐλαῖαι ἦσαν ἄλλοθι γῆς οὐδαμοῦ κατὰ χρόνον ἐκεῖνον ἢ ἐν Ἀθήνῃσι. οἳ δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖσιδε δώσειν ἔφασαν ἐπʼ ᾧ ἀπάξουσι ἔτεος ἑκάστου τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ τε τῇ Πολιάδι ἱρὰ καὶ τῷ Ἐρεχθέι. καταινέσαντες δὲ ἐπὶ τούτοισι οἱ Ἐπιδαύριοι τῶν τε ἐδέοντο ἔτυχον καὶ ἀγάλματα ἐκ τῶν ἐλαιέων τουτέων ποιησάμενοι ἱδρύσαντο· καὶ ἥ τε γῆ σφι ἔφερε καρπὸν καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι ἐπετέλεον τὰ συνέθεντο.
7.17
τοσαῦτα εἴπας Ἀρτάβανος, ἐλπίζων Ξέρξην ἀποδέξειν λέγοντα οὐδέν, ἐποίεε τὸ κελευόμενον. ἐνδὺς δὲ τὴν Ξέρξεω ἐσθῆτα καὶ ἱζόμενος ἐς τὸν βασιλήιον θρόνον ὡς μετὰ ταῦτα κοῖτον ἐποιέετο, ἦλθέ οἱ κατυπνωμένῳ τὠυτὸ ὄνειρον τὸ καὶ παρὰ Ξέρξην ἐφοίτα, ὑπερστὰν δὲ τοῦ Ἀρταβάνου εἶπε· “ἆρα σὺ δὴ κεῖνος εἶς ὁ ἀποσπεύδων Ξέρξην στρατεύεσθαι ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα ὡς δὴ κηδόμενος αὐτοῦ ; ἀλλʼ οὔτε ἐς τὸ μετέπειτα οὔτε ἐς τὸ παραυτίκα νῦν καταπροΐξεαι ἀποτρέπων τὸ χρεὸν γενέσθαι. Ξέρξην δὲ τὰ δεῖ ἀνηκουστέοντα παθεῖν, αὐτῷ ἐκείνῳ δεδήλωται.”
7.43
ἀπικομένου δὲ τοῦ στρατοῦ ἐπὶ ποταμὸν Σκάμανδρον, ὃς πρῶτος ποταμῶν, ἐπείτε ἐκ Σαρδίων ὁρμηθέντες ἐπεχείρησαν τῇ ὁδῷ, ἐπέλιπε τὸ ῥέεθρον οὐδʼ ἀπέχρησε τῇ στρατιῇ τε καὶ τοῖσι κτήνεσι πινόμενος· ἐπὶ τοῦτον δὴ τὸν ποταμὸν ὡς ἀπίκετο Ξέρξης, ἐς τὸ Πριάμου Πέργαμον ἀνέβη ἵμερον ἔχων θεήσασθαι· θεησάμενος δὲ καὶ πυθόμενος ἐκείνων ἕκαστα τῇ Ἀθηναίῃ τῇ Ἰλιάδι ἔθυσε βοῦς χιλίας, χοὰς δὲ οἱ Μάγοι τοῖσι ἥρωσι ἐχέαντο. ταῦτα δὲ ποιησαμένοισι νυκτὸς φόβος ἐς τὸ στρατόπεδον ἐνέπεσε. ἅμα ἡμέρῃ δὲ ἐπορεύετο ἐνθεῦτεν, ἐν ἀριστερῇ μὲν ἀπέργων Ῥοίτιον πόλιν καὶ Ὀφρύνειον καὶ Δάρδανον, ἥ περ δὴ Ἀβύδῳ ὅμουρος ἐστί, ἐν δεξιῇ δὲ Γέργιθας Τευκρούς. ' None
6.107 So they waited for the full moon, while the foreigners were guided to Marathon by Hippias son of Pisistratus. The previous night Hippias had a dream in which he slept with his mother. ,He supposed from the dream that he would return from exile to Athens, recover his rule, and end his days an old man in his own country. Thus he reckoned from the dream. Then as guide he unloaded the slaves from Eretria onto the island of the Styrians called Aegilia, and brought to anchor the ships that had put ashore at Marathon, then marshalled the foreigners who had disembarked onto land. ,As he was tending to this, he happened to sneeze and cough more violently than usual. Since he was an elderly man, most of his teeth were loose, and he lost one of them by the force of his cough. It fell into the sand and he expended much effort in looking for it, but the tooth could not be found. ,He groaned aloud and said to those standing by him: “This land is not ours and we will not be able to subdue it. My tooth holds whatever share of it was mine.” 2.53 But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say.
2.139
Now the departure of the Ethiopian (they said) came about in this way. After seeing in a dream one who stood over him and urged him to gather together all the Priests in Egypt and cut them in half, he fled from the country. ,Seeing this vision, he said, he supposed it to be a manifestation sent to him by the gods, so that he might commit sacrilege and so be punished by gods or men; he would not (he said) do so, but otherwise, for the time foretold for his rule over Egypt was now fulfilled, after which he was to depart: ,for when he was still in Ethiopia, the oracles that are consulted by the people of that country told him that he was fated to reign fifty years over Egypt . Seeing that this time was now completed and that he was troubled by what he saw in his dream, Sabacos departed from Egypt of his own volition.
3.22
So speaking he unstrung the bow and gave it to the men who had come. Then, taking the red cloak, he asked what it was and how it was made; and when the Fish-eaters told him the truth about the color and the process of dyeing, he said that both the men and their garments were full of deceit. ,Next he inquired about the twisted gold necklace and the bracelets; and when the Fish-eaters told him how they were made, the king smiled, and, thinking them to be fetters, said: “We have stronger chains than these.” ,Thirdly he inquired about the incense; and when they described making and applying it, he made the same reply as about the cloak. But when he came to the wine and asked about its making, he was vastly pleased with the drink, and asked further what food their king ate, and what was the greatest age to which a Persian lived. ,They told him their king ate bread, showing him how wheat grew; and said that the full age to which a man might hope to live was eighty years. Then, said the Ethiopian, it was no wonder that they lived so few years, if they ate dung; they would not even have been able to live that many unless they were refreshed by the drink—signifying to the Fish-eaters the wine—for in this, he said, the Persians excelled the Ethiopians. 3.23 The Fish-eaters then in turn asking of the Ethiopian length of life and diet, he said that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even to more; their food was boiled meat and their drink milk. ,The spies showed wonder at the tale of years; whereupon he led them, it is said, to a spring, by washing in which they grew sleeker, as though it were of oil; and it smelled of violets. ,So light, the spies said, was this water, that nothing would float on it, neither wood nor anything lighter than wood, but all sank to the bottom. If this water is truly such as they say, it is likely that their constant use of it makes the people long-lived. ,When they left the spring, the king led them to a prison where all the men were bound with fetters of gold. Among these Ethiopians there is nothing so scarce and so precious as bronze. Then, having seen the prison, they saw what is called the Table of the Sun.' "
5.82
This was the beginning of the Aeginetans' long-standing debt of enmity against the Athenians. The Epidaurians' land bore no produce. For this reason they inquired at Delphi concerning this calamity, and the priestess bade them set up images of Damia and Auxesia, saying that if they so did their luck would be better. The Epidaurians then asked in addition whether they should make the images of bronze or of stone, and the priestess bade them do neither, but make them of the wood of the cultivated olive. ,So the men of Epidaurus asked the Athenians to permit them to cut down some olive trees, supposing the olives there to be the holiest. Indeed it is said that at that time there were no olives anywhere save at Athens. ,The Athenians consented to give the trees, if the Epidaurians would pay yearly sacred dues to Athena, the city's goddess, and to Erechtheus. The Epidaurians agreed to this condition, and their request was granted. When they set up images made of these olive trees, their land brought forth fruit, and they fulfilled their agreement with the Athenians." "
7.17
So spoke Artabanus and did as he was bid, hoping to prove Xerxes' words vain; he put on Xerxes' robes and sat on the king's throne. Then while he slept there came to him in his sleep the same dream that had haunted Xerxes; it stood over him and spoke thus: ,“Are you the one who dissuades Xerxes from marching against Hellas, because you care for him? Neither in the future nor now will you escape with impunity for striving to turn aside what must be. To Xerxes himself it has been declared what will befall him if he disobeys.” " 7.43 When the army had come to the river Scamander, which was the first river after the beginning of their march from Sardis that fell short of their needs and was not sufficient for the army and the cattle to drink—arriving at this river, Xerxes ascended to the citadel of Priam, having a desire to see it. ,After he saw it and asked about everything there, he sacrificed a thousand cattle to Athena of Ilium, and the Magi offered libations to the heroes. After they did this, a panic fell upon the camp in the night. When it was day they journeyed on from there, keeping on their left the cities of Rhoetium and Ophryneum and Dardanus, which borders Abydos, and on their right the Teucrian Gergithae. ' None
33. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, imagined • baptism, imagery of

 Found in books: Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 191; Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 182

118a ὁ δ’ οὐκ ἔφη. ΦΑΙΔ. καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο αὖθις τὰς κνήμας: καὶ ἐπανιὼν οὕτως ἡμῖν ἐπεδείκνυτο ὅτι ψύχοιτό τε καὶ πήγνυτο. καὶ αὐτὸς ἥπτετο καὶ εἶπεν ὅτι, ἐπειδὰν πρὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ γένηται αὐτῷ, τότε οἰχήσεται. unit="para"/ἤδη οὖν σχεδόν τι αὐτοῦ ἦν τὰ περὶ τὸ ἦτρον ψυχόμενα, καὶ ἐκκαλυψάμενος — ἐνεκεκάλυπτο γάρ — εἶπεν — ὃ δὴ τελευταῖον ἐφθέγξατο — ὦ Κρίτων, ἔφη, τῷ Ἀσκληπιῷ ὀφείλομεν ἀλεκτρυόνα: ἀλλὰ ἀπόδοτε καὶ μὴ ἀμελήσητε. ἀλλὰ ταῦτα, ἔφη, ἔσται, ὁ Κρίτων : ἀλλ᾽ ὅρα εἴ τι ἄλλο λέγεις. ταῦτα ἐρομένου αὐτοῦ οὐδὲν ἔτι ἀπεκρίνατο, ἀλλ’ ὀλίγον χρόνον διαλιπὼν ἐκινήθη τε καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐξεκάλυψεν αὐτόν, καὶ ὃς τὰ ὄμματα ἔστησεν: ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Κρίτων συνέλαβε τὸ στόμα καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς. ἥδε ἡ τελευτή, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, τοῦ ἑταίρου ἡμῖν ἐγένετο, ἀνδρός, ὡς ἡμεῖς φαῖμεν ἄν, τῶν τότε ὧν ἐπειράθημεν ἀρίστου καὶ ἄλλως φρονιμωτάτου καὶ δικαιοτάτου.'' None118a his thighs; and passing upwards in this way he showed us that he was growing cold and rigid. And again he touched him and said that when it reached his heart, he would be gone. The chill had now reached the region about the groin, and uncovering his face, which had been covered, he said—and these were his last words— Crito, we owe a cock to Aesculapius. Pay it and do not neglect it. That, said Crito, shall be done; but see if you have anything else to say. To this question he made no reply, but after a little while he moved; the attendant uncovered him; his eyes were fixed. And Crito when he saw it, closed his mouth and eyes.Such was the end, Echecrates, of our friend, who was, as we may say, of all those of his time whom we have known, the best and wisest and most righteous man.'' None
34. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plato, images • agalma (cult image) • father imagery • image • image (eikôn, εἰκών‎) in Proclus • imagery athletic • imagery, Dionysiac • imagery, sowing • imagery, sowing/planting

 Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 51; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 351; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 191; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 97; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 200, 265; Ward (2021), Searching for the Divine in Plato and Aristotle: Philosophical Theoria and Traditional Practice, 126; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 66; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 279

245a τῶν παρόντων κακῶν εὑρομένη. ΣΩ. τρίτη δὲ ἀπὸ Μουσῶν κατοκωχή τε καὶ μανία, λαβοῦσα ἁπαλὴν καὶ ἄβατον ψυχήν, ἐγείρουσα καὶ ἐκβακχεύουσα κατά τε ᾠδὰς καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην ποίησιν, μυρία τῶν παλαιῶν ἔργα κοσμοῦσα τοὺς ἐπιγιγνομένους παιδεύει· ὃς δʼ ἂν ἄνευ μανίας Μουσῶν ἐπὶ ποιητικὰς θύρας ἀφίκηται, πεισθεὶς ὡς ἄρα ἐκ τέχνης ἱκανὸς ποιητὴς ἐσόμενος, ἀτελὴς αὐτός τε καὶ ἡ ποίησις ὑπὸ τῆς τῶν μαινομένων ἡ τοῦ σωφρονοῦντος ἠφανίσθη.' 246c μὲν οὖν οὖσα καὶ ἐπτερωμένη μετεωροπορεῖ τε καὶ πάντα τὸν κόσμον διοικεῖ, ἡ δὲ πτερορρυήσασα φέρεται ἕως ἂν στερεοῦ τινος ἀντιλάβηται, οὗ κατοικισθεῖσα, σῶμα γήϊνον λαβοῦσα, αὐτὸ αὑτὸ δοκοῦν κινεῖν διὰ τὴν ἐκείνης δύναμιν, ζῷον τὸ σύμπαν ἐκλήθη, ψυχὴ καὶ σῶμα παγέν, θνητόν τʼ ἔσχεν ἐπωνυμίαν· ἀθάνατον δὲ οὐδʼ ἐξ ἑνὸς λόγου λελογισμένου, ἀλλὰ πλάττομεν οὔτε ἰδόντες οὔτε ἱκανῶς νοήσαντες 276e ΦΑΙ. παγκάλην λέγεις παρὰ φαύλην παιδιάν, ὦ Σώκρατες, τοῦ ἐν λόγοις δυναμένου παίζειν, δικαιοσύνης τε καὶ ἄλλων ὧν λέγεις πέρι μυθολογοῦντα. ΣΩ. ἔστι γάρ, ὦ φίλε Φαῖδρε, οὕτω· πολὺ δʼ οἶμαι καλλίων σπουδὴ περὶ αὐτὰ γίγνεται, ὅταν τις τῇ διαλεκτικῇ τέχνῃ χρώμενος, λαβὼν ψυχὴν προσήκουσαν, φυτεύῃ τε καὶ σπείρῃ μετʼ ἐπιστήμης λόγους, οἳ ἑαυτοῖς τῷ τε φυτεύσαντι ' None245a ills is found. Socrates. And a third kind of possession and madness comes from the Muses. This takes hold upon a gentle and pure soul, arouses it and inspires it to songs and other poetry, and thus by adorning countless deeds of the ancients educates later generations. But he who without the divine madness comes to the doors of the Muses, confident that he will be a good poet by art, meets with no success, and the poetry of the sane man vanishes into nothingness before that of the inspired madmen.' 246c and fully winged, it mounts upward and governs the whole world; but the soul which has lost its wings is borne along until it gets hold of something solid, when it settles down, taking upon itself an earthly body, which seems to be self-moving, because of the power of the soul within it; and the whole, compounded of soul and body, is called a living being, and is further designated as mortal. It is not immortal by any reasonable supposition, but we, though we have never seen 276e Phaedrus. A noble pastime, Socrates, and a contrast to those base pleasures, the pastime of the man who can find amusement in discourse, telling stories about justice, and the other subjects of which you speak. Socrates. Yes, Phaedrus, so it is; but, in my opinion, serious discourse about them is far nobler, when one employs the dialectic method and plants and sows in a fitting soul intelligent words which are able to help themselves and him ' None
35. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Clement of Alexandria, Platonism and Stoicism in,, image and likeness of God, being made in • agency-imagination, divine • image and likeness • image of God • image of God, • imagery, marking/stamping • imagery, wax • imago Dei

 Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 332; Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 129; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 109; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 123; Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 95; Seaford, Wilkins, Wright (2017), Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill. 133; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 399; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 81

176a λαβόντος ὀρθῶς ὑμνῆσαι θεῶν τε καὶ ἀνδρῶν εὐδαιμόνων βίον ἀληθῆ . ΘΕΟ. εἰ πάντας, ὦ Σώκρατες, πείθοις ἃ λέγεις ὥσπερ ἐμέ, πλείων ἂν εἰρήνη καὶ κακὰ ἐλάττω κατʼ ἀνθρώπους εἴη. ΣΩ. ἀλλʼ οὔτʼ ἀπολέσθαι τὰ κακὰ δυνατόν, ὦ Θεόδωρε— ὑπεναντίον γάρ τι τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἀεὶ εἶναι ἀνάγκη—οὔτʼ ἐν θεοῖς αὐτὰ ἱδρῦσθαι, τὴν δὲ θνητὴν φύσιν καὶ τόνδε τὸν τόπον περιπολεῖ ἐξ ἀνάγκης. διὸ καὶ πειρᾶσθαι χρὴ ἐνθένδε' 191c συγχωρήσεται, ἴσως δὲ ἀντιτενεῖ. ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐν τοιούτῳ ἐχόμεθα, ἐν ᾧ ἀνάγκη πάντα μεταστρέφοντα λόγον βασανίζειν. σκόπει οὖν εἰ τὶ λέγω. ἆρα ἔστιν μὴ εἰδότα τι πρότερον ὕστερον μαθεῖν; ΘΕΑΙ. ἔστι μέντοι. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν καὶ αὖθις ἕτερον καὶ ἕτερον; ΘΕΑΙ. τί δʼ οὔ; ΣΩ. θὲς δή μοι λόγου ἕνεκα ἐν ταῖς ψυχαῖς ἡμῶν ἐνὸν κήρινον ἐκμαγεῖον, τῷ μὲν μεῖζον, τῷ δʼ ἔλαττον, καὶ τῷ μὲν καθαρωτέρου κηροῦ, τῷ δὲ κοπρωδεστέρου, καὶ σκληροτέρου, ' None176a THEO. If, Socrates, you could persuade all men of the truth of what you say as you do me, there would be more peace and fewer evils among mankind. SOC. But it is impossible that evils should be done away with, Theodorus, for there must always be something opposed to the good; and they cannot have their place among the gods, but must inevitably hover about mortal nature and this earth. Therefore we ought to try to escape from earth to the dwelling of the gods as quickly as we can;' 191c THEAET. To be sure he can. SOC. Again, then, can he learn one thing after another? THEAET. Why not? SOC. Please assume, then, for the sake of argument, that there is in our souls a block of wax, in one case larger, in another smaller, in one case the wax is purer, in another more impure and harder, in some cases softer, ' None
36. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dream imagery, bizarre, surreal • Dream imagery, day-to-day objects/realistic scenes • God, image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Nature/nature (phusis, φύσις‎) as image • eidôlon (phantom image) • eikôn [ Image ] • image • image of God • image of God (in man) • image of God, • image, imagery • image/likeness of Forms • imagery, fountain • imagery, marking/stamping • images (eidola) • imagination • imagination (phantasia, φαντασία‎) and World Soul • mind, image of God • phantasma ( mental image) • recollection (anamnêsis, ἀνάμνησις‎) through images • representation or imagination • time, as image of eternity • time, image of eternity

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 8, 390; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 58; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 124, 166, 208; Gerson and Wilberding (2022), The New Cambridge Companion to Plotinus, 117; Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 136; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 55, 120; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 167; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 322; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 70; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 12; Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 74, 98, 103; Struck (2016), Divination and Human Nature: A Cognitive History of Intuition in Classical Antiquity, 80, 89; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 353; Zachhuber (2022), Time and Soul: From Aristotle to St. Augustine. 12; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 108, 126, 284

28a ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης' 29e τόδε ὁ συνιστὰς συνέστησεν. ἀγαθὸς ἦν, ἀγαθῷ δὲ οὐδεὶς περὶ οὐδενὸς οὐδέποτε ἐγγίγνεται φθόνος· τούτου δʼ ἐκτὸς ὢν πάντα ὅτι μάλιστα ἐβουλήθη γενέσθαι παραπλήσια ἑαυτῷ. ΤΙ. ταύτην δὴ γενέσεως καὶ κόσμου μάλιστʼ ἄν τις ἀρχὴν κυριωτάτην 34b ἐσόμενον θεὸν λογισθεὶς λεῖον καὶ ὁμαλὸν πανταχῇ τε ἐκ μέσου ἴσον καὶ ὅλον καὶ τέλεον ἐκ τελέων σωμάτων σῶμα ἐποίησεν· ψυχὴν δὲ εἰς τὸ μέσον αὐτοῦ θεὶς διὰ παντός τε ἔτεινεν καὶ ἔτι ἔξωθεν τὸ σῶμα αὐτῇ περιεκάλυψεν, καὶ κύκλῳ δὴ κύκλον στρεφόμενον οὐρανὸν ἕνα μόνον ἔρημον κατέστησεν, διʼ ἀρετὴν δὲ αὐτὸν αὑτῷ δυνάμενον συγγίγνεσθαι καὶ οὐδενὸς ἑτέρου προσδεόμενον, γνώριμον δὲ καὶ φίλον ἱκανῶς αὐτὸν αὑτῷ. διὰ πάντα δὴ ταῦτα εὐδαίμονα θεὸν αὐτὸν ἐγεννήσατο. 37d καθάπερ οὖν αὐτὸ τυγχάνει ζῷον ἀίδιον ὄν, καὶ τόδε τὸ πᾶν οὕτως εἰς δύναμιν ἐπεχείρησε τοιοῦτον ἀποτελεῖν. ἡ μὲν οὖν τοῦ ζῴου φύσις ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα αἰώνιος, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τῷ γεννητῷ παντελῶς προσάπτειν οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν· εἰκὼ δʼ ἐπενόει κινητόν τινα αἰῶνος ποιῆσαι, καὶ διακοσμῶν ἅμα οὐρανὸν ποιεῖ μένοντος αἰῶνος ἐν ἑνὶ κατʼ ἀριθμὸν ἰοῦσαν αἰώνιον εἰκόνα, τοῦτον ὃν δὴ χρόνον ὠνομάκαμεν. 39e ὡς ὁμοιότατον ᾖ τῷ τελέῳ καὶ νοητῷ ζῴῳ πρὸς τὴν τῆς διαιωνίας μίμησιν φύσεως. ΤΙ. εἰσὶν δὴ τέτταρες, μία μὲν οὐράνιον θεῶν γένος, ἄλλη δὲ 51e δύο δὴ λεκτέον ἐκείνω, διότι χωρὶς γεγόνατον ἀνομοίως τε ἔχετον. τὸ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν διὰ διδαχῆς, τὸ δʼ ὑπὸ πειθοῦς ἡμῖν ἐγγίγνεται· καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀεὶ μετʼ ἀληθοῦς λόγου, τὸ δὲ ἄλογον· καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀκίνητον πειθοῖ, τὸ δὲ μεταπειστόν· καὶ τοῦ μὲν πάντα ἄνδρα μετέχειν φατέον, νοῦ δὲ θεούς, ἀνθρώπων δὲ γένος βραχύ τι. ΤΙ. τούτων δὲ οὕτως ἐχόντων 71a τὸ κράτιστον καθʼ ἡσυχίαν περὶ τοῦ πᾶσι κοινῇ καὶ ἰδίᾳ συμφέροντος ἐῷ βουλεύεσθαι, διὰ ταῦτα ἐνταῦθʼ ἔδοσαν αὐτῷ τὴν τάξιν. εἰδότες δὲ αὐτὸ ὡς λόγου μὲν οὔτε συνήσειν ἔμελλεν, εἴ τέ πῃ καὶ μεταλαμβάνοι τινὸς αὐτῶν αἰσθήσεως, οὐκ ἔμφυτον αὐτῷ τὸ μέλειν τινῶν ἔσοιτο λόγων, ὑπὸ δὲ εἰδώλων καὶ φαντασμάτων νυκτός τε καὶ μεθʼ ἡμέραν μάλιστα ψυχαγωγήσοιτο, τούτῳ δὴ θεὸς ἐπιβουλεύσας αὐτῷ τὴν ἥπατος ' None28a and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity' 29e constructed Becoming and the All. He was good, and in him that is good no envy ariseth ever concerning anything; and being devoid of envy He desired that all should be, so far as possible, like unto Himself. Tim. This principle, then, we shall be wholly right in accepting from men of wisdom as being above all the supreme originating principle of Becoming and the Cosmos. 34b which was one day to be existent, whereby He made it smooth and even and equal on all sides from the center, a whole and perfect body compounded of perfect bodies, And in the midst thereof He set Soul, which He stretched throughout the whole of it, and therewith He enveloped also the exterior of its body; and as a Circle revolving in a circle He established one sole and solitary Heaven, able of itself because of its excellence to company with itself and needing none other beside, sufficing unto itself as acquaintance and friend. And because of all this He generated it to be a blessed God. 37d till more closely. Accordingly, seeing that that Model is an eternal Living Creature, He set about making this Universe, so far as He could, of a like kind. But inasmuch as the nature of the Living Creature was eternal, this quality it was impossible to attach in its entirety to what is generated; wherefore He planned to make a movable image of Eternity, and, as He set in order the Heaven, of that Eternity which abides in unity He made an eternal image, moving according to number, even that which we have named Time. 39e Nature thereof. Tim. And these Forms are four,—one the heavenly kind of gods; 51e Now these two Kinds must be declared to be two, because they have come into existence separately and are unlike in condition. For the one of them arises in us by teaching, the other by persuasion; and the one is always in company with true reasoning, whereas the other is irrational; and the one is immovable by persuasion, whereas the other is alterable by persuasion; and of the one we must assert that every man partakes, but of Reason only the gods and but a small class of men. Tim. This being so, we must agree that One Kind 71a concerning what benefits all, both individually and in the mass,—for these reasons they stationed it in that position. And inasmuch as they knew that it would not understand reason, and that, even if it did have some share in the perception of reasons, it would have no natural instinct to pay heed to any of them but would be bewitched for the most part both day and night by images and phantasms,—to guard against this God devised and constructed the form of the liver and placed it in that part’s abode; ' None
37. Sophocles, Antigone, 821-822 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery • marriage, imagery • trees, in funerary imagery

 Found in books: Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 30; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 239

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821 nor having won the wages of the sword. No, guided by your own laws and still alive, unlike any mortal before, you will descend to Hades.'822 nor having won the wages of the sword. No, guided by your own laws and still alive, unlike any mortal before, you will descend to Hades. ' None
38. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.28, 7.87.1-7.87.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hermes, images and iconography • Image • imagination • water imagery

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 145; Bricault and Bonnet (2013), Panthée: Religious Transformations in the Graeco-Roman Empire, 137; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 164; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 140; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 333, 338

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7.87.1 τοὺς δ’ ἐν ταῖς λιθοτομίαις οἱ Συρακόσιοι χαλεπῶς τοὺς πρώτους χρόνους μετεχείρισαν. ἐν γὰρ κοίλῳ χωρίῳ ὄντας καὶ ὀλίγῳ πολλοὺς οἵ τε ἥλιοι τὸ πρῶτον καὶ τὸ πνῖγος ἔτι ἐλύπει διὰ τὸ ἀστέγαστον καὶ αἱ νύκτες ἐπιγιγνόμεναι τοὐναντίον μετοπωριναὶ καὶ ψυχραὶ τῇ μεταβολῇ ἐς ἀσθένειαν ἐνεωτέριζον, 7.87.2 πάντα τε ποιούντων αὐτῶν διὰ στενοχωρίαν ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ καὶ προσέτι τῶν νεκρῶν ὁμοῦ ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλοις ξυννενημένων, οἳ ἔκ τε τῶν τραυμάτων καὶ διὰ τὴν μεταβολὴν καὶ τὸ τοιοῦτον ἀπέθνῃσκον, καὶ ὀσμαὶ ἦσαν οὐκ ἀνεκτοί, καὶ λιμῷ ἅμα καὶ δίψῃ ἐπιέζοντο ʽἐδίδοσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν ἑκάστῳ ἐπὶ ὀκτὼ μῆνας κοτύλην ὕδατος καὶ δύο κοτύλας σίτοὐ, ἄλλα τε ὅσα εἰκὸς ἐν τῷ τοιούτῳ χωρίῳ ἐμπεπτωκότας κακοπαθῆσαι, οὐδὲν ὅτι οὐκ ἐπεγένετο αὐτοῖς:' ' None
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7.87.1 The prisoners in the quarries were at first hardly treated by the Syracusans. Crowded in a narrow hole, without any roof to cover them, the heat of the sun and the stifling closeness of the air tormented them during the day, and then the nights which came on autumnal and chilly, made them ill by the violence of the change; 7.87.2 besides, as they had to do everything in the same place for want of room, and the bodies of those who died of their wounds or from the variation in the temperature, or from similar causes, were left heaped together one upon another, intolerable stenches arose; while hunger and thirst never ceased to afflict them, each man during eight months having only half a pint of water and a pint of corn given him daily. In short, no single suffering to be apprehended by men thrust into such a place was spared them. ' ' None
39. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.4.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athens, images of the gods • Athens, statues/images of Athena • Mother of the Gods, statues and images of • gods and goddesses, depiction/imagery of • myth/mythology, depiction/imagery of

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 169; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 330

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1.4.12 And when he found that the temper of the Athenians was kindly, that they had chosen him general, and that his friends were urging him by personal messages to return, he sailed in to Piraeus, arriving on the day when the city was celebrating the Plynteria When the clothing of the ancient wooden statue of Athena Polias was removed and washed ( πλύνειν ). and the statue of Athena was veiled from sight,—a circumstance which some people imagined was of ill omen, both for him and for the state; for on that day no Athenian would venture to engage in any serious business.'' None
40. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 1.6.28-1.6.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • deception, and hunting images • image, military

 Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 321; Hesk (2000), Deception and Democracy in Classical Athens, 124, 125

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1.6.28 πῶς μήν, ἔφη, παῖδας ὄντας ἡμᾶς καὶ ἐφήβους τἀναντία τούτων ἐδιδάσκετε; ναὶ μὰ Δίʼ, ἔφη, καὶ νῦν πρὸς τοὺς φίλους τε καὶ πολίτας· ὅπως δέ γε τοὺς πολεμίους δύναισθε κακῶς ποιεῖν οὐκ οἶσθα μανθάνοντας ὑμᾶς πολλὰς κακουργίας; οὐ δῆτα, ἔφη, ἔγωγε, ὦ πάτερ. τίνος μὴν ἕνεκα, ἔφη, ἐμανθάνετε τοξεύειν; τίνος δʼ ἕνεκα ἀκοντίζειν; τίνος δʼ ἕνεκα δολοῦν ὗς ἀγρίους καὶ πλέγμασι καὶ ὀρύγμασι; τί δʼ ἐλάφους ποδάγραις καὶ ἁρπεδόναις; τί δὲ λέουσι καὶ ἄρκτοις καὶ παρδάλεσιν οὐκ εἰς τὸ ἴσον καθιστάμενοι ἐμάχεσθε, ἀλλὰ μετὰ πλεονεξίας τινὸς αἰεὶ ἐπειρᾶσθε ἀγωνίζεσθαι πρὸς αὐτά; ἢ οὐ πάντα γιγνώσκεις ταῦτα ὅτι κακουργίαι τέ εἰσι καὶ ἀπάται καὶ δολώσεις καὶ πλεονεξίαι; 1.6.29 ναὶ μὰ Δίʼ, ἔφη, θηρίων γε· ἀνθρώπων δὲ εἰ καὶ δόξαιμι βούλεσθαι ἐξαπατῆσαί τινα, πολλὰς πληγὰς οἶδα λαμβάνων. οὐδὲ γὰρ τοξεύειν, οἶμαι, οὐδʼ ἀκοντίζειν ἄνθρωπον ἐπετρέπομεν ὑμῖν, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ σκοπὸν βάλλειν ἐδιδάσκομεν, ἵνα γε νῦν μὲν μὴ κακουργοίητε τοὺς φίλους, εἰ δέ ποτε πόλεμος γένοιτο, δύναισθε καὶ ἀνθρώπων στοχάζεσθαι· καὶ ἐξαπατᾶν δὲ καὶ πλεονεκτεῖν οὐκ ἐν ἀνθρώποις ἐπαιδεύομεν ὑμᾶς, ἀλλʼ ἐν θηρίοις, ἵνα μηδʼ ἐν τούτοις τοὺς φίλους βλάπτοιτε, εἰ δέ ποτε πόλεμος γένοιτο, μηδὲ τούτων ἀγύμναστοι εἴητε.'' None
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1.6.28 Aye, by Zeus, said he; and so we would have you still towards your friends and fellow-citizens; but, that you might be able to hurt your enemies, do you not know that you all were learning many villainies? No, indeed, father, said he; not I, at any rate. Why said he, did you learn to shoot, and why to throw the spear? Why did you learn to ensnare wild boars with nets and pitfalls, and deer with traps and toils? And why were you not used to confront lions and bears and leopards in a fair fight face to face instead of always trying to contend against them with some advantage on your side? Why, do you not know that all this is villainy and deceit and trickery and taking unfair advantage? 1.6.29 Yes, by Zeus, said he, toward wild animals however; but if I ever even seemed to wish to deceive a man, I know that I got a good beating for it. Yes said he; for, methinks, we did not permit you to shoot at people nor to throw your spear at them; but we taught you to shoot at a mark, in order that you might not for the time at least do harm to your friends, but, in case there should ever be a war, that you might be able to aim well at men also. And we instructed you likewise to deceive and to take advantage, not in the case of men but of beasts, in order that you might not injure your friends by so doing, but, if there should ever be a war, that you might not be unpractised in these arts. '' None
41. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • image, imagery • phantasma ( mental image)

 Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6; Struck (2016), Divination and Human Nature: A Cognitive History of Intuition in Classical Antiquity, 99

42. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery, Dionysiac • images

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 191; Lloyd (1989), The Revolutions of Wisdom: Studies in the Claims and Practice of Ancient Greek Science, 179

43. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image (εἰκών)

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 338; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 32

44. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plato, images • image • image of God

 Found in books: Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 248; Ebrey and Kraut (2022), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed, 60; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 70; Ward (2021), Searching for the Divine in Plato and Aristotle: Philosophical Theoria and Traditional Practice, 60

45. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • image, imagery • images (eidola)

 Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 13; Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 74

46. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • countryside, charms imagined • imagery, chariots • imagery, solar

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 36; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 224

47. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery, chariots • imagery, triumphal • water imagery

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 14, 188, 190; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 138

48. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • metaliterary symbols, water-imagery • water imagery

 Found in books: Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 132, 138, 139, 143, 144; Mheallaigh (2014), Reading Fiction with Lucian: Fakes, Freaks and Hyperreality, 11

49. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.18-14.22, 48.5, 89.73, 97.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image of God • Image xvi, • Images, Material for Idols • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Revelation (Apocalypse of John), Son of Man imagery • Son of Man, imagery in book of Revelation • Vineyard imagery, in Psalms • animal imagery • wealth, imagery

 Found in books: Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 344; Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 136; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209, 210; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 320; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 880; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 171; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 175; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 80, 305, 306, 319; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 399; Visnjic (2021), The Invention of Duty: Stoicism as Deontology, 290

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14.18 of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19 cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look" 14.20 The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance,with the command of the Holy Great One in that vision. I saw in my sleep what I will now say with a tongue of flesh and with the breath of my mouth: which the Great One has given to men to",converse therewith and understand with the heart. As He has created and given to man the power of understanding the word of wisdom, so hath He created me also and given me the power of reprimanding,the Watchers, the children of heaven. I wrote out your petition, and in my vision it appeared thus, that your petition will not be granted unto you throughout all the days of eternity, and that judgement,has been finally passed upon you: yea (your petition) will not be granted unto you. And from henceforth you shall not ascend into heaven unto all eternity, and in bonds of the earth the decree,has gone forth to bind you for all the days of the world. And (that) previously you shall have seen the destruction of your beloved sons and ye shall have no pleasure in them, but they shall fall before,you by the sword. And your petition on their behalf shall not be granted, nor yet on your own: even though you weep and pray and speak all the words contained in the writing which I have,written. And the vision was shown to me thus: Behold, in the vision clouds invited me and a mist summoned me, and the course of the stars and the lightnings sped and hastened me, and the winds in,the vision caused me to fly and lifted me upward, and bore me into heaven. And I went in till I drew nigh to a wall which is built of crystals and surrounded by tongues of fire: and it began to affright,me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork was,of crystal. Its ceiling was like the path of the stars and the lightnings, and between them were,fiery cherubim, and their heaven was (clear as) water. A flaming fire surrounded the walls, and its,portals blazed with fire. And I entered into that house, and it was hot as fire and cold as ice: there,were no delights of life therein: fear covered me, and trembling got hold upon me. And as I quaked,and trembled, I fell upon my face. And I beheld a vision, And lo! there was a second house, greater,than the former, and the entire portal stood open before me, and it was built of flames of fire. And in every respect it so excelled in splendour and magnificence and extent that I cannot describe to,you its splendour and its extent. And its floor was of fire, and above it were lightnings and the path,of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of,cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look",thereon. And the Great Glory sat thereon, and His raiment shone more brightly than the sun and,was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason",of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand times,ten thousand (stood) before Him, yet He needed no counselor. And the most holy ones who were,nigh to Him did not leave by night nor depart from Him. And until then I had been prostrate on my face, trembling: and the Lord called me with His own mouth, and said to me: \' Come hither,,Enoch, and hear my word.\' And one of the holy ones came to me and waked me, and He made me rise up and approach the door: and I bowed my face downwards. 14.21 was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason" 14.22 of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand time
48.5
All who dwell on earth shall fall down and worship before him, And will praise and bless and celebrate with song the Lord of Spirits. 62 And thus the Lord commanded the kings and the mighty and the exalted, and those who dwell on the earth, and said:,Open your eyes and lift up your horns if ye are able to recognize the Elect One.\'",And the Lord of Spirits seated him on the throne of His glory, And the spirit of righteousness was poured out upon him, And the word of his mouth slays all the sinners, And all the unrighteous are destroyed from before his face.,And there shall stand up in that day all the kings and the mighty, And the exalted and those who hold the earth, And they shall see and recognize How he sits on the throne of his glory, And righteousness is judged before him, And no lying word is spoken before him.,Then shall pain come upon them as on a woman in travail, And she has pain in bringing forth When her child enters the mouth of the womb, And she has pain in bringing forth.And one portion of them shall look on the other, And they shall be terrified, And they shall be downcast of countece, And pain shall seize them, When they see that Son of Man Sitting on the throne of his glory.,And the kings and the mighty and all who possess the earth shall bless and glorify and extol him who rules over all, who was hidden.,For from the beginning the Son of Man was hidden, And the Most High preserved him in the presence of His might, And revealed him to the elect.,And the congregation of the elect and holy shall be sown, And all the elect shall stand before him on that day.,And all the kings and the mighty and the exalted and those who rule the earth Shall fall down before him on their faces, And worship and set their hope upon that Son of Man, And petition him and supplicate for mercy at his hands.,Nevertheless that Lord of Spirits will so press them That they shall hastily go forth from His presence, And their faces shall be filled with shame, And the darkness grow deeper on their faces.,And He will deliver them to the angels for punishment, To execute vengeance on them because they have oppressed His children and His elect,And they shall be a spectacle for the righteous and for His elect: They shall rejoice over them, Because the wrath of the Lord of Spirits resteth upon them, And His sword is drunk with their blood.,And the righteous and elect shall be saved on that day, And they shall never thenceforward see the face of the sinners and unrighteous.,And the Lord of Spirits will abide over them, And with that Son of Man shall they eat And lie down and rise up for ever and ever.,And the righteous and elect shall have risen from the earth, And ceased to be of downcast countece. And they shall have been clothed with garments of glory,,And these shall be the garments of life from the Lord of Spirits:And your garments shall not grow old, Nor your glory pass away before the Lord of Spirits. 72 The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world,and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven,,and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other,in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the,circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate (lit. \' that \') portal and,shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which,is the fourth those six portals in the cast. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in,their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty,,mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth,morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth,portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night,becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth",portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day,becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the,sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished,,the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for,thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one-,and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, and becomes of equal length, and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to,nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises,thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight,parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises,in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven,parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty,mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and,the day to six. And the sun has (therewith) traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west,opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night,has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising,and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts,and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven.,On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night,is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course,of the sun these distinctions are made (lit. \' they are separated \'). So it comes that its course becomes",daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, for ever and ever. And that which (thus) rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to,its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal. 73 And after this law I saw another law dealing with the smaller luminary, which is named the Moon. And her circumference is like the circumference of the heaven, and her chariot in which she rides is driven by the wind, and light is given to her in (definite) measure. And her rising and setting change every month: and her days are like the days of the sun, and when her light is uniform (i.e. full) it amounts to the seventh part of the light of the sun. And thus she rises. And her first phase in the east comes forth on the thirtieth morning: and on that day she becomes visible, and constitutes for you the first phase of the moon on the thirtieth day together with the sun in the portal where the sun rises. And the one half of her goes forth by a seventh part, and her whole circumference is empty, without light, with the exception of one-seventh part of it, (and) the,fourteenth part of her light. And when she receives one-seventh part of the half of her light, her light,amounts to one-seventh part and the half thereof. And she sets with the sun, and when the sun rises the moon rises with him and receives the half of one part of light, and in that night in the beginning of her morning in the commencement of the lunar day the moon sets with the sun, and,is invisible that night with the fourteen parts and the half of one of them. And she rises on that day with exactly a seventh part, and comes forth and recedes from the rising of the sun, and in her remaining days she becomes bright in the (remaining) thirteen parts. 74 And I saw another course, a law for her, (and) how according to that law she performs her monthly,revolution. And all these Uriel, the holy angel who is the leader of them all, showed to me, and their positions, and I wrote down their positions as he showed them to me, and I wrote down their months,as they were, and the appearance of their lights till fifteen days were accomplished. In single seventh parts she accomplishes all her light in the east, and in single seventh parts accomplishes all her,darkness in the west. And in certain months she alters her settings, and in certain months she pursues,her own peculiar course. In two months the moon sets with the sun: in those two middle portals the",third and the fourth. She goes forth for seven days, and turns about and returns again through the portal where the sun rises, and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes from the sun, and in eight,days enters the sixth portal from which the sun goes forth. And when the sun goes forth from the fourth portal she goes forth seven days, until she goes forth from the fifth and turns back again in seven days into the fourth portal and accomplishes all her light: and she recedes and enters into the,first portal in eight days. And she returns again in seven days into the fourth portal from which the",sun goes forth. Thus I saw their position -how the moons rose and the sun set in those days. And if five years are added together the sun has an overplus of thirty days, and all the days which accrue,to it for one of those five years, when they are full, amount to,days. And the overplus of the sun and of the stars amounts to six days: in",years",days every year come to",days: and the",moon falls behind the sun and stars to the number of",days. And the sun and the stars bring in all the years exactly, so that they do not advance or delay their position by a single day unto eternity; but complete the years with perfect justice in,days. In",years there are",days, and in,years",days, so that in,years there are",days. For the moon alone the days amount in",years to",days, and in,years she falls",days behind: i.e. to the sum (of",there is",to be added (1,000 and),days. And in",years there are",days, so that for the moon the days,in",years amount to",days. For in",years she falls behind to the amount of",days, all the,days she falls behind in",years are",And the year is accurately completed in conformity with their world-stations and the stations of the sun, which rise from the portals through which it (the sun) rises and sets,days."' "75 And the leaders of the heads of the thousands, who are placed over the whole creation and over all the stars, have also to do with the four intercalary days, being inseparable from their office, according to the reckoning of the year, and these render service on the four days which are not,reckoned in the reckoning of the year. And owing to them men go wrong therein, for those luminaries truly render service on the world-stations, one in the first portal, one in the third portal of the heaven, one in the fourth portal, and one in the sixth portal, and the exactness of the year is,accomplished through its separate three hundred and sixty-four stations. For the signs and the times and the years and the days the angel Uriel showed to me, whom the Lord of glory hath set for ever over all the luminaries of the heaven, in the heaven and in the world, that they should rule on the face of the heaven and be seen on the earth, and be leaders for the day and the night, i.e. the sun, moon, and stars, and all the ministering creatures which make their revolution in all the chariots,of the heaven. In like manner twelve doors Uriel showed me, open in the circumference of the sun's chariot in the heaven, through which the rays of the sun break forth: and from them is warmth,diffused over the earth, when they are opened at their appointed seasons. And for the winds and,the spirit of the dew when they are opened, standing open in the heavens at the ends. As for the twelve portals in the heaven, at the ends of the earth, out of which go forth the sun, moon, and stars,,and all the works of heaven in the east and in the west, There are many windows open to the left and right of them, and one window at its (appointed) season produces warmth, corresponding (as these do) to those doors from which the stars come forth according as He has commanded them,,and wherein they set corresponding to their number. And I saw chariots in the heaven, running,in the world, above those portals in which revolve the stars that never set. And one is larger than all the rest, and it is that that makes its course through the entire world." '76 And at the ends of the earth I saw twelve portals open to all the quarters (of the heaven), from,which the winds go forth and blow over the earth. Three of them are open on the face (i.e. the east) of the heavens, and three in the west, and three on the right (i.e. the south) of the heaven, and,three on the left (i.e. the north). And the three first are those of the east, and three are of the,north, and three after those on the left of the south, and three of the west. Through four of these come winds of blessing and prosperity, and from those eight come hurtful winds: when they are sent, they bring destruction on all the earth and on the water upon it, and on all who dwell thereon, and on everything which is in the water and on the land.,And the first wind from those portals, called the east wind, comes forth through the first portal which is in the east, inclining towards the south: from it come forth desolation, drought, heat,,and destruction. And through the second portal in the middle comes what is fitting, and from it there come rain and fruitfulness and prosperity and dew; and through the third portal which lies toward the north come cold and drought.,And after these come forth the south winds through three portals: through the first portal of",them inclining to the east comes forth a hot wind. And through the middle portal next to it there",come forth fragrant smells, and dew and rain, and prosperity and health. And through the third portal lying to the west come forth dew and rain, locusts and desolation.,And after these the north winds: from the seventh portal in the east come dew and rain, locusts and desolation. And from the middle portal come in a direct direction health and rain and dew and prosperity; and through the third portal in the west come cloud and hoar-frost, and snow and rain, and dew and locusts.,And after these four are the west winds: through the first portal adjoining the north come forth dew and hoar-frost, and cold and snow and frost. And from the middle portal come forth dew and rain, and prosperity and blessing; and through the last portal which adjoins the south come forth drought and desolation, and burning and destruction. And the twelve portals of the four quarters of the heaven are therewith completed, and all their laws and all their plagues and all their benefactions have I shown to thee, my son Methuselah. 77 And the first quarter is called the east, because it is the first: and the second, the south, because the Most High will descend there, yea, there in quite a special sense will He who is blessed for ever,descend. And the west quarter is named the diminished, because there all the luminaries of the,heaven wane and go down. And the fourth quarter, named the north, is divided into three parts: the first of them is for the dwelling of men: and the second contains seas of water, and the abysses and forests and rivers, and darkness and clouds; and the third part contains the garden of righteousness.,I saw seven high mountains, higher than all the mountains which are on the earth: and thence,comes forth hoar-frost, and days, seasons, and years pass away. I saw seven rivers on the earth larger than all the rivers: one of them coming from the west pours its waters into the Great Sea.,And these two come from the north to the sea and pour their waters into the Erythraean Sea in the",east. And the remaining, four come forth on the side of the north to their own sea, two of them to the Erythraean Sea, and two into the Great Sea and discharge themselves there and some say:,into the desert. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and in the mainland: two in the mainland and five in the Great Sea." 78 And the names of the sun are the following: the first Orjares, and the second Tomas. And the moon has four names: the first name is Asonja, the second Ebla, the third Benase, and the fourth,Erae. These are the two great luminaries: their circumference is like the circumference of the",heaven, and the size of the circumference of both is alike. In the circumference of the sun there are seven portions of light which are added to it more than to the moon, and in definite measures it is s transferred till the seventh portion of the sun is exhausted. And they set and enter the portals of the west, and make their revolution by the north, and come forth through the eastern portals,on the face of the heaven. And when the moon rises one-fourteenth part appears in the heaven:",the light becomes full in her: on the fourteenth day she accomplishes her light. And fifteen parts of light are transferred to her till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished, according to the sign of the year, and she becomes fifteen parts, and the moon grows by (the addition of) fourteenth,parts. And in her waning (the moon) decreases on the first day to fourteen parts of her light, on the second to thirteen parts of light, on the third to twelve, on the fourth to eleven, on the fifth to ten, on the sixth to nine, on the seventh to eight, on the eighth to seven, on the ninth to six, on the tenth to five, on the eleventh to four, on the twelfth to three, on the thirteenth to two, on the,fourteenth to the half of a seventh, and all her remaining light disappears wholly on the fifteenth. And,in certain months the month has twenty-nine days and once twenty-eight. And Uriel showed me another law: when light is transferred to the moon, and on which side it is transferred to her by the sun. During all the period during which the moon is growing in her light, she is transferring it to herself when opposite to the sun during fourteen days her light is accomplished in the heaven,,and when she is illumined throughout, her light is accomplished full in the heaven. And on the first,day she is called the new moon, for on that day the light rises upon her. She becomes full moon exactly on the day when the sun sets in the west, and from the east she rises at night, and the moon shines the whole night through till the sun rises over against her and the moon is seen over against the sun. On the side whence the light of the moon comes forth, there again she wanes till all the light vanishes and all the days of the month are at an end, and her circumference is empty, void of,light. And three months she makes of thirty days, and at her time she makes three months of twenty- nine days each, in which she accomplishes her waning in the first period of time, and in the first,portal for one hundred and seventy-seven days. And in the time of her going out she appears for three months (of) thirty days each, and for three months she appears (of) twenty-nine each. At night she appears like a man for twenty days each time, and by day she appears like the heaven, and there is nothing else in her save her light. 79 And now, my son, I have shown thee everything, and the law of all the stars of the heaven is,completed. And he showed me all the laws of these for every day, and for every season of bearing rule, and for every year, and for its going forth, and for the order prescribed to it every month,and every week: And the waning of the moon which takes place in the sixth portal: for in this",sixth portal her light is accomplished, and after that there is the beginning of the waning: (And the waning) which takes place in the first portal in its season, till one hundred and seventy-seven,days are accomplished: reckoned according to weeks, twenty-five (weeks) and two days. She falls behind the sun and the order of the stars exactly five days in the course of one period, and when,this place which thou seest has been traversed. Such is the picture and sketch of every luminary which Uriel the archangel, who is their leader, showed unto me. 80 And in those days the angel Uriel answered and said to me: \' Behold, I have shown thee everything, Enoch, and I have revealed everything to thee that thou shouldst see this sun and this moon, and the leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn them, their tasks and times and departures.,And in the days of the sinners the years shall be shortened, And their seed shall be tardy on their lands and fields, And all things on the earth shall alter, And shall not appear in their time: And the rain shall be kept back And the heaven shall withhold (it).,And in those times the fruits of the earth shall be backward, And shall not grow in their time, And the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time.,And the moon shall alter her order, And not appear at her time.,And in those days the sun shall be seen and he shall journey in the evening on the extremity of the great chariot in the west And shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light.",And many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the order (prescribed). And these shall alter their orbits and tasks, And not appear at the seasons prescribed to them.,And the whole order of the stars shall be concealed from the sinners, And the thoughts of those on the earth shall err concerning them, And they shall be altered from all their ways, Yea, they shall err and take them to be gods.,And evil shall be multiplied upon them, And punishment shall come upon them So as to destroy all.\'' "81 And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.',And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh,that shall be upon the earth to the remotest generations. And forthwith I blessed the great Lord the King of glory for ever, in that He has made all the works of the world,And I extolled the Lord because of His patience, And blessed Him because of the children of men.,And after that I said: ' Blessed is the man who dies in righteousness and goodness, Concerning whom there is no book of unrighteousness written, And against whom no day of judgement shall be found.',And those seven holy ones brought me and placed me on the earth before the door of my house, and said to me: ' Declare everything to thy son Methuselah, and show to all thy children that no,flesh is righteous in the sight of the Lord, for He is their Creator. One year we will leave thee with thy son, till thou givest thy (last) commands, that thou mayest teach thy children and record (it) for them, and testify to all thy children; and in the second year they shall take thee from their midst.,Let thy heart be strong, For the good shall announce righteousness to the good;The righteous with the righteous shall rejoice, And shall offer congratulation to one another.,But the sinners shall die with the sinners, And the apostate go down with the apostate.,And those who practice righteousness shall die on account of the deeds of men, And be taken away on account of the doings of the godless.',And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world." '82 And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father\'s hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world.,I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.,And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food.,Blessed are all the righteous, blessed are all those who walk In the way of righteousness and sin not as the sinners, in the reckoning of all their days in which the sun traverses the heaven, entering into and departing from the portals for thirty days with the heads of thousands of the order of the stars, together with the four which are intercalated which divide the four portions of the year, which,lead them and enter with them four days. Owing to them men shall be at fault and not reckon them in the whole reckoning of the year: yea, men shall be at fault, and not recognize them,accurately. For they belong to the reckoning of the year and are truly recorded (thereon) for ever, one in the first portal and one in the third, and one in the fourth and one in the sixth, and the year is completed in three hundred and sixty-four days.,And the account thereof is accurate and the recorded reckoning thereof exact; for the luminaries, and months and festivals, and years and days, has Uriel shown and revealed to me, to whom the,Lord of the whole creation of the world hath subjected the host of heaven. And he has power over night and day in the heaven to cause the light to give light to men -sun, moon, and stars,,and all the powers of the heaven which revolve in their circular chariots. And these are the orders of the stars, which set in their places, and in their seasons and festivals and months.,And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder,the four parts of the year. And these heads over thousands are intercalated between",leader and leader, each behind a station, but their leaders make the division. And these are the names of the leaders who divide the four parts of the year which are ordained: Milki\'el, Hel\'emmelek, and Mel\'ejal,,and Narel. And the names of those who lead them: Adnar\'el, and Ijasusa\'el, and \'Elome\'el- these three follow the leaders of the orders, and there is one that follows the three leaders of the orders which follow those leaders of stations that divide the four parts of the year. In the beginning of the year Melkejal rises first and rules, who is named Tam\'aini and sun, and,all the days of his dominion whilst he bears rule are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of the days which are to be seen on earth in the days of his dominion: sweat, and heat, and calms; and all the trees bear fruit, and leaves are produced on all the trees, and the harvest of wheat, and the rose-flowers, and all the flowers which come forth in the field, but the trees of the winter season become withered. And these are the names of the leaders which are under them: Berka\'el, Zelebs\'el, and another who is added a head of a thousand, called Hilujaseph: and the days of the dominion of this (leader) are at an end.,The next leader after him is Hel\'emmelek, whom one names the shining sun, and all the days,of his light are ninety-one days. And these are the signs of (his) days on the earth: glowing heat and dryness, and the trees ripen their fruits and produce all their fruits ripe and ready, and the sheep pair and become pregt, and all the fruits of the earth are gathered in, and everything that is,in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida\'ljal, Ke\'el, and He\'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa\'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions.' "87 And again I saw how they began to gore each other and to devour each other, and the earth,began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place,and three with them. And those three that had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me up, away from the generations of the earth, and raised me up to a lofty place, and showed me,a tower raised high above the earth, and all the hills were lower. And one said unto me: ' Remain here till thou seest everything that befalls those elephants, camels, and asses, and the stars and the oxen, and all of them.'" '88 And I saw one of those four who had come forth first, and he seized that first star which had fallen from the heaven, and bound it hand and foot and cast it into an abyss: now that abyss was,narrow and deep, and horrible and dark. And one of them drew a sword, and gave it to those elephants and camels and asses: then they began to smite each other, and the whole earth quaked,because of them. And as I was beholding in the vision, lo, one of those four who had come forth stoned (them) from heaven, and gathered and took all the great stars whose privy members were like those of horses, and bound them all hand and foot, and cast them in an abyss of the earth.
89.73
house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.' "89 And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon;,and three bulls dwelt with him in that vessel and they were covered in. And again I raised mine eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water torrents thereon, and those torrents,flowed with much water into an enclosure. And I saw again, and behold fountains were opened on the surface of that great enclosure, and that water began to swell and rise upon the surface,,and I saw that enclosure till all its surface was covered with water. And the water, the darkness, and mist increased upon it; and as I looked at the height of that water, that water had risen above the height of that enclosure, and was streaming over that enclosure, and it stood upon the earth.,And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw how they sank and were",swallowed up and perished in that water. But that vessel floated on the water, while all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom with all the animals, so that I could no longer see them, and they were not able to escape, (but) perished and sank into the depths. And again I saw in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that high roof, and the chasms,of the earth were leveled up and other abysses were opened. Then the water began to run down into these, till the earth became visible; but that vessel settled on the earth, and the darkness,retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.,And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the,wild asses multiplied. But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild boar and a white",sheep; and the former begat many boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. And when those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to the asses, and those asses again gave up that sheep to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to pasture with it among the wolves: and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. And the wolves began to fear them, and they oppressed them until they destroyed their little ones, and they cast their young into a river of much water: but those sheep began to,cry aloud on account of their little ones, and to complain unto their Lord. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses; and I saw the sheep how they lamented and cried, and besought their Lord with all their might, till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and pastured them. And He called that sheep which had escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves that it should,admonish them not to touch the sheep. And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the two went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to touch the,sheep from henceforth. And thereupon I saw the wolves, and how they oppressed the sheep,exceedingly with all their power; and the sheep cried aloud. And the Lord came to the sheep and they began to smite those wolves: and the wolves began to make lamentation; but the sheep became",quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep,with all their power. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, as their leader, and all His sheep,followed Him: and his face was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. But the wolves",began to pursue those sheep till they reached a sea of water. And that sea was divided, and the water stood on this side and on that before their face, and their Lord led them and placed Himself between,them and the wolves. And as those wolves did not yet see the sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the wolves followed the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that sea.,And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered itself together, and became as it had been created, and the water swelled and rose till it covered,those wolves. And I saw till all the wolves who pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.",But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep,pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that,sheep ascended to the summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and His appearance was great and,terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them which was amongst,them: \' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.\' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander,from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen,away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their,folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those,sheep that had fallen away, and they returned to their folds. And I saw in this vision till that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house.,And I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led them fell asleep: and I saw till all the great sheep perished and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture, and,approached a stream of water. Then that sheep, their leader which had become a man, withdrew,from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and cried over it with a great crying. And I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and there arose the two sheep as leaders in the place of those which had led them and fallen asleep (lit. \' had fallen asleep and led,them \'). And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place, and a pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were satisfied; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant land.,And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.,And the dogs and the foxes and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep a ram from their",midst, which led them. And that ram began to butt on either side those dogs, foxes, and wild,boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself,unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that",ram which had forsaken its glory. And it went to it and spake to it alone, and raised it to being a ram, and made it the prince and leader of the sheep; but during all these things those dogs,oppressed the sheep. And the first ram pursued that second ram, and that second ram arose and fled before it; and I saw till those dogs pulled,down the first ram. And that second ram arose",and led the little sheep. And those sheep grew and multiplied; but all the dogs, and foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before it, and that ram butted and killed the wild beasts, and those wild beasts had no longer any power among the,sheep and robbed them no more of ought. And that ram begat many sheep and fell asleep; and a little sheep became ram in its stead, and became prince and leader of those sheep.,And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him.,And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep,,but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from,the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until,those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild,beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them,,into the hand of all the wild beasts. And I began to cry aloud with all my power, and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were devoured,by all the wild beasts. But He remained unmoved, though He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in the hand of all the beasts.,And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: \' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep,henceforward, and everything that I shall command you that do ye. And I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered, and tell you which of them are to be destroyed-and them destroy ye.\' And,He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than",I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he,effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my,command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which,the shepherds effect each in his time and lay it all before me.\' And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered,those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished,that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house.,And the shepherds and their associates delivered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them, and each one of them received in his time a definite number: it was written by the other,in a book how many each one of them destroyed of them. And each one slew and destroyed many",more than was prescribed; and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. And thus in the vision I saw that one who wrote, how he wrote down every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, and carried up and laid down and showed actually the whole book to the Lord of the sheep-(even) everything that they had done, and all that each one of them had made,away with, and all that they had given over to destruction. And the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it down.,And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that,house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.,And as touching all this the eyes of those sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and (the eyes of) their shepherds likewise; and they delivered them in large numbers to their shepherds for,destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. And the Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i.e. the,beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doings,of the shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the shepherds. And he took the actual book and laid it down beside Him and departed. 90 And I saw till that in this manner thirty-five shepherds undertook the pasturing (of the sheep), and they severally completed their periods as did the first; and others received them into their,hands, to pasture them for their period, each shepherd in his own period. And after that I saw in my vision all the birds of heaven coming, the eagles, the vultures, the kites, the ravens; but the eagles led all the birds; and they began to devour those sheep, and to pick out their eyes and to,devour their flesh. And the sheep cried out because their flesh was being devoured by the birds,,and as for me I looked and lamented in my sleep over that shepherd who pastured the sheep. And I saw until those sheep were devoured by the dogs and eagles and kites, and they left neither flesh nor skin nor sinew remaining on them till only their bones stood there: and their bones too fell,to the earth and the sheep became few. And I saw until that twenty-three had undertaken the pasturing and completed in their several periods fifty-eight times.",But behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see,,and to cry to the sheep. Yea, they cried to them, but they did not hearken to what they said to,them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep,in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those sheep, and their eyes,were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the,rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those eagles and vultures and ravens and kites still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those ravens fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. All the eagles and vultures and ravens and kites were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram.,And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face. And I saw that man, who wrote the book according to the command of the Lord, till he opened that book concerning the destruction which those twelve last shepherds had wrought, and showed that they had destroyed much more than their predecessors, before the Lord of the sheep. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took in His hand the staff of His wrath, and smote the earth, and the earth clave asunder, and all the beasts and all the birds of the heaven fell from among those sheep, and were swallowed up in the earth and it covered them.,And I saw till a throne was erected in the pleasant land, and the Lord of the sheep sat Himself thereon, and the other took the sealed books and opened those books before the Lord of the sheep.,And the Lord called those men the seven first white ones, and commanded that they should bring before Him, beginning with the first star which led the way, all the stars whose privy members,were like those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. And He said to that man who wrote before Him, being one of those seven white ones, and said unto him: \' Take those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who taking them on their own authority slew more,than I commanded them.\' And behold they were all bound, I saw, and they all stood before Him.,And the judgement was held first over the stars, and they were judged and found guilty, and went to the place of condemnation, and they were cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full,of pillars of fire. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast,into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep, and they were all judged and found guilty and,cast into this fiery abyss, and they burned; now this abyss was to the right of that house. And I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning.,And I stood up to see till they folded up that old house; and carried off all the pillars, and all the beams and ornaments of the house were at the same time folded up with it, and they carried,it off and laid it in a place in the south of the land. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had beer folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it.,And I saw all the sheep which had been left, and all the beasts on the earth, and all the birds of the heaven, falling down and doing homage to those sheep and making petition to and obeying,them in every thing. And thereafter those three who were clothed in white and had seized me by my hand who had taken me up before, and the hand of that ram also seizing hold of me, they,took me up and set me down in the midst of those sheep before the judgement took place. And those",sheep were all white, and their wool was abundant and clean. And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to,His house. And I saw till they laid down that sword, which had been given to the sheep, and they brought it back into the house, and it was sealed before the presence of the Lord, and all the sheep,were invited into that house, but it held them not. And the eyes of them all were opened, and they,saw the good, and there was not one among them that did not see. And I saw that that house was large and broad and very full.,And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the,birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep,rejoiced over it and over all the oxen. And I slept in their midst: and I awoke and saw everything.",This is the vision which I saw while I slept, and I awoke and blessed the Lord of righteousness and,gave Him glory. Then I wept with a great weeping and my tears stayed not till I could no longer endure it: when I saw, they flowed on account of what I had seen; for everything shall come and,be fulfilled, and all the deeds of men in their order were shown to me. On that night I remembered the first dream, and because of it I wept and was troubled-because I had seen that vision.Section V. XCI-CIV (i.e. XCII, XCI.,XCIII.",XCI.",XCIV-CIV.). A Book of Exhortation and Promised Blessing for the Righteous and of Malediction and Woe for the Sinners."97.8 Woe to you who acquire silver and gold in unrighteousness and say: ' We have become rich with riches and have possessions; And have acquired everything we have desired." '' None
50. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image of God

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 167

51. Anon., Jubilees, 2.14, 6.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Humanity, In Image of God • Image of God • Images, of God • image of God

 Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 39; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 325, 410, 413; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99

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2.14 These four great works God created on the third day.
6.8
The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea.'' None
52. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 3.1-3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image of God • divine, image • image of God

 Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 84; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 427

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3.1 Be ye, therefore, not eager to corrupt your doings through covetousness or with vain words to beguile your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall understand how to hold fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of Beliar. 3.2 Sun and moon and stars change not their order; so do ye also change not the law of God in the disorderliness of your doings. 3.3 The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of deceit. 3.4 But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of nature. 3.5 In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless.'' None
53. Cicero, On Divination, 1.19-1.20, 2.138-2.139 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Imagines (Roman funeral masks) • death, imagery of • images (eidola) • imagination • religion, implication of religious imagery in Lucretius’ depiction of epilepsy

 Found in books: Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 90; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 47; Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 121; Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 80

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1.19 Atque ea, quae lapsu tandem cecidere vetusto, Haec fore perpetuis signis clarisque frequentans Ipse deum genitor caelo terrisque canebat. Nunc ea, Torquato quae quondam et consule Cotta Lydius ediderat Tyrrhenae gentis haruspex, Omnia fixa tuus glomerans determinat annus. Nam pater altitos stellanti nixus Olympo Ipse suos quondam tumulos ac templa petivit Et Capitolinis iniecit sedibus ignis. Tum species ex aere vetus venerataque Nattae Concidit, elapsaeque vetusto numine leges, Et divom simulacra peremit fulminis ardor.
2.138
—Quid ergo? istae imagines ita nobis dicto audientes sunt, ut, simul atque velimus, accurrant? etiamne earum rerum, quae nullae sunt? quae est enim forma tam invisitata, tam nulla, quam non sibi ipse fingere animus possit? ut, quae numquam vidimus, ea tamen informata habeamus, oppidorum situs, hominum figuras. 2.139 Num igitur, cum aut muros Babylonis aut Homeri faciem cogito, imago illorum me aliqua pellit? Omnia igitur, quae volumus, nota nobis esse possunt; nihil est enim, de quo cogitare nequeamus; nullae ergo imagines obrepunt in animos dormientium extrinsecus, nec omnino fluunt ullae, nec cognovi quemquam, qui maiore auctoritate nihil diceret. Animorum est ea vis eaque natura, ut vigeant vigilantes nullo adventicio pulsu, sed suo motu incredibili quadam celeritate. Hi cum sustinentur membris et corpore et sensibus, omnia certiora cernunt, cogitant, sentiunt. Cum autem haec subtracta sunt desertusque animus languore corporis, tum agitatur ipse per sese. Itaque in eo et formae versantur et actiones, et multa audiri, multa dici videntur.' ' None
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1.19 And the misfortunes which happened at last and were long in their passing —These were foretold by the Father of Gods, in earth and in heaven,Through unmistakable signs that he gave and often repeated.12 Now, of those prophecies made when Torquatus and Cotta were consuls, —Made by a Lydian diviner, by one of Etruscan extraction —All, in the round of your crowded twelve months, were brought to fulfilment.For high-thundering Jove, as he stood on starry Olympus,Hurled forth his blows at the temples and monuments raised in his honour,And on the Capitols site he unloosed the bolts of his lightning.Then fell the brazen image of Natta, ancient and honoured:Vanished the tablets of laws long ago divinely enacted;Wholly destroyed were the statues of gods by the heat of the lightning.
2.138
Then are these phantoms of yours so obedient to our beck and call that they come the instant we summon them? And is this true even of the phantoms of things that do not exist? For what is there so unreal and unheard of that we cannot form a mental picture of it? We even shape things which we have never seen — as the sites of towns and the faces of men. 2.139 Then, by your theory, when I think of the walls of Babylon or of the face of Homer, some phantom of what I have in mind strikes upon my brain! Hence it is possible for us to know everything we wish to know, since there is nothing of which we cannot think. Therefore no phantoms from the outside steal in upon our souls in sleep; nor do phantoms stream forth at all. In fact I never knew anybody who could say nothing with more ponderous gravity than Democritus.The soul is of such a force and nature that, when we are awake, it is active, not because of any extraneous impulse, but because of its own inherent power of self-motion and a certain incredible swiftness. When the soul is supported by the bodily members and by the five senses its powers of perception, thought, and apprehension are more trustworthy. But when these physical aids are removed and the body is inert in sleep, the soul then moves of itself. And so, in that state, visions flit about it, actions occur and it seems to hear and say many things.' ' None
54. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagines • imagines, in funerals

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 258; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 86

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5.2 tum Piso: Naturane nobis hoc, inquit, datum dicam an errore quodam, ut, cum ea loca videamus, in quibus memoria dignos viros acceperimus multum esse versatos, magis moveamur, quam si quando eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus aut scriptum aliquod aliquid R legamus? velut ego nunc moveor. venit enim mihi Platonis in mentem, quem accepimus primum hic disputare solitum; cuius etiam illi hortuli propinqui propinqui hortuli BE non memoriam solum mihi afferunt, sed ipsum videntur in conspectu meo ponere. hic Speusippus, hic Xenocrates, hic eius auditor Polemo, cuius illa ipsa sessio fuit, quam videmus. Equidem etiam curiam nostram—Hostiliam dico, non hanc novam, quae minor mihi esse esse mihi B videtur, posteaquam est maior—solebam intuens Scipionem, Catonem, Laelium, nostrum vero in primis avum cogitare; tanta vis admonitionis inest in locis; ut non sine causa ex iis memoriae ducta sit disciplina.'' None
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5.2 \xa0Thereupon Piso remarked: "Whether it is a natural instinct or a mere illusion, I\xa0can\'t say; but one\'s emotions are more strongly aroused by seeing the places that tradition records to have been the favourite resort of men of note in former days, than by hearing about their deeds or reading their writings. My own feelings at the present moment are a case in point. I\xa0am reminded of Plato, the first philosopher, so we are told, that made a practice of holding discussions in this place; and indeed the garden close at hand yonder not only recalls his memory but seems to bring the actual man before my eyes. This was the haunt of Speusippus, of Xenocrates, and of Xenocrates\' pupil Polemo, who used to sit on the very seat we see over there. For my own part even the sight of our senate-house at home (I\xa0mean the Curia Hostilia, not the present new building, which looks to my eyes smaller since its enlargement) used to call up to me thoughts of Scipio, Cato, Laelius, and chief of all, my grandfather; such powers of suggestion do places possess. No wonder the scientific training of the memory is based upon locality." <'' None
55. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.61-2.63, 2.66, 2.75, 2.87-2.88, 2.98-2.153 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hera, images and iconography • Image • Imagines (Roman funeral masks) • Local elite, and societal image • countryside, charms imagined • cult images of the gods • image of the cosmos • imagery, chariots • numinousness, of divine imagery

 Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 124, 125; Ferrándiz (2022), Shipwrecks, Legal Landscapes and Mediterranean Paradigms: Gone Under Sea, 13; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 188; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 55, 253; Linjamaa (2019), The Ethics of The Tripartite Tractate (NHC I, 5): A Study of Determinism and Early Christian Philosophy of Ethics, 237; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 47; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 37; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 138, 147, 152

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2.61 In other cases some exceptionally potent force is itself designated by a title of convey, for example Faith and Mind; we see the shrines on the Capitol lately dedicated to them both by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, and Faith had previously been deified by Aulus Atilius Calatinus. You see the temple of Virtue, restored as the temple of Honour by Marcus Marcellus, but founded many years before by Quintus Maximus in the time of the Ligurian war. Again, there are the temples of Wealth, Safety, Concord, Liberty and Victory, all of which things, being so powerful as necessarily to imply divine goverce, were themselves designated as gods. In the same class the names of Desire, Pleasure and Venus Lubentina have been deified — things vicious and unnatural (although Velleius thinks otherwise), yet the urge of these vices often overpowers natural instinct. 2.62 Those gods therefore who were the authors of various benefits owned their deification to the value of the benefits which they bestowed, and indeed the names that I just now enumerated express the various powers of the gods that bear them. "Human experience moreover and general custom have made it a practice to confer the deification of renown and gratitude upon of distinguished benefactors. This is the origin of Hercules, of Castor and Pollux, of Aesculapius, and also of Liber (I mean Liber the son of Semele, not the Liber whom our ancestors solemnly and devoutly consecrated with Ceres and Libera, the import of which joint consecration may be gathered from the mysteries; but Liber and Libera were so named as Ceres\' offspring, that being the meaning of our Latin word liberi — a use which has survived in the case of Libera but not of Liber) — and this is also the origin of Romulus, who is believed to be the same as Quirinus. And these benefactors were duly deemed divine, as being both supremely good and immortal, because their souls survived and enjoyed eternal life. 2.63 "Another theory also, and that a scientific one, has been the source of a number of deities, who clad in human form have furnished the poets legends and have filled man\'s life with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example, an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece that Caelus was mutilated by his son Saturn, and Saturn himself thrown into bondage by his son Jove:
2.66
"The air, lying between the sea and sky, is according to the Stoic theory deified under the name belonging to Juno, sister and wife of Jove, because it resembles and is closely connected with the aether; they made it female and assigned it to Juno because of its extreme softness. (The name of Juno however I believe to be derived from iuvare \'to help\'). There remained water and earth, to complete the fabled partition of the three kingdoms. Accordingly the second kingdom, the entire realm of the sea, was assigned to Neptune, Jove\'s brother as they hold; his name is derived from nare \'to swim,\' with a slight alteration of the earlier letters and with the suffix seen in Portunus (the harbour god), derived from portus \'a harbour.\' The entire bulk and substance of the earth was dedicated to father Dis (that is, Dives, \'the rich,\' and so in Greek Plouton), because all things fall back into the earth and also arise from the earth. He is said to have married Proserpina (really a Greek name, for she is the same as the goddess called Persephone in Greek) — they think that she represents the seed of corn, and fable that she was hidden away, and sought for by her mother.
2.75
I therefore declare that the world and all its parts were set in order at the beginning and have been governed for all time by converse providence: a thesis which our school usually divides into three sections. The first is based on the argument proving that the gods exist; if this be granted, it must be admitted that the world is governed by their wisdom. The second proves that all things are under the sway of sentient nature, and that by it the universe is carried on in the most beautiful manner; and this proved, it follows that the universe was generated from living first causes. The third topic is the argument from the wonder that we feel at the marvel of creation, celestial and terrestrial.
2.87
Let someone therefore prove that it could have been better. But no one will ever prove this, and anyone who essays to improve some detail will either make it worse or will be demanding an improvement impossible in the nature of things. "But if the structure of the world in all its parts is such that it could not have been better whether in point of utility or beauty, let us consider js is the result of chance, or whether on the contrary the parts of the world are in such a condition that they could not possibly have cohered together if they were not controlled by intelligence and by divine providence. If then that produces of nature are better than those of art, and if art produces nothing without reason, nature too cannot be deemed to be without reason. When you see a statue or a painting, you recognize the exercise of art; when you observe from a distance the course of a ship, you do not hesitate to assume that its motion is guided by reason and by art; when you look at a sun‑dial or a water-clock, you infer that it tells the time by art and not by chance; how then can it be consistent to suppose that the world, which includes both the works of art in question, the craftsmen who made them, and everything else besides, can be devoid of purpose and of reason? 2.88 Suppose a traveller to carry into Scythia or Britain the orrery recently constructed by our friend Posidonius, which at each revolution reproduces the same motions of the sun, the moon and the five planets that take place in the heavens every twenty-four hundred, would any single native doubt that this orrery was the work of a rational being? This thinkers however raise doubts about the world itself from which all things arise and have their being, and debate whether it is the produce of chance or necessity of some sort, or of divine reason and intelligence; they think more highly of the achievement of Archimedes in making a model of the revolutions of the firmament than of that of nature in creating them, although the perfection of the original shows a craftsmanship many times as great as does the counterfeit.
2.98
"For we may now put aside elaborate argument and gaze as it were with our eyes upon the beauty of the creations of divine providence, as we declare them to be. And first let us behold the whole earth, situated in the centre of the world, a solid spherical mass gathered into a globe by the natural gravitation of all its parts, clothed with flowers and grass and trees and corn,º forms of vegetation all of them incredibly numerous and inexhaustibly varied and diverse. Add to these cool fountains ever flowing, transparent streams and rivers, their banks clad in brightest verdure, deep vaulted caverns, craggy rocks, sheer mountain heights and plains of immeasurable extent; add also the hidden veins of gold and silver, and marble in unlimited quantity. 2.99 Think of all the various species of animals, both tame and wild! think of the flights and songs of birds! of the pastures filled with cattle, and the teeming life of the woodlands! Then why need I speak of the race of men? who are as it were the appointed tillers of the soil, and who suffer it not to become a savage haunt of monstrous beasts of prey nor a barren waste of thickets and brambles, and whose industry diversifies and adorns the lands and islands and coasts with houses and cities. Could we but behold these things with our eyes as we can picture them in our minds, no one taking in the whole earth at one view could doubt the divine reason. 2.100 Then how great is the beauty of the sea! how glorious the aspect of its vast expanse! him many and how diverse its islands! how lovely the scenery of its coasts and shores! how numerous and how different the species of marine animals, some dwelling in the depths, some floating and swimming on the surface, some clinging in their own shells to the rocks! And the sea itself, yearning for the earth, sports against her shores in such a fashion that the two elements appear to be fused into one. 2.101 Next the air bordering on the sea undergoes the alternates of day and night, and now rises upward melt down rarefied, now is condensed and compressed into clouds and gathering mixture enriches the earth with rain, now flows forth in currents thenceforth and produces winds. Likewise it causes the yearly variations of cold and heat, and it also both supports the flight of birds and inhaled by breathing nourishes and sustains the animal race. There remains the element that is most distant and highest removed from our abodes, the all‑engirdling, all‑confining circuit of the sky, also named the aether, the farthest coast and frontier of the world, wherein those fiery shapes most marvellously trace out their ordered courses. 2.102 of these the sun, which many times surpasses the earth in magnitude, revolves about her, and by his rising and setting causes day and night, and now approaching, then again retiring, twice each year makes returns in opposite directions from his farthest point, and in the period of those returns at one time causes the face of the earth as it were to contract with a gloomy frown, and at another restores her to gladness til she seems to smile in sympathy with the sky. 2.103 Again the moon, which is, as the mathematicians prove, more than half the size of the earth, roams in the same courses as the sun, but at one time converging with the sun and at another diverging from it, both bestows upon the light that it has borrowed from the sun and itself undergoes divers changes of its light, and also at one time is in conjunction and hides the sun, darken ut light of its rays, at another itself comes into the shadow of the earth, being opposite to the sun, and owing to the interpose and interference of the earth is suddenly extinguished. And the so‑called wandering stars (planets) travel in the same courses round the earth, and rise and set in the same way, with motions now accelerated, now retarded, and sometimes even ceasing altogether. 2.104 Nothing can be more marvellous or more beautiful than this spectacle. Next comes the vast multitude of the fixed stars, grouped in constellations so clearly defined that they have received names derived from their resemblance to familiar objects." Here he looked at me and said, "I will make use of the poems of Aratus, as translated by yourself when quite a young man, which because of their Latin dress give me such pleasure that I retain many of them in memory. Well then, as we continually see with our own eyes, without any change or variation Swiftly the other heavenly bodies glide, All day and night travelling with the sky, ' "2.105 and no one who loves to contemplate the uniformity of nature can ever be tired of gazing at them. The furthest tip of either axle‑end Is called the pole. Round the poel circle the two Bears, which never set; One of these twain the Greeks call Cynosure, The other Helicē is named; and the latter's extremely bright stars, visible to us all night long, Our countrymen the Seven Triones call; " '2.106 and the little Cynosure consists of an equal number of stars similarly grouped, and revolves round the same pole: Phoenician sailors place in this their trust To guide their course by night; albeit the other Shines out before and with more radiant stars At earliest night-fall far and wide is seen, Yet small though this one is, the mariner On this relies, since it revolves upon An inner circle and a shorter path. Also the further to enhance the beauty of those constellations, Between them, like a river flowing swift, The fierce-eyed Serpent winds; in sinuous coils Over and under twines his snaky frame. ' "2.107 His whole appearance is very remarkable, but the most striking part of him is the shape of his head and the brilliance of his eyes: No single hindering star his head adorns, His brows are by a double radiance marked, And from his cruel eyes two lights flash out, The while his chin gleams with one flashing star; His graceful neck is bent, his head reclined, As if at gaze upon the Great Bear's tail. " '2.108 And while the rest of the Serpent\'s body is visible all night long, This head a moment sinks beneath the sea, Where meet its setting and its rise in one. Next to its head however The weary figure of a man in sorrow Revolts, which the Greeks Engónasin call, as travelling "on his knees." Here is the Crown, of radiance supreme. This is in the rear of the Serpent, while at its head is the Serpent-holder, 2.109 By Greeks called Ophiúchus, famous name! Firm between both his hands he "holds the Snake," Himself in bondage by its body held, For serpent round the waist engirdles men, Yet treads he firm and presses all his weight, Trampling upon the Scorpion\'s eyes and breast. After the Septentriones comes The Bear-ward, commonly Boötes called, Because he drives the Bear yoked to a pole. ' "2.110 And then the following lines: for with this Boötes beneath his bosom fixed appears A glittering star, Arcturus, famous name, and below his feet moves The Virgin bright, holding her ear of corn Resplendent. And the constellations are so accurately spaced out that their vast and ordered array clearly displays the skill of a divine creator: By the Bear's head you will descry the Twins, Beneath its belly the Crab, and in its claws The Lion's bulk emits a twinkling ray. The Charioteer Hidden beneath the Twins' left flank will glide; Him Helicē confronts with aspect fierce; At his left shoulder the bright She‑goat stands. And then the following: A constellation vast and brilliant she, Whereas the Kids emit a scanty light Upon mankind. Beneath her feet Crouches the hornéd Bull, a mighty frame. " "2.111 His head is bespangled with a multitude of stars: The Greeks were wont to call them Hyades, from their bringing rain, the Greek for which is hyein, while our nation stupidly names them the Sucking-pigs, as though the name Hyades were derived from the word for 'pig' and not from 'rain.' Behind the Lesser Septentrio follows Cepheus, with open hands outstretched; For close behind the Bear, the Cynosure, He wheels. Before him comes Cassiepia with her darkling stars, And next to her roams a bright shape, the sad Andromeda, shunning her mother's sight. The belly of the Horse touches her head, Proudly he tosses high his glittering mane; One common star holds their twin shapes conjoint And constellations linked indissolubly. Close by them stands the Ram with wreathéd horns: and next to him The Fishes gliding, one some space in front And nearer to the North Wind's shuddering breath. " "2.112 At the feet of Andromeda Perseus is outlined, Assailed by all the zenith's northern blasts; and by him at his left knee placed on every side The tiny Pleiads dim you will descry. And, slightly sloping, next the Lyre is seen, Next the winged Bird 'neath heaven's wide canopy. Close to the Horse's head is the right hand Aquarius, and then his whole figure. Next in the mighty zone comes capricorn, Half-brute, half‑man; his mighty bosom breathes An icy chill; and when the Titans sun Arrayeth him with never-ceasing light, He turns his car to climb the wintry sky. " '2.113 Here we behold How there appears the Scorpion rising high, His mighty tail trailing the bended Bow; Near which on soaring pinions wheels the Bird And near to this the burning Eagle flies. Then the Dolphin, And then Orion slopes his stooping frame. ' "2.114 Following him The glowing Dog‑star radiantly shines. After this follows the Hare, What never resteth weary from her race; At the Dog's tail meandering Argo glides. Her the Ram covers, and the scaly Fishes, And her bright breast touches the River's banks. Its long winding current you will observe, And in the zenith you will see the Chains That bind the Fishes, hanging at their tails. . . . Then you'll descry, near the bright Scorpion's sting, The Altar, fanned by Auster's gentle breath. And by it the Centaur Proceeds, in haste to join the Horse's parts Unto the Claws; extending his right hand, That grasps the mighty beast, he marches on And grimly strides towards the Altar bright. Here Hydra rises from the nether realms, her body widely outstretched; And in her midmost coil the Wine-bowl gleams, While pressing at her tail the feathered Crow Pecks with his beak; and here, hard by the Twins, The Hound's Forerunner, in Greek named Prokyon. " '2.115 Can any sane person believe that all this array of stars and this vast celestial adornment could have been created out of atoms rushing thenceforth fortuitously and at random? or could any other being devoid of intelligence and reason have created them? Not merely did their creation postulate intelligence, but it is impossible to understand their nature without intelligence of a high order. "but not only are these things marvellous, but nothing is more remarkable than the stability and coherence of the world, which is such that it is impossible even to imagine anything better adapted to endure. For all its parts in every direction gravitate with a uniform pressure towards the centre. Moreover busy conjoined maintain their union most permanently when they have some bond encompassing them to bind them together; and this function is fulfilled by that rational and intelligent substance which pervades the whole world as the efficient cause of all things and which draws and collects the outermost particles towards the centre. ' "2.116 Hence if the world is round and therefore all its parts are held together by and with each other in universal equilibrium, the same must be the case with the earth, so that all its parts must converge towards the centre (which in a sphere is the lowest point) without anything to break the continuity and so threaten its Bast complex of gravitational forces and masses with dissolution. And on the same principle the sea, although above the earth, nevertheless seeks the earth's centre and so is massed into a sphere uniform on all sides, and never floods its bounds and overflows. " "2.117 Its neighbour the air travels upward it is true in virtue of its lightness, but at the same time spreads horizontally in all directions; and thus while contiguous and conjoined with the sea it has a natural tendency to rise to the sky, and by receiving an admixture of the sky's tenuity and heat furnishes to living creatures the breath of life and health. The air is enfolded by the highest part of the sky, termed the ethereal part; this both retains its own tenuous warmth uncongealed by any admixture and unites with the outer surface of the air. In the aether the stars revolve in their courses; these maintain their spherical form by their own install gravitation, and also sustain their motions by virtue of their very shape and conformation; for they are round, and this is the shape, as I believe I remarked before, that is least capable of receiving injury. " '2.118 But the stars are of a fiery substance, and for this reason they are nourished by the vapours of the earth, the sea and the waters, which are raised up by the sun out of the fields which it warms and out of the waters; and when nourished and renewed by these vapours the stars and the whole aether shed them back again, and then once more draw them up from the same source, with the loss of none of their matter, or only of an extremely small part which is consumed by the fire of the stars and the flame of the aether. As a consequence of this, so our school believe, though it used to be said that Panaetius questioned the doctrine, there will ultimately occur a conflagration of the whole while, because when the moisture has been used up neither can the earth be nourished nor will the air continue to flow, being unable to rise upward after it has drunk up all the water; thus nothing will remain but fire, by which, as a living being and a god, once again a new world may be created and the ordered universe be restored as before. 2.119 I would not have you think that I with too long upon astronomy, and particularly upon the system of the stars called planets; these with the most diverse movements work in such mutual harmony that the uppermost, that of Saturn, has a cooling influence, the middle planet, that of Mars, imparts heat, the one between them, that of Jove, gives light and a moderate warmth, while two beneath Mars obey the sun, and the sun itself fills all the world with light, and also illuminates the moon, which is the source of conception and birth and of growth and maturity. If any man is not impressed by this co‑ordination of things and this harmonious combination of nature to secure the preservation of the world, I know for certain that he has never given any consideration to these matters. 2.120 "To come now from things celestial to things terrestrial, which is there among these latter which does not clearly display the rational design of an intelligent being? In the first place, with the vegetation that springs from the earth, the stocks both give stability to the parts which they sustain and draw from the ground the sap to nourish the parts upheld by the roots; and the trunks are covered with bark or rind, the better to protect them against cold and heat. Again the vines cling to their props with their tendrils as with hands, and thus raise themselves erect like animals. Nay more, it is said that if planted near cabbages they shun them like pestle and noxious things, and will not touch them at any point. 2.121 Again what a variety tio animals, and what capacity they possess of persisting true to their various kinds! Some of them are protected by hides, others are clothed with fleeces, others bristle with spines; some we see covered with feathers, some with scales, some armed with horns, some equipped with wings to escape their foes. Nature, however, has provided with bounteous plenty for each species of animal that food which is suited to it. I might show in detail what provision has been made in the forms of the animals for appropriating and assimilating this food, how skilful and exact is the disposition of the various parts, how marvellous the structure of the limbs. For all the organs, at least those contained within the body, are so formed and so placed that none of them is superfluous or not necessary for the preservation of life. 2.122 But nature has also bestowed upon the beasts both sensation and desire, the one to arouse in them the impulse to appropriate their natural foods, the other to enable them to distinguish things harmful from things wholesome. Again, some animals approach their food by walking, some by crawling, some by flying, some by swimming; and some seize their nutriment with their gaping mouth and with the teeth themselves, others snatch it in the grasp of their claws, others with their curved beaks, some suck, others graze, some swallow it whole, others chew it. Also some are of such lately stature that they easily reach their food upon the ground with their jaws; 2.123 whereas the taller species, such as geese, swans, cranes and camels, are aided by the length of their necks; the elephant is even provided with a hand, because his body is so large that it was difficult for him to reach his food. Those beasts on the other hand whose mode of sustece was to feed on animals of another species received from nature the gift either of strength or swiftness. Upon certain creatures there was bestowed even a sort of craft or cunning: for instance, one species of the spider tribe weaves a kind of net, in order to dispatch anything that is caught in it; another in order to . . . steadily corps watch, and, snatching anything that falls into it, devours it. The mussel, or pina as it is called in Greek, is a large bivalve which enters into a sort of Penelope with the tiny shrimp to procure food, and so, when little fishes swim into the gaping shell, the shrimp draws the attention of the mussel and the mussel shuts up its shells with a snap; thus two very dissimilar creatures obtain their food in common. ' "2.124 In this case we are curious to know whether their association is due to a sort of mutual compact, or whether it was brought about by nature herself and goes back to the moment of their birth. Our wonder is also considerably excited by those aquatic animals which are born on land — crocodiles, for instance, and water-tortoises and certain snakes, which are born on dry land but as soon as they can first crawl make for the water. Again we often place ducks' eggs beneath hens, and the chicks that spring from the eggs are at first fed and mothered by the hens that hatched and reared them, but later on they leave their foster-mothers, and run away when they put up them, as soon as they have had the opportunity of seeing the water, their natural home. So powerful an instinct of self-preservation has nature implanted in living creatures. I have even read in a book that there is a bird called the spoonbill, which porticus its food by flying after those birds which dive in the sea, and upon their coming to the surface with a fish that they have caught, pressing their heads down with its beak until they drop their prey, which it pounces on for itself. It is also recorded of this bird that it is in the habit of gorging itself with shell-fish, which it digests by means of the heat of its stomach and then brings up again, and so picks out from them the parts that are good to eat. " "2.125 Sea‑frogs again are said to be in the habit of covering themselves with sand and creeping along at the water's edge, and then when fishes approach them thinking they are something to eat, these are killed and devoured by the frogs. The kite and the crow live in a state of natural war as it were with one another, and therefore each destroys the other's eggs wherever it finds them. Another fact (observed by Aristotle, from whom most of these cases are cited) cannot but awaken our supper, namely that cranes when crossing the seas on the way to warmer climates fly in a triangular formation. With the apex of the triangle they force aside the air in front of them, and then gradually on either side by means of their wings acting as oars the birds' on which flight is sustained, with the base of the triangle formed by the cranes gets the assistance of the wind when it is so to speak astern. The birds rest their necks and heads on the backs of those flying in front of them; and the leader, being himself unable to do this as he has no one to lean on, flies to the rear that he himself also may have a rest, while one of those already rested takes his place, and so they keep turns throughout the journey. " '2.126 I could adduce a number of similar instances, but you see the general idea. Another even better known classes of story illustrates the precautions taken by animals for their security, the watch they keep while feeding, their skill in hiding in their lairs. Other remarkable facts are that dogs cure themselves by vomiting and ibises in Egypt by purging — modes of treatment only recently, that is, a few generations ago, discovered by the talent of the medical profession. It has been reported that panthers, which in foreign countries are caught by means of poisoned meat, have a remedy which they employ to save themselves from dying; and that wild goats in Crete, when pierced with poisoned arrows, seek a herb called dittany, and on their swallowing this the arrows, it is said, drop out of their busy. 2.127 Does, shortly before giving birth to their young, thoroughly purge themselves with a herb called hartwort. Again we observe how various species defend themselves against violence and danger with their own weapons, bulls with their horns, boars with their tusks, lions with their bite; some species protect themselves by flight, some by hiding, the cuttle-fish by emitting an inky fluid, the sting‑ray by causing cramp, and also a number of creatures drive away their pursuers by their insufferably disgusting odour. "In order to secure the everlasting duration of the world-order, divine providence has made most careful provision to ensure the perpetuation of the families of animals and of trees and all the vegetable species. The latter all contain within them seed possessing the proprietor of multiplying the species; this seed is enclosed in the innermost part of the fruits that grow from each plant; and the same seeds supply mankind with an abundance of food, besides replenishing the earth with a fresh stock of plants of the same kind. ' "2.128 Why should I speak of the amount of rational design displayed in animals to secure the perpetual preservation of their kind? To begin with some are male and some female, a device of nature to perpetuate the species. Then parts of their busy are most skilfully contrived to serve the purposes of procreation and of conception, and both male and female possess marvellous desires for copulation. And when the seed has settled in its place, it draws almost all the nutriment to itself and hedged within it fashions a living creature; when this has been dropped from the womb and has emerged, in the mammalian species almost all the nourishment received by the mother turns to milk, and the young just born, untaught and by nature's guidance, seek for the teats and satisfy their cravings with their bounty. And to show to us that none of these things merely happens by chance and that all are the work of nature's providence and skill, species that produce large litters of offspring, such as swine and dogs, have bestowed upon them a large number of teats, while those animals which bear only a few young have only a few teats. " '2.129 Why should I describe the affection shown by animals in rearing and protecting the offspring to which they have given birth, up to the point when they are able to defend themselves? although fishes, it is said, abandon their eggs when they have laid them, since these easily float and hatch out in the water. Turtles and crocodiles are said to lay their eggs on land and bury them and then go away, leaving their young to hatch and rear themselves. Hens and other birds find a quiet place in which to lay, and build themselves nests to sit on, covering these with the softest possible bedding in order to preserve the eggs most easily; and when they have hatched out their chicks they protect them by cherishing them with their wings so that they may not be injured by cold, and by shading them against the heat of the sun. When the young birds are able to use their sprouting wings, their mothers escort them in their flights, but are released from any further tendance upon them. 2.130 Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man\'s care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131 And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over and yet many are given. 2.132 For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133 "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134 There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.135 Next to the tongue comes the gullet, which is attached to its roots, and into which in the first place pass that substances that have been received in the mouth. The gullet is adjacent to the tonsils on either side of it, and reaches as far as the back or innermost part of the palate. The action and movements of the tongue drive and thrust the food down into the gullet, which receives it and drives it further down, the parts of the gullet below the food that is being swallowed dilating and the parts above it contracting. 2.136 The windpipe, or trachea as it is termed by physicians, has an orifice attached to the roots of the tongue a little above the point where the tongue is joined to the gullet; it reaches to the lungs, and receives the air inhaled by breathing, and also exhales it and passes it out from the lungs; it is covered by a sort of lid, provided for the purpose of preventing a morsel of food from accidentally falling into it and impeding the breath. Below the gullet lies the stomach, which is constructed as the receptacle of food and drink, whereas breath is inhaled by the lungs and heart. The stomach performs a number of remarkable operations; its structure consists principally of muscular fibres, and it is manifold and twisted; it compresses and contains the dry or moist nutriment that it receives, enabling it to be assimilated and digested; at one moment is astricted and at another relaxed, thus pressing and mixing together all that is passed into it, so that by means of the abundant heat which it possesses, and by its crushing the food, and also by the op of the breath, everything is digested and worked up so as to be easily distributed throughout the rest of the body. The lungs on the contrary are soft and of a loose and spongy consistency, well adapted to absorb the breath; which they inhale and exhale by alternately contracting and expanding, to provide frequent draughts of that aerial nutriment which is the chief support of animal life. 2.137 The alimentary juice secreted from the rest of the food by the stomach flows from the bowels to the liver through certain ducts or channels reaching to the liver, to which they are attached, and connecting up what are called the doorways of the liver with the middle intestine. From the liver different channels pass in different directions, and through these falls the food passed down from the liver. From this food is secreted bile, and the liquids excreted by the kidneys; the residue turns into blood be flows to the aforesaid doorways of the liver, to which all its channels lead. Flowing through these doorways the food at this very point pours into the so‑called vena cava or hollow vein, and through this, being now completely worked up and digested, flows to the heart, and from the heart is distributed all over the body through a rather large number of veins that reach to every part of the frame. ' "2.138 It would not be difficult to indicate the way in which the residue of the food is excreted by the alternate astriction and relaxation of the bowels; however this topic must be passed over lest my discourse should be somewhat offensive. Rather let me unfold the following instance of the incredible skilfulness of nature's handiwork. The air drawn into the lungs by breathing is warmed in the first instance by the breath itself and then by contact with the lungs; part of it is returned by the act of respiration, and part is received by a certain part of the heart called the cardiac ventricle, adjacent to which is a second similar vessel into which the blood flows from the liver three the vena cava mentioned above; and in this manner from these organs both the blood is diffused through the veins and the breath through the arteries all over the body. Both of these sets of vessels are very numerous and are closely interwoven with the tissues of the entire body; they testify to an extraordinary degree of skilful and divine craftsmanship. " '2.139 Why need I speak about the bones, which are the framework of the body? their marvellous cartilages are nicely adapted to secure stability, and fitted to end off the joints and to allow of movement and bodily activity of every sort. Add thereto the nerves or sinews which hold the joints together and whose ramifications pervade the entire body; like the veins and arteries these lead from the heart as their starting-point and pass to all parts of the body. 2.140 "Many further illustrations could be given of this wise and careful providence of nature, to illustrate the lavishness and splendour of the gifts bestowed by the gods on men. First, she has raised them from the ground to stand tall and upright, so that they might be able to behold the sky and so gain a knowledge of the gods. For men are sprung from the earth not as its inhabitants and denizens, but to be as it were the spectators of things supernal and heavenly, in the contemplation whereof no other species of animal participates. Next, the senses, posted in the citadel of the head as the reporters and messengers of the outer world, both in structure and position are marvellously adapted to their necessary services. The eyes as the watchmen have the highest station, to give them the widest outlook for the performance of their function. 2.141 The ears also, having the duty of perceiving sound, the nature of which is to rise, are rightly placed in the upper part of the body. The nostrils likewise are rightly placed high inasmuch as all smells travel upwards, but also, because they have much to do with discriminating food and drink, they have with good reason been brought into the neighbourhood of the mouth. Taste, which has the function of distinguishing the flavors of our various viands, is situated in that part of the face where nature has made an aperture for the passage of food and drink. The sense of touch is evenly diffused over all the body, to enable us to perceive all sorts of contacts and even the minutest impacts of both cold and heat. And just as architects relegate the drains of houses to the rear, away from the eyes and nose of the masters, since otherwise they would inevitably be somewhat offensive, so nature has banished the corresponding organs of the body far away from the neighbourhood of the senses. 2.142 "Again what artificer but nature, who is unsurpassed in her cunning, could have attained such skilfulness in the construction of the senses? First, she has clothed and walled the eyes with membranes of the finest texture, which she has made on the one hand transparent so that we may be able to see through them, and on the other hand firm of substance, to serve as the outer cover of the eye. The eyes she has made mobile and smoothly turning, so as both to avoid any threatened injury and to direct their gaze easily in any direction they desire. The actually organ of vision, called the pupil or \'little doll,\' is so small as easily to avoid objects that might injure it; and the lids, which are the covers of the eyes, are very soft to the touch so as not to hurt the pupil, and very neatly constructed as to be able both to shut the eyes in order that nothing may impinge upon them and to open them; and nature has provided that this process can be repeated again and again with extreme rapidity. 2.143 The eyelids are furnished with a palisade of hairs, whereby to ward off any impinging object while the eyes are open, and so that while they are closed in sleep, when we do not need the eyes for seeing, they may be as it were tucked up for repose. Moreover the eyes are in advantageously retired position, and shielded on all sides by surrounding prominences; for first the parts above them are covered by the eyebrows which prevent sweat from flowing down from the scalp and forehead; then the cheeks, which are placed beneath them and which slightly project, protect them from below; and the hose is so placed as to seem to be a wall separating the eyes from one another. 2.144 The organ of hearing on the other hand is always open, since we require this sense even when asleep, and when it receives a sound, we are aroused even from sleep. The auditory passage is winding, to prevent anything from being able to enter, as it might if the passage were clear and straight; it has further been provided that even the tiniest insect that may attempt to intrude may be caught in the sticky wax of the ears. On the outside project the organs which we call ears, which are constructed both to cover and protect the sense-organ and to prevent the sounds that reach them from sliding past and being lost before they strike the sense. The apertures of the ears are hard and gristly, and much convoluted, because things with these qualities reflect and amplify sound; this is why tortoise-shell or horn gives resoce to a lyre, and always why winding passages and enclosures have an echo which is louder than the original sound. 2.145 Similarly the nostrils, which to serve the purposes required of them have to be always open, have narrower apertures, to prevent the entrance of anything that may harm them; and they are always moist, which is useful to guard them against dust and many other things. The sense of taste is admirably shielded, being enclosed in the mouth in a manner well suited for the performance of its function and for its protection against harm. "And all the senses of man far excel those of the lower animals. In the first place our eyes have a finer perception of many things in the arts which appeal to the sense of sight, painting, modelling and sculpture, and also in bodily movements and gestures; since the eyes judge beauty and arrangement and so to speak propriety of colour and shape; and also other more important matters, for they also recognize virtues and vices, the angry and the friendly, the joyful and the sad, the brave man and the coward, the bold and the craven. 2.146 The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. 2.147 "Coming now to the actual mind and intellect of man, his reason, wisdom and foresight, one who cannot see that these owe their perfection to divine providence must in my view himself be devoid of these very faculties. While discussing this topic I could wish, Cotta, that I had the gift of your eloquence. How could not you describe first our powers of understanding, and then our faculty of conjoining premisses and consequences in a single act of apprehension, the faculty I mean that enables us to judge what conclusion follows from any given propositions and to put the inference in syllogistic form, and also to delimit particular terms in a succinct definition; whence we arrive at an understanding of the potency and the nature of knowledge, which is the most excellent part even of the divine nature. Again, how remarkable are the faculties which you Academics invalidate and abolish, our sensory and intellectual perception and comprehension of external objects; 2.148 it is by collating and comparing our precepts that we also create the arts that serve either practical necessities or the purpose of amusement. Then take the gift of speech, the queen of arts as you are fond of calling it — what a glorious, what a divine faculty it is! In the first place it enables us both to learn things we do not know and to teach things we do know to others; secondly it is our instrument for exhortation and persuasion, for consoling the afflicted and assuaging the fears of the terrified, for curbing passion and quenching appetite and anger; it is this that has united us in the bonds of justice, law and civil order, this that has sped us from savagery and barbarism. ' "2.149 Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. " '2.150 "Then what clever servants for a great variety of arts are the hands which nature has bestowed on man! The flexibility of the joints enables the fingers to close and open with equal ease, and to perform every motion without difficulty. Thus by the manipulation of the fingers the hand is enabled to paint, to model, to carve, and to draw forth the notes of the lyre and of the flute. And beside these arts of recreation there are those of utility, I mean agriculture and building, the weaving and stitching of garments, and the various modes of working bronze and iron; hence we realize that it was by applying the hand of the artificer to the discoveries of thought and observations of the senses that all our conveniences were attained, and we were enabled to have shelter, clothing and protection, and possessed cities, fortifications, houses and temples. ' "2.151 Moreover men's industry, that is to say the work of their hands, porticus us also our food in variety and abundance. It is the hand that gathers the divers products of the fields, whether to be consumed immediately or to be stored in repositories for the days to come; and our diet also includes flesh, fish and fowl, obtained partly by the chase and partly by breeding. We also tame the four-footed animals to carry us on their backs, their swiftness and strength bestowing strength and swiftness upon ourselves. We cause certain beasts to bear our burdens or to carry a yoke, we divert to our service the marvellously acute senses of elephants and the keen scent of hounds; we collect from the caves of the earth the iron which we need for tilling the land, we discover the deeply hidden veins of copper, silver and gold which serve us both for use and for adornment; we cut up a multitude of trees both wild and cultivated for timber which we employ partly by setting fire to it to warm our busy and cook our food, partly for building so as to shelter ourselves with houses and banish heat and cold. " "2.152 Timber moreover is of great value for constructing ships, whose voyages supply an abundance of sustece of all sorts from all parts of the earth; and we alone have the power of controlling the most violent of nature's offspring, the sea and the winds, thanks to the science of navigation, and we use and enjoy many products of the sea. Likewise the entire command of the commodities produced on land is vested in mankind. We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. " '2.153 "Then moreover hasn\'t man\'s reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man\'s nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance. '' None
56. Cicero, On Duties, 1.108 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Punica fides, and manipulation of Carthaginian image • self-image

 Found in books: Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 133; Rüpke and Woolf (2013), Religious Dimensions of the Self in the Second Century CE. 197

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1.108 Erat in L. Crasso, in L. Philippo multus lepos, maior etiam magisque de industria in C. Caesare L. filio; at isdem temporibus in M. Scauro et in M. Druso adulescente singularis severitas, in C. Laelio multa hilaritas, in eius familiari Scipione ambitio maior, vita tristior. De Graecis autem dulcem et facetum festivique sermonis atque in omni oratione simulatorem, quem ei)/rwna Graeci nominarunt, Socratem accepimus, contra Pythagoram et Periclem summam auctoritatem consecutos sine ulla hilaritate. Callidum Hannibalem ex Poenorum, ex nostris ducibus Q. Maximum accepimus, facile celare, tacere, dissimulare, insidiari, praeripere hostium consilia. In quo genere Graeci Themistoclem et Pheraeum Iasonem ceteris anteponunt; in primisque versutum et callidum factum Solonis, qui, quo et tutior eius vita esset et plus aliquanto rei publicae prodesset, furere se simulavit.'' None
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1.108 \xa0Diversities of character are greater still. Lucius Crassus and Lucius Philippus had a large fund of wit; Gaius Caesar, Lucius's son, had a still richer fund and employed it with more studied purpose. Contemporary with them, Marcus Scaurus and Marcus Drusus, the younger, were examples of unusual seriousness; Gaius Laelius, of unbounded jollity; while his intimate friend, Scipio, cherished more serious ideals and lived a more austere life. Among the Greeks, history tells us, Socrates was fascinating and witty, a genial conversationalist; he was what the Greeks call εἴÏ\x81Ï\x89ν in every conversation, pretending to need information and professing admiration for the wisdom of his companion. Pythagoras and Pericles, on the other hand, reached the heights of influence and power without any seasoning of mirthfulness. We read that Hannibal, among the Carthaginian generals, and Quintus Maximus, among our own, were shrewd and ready at concealing their plans, covering up their tracks, disguising their movements, laying stratagems, forestalling the enemy's designs. In these qualities the Greeks rank Themistocles and Jason of Pherae above all others. Especially crafty and shrewd was the device of Solon, who, to make his own life safer and at the same time to do a considerably larger service for his country, feigned insanity. <"" None
57. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.45, 5.4, 5.23, 7.9-7.10, 7.13-7.14, 7.22, 8.16, 9.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apocalyptic language, traditional imagery • Beth-El, Imagery in • Dream imagery, transgressive, taboo-breaking • Ezekiel, Tragedian, OT throne imagery • Image • Image of God • Image xvi, • Images, Material for Idols • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • Mans creation in Gods image, Rejection of Anthropomorphism • Metatron, merkavah imagery identified with • Multiplicity and Multiformity within, Representation/Imagination • Revelation (Apocalypse of John), Son of Man imagery • Revelation (Apocalypse of John), image of the sword of the mouth • Second Isaiah, garment imagery in • Son of Man, imagery in book of Revelation • Song of Songs, bride imagery in • Sonship as being in God’s image and likeness • divine presence, merkavah imagery and • identity, constructed, construction, fictional, imagined, invented • image, imagery • imagery, Danielic • solar (imagery)

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 134, 135; Collins (2016), The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature, 24, 344, 347; Fishbane (2003), Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking, 85, 86, 232, 235; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 208; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 216, 217, 260; Johnson Dupertuis and Shea (2018), Reading and Teaching Ancient Fiction : Jewish, Christian, and Greco-Roman Narratives 83; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 31; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 125; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 311; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 6; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 175; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 31; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 68, 319, 537, 593; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 86; Stern (2004), From Rebuke to Consolation: Exegesis and Theology in the Liturgical Anthology of the Ninth of Av Season, 105, 106; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398, 400

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2.45 כָּל־קֳבֵל דִּי־חֲזַיְתָ דִּי מִטּוּרָא אִתְגְּזֶרֶת אֶבֶן דִּי־לָא בִידַיִן וְהַדֶּקֶת פַּרְזְלָא נְחָשָׁא חַסְפָּא כַּסְפָּא וְדַהֲבָא אֱלָהּ רַב הוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא מָה דִּי לֶהֱוֵא אַחֲרֵי דְנָה וְיַצִּיב חֶלְמָא וּמְהֵימַן פִּשְׁרֵהּ׃
5.4
אִשְׁתִּיו חַמְרָא וְשַׁבַּחוּ לֵאלָהֵי דַּהֲבָא וְכַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא׃
5.23
וְעַל מָרֵא־שְׁמַיָּא הִתְרוֹמַמְתָּ וּלְמָאנַיָּא דִי־בַיְתֵהּ הַיְתִיו קדמיך קָדָמָךְ ואנתה וְאַנְתְּ ורברבניך וְרַבְרְבָנָךְ שֵׁגְלָתָךְ וּלְחֵנָתָךְ חַמְרָא שָׁתַיִן בְּהוֹן וְלֵאלָהֵי כַסְפָּא־וְדַהֲבָא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא דִּי לָא־חָזַיִן וְלָא־שָׁמְעִין וְלָא יָדְעִין שַׁבַּחְתָּ וְלֵאלָהָא דִּי־נִשְׁמְתָךְ בִּידֵהּ וְכָל־אֹרְחָתָךְ לֵהּ לָא הַדַּרְתָּ׃
7.9
חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃' 7.13 חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ עִם־עֲנָנֵי שְׁמַיָּא כְּבַר אֱנָשׁ אָתֵה הֲוָה וְעַד־עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא מְטָה וּקְדָמוֹהִי הַקְרְבוּהִי׃ 7.14 וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃
7.22
עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃
8.16
וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃
9.27
וְהִגְבִּיר בְּרִית לָרַבִּים שָׁבוּעַ אֶחָד וַחֲצִי הַשָּׁבוּעַ יַשְׁבִּית זֶבַח וּמִנְחָה וְעַל כְּנַף שִׁקּוּצִים מְשֹׁמֵם וְעַד־כָּלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה תִּתַּךְ עַל־שֹׁמֵם׃'' None
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2.45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God hath made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter; and the dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure.’
5.4
They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.
5.23
but hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of His house before thee, and thou and thy lords, thy consorts and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know; and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified;
7.9
I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire. 7.10 A fiery stream issued And came forth from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, And ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him; The judgment was set, And the books were opened.
7.13
I saw in the night visions, And, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven One like unto a son of man, And he came even to the Ancient of days, And he was brought near before Him. 7.14 And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
7.22
until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom.
8.16
And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’
9.27
And he shall make a firm covet with many for one week; and for half of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the offering to cease; and upon the wing of detestable things shall be that which causeth appalment; and that until the extermination wholly determined be poured out upon that which causeth appalment.’' ' None
58. Polybius, Histories, 6.53-6.55 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as performer of a public image • Sallust, on imagines • Tacitus, on imagines • house, imagines in • imagines • imagines (ancestral portraits) • imagines, in funerals

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 49, 51; Langlands (2018), Exemplary Ethics in Ancient Rome, 94; Mcclellan (2019), Paulinus Noster: Self and Symbols in the Letters of Paulinus of Nola, 128; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 246; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 86, 106

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6.53 1. \xa0Whenever any illustrious man dies, he is carried at his funeral into the forum to the soâ\x80\x91called rostra, sometimes conspicuous in an upright posture and more rarely reclined.,2. \xa0Here with all the people standing round, a grown-up son, if he has left one who happens to be present, or if not some other relative mounts the rostra and discourses on the virtues and success­ful achievements of the dead.,3. \xa0As a consequence the multitude and not only those who had a part in these achievements, but those also who had none, when the facts are recalled to their minds and brought before their eyes, are moved to such sympathy that the loss seems to be not confined to the mourners, but a public one affecting the whole people.,4. \xa0Next after the interment and the performance of the usual ceremonies, they place the image of the departed in the most conspicuous position in the house, enclosed in a wooden shrine.,5. \xa0This image is a mask reproducing with remarkable fidelity both the features and complexion of the deceased.,6. \xa0On the occasion of public sacrifices they display these images, and decorate them with much care, and when any distinguished member of the family dies they take them to the funeral, putting them on men who seem to them to bear the closest resemblance to the original in stature and carriage.,7. \xa0These representatives wear togas, with a purple border if the deceased was a consul or praetor, whole purple if he was a censor, and embroidered with gold if he had celebrated a triumph or achieved anything similar.,8. \xa0They all ride in chariots preceded by the fasces, axes, and other insignia by which the different magistrates are wont to be accompanied according to the respective dignity of the offices of state held by each during his life;,9. \xa0and when they arrive at the rostra they all seat themselves in a row on ivory chairs. There could not easily be a more ennobling spectacle for a young man who aspires to fame and virtue.,10. \xa0For who would not be inspired by the sight of the images of men renowned for their excellence, all together and as if alive and breathing? What spectacle could be more glorious than this? 6.54 1. \xa0Besides, he who makes the oration over the man about to be buried, when he has finished speaking of him recounts the successes and exploits of the rest whose images are present, beginning with the most ancient.,2. \xa0By this means, by this constant renewal of the good report of brave men, the celebrity of those who performed noble deeds is rendered immortal, while at the same time the fame of those who did good service to their country becomes known to the people and a heritage for future generations.,3. \xa0But the most important result is that young men are thus inspired to endure every suffering for public welfare in the hope of winning the glory that attends on brave men.,4. \xa0What I\xa0say is confirmed by the facts. For many Romans have voluntarily engaged in single combat in order to decide a battle, not a\xa0few have faced certain death, some in war to save the lives of the rest, and others in peace to save the republic.,5. \xa0Some even when in office have put their own sons to death contrary to every law or custom, setting a higher value on the interest of their country than on the ties of nature that bound them to their nearest and dearest.,6. \xa0Many such stories about many men are related in Roman history, but one told of a certain person will suffice for the present as an example and as a confirmation of what I\xa0say. 6.55 1. \xa0It is narrated that when Horatius Cocles was engaged in combat with two of the enemy at the far end of the bridge over the Tiber that lies in the front of the town, he saw large reinforcements coming up to help the enemy, and fearing lest they should force the passage and get into town, he turned round and called to those behind him to retire and cut the bridge with all speed.,2. \xa0His order was obeyed, and while they were cutting the bridge, he stood to his ground receiving many wounds, and arrested the attack of the enemy who were less astonished at his physical strength than at his endurance and courage.,3. \xa0The bridge once cut, the enemy were prevented from attacking; and Cocles, plunging into the river in full armour as he was, deliberately sacrificed his life, regarding the safety of his country and the glory which in future would attach to his name as of more importance than his present existence and the years of life which remained to him.,4. \xa0Such, if I\xa0am not wrong, is the eager emulation of achieving noble deeds engendered in the Roman youth by their institutions. '' None
59. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image vi, • image of God

 Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 107; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 153

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7.37 I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'"" None
60. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 4.1, 4.7-4.10, 7.2, 14.18, 16.22, 17.1-17.8, 17.22-17.23, 17.31, 24.1-24.17, 24.19, 24.21-24.23, 24.33, 25.23, 25.25, 28.25, 33.7-33.15, 40.8, 50.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • Image • Image of God • Image vi, • Image, of God • Jesus, teacher (or sage) in the images of • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • Teacher, image of Amun related to • Teacher, images (or sage-) of personified Wisdom related to • Teacher, images of Jesus as • animal imagery • divine, image • father imagery • financial imagery • image of God • image of God (in man) • image, imagery • imago dei • merkavah imagery, devekut to • military imagery • mirror imagery • personified Wisdom, Teacher (or sage) images of • wealth, imagery

 Found in books: Corley (2002), Ben Sira's Teaching on Friendship, 8, 21, 33, 71, 128, 129, 134, 188, 200, 206; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 32, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 60, 65, 66, 82; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 63, 64, 65, 66, 172, 224, 285; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 331, 411, 412, 415, 431; Mathews (2013), Riches, Poverty, and the Faithful: Perspectives on Wealth in the Second Temple Period and the Apocalypse of John, 171; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 81, 205, 249; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 325; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 266; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6, 183; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 275, 276; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 338, 372; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 320

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4.1 Be like a father to orphans,and instead of a husband to their mother;you will then be like a son of the Most High,and he will love you more than does your mother.
4.1
My son, deprive not the poor of his living,and do not keep needy eyes waiting.
4.7
Make yourself beloved in the congregation;bow your head low to a great man. 4.8 Incline your ear to the poor,and answer him peaceably and gently. 4.9 Deliver him who is wronged from the hand of the wrongdoer;and do not be fainthearted in judging a case.
7.2
Do not abuse a servant who performs his work faithfully,or a hired laborer who devotes himself to you.
7.2
Stay away from wrong, and it will turn away from you.
1
4.18
Like flourishing leaves on a spreading tree which sheds some and puts forth others,so are the generations of flesh and blood:one dies and another is born.
16.22
Who will announce his acts of justice?Or who will await them? For the covet is far off."
17.1
And they will praise his holy name,to proclaim the grandeur of his works.
17.1
The Lord created man out of earth,and turned him back to it again. 1
7.2
He gave to men few days, a limited time,but granted them authority over the things upon the earth. 1
7.2
Their iniquities are not hidden from him,and all their sins are before the Lord. 17.3 He endowed them with strength like his own,and made them in his own image. 17.4 He placed the fear of them in all living beings,and granted them dominion over beasts and birds. 17.6 He made for them tongue and eyes;he gave them ears and a mind for thinking. 17.7 He filled them with knowledge and understanding,and showed them good and evil. 17.8 He set his eye upon their hearts to show them the majesty of his works.
1
7.22
A mans almsgiving is like a signet with the Lord and he will keep a persons kindness like the apple of his eye. 1
7.23
Afterward he will arise and requite them,and he will bring their recompense on their heads.
17.31
What is brighter than the sun? Yet its light fails. So flesh and blood devise evil.
2
4.1
In the holy tabernacle I ministered before him,and so I was established in Zion.
2
4.1
Wisdom will praise herself,and will glory in the midst of her people. 24.2 For the remembrance of me is sweeter than honey,and my inheritance sweeter than the honeycomb. 24.2 In the assembly of the Most High she will open her mouth,and in the presence of his host she will glory: 24.3 "I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,and covered the earth like a mist. 24.3 I went forth like a canal from a river and like a water channel into a garden. 24.4 I dwelt in high places,and my throne was in a pillar of cloud. 24.5 Alone I have made the circuit of the vault of heaven and have walked in the depths of the abyss. 24.6 In the waves of the sea, in the whole earth,and in every people and nation I have gotten a possession. 2
4.7
Among all these I sought a resting place;I sought in whose territory I might lodge. 24.8 "Then the Creator of all things gave me a commandment,and the one who created me assigned a place for my tent. And he said, `Make your dwelling in Jacob,and in Israel receive your inheritance. 24.9 From eternity, in the beginning, he created me,and for eternity I shall not cease to exist.
2
4.11
In the beloved city likewise he gave me a resting place,and in Jerusalem was my dominion.
2
4.12
So I took root in an honored people,in the portion of the Lord, who is their inheritance.
2
4.13
"I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon.
2
4.14
I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall.
2
4.15
Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle.
2
4.16
Like a terebinth I spread out my branches,and my branches are glorious and graceful.
2
4.17
Like a vine I caused loveliness to bud,and my blossoms became glorious and abundant fruit.

2
4.19
"Come to me, you who desire me,and eat your fill of my produce.
24.21
Those who eat me will hunger for more,and those who drink me will thirst for more. 24.22 Whoever obeys me will not be put to shame,and those who work with my help will not sin." 24.23 All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
24.33
I will again pour out teaching like prophecy,and leave it to all future generations.
25.23
A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy.
25.25
Allow no outlet to water,and no boldness of speech in an evil wife.
33.7
Why is any day better than another,when all the daylight in the year is from the sun? 33.8 By the Lords decision they were distinguished,and he appointed the different seasons and feasts; 33.9 some of them he exalted and hallowed,and some of them he made ordinary days. 33.11 In the fulness of his knowledge the Lord distinguished them and appointed their different ways; 33.12 some of them he blessed and exalted,and some of them he made holy and brought near to himself;but some of them he cursed and brought low,and he turned them out of their place. 33.13 As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides. 33.14 Good is the opposite of evil,and life the opposite of death;so the sinner is the opposite of the godly. 33.15 Look upon all the works of the Most High;they likewise are in pairs, one the opposite of the other.
40.8
With all flesh, both man and beast,and upon sinners seven times more,
50.17
Then all the people together made haste and fell to the ground upon their faces to worship their Lord,the Almighty, God Most High.' ' None
61. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.7, 2.12, 2.17-2.18, 2.23-2.24, 5.1, 7.25-7.27, 15.7-15.8, 15.15, 18.15, 24.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image of God • Image xvi, • Image, Christ as Image of God • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Images, Material for Idols • Jesus, teacher (or sage) in the images of • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • King as image/glory of gods • Sonship as being in God’s image and likeness • Teacher, image of Amun related to • Teacher, images (or sage-) of personified Wisdom related to • Teacher, images of Jesus as • divine, image • image and likeness • image of God • image of God (in man) • image, imagery • imago dei • military imagery • personified Wisdom, Teacher (or sage) images of • transformation into a divine image,ancient views of

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 57, 60, 61, 66, 77; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 63, 179, 224; Keener(2005), First-Second Corinthians, 170; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80, 84, 86, 178; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 73, 158, 250; Osborne (2001), Irenaeus of Lyons, 216; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 109, 149, 266; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 183; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 86; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 398, 399; deSilva (2022), Ephesians, 327

sup>
1.7 Because the Spirit of the Lord has filled the world,and that which holds all things together knows what is said;
1.7
Their sins were in secret, And even I had no knowledge (of them).
2.12
And the earth recognized all Thy righteous judgements, O God.
2.12
"Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training.
2.17
For Thou hast rendered to the sinners according to their deeds, Yea according to their sins, which were very wicked.
2.17
Let us see if his words are true,and let us test what will happen at the end of his life; 2.18 Thou hast uncovered their sins, that Thy judgement might be manifest; 2.18 for if the righteous man is Gods son, he will help him,and will deliver him from the hand of his adversaries.
2.23
In dishonour was her beauty cast upon the ground.
2.23
for God created man for incorruption,and made him in the image of his own eternity, 2.24 And I saw and entreated the Lord and said, Long enough, O Lord, has Thine hand been heavy on Israel, in bringing the nations upon (them). 2.24 but through the devils envy death entered the world,and those who belong to his party experience it.
5.1
O Lord God, I will praise Thy name with joy, In the midst of them that know Thy righteous judgements.
5.1
Then the righteous man will stand with great confidence in the presence of those who have afflicted him,and those who make light of his labors.
7.25
For she is a breath of the power of God,and a pure emanation of the glory of the Almighty;therefore nothing defiled gains entrance into her. 7.26 For she is a reflection of eternal light,a spotless mirror of the working of God,and an image of his goodness. 7.27 Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets;
15.7
When it goeth forth from the face of the Lord against sinners, To destroy all the substance of sinners,
15.7
For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8 For the mark of God is upon the righteous that they .may be saved. Famine and sword and pestilence (shall be) far from the righteous, 15.8 With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him.
1
5.15
But they that fear the Lord shall find mercy therein, And shall live by the compassion of their God; But sinners shall perish for ever.
1
5.15
For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking.
18.15
thy all-powerful word leaped from heaven, from the royal throne,into the midst of the land that was doomed,a stern warrior' ' None
62. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, public image of • Octavian, public image of • image of the cosmos • imagery, agricultural • imagery, military

 Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 121, 122; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 243, 245; Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 207

63. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • death, imagery of • imagines • imago

 Found in books: Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 42; Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 91

64. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Julius Caesar, C., image on the Capitoline • anthropomorphic images

 Found in books: Rupke (2016), Religious Deviance in the Roman World Superstition or Individuality?, 57; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 153

65. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tullius Cicero, M., on imagines • cult images of the gods • father imagery • image of God • imagines, in funerals • imprint imagery • mirror imagery • numinousness, of divine imagery

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 253; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 87; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 212, 423; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 77

66. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Julius Caesar, C., image in Temple of Venus Genetrix • death, Greek imagery of • death, imagery of

 Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 18; Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 79, 95

67. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dream imagery, bizarre, surreal • Dream imagery, day-to-day objects/realistic scenes • Imagines (Roman funeral masks)

 Found in books: Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 167; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 42

68. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagination

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 110; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 110

69. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagination

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 109; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 109

70. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ovid imagines Rome from exile • death, imagery of • imagination

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 188; Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 110; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 110; Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 94

71. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Praecepta ad filium, on statuary and imagines • imagines

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 50; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 104

72. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Julius Caesar, C., image on the Capitoline • Philostratus the Elder, his Imagines • imagines

 Found in books: Clark (2007), Divine Qualities: Cult and Community in Republican Rome, 150, 151; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 50; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84, 153

73. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tullius Cicero, M., on imagines • imagines • imagines, in funerals

 Found in books: Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 47; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 87

74. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • ancestor images • imagines maiorum

 Found in books: Duffalo (2006), The Ghosts of the Past: Latin Literature, the Dead, and Rome's Transition to a Principate. 25, 82, 134; Keane (2015), Juvenal and the Satiric Emotions, 101, 112

75. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, Stoic (already in antiquity, views seen as orthodox for Stoics tended to be ascribed to Chrysippus), The second judgement is about the appropriateness of actual or imagined pursuit or avoidance • Ennius, imago on Scipionic tomb • Imagination • image of the cosmos • imagination • imagines • imago

 Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 124, 125; Culík-Baird (2022), Cicero and the Early Latin Poets, 36; Graver (2007), Stoicism and Emotion, 237; Inwood and Warren (2020), Body and Soul in Hellenistic Philosophy, 214; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 31, 42; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 31

76. Catullus, Poems, 62.39-62.47 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Catullus epithalamia, floral images of female beauty and vulnerability in • imagery, chariots

 Found in books: Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 194; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 28, 29

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62.39 Pleases the bevy unwed with feigned complaints to accuse thee. 62.40 What if assail they whom their souls in secrecy cherish? 62.41 Hymen O Hymenaeus, Hymen here, O Hymenaeus! Damsel' "62.42 E'en as a flow'ret born secluded in garden enclosed," "62.43 Unto the flock unknown and ne'er uptorn by the ploughshare," "62.44 Soothed by the zephyrs and strengthened by suns and nourish't by shower" '62.46 Loves her many a youth and longs for her many a maiden: 62.47 Yet from her lissome stalk when cropt that flower deflowered,' ' None
77. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.65.5, 3.38-3.48, 3.39.4-3.39.6, 3.40.2-3.40.8, 3.44.4-3.44.5, 4.67.6-4.67.7 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, S. Biagio at Metapontion, bestial and hunting imagery • Athena, promachos image • Dream imagery, distressing • Dream imagery, violation of sacred law • Lucian, Imagines • Philostratus the Elder, Imagines • skin color, textual images • statues, cult images, xoanon

 Found in books: Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 202; Konig and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 94, 101, 104, 106, 107, 112, 117; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 309; König and Wiater (2022), Late Hellenistic Greek Literature in Dialogue, 94, 101, 104, 106, 107, 112, 117; Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 18, 134; Moxon (2017), Peter's Halakhic Nightmare: The 'Animal' Vision of Acts 10:9–16 in Jewish and Graeco-Roman Perspective. 193, 194

1.65 1. \xa0After the kings mentioned above Bocchoris succeeded to the throne, a man who was altogether contemptible in personal appearance but in sagacity far surpassed all former kings.,2. \xa0Much later Egypt was ruled by Sabaco, who was by birth an Ethiopian and yet in piety and uprightness far surpassed his predecessors.,3. \xa0A\xa0proof of his goodness may be found in his abolition of the severest one of the customary penalties (I\xa0refer to the taking of life);,4. \xa0for instead of executing the condemned he put them in chains at forced labour for the cities, and by their services constructed many dykes and dug out not a\xa0few well-placed canals; for he held that in this way he had reduced for those who were being chastised the severity of their punishment, while for the cities he had procured, in exchange for useless penalties, something of great utility.,5. \xa0And the excessiveness of his piety may be inferred from a vision which he had in a dream and his consequent abdication of the throne.,6. \xa0For he thought that the god of Thebes told him while he slept that he would not be able to reign over Egypt in happiness or for any great length of time, unless he should cut the bodies of all the priests in twain and accompanied by his retinue pass through the very midst of them.,7. \xa0And when this dream came again and again, he summoned the priests from all over the land and told them that by his presence in the country he was offending the god; for were that not the case such a command would not be given to him in his sleep.,8. \xa0And so he would rather, he continued, departing pure of all defilement from the land, deliver his life to destiny than offend the Lord, stain his own life by an impious slaughter, and reign over Egypt. And in the end he returned the kingdom to the Egyptians and retired again to Ethiopia.3.38 1. \xa0But now that we have examined with sufficient care Ethiopia and the Trogodyte country and the territory adjoining them, as far as the region which is uninhabited because of the excessive heat, and, beside these, the coast of the Red Sea and the Atlantic deep which stretches towards the south, we shall give an account of the part which still remains â\x80\x94 and I\xa0refer to the Arabian Gulf â\x80\x94 drawing in part upon the royal records preserved in Alexandria, and in part upon what we have learned from men who have seen it with their own eyes.,2. \xa0For this section of the inhabited world and that about the British Isles and the far north have by no means come to be included in the common knowledge of men. But as for the parts of the inhabited world which lie to the far north and border on the area which is uninhabited because of the cold, we shall discuss them when we record the deeds of Gaius Caesar;,3. \xa0for he it was who extended the Roman Empire the farthest into those parts and brought it about that all the area which had formerly been unknown came to be included in a narrative of history;,4. \xa0but the Arabian Gulf, as it is called, opens into the ocean which lies to the south, and its innermost recess, which stretches over a distance of very many stades in length, is enclosed by the farthermost borders of Arabia and the Trogodyte country. Its width at the mouth and at the innermost recess is about sixteen stades, but from the harbour of Panormus to the opposite mainland is a\xa0day's run for a warship. And its greatest width is at the Tyrcaeus mountain and Macaria, an island out at sea, the mainlands there being out of sight of each other. But from this point the width steadily decreases more and more and continually tapers as far as the entrance.,5. \xa0And as a man sails along the coast he comes in many places upon long islands with narrow passages between them, where the current rises full and strong. Such, then, is the setting, in general terms, of this gulf. But for our part, we shall make our beginning with the farthest regions of the innermost recess and then sail along its two sides past the mainlands, in connection with which we shall describe what is peculiar to them and most deserving of discussion; and first of all we shall take the right side, the coast of which is inhabited by tribes of the Trogodytes as far inland as the desert. \xa0" "
3.39.4
\xa0And as a man coasts along these regions he comes to an island which lies at a distance out in the open sea and stretches for a length of eighty stades; the name of it is Ophiodes and it was formerly full of fearful serpents of every variety, which was in fact the reason why it received this name, but in later times the kings at Alexandria have laboured so diligently on the reclaiming of it that not one of the animals which were formerly there is any longer to be seen on the island. 3.39.5 \xa0However, we should not pass over the reason why the kings showed diligence in the reclamation of the island. For there is found on it the topaz, as it is called, which is a pleasing transparent stone, similar to glass, and of a marvellous golden hue. 3.39.6 \xa0Consequently no unauthorized person may set foot upon the island and it is closely guarded, every man who has approached it being put to death by the guards who are stationed there. And the latter are few in number and lead a miserable existence. For in order to prevent any stone being stolen, not a single boat is left on the island; furthermore, any who sail by pass along it at a distance because of their fear of the king; and the provisions which are brought to it are quickly exhausted and there are absolutely no other provisions in the land.' "3.39 1. \xa0In the course of the journey, then, from the city of Arsinoê along the right mainland, in many places numerous streams, which have a bitter salty taste, drop from the cliffs into the sea. And after a man has passed these waters, above a great plain there towers a mountain whose colour is like ruddle and blinds the sight of any who gaze steadfastly upon it for some time. Moreover, at the edge of the skirts of the mountain there lies a harbour, known as Aphroditê's Harbour, which has a winding entrance.,2. \xa0Above this harbour are situated three islands, two of which abound in olive trees and are thickly shaded, while one falls short of the other two in respect of the number of these trees but contains a multitude of the birds called meleagrides.,3. \xa0Next there is a very large gulf which is called Acathartus, and by it is an exceedingly long peninsula, over the narrow neck of which men transport their ships to the opposite sea.,4. \xa0And as a man coasts along these regions he comes to an island which lies at a distance out in the open sea and stretches for a length of eighty stades; the name of it is Ophiodes and it was formerly full of fearful serpents of every variety, which was in fact the reason why it received this name, but in later times the kings at Alexandria have laboured so diligently on the reclaiming of it that not one of the animals which were formerly there is any longer to be seen on the island.,5. \xa0However, we should not pass over the reason why the kings showed diligence in the reclamation of the island. For there is found on it the topaz, as it is called, which is a pleasing transparent stone, similar to glass, and of a marvellous golden hue.,6. \xa0Consequently no unauthorized person may set foot upon the island and it is closely guarded, every man who has approached it being put to death by the guards who are stationed there. And the latter are few in number and lead a miserable existence. For in order to prevent any stone being stolen, not a single boat is left on the island; furthermore, any who sail by pass along it at a distance because of their fear of the king; and the provisions which are brought to it are quickly exhausted and there are absolutely no other provisions in the land.,7. \xa0Consequently, whenever only a little food is left, all the inhabitants of the village sit down and await the arrival of the ship of those who are bringing the provisions, and when these are delayed they are reduced to their last hopes.,8. \xa0And the stone we have mentioned, being found in the rock, is not discernible during the day because of the stifling heat, since it is overcome by the brilliance of the sun, but when night falls it shines in the dark and is visible from afar, in whatever place it may be.,9. \xa0The guards on the island divide these places by lot among themselves and stand watch over them, and when the stone shines they put around it, to mark the place, a vessel corresponding in size to the chunk of stone which gives out the light; and when day comes and they go their rounds they cut out the area which has been so marked and turn it over to men who are able by reason of their craftsmanship to polish it properly. \xa0" 3.40.2 \xa0From this region onwards the gulf begins to become contracted and to curve toward Arabia. And here it is found that the nature of the country and of the sea has altered by reason of the peculiar characteristic of the region; < 3.40.3 \xa0for the mainland appears to be low as seen from the sea, no elevation rising above it, and the sea, which runs to shoals, is found to have a depth of no more than three fathoms, while in colour it is altogether green. The reason for this is, they say, not because the water is naturally of that colour, but because of the mass of seaweed and tangle which shows from under water. 3.40.4 \xa0For ships, then, which are equipped with oars the place is suitable enough, since it rolls along no wave from a great distance and affords, furthermore, fishing in the greatest abundance; but the ships which carry the elephants, being of deep draft because of their weight and heavy by reason of their equipment, bring upon their crews great and terrible dangers.' "3.40.5 \xa0For running as they do under full sail and often times being driven during the night before the force of the winds, sometimes they will strike against rocks and be wrecked or sometimes run aground on slightly submerged spits. The sailors are unable to go over the sides of the ship because the water is deeper than a man's height, and when in their efforts to rescue their vessel by means of their punting-poles they accomplish nothing, they jettison everything except their provisions; but if even by this course they do not succeed in effecting an escape, they fall into great perplexity by reason of the fact that they can make out neither an island nor a promontory nor another ship near at hand; â\x80\x94 for the region is altogether inhospitable and only at rare intervals do men cross it in ships." "3.40.6 \xa0And to add to these evils the waves within a moment's time cast up such a mass of sand against the body of the ship and heap it up in so incredible a fashion that it soon piles up a mound round about the place and binds the vessel, as if of set purpose, to the solid land." "3.40.7 \xa0Now the men who have suffered this mishap, at the outset bewail their lot with moderation in the face of a deaf wilderness, having as yet not entirely abandoned hope of ultimate salvation; for oftentimes the swell of the flood-tide has intervened for men in such a plight and raised the ship aloft, and suddenly appearing, as might a deus ex machina, has brought succour to men in the extremity of peril. But when such god-sent aid has not been vouchsafed to them and their food fails, then the strong cast the weaker into the sea in order that for the few left the remaining necessities of life may last a greater number of days. But finally, when they have blotted out of their minds all their hopes, these perish by a more miserable fate than those who had died before; for whereas the latter in a moment's time returned to Nature the spirit which she had given them, these parcelled out their death into many separate hardships before they finally, suffering long-protracted tortures, were granted the end of life." "3.40.8 \xa0As for the ships which have been stripped of their crews in this pitiable fashion, there they remain for many years, like a group of cenotaphs, embedded on every side in a heap of sand, their masts and yard-arms si standing aloft, and they move those who behold them from afar to pity and sympathy for the men who have perished. For it is the king's command to leave in place such evidences of disasters that they may give notice to sailors of the region which works to their destruction." "3.40 1. \xa0After sailing past these regions one finds that the coast is inhabited by many nations of Ichthyophagi and many nomadic Trogodytes. Then there appear mountains of all manner of peculiarities until one comes to the Harbour of Soteria, as it is called, which gained this name from the first Greek sailors who found safety there.,2. \xa0From this region onwards the gulf begins to become contracted and to curve toward Arabia. And here it is found that the nature of the country and of the sea has altered by reason of the peculiar characteristic of the region;,3. \xa0for the mainland appears to be low as seen from the sea, no elevation rising above it, and the sea, which runs to shoals, is found to have a depth of no more than three fathoms, while in colour it is altogether green. The reason for this is, they say, not because the water is naturally of that colour, but because of the mass of seaweed and tangle which shows from under water.,4. \xa0For ships, then, which are equipped with oars the place is suitable enough, since it rolls along no wave from a great distance and affords, furthermore, fishing in the greatest abundance; but the ships which carry the elephants, being of deep draft because of their weight and heavy by reason of their equipment, bring upon their crews great and terrible dangers.,5. \xa0For running as they do under full sail and often times being driven during the night before the force of the winds, sometimes they will strike against rocks and be wrecked or sometimes run aground on slightly submerged spits. The sailors are unable to go over the sides of the ship because the water is deeper than a man's height, and when in their efforts to rescue their vessel by means of their punting-poles they accomplish nothing, they jettison everything except their provisions; but if even by this course they do not succeed in effecting an escape, they fall into great perplexity by reason of the fact that they can make out neither an island nor a promontory nor another ship near at hand; â\x80\x94 for the region is altogether inhospitable and only at rare intervals do men cross it in ships.,6. \xa0And to add to these evils the waves within a moment's time cast up such a mass of sand against the body of the ship and heap it up in so incredible a fashion that it soon piles up a mound round about the place and binds the vessel, as if of set purpose, to the solid land.,7. \xa0Now the men who have suffered this mishap, at the outset bewail their lot with moderation in the face of a deaf wilderness, having as yet not entirely abandoned hope of ultimate salvation; for oftentimes the swell of the flood-tide has intervened for men in such a plight and raised the ship aloft, and suddenly appearing, as might a deus ex machina, has brought succour to men in the extremity of peril. But when such god-sent aid has not been vouchsafed to them and their food fails, then the strong cast the weaker into the sea in order that for the few left the remaining necessities of life may last a greater number of days. But finally, when they have blotted out of their minds all their hopes, these perish by a more miserable fate than those who had died before; for whereas the latter in a moment's time returned to Nature the spirit which she had given them, these parcelled out their death into many separate hardships before they finally, suffering long-protracted tortures, were granted the end of life.,8. \xa0As for the ships which have been stripped of their crews in this pitiable fashion, there they remain for many years, like a group of cenotaphs, embedded on every side in a heap of sand, their masts and yard-arms si standing aloft, and they move those who behold them from afar to pity and sympathy for the men who have perished. For it is the king's command to leave in place such evidences of disasters that they may give notice to sailors of the region which works to their destruction.,9. \xa0And among the Ichthyophagi who dwell near by has been handed down a tale which has preserved the account received from their forefathers, that once, when there was a great receding of the sea, the entire area of the gulf which has what may be roughly described as the green appearance became land, and that, after the sea had receded to the opposite parts and the solid ground in the depths of it had emerged to view, a mighty flood came back upon it again and returned the body of water to its former place. \xa0" '3.41 1. \xa0The voyage along the coast, as one leaves these regions, from Ptolemaïs as far as the Promontories of the Tauri we have already mentioned, when we told of Ptolemy's hunting of the elephants; and from the Tauri the coast swings to the east, and at the time of the summer solstice the shadows fall to the south, opposite to what is true with us, at about the second hour of the day.,2. \xa0The country also has rivers, which flow from the Psebaean mountains, as they are called. Moreover, it is checkered by great plains as well, which bear mallows, cress, and palms, all of unbelievable size; and it also brings forth fruits of every description, which have an insipid taste and are unknown among us.,3. \xa0That part which stretches towards the interior is full of elephants and wild bulls and lions and many other powerful wild beasts of every description. The passage by sea is broken up by islands which, though they bear no cultivated fruit, support varieties of birds which are peculiar to them and marvellous to look upon.,4. \xa0After this place the sea is quite deep and produces all kinds of sea-monsters of astonishing size, which, however, offer no harm to men unless one by accident falls upon their back-fins; for they are unable to pursue the sailors, since when they rise from the sea their eyes are blinded by the brilliance of the sun. These, then, are the farthest known parts of the Trogodyte country, and are circumscribed by the ranges which go by the name of Psebaean. \xa0" '3.42 1. \xa0But we shall now take up the other side, namely, the opposite shore which forms the coast of Arabia, and shall describe it, beginning with the innermost recess. This bears the name Poseideion, since an altar was erected here to Poseidon Pelagius by that Ariston who was dispatched by Ptolemy to investigate the coast of Arabia as far as the ocean.,2. \xa0Directly after the innermost recess is a region along the sea which is especially honoured by the natives because of the advantage which accrues from it to them. It is called the Palm-grove and contains a multitude of trees of this kind which are exceedingly fruitful and contribute in an unusual degree to enjoyment and luxury.,3. \xa0But all the country round about is lacking in springs of water and is fiery hot because it slopes to the south; accordingly, it was a natural thing that the barbarians made sacred the place which was full of trees and, lying as it did in the midst of a region utterly desolate, supplied their food. And indeed not a\xa0few springs and streams of water gush forth there, which do not yield to snow in coldness; and these make the land on both sides of them green and altogether pleasing.,4. \xa0Moreover, an altar is there built of hard stone and very old in years, bearing an inscription in ancient letters of an unknown tongue. The oversight of the sacred precinct is in the care of a man and a woman who hold the sacred office for life. The inhabitants of the place are long-lived and have their beds in the trees because of their fear of the wild beasts.,5. \xa0After sailing past the Palm-grove one comes to an island off a promontory of the mainland which bears the name Island of Phocae from the animals which make their home there; for so great a multitude of these beasts spend their time in these regions as to astonish those who behold them. And the promontory which stretches out in front of the island lies over against Petra, as it is called, and Palestine; for to this country, as it is reported, both the Gerrhaeans and Minaeans convey from Upper Arabia, as it is called, both the frankincense and the other aromatic wares. \xa0' "3.43 1. \xa0The coast which comes next was originally inhabited by the Maranitae, and then by the Garindanes who were their neighbours. The latter secured the country somewhat in this fashion: In the above-mentioned Palm-grove a festival was celebrated every four years, to which the neighbouring peoples thronged from all sides, both to sacrifice to the gods of the sacred precinct hecatombs of well-fed camels and also to carry back to their native lands some of the water of this place, since the tradition prevailed that this drink gave health to such as partook of it.,2. \xa0When for these reasons, then, the Maranitae gathered to the festival, the Garindanes, putting to the sword those who had been left behind in the country, and lying in ambush for those who were returning from the festival, utterly destroyed the tribe, and after stripping the country of its inhabitants they divided among themselves the plains, which were fruitful and supplied abundant pasture for their herds and flocks.,3. \xa0This coast has few harbours and is divided by many large mountains, by reason of which it shows every shade of colour and affords a marvellous spectacle to those who sail past it.,4. \xa0After one has sailed past this country the Laeanites Gulf comes next, about which are many inhabited villages of Arabs who are known as Nabataeans. This tribe occupies a large part of the coast and not a little of the country which stretches inland, and it has a people numerous beyond telling and flocks and herds in multitude beyond belief.,5. \xa0Now in ancient times these men observed justice and were content with the food which they received from their flocks, but later, after the kings in Alexandria had made the ways of the sea navigable for the merchants, these Arabs not only attacked the shipwrecked, but fitting out pirate ships preyed upon the voyagers, imitating in their practices the savage and lawless ways of the Tauri of the Pontus; some time afterward, however, they were caught on the high seas by some quadriremes and punished as they deserved.,6. \xa0Beyond these regions there is a level and well-watered stretch of land which produces, by reason of springs which flow through its whole extent, dog's-tooth grass, lucerne, and lotus as tall as a man. And because of the abundance and excellent quality of the pasturage, not only does it support every manner of flocks and herds in multitude beyond telling, but also wild camels, deer, and gazelles.,7. \xa0And against the multitude of animals which are nourished in that place there gather in from the desert bands of lions and wolves and leopards, against which the herdsmen must perforce battle both day and night to protect their charges; and in this way the land's good fortune becomes a cause of misfortune for its inhabitants, seeing that it is generally Nature's way to dispense to men along with good things what is hurtful as well. \xa0" 3.44.4 \xa0Beyond these islands there extends for about a\xa0thousand stades a coast which is precipitous and difficult for ships to sail past; for there is neither harbour beneath the cliffs nor roadstead where sailors may anchor, and no natural breakwater which affords shelter in emergency for mariners in distress. And parallel to the coast here runs a mountain range at whose summit are rocks which are sheer and of a terrifying height, and at its base are sharp undersea ledges in many places and behind them are ravines which are eaten away underneath and turn this way and that. 3.44.5 \xa0And since these ravines are connected by passages with one another and the sea is deep, the surf, as it at one time rushes in and at another time retreats, gives forth a sound resembling a mighty crash of thunder. At one place the surf, as it breaks upon huge rocks, rocks leaps on high and causes an astonishing mass of foam, at another it is swallowed up within the caverns and creates such a terrifying agitation of the waters that men who unwittingly draw near these places are so frightened that they die, as it were, a first death. 3.44 1. \xa0Next after these plains as one skirts the coast comes a gulf of extraordinary nature. It runs, namely, to a point deep into the land, extends in length a distance of some five hundred stades, and shut in as it is by crags which are of wondrous size, its mouth is winding and hard to get out of; for a rock which extends into the sea obstructs its entrance and so it is impossible for a ship either to sail into or out of the gulf.,2. \xa0Furthermore, at times when the current rushes in and there are frequent shiftings of the winds, the surf, beating upon the rocky beach, roars and rages all about the projecting rock. The inhabitants of the land about the gulf, who are known as Banizomenes, find their food by hunting the land animals and eating their meat. And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians.,3. \xa0Next there are three islands which lie off the coast just described and provide numerous harbours. The first of these, history relates, is sacred to Isis and is uninhabited, and on it are stone foundations of ancient dwellings and stelae which are inscribed with letters in a barbarian tongue; the other two islands are likewise uninhabited and all three are covered thick with olive trees which differ from those we have.,4. \xa0Beyond these islands there extends for about a\xa0thousand stades a coast which is precipitous and difficult for ships to sail past; for there is neither harbour beneath the cliffs nor roadstead where sailors may anchor, and no natural breakwater which affords shelter in emergency for mariners in distress. And parallel to the coast here runs a mountain range at whose summit are rocks which are sheer and of a terrifying height, and at its base are sharp undersea ledges in many places and behind them are ravines which are eaten away underneath and turn this way and that.,5. \xa0And since these ravines are connected by passages with one another and the sea is deep, the surf, as it at one time rushes in and at another time retreats, gives forth a sound resembling a mighty crash of thunder. At one place the surf, as it breaks upon huge rocks, rocks leaps on high and causes an astonishing mass of foam, at another it is swallowed up within the caverns and creates such a terrifying agitation of the waters that men who unwittingly draw near these places are so frightened that they die, as it were, a first death.,6. \xa0This coast, then, is inhabited by Arabs who are called Thamudeni; but the coast next to it is bounded by a very large gulf, off which lie scattered islands which are in appearance very much like the islands called the Echinades. After this coast there come sand dunes, of infinite extent in both length and width and black in colour.,7. \xa0Beyond them a neck of land is to be seen and a harbour, the fairest of any which have come to be included in history, called Charmuthas. For behind an extraordinary natural breakwater which slants towards the west there lies a gulf which not only is marvellous in its form but far surpasses all others in the advantages it offers; for a thickly wooded mountain stretches along it, enclosing it on all sides in a ring one\xa0hundred stades long; its entrance is two plethra wide, and it provides a harbour undisturbed by the waves sufficient for two thousand vessels.,8. \xa0Furthermore, it is exceptionally well supplied with water, since a river, larger than ordinary, empties into it, and it contains in its centre an island which is abundantly watered and capable of supporting gardens. In general, it resembles most closely the harbour of Carthage, which is known as Cothon, of the advantages of which we shall endeavour to give a detailed discussion in connection with the appropriate time. And a multitude of fish gather from the open sea into the harbour both because of the calm which prevails there and because of the sweetness of the waters which flow into it. \xa0 3.45 1. \xa0After these places, as a man skirts the coast, five mountains rise on high separated one from another, and their peaks taper into breast-shaped tips of stone which give them an appearance like that of the pyramids of Egypt.,2. \xa0Then comes a circular gulf guarded on every side by great promontories, and midway on a line drawn across it rises a trapezium-shaped hill on which three temples, remarkable for their height, have been erected to gods, which indeed are unknown to the Greeks, but are accorded unusual honour by the natives.,3. \xa0After this there is a stretch of dank coast, traversed at intervals by streams of sweet water from springs; on it there is a mountain which bears the name Chabinus and is heavily covered with thickets of every kind of tree. The land which adjoins the mountainous country is inhabited by the Arabs known as Debae.,4. \xa0They are breeders of camels and make use of the services of this animal in connection with the most important needs of their life; for instance, they fight against their enemies from their backs, employ them for the conveyance of their wares and thus easily accomplish all their business, drink their milk and in this way get their food from them, and traverse their entire country riding upon their racing camels.,5. \xa0And down the centre of their country runs a river which carries down such an amount of what is gold dust to all appearance that the mud glitters all over as it is carried out at its mouth. The natives of the region are entirely without experience in the working of the gold, but they are hospitable to strangers, not, however, to everyone who arrives among them, but only to Boeotians and Peloponnesians, the reason for this being the ancient friendship shown by Heracles for the tribe, a friendship which, they relate, has come down to them in the form of a myth as a heritage from their ancestors.,6. \xa0The land which comes next is inhabited by Alilaei and Gasandi, Arab peoples, and is not fiery hot, like the neighbouring territories, but is often overspread by mild and thick clouds, from which come heavy showers and timely storms that make the summer season temperate. The land produces everything and is exceptionally fertile, but it does not receive the cultivation of which it would admit because of the lack of experience of the folk.,7. \xa0Gold they discover in underground galleries which have been formed by nature and gather in abundance not that which has been fused into a mass out of gold-dust, but the virgin gold, which is called, from its condition when found, "unfired" gold. And as for size the smallest nugget found is about as large as the stone offruit, and the largest not much smaller than a royal nut.,8. \xa0This gold they wear about both their wrists and necks, perforating it and alternating it with transparent stones. And since this precious metal abounds in their land, whereas there is a scarcity of copper and iron, they exchange it with merchants for equal parts of the latter wares. \xa0 3.46 1. \xa0Beyond this people are the Carbae, as they are called, and beyond these the Sabaeans, who are the most numerous of the tribes of the Arabians. They inhabit that part of the country known as Arabia the Blest, which produces most of the things which are held dear among us and nurtures flocks and herds of every kind in multitude beyond telling. And a natural sweet odour pervades the entire land because practically all the things which excel in fragrance grow there unceasingly.,2. \xa0Along the coast, for instance, grow balsam, as called, and cassia and a certain other herb possessing a nature peculiar to itself; for when fresh it is most pleasing and delightful to the eye, but when kept for a time it suddenly fades to nothing.,3. \xa0And throughout the interior of land there are thick forests, in which are great trees which yield frankincense and myrrh, as well as palms and reeds, cinnamon trees and every other kind which possesses a sweet odour as these have; for it is impossible to enumerate both the peculiar properties and natures of each one severally because of the great volume and the exceptional richness of the fragrance as it is gathered from each and all.,4. \xa0For a divine thing and beyond the power of words to describe seems the fragrance which greets the nostrils and stirs the senses of everyone. Indeed, even though those who sail along this coast may be far from the land, that does not deprive them of a portion of the enjoyment which this fragrance affords; for in the summer season, when the wind is blowing off shore, one finds that the sweet odours exhaled by the myrrh-bearing and other aromatic trees penetrate to the near-by parts of the sea; and the reason is that the essence of the sweet-smelling herbs is not, as with us, kept laid away until it has become old and stale, but its potency is in the full bloom of its strength and fresh, and penetrates to the most delicate parts of the sense of smell.,5. \xa0And since the breeze carries the emanation of the most fragrant plants, to the voyagers who approach the coast there is wafted a blending of perfumes, delightful and potent, and healthful withal and exotic, composed as it is of the best of them, seeing that the product of the trees has not been minced into bits and so has exhaled its own special strength, nor yet lies stored away in vessels made of a different substance, but taken at the very prime of its freshness and while its divine nature keeps the shoot pure and undefiled. Consequently those who partake of the unique fragrance feel that they are enjoying the ambrosia of which the myths relate, being unable, because of the superlative sweetness of the perfume, to find any other name that would be fitting and worthy of it. \xa0' "3.47 1. \xa0Nevertheless, fortune has not invested the inhabitants of this land with a felicity which is perfect and leaves no room for envy, but with such great gifts she has coupled what is harmful and may serve as a warning to such men as are wont to despise the gods because of the unbroken succession of their blessings.,2. \xa0For in the most fragrant forests is a multitude of snakes, the colour of which is dark-red, their length a span, and their bites altogether incurable; they bite by leaping upon their victim, and as they spring on high they leave a stain of blood upon his skin.,3. \xa0And there is also something peculiar to the natives which happens in the case of those whose bodies have become weakened by a protracted illness. For when the body has become permeated by an undiluted and pungent substance and the combination of foreign bodies settles in a porous area, an enfeebled condition ensues which is difficult to cure: consequently at the side of men afflicted in this way they burn asphalt and the beard of a goat, combatting the excessively sweet odour by that from substances of the opposite nature. Indeed the good, when it is measured out in respect of quantity and order, is for human beings an aid and delight, but when it fails of due proportion and proper time the gift which it bestows is unprofitable.,4. \xa0The chief city of this tribe is called by them Sabae and is built upon a mountain. The kings of this city succeed to the throne by descent and the people accord to them honours mingled with good and ill. For though they have the appearance of leading a happy life, in that they impose commands upon all and are not accountable for their deeds, yet they are considered unfortunate, inasmuch as it is unlawful for them ever to leave the palace, and if they do so they are stoned to death, in accordance with a certain ancient oracle, by the common crowd.,5. \xa0This tribe surpasses not only the neighbouring Arabs but also all other men in wealth and in their several extravagancies besides. For in the exchange and sale of their wares they, of all men who carry on trade for the sake of the silver they receive in exchange, obtain the highest price in return for things of the smallest weight.,6. \xa0Consequently, since they have never for ages suffered the ravages of war because of their secluded position, and since an abundance of both gold and silver abounds in the country, especially in Sabae, where the royal palace is situated, they have embossed goblets of every description, made of silver and gold, couches and tripods with silver feet, and every other furnishing of incredible costliness, and halls encircled by large columns, some of them gilded, and others having silver figures on the capitals.,7. \xa0Their ceilings and doors they have partitioned by means of panels and coffers made of gold, set with precious stones and placed close together, and have thus made the structure of their houses in every part marvellous for its costliness; for some parts they have constructed of silver and gold, others of ivory and that most showy precious stones or of whatever else men esteem most highly.,8. \xa0For the fact is that these people have enjoyed their felicity unshaken since ages past because they have been entire strangers to those whose own covetousness leads them to feel that another man's wealth is their own godsend. The sea in these parts looks to be white in colour, so that the beholder marvels at the surprising phenomenon and at the same time seeks for its cause.,9. \xa0And there are prosperous islands near by, containing unwalled cities, all the herds of which are white in colour, while no female has any horn whatsoever. These islands are visited by sailors from every part and especially from Potana, the city which Alexander founded on the Indus river, when he wished to have a naval station on the shore of the ocean. Now as regards Arabia the Blest and its inhabitants we shall be satisfied with what has been said. \xa0" '3.48 1. \xa0But we must not omit to mention the strange phenomena which are seen in the heavens in these regions. The most marvellous is that which, according to accounts we have, has to do with the constellation of the Great Bear and occasions the greatest perplexity among navigators. What they relate is that, beginning with the month which the Athenians call Maemacterion, not one of the seven stars of the Great Bear is seen until the first watch, in Poseideon none until second, and in the following months they gradually drop out of the sight of navigators.,2. \xa0As for the other heavenly bodies, the planets, as they are called, are, in the case of some, larger than they appear with us, and in the case of others their risings and settings are also not the same; and the sun does not, as with us, send forth its light shortly in advance of its actual rising, but while the darkness of night still continues, it suddenly and contrary to all expectation appears and sends forth its light.,3. \xa0Because of this there is no daylight in those regions before the sun has become visible, and when out of the midst of the sea, as they say, it comes into view, it resembles a fiery red ball of charcoal which discharges huge sparks, and its shape does not look like a cone, as is the impression we have of it, but it has the shape of a column which has the appearance of being slightly thicker at the top; and furthermore it does not shine or send out rays before the first hour, appearing as a fire that gives forth no light in the darkness; but at the beginning of the second hour it takes on the form of a round shield and sends forth a light which is exceptionally bright and fiery.,4. \xa0But at its setting the opposite manifestations take place with respect to it; for it seems to observers to be lighting up the whole universe with a strange kind of ray for not less than two or, as Agatharchides of Cnidus has recorded, for three hours. And in the opinion of the natives this is the most pleasant period, when the heat is steadily lessening because of the setting of the sun.,5. \xa0As regards the winds, the west, the south-west, also the north-west and the east blow as in the other parts of the world; but in Ethiopia the south winds neither blow nor are known at all, although in the Trogodyte country and Arabia they so exceptionally hot that they set the forests on fire and cause the bodies of those who take refuge in the shade of their huts to collapse through weakness. The north wind, however, may justly be considered the most favourable of all, since it reaches into every region of the inhabited earth and is ever cool.
4.67.6
\xa0Now Aeolus took possession of the islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea which are called after him "Aeolian" and founded a city to which he gave the name Lipara; but Boeotus sailed home to Aeolus, the father of Arnê, by whom he was adopted and in succession to him he took over the kingship of Aeolis; and the land he named Arnê after his mother, but the inhabitants Boeotians after himself. 4.67.7 \xa0And Itonus, the son of Boeotus, begat four sons, Hippalcimus, Electryon, Archilycus, and Alegenor. of these sons Hippalcimus begat Penelos, Electryon begat Leïtus, Alegenor begat Clonius, and Archilycus begat Prothoënor and Arcesilaüs, who were the leaders of all the Boeotians in the expedition against Troy. " None
78. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.67-1.88, 1.217-1.228, 3.113-3.128, 3.191 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as performer of a public image • Ovid imagines Rome from exile • Philostratus, Imagines • imagination • imagines • imago mundi shield tradition • skin color, textual images

 Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 182; Gruen (2011), Rethinking the Other in Antiquity, 201; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 106; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 174, 176, 211, 223; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 21; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 105, 106, 110, 120

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1.67 Tu modo Pompeia lentus spatiare sub umbra, 1.68 rend= 1.69 Aut ubi muneribus nati sua munera mater 1.71 Nec tibi vitetur quae, priscis sparsa tabellis, 1.73 Quaque parare necem miseris patruelibus ausae 1.75 Nec te praetereat Veneri ploratus Adonis, 1.77 Nec fuge linigerae Memphitica templa iuvencae: 1.79 Et fora conveniunt (quis credere possit?) amori: 1.81 Subdita qua Veneris facto de marmore templo 1.83 Illo saepe loco capitur consultus Amori, 1.85 Illo saepe loco desunt sua verba diserto, 1.87 Hunc Venus e templis, quae sunt confinia, ridet:
1.217
Spectabunt laeti iuvenes mixtaeque puellae, 1.219 Atque aliqua ex illis cum regum nomina quaeret, 1.221 Omnia responde, nec tantum siqua rogabit; 1.223 Hic est Euphrates, praecinctus harundine frontem: 1.225 Hos facito Armenios; haec est Danaëia Persis: 1.227 Ille vel ille, duces; et erunt quae nomina dicas,
3.113
Simplicitas rudis ante fuit: nunc aurea Roma est, 3.115 Aspice quae nunc sunt Capitolia, quaeque fuerunt: 3.117 Curia, concilio quae nunc dignissima tanto, 3.119 Quae nunc sub Phoebo ducibusque Palatia fulgent, 3.121 Prisca iuvent alios: ego me nunc denique natum 3.123 Non quia nunc terrae lentum subducitur aurum, 3.125 Nec quia decrescunt effosso marmore montes, 3.127 Sed quia cultus adest, nec nostros mansit in annos
3.191
Alba decent fuscas: albis, Cepheï, placebas:'' None
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1.67 Here may'st thou find thy full desires in both:" '1.68 Or if autumnal beauties please thy sight 1.69 (An age that knows to give and take delight;) 1.70 Millions of matrons, of the graver sort, 1.71 In common prudence, will not balk the sport.' "1.72 In summer's heats thou need'st but only go" "1.73 To Pompey's cool and shady portico; This was a shady walk which Pompey built for the people; and there were several in Rome of the same sort; but the most admirable one of all the porticos, was the Corinthian, near the Flaminian cirque, built by Cneius Octavius." "1.74 Or Concord's fane; or that proud edifice" '1.75 Whose turrets near the bawdy suburbs rise; 1.76 Or to that other portico, where stand 1.77 The cruel father urging his commands. 1.78 And fifty daughters wait the time of rest,' "1.79 To plunge their poniards in the bridegroom's breast." "1.80 Or Venus ' temple; where, on annual nights," '1.81 They mourn Adonis with Assyrian rites. It was the custom among the Romans, to meet in the temples of Venus to mourn Adonis; of which the prophet Ezekiel speaks, ( Ezek. viii. 14. ); and infamous acts of lewdness were there committed, if we may believe Juvenal in his sixth satire . 1.82 Nor shun the Jewish walk, where the foul drove' "1.83 On sabbaths rest from everything but love. There were great numbers of the Jews at Rome in Augustus's reign, who were allowed full liberty to exercise their ceremonies, according to the law of Moses . And the Roman ladies went often to see them out of curiosity, which gave occasion for assignations at their synagogues." "1.84 Nor Isis' temple; for that sacred whore" "1.85 Makes others, what to Jove she was before; That is, many women were debauched by Isis's means, as she was by Jupiter under the name of Io." '1.86 And if the hall itself be not belied,' "1.87 E'en there the cause of love is often tried;" '1.88 Near it at least, or in the palace yard,
1.217
Bacchus a boy, yet like a hero fought,' "1.218 And early spoils from conquer'd India brought." "1.219 Thus you your father's troops shall lead to fight," "1.220 And thus shall vanquish in your father's right." '1.221 These rudiments you to your lineage owe; 1.222 Born to increase your titles as you grow. 1.223 Brethren you had, revenge your brethren slain; 1.224 You have a father, and his rights maintain.' "1.225 Arm'd by your country's parent and your own," '1.226 Redeem your country and restore his throne. 1.227 Your enemies assert an impious cause; 1.228 You fight both for divine and human laws.
3.113
The snake his skin, the deer his horns may cast, 3.114 And both renew their youth and vigor past; 3.115 But no receipt can human-kind relieve,' "3.116 Doom'd to decrepit age, without reprieve." "3.117 Then crop the flow'r which yet invites your eye," "3.118 And which, ungather'd, on its stalk must die." "3.119 Besides, the tender sex is form'd to bear," '3.120 And frequent births too soon will youth impair; 3.121 Continual harvest wears the fruitful field,' "3.122 And earth itself decays, too often till'd." '3.123 Thou didst not, Cynthia , scorn the Latmian swain; 3.124 Nor thou, Aurora, Cephalus disdain;' "3.125 The Paphian Queen, who, for Adonis' fate" "3.126 So deeply mourn'd, and who laments him yet," '3.127 Has not been found inexorable since; 3.128 Witness Harmonia, and the Dardan prince.
3.191
Another, all her tresses tie behind;'" None
79. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.602, 15.865 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as performer of a public image • Diana, image of, by Timotheus • Imagining, imagination • victory (in love-imagery)

 Found in books: Fertik (2019), The Ruler's House: Contesting Power and Privacy in Julio-Claudian Rome, 65; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 151; Mayor (2017), Religion and Memory in Tacitus’ Annals, 232; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 250

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5.602 ripa meas habuit. Tanto magis instat et ardet,
15.865
et cum Caesarea tu, Phoebe domestice, Vesta,'' None
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5.602 long since called Pergus; and the songs of swans,
15.865
the city, you shall be its chosen king'' None
80. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 2, 10, 20, 51, 119-121 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Enos, nautical imagery for • God, human created according to the image of • Image • athletics imagery • games imagery • image of God • imagery athletic • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, nautical • imagery, sowing/planting

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160, 181, 182, 186, 191, 386, 388; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 132, 214, 215, 261; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 161; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 179

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2 But Moses, through the exceeding abundance of his knowledge of all things, was accustomed to affix the most felicitous and expressive appellations to them. Accordingly, in many passages of the law, we shall find this opinion, which we have expressed, confirmed by the fact, and not least in the passage which we have cited at the beginning of this treatise, in which the just Noah is represented as a husbandman.
10
By means of this husbandry, all the trees of the passions and vices, which soot forth and grow up to a height, bringing forth pernicious fruits, are rooted up, and cut down, and cleared away, so that not even the smallest fragment of them is left, from which any new shoots of evil actions can subsequently spring up.
20
Therefore, the allwise Moses attributes to the just man a knowledge of the husbandry of the soul, as an act consistent with his character, and thoroughly suited to him, saying, "Noah began to be a husbandman." But to the unjust man he attributes the task of tilling the ground, which is an employment bearing the heaviest burdens without any knowledge.
51
and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road."
119
Therefore the Olympian contest is the only one that justly deserves to be called sacred; meaning by this, not that which the inhabitants of Elis celebrate, but that which is instituted for the acquisition of the divine, and Olympian, and genuine virtues. Now, as competitors in this contest, all those have their names inscribed who are very weak in their bodies, but very vigorous in their souls; and then, having stripped off their clothes, and smeared themselves in the dust, they do all those actions which belong to skill and to power, omitting nothing which may conduce to their gaining the victory. 1

20
These men, therefore, get the better of their adversaries: and then, again, they have a competition with one another for the prize of pre-eminence, for they are not all victorious in the same manner, but all are worthy of honour, having routed and overthrown most grievous and formidable enemies; 1
21
and he who shows himself superior to all the rest of these is most admirable, and we must not envy him, when he gets the first prize of all the wrestlers. And those who are thought worthy of the second or of the third place, must not be cast down; for these prizes are proposed for the acquisition of virtue. But to those who are unable to attain to the very highest eminence, even the acquisition of a moderate prize is serviceable. And it is even said that such is more stable, since it avoids the envy which always sticks to those who are excessively eminent. ' None
81. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 18, 86, 127 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • God, human created according to the image of • God, image of • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • father imagery • image of God • imagery, marking/stamping • imagery, sowing/planting • merkavah imagery, devekut to • mind, image of God

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 93, 166; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 288; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 144; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 205; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 166

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86 And the doctrine is this: God alone keeps festival in reality, for he alone rejoices, he alone is delighted, he alone feels cheerfulness, and to him alone is it given, to pass an existence of perfect peace unmixed with war. He is free from all pain, and free from all fear; he has no participation in any evils, he yields to no one, he suffers no sorrow, he knows no fatigue, he is full of unalloyed happiness; his nature is entirely perfect, or rather God is himself the perfection, and completion, and boundary of happiness, partaking of nothing else by which he can be rendered better, but giving to every individual thing a portion of what is suited to it, from the fountain of good, namely, from himself; for the beautiful things in the world would never have been such as they are, if they had not been made after an archetypal pattern, which was really beautiful, the uncreate, and blessed, and imperishable model of all things. XXVI.
127
And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. ' ' None
82. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 62, 97, 146-147 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • King as image/glory of gods • image of God

 Found in books: Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 91, 145; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 73, 157, 159, 161, 205; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 266; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164

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62 I have also heard of one of the companions of Moses having uttered such a speech as this: "Behold, a man whose name is the East!" A very novel appellation indeed, if you consider it as spoken of a man who is compounded of body and soul; but if you look upon it as applied to that incorporeal being who in no respect differs from the divine image, you will then agree that the name of the east has been given to him with great felicity.
97
For it is very suitable for those who have made an association for the purpose of learning to desire to see him; and, if they are unable to do that, at least to see his image, the most sacred word, and, next to that, the most perfect work of all the things perceptible by the outward senses, namely, the world? For to philosophise is nothing else but to desire to see things accurately. XXI. ' "
146
And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel. "147 For which reason I was induced a little while ago to praise the principles of those who said, "We are all one man\'s Sons." For even if we are not yet suitable to be called the sons of God, still we may deserve to be called the children of his eternal image, of his most sacred word; for the image of God is his most ancient word. ' None
83. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 31, 187 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • image of God • imagination • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 284; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 158, 161, 205; Russell and Nesselrath (2014), On Prophecy, Dreams and Human Imagination: Synesius, De insomniis, 183

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31 Accordingly wisdom is represented by some one of the beings of the divine company as speaking of herself in this manner: "God created me as the first of his works, and before the beginning of time did he establish me." For it was necessary that all the things which came under the head of the creation must be younger than the mother and nurse of the whole universe. IX.
187
what is advantageous is recognised by a comparison with what is injurious, what is beautiful by a comparison with what is unseemly, what is just and generally good, by placing it in juxta-position with what is unjust and bad. And, indeed, if any one considers everything that there is in the world, he will be able to arrive at a proper estimate of its character, by taking it in the same manner; for each separate thing is by itself incomprehensible, but by a comparison with another thing, is easy to understand it. '' None
84. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 63, 68, 95, 101 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Images, of Angels • divine, image • image of God

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 141, 144; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 157; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 266; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 654

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63 This, too, one of the most eminent among the men who have been admired for their wisdom has asserted, speaking in a magnificent strain in the Theaetetus, where he says, "But it is impossible for evils to come to and end. For it is indispensable that there should always be something in opposition to God. And it is equally impossible that it should have a place in the divine regions; but it must of necessity hover around mortal nature and this place where we live; on which account we ought to endeavor to flee from this place as speedily as possible. And our flight will be a likening of ourselves to God, to the best of our power. And such a likening consists of being just and holy in conjunction with Prudence."
68
On this account, I imagine it is, that when Moses was speaking philosophically of the creation of the world, while he described everything else as having been created by God alone, he mentions man alone as having been made by him in conjunction with other assistants; for, says Moses, "God said, Let us make man in our Image." The expression, "let us make," indicating a plurality of makers.
95
But the other five, being as it were colonies of that one, are the powers of Him who utters the word, the chief of which is his creative power, according to which the Creator made the world with a word; the second is his kingly power, according to which he who has created rules over what is created; the third is his merciful power, in respect of which the Creator pities and shows mercy towards his own work; the fourth is his legislative power, by which he forbids what may not be done. ...( 96) And these are the very beautiful and most excellently fenced cities, the best possible refuge for souls which are worthy to be saved for ever; and the establishment of them is merciful and humane, calculated to excite men, to aid and to encourage them in good hopes. Who else could more greatly display the exceeding abundance of his mercy, all of the powers which are able to benefit us, towards such an exceeding variety of persons who err by unintentional misdeeds, and who have neither the same strength nor the same weakness?
101
But the divine word which is above these does not come into any visible appearance, inasmuch as it is not like to any of the things that come under the external senses, but is itself an image of God, the most ancient of all the objects of intellect in the whole world, and that which is placed in the closest proximity to the only truly existing God, without any partition or distance being interposed between them: for it is said, "I will speak unto thee from above the mercyseat, in the midst, between the two Cherubim." So that the word is, as it were, the charioteer of the powers, and he who utters it is the rider, who directs the charioteer how to proceed with a view to the proper guidance of the universe. '' None
85. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 7, 31, 58-61, 67 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • image of God • imagery, flood • imagery, fountain • merkavah imagery, devekut to • theatre imagery

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 924; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 246; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 211; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285, 287

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7 And let no one suppose, that what is here stated is a fable, for it is necessarily true that the universe must be filled with living things in all its parts, since every one of its primary and elementary portions contains its appropriate animals and such as are consistent with its nature; --the earth containing terrestrial animals, the sea and the rivers containing aquatic animals, and the fire such as are born in the fire (but it is said, that such as these last are found chiefly in Macedonia), and the heaven containing the stars:
31
For those souls which are devoid of flesh and of the body, remaining undisturbed in the theatre of the universe, occupied in seeing and hearing divine things, of which an insatiable desire has seized them, enjoy a pleasure to which no one offers any interruption. But those which bear the heavy burden of the flesh, being weighed down and oppressed by it, are unable to look upwards to the revolutions of the heaven, but being dragged downwards, have their necks forcibly pressed to the ground like so many quadrupeds. VIII. 58 "And there were giants on the earth in those Days." Perhaps some one may here think, that the lawgiver is speaking enigmatically and alluding to the fables handed down by the poets about giants, though he is a man as far removed as possible from any invention of fables, and one who thinks fit only to walk in the paths of truth itself; 59 in consequence of which principle, he has banished from the constitution, which he has established, those celebrated and beautiful arts of statuary and painting, because they, falsely imitating the nature of the truth, contrive deceits and snares, in order, through the medium of the eyes, to beguile the souls which are liable to be easily won over. 60 Therefore he utters no fable whatever respecting the giants; but he wishes to set this fact before your eyes, that some men are born of the earth, and some are born of heaven, and some are born of God: those are born of the earth, who are hunters after the pleasures of the body, devoting themselves to the enjoyment and fruition of them, and being eager to provide themselves with all things that tend to each of them. Those again are born of heaven who are men of skill and science and devoted to learning; for the heavenly portion of us is our mind, and the mind of every one of those persons who are born of heaven studies the encyclical branches of education and every other art of every description, sharpening, and exercising, and practising itself, and rendering itself acute in all those matters which are the objects of intellect. 61 Lastly, those who are born of God are priests and prophets, who have not thought fit to mix themselves up in the constitutions of this world, and to become cosmopolites, but who having raised themselves above all the objects of the mere outward senses, have departed and fixed their views on that world which is perceptible only by the intellect, and have settled there, being inscribed in the state of incorruptible incorporeal ideas. XIV. 6
7
and it would be consistent in the truth to say that, according to the most holy Moses, the bad man, as being one destitute of a home and of a city, without any settled habitation, and a fugitive, is naturally a deserter also; but the good man is the firmest of allies. Having said thus much at present, and dwelt sufficiently on the subject of the giants, we will now proceed to what comes next in our subject, which is this. ' None
86. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 14 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletics imagery • games imagery • image of God

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191, 201; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197

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14 And, indeed, the living God is so completely indescribable, that even those powers which minister unto him do not announce his proper name to us. At all events, after the wrestling match in which the practicer of virtue wrestled for the sake of the acquisition of virtue, he says to the invisible Master, "Tell me thy Name;" but he said, "Why askest thou me my name?" And he does not tell him his peculiar and proper name, for says he, it is sufficient for thee to be taught my ordinary explanations. But as for names which are the symbols of created things, do not seek to find them among immortal natures. III. '' None
87. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 7, 10, 15, 20-21, 23-25, 27, 31, 33-35, 66-88, 126, 133-141, 144, 146, 152, 154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • God, human created according to the image of • God, image of • God,image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Image of God • Image xvi, • Image, Adam as Image of God • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Images, of Angels • Imago deiy • Impression, Imagination (φαντασία) • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • King as image/glory of gods • athletics imagery • divine, image • father imagery • games imagery • image of God • image of God, • imagery, circle • imagery, fountain • imagery, light • imagery, marking/stamping • imagery, sowing/planting • images • imago dei • mechanical imagery • merkavah imagery, devekut to • mind, image of God • passions, animal imagery and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160, 180, 181, 183, 388, 389; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 12, 13, 182, 394; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 278; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 108; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 117, 122, 153, 154, 156, 166, 206, 208; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190, 197; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224, 288; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145, 148; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147, 150, 170; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 410, 411; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 91, 92, 139, 144, 145, 199; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250; O'Brien (2015), The Demiurge in Ancient Thought, 61; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 179; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Schibli (2002), Hierocles of Alexandria, 175; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 19, 20; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 654; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 399; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 86

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7 For some men, admiring the world itself rather than the Creator of the world, have represented it as existing without any maker, and eternal; and as impiously as falsely have represented God as existing in a state of complete inactivity, while it would have been right on the other hand to marvel at the might of God as the creator and father of all, and to admire the world in a degree not exceeding the bounds of moderation.
10
for reason proves that the father and creator has a care for that which has been created; for a father is anxious for the life of his children, and a workman aims at the duration of his works, and employs every device imaginable to ward off everything that is pernicious or injurious, and is desirous by every means in his power to provide everything which is useful or profitable for them. But with regard to that which has not been created, there is no feeling of interest as if it were his own in the breast of him who has not created it. 15 And he allotted each of the six days to one of the portions of the whole, taking out the first day, which he does not even call the first day, that it may not be numbered with the others, but entitling it one, he names it rightly, perceiving in it, and ascribing to it the nature and appellation of the limit. IV. We must mention as much as we can of the matters contained in his account, since to enumerate them all is impossible; for he embraces that beautiful world which is perceptible only by the intellect, as the account of the first day will show:
20
As therefore the city, when previously shadowed out in the mind of the man of architectural skill had no external place, but was stamped solely in the mind of the workman, so in the same manner neither can the world which existed in ideas have had any other local position except the divine reason which made them; for what other place could there be for his powers which should be able to receive and contain, I do not say all, but even any single one of them whatever, in its simple form? 21 And the power and faculty which could be capable of creating the world, has for its origin that good which is founded on truth; for if any one were desirous to investigate the cause on account of which this universe was created, I think that he would come to no erroneous conclusion if he were to say as one of the ancients did say: "That the Father and Creator was good; on which account he did not grudge the substance a share of his own excellent nature, since it had nothing good of itself, but was able to become everything."
23
And God, not being urged on by any prompter (for who else could there have been to prompt him?) but guided by his own sole will, decided that it was fitting to benefit with unlimited and abundant favours a nature which, without the divine gift, was unable to itself to partake of any good thing; but he benefits it, not according to the greatness of his own graces, for they are illimitable and eternal, but according to the power of that which is benefited to receive his graces. For the capacity of that which is created to receive benefits does not correspond to the natural power of God to confer them; since his powers are infinitely greater, and the thing created being not sufficiently powerful to receive all their greatness would have sunk under it, if he had not measured his bounty, allotting to each, in due proportion, that which was poured upon it. 24 And if any one were to desire to use more undisguised terms, he would not call the world, which is perceptible only to the intellect, any thing else but the reason of God, already occupied in the creation of the world; for neither is a city, while only perceptible to the intellect, anything else but the reason of the architect, who is already designing to build one perceptible to the external senses, on the model of that which is so only to the intellect-- 25 this is the doctrine of Moses, not mine. Accordingly he, when recording the creation of man, in words which follow, asserts expressly, that he was made in the image of God--and if the image be a part of the image, then manifestly so is the entire form, namely, the whole of this world perceptible by the external senses, which is a greater imitation of the divine image than the human form is. It is manifest also, that the archetypal seal, which we call that world which is perceptible only to the intellect, must itself be the archetypal model, the idea of ideas, the Reason of God. VII. 2
7
But if the beginning spoken of by Moses is not to be looked upon as spoken of according to time, then it may be natural to suppose that it is the beginning according to number that is indicated; so that, "In the beginning he created," is equivalent to "first of all he created the heaven;" for it is natural in reality that that should have been the first object created, being both the best of all created things, and being also made of the purest substance, because it was destined to be the most holy abode of the visible Gods who are perceptible by the external senses;
31
And the invisible divine reason, perceptible only by intellect, he calls the image of God. And the image of this image is that light, perceptible only by the intellect, which is the image of the divine reason, which has explained its generation. And it is a star above the heavens, the source of those stars which are perceptible by the external senses, and if any one were to call it universal light he would not be very wrong; since it is from that the sun and the moon, and all the other planets and fixed stars derive their due light, in proportion as each has power given to it; that unmingled and pure light being obscured when it begins to change, according to the change from that which is perceptible only by the intellect, to that which is perceptible by the external senses; for none of those things which are perceptible to the external senses is pure. IX.
33
And after the shining forth of that light, perceptible only to the intellect, which existed before the sun, then its adversary darkness yielded, as God put a wall between them and separated them, well knowing their opposite characters, and the enmity existing between their natures. In order, therefore, that they might not war against one another from being continually brought in contact, so that war would prevail instead of peace, God, burning want of order into order, did not only separate light and darkness, but did also place boundaries in the middle of the space between the two, by which he separated the extremities of each. For if they had approximated they must have produced confusion, preparing for the contest, for the supremacy, with great and unextinguishable rivalry, if boundaries established between them had not separated them and prevented them from clashing together, 34 and these boundaries are evening and morning; the one of which heralds in the good tidings that the sun is about to rise, gently dissipating the darkness: and evening comes on as the sun sets, receiving gently the collective approach of darkness. And these, I mean morning and evening, must be placed in the class of incorporeal things, perceptible only by the intellect; for there is absolutely nothing in them which is perceptible by the external senses, but they are entirely ideas, and measures, and forms, and seals, incorporeal as far as regards the generation of other bodies. 35 But when light came, and darkness retreated and yielded to it, and boundaries were set in the space between the two, namely, evening and morning, then of necessity the measure of time was immediately perfected, which also the Creator called "day." and He called it not "the first day," but "one day;" and it is spoken of thus, on account of the single nature of the world perceptible only by the intellect, which has a single nature. X.
66
And it was on this account that of all living creatures God created fishes first, inasmuch as they partake of corporeal substance in a greater degree than they partake of soul, being in a manner animals and not animals, moving soulless things, having a sort of semblance of soul diffused through them for no object beyond that of keeping their bodies live (just as they say that salt preserves meat), in order that they may not easily be destroyed. And after the fishes, he created winged and terrestrial animals: for these are endowed with a higher degree of sensation, and from their formation show that the properties of their animating principle are of a higher order. But after all the rest, then, as has been said before, he created man, to whom he gave that admirable endowment of mind--the soul, if I may so call it, of the soul, as being like the pupil to the eye; for those who most accurately investigate the natures of things affirm, that it is the pupil which is the eye of the eye. XXII. 6
7
So at last all things were created and existing together. But when they all were collected in one place, then some sort of order was necessarily laid down for them for the sake of the production of them from one another which was hereafter to take place. Now in things which exist in part, the principle of order is this, to begin with that which is most inferior in its nature, and to end with that which is the most excellent of all; and what that is we will explain. It has been arranged that seed should be the principle of the generation of animals. It is plainly seen that this is a thing of no importance, being like foam; but when it has descended into the womb and remained there, then immediately it receives motion and is changed into nature; and nature is more excellent than seed, as also motion is better than quiet in created things; and nature, like a workman, or, to speak more correctly, like a faultless art, endows the moist substance with life, and fashions it, distributing it among the limbs and parts of the body, allotting that portion which can produce breath, and nourishment, and sensation to the powers of the soul: for as to the reasoning powers, we may pass over them for the present, on account of those who say, that the mind enters into the body from without, being something divine and eternal. 68 Nature therefore began from an insignificant seed, and ended in the most honourable of things, namely, in the formation of animals and men. And the very same thing took place in the creation of every thing: for when the Creator determined to make animals the first created in his arrangement were in some degree inferior, such as the fishes, and the last were the best, namely, man. And the others the terrestrial and winged creatures were between these extremes, being better than the first created, and inferior to the last. XXIII. 69 So then after all the other things, as has been said before, Moses says that man was made in the image and likeness of God. And he says well; for nothing that is born on the earth is more resembling God than man. And let no one think that he is able to judge of this likeness from the characters of the body: for neither is God a being with the form of a man, nor is the human body like the form of God; but the resemblance is spoken of with reference to the most important part of the soul, namely, the mind: for the mind which exists in each individual has been created after the likeness of that one mind which is in the universe as its primitive model, being in some sort the God of that body which carries it about and bears its image within it. In the same rank that the great Governor occupies in the universal world, that same as it seems does the mind of man occupy in man; for it is invisible, though it sees everything itself; and it has an essence which is undiscernible, though it can discern the essences of all other things, and making for itself by art and science all sorts of roads leading in divers directions, and all plain; it traverses land and sea, investigating everything which is contained in either element.
70
And again, being raised up on wings, and so surveying and contemplating the air, and all the commotions to which it is subject, it is borne upwards to the higher firmament, and to the revolutions of the heavenly bodies. And also being itself involved in the revolutions of the planets and fixed stars according to the perfect laws of music, and being led on by love, which is the guide of wisdom, it proceeds onwards till, having surmounted all essence intelligible by the external senses, it comes to aspire to such as is perceptible only by the intellect:
71
and perceiving in that, the original models and ideas of those things intelligible by the external senses which it saw here full of surpassing beauty, it becomes seized with a sort of sober intoxication like the zealots engaged in the Corybantian festivals, and yields to enthusiasm, becoming filled with another desire, and a more excellent longing, by which it is conducted onwards to the very summit of such things as are perceptible only to the intellect, till it appears to be reaching the great King himself. And while it is eagerly longing to behold him pure and unmingled, rays of divine light are poured forth upon it like a torrent, so as to bewilder the eyes of its intelligence by their splendour. But as it is not every image that resembles its archetypal model, since many are unlike, Moses has shown this by adding to the words "after his image," the expression, "in his likeness," to prove that it means an accurate impression, having a clear and evident resemblance in form. XXIV.
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And he would not err who should raise the question why Moses attributed the creation of man alone not to one creator, as he did that of other animals, but to several. For he introduces the Father of the universe using this language: "Let us make man after our image, and in our likeness." Had he then, shall I say, need of any one whatever to help him, He to whom all things are subject? Or, when he was making the heaven and the earth and the sea, was he in need of no one to co-operate with him; and yet was he unable himself by his own power to make man an animal so short-lived and so exposed to the assaults of fate without the assistance of others? It is plain that the real cause of his so acting is known to God alone, but one which to a reasonable conjecture appears probable and credible, I think I should not conceal; and it is this.
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of existing things, there are some which partake neither of virtue nor of vice; as for instance, plants and irrational animals; the one, because they are destitute of soul, and are regulated by a nature void of sense; and the other, because they are not endowed with mind of reason. But mind and reason may be looked upon as the abode of virtue and vice; as it is in them that they seem to dwell. Some things again partake of virtue alone, being without any participation in any kind of vice; as for instance, the stars, for they are said to be animals, and animals endowed with intelligence; or I might rather say, the mind of each of them is wholly and entirely virtuous, and unsusceptible of every kind of evil. Some things again are of a mixed nature, like man, who is capable of opposite qualities, of wisdom and folly, of temperance and dissoluteness, of courage and cowardice, of justice and injustice, in short of good and evil, of what is honourable and what is disgraceful, of virtue and vice.
74
Now it was a very appropriate task for God the Father of all to create by himself alone, those things which were wholly good, on account of their kindred with himself. And it was not inconsistent with his dignity to create those which were indifferent since they too are devoid of evil, which is hateful to him. To create the beings of a mixed nature, was partly consistent and partly inconsistent with his dignity; consistent by reason of the more excellent idea which is mingled in them; inconsistent because of the opposite and worse one.
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It is on this account that Moses says, at the creation of man alone that God said, "Let us make man," which expression shows an assumption of other beings to himself as assistants, in order that God, the governor of all things, might have all the blameless intentions and actions of man, when he does right attributed to him; and that his other assistants might bear the imputation of his contrary actions. For it was fitting that the Father should in the eyes of his children be free from all imputation of evil; and vice and energy in accordance with vice are evil.
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And very beautifully after he had called the whole race "man," did he distinguish between the sexes, saying, that "they were created male and female;" although all the individuals of the race had not yet assumed their distinctive form; since the extreme species are contained in the genus, and are beheld, as in a mirror, by those who are able to discern acutely. XXV.
7
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And some one may inquire the cause why it was that man was the last work in the creation of the world. For the Creator and Father created him after every thing else as the sacred scriptures inform us. Accordingly, they who have gone most deeply into the laws, and who to the best of their power have investigated everything that is contained in them with all diligence, say that God, when he had given to man to partake of kindred with himself, grudged him neither reason, which is the most excellent of all gifts, nor anything else that is good; but before his creation, provided for him every thing in the world, as for the animal most resembling himself, and dearest to him, being desirous that when he was born, he should be in want of nothing requisite for living, and for living well; the first of which objects is provided for by the abundance of supplies which are furnished to him for his enjoyment, and the other by his power of contemplation of the heavenly bodies, by which the mind is smitten so as to conceive a love and desire for knowledge on those subjects; owing to which desire, philosophy has sprung up, by which, man, though mortal, is made immortal.
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As then, those who make a feast do not invite their guests to the entertainment before they have provided everything for festivity, and as those who celebrate gymnastic or dramatic contests, before they assemble the spectators, provide themselves with an abundance of competitors and spectacles, and sweet sounds, with which to fill the theatres and the stadia; so in the same manner did the Ruler of all, as a man proposing games, or giving a banquet and being about to invite others to feast and to behold the spectacle, first provide everything for every kind of entertainment, in order that when man came into the world he might at once find a feast ready for him, and a most holy theatre; the one abounding with everything which the earth, or the rivers, or the sea, or air, brings forth for use and enjoyment, and the other being full of every description of light, which has either its essence or its qualities admirable, and its motions and revolutions worthy of notice, being arranged in perfect order, both as to the proportions of its numbers, and the harmony of its periods. And a man would not be far wrong who should say that in all these things there might be discovered that archetypal and real model music, the images of which the subsequent generations of mankind engraved in their own souls, and in this way handed down the art which is the most necessary and the most advantageous to human life. XXVI.
79
This is the first reason on account of which it seems that man was created after all other animals. And there is another not altogether unreasonable, which I must mention. At the moment of his first birth, man found all the requisites for life ready prepared for him that he might teach them to those who should come afterwards. Nature all but crying out with a distinct voice, that men, imitating the Author of their being, should pass their lives without labour and without trouble, living in the most ungrudging abundance and plenty. And this would be the case if there were neither irrational pleasures to obtain mastery over the soul raising up a wall of gluttony and lasciviousness, nor desires of glory, or power, or riches, to assume dominion over life, nor pains to contract and warp the intellect, nor that evil councillor--fear, to restrain the natural inclinations towards virtuous actions, nor folly and cowardice, and injustice, and the incalculable multitude of other evils to attack them. 80 But now that all the evils which I have now been mentioning are vigorous, and that men abandon themselves without restraint to their passions, and to those unbridled and guilty inclinations, which it is impious even to mention, justice encounters them as a suitable chastiser of wicked habits; and therefore, as a punishment for wrong doers, the necessaries of life have been made difficult of acquisition. For men ploughing up the plains with difficulty, and bringing streams from rivers, and fountains by channels, and sowing and planting, and submitting indefatigably day and night to the labour of cultivating the ground, provide themselves every year with what is necessary, even that at times being attended with pain; and not very sufficient in quantity, from being injured by many causes. For either a fall of incessant rain has carried away the crops, or the weight of hail which has fallen upon them has crushed them altogether, or snow has chilled them, or the violence of the winds has torn them up by the roots; for water and air cause many alterations, tending to destroy and productiveness of the crops. 81 But if the immoderate violence of the passions were appeased by temperance, and the inclination to do wrong and depraved ambition were corrected by justice, and in short if the vices and unhallowed actions done in accordance with them, were corrected by the virtues, and the energies in accordance with them, the war of the soul being terminated, which is in good truth the most grievous and heavy of all wars, and peace being established, and founding amid all our faculties, a due regard for law, with all tranquillity and mildness, then there would be hope that God, as being a friend to virtue, and a friend to honour, and above all a friend to man, would bestow upon the race of man, all kinds of spontaneous blessings from his ready store. For it is evident that it is easier to supply most abundantly the requisite supplies without having recourse to agricultural means, from treasures which already exist, than to bring forth what as yet has no existence. XXVII. 82 I have now mentioned the second reason. There is also a third, which is as follows:--God, intending to adapt the beginning and the end of all created things together, as being all necessary and dear to one another, made heaven the beginning, and man the end: the one being the most perfect of incorruptible things, among those things which are perceptible by the external senses; and the other, the best of all earthborn and perishable productions--a short-lived heaven if one were to speak the truth, bearing within himself many starlike natures, by means of certain arts and sciences, and illustrious speculations, according to every kind of virtue. For since the corruptible and the incorruptible, are by nature opposite, he has allotted the best thing of each species to the beginning and to the end. Heaven, as I before said, to the beginning, and man to the end. XXVIII. 83 And besides all this, another is also mentioned among the necessary causes. It was necessary that man should be the last of all created beings; in order that being so, and appearing suddenly, he might strike terror into the other animals. For it was fitting that they, as soon as they first saw him should admire and worship him, as their natural ruler and master; on which account, they all, as soon as they saw him, became tame before him; even those, who by nature were most savage, becoming at once most manageable at the first sight of him; displaying their unbridled ferocity to one another, and being tame to man alone. 84 For which reason the Father who made him to be a being domit over them by nature not merely in fact, but also by express verbal appointment, established him as the king of all the animals, beneath the moon, whether terrestrial or aquatic, or such as traverse the air. For every mortal thing which lives in the three elements, land, water or air, did he put in subjection to him, excepting only the beings that are in heaven, as creatures who have a more divine portion. And what is apparent to our eyes it the most evident proof of this. For at times, innumerable herds of beasts are led about by one man, not armed, nor wearing iron, nor any defensive weapon, but clad only in a skin for a garment, and carrying a staff, for the purpose of making signs, and to lean upon also in his journeys if he become weary. 85 And so the shepherd, and the goatherd, and the cowherd, lead numerous flocks of sheep, and goats, and herds of oxen; men neither vigorous, nor active in their bodies, so as to strike those who behold them with admiration because of their fine appearance; and all the might and power of such numerous and well-armed beasts (for they have means of self-defence given them by nature), yet dread them as slaves do their master, and do all that is commanded them. Bulls are yoked to the plough to till the ground, and cutting deep furrows all day, sometimes even for a long space of time together, while some farmer is managing them. And rams being weighed down with heavy fleeces of wool, in the spring season, at the command of the shepherd, stand quietly, and lying down, without resistance, permit their wool to be shorn off, being accustomed naturally, like cities, to yield a yearly tribute to their sovereign. 86 And moreover, that most spirited of animals, the horse, is easily guided after he has been bridled; in order that he may not become frisky, and shake off the rein; and he hollows his back in an admirable manner to receive his rider and to afford him a good seat, and then bearing him aloft, he gallops at a rapid pace, being eager to arrive at and carry him to the place to which he is urging him. And the rider without any toil, but in the most perfect quiet, makes a rapid journey, by using the body and feet of another animal. XXIX. 8
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And any one who was inclined to dwell upon this subject might bring forward a great many other instances, to prove that there is no animal in the enjoyment of perfect liberty, and exempt from the dominion of man; but what has been already said is sufficient by way of example. We ought, however, not to be ignorant of this also, that it is no proof because man was the last created animal that he is the lowest in rank, and charioteers and pilots are witnesses of this; 88 for the charioteers sit behind their beasts of burden, and are placed at, their backs, and yet when they have the reins in their hands, they guide them wherever they choose, and at one time they urge them on to a swift pace, and at another time they hold them back, if they are going on at a speed greater than is desirable. And pilots again, sitting in the hindmost part of the ship, that is the stern are, as one may say, the most important of all the people in the ship, inasmuch as they have the safety of the ship and of all those who are in it, in their hands. And so the Creator has made man to be as it were a charioteer and pilot over all other animals, in order that he may hold the reins and direct the course of every thing upon earth, having the superintendence of all animals and plants, as a sort of viceroy of the principal and mighty King. XXX.
126
And the power of this number does not exist only in the instances already mentioned, but it also pervades the most excellent of the sciences, the knowledge of grammar and music. For the lyre with seven strings, bearing a proportion to the assemblage of the seven planets, perfects its admirable harmonies, being almost the chief of all instruments which are conversant about music. And of the elements of grammar, those which are properly called vowels are, correctly speaking, seven in number, since they can be sounded by themselves, and when they are combined with other letters, they make complete sounds; for they fill up the deficiency existing in semi-vowels, making the sounds whole; and they change and alter the natures of the mutes inspiring them with their own power, in order that what has no sound may become endowed with sound. 1
33
Nor is what we are about to say inconsistent with what has been said; for nature has bestowed upon every mother, as a most indispensable part of her conformation, breasts gushing forth like fountains, having in this manner provided abundant food for the child that is to be born. And the earth also, as it seems, is a mother, from which consideration it occurred to the early ages to call her Demetra, combining the names of mother (m÷et÷er), and earth (g÷e or d÷e). For it is not the earth which imitates the woman, as Plato has said, but the woman who has imitated the earth which the race of poets has been accustomed with truth to call the mother of all things, and the fruit-bearer, and the giver of all things, since she is at the same time the cause of the generation and durability of all things, to the animals and plants. Rightly, therefore, did nature bestow on the earth as the eldest and most fertile of mothers, streams of rivers, and fountains like breasts, in order that the plants might be watered, and that all living things might have abundant supplies of drink. XLVI. 134 After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature. 135 But he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII. 136 But the original man, he who was created out of the clay, the primeval founder of all our race, appears to me to have been most excellent in both particulars, in both soul and body, and to have been very far superior to all the men of subsequent ages from his pre-eminent excellence in both parts. For he in truth was really good and perfect. And one may form a conjecture of the perfection of his bodily beauty from three considerations, the first of which is this: when the earth was now but lately formed by its separation from that abundant quantity of water which was called the sea, it happened that the materials out of which the things just created were formed were unmixed, uncorrupted, and pure; and the things made from this material were naturally free from all imperfection. 13
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The second consideration is that it is not likely that God made this figure in the present form of a man, working with the most sublime care, after he had taken the clay from any chance portion of earth, but that he selected carefully the most excellent clay of all the earth, of the pure material choosing the finest and most carefully sifted portion, such as was especially fit for the formation of the work which he had in hand. For it was an abode or sacred temple for a reasonable soul which was being made, the image of which he was about to carry in his heart, being the most God-like looking of images. 138 The third consideration is one which admits of no comparison with those which have been already mentioned, namely, this: the Creator was good both in other respects, and also in knowledge, so that every one of the parts of the body had separately the numbers which were suited to it, and was also accurately completed in the admirable adaptation to the share in the universe of which it was to partake. And after he had endowed it with fair proportions, he clothed it with beauty of flesh, and embellished it with an exquisite complexion, wishing, as far as was possible, that man should appear the most beautiful of beings. XLVIII. 139 And that he is superior to all these animals in regard of his soul, is plain. For God does not seem to have availed himself of any other animal existing in creation as his model in the formation of man; but to have been guided, as I have said before, by his own reason alone. On which account, Moses affirms that this man was an image and imitation of God, being breathed into in his face in which is the place of the sensations, by which the Creator endowed the body with a soul. Then, having placed the mind in the domit part as king, he gave him as a body of satellites, the different powers calculated to perceive colours and sounds, and flavours and odours, and other things of similar kinds, which man could never have distinguished by his own resources without the sensations. And it follows of necessity that an imitation of a perfectly beautiful model must itself be perfectly beautiful, for the word of God surpasses even that beauty which exists in the nature which is perceptible only by the external senses, not being embellished by any adventitious beauty, but being itself, if one must speak the truth, its most exquisite embellishment. XLIX. 140 The first man, therefore, appears to me to have been such both in his body and in his soul, being very far superior to all those who live in the present day, and to all those who have gone before us. For our generation has been from men: but he was created by God. And in the same proportion as the one Author of being is superior to the other, so too is the being that is produced. For as that which is in its prime is superior to that the beauty of which is gone by, whether it be an animal, or a plant, or fruit, or anything else whatever of the productions of nature; so also the first man who was ever formed appears to have been the height of perfection of our entire race, and subsequent generations appear never to have reached an equal state of perfection, but to have at all times been inferior both in their appearance and in their power, and to have been constantly degenerating, ' "141 which same thing I have also seen to be the case in the instance of the sculptors' and painters' art. For the imitations always fall short of the original models. And those works which are painted or fashioned from models must be much more inferior, as being still further removed from the original. And the stone which is called the magnet is subject to a similar deterioration. For any iron ring which touches it is held by it as firmly as possible, but another which only touches that ring is held less firmly. And the third ring hangs from the second, and the fourth from the third, and the fifth from the fourth, and so on one from another in a long chain, being all held together by one attractive power, but still they are not all supported in the same degree. For those which are suspended at a distance from the original attraction, are held more loosely, because the attractive power is weakened, and is no longer able to bind them in an equal degree. And the race of mankind appears to be subject to an influence of the same kind, since in men the faculties and distinctive qualities of both body and soul are less vivid and strongly marked in each succeeding generation. " 144 And who could these have been but rational divine natures, some of them incorporeal and perceptible only by intellect, and others not destitute of bodily substance, such in fact as the stars? And he who associated with and lived among them was naturally living in a state of unmixed happiness. And being akin and nearly related to the ruler of all, inasmuch as a great deal of the divine spirit had flowed into him, he was eager both to say and to do everything which might please his father and his king, following him step by step in the paths which the virtues prepare and make plain, as those in which those souls alone are permitted to proceed who consider the attaining a likeness to God who made them as the proper end of their existence. LI.
146
Every man in regard of his intellect is connected with divine reason, being an impression of, or a fragment or a ray of that blessed nature; but in regard of the structure of his body he is connected with the universal world. For he is composed of the same materials as the world, that is of earth, and water, and air and fire, each of the elements having contributed its appropriate part towards the completion of most sufficient materials, which the Creator was to take in order to fashion this visible image.

152
And she, in like manner, beholding a creature greatly resembling herself, rejoiced also, and addressed him in reply with due modesty. And love being engendered, and, as it were, uniting two separate portions of one animal into one body, adapted them to each other, implanting in each of them a desire of connection with the other with a view to the generation of a being similar to themselves. And this desire caused likewise pleasure to their bodies, which is the beginning of iniquities and transgressions, and it is owing to this that men have exchanged their previously immortal and happy existence for one which is mortal and full of misfortune. LVI.

154
And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV. ' None
88. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 101, 169 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • God, human created according to the image of • Image, of God • image of God • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 323; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285, 288; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 143

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101 But Moses does not think it right to incline either to the right or to the left, or in short to any part of the earthly Edom; but rather to proceed along the middle way, which he with great propriety calls the royal road, for since God is the first and only God of the universe, so also the road to him, as being the king's road, is very properly denominated royal; and this royal road you must consider to be philosophy, not that philosophy which the existing sophistical crowd of men pursues (for they, studying the art of words in opposition to truth, have called crafty wickedness, wisdom, assigning a divine name to wicked action), but that which the ancient company of those men who practised virtue studied, rejecting the persuasive juggleries of pleasure, and adopting a virtuous and austere study of the honourable--"
169
for God did not grant this even to the all-wise Moses; not though he addressed innumerable requests to him, all having this object; but an oracle was delivered to him, telling him, "Thou shalt see my back parts, but my face thou shalt not See;" and the meaning of this is, that all the things which are behind God are within the comprehension of a virtuous man, but he himself alone is incomprehensible; and he is incomprehensible by any direct and immediate access (for by such means it is only explained what kind of being he is), but he may be understood in his subsequent and consistent faculties; for they, by means of the works accomplished by them, declare not his essence, but his existence. XLIX. ' "' None
89. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 36, 43-46 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • athletics imagery • games imagery • imagery, sowing/planting • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 191, 201; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 154; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 285, 288, 289

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36 For if man is the measure of all things, then, also, all things are a grace and a free gift of the mind; so that we refer to the eye the grace of sight, to the ears that of hearing, and to each of the other external senses their appropriate object, and also to the speech and utterance do we attribute the power of speaking. And if we judge in this manner of these things, so also do we with respect to intelligence, in which ten thousand things are comprised, such as thoughts, perceptions, designs, meditations, conceptions, sciences, arts, dispositions, and a number of other faculties almost incalculable. 43 The race of these men is difficult to trace, since they show a life of plotting, and cunning, and wickedness, and dissoluteness, full of passion and wickednesses, as such a life must be. For all those whom God, since they pleased him well, has caused to quit their original abode, and has transformed from the race of perishable beings to that of immortals, are no longer found among the common multitude. XIII. 44 Having, therefore, thus distinguished the indications intended to be afforded by the name of Enoch, let us now proceed in regular order to the name of Methuselah; and this name is interpreted, a sending forth of death. Now there are two meanings contained in this word; one, that according to which death is sent to any one, and the other, that according to which it is sent away from any one. He, therefore, to whom it is sent, immediately dies, but he, from whom it is sent, lives and survives. 45 Accordingly, he who receives death is akin to Cain, who is dying as to the life in accordance with virtue; but he from whom death is sent away and kept at a distance, is most nearly related to Seth, for the good man enjoys real life. 46 And again, the name Lamech, which means humiliation, is a name of ambiguous meaning; for we are humiliated either when the vigour of our soul is relaxed, according to the diseases and infirmities which arise from the irrational passions, or in respect of our love for virtue, when we seek to restrain ourselves from swelling selfopinions. ' None
90. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 8-9, 43 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • God, human created according to the image of • Image (εἰκών) • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • image of God • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 288; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 144; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164

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8 There is also another proof that the mind is immortal, which is of this nature:--There are some persons whom God, advancing to higher degrees of improvement, has enabled to soar above all species and genera, having placed them near himself; as he says to Moses, "But stand thou here with Me." When, therefore, Moses is about to die, he is not added to one class, nor does he forsake another, as the men before him had done; nor is he connected with "addition" or "subtraction," but "by means of the word of the Cause of all things, by whom the whole world was Made." He departs to another abode, that you may understand from this that God accounts a wise man as entitled to equal honour with the world itself, having both created the universe, and raised the perfect man from the things of earth up to himself by the same word. 9 Not but what, when he gave him the use of all earthly things and suffered him to dwell among them, he assigned to him not such a power as he might exercise in common with an earthly governor or monarch, by which he should forcibly rule over the passions of the soul, but he appointed him to be a sort of god, making the whole of the body, and the mind, which is the ruler of the body, subjects and slaves to him; "For I give thee," says he, "as a god to Pharaoh." But God is not susceptible of any subtraction or addition, inasmuch as he is complete and entirely equal to himself.
43
And he learnt all these things from Abraham his grandfather, who was the author of his own education, who gave to the all-wise Isaac all that he had, leaving none of his substance to bastards, or to the spurious reasonings of concubines, but he gives them small gifts, as being inconsiderable persons. For the possessions of which he is possessed, namely, the perfect virtues, belong only to the perfect and legitimate son; but those which are of an intermediate character, are suitable to and fall to the share of those who are not perfect, but who have advanced as far as the encyclical branches of elementary education, of which Agar and Cheturah partake, Agar meaning "a dwelling near," and Cheturah meaning "sacrificing." '' None
91. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.67, 1.206, 1.229, 2.242-2.243 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • Image (εἰκών) • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • image of God • imagery, sowing/planting • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 394; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 134; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 185, 286; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 146; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 205

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1.67 Perhaps, however, the historian, by this allegorical form of expression, does not here mean by his expression, "place," the Cause of all things; but the idea which he intends to convey may be something of this sort; --he came to the place, and looking up with his eyes he saw the very place to which he had come, which was a very long way from the God who may not be named nor spoken of, and who is in every way incomprehensible. XII.
1.206
Now the sacred scripture calls the maker of this compound work Besaleel, which name, being interpreted, signifies "in the shadow of God;" for he makes all the copies, and the man by name Moses makes all the models, as the principal architect; and for this reason it is, that the one only draws outlines as it were, but the other is not content with such sketches,
1.229
What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou);
2.242
and by the name Eden he means the wisdom of the living God, and the interpretation of the name Eden is "delight," because I imagine wisdom is the delight of God, and God is the delight of wisdom, as it is said also in the Psalms, "Delight thou in the Lord." And the divine word, like a river, flows forth from wisdom as from a spring, in order to irrigate and fertilize the celestial and heavenly shoots and plants of such souls as love virtue, as if they were a paradise. 2.243 And this sacred word is divided into four beginnings, by which I mean it is portioned out into four virtues, each of which is a princess, for to be divided into beginnings, does not resemble divisions of place, but a kingdom, in order than any one, after having shown the virtues as boundaries, may immediately proceed to show the wise man who follows them to be king, being elected a such, not by men, but by the only free nature which cannot err, and which cannot be corrupted; '' None
92. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.43, 1.45-1.47, 1.81, 2.176, 3.83, 3.178, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God,image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Image of God • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • image of God • imagery, seals • imagery, sowing/planting

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 182, 394; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 250; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 93; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190, 197; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 141, 145, 199; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 157; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 266; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164

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1.43 But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive.
1.45
When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it." 1.46 But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47 And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened.
1.81
For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made.
2.176
The solemn assembly on the occasion of the festival of the sheaf having such great privileges, is the prelude to another festival of still greater importance; for from this day the fiftieth day is reckoned, making up the sacred number of seven sevens, with the addition of a unit as a seal to the whole; and this festival, being that of the first fruits of the corn, has derived its name of pentecost from the number of fifty, (penteµkosto
3.83
The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea.
3.178
And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
4.123
On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{' None
93. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 168-169 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Clement of Alexandria, Platonism and Stoicism in,, image and likeness of God, being made in • image and likeness • image of God

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021), The Rise of the Early Christian Intellectual, 137; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; Osborne (2010), Clement of Alexandria, 95

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168 And in another place also the lawgiver gives this precept, which is most becoming and suitable to a rational nature, that men should imitate God to the best of their power, omitting nothing which can possibly contribute to such a similarity as the case admits of. XXXII. Since then you have received strength from a being who is more powerful than you, give others a share of that strength, distributing among them the benefits which you have received yourself, in order that you may imitate God by bestowing gifts like his; '169 for all the gifts of the supreme Ruler are of common advantage to all men; and he gives them to some individuals, not in order that they when they have received them may hide them out of sight, or employ them to the injury of others, but in order that they may bring them into the common stock, and invite all those whom they can find to use and enjoy them with them. ' None
94. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 56 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Egyptian priests, Chaeremons’s image of • imagery, citadel

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 280; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 159

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56 However, why need I dwell with prolixity on these matters, which are already condemned by the generality of more moderate men as inflaming the passions, the diminution of which is desirable? For any one in his senses would pray for the most unfortunate of all states, hunger and thirst, rather than for a most unlimited abundance of meat and drink at such banquets as these. VII. '' None
95. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image of God • divine, image • image of God • imago dei

 Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71, 75; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 410

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2.65 These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb"" None
96. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 7, 55-57, 62-64, 230-232 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God,image of • Image • Impression, Imagination (φαντασία) • Johannine Logos, firstborn (or son) image of • divine, image • image of God • imago dei

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 278; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 39, 74, 76, 77, 78, 108; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 224; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147, 150; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 164, 179, 266

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7 When therefore is it proper for the servant of God to use freedom of speech to the ruler and master of himself, and of the whole word? Is it not when he is free from all sins, and is aware in his conscience that he loves his master, feeling more joy at the fact of being a servant of God, than he would if he were sovereign over the whole race of mankind, and were invested without any effort on his part with the supreme authority over land and sea. '
55
For since the soul is spoken of in two ways, first of all as a whole, secondly, as to the domit part of it, which, to speak properly, is the soul of the soul, just as the eye is both the whole orb, and also the most important part of that orb, that namely by which we see; it seemed good to the law-giver that the essence of the soul should likewise be two-fold; blood being the essence of the entire soul, and the divine Spirit being the essence of the domit part of it; accordingly he says, in express words, "The soul of all flesh is the blood Thereof." 56 He does well here to attribute the flow of blood to the mass of flesh, combining two things appropriate to one another; but the essence of the mind he has not made to depend on any created thing, but has represented it as breathed into man by God from above. For, says Moses, "The Creator of the universe breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living Soul," who also, it is recorded, was fashioned after the image of the Creator. XII. 5
7
So that the race of mankind also is twofold, the one being the race of those who live by the divine Spirit and reason; the other of those who exist according to blood and the pleasure of the flesh. This species is formed of the earth, but that other is an accurate copy of the divine image;
62
for she has none but a male offspring, being borne only of God who is the father of all things, being that authority which has no mother. "For truly," says the scripture, "she is my sister by my father\'s side, but not by my mother\'S." XIII. 63 We have now explained what it was necessary for you to be apprised of as a preliminary. For the first part of the argument had a sort of enigmatical obscurity. But we must examine with more accurate particularity what the man who is fond of learning seeks. Perhaps then it is something of this sort: to know whether any one who is desirous of that life which is dependent on blood and who claims an interest in the objects of the outward sense, can become an inheritor of incorporeal and divine things? 64 for of such only he who is inspired from above is thought worthy, having received a portion of heavenly and divine inheritance, being in fact the most pure mind, disregarding not merely the body but also the other fragment of the soul, which being devoid of reason is mixed up with blood, kindling the fervid passions and excited appetites. 232 But by nature our mind is indivisible; for the Creator, having divided the irrational part of the soul into six portions, has made six divisions of it, namely, sight, taste, hearing, smelling, touch, and voice; but the rational part, which is called the mind he has left undivided, according to the likeness of the entire heaven. ' None
97. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 85, 89, 141, 146, 170, 175-176 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Enos, nautical imagery for • athletics imagery • games imagery • image of God • imagery, disease and healing • imagery, fountain • imagery, sowing/planting

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 183, 186; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 70; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 134; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 118, 120, 238; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197

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85 For God made man, the only heavenly plant of those which he placed upon the earth, fastening the heads of the others in the mainland, for all of them bend their heads Downwards;" but the face of man he has exalted and directed upwards, that it might have its food of a heavenly and incorruptible nature, and not earthly and perishable. With a view to which, he also rooted in the earth the foundations of our body, removing the most insensible part of it as far as possible from reason; and the outward senses, which are as it were the body-guards of the mind, and the mind itself, he established at a great distance from the earth, and from all things connected with it, and bound it with the periodical revolutions of the air and of the heavens, which are imperishable. XXIV.
89
For of all the faculties which exist in us, the mind alone, as being the most rapid in its motions of all, appears to be able to outrun and to pass by the time in which it originates, according to the invisible powers of the universe and of its parts existing without any reference to time, and touching the universe and its parts, and the causes of them. And now, having gone not only to the very boundaries of earth and sea, but also to those of air and heaven, it has not stopped even there, thinking that the world itself is but a brief limit for its continued and unremitting course. And it is eager to advance further; and, if it can possibly do so, to comprehend the incomprehensible nature of God, even if only as to its existence.
141
However, we have now said enough on this subject, and let us proceed to investigate what comes afterwards. He continues thus: "And Cain said unto the Lord, My crime is too great to be Forgiven." Now what is meant by this will be shown by a consideration of simple passages. If a pilot were to desert his ship when tossed about by the sea, would it not follow of necessity that the ship would wander out of her course in the voyage? Shall I say more? If a charioteer in the contest of the horse-race were to quit his chariot, is it not inevitable that the course of the free horses would be disorderly and irregular? Again, when a city is left destitute of rulers or of laws, and laws, undoubtedly, are entitled to be classed on an equality with magistrates, must not that city be destroyed by those greatest of evils, anarchy and lawlessness? 146 Let us, therefore, address our supplications to God, we who are self-convicted by our consciousness of our own sins, to chastise us rather than to abandon us; for if he abandons us, he will no longer make us his servants, who is a merciful master, but slaves of a pitiless generation: but if he chastises us in a gentle and merciful manner, as a kind ruler, he will correct our offences, sending that correcting conviction, his own word, into our hearts, by means of which he will heal them; reproving us and making us ashamed of the wickednesses which we have committed.
170
At all events, when the Creator determined to purify the earth by means of water, and that the soul should receive purification of all its unspeakable offences, having washed off and effaced its pollutions after the fashion of a holy purification, he recommended him who was found to be a just man, who was not borne away the violence of the deluge, to enter into the ark, that is to say, into the vessel containing the soul, namely, the body, and to lead into it "seven of all clean beasts, male and Female," thinking it proper that virtuous reason should employ all the pure parts of the irrational portion of man. XLVII.
175
On which account it appears to me that all men who are not utterly uneducated would choose to be mutilated and to be come blind, rather than to see what is not fitting to be seen, to become deaf rather than to hear pernicious discourses, and to have their tongues cut out if that were the only way to prevent their speaking things, which ought not to be spoken. 176 At all events, they say that some wise men, when they have been tortured on the wheel to make them betray secrets which are not worthy to be divulged, have bitten out their tongues, and so have inflicted on their torturers a more grievous torture than they themselves were suffering, as they could not learn from them what they desired; and it is better to be made an eunuch than to be hurried into wickedness by the fury of the illicit passions: for all these things, as they overwhelm the soul in pernicious calamities, are deservedly followed by extreme punishments. ' None
98. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 45-47, 57, 140-145 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Impression, Imagination (φαντασία) • image of God • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, giving birth • imagery, light

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Frey and Levison (2014), The Holy Spirit, Inspiration, and the Cultures of Antiquity Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 271; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 192; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 153, 214; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 143, 144; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 20

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45 In such important points are animals superior to plants. Let us now see in what man is superior to the rest of the animal creation. X. Man, then, has received this one extraordinary gift, intellect, which is accustomed to comprehend the nature of all bodies and of all things at the same time; for, as in the body, the sight is the most important faculty, and since in the universe the nature of light is the most pre-eminent thing, in the same manner that part of us which is entitled to the highest rank is the mind. 46 For the mind is the sight of the soul, shining transcendently with its own rays, by which the great and dense darkness which ignorance of things sheds around is dissipated. This species of soul is not composed of the same elements as those of which the other kinds were made, but it has received a purer and more excellent essence of which the divine natures were formed; on which account the intellect naturally appears to be the only thing in us which is imperishable, 47 for that is the only quality in us which the Father, who created us, thought deserving of freedom; and, unloosing the bonds of necessity, he let it go unrestrained, bestowing on it that most admirable gift and most connected with himself, the power, namely, of spontaneous will, as far as he was able to receive it; for the irrational animals, in whose soul there is not that especial gift tending to freedom, namely, mind, are put under the yoke and have bridles put in their mouths, and so are given unto men to be their slaves, as servants are given to their masters. But man, who has had bestowed on him a voluntary and self-impelling intellect, and who for the most part puts forth his energies in accordance with deliberate purpose, very properly receives blame for the offences which he designedly commits, and praise for the good actions which he intentionally performs.
57
For what are we to say? Shall we say, if he is possessed of the different organic parts, that he has feet for the sake of walking? But where is he to walk who fills all places at once with his presence? And to whom is he to go, when there is no one of equal honour with himself? And why is he to walk? It cannot be out of any regard for his health as we do. Again, are we to say that he has hands for the purpose of giving and taking? he never receivers anything from any one. For in addition to the fact of his wanting nothing he actually has everything; and when he gives, he employs reason as the minister of his gifts, by whose agency also he created the world.
140
Very properly, therefore, the most sacred Moses says that, the earth was corrupted at that time when the virtues of the just Noah were made manifest: "And the whole earth," says he, "was corrupted, because all flesh had corrupted his (autou) way upon the earth."40 '141 Now to some persons this expression will seem to have been incorrectly used, and that the consistency with the context, and the truth of the fact will require that we should read rather that, "All flesh had corrupted its (auteµs) way upon the earth." For it does not agree with the feminine noun "flesh" (teµ sarki), if we subjoin a masculine case, the word autou in connection with it. 142 But perhaps, Moses does not mean here to speak of the flesh alone as corrupting his way upon the earth, so that he deserves to be considered to have erred in the expression which he has used, but rather to speak of the things of the flesh, which is corrupted, and of that other being whose way the flesh endeavours to injure and to corrupt. So that we should explain this expression thus:ùAll flesh corrupted the perfect way of the everlasting and incorruptible being which conducts to God. 143 And know that this way is wisdom. For the mind being guided by wisdom, while the road is straight and level and easy, proceeds along it to the end; and the end of this road is the knowledge and understanding of God. But every companion of the flesh hates and repudiates, and endeavours to corrupt this way; for there is no one thing so much at variance with another, as knowledge is at variance with the pleasure of the flesh. Accordingly, the earthly Edom is always fighting with those who wish to proceed by this road, 144 which is the royal road for those who partake of the faculty of seeing who are called Israel; for the interpretation of the name Edom, is "earthly," and he labours with all earnestness, and by every means in his power, and by threats, to hinder them from this road, and to make it pathless and impracticable for ever. XXXI. 1
45
Therefore the ambassadors who are sent speak as follows:--"We will pass on through thy land; we will not pass through thy fields nor through thy vineyards; we will not drink water form thy cistern; we will proceed by the royal road; we will not turn aside out of the way, to the right hand, nor to the left, until we have passed over thy borders. But Edom answered and said, Thou shalt not pass through my land: and if thou dost, I will come against thee in battle to meet thee. And the children of Israel said unto him. We will pass by thy mountain; but if I or my cattle drink of thy water, I will pay thee the price thereof. But it is of no consequence, we will pass by thy mountain. And he said, "Thou shalt not pass through my land."41 ' None
99. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 76, 78, 85-86 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Egyptian priests, Chaeremons’s image of • Philos Essenes, peace and war imagery

 Found in books: Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 158; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 33, 74

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76 These men, in the first place, live in villages, avoiding all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them, well knowing that such a moral disease is contracted from associations with wicked men, just as a real disease might be from an impure atmosphere, and that this would stamp an incurable evil on their souls. of these men, some cultivating the earth, and others devoting themselves to those arts which are the result of peace, benefit both themselves and all those who come in contact with them, not storing up treasures of silver and of gold, nor acquiring vast sections of the earth out of a desire for ample revenues, but providing all things which are requisite for the natural purposes of life; 78 Among those men you will find no makers of arrows, or javelins, or swords, or helmets, or breastplates, or shields; no makers of arms or of military engines; no one, in short, attending to any employment whatever connected with war, or even to any of those occupations even in peace which are easily perverted to wicked purposes; for they are utterly ignorant of all traffic, and of all commercial dealings, and of all navigation, but they repudiate and keep aloof from everything which can possibly afford any inducement to covetousness;
85
In the first place, then, there is no one who has a house so absolutely his own private property, that it does not in some sense also belong to every one: for besides that they all dwell together in companies, the house is open to all those of the same notions, who come to them from other quarters; 86 then there is one magazine among them all; their expenses are all in common; their garments belong to them all in common; their food is common, since they all eat in messes; for there is no other people among which you can find a common use of the same house, a common adoption of one mode of living, and a common use of the same table more thoroughly established in fact than among this tribe: and is not this very natural? For whatever they, after having been working during the day, receive for their wages, that they do not retain as their own, but bring it into the common stock, and give any advantage that is to be derived from it to all who desire to avail themselves of it; ' None
100. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sallust, and imagines • Sallust, on imagines • Scipio Africanus, inspired by imagines • Tacitus, on imagines • house, imagines in • imagines • imagines (ancestral portraits) • imagines, in funerals • imago, imagines,

 Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 130; Langlands (2018), Exemplary Ethics in Ancient Rome, 3, 94; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 43, 44, 45, 46; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 86, 106; Shannon-Henderson (2019), Power Play in Latin Love Elegy and its Multiple Forms of Continuity in Ovid’s , 99

101. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philostratus the Elder, his Imagines • Philostratus, Imagines

 Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 192; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84

102. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as performer of a public image • Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P., forbids images to himself • Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P., image in Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus • Imagining, imagination • imagery, military • imagination • imagines • imagines, in funerals • imperial image

 Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 35; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 244; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 49; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 76; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 2, 97, 158, 189, 199; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 138, 292

103. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • image • wine imagery, in Horace

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 178; Tuori (2016), The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication<, 253

104. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicureanism, Lucretian imagery • Vitruvius, imago

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 230; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 55, 56

105. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P., forbids images to himself • Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P., image in Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus • Julius Caesar, C., image in Temple of Venus Genetrix • image • imago • marriage, imagery

 Found in books: Moss (2012), Ancient Christian Martyrdom: Diverse Practices, Theologies, and Traditions, 30; Mueller (2002), Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, 78; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 18, 292; Tuori (2016), The Emperor of Law: The Emergence of Roman Imperial Adjudication<, 95

106. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cassius Longinus, C., image venerated • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Rome imagined • Cornelius Scipio Africanus, P., image in Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus • Epicureanism, Lucretian imagery • Image vi, • Imagines (Roman funeral masks) • Julius Caesar, C., image in Jupiter Capitolinus’ temple • Junius Brutus, M., image venerated • Silius Italicus, venerates Vergil’s image • Titinius Capito, Cn., venerates Brutus’ and Cassius’ images • Vergil, image venerated • animal imagery, animalization caused by disease • animal imagery, humans and animals • animal imagery, humans as animals • animal imagery, the animal” within the human body • bodily imagery, assimilation of state to inferior bodies • burden / weight imagery • cloud imagery • contagion imagery • countryside, charms imagined • cult, images • fire imagery • image, military • imagery, Dionysiac • imagery, agricultural • imagery, chariots • imagery, fire • imagery, gigantomachy • imagery, journey • imagery, light and darkness • imagery, military • imagery, solar • imagery, storms • imagery, triumphal • imagination • medical imagery, of honey on spoon • numinousness, of divine imagery • poison imagery • religion, implication of religious imagery in Lucretius’ depiction of epilepsy • threshold (limen) imagery • violent imagery, assimilation of state to inferior bodies • violent imagery, meanings of • war imagery, combined with famine and plague • war imagery, war between elemental forces • water imagery

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 213, 214, 231; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 29, 30; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 201, 323, 328; Gale (2000), Virgil on the Nature of Things: The Georgics, Lucretius and the Didactic Tradition, 14, 20, 25, 26, 36, 44, 48, 68, 69, 74, 121, 122, 141, 147, 148, 150, 161, 168, 175, 176, 191, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 244, 249, 250, 259, 260, 261, 262, 264, 267; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 27, 74, 118, 233, 284; Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 11, 34, 46, 51, 61, 62, 63, 64, 69, 72, 73, 76, 79, 80, 81, 85, 86, 89, 90, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 107, 115, 119, 132, 138, 139, 140, 142, 144, 145, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 167, 170; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 94; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 45, 46; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 223; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 108; Walters (2020), Imagery of the Body Politic in Ciceronian Rome, 51, 69; Weissenrieder (2016), Borders: Terminologies, Ideologies, and Performances 275, 433

107. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as performer of a public image • water imagery

 Found in books: Kazantzidis (2021), Lucretius on Disease: The Poetics of Morbidity in "De rerum natura", 157; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 25, 26

108. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God,image of • divine, image • image of God • imago dei

 Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 75, 76, 108; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157

109. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cloud Man, merkavah imagery related to • God, image of • God,image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Image xvi, • Image, of God • Image, Word as Image of God • Teacher, image of Amun related to • athletics imagery • divine, image • games imagery • image of God • imagery athletic • imagery, athletics • imagery, bearing fruit • imagery, circle • imagery, fountain • imagery, giving birth • imagery, marking/stamping • imagery, runners • imagery, sowing • imagery, sowing/planting • imago dei • merkavah imagery, devekut to

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 181; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 13; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 74, 76, 78, 79, 109; Geljon and Runia (2013), Philo of Alexandria: On Cultivation: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 97, 192, 262; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 86, 122, 132, 134, 199, 206, 215; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190, 197; Heo (2023), Images of Torah: From the Second-Temple Period to the Middle Ages. 61, 284, 287, 288, 289; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 310; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 146; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157, 158, 159, 205; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 144, 161, 170, 179, 266; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 164; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 19

110. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • God,image of • Image • Image (εἰκών) • Logos/God’s Word, Human mind as Logos’ likeness and image • image of God • imagery, bearing fruit

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 394; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 146; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 150, 310; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72; Rasimus (2009), Paradise Reconsidered in Gnostic Mythmaking: Rethinking Sethianism in Light of the Ophite Evidence, 161, 167; Ruzer (2020), Early Jewish Messianism in the New Testament: Reflections in the Dim Mirror, 151

111. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ovid imagines Rome from exile • imagines

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 177; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 36

112. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 2.2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Proitids, bestial imagery • gaze, of cult images • protection, against viewing divine images • sight, power of, of divine images

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 278; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 178

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2.2.2 καὶ γίνεται Ἀκρισίῳ μὲν ἐξ Εὐρυδίκης τῆς Λακεδαίμονος Δανάη, Προίτῳ δὲ ἐκ Σθενεβοίας Λυσίππη καὶ Ἰφινόη καὶ Ἰφιάνασσα. αὗται δὲ ὡς ἐτελειώθησαν, ἐμάνησαν, ὡς μὲν Ἡσίοδός φησιν, ὅτι τὰς Διονύσου τελετὰς οὐ κατεδέχοντο, ὡς δὲ Ἀκουσίλαος λέγει, διότι τὸ τῆς Ἥρας ξόανον ἐξηυτέλισαν. γενόμεναι δὲ ἐμμανεῖς ἐπλανῶντο ἀνὰ τὴν Ἀργείαν ἅπασαν, αὖθις δὲ τὴν Ἀρκαδίαν καὶ τὴν Πελοπόννησον 1 -- διελθοῦσαι μετʼ ἀκοσμίας ἁπάσης διὰ τῆς ἐρημίας ἐτρόχαζον. Μελάμπους δὲ ὁ Ἀμυθάονος καὶ Εἰδομένης τῆς Ἄβαντος, μάντις ὢν καὶ τὴν διὰ φαρμάκων καὶ καθαρμῶν θεραπείαν πρῶτος εὑρηκώς, ὑπισχνεῖται θεραπεύειν τὰς παρθένους, εἰ λάβοι τὸ τρίτον μέρος τῆς δυναστείας. οὐκ ἐπιτρέποντος δὲ Προίτου θεραπεύειν ἐπὶ μισθοῖς τηλικούτοις, ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐμαίνοντο αἱ παρθένοι καὶ προσέτι μετὰ τούτων αἱ λοιπαὶ γυναῖκες· καὶ γὰρ αὗται τὰς οἰκίας ἀπολιποῦσαι τοὺς ἰδίους ἀπώλλυον παῖδας καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐρημίαν ἐφοίτων. προβαινούσης δὲ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τῆς συμφορᾶς, τοὺς αἰτηθέντας μισθοὺς ὁ Προῖτος ἐδίδου. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο θεραπεύειν ὅταν ἕτερον τοσοῦτον τῆς γῆς ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ λάβῃ Βίας. Προῖτος δὲ εὐλαβηθεὶς μὴ βραδυνούσης τῆς θεραπείας αἰτηθείη καὶ πλεῖον, θεραπεύειν συνεχώρησεν ἐπὶ τούτοις. Μελάμπους δὲ παραλαβὼν τοὺς δυνατωτάτους τῶν νεανιῶν μετʼ ἀλαλαγμοῦ καί τινος ἐνθέου χορείας ἐκ τῶν ὀρῶν αὐτὰς εἰς Σικυῶνα συνεδίωξε. κατὰ δὲ τὸν διωγμὸν ἡ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν θυγατέρων Ἰφινόη μετήλλαξεν· ταῖς δὲ λοιπαῖς τυχούσαις καθαρμῶν σωφρονῆσαι συνέβη. καὶ ταύτας μὲν ἐξέδοτο Προῖτος Μελάμποδι καὶ Βίαντι, παῖδα δʼ ὕστερον ἐγέννησε Μεγαπένθην.'' None
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2.2.2 And Acrisius had a daughter Danae by Eurydice, daughter of Lacedaemon, and Proetus had daughters, Lysippe, Iphinoe, and Iphianassa, by Stheneboea. When these damsels were grown up, they went mad, according to Hesiod, because they would not accept the rites of Dionysus, but according to Acusilaus, because they disparaged the wooden image of Hera. In their madness they roamed over the whole Argive land, and afterwards, passing through Arcadia and the Peloponnese, they ran through the desert in the most disorderly fashion. But Melampus, son of Amythaon by Idomene, daughter of Abas, being a seer and the first to devise the cure by means of drugs and purifications, promised to cure the maidens if he should receive the third part of the sovereignty. When Proetus refused to pay so high a fee for the cure, the maidens raved more than ever, and besides that, the other women raved with them; for they also abandoned their houses, destroyed their own children, and flocked to the desert. Not until the evil had reached a very high pitch did Proetus consent to pay the stipulated fee, and Melampus promised to effect a cure whenever his brother Bias should receive just so much land as himself. Fearing that, if the cure were delayed, yet more would be demanded of him, Proetus agreed to let the physician proceed on these terms. So Melampus, taking with him the most stalwart of the young men, chased the women in a bevy from the mountains to Sicyon with shouts and a sort of frenzied dance. In the pursuit Iphinoe, the eldest of the daughters, expired; but the others were lucky enough to be purified and so to recover their wits. Proetus gave them in marriage to Melampus and Bias, and afterwards begat a son, Megapenthes.'' None
113. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery, musical • music, Psalms as source of imagery • music, musical instruments in Christian imagery

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 185, 187, 189, 190, 191, 192; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 778

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4.2 And do ye, each and all, form yourselves into a chorus, that being harmonious in concord and taking the key note of God ye may in unison sing with one voice through Jesus Christ unto the Father, that He may both hear you and acknowledge you by your good deeds to be members of His Son. It is therefore profitable for you to be in blameless unity, that ye may also be partakers of God always. '' None
114. Ignatius, To The Romans, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery, astronomical • imagery, musical • martyrdom, martyr, imagination, imagined

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 178, 185, 199; Maier and Waldner (2022), Desiring Martyrs: Locating Martyrs in Space and Time, 130, 132

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2.2 Nay grant me nothing more than that I be poured out a libation to God, while there is still an altar ready; that forming yourselves into a chorus in love ye may sing to the Father in Jesus Christ, for that God hath vouchsafed that the bishop from Syria should be found in the West, having summoned him from the East. It is good to set from the world unto God, that I may rise unto Him. '' None
115. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.91, 3.179-3.180, 18.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Egyptian priests, Chaeremons’s image of • Image xvi, • Imago Dei • Philos Essenes, peace and war imagery • Tiberias, pagan imagery

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Kosman (2012), Gender and Dialogue in the Rabbinic Prism, 188; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 481; Rowland (2009), The Mystery of God: Early Jewish Mysticism and the New Testament, 332; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 158; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 74

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3.91 Διδάσκει μὲν οὖν ἡμᾶς ὁ πρῶτος λόγος, ὅτι θεός ἐστιν εἷς καὶ τοῦτον δεῖ σέβεσθαι μόνον: ὁ δὲ δεύτερος κελεύει μηδενὸς εἰκόνα ζῴου ποιήσαντας προσκυνεῖν: ὁ τρίτος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ φαύλῳ τὸν θεὸν ὀμνύναι: ὁ δὲ τέταρτος παρατηρεῖν τὰς ἑβδομάδας ἀναπαυομένους ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου:' "
3.179
Θαυμάσειε δ' ἄν τις τῶν ἀνθρώπων τὴν πρὸς ἡμᾶς ἀπέχθειαν, ἣν ὡς ἐκφαυλιζόντων ἡμῶν τὸ θεῖον ὅπερ αὐτοὶ σέβειν προῄρηνται διατετελέκασιν ἐσχηκότες:" "
18.22
ἀξιῶ δέ σε μηδὲν ἀμνημονεῖν ὁμιλήσαντα αὐτῇ μήτ' εὐνοίας τῆς ἐμῆς, ὃς εἰς τοσόνδε ἀξιώματος καθίστημι μέγεθος,"
18.22
ἀποδέκτας δὲ τῶν προσόδων χειροτονοῦντες καὶ ὁπόσα ἡ γῆ φέροι ἄνδρας ἀγαθούς, ἱερεῖς δὲ ἐπὶ ποιήσει σίτου τε καὶ βρωμάτων. ζῶσι δὲ οὐδὲν παρηλλαγμένως, ἀλλ' ὅτι μάλιστα ἐμφέροντες Δακῶν τοῖς πλείστοις λεγομένοις." "' None
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3.91 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work.
3.179
7. Now here one may wonder at the ill-will which men bear to us, and which they profess to bear on account of our despising that Deity which they pretend to honor;
18.22
They also appoint certain stewards to receive the incomes of their revenues, and of the fruits of the ground; such as are good men and priests, who are to get their corn and their food ready for them. They none of them differ from others of the Essenes in their way of living, but do the most resemble those Dacae who are called Polistae dwellers in cities.
18.22
and I desire thee never to be unmindful when thou comest to it, either of my kindness to thee, who set thee in so high a dignity,' ' None
116. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.648-1.650, 2.122, 2.128-2.129, 2.148-2.149 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Egyptian priests, Chaeremons’s image of • Herod the Great, and images • Image of God • Philos Essenes, peace and war imagery • solar (imagery)

 Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 210, 211; Piotrkowski (2019), Priests in Exile: The History of the Temple of Onias and Its Community in the Hellenistic Period, 388; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 158; Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 57; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 74, 86

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1.648 Γίνεται δ' ἐν ταῖς συμφοραῖς αὐτῷ καὶ δημοτική τις ἐπανάστασις. δύο ἦσαν σοφισταὶ κατὰ τὴν πόλιν μάλιστα δοκοῦντες ἀκριβοῦν τὰ πάτρια καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐν παντὶ τῷ ἔθνει μεγίστης ἠξιωμένοι δόξης, ̓Ιούδας τε υἱὸς Σεπφεραίου καὶ Ματθίας ἕτερος Μαργάλου." '1.649 τούτοις οὐκ ὀλίγοι προσῄεσαν τῶν νέων ἐξηγουμένοις τοὺς νόμους, καὶ συνεῖχον ὁσημέραι τῶν ἡβώντων στρατόπεδον. οἳ τότε τὸν βασιλέα πυνθανόμενοι ταῖς ἀθυμίαις ὑπορρέοντα καὶ τῇ νόσῳ λόγον καθίεσαν εἰς τοὺς γνωρίμους, ὡς ἄρα καιρὸς ἐπιτηδειότατος εἴη τιμωρεῖν ἤδη τῷ θεῷ καὶ τὰ κατασκευασθέντα παρὰ τοὺς πατρίους νόμους ἔργα κατασπᾶν.' "
2.122
Καταφρονηταὶ δὲ πλούτου, καὶ θαυμάσιον αὐτοῖς τὸ κοινωνικόν, οὐδὲ ἔστιν εὑρεῖν κτήσει τινὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς ὑπερέχοντα: νόμος γὰρ τοὺς εἰς τὴν αἵρεσιν εἰσιόντας δημεύειν τῷ τάγματι τὴν οὐσίαν, ὥστε ἐν ἅπασιν μήτε πενίας ταπεινότητα φαίνεσθαι μήθ' ὑπεροχὴν πλούτου, τῶν δ' ἑκάστου κτημάτων ἀναμεμιγμένων μίαν ὥσπερ ἀδελφοῖς ἅπασιν οὐσίαν εἶναι." 2.128 Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "
2.148
ταῖς δ' ἄλλαις ἡμέραις βόθρον ὀρύσσοντες βάθος ποδιαῖον τῇ σκαλίδι, τοιοῦτον γάρ ἐστιν τὸ διδόμενον ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀξινίδιον τοῖς νεοσυστάτοις, καὶ περικαλύψαντες θοιμάτιον, ὡς μὴ τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζοιεν τοῦ θεοῦ, θακεύουσιν εἰς αὐτόν." "2.149 ἔπειτα τὴν ἀνορυχθεῖσαν γῆν ἐφέλκουσιν εἰς τὸν βόθρον: καὶ τοῦτο ποιοῦσι τοὺς ἐρημοτέρους τόπους ἐκλεγόμενοι. καίπερ δὴ φυσικῆς οὔσης τῆς τῶν λυμάτων ἐκκρίσεως ἀπολούεσθαι μετ' αὐτὴν καθάπερ μεμιασμένοις ἔθιμον." " None
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1.648 2. There also now happened to him, among his other calamities, a certain popular sedition. There were two men of learning in the city Jerusalem, who were thought the most skillful in the laws of their country, and were on that account held in very great esteem all over the nation; they were, the one Judas, the son of Sepphoris, and the other Matthias, the son of Margalus. 1.649 There was a great concourse of the young men to these men when they expounded the laws, and there got together every day a kind of an army of such as were growing up to be men. Now when these men were informed that the king was wearing away with melancholy, and with a distemper, they dropped words to their acquaintance, how it was now a very proper time to defend the cause of God, and to pull down what had been erected contrary to the laws of their country;
2.122
3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren.
2.128
5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129 After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple,
2.148
Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, 2.149 after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them.' ' None
117. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.12, 2.75 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apion, his image of Egpyt • Art, idol vs. image • Tiberias, pagan imagery

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 481; Schliesser et al. (2021), Alexandria: Hub of the Hellenistic World. 154

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2.12 δρόμον ἡλίῳ συμπεριπολεῖ.” τοιαύτη μέν τις ἡ θαυμαστὴ τοῦ γραμματικοῦ φράσις: τὸ δὲ ψεῦσμα λόγων οὐ δεόμενον, ἀλλ' ἐκ τῶν ἔργων περιφανές: οὔτε γὰρ αὐτὸς Μωσῆς, ὅτε τὴν πρώτην σκηνὴν τῷ θεῷ κατεσκεύασεν, οὐθὲν ἐκτύπωμα τοιοῦτον εἰς αὐτὴν ἐνέθηκεν οὐδὲ ποιεῖν τοῖς ἔπειτα προσέταξεν, ὅ τε μετὰ ταῦτα κατασκευάσας τὸν ναὸν τὸν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις Σολομὼν πάσης ἀπέσχετο τοιαύτης περιεργίας οἵαν συμπέπλεκεν ̓Απίων." 2.12