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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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592 results for "image"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.16-2.8 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 64
2. Septuagint, Baruch, 4.1-4.2 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, of god •image of god Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 205
3. Septuagint, Daniel, 7.9 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 239
4. Septuagint, Ezekiel, 1.26-1.28 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 81
5. Septuagint, Job, 28.20-28.28 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 249
6. Septuagint, Daniel (Theodotionis Versio), 7.9 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 239
7. Septuagint, Psalms, 89.27, 119.89, 119.105 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 161, 205
8. Septuagint, Proverbs, 8.22-8.31 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157, 158, 159, 161, 205, 249
9. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 4.4, 7.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •images/imagery, and fear of god Found in books: Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 165; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
4.4. "אַךְ אִישׁ אַל־יָרֵב וְאַל־יוֹכַח אִישׁ וְעַמְּךָ כִּמְרִיבֵי כֹהֵן׃", 7.13. "אוֹי לָהֶם כִּי־נָדְדוּ מִמֶּנִּי שֹׁד לָהֶם כִּי־פָשְׁעוּ בִי וְאָנֹכִי אֶפְדֵּם וְהֵמָּה דִּבְּרוּ עָלַי כְּזָבִים׃", 4.4. "Yet let no man strive, neither let any man reprove; For thy people are as they that strive with the priest.", 7.13. "Woe unto them! for they have strayed from Me; Destruction unto them! for they have transgressed against Me; Shall I then redeem them, Seeing they have spoken lies against Me?",
10. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 39; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 159
2.1. "וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃", 2.1. "וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃", 2.1. "And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Job, 2.10, 7.16, 9.33, 10.8-10.9, 15.14-15.16, 32.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •god, image of Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 15; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 269, 429, 430, 431; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 106
7.16. "מָאַסְתִּי לֹא־לְעֹלָם אֶחְיֶה חֲדַל מִמֶּנִּי כִּי־הֶבֶל יָמָי׃", 9.33. "לֹא יֵשׁ־בֵּינֵינוּ מוֹכִיחַ יָשֵׁת יָדוֹ עַל־שְׁנֵינוּ׃", 10.8. "יָדֶיךָ עִצְּבוּנִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּנִי יַחַד סָבִיב וַתְּבַלְּעֵנִי׃", 10.9. "זְכָר־נָא כִּי־כַחֹמֶר עֲשִׂיתָנִי וְאֶל־עָפָר תְּשִׁיבֵנִי׃", 15.14. "מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־יִזְכֶּה וְכִי־יִצְדַּק יְלוּד אִשָּׁה׃", 15.15. "הֵן בקדשו [בִּקְדֹשָׁיו] לֹא יַאֲמִין וְשָׁמַיִם לֹא־זַכּוּ בְעֵינָיו׃", 15.16. "אַף כִּי־נִתְעָב וְנֶאֱלָח אִישׁ־שֹׁתֶה כַמַּיִם עַוְלָה׃", 32.5. "וַיַּרְא אֱלִיהוּא כִּי אֵין מַעֲנֶה בְּפִי שְׁלֹשֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיִּחַר אַפּוֹ׃", 2.10. "But he said unto her: ‘Thou speakest as one of the impious women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?’ For all this did not Job sin with his lips.", 7.16. "I loathe it; I shall not live alway; Let me alone; for my days are vanity.", 9.33. "There is no arbiter betwixt us, That might lay his hand upon us both.", 10.8. "Thy hands have framed me and fashioned me Together round about; yet Thou dost destroy me!", 10.9. "Remember, I beseech Thee, that Thou hast fashioned me as clay; And wilt Thou bring me into dust again?", 15.14. "What is man, that he should be clean? And he that is born of a woman, that he should be righteous?", 15.15. "Behold, He putteth no trust in His holy ones; Yea, the heavens are not clean in His sight.", 15.16. "How much less one that is abominable and impure, Man who drinketh iniquity like water! .", 32.5. "And when Elihu saw that there was no answer in the mouth of these three men, his wrath was kindled.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 3.2, 4.2, 4.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 431
3.2. "וְגַם עַל־הָעֲבָדִים וְעַל־הַשְּׁפָחוֹת בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי׃", 4.2. "וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹרַדְתִּים אֶל־עֵמֶק יְהוֹשָׁפָט וְנִשְׁפַּטְתִּי עִמָּם שָׁם עַל־עַמִּי וְנַחֲלָתִי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר פִּזְּרוּ בַגּוֹיִם וְאֶת־אַרְצִי חִלֵּקוּ׃", 4.2. "וִיהוּדָה לְעוֹלָם תֵּשֵׁב וִירוּשָׁלִַם לְדוֹר וָדוֹר׃", 4.12. "יֵעוֹרוּ וְיַעֲלוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֶל־עֵמֶק יְהוֹשָׁפָט כִּי שָׁם אֵשֵׁב לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת־כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם מִסָּבִיב׃", 3.2. "And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids In those days will I pour out My spirit.", 4.2. "I will gather all nations, And will bring them down into the valley of Jehoshaphat; And I will enter into judgment with them there For My people and for My heritage Israel, Whom they have scattered among the nations, And divided My land.", 4.12. "Let the nations be stirred up, and come up To the valley of Jehoshaphat; For there will I sit to judge All the nations round about.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.6, 4.12-4.24, 6.5, 7.14, 11.1, 17.3, 22.9-22.10, 27.15, 32.23-32.24, 32.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 210, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 269, 414, 504; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80, 193; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 121
4.6. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם כִּי הִוא חָכְמַתְכֶם וּבִינַתְכֶם לְעֵינֵי הָעַמִּים אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁמְעוּן אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה וְאָמְרוּ רַק עַם־חָכָם וְנָבוֹן הַגּוֹי הַגָּדוֹל הַזֶּה׃", 4.12. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃", 4.13. "וַיַּגֵּד לָכֶם אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֶתְכֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחוֹת אֲבָנִים׃", 4.14. "וְאֹתִי צִוָּה יְהוָה בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְלַמֵּד אֶתְכֶם חֻקִּים וּמִשְׁפָּטִים לַעֲשֹׂתְכֶם אֹתָם בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתֶּם עֹבְרִים שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃", 4.15. "וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃", 4.16. "פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃", 4.17. "תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃", 4.18. "תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃", 4.19. "וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 4.21. "וַיהוָה הִתְאַנֶּף־בִּי עַל־דִּבְרֵיכֶם וַיִּשָּׁבַע לְבִלְתִּי עָבְרִי אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וּלְבִלְתִּי־בֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה׃", 4.22. "כִּי אָנֹכִי מֵת בָּאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֵינֶנִּי עֹבֵר אֶת־הַיַּרְדֵּן וְאַתֶּם עֹבְרִים וִירִשְׁתֶּם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטּוֹבָה הַזֹּאת׃", 4.23. "הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם פֶּן־תִּשְׁכְּחוּ אֶת־בְּרִית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר כָּרַת עִמָּכֶם וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כֹּל אֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 4.24. "כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵשׁ אֹכְלָה הוּא אֵל קַנָּא׃", 6.5. "וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃", 7.14. "בָּרוּךְ תִּהְיֶה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים לֹא־יִהְיֶה בְךָ עָקָר וַעֲקָרָה וּבִבְהֶמְתֶּךָ׃", 11.1. "וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְשָׁמַרְתָּ מִשְׁמַרְתּוֹ וְחֻקֹּתָיו וּמִשְׁפָּטָיו וּמִצְוֺתָיו כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃", 11.1. "כִּי הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה בָא־שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ לֹא כְאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם הִוא אֲשֶׁר יְצָאתֶם מִשָּׁם אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרַע אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ וְהִשְׁקִיתָ בְרַגְלְךָ כְּגַן הַיָּרָק׃", 17.3. "וַיֵּלֶךְ וַיַּעֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ לָהֶם וְלַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ לַיָּרֵחַ אוֹ לְכָל־צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צִוִּיתִי׃", 22.9. "לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃", 27.15. "אָרוּר הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה פֶסֶל וּמַסֵּכָה תּוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי חָרָשׁ וְשָׂם בַּסָּתֶר וְעָנוּ כָל־הָעָם וְאָמְרוּ אָמֵן׃", 32.23. "אַסְפֶּה עָלֵימוֹ רָעוֹת חִצַּי אֲכַלֶּה־בָּם׃", 32.24. "מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃", 32.43. "הַרְנִינוּ גוֹיִם עַמּוֹ כִּי דַם־עֲבָדָיו יִקּוֹם וְנָקָם יָשִׁיב לְצָרָיו וְכִפֶּר אַדְמָתוֹ עַמּוֹ׃", 4.6. "Observe therefore and do them; for this is your wisdom and your understanding in the sight of the peoples, that, when they hear all these statutes, shall say: ‘Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.’", 4.12. "And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice.", 4.13. "And He declared unto you His covet, which He commanded you to perform, even the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone.", 4.14. "And the LORD commanded me at that time to teach you statutes and ordices, that ye might do them in the land whither ye go over to possess it.", 4.15. "Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire—", 4.16. "lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female,", 4.17. "the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven,", 4.18. "the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; .", 4.19. "and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.", 4.20. "But you hath the LORD taken and brought forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be unto Him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day.", 4.21. "Now the LORD was angered with me for your sakes, and swore that I should not go over the Jordan, and that I should not go in unto that good land, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance;", 4.22. "but I must die in this land, I must not go over the Jordan; but ye are to go over, and possess that good land.", 4.23. "Take heed unto yourselves, lest ye forget the covet of the LORD your God, which He made with you, and make you a graven image, even the likeness of any thing which the LORD thy God hath forbidden thee.", 4.24. "For the LORD thy God is a devouring fire, a jealous God.", 6.5. "And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.", 7.14. "Thou shalt be blessed above all peoples; there shall not be male or female barren among you, or among your cattle.", 11.1. "Therefore thou shalt love the LORD thy God, and keep His charge, and His statutes, and His ordices, and His commandments, alway.", 17.3. "and hath gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, or the sun, or the moon, or any of the host of heaven, which I have commanded not;", 22.9. "Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard.", 22.10. "Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together.", 27.15. "Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman, and setteth it up in secret. And all the people shall answer and say: Amen.", 32.23. "I will heap evils upon them; I will spend Mine arrows upon them;", 32.24. "The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust.", 32.43. "Sing aloud, O ye nations, of His people; For He doth avenge the blood of His servants, And doth render vengeance to His adversaries, And doth make expiation for the land of His people.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 11.1-11.41, 11.43-11.47, 12.2-12.8, 17.11, 18.22, 19.2, 19.4, 19.17-19.19, 19.24, 19.34, 24.13, 26.6, 27.6-27.7, 28.2, 34.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 44, 45; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 17, 48, 127; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400, 408, 430, 595; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256, 276; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 29, 30, 97, 121, 206, 233, 242
1.1. "וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃", 1.1. "וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃", 11.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם׃", 11.1. "וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם וּמִכֹּל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הֵם לָכֶם׃", 11.2. "כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.2. "דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.3. "כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 11.3. "וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃", 11.4. "אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.4. "וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.5. "וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.6. "וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃", 11.7. "וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.8. "מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃", 11.9. "אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 11.11. "וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ׃", 11.12. "כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.13. "וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃", 11.14. "וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃", 11.15. "אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃", 11.16. "וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 11.17. "וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף׃", 11.18. "וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם׃", 11.19. "וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃", 11.21. "אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.22. "אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 11.23. "וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.24. "וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.25. "וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.26. "לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא׃", 11.27. "וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.28. "וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃", 11.29. "וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 11.31. "אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.32. "וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל־עָלָיו מֵהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא מִכָּל־כְּלִי־עֵץ אוֹ בֶגֶד אוֹ־עוֹר אוֹ שָׂק כָּל־כְּלִי אֲשֶׁר־יֵעָשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בָּהֶם בַּמַּיִם יוּבָא וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעֶרֶב וְטָהֵר׃", 11.33. "וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּרוּ׃", 11.34. "מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃", 11.35. "וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו יִטְמָא תַּנּוּר וְכִירַיִם יֻתָּץ טְמֵאִים הֵם וּטְמֵאִים יִהְיוּ לָכֶם׃", 11.36. "אַךְ מַעְיָן וּבוֹר מִקְוֵה־מַיִם יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר וְנֹגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא׃", 11.37. "וְכִי יִפֹּל מִנִּבְלָתָם עַל־כָּל־זֶרַע זֵרוּעַ אֲשֶׁר יִזָּרֵעַ טָהוֹר הוּא׃", 11.38. "וְכִי יֻתַּן־מַיִם עַל־זֶרַע וְנָפַל מִנִּבְלָתָם עָלָיו טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.39. "וְכִי יָמוּת מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָהּ יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.41. "וְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃", 11.43. "אַל־תְּשַׁקְּצוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ וְלֹא תִטַּמְּאוּ בָּהֶם וְנִטְמֵתֶם בָּם׃", 11.44. "כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וְהִתְקַדִּשְׁתֶּם וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי וְלֹא תְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.45. "כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה הַמַּעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וִהְיִיתֶם קְדֹשִׁים כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אָנִי׃", 11.46. "זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.47. "לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַטָּמֵא וּבֵין הַטָּהֹר וּבֵין הַחַיָּה הַנֶּאֱכֶלֶת וּבֵין הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵאָכֵל׃", 12.2. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר וְטָמְאָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים כִּימֵי נִדַּת דְּוֺתָהּ תִּטְמָא׃", 12.3. "וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי יִמּוֹל בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ׃", 12.4. "וּשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב בִּדְמֵי טָהֳרָה בְּכָל־קֹדֶשׁ לֹא־תִגָּע וְאֶל־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לֹא תָבֹא עַד־מְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ׃", 12.5. "וְאִם־נְקֵבָה תֵלֵד וְטָמְאָה שְׁבֻעַיִם כְּנִדָּתָהּ וְשִׁשִּׁים יוֹם וְשֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֵּשֵׁב עַל־דְּמֵי טָהֳרָה׃", 12.6. "וּבִמְלֹאת יְמֵי טָהֳרָהּ לְבֵן אוֹ לְבַת תָּבִיא כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה וּבֶן־יוֹנָה אוֹ־תֹר לְחַטָּאת אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 12.7. "וְהִקְרִיבוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ וְטָהֲרָה מִמְּקֹר דָּמֶיהָ זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַיֹּלֶדֶת לַזָּכָר אוֹ לַנְּקֵבָה׃", 12.8. "וְאִם־לֹא תִמְצָא יָדָהּ דֵּי שֶׂה וְלָקְחָה שְׁתֵּי־תֹרִים אוֹ שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי יוֹנָה אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְאֶחָד לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵרָה׃", 17.11. "כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃", 18.22. "וְאֶת־זָכָר לֹא תִשְׁכַּב מִשְׁכְּבֵי אִשָּׁה תּוֹעֵבָה הִוא׃", 19.2. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 19.2. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃", 19.4. "אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 19.17. "לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃", 19.18. "לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.19. "אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃", 19.24. "וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃", 19.34. "כְּאֶזְרָח מִכֶּם יִהְיֶה לָכֶם הַגֵּר הַגָּר אִתְּכֶם וְאָהַבְתָּ לוֹ כָּמוֹךָ כִּי־גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 24.13. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 26.6. "וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ וּשְׁכַבְתֶּם וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְחֶרֶב לֹא־תַעֲבֹר בְּאַרְצְכֶם׃", 27.6. "וְאִם מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר חֲמִשָּׁה שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף׃", 27.7. "וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה אִם־זָכָר וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שָׁקֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשָׂרָה שְׁקָלִים׃", 1.1. "And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:", 11.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them:", 11.2. "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.", 11.3. "Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.", 11.4. "Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.", 11.5. "And the rock-badger, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.", 11.6. "And the hare, because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, she is unclean unto you", 11.7. "And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you.", 11.8. "of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch; they are unclean unto you.", 11.9. "These may ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them may ye eat.", 11.10. "And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are a detestable thing unto you,", 11.11. "and they shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses ye shall have in detestation.", 11.12. "Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that is a detestable thing unto you.", 11.13. "And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;", 11.14. "and the kite, and the falcon after its kinds;", 11.15. "every raven after its kinds;", 11.16. "and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;", 11.17. "and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl;", 11.18. "and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture;", 11.19. "and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.", 11.20. "All winged swarming things that go upon all fours are a detestable thing unto you.", 11.21. "Yet these may ye eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth;", 11.22. "even these of them ye may eat: the locust after its kinds, and the bald locust after its kinds, and the cricket after its kinds, and the grasshopper after its kinds.", 11.23. "But all winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestable thing unto you.", 11.24. "And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even.", 11.25. "And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.", 11.26. "Every beast which parteth the hoof, but is not cloven footed, nor cheweth the cud, is unclean unto you; every one that to toucheth them shall be unclean.", 11.27. "And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even.", 11.28. "And he that beareth the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; they are unclean unto you.", 11.29. "And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds,", 11.30. "and the gecko, and the land-crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand-lizard, and the chameleon.", 11.31. "These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the even.", 11.32. "And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherewith any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; then shall it be clean.", 11.33. "And every earthen vessel whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean, and it ye shall break.", 11.34. "All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean.", 11.35. "And every thing whereupon any part of their carcass falleth shall be unclean; whether oven, or range for pots, it shall be broken in pieces; they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.", 11.36. "Nevertheless a fountain or a cistern wherein is a gathering of water shall be clean; but he who toucheth their carcass shall be unclean.", 11.37. "And if aught of their carcass fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it is clean.", 11.38. "But if water be put upon the seed, and aught of their carcass fall thereon, it is unclean unto you.", 11.39. "And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die, he that toucheth the carcass thereof shall be unclean until the even.", 11.40. "And he that eateth of the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; he also that beareth the carcass of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.", 11.41. "And every swarming thing that swarmeth upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten.", 11.43. "Ye shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarmeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.", 11.44. "For I am the LORD your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy; neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of swarming thing that moveth upon the earth.", 11.45. "For I am the LORD that brought you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy. .", 11.46. "This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;", 11.47. "to make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the living thing that may be eaten and the living thing that may not be eaten.", 12.2. "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: If a woman be delivered, and bear a man-child, then she shall be unclean seven days; as in the days of the impurity of her sickness shall she be unclean.", 12.3. "And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised.", 12.4. "And she shall continue in the blood of purification three and thirty days; she shall touch no hallowed thing, nor come into the sanctuary, until the days of her purification be fulfilled.", 12.5. "But if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be unclean two weeks, as in her impurity; and she shall continue in the blood of purification threescore and six days.", 12.6. "And when the days of her purification are fulfilled, for a son, or for a daughter, she shall bring a lamb of the first year for a burnt-offering, and a young pigeon, or a turtle-dove, for a sin-offering, unto the door of the tent of meeting, unto the priest.", 12.7. "And he shall offer it before the LORD, and make atonement for her; and she shall be cleansed from the fountain of her blood. This is the law for her that beareth, whether a male or a female.", 12.8. "And if her means suffice not for a lamb, then she shall take two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons: the one for a burnt-offering, and the other for a sin-offering; and the priest shall make atonement for her, and she shall be clean.", 17.11. "For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life.", 18.22. "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind; it is abomination.", 19.2. "Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy.", 19.4. "Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God.", 19.17. "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.", 19.18. "Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.", 19.19. "Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.", 19.24. "And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.", 19.34. "The stranger that sojourneth with you shall be unto you as the home-born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.", 24.13. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 26.6. "And I will give peace in the land, and ye shall lie down, and none shall make you afraid; and I will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land, neither shall the sword go through your land.", 27.6. "And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy valuation shall be three shekels of silver.", 27.7. "And if it be from sixty years old and upward: if it be a male, then thy valuation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels.",
15. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 20.17, 21.6-21.9, 28.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, of god •image of god •god, image of Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 22; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 143
20.17. "נַעְבְּרָה־נָּא בְאַרְצֶךָ לֹא נַעֲבֹר בְּשָׂדֶה וּבְכֶרֶם וְלֹא נִשְׁתֶּה מֵי בְאֵר דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלֶךְ נֵלֵךְ לֹא נִטֶּה יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאול עַד אֲשֶׁר־נַעֲבֹר גְּבוּלֶךָ׃", 21.6. "וַיְשַׁלַּח יְהוָה בָּעָם אֵת הַנְּחָשִׁים הַשְּׂרָפִים וַיְנַשְּׁכוּ אֶת־הָעָם וַיָּמָת עַם־רָב מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 21.7. "וַיָּבֹא הָעָם אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ חָטָאנוּ כִּי־דִבַּרְנוּ בַיהוָה וָבָךְ הִתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה וְיָסֵר מֵעָלֵינוּ אֶת־הַנָּחָשׁ וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל מֹשֶׁה בְּעַד הָעָם׃", 21.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲשֵׂה לְךָ שָׂרָף וְשִׂים אֹתוֹ עַל־נֵס וְהָיָה כָּל־הַנָּשׁוּךְ וְרָאָה אֹתוֹ וָחָי׃", 21.9. "וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃", 28.15. "וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת לַיהוָה עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכּוֹ׃", 20.17. "Let us pass, I pray thee, through thy land; we will not pass through field or through vineyard, neither will we drink of the water of the wells; we will go along the king’s highway, we will not turn aside to the right hand nor to the left, until we have passed thy border.’", 21.6. "And the LORD sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much people of Israel died.", 21.7. "And the people came to Moses, and said: ‘We have sinned, because we have spoken against the LORD, and against thee; pray unto the LORD, that He take away the serpents from us.’ And Moses prayed for the people.", 21.8. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole; and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live.’", 21.9. "And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived.", 28.15. "And one he-goat for a sin-offering unto the LORD; it shall be offered beside the continual burnt-offering, and the drink-offering thereof.",
16. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.9, 3.11-3.12, 6.34, 8.22-8.25, 8.35, 9.8, 12.21, 27.10, 28.23, 30.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 430, 431; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 171; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 178; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 133, 254; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 253
3.9. "כַּבֵּד אֶת־יְהוָה מֵהוֹנֶךָ וּמֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־תְּבוּאָתֶךָ׃", 3.11. "מוּסַר יְהוָה בְּנִי אַל־תִּמְאָס וְאַל־תָּקֹץ בְּתוֹכַחְתּוֹ׃", 3.12. "כִּי אֶת אֲשֶׁר יֶאֱהַב יְהוָה יוֹכִיחַ וּכְאָב אֶת־בֵּן יִרְצֶה׃", 6.34. "כִּי־קִנְאָה חֲמַת־גָּבֶר וְלֹא־יַחְמוֹל בְּיוֹם נָקָם׃", 8.22. "יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃", 8.23. "מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃", 8.24. "בְּאֵין־תְּהֹמוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי בְּאֵין מַעְיָנוֹת נִכְבַּדֵּי־מָיִם׃", 8.25. "בְּטֶרֶם הָרִים הָטְבָּעוּ לִפְנֵי גְבָעוֹת חוֹלָלְתִּי׃", 8.35. "כִּי מֹצְאִי מצאי [מָצָא] חַיִּים וַיָּפֶק רָצוֹן מֵיְהוָה׃", 9.8. "אַל־תּוֹכַח לֵץ פֶּן־יִשְׂנָאֶךָּ הוֹכַח לְחָכָם וְיֶאֱהָבֶךָּ׃", 12.21. "לֹא־יְאֻנֶּה לַצַּדִּיק כָּל־אָוֶן וּרְשָׁעִים מָלְאוּ רָע׃", 28.23. "מוֹכִיחַ אָדָם אַחֲרַי חֵן יִמְצָא מִמַּחֲלִיק לָשׁוֹן׃", 30.6. "אַל־תּוֹסְףְּ עַל־דְּבָרָיו פֶּן־יוֹכִיחַ בְּךָ וְנִכְזָבְתָּ׃", 3.9. "Honour the LORD with thy substance, And with the first-fruits of all thine increase;", 3.11. "My son, despise not the chastening of the LORD, Neither spurn thou His correction;", 3.12. "For whom the LORD loveth He correcteth, Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth.", 6.34. "For jealousy is the rage of a man, And he will not spare in the day of vengeance.", 8.22. "The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old.", 8.23. "I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was.", 8.24. "When there were no depths, I was brought forth; When there were no fountains abounding with water.", 8.25. "Before the mountains were settled, Before the hills was I brought forth;", 8.35. "For whoso findeth me findeth life, And obtaineth favour of the LORD.", 9.8. "Reprove not a scorner, lest he hate thee; reprove a wise man, and he will love thee.", 12.21. "There shall no mischief befall the righteous; But the wicked are filled with evil.", 27.10. "Thine own friend, and thy father’s friend, forsake not; Neither go into thy brother’s house in the day of thy calamity; Better is a neighbour that is near than a brother far off.", 28.23. "He that rebuketh a man shall in the end find more favour Than he that flattereth with the tongue.", 30.6. "Add thou not unto His words, Lest He reprove thee, and thou be found a liar.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1-1.3, 2.6-2.8, 6.2, 6.9, 8.3-8.9, 17.11, 18.8, 18.11, 22.3, 31.3, 34.18-34.19, 36.4, 37.2, 44.4, 51.5, 51.7, 51.19, 54.13, 57.5, 89.9-89.15, 89.20-89.36, 90.13, 93.9, 102.13, 103.3-103.4, 104.1-104.4, 110.1, 110.4, 132.17, 139.4-139.5, 144.3-144.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 15, 32, 39; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 17; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 221; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 395, 400, 410, 415, 429, 430, 431, 601, 810, 924, 947; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007), The Letter of Mara bar Sarapion in Context, 133, 134; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 67, 86, 89, 91, 92, 93, 94, 182, 193, 194, 207; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 107, 108; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60, 101
1.1. "אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃", 1.2. "כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃", 1.3. "וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל־פַּלְגֵי מָיִם אֲשֶׁר פִּרְיוֹ יִתֵּן בְּעִתּוֹ וְעָלֵהוּ לֹא־יִבּוֹל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה יַצְלִיחַ׃", 2.6. "וַאֲנִי נָסַכְתִּי מַלְכִּי עַל־צִיּוֹן הַר־קָדְשִׁי׃", 2.7. "אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃", 2.8. "שְׁאַל מִמֶּנִּי וְאֶתְּנָה גוֹיִם נַחֲלָתֶךָ וַאֲחֻזָּתְךָ אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃", 6.2. "יְהוָה אַל־בְּאַפְּךָ תוֹכִיחֵנִי וְאַל־בַּחֲמָתְךָ תְיַסְּרֵנִי׃", 6.9. "סוּרוּ מִמֶּנִּי כָּל־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן כִּי־שָׁמַע יְהוָה קוֹל בִּכְיִי׃", 8.3. "מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃", 8.4. "כִּי־אֶרְאֶה שָׁמֶיךָ מַעֲשֵׂי אֶצְבְּעֹתֶיךָ יָרֵחַ וְכוֹכָבִים אֲשֶׁר כּוֹנָנְתָּה׃", 8.5. "מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי־תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ וּבֶן־אָדָם כִּי תִפְקְדֶנּוּ׃", 8.6. "וַתְּחַסְּרֵהוּ מְּעַט מֵאֱלֹהִים וְכָבוֹד וְהָדָר תְּעַטְּרֵהוּ׃", 8.7. "תַּמְשִׁילֵהוּ בְּמַעֲשֵׂי יָדֶיךָ כֹּל שַׁתָּה תַחַת־רַגְלָיו׃", 8.8. "צֹנֶה וַאֲלָפִים כֻּלָּם וְגַם בַּהֲמוֹת שָׂדָי׃", 8.9. "צִפּוֹר שָׁמַיִם וּדְגֵי הַיָּם עֹבֵר אָרְחוֹת יַמִּים׃", 17.11. "אַשֻּׁרֵינוּ עַתָּה סבבוני [סְבָבוּנוּ] עֵינֵיהֶם יָשִׁיתוּ לִנְטוֹת בָּאָרֶץ׃", 18.8. "וַתִּגְעַשׁ וַתִּרְעַשׁ הָאָרֶץ וּמוֹסְדֵי הָרִים יִרְגָּזוּ וַיִּתְגָּעֲשׁוּ כִּי־חָרָה לוֹ׃", 18.11. "וַיִּרְכַּב עַל־כְּרוּב וַיָּעֹף וַיֵּדֶא עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רוּחַ׃", 22.3. "אָכְלוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ כָּל־דִּשְׁנֵי־אֶרֶץ לְפָנָיו יִכְרְעוּ כָּל־יוֹרְדֵי עָפָר וְנַפְשׁוֹ לֹא חִיָּה׃", 22.3. "אֱ‍לֹהַי אֶקְרָא יוֹמָם וְלֹא תַעֲנֶה וְלַיְלָה וְלֹא־דוּמִיָּה לִי׃", 31.3. "הַטֵּה אֵלַי אָזְנְךָ מְהֵרָה הַצִּילֵנִי הֱיֵה לִי לְצוּר־מָעוֹז לְבֵית מְצוּדוֹת לְהוֹשִׁיעֵנִי׃", 34.18. "צָעֲקוּ וַיהוָה שָׁמֵעַ וּמִכָּל־צָרוֹתָם הִצִּילָם׃", 34.19. "קָרוֹב יְהוָה לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי־לֵב וְאֶת־דַּכְּאֵי־רוּחַ יוֹשִׁיעַ׃", 36.4. "דִּבְרֵי־פִיו אָוֶן וּמִרְמָה חָדַל לְהַשְׂכִּיל לְהֵיטִיב׃", 37.2. "כִּי רְשָׁעִים יֹאבֵדוּ וְאֹיְבֵי יְהוָה כִּיקַר כָּרִים כָּלוּ בֶעָשָׁן כָּלוּ׃", 37.2. "כִּי כֶחָצִיר מְהֵרָה יִמָּלוּ וּכְיֶרֶק דֶּשֶׁא יִבּוֹלוּן׃", 44.4. "כִּי לֹא בְחַרְבָּם יָרְשׁוּ אָרֶץ וּזְרוֹעָם לֹא־הוֹשִׁיעָה לָּמוֹ כִּי־יְמִינְךָ וּזְרוֹעֲךָ וְאוֹר פָּנֶיךָ כִּי רְצִיתָם׃", 51.5. "כִּי־פְשָׁעַי אֲנִי אֵדָע וְחַטָּאתִי נֶגְדִּי תָמִיד׃", 51.7. "הֵן־בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וּבְחֵטְא יֶחֱמַתְנִי אִמִּי׃", 51.19. "זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה לֵב־נִשְׁבָּר וְנִדְכֶּה אֱלֹהִים לֹא תִבְזֶה׃", 57.5. "נַפְשִׁי בְּתוֹךְ לְבָאִם אֶשְׁכְּבָה לֹהֲטִים בְּנֵי־אָדָם שִׁנֵּיהֶם חֲנִית וְחִצִּים וּלְשׁוֹנָם חֶרֶב חַדָּה׃", 89.9. "יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי צְבָאוֹת מִי־כָמוֹךָ חֲסִין יָהּ וֶאֱמוּנָתְךָ סְבִיבוֹתֶיךָ׃", 89.11. "אַתָּה דִכִּאתָ כֶחָלָל רָהַב בִּזְרוֹעַ עֻזְּךָ פִּזַּרְתָּ אוֹיְבֶיךָ׃", 89.12. "לְךָ שָׁמַיִם אַף־לְךָ אָרֶץ תֵּבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ אַתָּה יְסַדְתָּם׃", 89.13. "צָפוֹן וְיָמִין אַתָּה בְרָאתָם תָּבוֹר וְחֶרְמוֹן בְּשִׁמְךָ יְרַנֵּנוּ׃", 89.14. "לְךָ זְרוֹעַ עִם־גְּבוּרָה תָּעֹז יָדְךָ תָּרוּם יְמִינֶךָ׃", 89.15. "צֶדֶק וּמִשְׁפָּט מְכוֹן כִּסְאֶךָ חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת יְקַדְּמוּ פָנֶיךָ׃", 89.21. "מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃", 89.22. "אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃", 89.23. "לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃", 89.24. "וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃", 89.25. "וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃", 89.26. "וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃", 89.27. "הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃", 89.28. "אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃", 89.29. "לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃", 89.31. "אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃", 89.32. "אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃", 89.33. "וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃", 89.34. "וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃", 89.35. "לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃", 89.36. "אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃", 90.13. "שׁוּבָה יְהוָה עַד־מָתָי וְהִנָּחֵם עַל־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃", 102.13. "וְאַתָּה יְהוָה לְעוֹלָם תֵּשֵׁב וְזִכְרְךָ לְדֹר וָדֹר׃", 103.3. "הַסֹּלֵחַ לְכָל־עֲוֺנֵכִי הָרֹפֵא לְכָל־תַּחֲלֻאָיְכִי׃", 103.4. "הַגּוֹאֵל מִשַּׁחַת חַיָּיְכִי הַמְעַטְּרֵכִי חֶסֶד וְרַחֲמִים׃", 104.1. "בָּרֲכִי נַפְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָה יְהוָה אֱלֹהַי גָּדַלְתָּ מְּאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ׃", 104.1. "הַמְשַׁלֵּחַ מַעְיָנִים בַּנְּחָלִים בֵּין הָרִים יְהַלֵּכוּן׃", 104.2. "תָּשֶׁת־חֹשֶׁךְ וִיהִי לָיְלָה בּוֹ־תִרְמֹשׂ כָּל־חַיְתוֹ־יָעַר׃", 104.2. "עֹטֶה־אוֹר כַּשַּׂלְמָה נוֹטֶה שָׁמַיִם כַּיְרִיעָה׃", 104.3. "הַמְקָרֶה בַמַּיִם עֲ‍לִיּוֹתָיו הַשָּׂם־עָבִים רְכוּבוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ עַל־כַּנְפֵי־רוּחַ׃", 104.3. "תְּשַׁלַּח רוּחֲךָ יִבָּרֵאוּן וּתְחַדֵּשׁ פְּנֵי אֲדָמָה׃", 104.4. "עֹשֶׂה מַלְאָכָיו רוּחוֹת מְשָׁרְתָיו אֵשׁ לֹהֵט׃", 110.1. "לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר נְאֻם יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי שֵׁב לִימִינִי עַד־אָשִׁית אֹיְבֶיךָ הֲדֹם לְרַגְלֶיךָ׃", 110.4. "נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה וְלֹא יִנָּחֵם אַתָּה־כֹהֵן לְעוֹלָם עַל־דִּבְרָתִי מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק׃", 132.17. "שָׁם אַצְמִיחַ קֶרֶן לְדָוִד עָרַכְתִּי נֵר לִמְשִׁיחִי׃", 139.4. "כִּי אֵין מִלָּה בִּלְשׁוֹנִי הֵן יְהוָה יָדַעְתָּ כֻלָּהּ׃", 139.5. "אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃", 144.3. "יְהוָה מָה־אָדָם וַתֵּדָעֵהוּ בֶּן־אֱנוֹשׁ וַתְּחַשְּׁבֵהוּ׃", 144.4. "אָדָם לַהֶבֶל דָּמָה יָמָיו כְּצֵל עוֹבֵר׃", 1.1. "HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.", 1.2. "But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night.", 1.3. "And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, that bringeth forth its fruit in its season, and whose leaf doth not wither; and in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper.", 2.6. "'Truly it is I that have established My king upon Zion, My holy mountain.'", 2.7. "I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee.", 2.8. "Ask of Me, and I will give the nations for thine inheritance, and the ends of the earth for thy possession.", 6.2. "O LORD, rebuke me not in Thine anger, Neither chasten me in Thy wrath.", 6.9. "Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity; For the LORD hath heard the voice of my weeping.", 8.3. "Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.", 8.4. "When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, The moon and the stars, which Thou hast established;", 8.5. "What is man, that Thou art mindful of him? And the son of man, that Thou thinkest of him?", 8.6. "Yet Thou hast made him but little lower than the angels, And hast crowned him with glory and honour.", 8.7. "Thou hast made him to have dominion over the works of Thy hands; Thou hast put all things under His feet:", 8.8. "Sheep and oxen, all of them, Yea, and the beasts of the field;", 8.9. "The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea; Whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.", 17.11. "At our every step they have now encompassed us; They set their eyes to cast us down to the earth.", 18.8. "Then the earth did shake and quake, the foundations also of the mountains did tremble; they were shaken, because He was wroth.", 18.11. "And He rode upon a cherub, and did fly; yea, He did swoop down upon the wings of the wind.", 22.3. "O my God, I call by day, but Thou answerest not; and at night, and there is no surcease for me.", 31.3. "Incline Thine ear unto me, deliver me speedily; Be Thou to me a rock of refuge, even a fortress of defence, to save me.", 34.18. "They cried, and the LORD heard, And delivered them out of all their troubles.", 34.19. "The LORD is nigh unto them that are of a broken heart, And saveth such as are of a contrite spirit.", 36.4. "The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; He hath left off to be wise, to do good.", 37.2. "For they shall soon wither like the grass, and fade as the green herb.", 44.4. "For not by their own sword did they get the land in possession, Neither did their own arm save them; but Thy right hand, and Thine arm, and the light of Thy countece, because Thou wast favourable unto them.", 51.5. "For I know my transgressions; And my sin is ever before me.", 51.7. "Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.", 51.19. "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise.", 57.5. "My soul is among lions, I do lie down among them that are aflame; Even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, And their tongue a sharp sword.", 89.9. "O LORD God of hosts, Who is a mighty one, like unto Thee, O LORD? And Thy faithfulness is round about Thee.", 89.10. "Thou rulest the proud swelling of the sea; When the waves thereof arise, Thou stillest them.", 89.11. "Thou didst crush Rahab, as one that is slain; Thou didst scattered Thine enemies with the arm of Thy strength.", 89.12. "Thine are the heavens, Thine also the earth; The world and the fulness thereof, Thou hast founded them.", 89.13. "The north and the south, Thou hast created them; Tabor and Hermon rejoice in Thy name.", 89.14. "Thine is an arm with might; Strong is Thy hand, and exalted is Thy right hand.", 89.15. "Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Thy throne; Mercy and truth go before Thee.", 89.20. "Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people.", 89.21. "I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;", 89.22. "With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him.", 89.23. "The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him.", 89.24. "And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him.", 89.25. "But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted.", 89.26. "I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers.", 89.27. "He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. .", 89.28. "I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth.", 89.29. "For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him.", 89.30. "His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven.", 89.31. "If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :", 89.32. "If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;", 89.33. "Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes.", 89.34. "But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness.", 89.35. "My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips.", 89.36. "Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;", 90.13. "Return, O LORD; how long? And let it repent Thee concerning Thy servants.", 102.13. "But Thou, O LORD, sittest enthroned for ever; and Thy name is unto all generations.", 103.3. "Who forgiveth all thine iniquity; Who healeth all Thy diseases;", 103.4. "Who redeemeth Thy life from the pit; Who encompasseth thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies;", 104.1. "Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, Thou art very great; Thou art clothed with glory and majesty.", 104.2. "Who coverest Thyself with light as with a garment, who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain;", 104.3. "Who layest the beams of Thine upper chambers in the waters, who makest the clouds Thy chariot, who walkest upon the wings of the wind;", 104.4. "Who makest winds Thy messengers, the flaming fire Thy ministers.", 110.1. "A Psalm of David. The LORD saith unto my lord: ‘Sit thou at My right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.'", 110.4. "The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent: 'Thou art a priest for ever After the manner of Melchizedek.'", 132.17. "There will I make a horn to shoot up unto David, There have I ordered a lamp for Mine anointed.", 139.4. "For there is not a word in my tongue, But, lo, O LORD, Thou knowest it altogether.", 139.5. "Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me.", 144.3. "LORD, what is man, that Thou takest knowledge of him? Or the son of man, that Thou makest account of him?", 144.4. "Man is like unto a breath; His days are as a shadow that passeth away.",
18. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947
4.15. "וְהָיָה לָךְ לְמֵשִׁיב נֶפֶשׁ וּלְכַלְכֵּל אֶת־שֵׂיבָתֵךְ כִּי כַלָּתֵךְ אֲ‍שֶׁר־אֲהֵבַתֶךְ יְלָדַתּוּ אֲשֶׁר־הִיא טוֹבָה לָךְ מִשִּׁבְעָה בָּנִים׃", 4.15. "And he shall be unto thee a restorer of life, and a nourisher of thine old age; for thy daughter-in-law, who loveth thee, who is better to thee than seven sons, hath borne him.’",
19. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.2, 3.4-3.5, 14.14, 15.17-15.18, 20.23, 23.20-23.22, 28.36-28.38, 31.2, 33.17-33.23, 40.30-40.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •god, image of Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 17, 52, 127; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 208, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 431, 810; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62, 72, 73, 81, 83
3.2. "וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ יְהֹוָה אֵלָיו בְּלַבַּת־אֵשׁ מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה הַסְּנֶה בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וְהַסְּנֶה אֵינֶנּוּ אֻכָּל׃", 3.2. "וְשָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וְהִכֵּיתִי אֶת־מִצְרַיִם בְּכֹל נִפְלְאֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אֶעֱשֶׂה בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן יְשַׁלַּח אֶתְכֶם׃", 3.4. "וַיַּרְא יְהוָה כִּי סָר לִרְאוֹת וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו אֱלֹהִים מִתּוֹךְ הַסְּנֶה וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃", 3.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַל־תִּקְרַב הֲלֹם שַׁל־נְעָלֶיךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶיךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עוֹמֵד עָלָיו אַדְמַת־קֹדֶשׁ הוּא׃", 14.14. "יְהוָה יִלָּחֵם לָכֶם וְאַתֶּם תַּחֲרִישׁוּן׃", 15.17. "תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃", 15.18. "יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃", 20.23. "וְלֹא־תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת עַל־מִזְבְּחִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ עָלָיו׃", 23.21. "הִשָּׁמֶר מִפָּנָיו וּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ אַל־תַּמֵּר בּוֹ כִּי לֹא יִשָּׂא לְפִשְׁעֲכֶם כִּי שְׁמִי בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃", 23.22. "כִּי אִם־שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ וְעָשִׂיתָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֲדַבֵּר וְאָיַבְתִּי אֶת־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְצַרְתִּי אֶת־צֹרְרֶיךָ׃", 28.36. "וְעָשִׂיתָ צִּיץ זָהָב טָהוֹר וּפִתַּחְתָּ עָלָיו פִּתּוּחֵי חֹתָם קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃", 28.37. "וְשַׂמְתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת וְהָיָה עַל־הַמִּצְנָפֶת אֶל־מוּל פְּנֵי־הַמִּצְנֶפֶת יִהְיֶה׃", 28.38. "וְהָיָה עַל־מֵצַח אַהֲרֹן וְנָשָׂא אַהֲרֹן אֶת־עֲוֺן הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יַקְדִּישׁוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל־מַתְּנֹת קָדְשֵׁיהֶם וְהָיָה עַל־מִצְחוֹ תָּמִיד לְרָצוֹן לָהֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃", 31.2. "רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃", 33.17. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה גַּם אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶעֱשֶׂה כִּי־מָצָאתָ חֵן בְּעֵינַי וָאֵדָעֲךָ בְּשֵׁם׃", 33.18. "וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃", 33.19. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲנִי אַעֲבִיר כָּל־טוּבִי עַל־פָּנֶיךָ וְקָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם יְהוָה לְפָנֶיךָ וְחַנֹּתִי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אָחֹן וְרִחַמְתִּי אֶת־אֲשֶׁר אֲרַחֵם׃", 33.21. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה הִנֵּה מָקוֹם אִתִּי וְנִצַּבְתָּ עַל־הַצּוּר׃", 33.22. "וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃", 33.23. "וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃", 40.31. "וְרָחֲצוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃", 3.2. "And the angel of the LORD appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and, behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed.", 3.4. "And when the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said: ‘Moses, Moses.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’", 3.5. "And He said: ‘Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground.’", 14.14. "The LORD will fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace.’", 15.17. "Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established.", 15.18. "The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.", 20.23. "Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon.", 23.20. "Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared.", 23.21. "Take heed of him, and hearken unto his voice; be not rebellious against him; for he will not pardon your transgression; for My name is in him.", 23.22. "But if thou shalt indeed hearken unto his voice, and do all that I speak; then I will be an enemy unto thine enemies, and an adversary unto thine adversaries.", 28.36. "And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it, like the engravings of a signet: HOLY TO THE LORD.", 28.37. "And thou shalt put it on a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the mitre; upon the forefront of the mitre it shall be.", 28.38. "And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity committed in the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, even in all their holy gifts; and it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the LORD.", 31.2. "’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah;", 33.17. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘I will do this thing also that thou hast spoken, for thou hast found grace in My sight, and I know thee by name.’", 33.18. "And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’", 33.19. "And He said: ‘I will make all My goodness pass before thee, and will proclaim the name of the LORD before thee; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.’", 33.20. "And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’", 33.21. "And the LORD said: ‘Behold, there is a place by Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock.", 33.22. "And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by.", 33.23. "And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’", 40.30. "And he set the laver between the tent of meeting and the altar, and put water therein, wherewith to wash;", 40.31. "that Moses and Aaron and his sons might wash their hands and their feet thereat;",
20. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 161-165, 196, 64-65, 68-72, 81-82, 85-99, 19 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 155
19. Dark groves and just men’s cities. Now the chaste
21. Homer, Odyssey, 6.149-6.185, 8.170-8.173 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •image, of god •king as image/glory of gods Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 58; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107
22. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.46, 21.3, 23.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 208, 210; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947
1.46. "וְגַם יָשַׁב שְׁלֹמֹה עַל כִּסֵּא הַמְּלוּכָה׃", 21.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר נָבוֹת אֶל־אַחְאָב חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה מִתִּתִּי אֶת־נַחֲלַת אֲבֹתַי לָךְ׃", 1.46. "And also Solomon sitteth on the throne of the kingdom.", 21.3. "And Naboth said to Ahab: ‘The LORD forbid it me, that I should give the inheritance of my fathers unto thee.’",
23. Homer, Iliad, 6.273, 8.245-8.251, 18.478-18.607, 24.306-24.321 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •athens, images of the gods •mother of the gods, statues and images of •image, of god •king as image/glory of gods Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 169; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 56; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86
6.273. / driver of the spoil, with burnt-offerings, when thou hast gathered together the aged wives; and the robe that seemeth to thee the fairest and amplest in thy hall, and that is dearest far to thine own self, this do thou lay upon the knees of fair-haired Athene and vow to her that thou wilt sacrifice in her temple twelve sleek heifers that have not felt the goad, 8.245. / So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.246. / So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.247. / So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.248. / So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.249. / So spake he, and the Father had pity on him as he wept, and vouchsafed him that his folk should be saved and not perish. Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omens among winged birds, holding in his talons a fawn, the young of a swift hind. Beside the fair altar of Zeus he let fall the fawn, 8.250. / even where the Achaeans were wont to offer sacrifice to Zeus from whom all omens come. So they, when they saw that it was from Zeus that the bird was come, leapt the more upon the Trojans and bethought them of battle.Then might no man of the Danaans, for all they were so many, vaunt that he before the son of Tydeus guided his swift horses 8.251. / even where the Achaeans were wont to offer sacrifice to Zeus from whom all omens come. So they, when they saw that it was from Zeus that the bird was come, leapt the more upon the Trojans and bethought them of battle.Then might no man of the Danaans, for all they were so many, vaunt that he before the son of Tydeus guided his swift horses 18.478. / and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim, 18.479. / and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim, 18.480. / threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, 18.481. / threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, 18.482. / threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, 18.483. / threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, 18.484. / threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, 18.485. / and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.486. / and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.487. / and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.488. / and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.489. / and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned—the Pleiades, and the Hyades and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean. 18.490. / Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.491. / Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.492. / Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.493. / Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.494. / Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and by the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirling in the dance, and in their midst 18.495. / flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.496. / flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.497. / flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.498. / flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.499. / flutes and lyres sounded continually; and there the women stood each before her door and marvelled. But the folk were gathered in the place of assembly; for there a strife had arisen, and two men were striving about the blood-price of a man slain; the one avowed that he had paid all, 18.500. / declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.501. / declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.502. / declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.503. / declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.504. / declaring his cause to the people, but the other refused to accept aught; and each was fain to win the issue on the word of a daysman. Moreover, the folk were cheering both, shewing favour to this side and to that. And heralds held back the folk, and the elders were sitting upon polished stones in the sacred circle, 18.505. / holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.506. / holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.507. / holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.508. / holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.509. / holding in their hands the staves of the loud-voiced heralds. Therewith then would they spring up and give judgment, each in turn. And in the midst lay two talents of gold, to be given to him whoso among them should utter the most righteous judgment.But around the other city lay in leaguer two hosts of warriors 18.510. / gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding, 18.511. / gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding, 18.512. / gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding, 18.513. / gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding, 18.514. / gleaming in armour. And twofold plans found favour with them, either to lay waste the town or to divide in portions twain all the substance that the lovely city contained within. Howbeit the besieged would nowise hearken thereto, but were arming to meet the foe in an ambush. The wall were their dear wives and little children guarding, 18.515. / as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.516. / as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.517. / as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.518. / as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.519. / as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller. 18.520. / But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.521. / But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.522. / But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.523. / But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.524. / But when they were come to the place where it seemed good unto them to set their ambush, in a river-bed where was a watering-place for all herds alike, there they sate them down, clothed about with flaming bronze. Thereafter were two scouts set by them apart from the host, waiting till they should have sight of the sheep and sleek cattle. 18.525. / And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.526. / And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.527. / And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.528. / And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. 18.529. / And these came presently, and two herdsmen followed with them playing upon pipes; and of the guile wist they not at all. But the liers-in-wait, when they saw these coming on, rushed forth against them and speedily cut off the herds of cattle and fair flocks of white-fleeced sheep, and slew the herdsmen withal. 18.530. / But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.531. / But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.532. / But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.533. / But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.534. / But the besiegers, as they sat before the places of gathering and heard much tumult among the kine, mounted forthwith behind their high-stepping horses, and set out thitherward, and speedily came upon them. Then set they their battle in array and fought beside the river banks, and were ever smiting one another with bronze-tipped spears. 18.535. / And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.536. / And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.537. / And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.538. / And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.539. / And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought; 18.540. / and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field, 18.541. / and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field, 18.542. / and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field, 18.543. / and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field, 18.544. / and they were haling away each the bodies of the others' slain.Therein he set also soft fallow-land, rich tilth and wide, that was three times ploughed; and ploughers full many therein were wheeling their yokes and driving them this way and that. And whensoever after turning they came to the headland of the field, 18.545. / then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.546. / then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.547. / then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.548. / then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.549. / then would a man come forth to each and give into his hands a cup of honey-sweet wine; and the ploughmen would turn them in the furrows, eager to reach the headland of the deep tilth. And the field grew black behind and seemed verily as it had been ploughed, for all that it was of gold; herein was the great marvel of the work. 18.550. / Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.551. / Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.552. / Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.553. / Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.554. / Therein he set also a king's demesne-land, wherein labourers were reaping, bearing sharp sickles in their hands. Some handfuls were falling in rows to the ground along the swathe, while others the binders of sheaves were binding with twisted ropes of straw. Three binders stood hard by them, while behind them 18.555. / boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.556. / boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.557. / boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.558. / boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.559. / boys would gather the handfuls, and bearing them in their arms would busily give them to the binders; and among them the king, staff in hand, was standing in silence at the swathe, joying in his heart. And heralds apart beneath an oak were making ready a feast, and were dressing a great ox they had slain for sacrifice; and the women 18.560. / sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.561. / sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.562. / sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.563. / sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. 18.564. / sprinkled the flesh with white barley in abundance, for the workers' mid-day meal. Therein he set also a vineyard heavily laden with clusters, a vineyard fair and wrought of gold; black were the grapes, and the vines were set up throughout on silver poles. And around it he drave a trench of cyanus, and about that a fence of tin; 18.565. / and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre, 18.566. / and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre, 18.567. / and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre, 18.568. / and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre, 18.569. / and one single path led thereto, whereby the vintagers went and came, whensoever they gathered the vintage. And maidens and youths in childish glee were bearing the honey-sweet fruit in wicker baskets. And in their midst a boy made pleasant music with a clear-toned lyre, 18.570. / and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin, 18.571. / and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin, 18.572. / and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin, 18.573. / and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin, 18.574. / and thereto sang sweetly the Linos-song with his delicate voice; and his fellows beating the earth in unison therewith followed on with bounding feet mid dance and shoutings.And therein he wrought a herd of straight-horned kine: the kine were fashioned of gold and tin, 18.575. / and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.576. / and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.577. / and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.578. / and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.579. / and with lowing hasted they forth from byre to pasture beside the sounding river, beside the waving reed. And golden were the herdsmen that walked beside the kine, four in number, and nine dogs swift of foot followed after them. But two dread lions amid the foremost kine 18.580. / were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.581. / were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.582. / were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.583. / were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.584. / were holding a loud-lowing bull, and he, bellowing mightily, was haled of them, while after him pursued the dogs and young men. The lions twain had rent the hide of the great bull, and were devouring the inward parts and the black blood, while the herdsmen vainly sought to fright them, tarring on the swift hounds. 18.585. / Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.586. / Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.587. / Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.588. / Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.589. / Howbeit these shrank from fastening on the lions, but stood hard by and barked and sprang aside.Therein also the famed god of the two strong arms wrought a pasture in a fair dell, a great pasture of white-fleeced sheep, and folds, and roofed huts, and pens. 18.590. / Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.591. / Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.592. / Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.593. / Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.594. / Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other. 18.595. / of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.596. / of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.597. / of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.598. / of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.599. / of these the maidens were clad in fine linen, while the youths wore well-woven tunics faintly glistening with oil; and the maidens had fair chaplets, and the youths had daggers of gold hanging from silver baldrics. Now would they run round with cunning feet 18.600. / exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.601. / exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.602. / exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.603. / exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.604. / exceeding lightly, as when a potter sitteth by his wheel that is fitted between his hands and maketh trial of it whether it will run; and now again would they run in rows toward each other. And a great company stood around the lovely dance, taking joy therein; 18.605. / and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy, 18.606. / and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy, 18.607. / and two tumblers whirled up and down through the midst of them as leaders in the dance.Therein he set also the great might of the river Oceanus, around the uttermost rim of the strongly-wrought shield.But when he had wrought the shield, great and sturdy, 24.306. / Then, when he had washed his hands, he took the cup from his wife and then made prayer, standing in the midst of thie court, and poured forth the wine, with a look toward heaven, and spake ahoud, saying:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, grant that I may come unto Achilles' hut as one to be welcomed and to be pitied; 24.307. / Then, when he had washed his hands, he took the cup from his wife and then made prayer, standing in the midst of thie court, and poured forth the wine, with a look toward heaven, and spake ahoud, saying:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, grant that I may come unto Achilles' hut as one to be welcomed and to be pitied; 24.308. / Then, when he had washed his hands, he took the cup from his wife and then made prayer, standing in the midst of thie court, and poured forth the wine, with a look toward heaven, and spake ahoud, saying:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, grant that I may come unto Achilles' hut as one to be welcomed and to be pitied; 24.309. / Then, when he had washed his hands, he took the cup from his wife and then made prayer, standing in the midst of thie court, and poured forth the wine, with a look toward heaven, and spake ahoud, saying:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, grant that I may come unto Achilles' hut as one to be welcomed and to be pitied; 24.310. / and send a bird of omen, even the swift messenger that to thyself is dearest of birds and is mightiest in strength; let him appear upon my right hand, to the end that, marking the sign with mine own eyes, I may have trust therein, and go my way to the ships of the Danaans of fleet steeds. So spake he in prayer, and Zeus the Counsellor heard him. 24.311. / and send a bird of omen, even the swift messenger that to thyself is dearest of birds and is mightiest in strength; let him appear upon my right hand, to the end that, marking the sign with mine own eyes, I may have trust therein, and go my way to the ships of the Danaans of fleet steeds. So spake he in prayer, and Zeus the Counsellor heard him. 24.312. / and send a bird of omen, even the swift messenger that to thyself is dearest of birds and is mightiest in strength; let him appear upon my right hand, to the end that, marking the sign with mine own eyes, I may have trust therein, and go my way to the ships of the Danaans of fleet steeds. So spake he in prayer, and Zeus the Counsellor heard him. 24.313. / and send a bird of omen, even the swift messenger that to thyself is dearest of birds and is mightiest in strength; let him appear upon my right hand, to the end that, marking the sign with mine own eyes, I may have trust therein, and go my way to the ships of the Danaans of fleet steeds. So spake he in prayer, and Zeus the Counsellor heard him. 24.314. / and send a bird of omen, even the swift messenger that to thyself is dearest of birds and is mightiest in strength; let him appear upon my right hand, to the end that, marking the sign with mine own eyes, I may have trust therein, and go my way to the ships of the Danaans of fleet steeds. So spake he in prayer, and Zeus the Counsellor heard him. 24.315. / Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omen among winged birds, the dusky eagle, even the hunter, that men call also the black eagle. Wide as is the door of some rich man's high-roofed treasure-chamber, a door well fitted with bolts, even so wide spread his wings to this side and to that; and he appeared to them on the right, 24.316. / Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omen among winged birds, the dusky eagle, even the hunter, that men call also the black eagle. Wide as is the door of some rich man's high-roofed treasure-chamber, a door well fitted with bolts, even so wide spread his wings to this side and to that; and he appeared to them on the right, 24.317. / Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omen among winged birds, the dusky eagle, even the hunter, that men call also the black eagle. Wide as is the door of some rich man's high-roofed treasure-chamber, a door well fitted with bolts, even so wide spread his wings to this side and to that; and he appeared to them on the right, 24.318. / Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omen among winged birds, the dusky eagle, even the hunter, that men call also the black eagle. Wide as is the door of some rich man's high-roofed treasure-chamber, a door well fitted with bolts, even so wide spread his wings to this side and to that; and he appeared to them on the right, 24.319. / Forthwith he sent an eagle, surest of omen among winged birds, the dusky eagle, even the hunter, that men call also the black eagle. Wide as is the door of some rich man's high-roofed treasure-chamber, a door well fitted with bolts, even so wide spread his wings to this side and to that; and he appeared to them on the right, 24.320. / darting across the city. And at sight of him they waxed glad, and the hearts in the breasts of all were cheered.Then the old man made haste and stepped upon his car, and drave forth from the gateway and the echoing portico. In front the mules drew the four-wheeled waggon, 24.321. / darting across the city. And at sight of him they waxed glad, and the hearts in the breasts of all were cheered.Then the old man made haste and stepped upon his car, and drave forth from the gateway and the echoing portico. In front the mules drew the four-wheeled waggon,
24. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947
1.11. "כָּל־עַמָּהּ נֶאֱנָחִים מְבַקְּשִׁים לֶחֶם נָתְנוּ מחמודיהם [מַחֲמַדֵּיהֶם] בְּאֹכֶל לְהָשִׁיב נָפֶשׁ רְאֵה יְהוָה וְהַבִּיטָה כִּי הָיִיתִי זוֹלֵלָה׃", 1.11. "All her people are sighing [as] they search for bread; they gave away their treasures for food to revive the soul; see, O Lord, and behold, how I have become worthless. ",
25. Homeric Hymns, To The Mother of The Gods, 4-5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107
26. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.21, 8.2, 18.6, 19.13, 28.6, 31.31-31.34, 35.6, 49.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 210; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 924, 947; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 193; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 106
5.21. "שִׁמְעוּ־נָא זֹאת עַם סָכָל וְאֵין לֵב עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ אָזְנַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִשְׁמָעוּ׃", 8.2. "עָבַר קָצִיר כָּלָה קָיִץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לוֹא נוֹשָׁעְנוּ׃", 8.2. "וּשְׁטָחוּם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲהֵבוּם וַאֲשֶׁר עֲבָדוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם לֹא יֵאָסְפוּ וְלֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ לְדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה יִהְיוּ׃", 18.6. "הֲכַיּוֹצֵר הַזֶּה לֹא־אוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל נְאֻם־יְהוָה הִנֵּה כַחֹמֶר בְּיַד הַיּוֹצֵר כֵּן־אַתֶּם בְּיָדִי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 19.13. "וְהָיוּ בָּתֵּי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וּבָתֵּי מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה כִּמְקוֹם הַתֹּפֶת הַטְּמֵאִים לְכֹל הַבָּתִּים אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ עַל־גַּגֹּתֵיהֶם לְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהַסֵּךְ נְסָכִים לֵאלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃", 28.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אָמֵן כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה יָקֵם יְהוָה אֶת־דְּבָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נִבֵּאתָ לְהָשִׁיב כְּלֵי בֵית־יְהוָה וְכָל־הַגּוֹלָה מִבָּבֶל אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 31.31. "הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃", 31.32. "לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃", 31.33. "כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃", 31.34. "וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃", 35.6. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא נִשְׁתֶּה־יָּיִן כִּי יוֹנָדָב בֶּן־רֵכָב אָבִינוּ צִוָּה עָלֵינוּ לֵאמֹר לֹא תִשְׁתּוּ־יַיִן אַתֶּם וּבְנֵיכֶם עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 49.36. "וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶל־עֵילָם אַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת מֵאַרְבַּע קְצוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְזֵרִתִים לְכֹל הָרֻחוֹת הָאֵלֶּה וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה הַגּוֹי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָבוֹא שָׁם נִדְּחֵי עולם [עֵילָם׃]", 5.21. "Hear now this, O foolish people, and without understanding, That have eyes, and see not, That have ears, and hear not:", 8.2. "and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped; they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth.", 18.6. "’O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter? saith the LORD. Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are ye in My hand, O house of Israel.", 19.13. "and the houses of Jerusalem, and the houses of the kings of Judah, which are defiled, shall be as the place of Topheth, even all the houses upon whose roofs they have offered unto all the host of heaven, and have poured out drink-offerings unto other gods.", 28.6. "even the prophet Jeremiah said: ‘Amen! the LORD do so! the LORD perform thy words which thou hast prophesied, to bring back the vessels of the LORD’S house, and all them that are carried away captive, from Babylon unto this place!", 31.31. "Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah;", 31.32. "not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD.", 31.33. "But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;", 31.34. "and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.", 35.6. "But they said: ‘We will drink no wine; for Jonadab the son of Rechab our father commanded us, saying: Ye shall drink no wine, neither ye, nor your sons, for ever;", 49.36. "And I will bring against Elam the four winds From the four quarters of heaven, And will scatter them toward all those winds; And there shall be no nation whither the dispersed of Elam shall not come.",
27. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 2.4, 6.10, 11.1-11.8, 14.12-14.15, 14.29, 19.10, 26.5, 27.1, 29.23, 30.6, 34.8-34.10, 35.9, 43.4, 45.3, 45.11, 49.6, 59.5, 64.7-64.8, 65.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400, 408, 410, 430, 431, 504, 601, 810, 945; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 84, 93, 94; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 106
2.4. "וְשָׁפַט בֵּין הַגּוֹיִם וְהוֹכִיחַ לְעַמִּים רַבִּים וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבוֹתָם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא־יִשָּׂא גוֹי אֶל־גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא־יִלְמְדוּ עוֹד מִלְחָמָה׃", 11.1. "וְיָצָא חֹטֶר מִגֵּזַע יִשָׁי וְנֵצֶר מִשָּׁרָשָׁיו יִפְרֶה׃", 11.1. "וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שֹׁרֶשׁ יִשַׁי אֲשֶׁר עֹמֵד לְנֵס עַמִּים אֵלָיו גּוֹיִם יִדְרֹשׁוּ וְהָיְתָה מְנֻחָתוֹ כָּבוֹד׃", 11.2. "וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃", 11.3. "וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃", 11.4. "וְשָׁפַט בְּצֶדֶק דַּלִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ בְּמִישׁוֹר לְעַנְוֵי־אָרֶץ וְהִכָּה־אֶרֶץ בְּשֵׁבֶט פִּיו וּבְרוּחַ שְׂפָתָיו יָמִית רָשָׁע׃", 11.5. "וְהָיָה צֶדֶק אֵזוֹר מָתְנָיו וְהָאֱמוּנָה אֵזוֹר חֲלָצָיו׃", 11.6. "וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃", 11.7. "וּפָרָה וָדֹב תִּרְעֶינָה יַחְדָּו יִרְבְּצוּ יַלְדֵיהֶן וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן׃", 11.8. "וְשִׁעֲשַׁע יוֹנֵק עַל־חֻר פָּתֶן וְעַל מְאוּרַת צִפְעוֹנִי גָּמוּל יָדוֹ הָדָה׃", 14.12. "אֵיךְ נָפַלְתָּ מִשָּׁמַיִם הֵילֵל בֶּן־שָׁחַר נִגְדַּעְתָּ לָאָרֶץ חוֹלֵשׁ עַל־גּוֹיִם׃", 14.13. "וְאַתָּה אָמַרְתָּ בִלְבָבְךָ הַשָּׁמַיִם אֶעֱלֶה מִמַּעַל לְכוֹכְבֵי־אֵל אָרִים כִּסְאִי וְאֵשֵׁב בְּהַר־מוֹעֵד בְּיַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן׃", 14.14. "אֶעֱלֶה עַל־בָּמֳתֵי עָב אֶדַּמֶּה לְעֶלְיוֹן׃", 14.15. "אַךְ אֶל־שְׁאוֹל תּוּרָד אֶל־יַרְכְּתֵי־בוֹר׃", 14.29. "אַל־תִּשְׂמְחִי פְלֶשֶׁת כֻּלֵּךְ כִּי נִשְׁבַּר שֵׁבֶט מַכֵּךְ כִּי־מִשֹּׁרֶשׁ נָחָשׁ יֵצֵא צֶפַע וּפִרְיוֹ שָׂרָף מְעוֹפֵף׃", 26.5. "כִּי הֵשַׁח יֹשְׁבֵי מָרוֹם קִרְיָה נִשְׂגָּבָה יַשְׁפִּילֶנָּה יַשְׁפִּילָהּ עַד־אֶרֶץ יַגִּיעֶנָּה עַד־עָפָר׃", 27.1. "כִּי עִיר בְּצוּרָה בָּדָד נָוֶה מְשֻׁלָּח וְנֶעֱזָב כַּמִּדְבָּר שָׁם יִרְעֶה עֵגֶל וְשָׁם יִרְבָּץ וְכִלָּה סְעִפֶיהָ׃", 27.1. "בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבוֹ הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדוֹלָה וְהַחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתוֹן וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּם׃", 29.23. "כִּי בִרְאֹתוֹ יְלָדָיו מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַי בְּקִרְבּוֹ יַקְדִּישׁוּ שְׁמִי וְהִקְדִּישׁוּ אֶת־קְדוֹשׁ יַעֲקֹב וְאֶת־אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יַעֲרִיצוּ׃", 30.6. "מַשָּׂא בַּהֲמוֹת נֶגֶב בְּאֶרֶץ צָרָה וְצוּקָה לָבִיא וָלַיִשׁ מֵהֶם אֶפְעֶה וְשָׂרָף מְעוֹפֵף יִשְׂאוּ עַל־כֶּתֶף עֲיָרִים חֵילֵהֶם וְעַל־דַּבֶּשֶׁת גְּמַלִּים אוֹצְרֹתָם עַל־עַם לֹא יוֹעִילוּ׃", 34.8. "כִּי יוֹם נָקָם לַיהוָה שְׁנַת שִׁלּוּמִים לְרִיב צִיּוֹן׃", 34.9. "וְנֶהֶפְכוּ נְחָלֶיהָ לְזֶפֶת וַעֲפָרָהּ לְגָפְרִית וְהָיְתָה אַרְצָהּ לְזֶפֶת בֹּעֵרָה׃", 35.9. "לֹא־יִהְיֶה שָׁם אַרְיֵה וּפְרִיץ חַיּוֹת בַּל־יַעֲלֶנָּה לֹא תִמָּצֵא שָׁם וְהָלְכוּ גְּאוּלִים׃", 43.4. "מֵאֲשֶׁר יָקַרְתָּ בְעֵינַי נִכְבַּדְתָּ וַאֲנִי אֲהַבְתִּיךָ וְאֶתֵּן אָדָם תַּחְתֶּיךָ וּלְאֻמִּים תַּחַת נַפְשֶׁךָ׃", 45.3. "וְנָתַתִּי לְךָ אוֹצְרוֹת חֹשֶׁךְ וּמַטְמֻנֵי מִסְתָּרִים לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה הַקּוֹרֵא בְשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 45.11. "כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹצְרוֹ הָאֹתִיּוֹת שְׁאָלוּנִי עַל־בָּנַי וְעַל־פֹּעַל יָדַי תְּצַוֻּנִי׃", 49.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר נָקֵל מִהְיוֹתְךָ לִי עֶבֶד לְהָקִים אֶת־שִׁבְטֵי יַעֲקֹב ונצירי [וּנְצוּרֵי] יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב וּנְתַתִּיךָ לְאוֹר גּוֹיִם לִהְיוֹת יְשׁוּעָתִי עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ׃", 59.5. "בֵּיצֵי צִפְעוֹנִי בִּקֵּעוּ וְקוּרֵי עַכָּבִישׁ יֶאֱרֹגוּ הָאֹכֵל מִבֵּיצֵיהֶם יָמוּת וְהַזּוּרֶה תִּבָּקַע אֶפְעֶה׃", 64.7. "וְעַתָּה יְהוָה אָבִינוּ אָתָּה אֲנַחְנוּ הַחֹמֶר וְאַתָּה יֹצְרֵנוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדְךָ כֻּלָּנוּ׃", 64.8. "אַל־תִּקְצֹף יְהוָה עַד־מְאֹד וְאַל־לָעַד תִּזְכֹּר עָוֺן הֵן הַבֶּט־נָא עַמְּךָ כֻלָּנוּ׃", 65.25. "זְאֵב וְטָלֶה יִרְעוּ כְאֶחָד וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן וְנָחָשׁ עָפָר לַחְמוֹ לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 2.4. "And He shall judge between the nations, And shall decide for many peoples; And they shall beat their swords into plowshares, And their spears into pruninghooks; Nation shall not lift up sword against nation, Neither shall they learn war any more.", 6.10. "Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’", 11.1. "And there shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, And a twig shall grow forth out of his roots.", 11.2. "And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.", 11.3. "And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;", 11.4. "But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land; And he shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked.", 11.5. "And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, And faithfulness the girdle of his reins.", 11.6. "And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.", 11.7. "And the cow and the bear feed; Their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.", 11.8. "And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the basilisk’s den.", 14.12. "How art thou fallen from heaven, O day-star, son of the morning! How art thou cut down to the ground, That didst cast lots over the nations!", 14.13. "And thou saidst in thy heart: ‘I will ascend into heaven, Above the stars of God Will I exalt my throne, And I will sit upon the mount of meeting, In the uttermost parts of the north;", 14.14. "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High.’", 14.15. "Yet thou shalt be brought down to the nether-world, To the uttermost parts of the pit.", 14.29. "Rejoice not, O Philistia, all of thee, Because the rod that smote thee is broken: For out of the serpent’s root shall come forth a basilisk, And his fruit shall be a flying serpent.", 19.10. "And her foundations shall be crushed, All they that make dams shall be grieved in soul.", 26.5. "For He hath brought down them that dwell on high, The lofty city, laying it low, laying it low even to the ground, Bringing it even to the dust.", 27.1. "In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay the dragon that is in the sea.", 29.23. "When he seeth his children, the work of My hands, in the midst of him, That they sanctify My name; yea, they shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, And shall stand in awe of the God of Israel.", 30.6. "The burden of the beasts of the South. Through the land of trouble and anguish, from whence come the lioness and the lion, the viper and flying serpent, they carry their riches upon the shoulders of young asses, and their treasures upon the humps of camels, to a people that shall not profit them.", 34.8. "For the LORD hath a day of vengeance, A year of recompense for the controversy of Zion.", 34.9. "And the streams thereof shall be turned into pitch, And the dust thereof into brimstone, And the land thereof shall become burning pitch.", 34.10. "It shall not be quenched night nor day, The smoke thereof shall go up for ever; From generation to generation it shall lie waste: None shall pass through it for ever and ever.", 35.9. "No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up thereon, They shall not be found there; But the redeemed shall walk there;", 43.4. "Since thou art precious in My sight, and honourable, and I have loved thee; Therefore will I give men for thee, And peoples for thy life.", 45.3. "And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am the LORD, who call thee by thy name, even the God of Israel.", 45.11. "Thus saith the LORD, The Holy One of Israel, and his Maker: Ask Me of the things that are to come; Concerning My sons, and concerning the work of My hands, command ye Me.", 49.6. "Yea, He saith: ‘It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be My servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob, And to restore the offspring of Israel; I will also give thee for a light of the nations, That My salvation may be unto the end of the earth.’", 59.5. "They hatch basilisks’eggs, And weave the spider’s web; He that eateth of their eggs dieth, And that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper.", 64.7. "But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand.", 64.8. "Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever; behold, look, we beseech Thee, we are all Thy people.", 65.25. "The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, And the lion shall eat straw like the ox; And dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, Saith the LORD.",
28. Hesiod, Works And Days, 203-212, 202 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86
202. Might will be right and shame shall cease to be,
29. Hesiod, Theogony, 133-135, 81-84, 86-88, 886, 89-90, 900, 91-92, 85 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 58
85. Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory,
30. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 2.1, 2.6-2.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 947
2.1. "יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו [מְרִיבָיו] עלו [עָלָיו] בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃", 2.1. "וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃", 2.6. "יְהוָה מֵמִית וּמְחַיֶּה מוֹרִיד שְׁאוֹל וַיָּעַל׃", 2.7. "יְהוָה מוֹרִישׁ וּמַעֲשִׁיר מַשְׁפִּיל אַף־מְרוֹמֵם׃", 2.8. "מֵקִים מֵעָפָר דָּל מֵאַשְׁפֹּת יָרִים אֶבְיוֹן לְהוֹשִׁיב עִם־נְדִיבִים וְכִסֵּא כָבוֹד יַנְחִלֵם כִּי לַיהוָה מְצֻקֵי אֶרֶץ וַיָּשֶׁת עֲלֵיהֶם תֵּבֵל׃", 2.1. "And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation.", 2.6. "The Lord kills, and gives life: he brings down to the grave, and brings up.", 2.7. "The Lord makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and raises up.", 2.8. "He raises up the poor out of the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, and he has set the world upon them.",
31. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 5.10, 6.10 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430, 431
5.10. "They hate him that reproveth in the gate, And they abhor him that speaketh uprightly.", 6.10. "And when a man’s uncle shall take him up, even he that burneth him, to bring out the bones out of the house, and shall say unto him that is in the innermost parts of the house: ‘Is there yet any with thee?’ and he shall say: ‘No’; then shall he say: ‘Hold thy peace; for we must not make mention of the name of the LORD.’",
32. Homeric Hymns, To Ares, 4 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 339
4. of arm, and mighty with the spear, who long
33. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 146
34. Pindar, Pythian Odes, 1.6, 3.77-3.79 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86, 87
35. Aeschylus, Persians, 157 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 157
157. θεοῦ μὲν εὐνάτειρα Περσῶν, θεοῦ δὲ καὶ μήτηρ ἔφυς,
36. Heraclitus of Ephesus, Fragments, 96 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, human created according to the image of Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020), Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 160
37. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.4-1.12, 1.22, 1.26, 1.28, 5.17, 8.16, 10.1-10.21, 14.15, 14.21, 28.12-28.17, 34.23-34.30, 36.26, 37.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 325; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 207, 208; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 400, 408, 504, 610, 810, 924, 945; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 31; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 91, 92
1.4. "וָאֵרֶא וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ סְעָרָה בָּאָה מִן־הַצָּפוֹן עָנָן גָּדוֹל וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת וְנֹגַהּ לוֹ סָבִיב וּמִתּוֹכָהּ כְּעֵין הַחַשְׁמַל מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃", 1.5. "וּמִתּוֹכָהּ דְּמוּת אַרְבַּע חַיּוֹת וְזֶה מַרְאֵיהֶן דְּמוּת אָדָם לָהֵנָּה׃", 1.6. "וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָת וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאַחַת לָהֶם׃", 1.7. "וְרַגְלֵיהֶם רֶגֶל יְשָׁרָה וְכַף רַגְלֵיהֶם כְּכַף רֶגֶל עֵגֶל וְנֹצְצִים כְּעֵין נְחֹשֶׁת קָלָל׃", 1.8. "וידו [וִידֵי] אָדָם מִתַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם עַל אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶם וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם׃", 1.9. "חֹבְרֹת אִשָּׁה אֶל־אֲחוֹתָהּ כַּנְפֵיהֶם לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ בְלֶכְתָּן אִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ׃", 1.11. "וּפְנֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם פְּרֻדוֹת מִלְמָעְלָה לְאִישׁ שְׁתַּיִם חֹבְרוֹת אִישׁ וּשְׁתַּיִם מְכַסּוֹת אֵת גְּוִיֹתֵיהֶנָה׃", 1.12. "וְאִישׁ אֶל־עֵבֶר פָּנָיו יֵלֵכוּ אֶל אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה־שָׁמָּה הָרוּחַ לָלֶכֶת יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּן׃", 1.22. "וּדְמוּת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הַחַיָּה רָקִיעַ כְּעֵין הַקֶּרַח הַנּוֹרָא נָטוּי עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃", 1.26. "וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשָׁם כְּמַרְאֵה אֶבֶן־סַפִּיר דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְמָעְלָה׃", 1.28. "כְּמַרְאֵה הַקֶּשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בֶעָנָן בְּיוֹם הַגֶּשֶׁם כֵּן מַרְאֵה הַנֹּגַהּ סָבִיב הוּא מַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה וָאֶרְאֶה וָאֶפֹּל עַל־פָּנַי וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל מְדַבֵּר׃", 5.17. "וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם רָעָב וְחַיָּה רָעָה וְשִׁכְּלֻךְ וְדֶבֶר וָדָם יַעֲבָר־בָּךְ וְחֶרֶב אָבִיא עָלַיִךְ אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃", 8.16. "וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃", 10.1. "וּמַרְאֵיהֶם דְּמוּת אֶחָד לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם כַּאֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה הָאוֹפַן בְּתוֹךְ הָאוֹפָן׃", 10.1. "וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הַכְּרֻבִים כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא נִרְאָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃", 10.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּא אֶל־בֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל אֶל־תַּחַת לַכְּרוּב וּמַלֵּא חָפְנֶיךָ גַחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרֻבִים וּזְרֹק עַל־הָעִיר וַיָּבֹא לְעֵינָי׃", 10.2. "הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי תַּחַת אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר וָאֵדַע כִּי כְרוּבִים הֵמָּה׃", 10.3. "וְהַכְּרֻבִים עֹמְדִים מִימִין לַבַּיִת בְּבֹאוֹ הָאִישׁ וְהֶעָנָן מָלֵא אֶת־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית׃", 10.4. "וַיָּרָם כְּבוֹד־יְהוָה מֵעַל הַכְּרוּב עַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיִּמָּלֵא הַבַּיִת אֶת־הֶעָנָן וְהֶחָצֵר מָלְאָה אֶת־נֹגַהּ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה׃", 10.5. "וְקוֹל כַּנְפֵי הַכְּרוּבִים נִשְׁמַע עַד־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצֹנָה כְּקוֹל אֵל־שַׁדַּי בְּדַבְּרוֹ׃", 10.6. "וַיְהִי בְּצַוֺּתוֹ אֶת־הָאִישׁ לְבֻשׁ־הַבַּדִּים לֵאמֹר קַח אֵשׁ מִבֵּינוֹת לַגַּלְגַּל מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים וַיָּבֹא וַיַּעֲמֹד אֵצֶל הָאוֹפָן׃", 10.7. "וַיִּשְׁלַח הַכְּרוּב אֶת־יָדוֹ מִבֵּינוֹת לַכְּרוּבִים אֶל־הָאֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר בֵּינוֹת הַכְּרֻבִים וַיִּשָּׂא וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־חָפְנֵי לְבֻשׁ הַבַּדִּים וַיִּקַּח וַיֵּצֵא׃", 10.8. "וַיֵּרָא לַכְּרֻבִים תַּבְנִית יַד־אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃", 10.9. "וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה אַרְבָּעָה אוֹפַנִּים אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּבִים אוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וְאוֹפַן אֶחָד אֵצֶל הַכְּרוּב אֶחָד וּמַרְאֵה הָאוֹפַנִּים כְּעֵין אֶבֶן תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃", 10.11. "בְּלֶכְתָּם אֶל־אַרְבַּעַת רִבְעֵיהֶם יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּם כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר־יִפְנֶה הָרֹאשׁ אַחֲרָיו יֵלֵכוּ לֹא יִסַּבּוּ בְּלֶכְתָּם׃", 10.12. "וְכָל־בְּשָׂרָם וְגַבֵּהֶם וִידֵיהֶם וְכַנְפֵיהֶם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים מְלֵאִים עֵינַיִם סָבִיב לְאַרְבַּעְתָּם אוֹפַנֵּיהֶם׃", 10.13. "לָאוֹפַנִּים לָהֶם קוֹרָא הַגַּלְגַּל בְּאָזְנָי׃", 10.14. "וְאַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד פְּנֵי הָאֶחָד פְּנֵי הַכְּרוּב וּפְנֵי הַשֵּׁנִי פְּנֵי אָדָם וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁי פְּנֵי אַרְיֵה וְהָרְבִיעִי פְּנֵי־נָשֶׁר׃", 10.15. "וַיֵּרֹמּוּ הַכְּרוּבִים הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי בִּנְהַר־כְּבָר׃", 10.16. "וּבְלֶכֶת הַכְּרוּבִים יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבִשְׂאֵת הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם לָרוּם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ לֹא־יִסַּבּוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים גַּם־הֵם מֵאֶצְלָם׃", 10.17. "בְּעָמְדָם יַעֲמֹדוּ וּבְרוֹמָם יֵרוֹמּוּ אוֹתָם כִּי רוּחַ הַחַיָּה בָּהֶם׃", 10.18. "וַיֵּצֵא כְּבוֹד יְהוָה מֵעַל מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת וַיַּעֲמֹד עַל־הַכְּרוּבִים׃", 10.19. "וַיִּשְׂאוּ הַכְּרוּבִים אֶת־כַּנְפֵיהֶם וַיֵּרוֹמּוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ לְעֵינַי בְּצֵאתָם וְהָאוֹפַנִּים לְעֻמָּתָם וַיַּעֲמֹד פֶּתַח שַׁעַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַקַּדְמוֹנִי וּכְבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה׃", 10.21. "אַרְבָּעָה אַרְבָּעָה פָנִים לְאֶחָד וְאַרְבַּע כְּנָפַיִם לְאֶחָד וּדְמוּת יְדֵי אָדָם תַּחַת כַּנְפֵיהֶם׃", 14.15. "לוּ־חַיָּה רָעָה אַעֲבִיר בָּאָרֶץ וְשִׁכְּלָתָּה וְהָיְתָה שְׁמָמָה מִבְּלִי עוֹבֵר מִפְּנֵי הַחַיָּה׃", 14.21. "כִּי כֹה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה אַף כִּי־אַרְבַּעַת שְׁפָטַי הָרָעִים חֶרֶב וְרָעָב וְחַיָּה רָעָה וָדֶבֶר שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם לְהַכְרִית מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה׃", 28.12. "בֶּן־אָדָם שָׂא קִינָה עַל־מֶלֶךְ צוֹר וְאָמַרְתָּ לּוֹ כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אַתָּה חוֹתֵם תָּכְנִית מָלֵא חָכְמָה וּכְלִיל יֹפִי׃", 28.13. "בְּעֵדֶן גַּן־אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ כָּל־אֶבֶן יְקָרָה מְסֻכָתֶךָ אֹדֶם פִּטְדָה וְיָהֲלֹם תַּרְשִׁישׁ שֹׁהַם וְיָשְׁפֵה סַפִּיר נֹפֶךְ וּבָרְקַת וְזָהָב מְלֶאכֶת תֻּפֶּיךָ וּנְקָבֶיךָ בָּךְ בְּיוֹם הִבָּרַאֲךָ כּוֹנָנוּ׃", 28.14. "אַתְּ־כְּרוּב מִמְשַׁח הַסּוֹכֵךְ וּנְתַתִּיךָ בְּהַר קֹדֶשׁ אֱלֹהִים הָיִיתָ בְּתוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ הִתְהַלָּכְתָּ׃", 28.15. "תָּמִים אַתָּה בִּדְרָכֶיךָ מִיּוֹם הִבָּרְאָךְ עַד־נִמְצָא עַוְלָתָה בָּךְ׃", 28.16. "בְּרֹב רְכֻלָּתְךָ מָלוּ תוֹכְךָ חָמָס וַתֶּחֱטָא וָאֶחַלֶּלְךָ מֵהַר אֱלֹהִים וָאַבֶּדְךָ כְּרוּב הַסֹּכֵךְ מִתּוֹךְ אַבְנֵי־אֵשׁ׃", 28.17. "גָּבַהּ לִבְּךָ בְּיָפְיֶךָ שִׁחַתָּ חָכְמָתְךָ עַל־יִפְעָתֶךָ עַל־אֶרֶץ הִשְׁלַכְתִּיךָ לִפְנֵי מְלָכִים נְתַתִּיךָ לְרַאֲוָה בָךְ׃", 34.23. "וַהֲקִמֹתִי עֲלֵיהֶם רֹעֶה אֶחָד וְרָעָה אֶתְהֶן אֵת עַבְדִּי דָוִיד הוּא יִרְעֶה אֹתָם וְהוּא־יִהְיֶה לָהֶן לְרֹעֶה׃", 34.24. "וַאֲנִי יְהוָה אֶהְיֶה לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְעַבְדִּי דָוִד נָשִׂיא בְתוֹכָם אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי׃", 34.25. "וְכָרַתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית שָׁלוֹם וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי חַיָּה־רָעָה מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְיָשְׁבוּ בַמִּדְבָּר לָבֶטַח וְיָשְׁנוּ בַּיְּעָרִים׃", 34.26. "וְנָתַתִּי אוֹתָם וּסְבִיבוֹת גִּבְעָתִי בְּרָכָה וְהוֹרַדְתִּי הַגֶּשֶׁם בְּעִתּוֹ גִּשְׁמֵי בְרָכָה יִהְיוּ׃", 34.27. "וְנָתַן עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ וְהָאָרֶץ תִּתֵּן יְבוּלָהּ וְהָיוּ עַל־אַדְמָתָם לָבֶטַח וְיָדְעוּ כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּשִׁבְרִי אֶת־מֹטוֹת עֻלָּם וְהִצַּלְתִּים מִיַּד הָעֹבְדִים בָּהֶם׃", 34.28. "וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד בַּז לַגּוֹיִם וְחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ לֹא תֹאכְלֵם וְיָשְׁבוּ לָבֶטַח וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃", 34.29. "וַהֲקִמֹתִי לָהֶם מַטָּע לְשֵׁם וְלֹא־יִהְיוּ עוֹד אֲסֻפֵי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וְלֹא־יִשְׂאוּ עוֹד כְּלִמַּת הַגּוֹיִם׃", 36.26. "וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃", 37.9. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי הִנָּבֵא אֶל־הָרוּחַ הִנָּבֵא בֶן־אָדָם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־הָרוּחַ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מֵאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת בֹּאִי הָרוּחַ וּפְחִי בַּהֲרוּגִים הָאֵלֶּה וְיִחְיוּ׃", 1.4. "And I looked, and, behold, a stormy wind came out of the north, a great cloud, with a fire flashing up, so that a brightness was round about it; and out of the midst thereof as the colour of electrum, out of the midst of the fire.", 1.5. "And out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance: they had the likeness of a man.", 1.6. "And every one had four faces, and every one of them had four wings.", 1.7. "And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf’s foot; and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass.", 1.8. "And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and as for the faces and wings of them four,", 1.9. "their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward.", 1.10. "As for the likeness of their faces, they had the face of a man; and they four had the face of a lion on the right side; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four had also the face of an eagle.", 1.11. "Thus were their faces; and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies.", 1.12. "And they went every one straight forward; whither the spirit was to go, they went; they turned not when they went.", 1.22. "And over the heads of the living creatures there was the likeness of a firmament, like the colour of the terrible ice, stretched forth over their heads above.", 1.26. "And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was a likeness as the appearance of a man upon it above.", 1.28. "As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spoke.", 5.17. "and I will send upon you famine and evil beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; and I will bring the sword upon thee. I the LORD have spoken it.’", 8.16. "And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east.", 10.1. "Then I looked, and, behold, upon the firmament that was over the head of the cherubim, there appeared above them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.", 10.2. "And He spoke unto the man clothed in linen, and said: ‘Go in between the wheelwork, even under the cherub, and fill both thy hands with coals of fire from between the cherubim, and dash them against the city.’ And he went in in my sight.", 10.3. "Now the cherubim stood on the right side of the house, when the man went in; and the cloud filled the inner court.", 10.4. "And the glory of the LORD mounted up from the cherub to the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD’S glory.", 10.5. "And the sound of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Almighty when He speaketh.", 10.6. "And it came to pass, when He commanded the man clothed in linen, saying: ‘Take fire from between the wheelwork, from between the cherubim’, that he went in, and stood beside a wheel.", 10.7. "And the cherub stretched forth his hand from between the cherubim unto the fire that was between the cherubim, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed in linen, who took it and went out.", 10.8. "And there appeared in the cherubim the form of a man’s hand under their wings.", 10.9. "And I looked, and behold four wheels beside the cherubim, one wheel beside one cherub, and another wheel beside another cherub; and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone.", 10.10. "And as for their appearance, they four had one likeness, as if a wheel had been within a wheel.", 10.11. "When they went, they went toward their four sides; they turned not as they went, but to the place whither the head looked they followed it; they turned not as they went.", 10.12. "And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had.", 10.13. "As for the wheels, they were called in my hearing The wheelwork.", 10.14. "And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of the cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an eagle.", 10.15. "And the cherubim mounted up—this is the living creature that I saw by the river Chebar.", 10.16. "And when the cherubim went, the wheels went beside them; and when the cherubim lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them.", 10.17. "When they stood, these stood, and when they mounted up, these mounted up with them; for the spirit of the living creature was in them.", 10.18. "And the glory of the LORD went forth from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubim.", 10.19. "And the cherubim lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight when they went forth, and the wheels beside them; and they stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD’S house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above.", 10.20. "This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river Chebar; and I knew that they were cherubim.", 10.21. "Every one had four faces apiece, and every one four wings; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings.", 14.15. "If I cause evil beasts to pass through the land, and they bereave it, and it be desolate, so that no man may pass through because of the beasts;", 14.21. "For thus saith the Lord GOD: How much more when I send My four sore judgments against Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beasts, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast.", 28.12. "’Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say unto him: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Thou seal most accurate, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty,", 28.13. "thou wast in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of thy settings and of thy sockets was in thee, in the day that thou wast created they were prepared.", 28.14. "Thou wast the far-covering cherub; and I set thee, so that thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire.", 28.15. "Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till unrighteousness was found in thee.", 28.16. "By the multitude of thy traffic they filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned; therefore have I cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God; and I have destroyed thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.", 28.17. "Thy heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness; I have cast thee to the ground, I have laid thee before kings, that they may gaze upon thee.", 34.23. "And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even My servant David; he shall feed them, and he shall be their shepherd.", 34.24. "And I the LORD will be their God, and My servant David prince among them; I the LORD have spoken.", 34.25. "And I will make with them a covet of peace, and will cause evil beasts to cease out of the land; and they shall dwell safely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods.", 34.26. "And I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing; and I will cause the shower to come down in its season; there shall be showers of blessing.", 34.27. "And the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her produce, and they shall be safe in their land; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have broken the bars of their yoke, and have delivered them out of the hand of those that made bondmen of them.", 34.28. "And they shall no more be a prey to the nations, neither shall the beast of the earth devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and none shall make them afraid.", 34.29. "And I will raise up unto them a plantation for renown, and they shall be no more consumed with hunger in the land, neither bear the shame of the nations any more.", 34.30. "And they shall know that I the LORD their God am with them, and that they, the house of Israel, are My people, saith the Lord GOD.", 36.26. "A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh.", 37.9. "Then said He unto me: ‘Prophesy unto the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath: Thus saith the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.’",
38. Hippocrates, On The Seven Fold Order of The World, 144 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fear of god, image/discipline/practice •images/imagery, and fear of god Found in books: Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 158
39. Plato, Alcibiades Ii, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 423
40. Plato, Critias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
41. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 127
42. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 166
887d. ἐκείνους οἳ τούτων ἡμῖν αἴτιοι τῶν λόγων γεγένηνται καὶ γίγνονται νῦν, οὐ πειθόμενοι τοῖς μύθοις οὓς ἐκ νέων παίδων ἔτι ἐν γάλαξι τρεφόμενοι τροφῶν τε ἤκουον καὶ μητέρων, οἷον ἐν ἐπῳδαῖς μετά τε παιδιᾶς καὶ μετὰ σπουδῆς λεγομένων καὶ μετὰ θυσιῶν ἐν εὐχαῖς αὐτοὺς ἀκούοντές τε, καὶ ὄψεις ὁρῶντες ἑπομένας αὐτοῖς ἃς ἥδιστα ὅ γε νέος ὁρᾷ τε καὶ ἀκούει πραττομένας θυόντων, ἐν σπουδῇ τῇ μεγίστῃ τοὺς αὑτῶν γονέας ὑπὲρ αὑτῶν τε καὶ ἐκείνων ἐσπουδακότας, ὡς 887d. responsible for laying on us this burden of argument, through their disbelief in those stories which they used to hear, while infants and sucklings, from the lips of their nurses and mothers—stories chanted to them, as it were, in lullabies, whether in jest or in earnest; and the same stories they heard repeated also in prayers at sacrifices, and they saw spectacles which illustrated them, of the kind which the young delight to see and hear when performed at sacrifices; and their own parents they saw showing the utmost zeal on behalf of themselves and their children in addressing the gods in prayers and supplications, as though they most certainly existed; and at the rising and setting of the sun and moon
43. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 406
44. Hippocrates, Nature of Man, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 665
45. Euripides, Bacchae, 275-276 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 145
276. γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει·
46. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 2.21, 3.10-3.15, 3.19-3.21, 12.8 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 32, 65; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 32; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 25
2.21. "כִּי־יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁעֲמָלוֹ בְּחָכְמָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכִשְׁרוֹן וּלְאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא עָמַל־בּוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ חֶלְקוֹ גַּם־זֶה הֶבֶל וְרָעָה רַבָּה׃", 3.11. "אֶת־הַכֹּל עָשָׂה יָפֶה בְעִתּוֹ גַּם אֶת־הָעֹלָם נָתַן בְּלִבָּם מִבְּלִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִמְצָא הָאָדָם אֶת־הַמַּעֲשֶׂה אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה הָאֱלֹהִים מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד־סוֹף׃", 3.12. "יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אֵין טוֹב בָּם כִּי אִם־לִשְׂמוֹחַ וְלַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹב בְּחַיָּיו׃", 3.13. "וְגַם כָּל־הָאָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל וְשָׁתָה וְרָאָה טוֹב בְּכָל־עֲמָלוֹ מַתַּת אֱלֹהִים הִיא׃", 3.14. "יָדַעְתִּי כִּי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה הָאֱלֹהִים הוּא יִהְיֶה לְעוֹלָם עָלָיו אֵין לְהוֹסִיף וּמִמֶּנּוּ אֵין לִגְרֹעַ וְהָאֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה שֶׁיִּרְאוּ מִלְּפָנָיו׃", 3.15. "מַה־שֶּׁהָיָה כְּבָר הוּא וַאֲשֶׁר לִהְיוֹת כְּבָר הָיָה וְהָאֱלֹהִים יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נִרְדָּף׃", 3.19. "כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃", 3.21. "מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃", 12.8. "הֲבֵל הֲבָלִים אָמַר הַקּוֹהֶלֶת הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃", 2.21. "For there is a man whose labour is with wisdom, and with knowledge, and with skill; yet to a man that hath not laboured therein shall he leave it for his portion. This also is vanity and a great evil.", 3.10. "I have seen the task which God hath given to the sons of men to be exercised therewith.", 3.11. "He hath made every thing beautiful in its time; also He hath set the world in their heart, yet so that man cannot find out the work that God hath done from the beginning even to the end.", 3.12. "I know that there is nothing better for them, than to rejoice, and to get pleasure so long as they live.", 3.13. "But also that every man should eat and drink, and enjoy pleasure for all his labour, is the gift of God.", 3.14. "I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever; nothing can be added to it, nor any thing taken from it; and God hath so made it, that men should fear before Him.", 3.15. "That which is hath been long ago, and that which is to be hath already been; and God seeketh that which is pursued.", 3.19. "For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity.", 3.20. "All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust.", 3.21. "Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?", 12.8. "Vanity of vanities, saith Koheleth; all is vanity.",
47. Aristophanes, Birds, 667-669, 872-875, 670 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 172
670. ὅσον δ' ἔχει τὸν χρυσόν, ὥσπερ παρθένος.
48. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 248; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 70
49. Aristophanes, Knights, 1037, 1169, 238, 1170 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 172
1170. ὡς μέγαν ἄρ' εἶχες ὦ πότνια τὸν δάκτυλον.
50. Plato, Sophist, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 323
239c. ΘΕΑΙ. πολλὴ μεντἄν με καὶ ἄτοπος ἔχοι προθυμία τῆς ἐπιχειρήσεως, εἰ σὲ τοιαῦθʼ ὁρῶν πάσχοντα αὐτὸς ἐπιχειροίην. ΞΕ. ἀλλʼ εἰ δοκεῖ, σὲ μὲν καὶ ἐμὲ χαίρειν ἐῶμεν· ἕως δʼ ἄν τινι δυναμένῳ δρᾶν τοῦτο ἐντυγχάνωμεν, μέχρι τούτου λέγωμεν ὡς παντὸς μᾶλλον πανούργως εἰς ἄπορον ὁ σοφιστὴς τόπον καταδέδυκεν. ΘΕΑΙ. καὶ μάλα δὴ φαίνεται. ΞΕ. τοιγαροῦν εἴ τινα φήσομεν αὐτὸν ἔχειν φανταστικὴν 239c. Theaet. But I should be possessed of great and absurd eagerness for the attempt, if I were to undertake it with your experience before my eyes. Str. Well, if you like, let us say no more of you and me; but until we find someone who can accomplish this, let us confess that the sophist has in most rascally fashion hidden himself in a place we cannot explore. Theaet. That seems to be decidedly the case. Str. And so, if we say he has an art, as it were, of making appearances,
51. Isocrates, Orations, 4.20, 4.157 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 157, 347
52. Aristophanes, Clouds, 1480-1481, 1479 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 167
1479. μηδέ μ' ἐπιτρίψῃς, ἀλλὰ συγγνώμην ἔχε
53. Aristophanes, Peace, 1019, 605 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 171
605. πρῶτα μὲν γὰρ †αὐτῆς ἦρξεν† Φειδίας πράξας κακῶς:
54. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
34b. ἐσόμενον θεὸν λογισθεὶς λεῖον καὶ ὁμαλὸν πανταχῇ τε ἐκ μέσου ἴσον καὶ ὅλον καὶ τέλεον ἐκ τελέων σωμάτων σῶμα ἐποίησεν· ψυχὴν δὲ εἰς τὸ μέσον αὐτοῦ θεὶς διὰ παντός τε ἔτεινεν καὶ ἔτι ἔξωθεν τὸ σῶμα αὐτῇ περιεκάλυψεν, καὶ κύκλῳ δὴ κύκλον στρεφόμενον οὐρανὸν ἕνα μόνον ἔρημον κατέστησεν, διʼ ἀρετὴν δὲ αὐτὸν αὑτῷ δυνάμενον συγγίγνεσθαι καὶ οὐδενὸς ἑτέρου προσδεόμενον, γνώριμον δὲ καὶ φίλον ἱκανῶς αὐτὸν αὑτῷ. διὰ πάντα δὴ ταῦτα εὐδαίμονα θεὸν αὐτὸν ἐγεννήσατο. 34b. which was one day to be existent, whereby He made it smooth and even and equal on all sides from the center, a whole and perfect body compounded of perfect bodies, And in the midst thereof He set Soul, which He stretched throughout the whole of it, and therewith He enveloped also the exterior of its body; and as a Circle revolving in a circle He established one sole and solitary Heaven, able of itself because of its excellence to company with itself and needing none other beside, sufficing unto itself as acquaintance and friend. And because of all this He generated it to be a blessed God.
55. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 421
252e. τιμήσων τε καὶ ὀργιάσων. οἱ μὲν δὴ οὖν Διὸς δῖόν τινα εἶναι ζητοῦσι τὴν ψυχὴν τὸν ὑφʼ αὑτῶν ἐρώμενον· σκοποῦσιν οὖν εἰ φιλόσοφός τε καὶ ἡγεμονικὸς τὴν φύσιν, καὶ ὅταν αὐτὸν εὑρόντες ἐρασθῶσι, πᾶν ποιοῦσιν ὅπως τοιοῦτος ἔσται. ΣΩ. ἐὰν οὖν μὴ πρότερον ἐμβεβῶσι τῷ ἐπιτηδεύματι, τότε ἐπιχειρήσαντες μανθάνουσί τε ὅθεν ἄν τι δύνωνται καὶ αὐτοὶ μετέρχονται, ἰχνεύοντες δὲ παρʼ ἑαυτῶν ἀνευρίσκειν 252e. like a statue, as though he were his god, to honor and worship him. The followers of Zeus desire that the soul of him whom they love be like Zeus; so they seek for one of philosophical and lordly nature, and when they find him and love him, they do all they can to give him such a character. Socrates. If they have not previously had experience, they learn then from all who can teach them anything;
56. Euripides, Helen, 1311, 1310 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107
1310. θηρῶν ὅτε ζυγίους
57. Empedocles, Fragments, 130 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 413
58. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
59. Timotheus of Miletus, Persae, 100-106, 108-173, 97-99, 107 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 169
60. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 6.10, 23.20, 25.10, 25.15, 30.24, 35.7-35.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 269, 430, 947
25.15. "וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בַּאֲמַצְיָהוּ וַיִּשְׁלַח אֵלָיו נָבִיא וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ לָמָּה דָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־אֱלֹהֵי הָעָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הִצִּילוּ אֶת־עַמָּם מִיָּדֶךָ׃", 30.24. "כִּי חִזְקִיָּהוּ מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה הֵרִים לַקָּהָל אֶלֶף פָּרִים וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים צֹאן וְהַשָּׂרִים הֵרִימוּ לַקָּהָל פָּרִים אֶלֶף וְצֹאן עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וַיִּתְקַדְּשׁוּ כֹהֲנִים לָרֹב׃", 35.7. "וַיָּרֶם יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ לִבְנֵי הָעָם צֹאן כְּבָשִׂים וּבְנֵי־עִזִּים הַכֹּל לַפְּסָחִים לְכָל־הַנִּמְצָא לְמִסְפַּר שְׁלֹשִׁים אֶלֶף וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים אֵלֶּה מֵרְכוּשׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 35.8. "וְשָׂרָיו לִנְדָבָה לָעָם לַכֹּהֲנִים וְלַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ חִלְקִיָּה וּזְכַרְיָהוּ וִיחִיאֵל נְגִידֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים לַכֹּהֲנִים נָתְנוּ לַפְּסָחִים אַלְפַּיִם וְשֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וּבָקָר שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת׃", 35.9. "וכונניהו [וְכָנַנְיָהוּ] וּשְׁמַעְיָהוּ וּנְתַנְאֵל אֶחָיו וַחֲשַׁבְיָהוּ וִיעִיאֵל וְיוֹזָבָד שָׂרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הֵרִימוּ לַלְוִיִּם לַפְּסָחִים חֲמֵשֶׁת אֲלָפִים וּבָקָר חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת׃", 6.10. "And the LORD hath established His word that He spoke; for I am risen up in the room of David my father, and sit on the throne of Israel, as the LORD promised, and have built the house for the name of the LORD, the God of Israel.", 23.20. "And he took the captains of hundreds, and the nobles, and the governors of the people, and all the people of the land, and brought down the king from the house of the LORD; and they came through the upper gate unto the king’s house, and set the king upon the throne of the kingdom.", 25.10. "Then Amaziah separated them, to wit, the army that was come to him out of Ephraim, to go back home; wherefore their anger was greatly kindled against Judah, and they returned home in fierce anger.", 25.15. "Wherefore the anger of the LORD was kindled against Amaziah, and He sent unto him a prophet, who said unto him: ‘Why hast thou sought after the gods of the people, which have not delivered their own people out of thy hand?’", 30.24. "For Hezekiah king of Judah did give to the congregation for offerings a thousand bullocks and seven thousand sheep; and the princes gave to the congregation a thousand bullocks and ten thousand sheep; and priests sanctified themselves in great numbers.", 35.7. "And Josiah gave to the children of the people, of the flock, lambs and kids, all of them for the passover-offerings, unto all that were present, to the number of thirty thousand, and three thousand bullocks; these were of the king’s substance.", 35.8. "And his princes gave willingly unto the people, to the priests, and to the Levites. Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel, the rulers of the house of God, gave unto the priests for the passover-offerings two thousand and six hundred [small cattle], and three hundred oxen.", 35.9. "Coiah also, and Shemaiah and Nethanel, his brethren, and Hashabiah and Jeiel and Jozabad, the chiefs of the Levites, gave unto the Levites for the passover-offerings five thousand [small cattle], and five hundred oxen.",
61. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.81, 1.138.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 433; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 274
1.138.5. μνημεῖον μὲν οὖν αὐτοῦ ἐν Μαγνησίᾳ ἐστὶ τῇ Ἀσιανῇ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ: ταύτης γὰρ ἦρχε τῆς χώρας, δόντος βασιλέως αὐτῷ Μαγνησίαν μὲν ἄρτον, ἣ προσέφερε πεντήκοντα τάλαντα τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, Λάμψακον δὲ οἶνον ʽἐδόκει γὰρ πολυοινότατον τῶν τότε εἶναἰ, Μυοῦντα δὲ ὄψον. 1.138.5. However this may be, there is a monument to him in the market-place of Asiatic Magnesia . He was governor of the district, the king having given him Magnesia, which brought in fifty talents a year, for bread, Lampsacus , which was considered to be the richest wine country, for wine, and Myus for other provisions.
62. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 3.33, 9.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 269, 947
3.33. "וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע סַנְבַלַּט כִּי־אֲנַחְנוּ בוֹנִים אֶת־הַחוֹמָה וַיִּחַר לוֹ וַיִּכְעַס הַרְבֵּה וַיַּלְעֵג עַל־הַיְּהוּדִים׃", 9.29. "וַתָּעַד בָּהֶם לַהֲשִׁיבָם אֶל־תּוֹרָתֶךָ וְהֵמָּה הֵזִידוּ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ לְמִצְוֺתֶיךָ וּבְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ חָטְאוּ־בָם אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם וְחָיָה בָהֶם וַיִּתְּנוּ כָתֵף סוֹרֶרֶת וְעָרְפָּם הִקְשׁוּ וְלֹא שָׁמֵעוּ׃", 3.33. "But it came to pass that, when Sanballat heard that we builded the wall, he was wroth, and took great indignation, and mocked the Jews.", 9.29. "and didst forewarn them, that Thou mightest bring them back unto Thy law; yet they dealt proudly, and hearkened not unto Thy commandments, but sinned against Thine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them, and presented a stubborn shoulder, and hardened their neck, and would not hear.",
63. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 13.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 269
13.10. "And the anger of the LORD was kindled against Uzza, and He smote him, because he put forth his hand to the ark; and there he died before God.",
64. Herodotus, Histories, None (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 174
7.140. The Athenians had sent messages to Delphi asking that an oracle be given them, and when they had performed all due rites at the temple and sat down in the inner hall, the priestess, whose name was Aristonice, gave them this answer: , quote type="oracle" l met="dact" Wretches, why do you linger here? Rather flee from your houses and city, /l l Flee to the ends of the earth from the circle embattled of Athens! /l l The head will not remain in its place, nor in the body, /l l Nor the feet beneath, nor the hands, nor the parts between; /l l But all is ruined, for fire and the headlong god of war speeding in a Syrian chariot will bring you low. /l /quote , quote type="oracle" l met="dact" Many a fortress too, not yours alone, will he shatter; /l l Many a shrine of the gods will he give to the flame for devouring; /l l Sweating for fear they stand, and quaking for dread of the enemy, /l l Running with gore are their roofs, foreseeing the stress of their sorrow; /l l Therefore I bid you depart from the sanctuary. /l l Have courage to lighten your evil. /l /quote
65. Sophocles, Oedipus The King, 387-388 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 62
66. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 2.6, 6.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 924
2.6. "וָאֹמַר אָנָה אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי לָמֹד אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם לִרְאוֹת כַּמָּה־רָחְבָּהּ וְכַמָּה אָרְכָּהּ׃", 6.5. "וַיַּעַן הַמַּלְאָךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָי אֵלֶּה אַרְבַּע רֻחוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם יוֹצְאוֹת מֵהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־אֲדוֹן כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 2.6. "Then said I: ‘Whither goest thou?’ And he said unto me: ‘To measure Jerusalem, to see what is the breadth thereof, and what is the length thereof.’", 6.5. "And the angel answered and said unto me: ‘These chariots go forth to the four winds of heaven, after presenting themselves before the Lord of all the earth.",
67. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.4.11-1.4.21, 3.4.7-3.4.8, 4.5.13-4.5.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •athens, images of the gods Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 169; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 62, 328, 330, 343
68. Sophocles, Philoctetes, 392-402, 391 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 126, 145
69. Antiphanes, Fragments, 152 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 62
70. Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, 1.2.7, 4.6.11, 6.1.7, 7.1.4, 7.3.15-7.3.16 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86, 156, 157; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 239
1.2.7. οὓς δʼ ἂν γνῶσι τούτων τι ἀδικοῦντας, τιμωροῦνται. κολάζουσι δὲ καὶ ὃν ἂν ἀδίκως ἐγκαλοῦντα εὑρίσκωσι. δικάζουσι δὲ καὶ ἐγκλήματος οὗ ἕνεκα ἄνθρωποι μισοῦσι μὲν ἀλλήλους μάλιστα, δικάζονται δὲ ἥκιστα, ἀχαριστίας, καὶ ὃν ἂν γνῶσι δυνάμενον μὲν χάριν ἀποδιδόναι, μὴ ἀποδιδόντα δέ, κολάζουσι καὶ τοῦτον ἰσχυρῶς. οἴονται γὰρ τοὺς ἀχαρίστους καὶ περὶ θεοὺς ἂν μάλιστα ἀμελῶς ἔχειν καὶ περὶ γονέας καὶ πατρίδα καὶ φίλους. ἕπεσθαι δὲ δοκεῖ μάλιστα τῇ ἀχαριστίᾳ ἡ ἀναισχυντία· καὶ γὰρ αὕτη μεγίστη δοκεῖ εἶναι ἐπὶ πάντα τὰ αἰσχρὰ ἡγεμών. 4.6.11. οὕτω δὴ οὗτος μὲν ᾤχετο ἡγεμόνα καταλιπών. οἱ δὲ Μῆδοι παρῆσαν, ἃ μὲν οἱ μάγοι ἔφρασαν τοῖς θεοῖς ἐξελεῖν, ἀποδόντες τοῖς μάγοις, Κύρῳ δʼ ἐξῃρηκότες τὴν καλλίστην σκηνὴν καὶ τὴν Σουσίδα γυναῖκα, ἣ καλλίστη δὴ λέγεται ἐν τῇ Ἀσίᾳ γυνὴ γενέσθαι, καὶ μουσουργοὺς δὲ δύο τὰς κρατίστας, δεύτερον δὲ Κυαξάρῃ τὰ δεύτερα, τοιαῦτα δὲ ἄλλα ὧν ἐδέοντο ἑαυτοῖς ἐκπληρώσαντες, ὡς μηδενὸς ἐνδεόμενοι στρατεύωνται· πάντα γὰρ ἦν πολλά. 6.1.7. λεγέτω οὖν τις, ἔφη, περὶ αὐτοῦ τούτου ᾗ γιγνώσκει. ἐκ τούτου πρῶτος μὲν εἶπεν ὁ Ὑρκάνιος· ἄνδρες σύμμαχοι, οὐκ οἶδα μὲν ἔγωγε εἴ τι δεῖ λόγων ὅπου αὐτὰ τὰ ἔργα δεικνύει τὸ κράτιστον. πάντες γὰρ ἐπιστάμεθα ὅτι ὁμοῦ μὲν ὄντες πλείω κακὰ τοὺς πολεμίους ποιοῦμεν ἢ πάσχομεν· ὅτε δὲ χωρὶς ἦμεν ἀλλήλων, ἐκεῖνοι ἡμῖν ἐχρῶντο ὡς ἐκείνοις ἦν ἥδιστον, ἡμῖν γε μὴν ὡς χαλεπώτατον. 7.1.4. παρηγγύησε δὲ παρορᾶν πρὸς τὸ σημεῖον καὶ ἐν ἴσῳ ἕπεσθαι· ἦν δὲ αὐτῷ τὸ σημεῖον ἀετὸς χρυσοῦς ἐπὶ δόρατος μακροῦ ἀνατεταμένος. καὶ νῦν δʼ ἔτι τοῦτο τὸ σημεῖον τῷ Περσῶν βασιλεῖ διαμένει. πρὶν δὲ ὁρᾶν τοὺς πολεμίους εἰς τρὶς ἀνέπαυσε τὸ στράτευμα. 7.3.15. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος ὡς ᾔσθετο τὸ ἔργον τῆς γυναικός, ἐκπλαγεὶς ἵεται, εἴ τι δύναιτο βοηθῆσαι. οἱ δὲ εὐνοῦχοι ἰδόντες τὸ γεγενημένον, τρεῖς ὄντες σπασάμενοι κἀκεῖνοι τοὺς ἀκινάκας ἀποσφάττονται οὗπερ ἔταξεν αὐτοὺς ἑστηκότες. καὶ νῦν τὸ μνῆμα μέχρι τοῦ νῦν τῶν εὐνούχων κεχῶσθαι λέγεται· καὶ ἐπὶ μὲν τῇ ἄνω στήλῃ τοῦ ἀνδρὸς καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς ἐπιγεγράφθαι φασὶ τὰ ὀνόματα, Σύρια γράμματα, κάτω δὲ εἶναι τρεῖς λέγουσι στήλας καὶ ἐπιγεγράφθαι σκηπτούχων . 7.3.16. ὁ δὲ Κῦρος ὡς ἐπλησίασε τῷ πάθει ἀγασθείς τε τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ κατολοφυράμενος ἀπῄει· καὶ τούτων μὲν ᾗ εἰκὸς ἐπεμελήθη ὡς τύχοιεν πάντων τῶν καλῶν, καὶ τὸ μνῆμα ὑπερμέγεθες ἐχώσθη, ὥς φασιν. 1.2.7. 4.6.11. With these words he was gone, leaving a guide behind. And then the Medes came in, after they How the spoils were divided had delivered to the magi what the magi had directed them to set apart for the gods. And they had selected for Cyrus the most splendid tent and the lady of Susa, who was said to be the most beautiful woman in Asia , and two of the most accomplished music-girls; and afterward they had selected for Cyaxares the next best. They had also supplied themselves with such other things as they needed, so that they might continue the campaign in want of nothing; for there was an abundance of everything. 6.1.7. Thereupon the Hyrcanian was the first to speak: Friends and comrades, I, for my part, cannot see what is the use of words, when the facts themselves point out the best course to follow. For we all know that when we are together, we do the enemy more harm than they do us; whereas as long as we were apart, they treated us as was most agreeable to them and most disagreeable to us. 7.1.4. Before they came in sight of the enemy, he halted the army as many as three times. 7.3.15. And now even to this day, it is said, the monument Their monument of the eunuchs is still standing; and they say that the names of the husband and wife are inscribed in Assyrian letters upon the slab above; and below, it is said, are three slabs with the inscription the mace-bearers. Staff-bearers—apparently court officials, bearing a staff of office; mentioned again 8.1.38; 8.3.15; Anab. 1.6.11. 7.3.16. And when Cyrus drew near to the place of sorrow he marvelled at the woman; and having made lament over her, he went his way. He also took care that they should find all due honours, and the monument reared over them was, as they say, exceeding great.
71. Aristotle, Athenian Constitution, 57.3 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •athens, images of the gods Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 169
72. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 148
73. Philochorus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 347
74. Crates, Letters, 11.1 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 59
75. Aeschines, Against Ctesiphon, 249 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 201
76. Aeschines, Letters, 3.187.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 344
77. Demosthenes, Orations, 18.259-18.260 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 62
78. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 32
79. Menander, Monostichoi, 383 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 142
80. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.16-2.8 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 64
81. Chrysippus, Fragments, 2.367 (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 327
82. Plautus, Curculio, None (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 73, 81, 133, 212
83. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.18-14.22, 18.2, 93.4, 98.11 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209, 210; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 924; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99
14.18. of the stars, and its ceiling also was flaming fire. And I looked and saw therein a lofty throne: its appearance was as crystal, and the wheels thereof as the shining sun, and there was the vision of 14.19. cherubim. And from underneath the throne came streams of flaming fire so that I could not look" 14.21. was whiter than any snow. None of the angels could enter and could behold His face by reason" 14.22. of the magnificence and glory and no flesh could behold Him. The flaming fire was round about Him, and a great fire stood before Him, and none around could draw nigh Him: ten thousand time 18.2. and the firm foundations of the earth. And I saw the corner-stone of the earth: I saw the four" 93.4. And after me there shall arise in the second week great wickedness, And deceit shall have sprung up; And in it there shall be the first end.And in it a man shall be saved; And after it is ended unrighteousness shall grow up, And a law shall be made for the sinners.And after that in the third week at its close A man shall be elected as the plant of righteous judgement, And his posterity shall become the plant of righteousness for evermore. 98.11. Woe to you, ye obstinate of heart, who work wickedness and eat blood: Whence have ye good things to eat and to drink and to be filled From all the good things which the Lord the Most High has placed in abundance on the earth; therefore ye shall have no peace.
84. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Exagoge, 96, 98-99, 97 (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 73
85. Anon., Testament of Joseph, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
86. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 1.2-1.3, 1.5, 3.1-3.5, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 82, 84, 109; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 427, 431
1.2. When his sons were gathered together in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, while still in good health, he made them a feast of food and wine. 1.3. And after he was awake in the morning, he said to them, I am dying; and they believed him not. 1.5. And he began then to say: Hear, my children, ye sons of Naphtali, hear the words of your father. 3.1. Be ye, therefore, not eager to corrupt your doings through covetousness or with vain words to beguile your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall understand how to hold fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of Beliar. 3.2. Sun and moon and stars change not their order; so do ye also change not the law of God in the disorderliness of your doings. 3.3. The Gentiles went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and obeyed stocks and stones, spirits of deceit. 3.4. But ye shall not be so, my children, recognizing in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who made all things, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of nature. 3.5. In like manner the Watchers also changed the order of their nature, whom the Lord cursed at the flood, on whose account He made the earth without inhabitants and fruitless. 8.4. If ye work that which is good, my children, Both men and angels shall bless you; And God shall be glorified among the Gentiles through you, And the devil shall flee from you, And the wild beasts shall fear you, And the Lord shall love you, [And the angels shall cleave to you].
87. Anon., Psalms of Solomon, 13.2-13.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 43; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 409, 414
88. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 6.34 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
89. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 2.22, 7.2, 7.9, 8.8, 8.16, 11.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, christ as image of god •image, of god •image of god •mans creation in gods image, rejection of anthropomorphism Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 208; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 924; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 31; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 94
2.22. "הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא יָדַע מָה בַחֲשׁוֹכָא ונהירא [וּנְהוֹרָא] עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא׃", 7.2. "עָנֵה דָנִיֵּאל וְאָמַר חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם־לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָּא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא׃", 7.2. "וְעַל־קַרְנַיָּא עֲשַׂר דִּי בְרֵאשַׁהּ וְאָחֳרִי דִּי סִלְקַת ונפלו [וּנְפַלָה] מִן־קדמיה [קֳדָמַהּ] תְּלָת וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן וְעַיְנִין לַהּ וְפֻם מְמַלִּל רַבְרְבָן וְחֶזְוַהּ רַב מִן־חַבְרָתַהּ׃", 7.9. "חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃", 8.8. "וּצְפִיר הָעִזִּים הִגְדִּיל עַד־מְאֹד וּכְעָצְמוֹ נִשְׁבְּרָה הַקֶּרֶן הַגְּדוֹלָה וַתַּעֲלֶנָה חָזוּת אַרְבַּע תַּחְתֶּיהָ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 8.16. "וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל־אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי וַיִּקְרָא וַיֹּאמַר גַּבְרִיאֵל הָבֵן לְהַלָּז אֶת־הַמַּרְאֶה׃", 11.4. "וּכְעָמְדוֹ תִּשָּׁבֵר מַלְכוּתוֹ וְתֵחָץ לְאַרְבַּע רוּחוֹת הַשָּׁמָיִם וְלֹא לְאַחֲרִיתוֹ וְלֹא כְמָשְׁלוֹ אֲשֶׁר מָשָׁל כִּי תִנָּתֵשׁ מַלְכוּתוֹ וְלַאֲחֵרִים מִלְּבַד־אֵלֶּה׃", 11.4. "וּבְעֵת קֵץ יִתְנַגַּח עִמּוֹ מֶלֶךְ הַנֶּגֶב וְיִשְׂתָּעֵר עָלָיו מֶלֶךְ הַצָּפוֹן בְּרֶכֶב וּבְפָרָשִׁים וּבָאֳנִיּוֹת רַבּוֹת וּבָא בַאֲרָצוֹת וְשָׁטַף וְעָבָר׃", 2.22. "He revealeth the deep and secret things; He knoweth what is in the darkness, And the light dwelleth with Him.", 7.2. "Daniel spoke and said: I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven broke forth upon the great sea.", 7.9. "I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire.", 8.8. "And the he-goat magnified himself exceedingly; and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and instead of it there came up the appearance of four horns toward the four winds of heaven.", 8.16. "And I heard the voice of a man between the banks of Ulai, who called, and said: ‘Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision.’", 11.4. "And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; but not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion wherewith he ruled; for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.",
90. Cicero, On Divination, 2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •god,image of Found in books: Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum. 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.
91. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.36-7.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 107, 108, 110
7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.' 7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'
92. Anon., Jubilees, 2.13-2.14, 3.28, 4.7, 4.17, 6.1-6.16, 7.22-7.24, 7.27-7.29, 17.26, 20.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •humanity, in image of god •images, of god •image, adam as image of god •image, of god •king as image/glory of gods Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 39, 84; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 261, 325, 410, 413, 416, 880; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 87; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99
2.13. and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all (plants after their kind). 2.14. These four great works God created on the third day. 3.28. And she said to it, "of all the fruit of the trees of the garden God hath said unto us, Eat; 4.7. And for this reason we announce when we come before the Lord our God all the sin which is committed in heaven and on earth, and in light and in darkness, and everywhere. 4.17. And in the second week of the tenth jubilee Mahalalel took unto him to wife Dînâh, the daughter of Barâkî’êl the daughter of his father's brother, and she bare him a son in the third week in the sixth year, and he called his name Jared; 6.1. And on the new moon of the third month he went forth from the ark, and built an altar on that mountain. 6.2. And he made atonement for the earth, and took a kid and made atonement by its blood for all the guilt of the earth; for everything that had been on it had been destroyed, save those that were in the ark with Noah. 6.3. And he placed the fat thereof on the altar, and he took an ox, and a goat, and a sheep and kids, and salt, and a turtle-dove, and the young of a dove, 6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. "And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man. 6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man. 6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever. 7.22. The sons of Japheth: Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan, Tubal and Meshech and Tiras: these are the sons of Noah. 7.23. And in the twenty-eighth jubilee Noah began to enjoin upon his sons' sons the ordices and commandments, and all the judgments that he knew, 7.24. and he exhorted his sons to observe righteousness, and to cover the shame of their flesh, and to bless their Creator, and honour father and mother, and love their neighbour, and guard their souls from fornication and uncleanness and all iniquity. 7.27. And they begat sons the Nâphîdîm, and they were all unlike, and they devoured one another: and the Giants slew the Nâphîl, and the Nâphîl slew the Eljô, and the Eljô mankind, and one man another. 7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, 20.5. and let them not take to themselves wives from the daughters of Canaan; for the seed of Canaan will be rooted out of the land.
93. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 80; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 249
24.6. In the waves of the sea, in the whole earth,and in every people and nation I have gotten a possession.
94. Septuagint, Judith, 9.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 647
9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones;
95. Anon., Testament of Judah, 14.4, 16.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 647
96. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 161
9.9. With thee is wisdom, who knows thy works and was present when thou didst make the world,and who understand what is pleasing in thy sight and what is right according to thy commandments.
97. Dead Sea Scrolls, Testament of Naphtali, 3.1-3.5, 8.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 427, 431
98. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 5.25, 5.26, 12.30, 20.7, 20.7-22.42, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 21.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 109
99. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 4.32, 4.33, 4.34, 4.35, 4.36, 4.37, 4.38, 4.39, 4.40, 5.25, 5.26, 12.30, 20.7, 20.7-22.42, 20.8, 20.9, 20.10, 20.11, 20.12, 20.13, 20.14, 21.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 109
100. Dead Sea Scrolls, Compositions 11Q5, 26.9-26.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, christ as image of god Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 93
101. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q504, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 125
102. Cicero, On Old Age, 21.78 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •god,image of Found in books: Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
103. Cicero, On Duties, 1.65 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 230
1.65. Fortes igitur et magimi sunt habendi, non qui faciunt, sed qui propulsant iniuriam. Vera autem et sapiens animi magnitudo honestum illud, quod maxime natura sequitur, in factis positum, non in gloria iudicat principemque se esse mavult quam videri; etenim qui ex errore imperitae multitudinis pendet, hic in magnis viris non est habendus. Facillime autem ad res iniustas impellitur, ut quisque altissimo animo est, gloriae cupiditate; qui locus est sane lubricus, quod vix invenitur, qui laboribus susceptis periculisque aditis non quasi mercedem rerum gestarum desideret gloriam. 1.65.  So then, not those who do injury but those who prevent it are to be considered brave and courageous. Moreover, true and philosophic greatness of spirit regards the moral goodness to which Nature most aspires as consisting in deeds, not in fame, and prefers to be first in reality rather than in name. And we must approve this view; for he who depends upon the caprice of the ignorant rabble cannot be numbered among the great. Then, too, the higher a man's ambition, the more easily he is tempted to acts of injustice by his desire for fame. We are now, to be sure, on very slippery ground; for scarcely can the man be found who has passed through trials and encountered dangers and does not then wish for glory as a reward for his achievements.
104. Cicero, On Laws, 1.24-1.28, 1.32, 1.59, 2.4, 2.15-2.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cult images of the gods •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 212, 423; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 77
105. Cicero, On Invention, a b c\n0 -55.167 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 109
106. Cicero, On Friendship, 2.481-2.482 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 601
107. Cicero, Republic, 6.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, of god Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 61
6.13. Sed quo sis, Africane, alacrior ad tutandam rem publicam, sic habeto: omnibus, qui patriam conservaverint, adiuverint, auxerint, certum esse in caelo definitum locum, ubi beati aevo sempiterno fruantur; nihil est enim illi principi deo, qui omnem mundum regit, quod quidem in terris fiat, acceptius quam concilia coetusque hominum iure sociati, quae civitates appellantur; harum rectores et conservatores hinc profecti huc revertuntur.
108. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.7, 2.38, 2.61, 2.63, 2.75, 2.98-2.153, 6.51 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cult images of the gods •god,image of •image of god Found in books: Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 212; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 138, 147, 152
2.7. "Again, prophecies and premonitions of future events cannot but be taken as proofs that the future may appear or be foretold as a warning or portended or predicted to mankind — hence the very words 'apparition,' 'warning,' 'portent,' 'prodigy.' Even if we think that the stories of Mopsus, Tiresias, Amphiaraus, Calchas and Helenus are mere baseless fictions of romance (though their powers of divination would not even have been incorporated in the legends had they been entirely repugt to fact), shall not even the instances from our own native history teach us to acknowledge the divine power? shall we be unmoved by the story of the recklessness of Publius Claudius in the first Punic War? Claudius merely in jest mocked at the gods: when the chickens on being released from their cage refused to feed, he ordered them to be thrown into the water, so that as they would not eat they might drink; but the joke cost the jester himself many tears and the Roman people a great disaster, for the fleet was severely defeated. Moreover did not his colleague Junius during the same war lose his fleet in a storm after failing to comply with the auspices? In consequence of these disasters Claudius was tried and condemned for high treason and Junius committed suicide. 2.38. The world on the contrary, since it embraces all things and since nothing exists which is not within it, is entirely perfect; how then can it fail to possess that which is the best? but there is nothing better than intelligence and reason; the world therefore cannot fail to possess them. Chrysippus therefore also well shows by the aid of illustrations that in the perfect and mature specimen of its kind everything is better than in the imperfect, for instance in a horse than in a foal, in a dog than in a puppy, in a man than in a boy; and that similarly a perfect and complete being is bound to possess that which is the best thing in all the world; 2.61. In other cases some exceptionally potent force is itself designated by a title of convey, for example Faith and Mind; we see the shrines on the Capitol lately dedicated to them both by Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, and Faith had previously been deified by Aulus Atilius Calatinus. You see the temple of Virtue, restored as the temple of Honour by Marcus Marcellus, but founded many years before by Quintus Maximus in the time of the Ligurian war. Again, there are the temples of Wealth, Safety, Concord, Liberty and Victory, all of which things, being so powerful as necessarily to imply divine goverce, were themselves designated as gods. In the same class the names of Desire, Pleasure and Venus Lubentina have been deified — things vicious and unnatural (although Velleius thinks otherwise), yet the urge of these vices often overpowers natural instinct. 2.63. "Another theory also, and that a scientific one, has been the source of a number of deities, who clad in human form have furnished the poets legends and have filled man's life with superstitions of all sorts. This subject was handled by Zeno and was later explained more fully by Cleanthes and Chrysippus. For example, an ancient belief prevailed throughout Greece that Caelus was mutilated by his son Saturn, and Saturn himself thrown into bondage by his son Jove: 2.75. I therefore declare that the world and all its parts were set in order at the beginning and have been governed for all time by converse providence: a thesis which our school usually divides into three sections. The first is based on the argument proving that the gods exist; if this be granted, it must be admitted that the world is governed by their wisdom. The second proves that all things are under the sway of sentient nature, and that by it the universe is carried on in the most beautiful manner; and this proved, it follows that the universe was generated from living first causes. The third topic is the argument from the wonder that we feel at the marvel of creation, celestial and terrestrial. 2.98. "For we may now put aside elaborate argument and gaze as it were with our eyes upon the beauty of the creations of divine providence, as we declare them to be. And first let us behold the whole earth, situated in the centre of the world, a solid spherical mass gathered into a globe by the natural gravitation of all its parts, clothed with flowers and grass and trees and corn,º forms of vegetation all of them incredibly numerous and inexhaustibly varied and diverse. Add to these cool fountains ever flowing, transparent streams and rivers, their banks clad in brightest verdure, deep vaulted caverns, craggy rocks, sheer mountain heights and plains of immeasurable extent; add also the hidden veins of gold and silver, and marble in unlimited quantity. 2.99. Think of all the various species of animals, both tame and wild! think of the flights and songs of birds! of the pastures filled with cattle, and the teeming life of the woodlands! Then why need I speak of the race of men? who are as it were the appointed tillers of the soil, and who suffer it not to become a savage haunt of monstrous beasts of prey nor a barren waste of thickets and brambles, and whose industry diversifies and adorns the lands and islands and coasts with houses and cities. Could we but behold these things with our eyes as we can picture them in our minds, no one taking in the whole earth at one view could doubt the divine reason. 2.100. Then how great is the beauty of the sea! how glorious the aspect of its vast expanse! him many and how diverse its islands! how lovely the scenery of its coasts and shores! how numerous and how different the species of marine animals, some dwelling in the depths, some floating and swimming on the surface, some clinging in their own shells to the rocks! And the sea itself, yearning for the earth, sports against her shores in such a fashion that the two elements appear to be fused into one. 2.101. Next the air bordering on the sea undergoes the alternates of day and night, and now rises upward melt down rarefied, now is condensed and compressed into clouds and gathering mixture enriches the earth with rain, now flows forth in currents thenceforth and produces winds. Likewise it causes the yearly variations of cold and heat, and it also both supports the flight of birds and inhaled by breathing nourishes and sustains the animal race. There remains the element that is most distant and highest removed from our abodes, the all‑engirdling, all‑confining circuit of the sky, also named the aether, the farthest coast and frontier of the world, wherein those fiery shapes most marvellously trace out their ordered courses. 2.102. of these the sun, which many times surpasses the earth in magnitude, revolves about her, and by his rising and setting causes day and night, and now approaching, then again retiring, twice each year makes returns in opposite directions from his farthest point, and in the period of those returns at one time causes the face of the earth as it were to contract with a gloomy frown, and at another restores her to gladness til she seems to smile in sympathy with the sky. 2.103. Again the moon, which is, as the mathematicians prove, more than half the size of the earth, roams in the same courses as the sun, but at one time converging with the sun and at another diverging from it, both bestows upon the light that it has borrowed from the sun and itself undergoes divers changes of its light, and also at one time is in conjunction and hides the sun, darken ut light of its rays, at another itself comes into the shadow of the earth, being opposite to the sun, and owing to the interpose and interference of the earth is suddenly extinguished. And the so‑called wandering stars (planets) travel in the same courses round the earth, and rise and set in the same way, with motions now accelerated, now retarded, and sometimes even ceasing altogether. 2.104. Nothing can be more marvellous or more beautiful than this spectacle. Next comes the vast multitude of the fixed stars, grouped in constellations so clearly defined that they have received names derived from their resemblance to familiar objects." Here he looked at me and said, "I will make use of the poems of Aratus, as translated by yourself when quite a young man, which because of their Latin dress give me such pleasure that I retain many of them in memory. Well then, as we continually see with our own eyes, without any change or variation Swiftly the other heavenly bodies glide, All day and night travelling with the sky, 2.105. and no one who loves to contemplate the uniformity of nature can ever be tired of gazing at them. The furthest tip of either axle‑end Is called the pole. Round the poel circle the two Bears, which never set; One of these twain the Greeks call Cynosure, The other Helicē is named; and the latter's extremely bright stars, visible to us all night long, Our countrymen the Seven Triones call; 2.106. and the little Cynosure consists of an equal number of stars similarly grouped, and revolves round the same pole: Phoenician sailors place in this their trust To guide their course by night; albeit the other Shines out before and with more radiant stars At earliest night-fall far and wide is seen, Yet small though this one is, the mariner On this relies, since it revolves upon An inner circle and a shorter path. Also the further to enhance the beauty of those constellations, Between them, like a river flowing swift, The fierce-eyed Serpent winds; in sinuous coils Over and under twines his snaky frame. 2.107. His whole appearance is very remarkable, but the most striking part of him is the shape of his head and the brilliance of his eyes: No single hindering star his head adorns, His brows are by a double radiance marked, And from his cruel eyes two lights flash out, The while his chin gleams with one flashing star; His graceful neck is bent, his head reclined, As if at gaze upon the Great Bear's tail. 2.108. And while the rest of the Serpent's body is visible all night long, This head a moment sinks beneath the sea, Where meet its setting and its rise in one. Next to its head however The weary figure of a man in sorrow Revolts, which the Greeks Engónasin call, as travelling "on his knees." Here is the Crown, of radiance supreme. This is in the rear of the Serpent, while at its head is the Serpent-holder, 2.109. By Greeks called Ophiúchus, famous name! Firm between both his hands he "holds the Snake," Himself in bondage by its body held, For serpent round the waist engirdles men, Yet treads he firm and presses all his weight, Trampling upon the Scorpion's eyes and breast. After the Septentriones comes The Bear-ward, commonly Boötes called, Because he drives the Bear yoked to a pole. 2.110. And then the following lines: for with this Boötes beneath his bosom fixed appears A glittering star, Arcturus, famous name, and below his feet moves The Virgin bright, holding her ear of corn Resplendent. And the constellations are so accurately spaced out that their vast and ordered array clearly displays the skill of a divine creator: By the Bear's head you will descry the Twins, Beneath its belly the Crab, and in its claws The Lion's bulk emits a twinkling ray. The Charioteer Hidden beneath the Twins' left flank will glide; Him Helicē confronts with aspect fierce; At his left shoulder the bright She‑goat stands. [And then the following:] A constellation vast and brilliant she, Whereas the Kids emit a scanty light Upon mankind. Beneath her feet Crouches the hornéd Bull, a mighty frame. 2.111. His head is bespangled with a multitude of stars: The Greeks were wont to call them Hyades, from their bringing rain, the Greek for which is hyein, while our nation stupidly names them the Sucking-pigs, as though the name Hyades were derived from the word for 'pig' and not from 'rain.' Behind the Lesser Septentrio follows Cepheus, with open hands outstretched; For close behind the Bear, the Cynosure, He wheels. Before him comes Cassiepia with her darkling stars, And next to her roams a bright shape, the sad Andromeda, shunning her mother's sight. The belly of the Horse touches her head, Proudly he tosses high his glittering mane; One common star holds their twin shapes conjoint And constellations linked indissolubly. Close by them stands the Ram with wreathéd horns: and next to him The Fishes gliding, one some space in front And nearer to the North Wind's shuddering breath. 2.112. At the feet of Andromeda Perseus is outlined, Assailed by all the zenith's northern blasts; and by him at his left knee placed on every side The tiny Pleiads dim you will descry. And, slightly sloping, next the Lyre is seen, Next the winged Bird 'neath heaven's wide canopy. Close to the Horse's head is the right hand Aquarius, and then his whole figure. Next in the mighty zone comes capricorn, Half-brute, half‑man; his mighty bosom breathes An icy chill; and when the Titans sun Arrayeth him with never-ceasing light, He turns his car to climb the wintry sky. 2.113. Here we behold How there appears the Scorpion rising high, His mighty tail trailing the bended Bow; Near which on soaring pinions wheels the Bird And near to this the burning Eagle flies. Then the Dolphin, And then Orion slopes his stooping frame. 2.114. Following him The glowing Dog‑star radiantly shines. After this follows the Hare, What never resteth weary from her race; At the Dog's tail meandering Argo glides. Her the Ram covers, and the scaly Fishes, And her bright breast touches the River's banks. Its long winding current you will observe, And in the zenith you will see the Chains That bind the Fishes, hanging at their tails. . . . Then you'll descry, near the bright Scorpion's sting, The Altar, fanned by Auster's gentle breath. And by it the Centaur Proceeds, in haste to join the Horse's parts Unto the Claws; extending his right hand, That grasps the mighty beast, he marches on And grimly strides towards the Altar bright. Here Hydra rises from the nether realms, her body widely outstretched; And in her midmost coil the Wine-bowl gleams, While pressing at her tail the feathered Crow Pecks with his beak; and here, hard by the Twins, The Hound's Forerunner, in Greek named Prokyon. 2.115. Can any sane person believe that all this array of stars and this vast celestial adornment could have been created out of atoms rushing thenceforth fortuitously and at random? or could any other being devoid of intelligence and reason have created them? Not merely did their creation postulate intelligence, but it is impossible to understand their nature without intelligence of a high order. "but not only are these things marvellous, but nothing is more remarkable than the stability and coherence of the world, which is such that it is impossible even to imagine anything better adapted to endure. For all its parts in every direction gravitate with a uniform pressure towards the centre. Moreover busy conjoined maintain their union most permanently when they have some bond encompassing them to bind them together; and this function is fulfilled by that rational and intelligent substance which pervades the whole world as the efficient cause of all things and which draws and collects the outermost particles towards the centre. 2.116. Hence if the world is round and therefore all its parts are held together by and with each other in universal equilibrium, the same must be the case with the earth, so that all its parts must converge towards the centre (which in a sphere is the lowest point) without anything to break the continuity and so threaten its Bast complex of gravitational forces and masses with dissolution. And on the same principle the sea, although above the earth, nevertheless seeks the earth's centre and so is massed into a sphere uniform on all sides, and never floods its bounds and overflows. 2.117. Its neighbour the air travels upward it is true in virtue of its lightness, but at the same time spreads horizontally in all directions; and thus while contiguous and conjoined with the sea it has a natural tendency to rise to the sky, and by receiving an admixture of the sky's tenuity and heat furnishes to living creatures the breath of life and health. The air is enfolded by the highest part of the sky, termed the ethereal part; this both retains its own tenuous warmth uncongealed by any admixture and unites with the outer surface of the air. In the aether the stars revolve in their courses; these maintain their spherical form by their own install gravitation, and also sustain their motions by virtue of their very shape and conformation; for they are round, and this is the shape, as I believe I remarked before, that is least capable of receiving injury. 2.118. But the stars are of a fiery substance, and for this reason they are nourished by the vapours of the earth, the sea and the waters, which are raised up by the sun out of the fields which it warms and out of the waters; and when nourished and renewed by these vapours the stars and the whole aether shed them back again, and then once more draw them up from the same source, with the loss of none of their matter, or only of an extremely small part which is consumed by the fire of the stars and the flame of the aether. As a consequence of this, so our school believe, though it used to be said that Panaetius questioned the doctrine, there will ultimately occur a conflagration of the whole while, because when the moisture has been used up neither can the earth be nourished nor will the air continue to flow, being unable to rise upward after it has drunk up all the water; thus nothing will remain but fire, by which, as a living being and a god, once again a new world may be created and the ordered universe be restored as before. 2.119. I would not have you think that I with too long upon astronomy, and particularly upon the system of the stars called planets; these with the most diverse movements work in such mutual harmony that the uppermost, that of Saturn, has a cooling influence, the middle planet, that of Mars, imparts heat, the one between them, that of Jove, gives light and a moderate warmth, while two beneath Mars obey the sun, and the sun itself fills all the world with light, and also illuminates the moon, which is the source of conception and birth and of growth and maturity. If any man is not impressed by this co‑ordination of things and this harmonious combination of nature to secure the preservation of the world, I know for certain that he has never given any consideration to these matters. 2.120. "To come now from things celestial to things terrestrial, which is there among these latter which does not clearly display the rational design of an intelligent being? In the first place, with the vegetation that springs from the earth, the stocks both give stability to the parts which they sustain and draw from the ground the sap to nourish the parts upheld by the roots; and the trunks are covered with bark or rind, the better to protect them against cold and heat. Again the vines cling to their props with their tendrils as with hands, and thus raise themselves erect like animals. Nay more, it is said that if planted near cabbages they shun them like pestle and noxious things, and will not touch them at any point. 2.121. Again what a variety tio animals, and what capacity they possess of persisting true to their various kinds! Some of them are protected by hides, others are clothed with fleeces, others bristle with spines; some we see covered with feathers, some with scales, some armed with horns, some equipped with wings to escape their foes. Nature, however, has provided with bounteous plenty for each species of animal that food which is suited to it. I might show in detail what provision has been made in the forms of the animals for appropriating and assimilating this food, how skilful and exact is the disposition of the various parts, how marvellous the structure of the limbs. For all the organs, at least those contained within the body, are so formed and so placed that none of them is superfluous or not necessary for the preservation of life. 2.122. But nature has also bestowed upon the beasts both sensation and desire, the one to arouse in them the impulse to appropriate their natural foods, the other to enable them to distinguish things harmful from things wholesome. Again, some animals approach their food by walking, some by crawling, some by flying, some by swimming; and some seize their nutriment with their gaping mouth and with the teeth themselves, others snatch it in the grasp of their claws, others with their curved beaks, some suck, others graze, some swallow it whole, others chew it. Also some are of such lately stature that they easily reach their food upon the ground with their jaws; 2.123. whereas the taller species, such as geese, swans, cranes and camels, are aided by the length of their necks; the elephant is even provided with a hand, because his body is so large that it was difficult for him to reach his food. Those beasts on the other hand whose mode of sustece was to feed on animals of another species received from nature the gift either of strength or swiftness. Upon certain creatures there was bestowed even a sort of craft or cunning: for instance, one species of the spider tribe weaves a kind of net, in order to dispatch anything that is caught in it; another in order to . . . steadily corps watch, and, snatching anything that falls into it, devours it. The mussel, or pina as it is called in Greek, is a large bivalve which enters into a sort of Penelope with the tiny shrimp to procure food, and so, when little fishes swim into the gaping shell, the shrimp draws the attention of the mussel and the mussel shuts up its shells with a snap; thus two very dissimilar creatures obtain their food in common. 2.124. In this case we are curious to know whether their association is due to a sort of mutual compact, or whether it was brought about by nature herself and goes back to the moment of their birth. Our wonder is also considerably excited by those aquatic animals which are born on land — crocodiles, for instance, and water-tortoises and certain snakes, which are born on dry land but as soon as they can first crawl make for the water. Again we often place ducks' eggs beneath hens, and the chicks that spring from the eggs are at first fed and mothered by the hens that hatched and reared them, but later on they leave their foster-mothers, and run away when they put up them, as soon as they have had the opportunity of seeing the water, their natural home. So powerful an instinct of self-preservation has nature implanted in living creatures. I have even read in a book that there is a bird called the spoonbill, which porticus its food by flying after those birds which dive in the sea, and upon their coming to the surface with a fish that they have caught, pressing their heads down with its beak until they drop their prey, which it pounces on for itself. It is also recorded of this bird that it is in the habit of gorging itself with shell-fish, which it digests by means of the heat of its stomach and then brings up again, and so picks out from them the parts that are good to eat. 2.125. Sea‑frogs again are said to be in the habit of covering themselves with sand and creeping along at the water's edge, and then when fishes approach them thinking they are something to eat, these are killed and devoured by the frogs. The kite and the crow live in a state of natural war as it were with one another, and therefore each destroys the other's eggs wherever it finds them. Another fact (observed by Aristotle, from whom most of these cases are cited) cannot but awaken our supper, namely that cranes when crossing the seas on the way to warmer climates fly in a triangular formation. With the apex of the triangle they force aside the air in front of them, and then gradually on either side by means of their wings acting as oars the birds' on which flight is sustained, with the base of the triangle formed by the cranes gets the assistance of the wind when it is so to speak astern. The birds rest their necks and heads on the backs of those flying in front of them; and the leader, being himself unable to do this as he has no one to lean on, flies to the rear that he himself also may have a rest, while one of those already rested takes his place, and so they keep turns throughout the journey. 2.126. I could adduce a number of similar instances, but you see the general idea. Another even better known classes of story illustrates the precautions taken by animals for their security, the watch they keep while feeding, their skill in hiding in their lairs. Other remarkable facts are that dogs cure themselves by vomiting and ibises in Egypt by purging — modes of treatment only recently, that is, a few generations ago, discovered by the talent of the medical profession. It has been reported that panthers, which in foreign countries are caught by means of poisoned meat, have a remedy which they employ to save themselves from dying; and that wild goats in Crete, when pierced with poisoned arrows, seek a herb called dittany, and on their swallowing this the arrows, it is said, drop out of their busy. 2.127. Does, shortly before giving birth to their young, thoroughly purge themselves with a herb called hartwort. Again we observe how various species defend themselves against violence and danger with their own weapons, bulls with their horns, boars with their tusks, lions with their bite; some species protect themselves by flight, some by hiding, the cuttle-fish by emitting an inky fluid, the sting‑ray by causing cramp, and also a number of creatures drive away their pursuers by their insufferably disgusting odour. "In order to secure the everlasting duration of the world-order, divine providence has made most careful provision to ensure the perpetuation of the families of animals and of trees and all the vegetable species. The latter all contain within them seed possessing the proprietor of multiplying the species; this seed is enclosed in the innermost part of the fruits that grow from each plant; and the same seeds supply mankind with an abundance of food, besides replenishing the earth with a fresh stock of plants of the same kind. 2.128. Why should I speak of the amount of rational design displayed in animals to secure the perpetual preservation of their kind? To begin with some are male and some female, a device of nature to perpetuate the species. Then parts of their busy are most skilfully contrived to serve the purposes of procreation and of conception, and both male and female possess marvellous desires for copulation. And when the seed has settled in its place, it draws almost all the nutriment to itself and hedged within it fashions a living creature; when this has been dropped from the womb and has emerged, in the mammalian species almost all the nourishment received by the mother turns to milk, and the young just born, untaught and by nature's guidance, seek for the teats and satisfy their cravings with their bounty. And to show to us that none of these things merely happens by chance and that all are the work of nature's providence and skill, species that produce large litters of offspring, such as swine and dogs, have bestowed upon them a large number of teats, while those animals which bear only a few young have only a few teats. 2.129. Why should I describe the affection shown by animals in rearing and protecting the offspring to which they have given birth, up to the point when they are able to defend themselves? although fishes, it is said, abandon their eggs when they have laid them, since these easily float and hatch out in the water. Turtles and crocodiles are said to lay their eggs on land and bury them and then go away, leaving their young to hatch and rear themselves. Hens and other birds find a quiet place in which to lay, and build themselves nests to sit on, covering these with the softest possible bedding in order to preserve the eggs most easily; and when they have hatched out their chicks they protect them by cherishing them with their wings so that they may not be injured by cold, and by shading them against the heat of the sun. When the young birds are able to use their sprouting wings, their mothers escort them in their flights, but are released from any further tendance upon them. 2.130. Moreover the skill and industry of man also contribute to the preservation and security of certain animals and plants. For there are many species of both which could not survive without man's care. "Also a plentiful variety of conveniences is found in different regions for the productive cultivation of the soil by man. Egypt is watered by the Nile, which corps the land completely flooded all the summer and afterwards retires leaving the soil soft and covered with mud, in readiness for sowing. Mesopotamia is fertilized by the Euphrates, which as it were imports into it new fields every year. The Indus, the largest river in the world, not only manures and softens the soil but actually sows it with seed, for it is said to bring down with it a great quantity of seeds resembling corn. 2.131. And I could produce a number of other remarkable examples in a variety of places, and instance a variety of lands each prolific in a different kind of produce. But how great is the benevolence of nature, in giving birth to such an abundance and variety of delicious articles of food, and that not at one season only of the year, so that we have continually the delights of both novelty and plenty! How seasonable moreover and how some not for the human race alone but also for the animal and the various vegetable species is her gift of the Etesian winds! their breath moderates the excessive heat of summer, entirely also guide our ships across the sea upon a swift and steady course. Many instances must be passed over [and yet many are given]. 2.132. For it is impossible to recount the conveniences afforded by rivers, the ebb and flow . . . of the tides of the sea, the mountains clothed with forests, the salt-beds lying far inland from the sea‑coast, the copious stores of health-giving medicines that the earth contains, and all the countless arts necessary for livelihood and for life. Again the alternation of day and night contributes to the preservation of living creatures by affording one time for activity and another for repose. Thus every line of reasoning goes to prove that all things in this world of ours are marvellously governed by divine intelligence and wisdom for the safety and preservation of all. 2.133. "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature. 2.134. There are three things requisite for the maintece of animal life, food, drink and breath; and for the reception of all of these the mouth is most consummately adapted, receiving as it does an abundant supply of breath through the nostrils which communicate with it. The structure of the teeth within the mouth serves to chew the food, and it is divided up and softened by them. The front teeth are sharp, and bite our viands into pieces; the back teeth, called molars, masticate them, the process of mastication apparently being assisted also by the tongue. 2.135. Next to the tongue comes the gullet, which is attached to its roots, and into which in the first place pass that substances that have been received in the mouth. The gullet is adjacent to the tonsils on either side of it, and reaches as far as the back or innermost part of the palate. The action and movements of the tongue drive and thrust the food down into the gullet, which receives it and drives it further down, the parts of the gullet below the food that is being swallowed dilating and the parts above it contracting. 2.136. The windpipe, or trachea as it is termed by physicians, has an orifice attached to the roots of the tongue a little above the point where the tongue is joined to the gullet; it reaches to the lungs, and receives the air inhaled by breathing, and also exhales it and passes it out from the lungs; it is covered by a sort of lid, provided for the purpose of preventing a morsel of food from accidentally falling into it and impeding the breath. Below the gullet lies the stomach, which is constructed as the receptacle of food and drink, whereas breath is inhaled by the lungs and heart. The stomach performs a number of remarkable operations; its structure consists principally of muscular fibres, and it is manifold and twisted; it compresses and contains the dry or moist nutriment that it receives, enabling it to be assimilated and digested; at one moment is astricted and at another relaxed, thus pressing and mixing together all that is passed into it, so that by means of the abundant heat which it possesses, and by its crushing the food, and also by the op of the breath, everything is digested and worked up so as to be easily distributed throughout the rest of the body. The lungs on the contrary are soft and of a loose and spongy consistency, well adapted to absorb the breath; which they inhale and exhale by alternately contracting and expanding, to provide frequent draughts of that aerial nutriment which is the chief support of animal life. 2.137. The alimentary juice secreted from the rest of the food by the stomach flows from the bowels to the liver through certain ducts or channels reaching to the liver, to which they are attached, and connecting up what are called the doorways of the liver with the middle intestine. From the liver different channels pass in different directions, and through these falls the food passed down from the liver. From this food is secreted bile, and the liquids excreted by the kidneys; the residue turns into blood be flows to the aforesaid doorways of the liver, to which all its channels lead. Flowing through these doorways the food at this very point pours into the so‑called vena cava or hollow vein, and through this, being now completely worked up and digested, flows to the heart, and from the heart is distributed all over the body through a rather large number of veins that reach to every part of the frame. 2.138. It would not be difficult to indicate the way in which the residue of the food is excreted by the alternate astriction and relaxation of the bowels; however this topic must be passed over lest my discourse should be somewhat offensive. Rather let me unfold the following instance of the incredible skilfulness of nature's handiwork. The air drawn into the lungs by breathing is warmed in the first instance by the breath itself and then by contact with the lungs; part of it is returned by the act of respiration, and part is received by a certain part of the heart called the cardiac ventricle, adjacent to which is a second similar vessel into which the blood flows from the liver three the vena cava mentioned above; and in this manner from these organs both the blood is diffused through the veins and the breath through the arteries all over the body. Both of these sets of vessels are very numerous and are closely interwoven with the tissues of the entire body; they testify to an extraordinary degree of skilful and divine craftsmanship. 2.139. Why need I speak about the bones, which are the framework of the body? their marvellous cartilages are nicely adapted to secure stability, and fitted to end off the joints and to allow of movement and bodily activity of every sort. Add thereto the nerves or sinews which hold the joints together and whose ramifications pervade the entire body; like the veins and arteries these lead from the heart as their starting-point and pass to all parts of the body. 2.140. "Many further illustrations could be given of this wise and careful providence of nature, to illustrate the lavishness and splendour of the gifts bestowed by the gods on men. First, she has raised them from the ground to stand tall and upright, so that they might be able to behold the sky and so gain a knowledge of the gods. For men are sprung from the earth not as its inhabitants and denizens, but to be as it were the spectators of things supernal and heavenly, in the contemplation whereof no other species of animal participates. Next, the senses, posted in the citadel of the head as the reporters and messengers of the outer world, both in structure and position are marvellously adapted to their necessary services. The eyes as the watchmen have the highest station, to give them the widest outlook for the performance of their function. 2.141. The ears also, having the duty of perceiving sound, the nature of which is to rise, are rightly placed in the upper part of the body. The nostrils likewise are rightly placed high inasmuch as all smells travel upwards, but also, because they have much to do with discriminating food and drink, they have with good reason been brought into the neighbourhood of the mouth. Taste, which has the function of distinguishing the flavors of our various viands, is situated in that part of the face where nature has made an aperture for the passage of food and drink. The sense of touch is evenly diffused over all the body, to enable us to perceive all sorts of contacts and even the minutest impacts of both cold and heat. And just as architects relegate the drains of houses to the rear, away from the eyes and nose of the masters, since otherwise they would inevitably be somewhat offensive, so nature has banished the corresponding organs of the body far away from the neighbourhood of the senses. 2.142. "Again what artificer but nature, who is unsurpassed in her cunning, could have attained such skilfulness in the construction of the senses? First, she has clothed and walled the eyes with membranes of the finest texture, which she has made on the one hand transparent so that we may be able to see through them, and on the other hand firm of substance, to serve as the outer cover of the eye. The eyes she has made mobile and smoothly turning, so as both to avoid any threatened injury and to direct their gaze easily in any direction they desire. The actually organ of vision, called the pupil or 'little doll,' is so small as easily to avoid objects that might injure it; and the lids, which are the covers of the eyes, are very soft to the touch so as not to hurt the pupil, and very neatly constructed as to be able both to shut the eyes in order that nothing may impinge upon them and to open them; and nature has provided that this process can be repeated again and again with extreme rapidity. 2.143. The eyelids are furnished with a palisade of hairs, whereby to ward off any impinging object while the eyes are open, and so that while they are closed in sleep, when we do not need the eyes for seeing, they may be as it were tucked up for repose. Moreover the eyes are in advantageously retired position, and shielded on all sides by surrounding prominences; for first the parts above them are covered by the eyebrows which prevent sweat from flowing down from the scalp and forehead; then the cheeks, which are placed beneath them and which slightly project, protect them from below; and the hose is so placed as to seem to be a wall separating the eyes from one another. 2.144. The organ of hearing on the other hand is always open, since we require this sense even when asleep, and when it receives a sound, we are aroused even from sleep. The auditory passage is winding, to prevent anything from being able to enter, as it might if the passage were clear and straight; it has further been provided that even the tiniest insect that may attempt to intrude may be caught in the sticky wax of the ears. On the outside project the organs which we call ears, which are constructed both to cover and protect the sense-organ and to prevent the sounds that reach them from sliding past and being lost before they strike the sense. The apertures of the ears are hard and gristly, and much convoluted, because things with these qualities reflect and amplify sound; this is why tortoise-shell or horn gives resoce to a lyre, and always why winding passages and enclosures have an echo which is louder than the original sound. 2.145. Similarly the nostrils, which to serve the purposes required of them have to be always open, have narrower apertures, to prevent the entrance of anything that may harm them; and they are always moist, which is useful to guard them against dust and many other things. The sense of taste is admirably shielded, being enclosed in the mouth in a manner well suited for the performance of its function and for its protection against harm. "And all the senses of man far excel those of the lower animals. In the first place our eyes have a finer perception of many things in the arts which appeal to the sense of sight, painting, modelling and sculpture, and also in bodily movements and gestures; since the eyes judge beauty and arrangement and so to speak propriety of colour and shape; and also other more important matters, for they also recognize virtues and vices, the angry and the friendly, the joyful and the sad, the brave man and the coward, the bold and the craven. 2.146. The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. 2.147. "Coming now to the actual mind and intellect of man, his reason, wisdom and foresight, one who cannot see that these owe their perfection to divine providence must in my view himself be devoid of these very faculties. While discussing this topic I could wish, Cotta, that I had the gift of your eloquence. How could not you describe first our powers of understanding, and then our faculty of conjoining premisses and consequences in a single act of apprehension, the faculty I mean that enables us to judge what conclusion follows from any given propositions and to put the inference in syllogistic form, and also to delimit particular terms in a succinct definition; whence we arrive at an understanding of the potency and the nature of knowledge, which is the most excellent part even of the divine nature. Again, how remarkable are the faculties which you Academics invalidate and abolish, our sensory and intellectual perception and comprehension of external objects; 2.148. it is by collating and comparing our precepts that we also create the arts that serve either practical necessities or the purpose of amusement. Then take the gift of speech, the queen of arts as you are fond of calling it — what a glorious, what a divine faculty it is! In the first place it enables us both to learn things we do not know and to teach things we do know to others; secondly it is our instrument for exhortation and persuasion, for consoling the afflicted and assuaging the fears of the terrified, for curbing passion and quenching appetite and anger; it is this that has united us in the bonds of justice, law and civil order, this that has sped us from savagery and barbarism. 2.149. Now careful consideration will show that the mechanism of speech displays a skill on nature's part that surpasses belief. In the first place there is an artery passing from the lugns to the back of the mouth, which is the channel by which the voice, originating from the mind, is caught and uttered. Next, the tongue is placed in the mouth and confined by the teeth; it modulates and defines the inarticulate flow of the voice and renders its sounds district and clear by striking the teeth and other parts of the mouth. Accordingly my school is fond of comparing the tongue to the quill of a lyre, the teeth to the strings, and the nostrils to the horns which echo the notes of the strings when the instrument is played. 2.150. "Then what clever servants for a great variety of arts are the hands which nature has bestowed on man! The flexibility of the joints enables the fingers to close and open with equal ease, and to perform every motion without difficulty. Thus by the manipulation of the fingers the hand is enabled to paint, to model, to carve, and to draw forth the notes of the lyre and of the flute. And beside these arts of recreation there are those of utility, I mean agriculture and building, the weaving and stitching of garments, and the various modes of working bronze and iron; hence we realize that it was by applying the hand of the artificer to the discoveries of thought and observations of the senses that all our conveniences were attained, and we were enabled to have shelter, clothing and protection, and possessed cities, fortifications, houses and temples. 2.151. Moreover men's industry, that is to say the work of their hands, porticus us also our food in variety and abundance. It is the hand that gathers the divers products of the fields, whether to be consumed immediately or to be stored in repositories for the days to come; and our diet also includes flesh, fish and fowl, obtained partly by the chase and partly by breeding. We also tame the four-footed animals to carry us on their backs, their swiftness and strength bestowing strength and swiftness upon ourselves. We cause certain beasts to bear our burdens or to carry a yoke, we divert to our service the marvellously acute senses of elephants and the keen scent of hounds; we collect from the caves of the earth the iron which we need for tilling the land, we discover the deeply hidden veins of copper, silver and gold which serve us both for use and for adornment; we cut up a multitude of trees both wild and cultivated for timber which we employ partly by setting fire to it to warm our busy and cook our food, partly for building so as to shelter ourselves with houses and banish heat and cold. 2.152. Timber moreover is of great value for constructing ships, whose voyages supply an abundance of sustece of all sorts from all parts of the earth; and we alone have the power of controlling the most violent of nature's offspring, the sea and the winds, thanks to the science of navigation, and we use and enjoy many products of the sea. Likewise the entire command of the commodities produced on land is vested in mankind. We enjoy the fruits of the plains and of the mountains, the rivers and the lakes are ours, we sow corn, we plant trees, we fertilize the soil by irrigation, we confine the rivers and straighten or divert their courses. In fine, by means of our hands we essay to create as it were a second world within the world of nature. 2.153. "Then moreover hasn't man's reason penetrated even to the sky? We alone of living creatures know the risings and settings and the courses of the stars, the human race has set limits to the day, the month and the year, and has learnt the eclipses of the sun and moon and foretold for all future time their occurrence, their extent and their dates. And contemplating the heavenly bodies the mind arrives at a knowledge of the gods, from which arises piety, with its comrades justice and the rest of the virtues, the sources of a life of happiness that vies with and resembles the divine existence and leaves us inferior to the celestial beings in nothing else save immortality, which is immaterial for happiness. I think that my exposition of these matters has been sufficient to prove how widely man's nature surpasses all other living creatures; and this should make it clear that neither such a conformation and arrangement of the members nor such power of mind and intellect can possibly have been created by chance.
109. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.15-2.38, 2.49-2.68 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 107
2.15. Then the kings officers who were enforcing the apostasy came to the city of Modein to make them offer sacrifice. 2.16. Many from Israel came to them; and Mattathias and his sons were assembled. 2.17. Then the kings officers spoke to Mattathias as follows: "You are a leader, honored and great in this city, and supported by sons and brothers. 2.18. Now be the first to come and do what the king commands, as all the Gentiles and the men of Judah and those that are left in Jerusalem have done. Then you and your sons will be numbered among the friends of the king, and you and your sons will be honored with silver and gold and many gifts." 2.19. But Mattathias answered and said in a loud voice: "Even if all the nations that live under the rule of the king obey him, and have chosen to do his commandments, departing each one from the religion of his fathers, 2.20. yet I and my sons and my brothers will live by the covet of our fathers. 2.21. Far be it from us to desert the law and the ordices. 2.22. We will not obey the kings words by turning aside from our religion to the right hand or to the left." 2.23. When he had finished speaking these words, a Jew came forward in the sight of all to offer sacrifice upon the altar in Modein, according to the kings command. 2.24. When Mattathias saw it, be burned with zeal and his heart was stirred. He gave vent to righteous anger; he ran and killed him upon the altar. 2.25. At the same time he killed the kings officer who was forcing them to sacrifice, and he tore down the altar. 2.26. Thus he burned with zeal for the law, as Phinehas did against Zimri the son of Salu. 2.27. Then Mattathias cried out in the city with a loud voice, saying: "Let every one who is zealous for the law and supports the covet come out with me!" 2.28. And he and his sons fled to the hills and left all that they had in the city. 2.29. Then many who were seeking righteousness and justice went down to the wilderness to dwell there, 2.30. they, their sons, their wives, and their cattle, because evils pressed heavily upon them. 2.31. And it was reported to the kings officers, and to the troops in Jerusalem the city of David, that men who had rejected the kings command had gone down to the hiding places in the wilderness. 2.32. Many pursued them, and overtook them; they encamped opposite them and prepared for battle against them on the sabbath day. 2.33. And they said to them, "Enough of this! Come out and do what the king commands, and you will live." 2.34. But they said, "We will not come out, nor will we do what the king commands and so profane the sabbath day." 2.35. Then the enemy hastened to attack them. 2.36. But they did not answer them or hurl a stone at them or block up their hiding places, 2.37. for they said, "Let us all die in our innocence; heaven and earth testify for us that you are killing us unjustly." 2.38. So they attacked them on the sabbath, and they died, with their wives and children and cattle, to the number of a thousand persons. 2.49. Now the days drew near for Mattathias to die, and he said to his sons: "Arrogance and reproach have now become strong; it is a time of ruin and furious anger. 2.50. Now, my children, show zeal for the law, and give your lives for the covet of our fathers. 2.51. Remember the deeds of the fathers, which they did in their generations; and receive great honor and an everlasting name. 2.52. Was not Abraham found faithful when tested, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness? 2.53. Joseph in the time of his distress kept the commandment, and became lord of Egypt. 2.54. Phinehas our father, because he was deeply zealous, received the covet of everlasting priesthood. 2.55. Joshua, because he fulfilled the command, became a judge in Israel. 2.56. Caleb, because he testified in the assembly, received an inheritance in the land. 2.57. David, because he was merciful, inherited the throne of the kingdom for ever. 2.58. Elijah because of great zeal for the law was taken up into heaven. 2.59. Haniah, Azariah, and Mishael believed and were saved from the flame. 2.60. Daniel because of his innocence was delivered from the mouth of the lions. 2.61. And so observe, from generation to generation, that none who put their trust in him will lack strength. 2.62. Do not fear the words of a sinner, for his splendor will turn into dung and worms. 2.63. Today he will be exalted, but tomorrow he will not be found, because he has returned to the dust, and his plans will perish. 2.64. My children, be courageous and grow strong in the law, for by it you will gain honor. 2.65. Now behold, I know that Simeon your brother is wise in counsel; always listen to him; he shall be your father. 2.66. Judas Maccabeus has been a mighty warrior from his youth; he shall command the army for you and fight the battle against the peoples. 2.67. You shall rally about you all who observe the law, and avenge the wrong done to your people. 2.68. Pay back the Gentiles in full, and heed what the law commands."
110. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 84
2.4. You destroyed those who in the past committed injustice, among whom were even giants who trusted in their strength and boldness, whom you destroyed by bringing upon them a boundless flood.
111. Varro, On Agriculture, 2.1.27-2.1.28, 2.8.1-2.8.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and human hybridity Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 242
112. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 20, 51 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 161
51. and let every one in his turn say the same thing, for it is very becoming to every man who loves God to study such a song as this, but above all this world should sing it. For God, like a shepherd and a king, governs (as if they were a flock of sheep) the earth, and the water, and the air, and the fire, and all the plants, and living creatures that are in them, whether mortal or divine; and he regulates the nature of the heaven, and the periodical revolutions of the sun and moon, and the variations and harmonious movements of the other stars, ruling them according to law and justice; appointing, as their immediate superintendent, his own right reason, his first-born son, who is to receive the charge of this sacred company, as the lieutet of the great king; for it is said somewhere, "Behold, I am he! I will send my messenger before thy face, who shall keep thee in the Road."
113. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of •mind, image of god Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 166
10. But Aristotle, with a knowledge as to which I know not to what degree I may call it holy and pious, affirmed that the world was uncreated and indestructible, and he accused those who maintained a contrary opinion of terrible impiety, for thinking that so great a visible God was in no respect different from things made with hands, though the contains within himself the sun, and the moon, and all the rest of the planets and fixed stars, and, in fact, the whole of the divine nature;
114. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 144, 20, 251, 76, 121 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 141
121. Since this is not the actual truth, but in order that one may when speaking keep as close to the truth as possible, the one in the middle is the Father of the universe, who in the sacred scriptures is called by his proper name, I am that I am; and the beings on each side are those most ancient powers which are always close to the living God, one of which is called his creative power, and the other his royal power. And the creative power is God, for it is by this that he made and arranged the universe; and the royal power is the Lord, for it is fitting that the Creator should lord it over and govern the creature.
115. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 182, 22, 45-47, 57, 143 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72
143. And know that this way is wisdom. For the mind being guided by wisdom, while the road is straight and level and easy, proceeds along it to the end; and the end of this road is the knowledge and understanding of God. But every companion of the flesh hates and repudiates, and endeavours to corrupt this way; for there is no one thing so much at variance with another, as knowledge is at variance with the pleasure of the flesh. Accordingly, the earthly Edom is always fighting with those who wish to proceed by this road,
116. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 108 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197
108. Therefore, the one being hung up and violently stretched for the sake of making him divulge some secret, showed himself mightier than fire or iron, though they are the strongest things in nature, and biting off his tongue with his teeth, spit it at his torturer, that he might not involuntarily utter what he ought to bury in silence, under the influence of agony;
117. Ovid, Metamorphoses, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 61
118. Ovid, Fasti, 4.363-4.364 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 339
4.363. inter ait ‘viridem Cybelen altasque Celaenas 4.364. amnis it insana, nomine Gallus, aqua. 4.363. ‘Between green Cybele and high Celaenae,’ she said, 4.364. ‘Runs a river of maddening water, called the Gallus.
119. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 20, 27, 50, 8, 86, 9, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157
120. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 3.57.2-3.57.3, 3.59.1-3.59.8, 5.66.3, 11.58.3, 17.50, 40.3.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •image, fertile, of goddess •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211, 212; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 221; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107, 274, 338
3.57.2.  Titaea, because she was prudent and had brought about many good deeds for the peoples, was deified after her death by those whom she had helped and her name was changed to Gê. To Uranus were also born daughters, the two eldest of whom were by far the most renowned above all the others and were called Basileia and Rhea, whom some also named Pandora. 3.57.3.  of these daughters Basileia, who was the eldest and far excelled the others in both prudence and understanding, reared all her brothers, showing them collectively a mother's kindness; consequently she was given the appellation of "Great Mother"; and after her father had been translated from among men into the circle of the gods, with the approval of the masses and of her brothers she succeeded to the royal dignity, though she was still a maiden and because of her exceedingly great chastity had been unwilling to unite in marriage with any man. But later, because of her desire to leave sons who should succeed to the throne, she united in marriage with Hyperion, one of her brothers, for whom she had the greatest affection. 3.59.2.  When they came to Dionysus in the city of Nysa they found there Apollo, who was being accorded high favour because of the lyre, which, they say, Hermes invented, though Apollo was the first to play it fittingly; and when Marsyas strove with Apollo in a contest of skill and the Nysaeans had been appointed judges, the first time Apollo played upon the lyre without accompanying it with his voice, while Marsyas, striking up upon his pipes, amazed the ears of his hearers by their strange music and in their opinion far excelled, by reason of his melody, the first contestant. 3.59.3.  But since they had agreed to take turn about in displaying their skill to the judges, Apollo, they say, added, this second time, his voice in harmony with the music of the lyre, whereby he gained greater approval than that which had formerly been accorded to the pipes. Marsyas, however, was enraged and tried to prove to the hearers that he was losing the contest in defiance of every principle of justice; for, he argued, it should be a comparison of skill and not of voice, and only by such a test was it possible to judge between the harmony and music of the lyre and of the pipes; and furthermore, it was unjust that two skills should be compared in combination against but one. Apollo, however, as the myth relates, replied that he was in no sense taking any unfair advantage of the other; 3.59.4.  in fact, when Marsyas blew into his pipes he was doing almost the same thing as himself; consequently the rule should be made either that they should both be accorded this equal privilege of combining their skills, or that neither of them should use his mouth in the contest but should display his special skill by the use only of his hands. 3.59.5.  When the hearers decided that Apollo presented the more just argument, their skills were again compared; Marsyas was defeated, and Apollo, who had become somewhat embittered by the quarrel, flayed the defeated man alive. But quickly repenting and being distressed at what he had done, he broke the strings of the lyre and destroyed the harmony of sounds which he had discovered. 3.59.6.  The harmony of the strings, however, was rediscovered, when the Muses added later the middle string, Linus the string struck with the forefinger, and Orpheus and Thamyras the lowest string and the one next to it. And Apollo, they say, laid away both the lyre and the pipes as a votive offering in the cave of Dionysus, and becoming enamoured of Cybelê joined in her wanderings as far as the land of the Hyperboreans. 3.59.7.  But, the myth goes on to say, a pestilence fell upon human beings throughout Phrygia and the land ceased to bear fruit, and when the unfortunate people inquired of the god how they might rid themselves of their ills he commanded them, it is said, to bury the body of Attis and to honour Cybelê as a goddess. Consequently the physicians, since the body had disappeared in the course of time, made an image of the youth, before which they sang dirges and by means of honours in keeping with his suffering propitiated the wrath of him who had been wronged; and these rites they continue to perform down to our own lifetime. 3.59.8.  As for Cybelê, in ancient times they erected altars and performed sacrifices to her yearly; and later they built for her a costly temple in Pisinus of Phrygia, and established honours and sacrifices of the greatest magnificence, Midas their king taking part in all these works out of his devotion to beauty; and beside the statue of the goddess they set up panthers and lions, since it was the common opinion that she had first been nursed by these animals. Such, then, are the myths which are told about Mother of the Gods both among the Phrygians and by the Atlantians who dwell on the coast of the ocean. 5.66.3.  The males were Cronus, Hyperion, Coeus, Iapetus, Crius, and Oceanus, and their sisters were Rhea, Themis, Mnemosynê, Phoebê, and Tethys. Each one of them was the discoverer of things of benefit to mankind, and because of the benefaction they conferred upon all men they were accorded honours and everlasting fame. 11.58.3.  And when a bull had been sacrificed and the oaths taken, Themistocles, filling a cup with its blood, drank it down and immediately died. They add that Xerxes thereupon relinquished that plan of his, and that Themistocles by his voluntary death left the best possible defence that he had played the part of a good citizen in all matters affecting the interests of Greece. 17.50. 1.  The land where this temple lies is surrounded by a sandy desert and waterless waste, destitute of anything good for man. The oasis is fifty furlongs in length and breadth and is watered by many fine springs, so that it is covered with all sorts of trees, especially those valued for their fruit. It has a moderate climate like our spring and, surrounded as it is by very hot regions, alone furnishes to its people a contrasting mildness of temperature.,2.  It is said that the sanctuary was built by Danaüs the Egyptian. The land, which is sacred to the god, is occupied on the south and west by Ethiopians, and on the north by the Libyans, a nomadic people, and the so‑called Nasamonians who reach on into the interior.,3.  All the people of Ammon dwell in villages. In the midst of their country there is a fortress secured by triple walls. The innermost circuit encloses the palace of the ancient rulers; the next, the women's court, the dwellings of the children, women, and relatives, and the guardrooms of the scouts, as well as the sanctuary of the god and the sacred spring, from the waters of which offerings addressed to the god take on holiness; the outer circuit surrounds the barracks of the king's guards and the guardrooms of those who protect the person of the ruler.,4.  Outside of the fortress at no great distance there is another temple of Ammon shaded by many large trees, and near this is the spring which is called the Spring of the Sun from its behaviour. Its waters change in temperature oddly in accordance with the times of day.,5.  At sunrise it sends forth a warm stream, but as the day advances it grows cooler proportionally with the passage of the hours, until under the noonday heat it reaches the extreme degree of cold. Then again in the same proportion it grows warmer toward evening and as the night advances it continues to heat up until midnight when again the trend is reversed, and at daybreak once more the waters have returned to their original temperature.,6.  The image of the god is encrusted with emeralds and other precious stones, and answers those who consult the oracle in a quite peculiar fashion. It is carried about upon a golden boat by eighty priests, and these, with the god on their shoulders, go without their own volition wherever the god directs their path.,7.  A multitude of girls and women follows them singing hymns as they go and praising the god in a traditional hymn.
121. Nicolaus of Damascus, Fragments, None (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86
122. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 4.145-4.160 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, image of god •god, image of •image of god Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 144, 145, 146, 149, 154
4.145. semper enim summum quicquid de rebus abundat, 4.146. quod iaculentur. et hoc alias cum pervenit in res, 4.147. transit, ut in primis vestem; sed ubi aspera saxa 4.148. aut in materiam ligni pervenit, ibi iam 4.149. scinditur, ut nullum simulacrum reddere possit. 4.150. at cum splendida quae constant opposta fuerunt 4.151. densaque, ut in primis speculum est, nihil accidit horum; 4.152. nam neque, uti vestem, possunt transire, neque autem 4.153. scindi; quam meminit levor praestare salutem. 4.154. qua propter fit ut hinc nobis simulacra redundent. 4.155. et quamvis subito quovis in tempore quamque 4.156. rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago; 4.157. perpetuo fluere ut noscas e corpore summo 4.158. texturas rerum tenuis tenuisque figuras. 4.159. ergo multa brevi spatio simulacra genuntur, 4.160. ut merito celer his rebus dicatur origo.
123. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.9-3.11 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 84; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 91
124. Vergil, Georgics, 3.34 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, fertile, of goddess, bearers of •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 264; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90
3.34. Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa,
125. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.847-6.848 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, fertile, of goddess, bearers of •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 264; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90
6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings
126. Hirtius, De Bello Gallico Liber Viii, 3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 219
127. Strabo, Geography, 1.3.21, 12.2.7, 14.1.40, 16.2.35 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211, 212; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 169, 274
1.3.21. Those who desire to instill into us that more perfect freedom from [ignorant] wonder, which Democritus and all other philosophers so highly extol, should add the changes which have been produced by the migrations of various tribes: we should thus be inspired with courage, steadiness, and composure. For instance, the Western Iberians, removed to the regions beyond the Euxine and Colchis, being separated from Armenia, according to Apollodorus, by the Araxes, but rather by the Cyrus and Moschican mountains. The expedition of the Egyptians into Ethiopia and Colchis. The migration of the Heneti, who passed from Paphlagonia into the country bordering on the Adriatic Gulf. Similar emigrations were also undertaken by the nations of Greece, the Ionians, Dorians, Achaians, and Aeolians; and the Aenians, now next neighbours to the Aetolians, formerly dwelt near Dotium and Ossa, beyond the Perrhaebi; the Perrhaebi too are but wanderers here themselves. Our present work furnishes numerous instances of the same kind. Some of these are familiar to most readers, but the migrations of the Carians, the Treres, the Teucrians, and the Galatae or Gauls, are not so generally known. Nor yet for the most part are the expeditions of their chiefs, for instance, Madys the Scythian, Tearko the Ethiopian, Cobus of Trerus, Sesostris and Psammeticus the Egyptians; nor are those of the Persians from Cyrus to Xerxes familiar to every one. The Kimmerians, or a separate tribe of them, called the Treres, have frequently overrun the countries to the right of the Euxine and those adjacent to them, bursting now into Paphlagonia, now into Phrygia, as they did when, according to report, Midas came to his death by drinking bull's blood. Lygdamis led his followers into Lydia, passed through Ionia, took Sardis, but was slain in Cilicia. The Kimmerians and Treres frequently made similar incursions, until at last, as it is reported, these latter, together with [their chief] Cobus, were driven out by Madys, king of the Scythians. But enough has been said in this place on the general history of the earth, as each country will have a particular account. 12.2.7. Only two prefectures have cities, Tyanitis the city Tyana, which lies below the Taurus at the Cilician Gates, where for all is the easiest and most commonly used pass into Cilicia and Syria. It is called Eusebeia near the Taurus; and its territory is for the most part fertile and level. Tyana is situated upon a mound of Semiramis, which is beautifully fortified. Not far from this city are Castabala and Cybistra, towns still nearer to the mountain. At Castabala is the sanctuary of the Perasian Artemis, where the priestesses, it is said, walk with naked feet over hot embers without pain. And here, too, some tell us over and over the same story of Orestes and Tauropolus, asserting that she was called Perasian because she was brought from the other side. So then, in the prefecture Tyanitis, one of the ten above mentioned is Tyana (I am not enumerating along with these prefectures those that were acquired later, I mean Castabala and Cybistra and the places in Cilicia Tracheia, where is Elaeussa, a very fertile island, which was settled in a noteworthy manner by Archelaus, who spent the greater part of his time there), whereas Mazaca, the metropolis of the tribe, is in the Cilician prefecture, as it is called. This city, too, is called Eusebeia, with the additional words near the Argaeus, for it is situated below the Argaeus, the highest mountain of all, whose summit never fails to have snow upon it; and those who ascend it (those are few) say that in clear weather both seas, both the Pontus and the Issian Sea, are visible from it. Now in general Mazaca is not naturally a suitable place for the founding of a city, for it is without water and unfortified by nature; and, because of the neglect of the prefects, it is also without walls (perhaps intentionally so, in order that people inhabiting a plain, with hills above it that were advantageous and beyond range of missiles, might not, through too much reliance upon the wall as a fortification, engage in plundering). Further, the districts all round are utterly barren and untilled, although they are level; but they are sandy and are rocky underneath. And, proceeding a little farther on, one comes to plains extending over many stadia that are volcanic and full of fire-pits; and therefore the necessaries of life must be brought from a distance. And further, that which seems to be an advantage is attended with peril, for although almost the whole of Cappadocia is without timber, the Argaeus has forests all round it, and therefore the working of timber is close at hand; but the region which lies below the forests also contains fires in many places and at the same time has an underground supply of cold water, although neither the fire nor the water emerges to the surface; and therefore most of the country is covered with grass. In some places, also, the ground is marshy, and at night flames rise therefrom. Now those who are acquainted with the country can work the timber, since they are on their guard, but the country is perilous for most people, and especially for cattle, since they fall into the hidden fire-pits. 14.1.40. The Magnetans are thought to be descendants of Delphians who settled in the Didyman hills, in Thessaly, concerning whom Hesiod says: Or as the unwedded virgin who, dwelling on the holy Didyman hills, in the Dotian Plain, in front of Amyrus, bathed her foot in Lake Boebeis. 5 Here was also the sanctuary of Dindymene, Mother of the Gods. According to tradition, the wife of Themistocles, some say his daughter, served as a priestess there. But the sanctuary is not now in existence, because the city has been transferred to another site. In the present city is the sanctuary of Artemis Leucophryene, which in the size of its temple and in the number of its votive offerings is inferior to the temple at Ephesus, but in the harmony and skill shown in the structure of the sacred enclosure is far superior to it. And in size it surpasses all the sacred enclosures in Asia except two, that at Ephesus and that at Didymi. In ancient times, also, it came to pass that the Magnetans were utterly destroyed by the Treres, a Cimmerian tribe, although they had for a long time been a prosperous people, but the Milesians took possession of the place in the following year. Now Callinus mentions the Magnetans as still being a prosperous people and as being successful in their war against the Ephesians, but Archilochus is obviously already aware of the misfortune that befell them: to bewail the woes of the Thasians, not those of the Magnetans; whence one may judge that he was more recent than Callinus. And Callinus recalls another, and earlier, invasion of the Cimmerians when he says: And now the army of the Cimmerians, mighty in deeds, advanceth, in which he plainly indicates the capture of Sardeis. 16.2.35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower [Egypt] * * * *, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God [said he] may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things. Who then of any understanding would venture to form an image of this Deity, resembling anything with which we are conversant? on the contrary, we ought not to carve any images, but to set apart some sacred ground and a shrine worthy of the Deity, and to worship Him without any similitude. He taught that those who made fortunate dreams were to be permitted to sleep in the temple, where they might dream both for themselves and others; that those who practised temperance and justice, and none else, might expect good, or some gift or sign from the God, from time to time.
128. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 18, 28, 47, 86, 97, 127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 144; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 205
127. And for what reason is it built, except to serve as a shelter and protection? This is the object. Now passing on from these particular buildings, consider the greatest house or city, namely, this world, for you will find that God is the cause of it, by whom it was made. That the materials are the four elements, of which it is composed; that the instrument is the word of God, by means of which it was made; and the object of the building you will find to be the display of the goodness of the Creator. This is the discriminating opinion of men fond of truth, who desire to attain to true and sound knowledge; but they who say that they have gotten anything by means of God, conceive that the cause is the instrument, the Creator namely, and the instrument the cause, namely, the human mind. 127. And if their connections and families are very numerous, then by reason of their intermarriages and the mutual connections formed with different houses the iniquity and injury will proceed and infect the whole city all around.
129. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 138, 147, 149, 186, 62, 97, 146 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 73, 157, 159, 161, 205
146. And even if there be not as yet any one who is worthy to be called a son of God, nevertheless let him labour earnestly to be adorned according to his first-born word, the eldest of his angels, as the great archangel of many names; for he is called, the authority, and the name of God, and the Word, and man according to God's image, and he who sees Israel.
130. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 161
117. Very appropriately therefore does the sacred scripture command the first-fruits to be offered up to the all-ruling God. And in another passage we read "The Lord spake unto Moses saying, Sanctify to me all the first-born: all that is first brought forth, all that openeth the womb among the children of Israel, whether of man or beast is Mine,"
131. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 187, 30, 32, 82, 31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 158, 161, 205
31. Accordingly wisdom is represented by some one of the beings of the divine company as speaking of herself in this manner: "God created me as the first of his works, and before the beginning of time did he establish me." For it was necessary that all the things which came under the head of the creation must be younger than the mother and nurse of the whole universe. IX.
132. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 205
61. But Moses would reply: "It is proper to make God the judge in every thing, and most especially in those things in which the acting well or ill brings innumerable multitudes to happiness, or on the contrary to misery. And there is nothing of greater importance than sovereign authority, to which all the affairs of cities, in war or peace, are committed. For as in order to make a successful voyage one has need of a pilot who is both virtuous and skilful, in the same manner there is need of a very wise governor, in order to secure the good government of the subjects in every quarter.
133. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.15, 1.21, 1.23, 1.25, 1.33, 1.62, 1.67-1.69, 1.86, 1.125, 1.164, 1.191, 1.206-1.207, 1.228-1.230, 1.239, 2.242-2.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image, of god •image, word as image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 197; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 145, 146; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 161, 205
1.15. May it not be that sacred historian here desires to represent, in a figurative manner, that as in the universe there are four elements of which this world is composed, and as there are an equal number in ourselves, of which we have been fashioned before we were moulded into our human shape, three of them are capable of being comprehended somehow or other, but the fourth is unintelligible to all who come forward as judges of it. 1.21. All these things, then, we feel: but the heaven has a nature which is incomprehensible, and it has never conveyed to us any distinct indication by which we can understand its nature; for what can we say? that it is solid ice, as some persons have chosen to assert? or that it is the purest fire? or that it is a fifth body, moving in a circle having no participation in any of the four elements? For what can we say? Has that most remote sphere of the fixed stars any density in an upward direction? or is it merely a superficies devoid of all depth, something like a plane figure? 1.23. What, again, are we to say of the moon? Does she show us a light of her own, or a borrowed and illegitimate one, only reflected from the rays of the sun? or is neither of these things true, but has she something mixed, as it were, so as to be a sort of combination of her own light and of that which belongs to some other body? For all these things, and others like them, belonging to the fourth and most excellent of the bodies in the world, namely, the heaven, are uncertain and incomprehensible, and are spoken of in accordance with conjectures and guesses, and not with the solid, certain reasoning of truth, 1.25. There are, then, four principal elements in us, the body, the external sense, the speech, and the mind. Now of these, three are not uncertain or unintelligible in every respect, but they contain some indication in themselves by which they are comprehended. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 1.62. Now place is considered in three ways: firstly, as a situation filled by a body; secondly, as a divine word which God himself has filled wholly and entirely with incorporeal powers; for says the scripture, "I have seen the place in which the God of Israel Stood," in which alone he permitted his prophet to perform sacrifice to him, forbidding him to do so in other places. For he is ordered to go up into the place which the Lord God shall choose, and there to sacrifice burnt offerings and sacrifices for salvation, and to bring other victims also without spot. 1.67. Perhaps, however, the historian, by this allegorical form of expression, does not here mean by his expression, "place," the Cause of all things; but the idea which he intends to convey may be something of this sort; --he came to the place, and looking up with his eyes he saw the very place to which he had come, which was a very long way from the God who may not be named nor spoken of, and who is in every way incomprehensible. XII. 1.68. These things, then, being defined as a necessary preliminary, when the practiser of virtue comes to Charran, the outward sense, he does not "meet" the place, nor that place either which is filled by a mortal body; for all those who are born of the dust, and who occupy any place whatever, and who do of necessity fill some position, partake of that; nor the third and most excellent kind of place, of which it was scarcely possible for that man to form an idea who made his abode at the well which was entitled the "well of the oath," where the self-taught race, Isaac, abides, who never abandons his faith in God and his invisible comprehension of him, but who keeps to the intermediate divine word, which affords him the best suggestions, and teaches him everything which is suitable to the times. 1.69. For God, not condescending to come down to the external senses, sends his own words or angels for the sake of giving assistance to those who love virtue. But they attend like physicians to the disease of the soul, and apply themselves to heal them, offering sacred recommendations like sacred laws, and inviting men to practice the duties inculcated by them, and, like the trainers of wrestlers, implanting in their pupils strength, and power, and irresistible vigour. 1.86. For the word of God, when it reaches to our earthly constitution, assists and protects those who are akin to virtue, or whose inclinations lead them to virtue; so that it provides them with a complete refuge and salvation, but upon their enemies it sends irremediable overthrow and destruction. 1.125. To these men, the soft earth is their most costly couch; their bed is bushes, and grass, and herbage, and a thick layer of leaves; and the pillows for their head are a few stones, or any little mounds which happen to rise a little above the surface of the plain. Such a life as this, is, by luxurious men, denominated a life of hardship, but by those who live for virtue, it is called most delightful; for it is well adapted, not for those who are called men, for those who really are such. 1.164. Now is it not fitting that even blind men should become sharpsighted in their minds to these and similar things, being endowed with the power of sight by the most sacred oracles, so as to be able to contemplate the glories of nature, and not to be limited to the mere understanding of the words? But even if we voluntarily close the eye of our soul and take no care to understand such mysteries, or if we are unable to look up to them, the hierophant himself stands by and prompts us. And do not thou ever cease through weariness to anoint thy eyes until you have introduced those who are duly initiated to the secret light of the sacred scriptures, and have displayed to them the hidden things therein contained, and their reality, which is invisible to those who are uninitiated. 1.191. consider, however, what comes afterwards. The sacred word enjoins some persons what they ought to do by positive command, like a king; to others it suggests what will be for their advantage, as a preceptor does to his pupils; to others again, it is like a counsellor suggesting the wisest plans; and in this way too, it is of great advantage to those who do not of themselves know what is expedient; to others it is like a friend, in a mild and persuasive manner, bringing forward many secret things which no uninitiated person may lawfully hear. 1.206. Now the sacred scripture calls the maker of this compound work Besaleel, which name, being interpreted, signifies "in the shadow of God;" for he makes all the copies, and the man by name Moses makes all the models, as the principal architect; and for this reason it is, that the one only draws outlines as it were, but the other is not content with such sketches, 1.207. but makes the archetypal natures themselves, and has already adorned the holy places with his variegating art; but the wise man is called the only adorner of the place of wisdom in the oracles delivered in the sacred scriptures. XXXVI. And the most beautiful and varied work of God, this world, has been created in this its present state of perfection by all-wise knowledge; and how can it be anything but right to receive the art of variegating as a noble effort of knowledge? 1.228. A very glorious boast for the soul, that God should think fit to appear to and to converse with it. And do not pass by what is here said, but examine it accurately, and see whether there are really two Gods. For it is said: "I am the God who was seen by thee;" not in my place, but in the place of God, as if he meant of some other God. 1.229. What then ought we to say? There is one true God only: but they who are called Gods, by an abuse of language, are numerous; on which account the holy scripture on the present occasion indicates that it is the true God that is meant by the use of the article, the expression being, "I am the God (ho Theos);" but when the word is used incorrectly, it is put without the article, the expression being, "He who was seen by thee in the place," not of the God (tou Theou), but simply "of God" (Theou); 1.230. and what he here calls God is his most ancient word, not having any superstitious regard to the position of the names, but only proposing one end to himself, namely, to give a true account of the matter; for in other passages the sacred historian, when he considered whether there really was any name belonging to the living God, showed that he knew that there was none properly belonging to him; but that whatever appellation any one may give him, will be an abuse of terms; for the living God is not of a nature to be described, but only to be. XL. 1.239. for as those who are not able to look upon the sun itself, look upon the reflected rays of the sun as the sun itself, and upon the halo around the moon as if it were the moon itself; so also do those who are unable to bear the sight of God, look upon his image, his angel word, as himself. 2.242. and by the name Eden he means the wisdom of the living God, and the interpretation of the name Eden is "delight," because I imagine wisdom is the delight of God, and God is the delight of wisdom, as it is said also in the Psalms, "Delight thou in the Lord." And the divine word, like a river, flows forth from wisdom as from a spring, in order to irrigate and fertilize the celestial and heavenly shoots and plants of such souls as love virtue, as if they were a paradise. 2.243. And this sacred word is divided into four beginnings, by which I mean it is portioned out into four virtues, each of which is a princess, for to be divided into beginnings, does not resemble divisions of place, but a kingdom, in order than any one, after having shown the virtues as boundaries, may immediately proceed to show the wise man who follows them to be king, being elected a such, not by men, but by the only free nature which cannot err, and which cannot be corrupted; 2.244. for those who behold the excellence of Abraham say unto him, "Thou art a king, sent from God among Us:" proposing as a maxim, for those who study philosophy, that the wise man alone is a ruler and a king, and that virtue is the only irresponsible authority and sovereignty. XXXVII. 2.245. Accordingly, one of the followers of Moses, having compared this speech to a river, has said in the Psalms, "The river of God was filled with Water;" and it is absurd to give such a title to any of the rivers which flow upon the earth. But as it seems the psalmist is here speaking of the divine word, which is full of streams and wisdom, and which has no part of itself empty or desolate, or rather, as some one has said, which is diffused everywhere over the universe, and is raised up on high, on account of the continued and incessant rapidity of that ever-flowing spring.
134. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 43, 48, 59-60, 65, 74, 9, 8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 144
8. There is also another proof that the mind is immortal, which is of this nature:--There are some persons whom God, advancing to higher degrees of improvement, has enabled to soar above all species and genera, having placed them near himself; as he says to Moses, "But stand thou here with Me." When, therefore, Moses is about to die, he is not added to one class, nor does he forsake another, as the men before him had done; nor is he connected with "addition" or "subtraction," but "by means of the word of the Cause of all things, by whom the whole world was Made." He departs to another abode, that you may understand from this that God accounts a wise man as entitled to equal honour with the world itself, having both created the universe, and raised the perfect man from the things of earth up to himself by the same word.
135. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 95-96, 145 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335
136. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 46, 163 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326
163. If, however, they receive these exertions of power not as aiming at their destruction, but rather at their admonition and improvement, and if they feel shame throughout their whole soul, and change their ways, reproaching themselves for their errors, and openly avowing and confessing all the sins that they have committed against themselves with purified souls and minds, so as in the first place to exhibit a sincerity of conscience utterly alien from falsehood and concealing nothing evil beneath; and secondly, having their tongues also purified so as to produce improvement in their hearers, they will then meet with a favourable acceptance from their merciful saviour, God, who bestows on the race of mankind his especial and exceedingly great gift, namely, relationship to his own word; after which, as its archetypal model, the human mind was formed.
137. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 102, 126, 175-176, 84-90, 54 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 205
138. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.112, 1.185, 2.59-2.65, 2.99 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image, of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 71, 75; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 410; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 141; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 174
1.112. for what can be more insignificant than a louse? And yet it was so powerful that all Egypt fainted under the host of them, and was compelled to cry out, that "this is the anger of God." For all the earth put together, from one end to the other, could not withstand the hand of God, no nor all the universe. 1.185. But he, by his bountiful and merciful power, anticipated their wishes, sending forth and opening the watchful, anxious eye of the soul of his suppliant, and showed him a piece of wood which he bade him take up and throw into the water, which indeed had been made by nature with such a power for that purpose, and which perhaps had a quality which was previously unknown, or perhaps was then first endowed with it, for the purpose of effecting the service which it was then about to perform: 2.59. But in the great deluge I may almost say that the whole of the human race was destroyed, while the history tells us that the house of Noah alone was preserved free from all evil, inasmuch as the father and governor of the house was a man who had never committed any intentional or voluntary wickedness. And it is worth while to relate the manner of his preservation as the sacred scriptures deliver it to us, both on account of the extraordinary character of it, and also that it may lead to an improvement in our own dispositions and lives. 2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; 2.61. for he knew that the nature of God was merciful, and that even if the subordinate species were destroyed, still there would be a germ in the entire genus which should be safe from destruction, for the sake of preserving a similitude to those animals which had hitherto existed, and of preventing anything that had been deliberately called into existence from being utterly destroyed. 2.62. and after they had all entered into the ark, if any one had beheld the entire collection, he would not have been wrong if he had said that it was a representation of the whole earth, containing, as it did, every kind of animal, of which the whole earth had previously produced innumerable species, and will hereafter produce such again. 2.63. And what was expected happened at no long period after; for the evil abated, and the destruction caused by the deluge was diminished every day, the rain being checked, and the water which had been spread over the whole earth, being partly dried up by the flame of the sun, and partly returning into the chasms and rivers, and other channels and receptacles in the earth; for, as if God had issued a command to that effect, every nature received back, as a necessary repayment of a loan, what it had lent, that is, every sea, and fountain, and river, received back their waters; and every stream returned into its appropriate channel. 2.64. But after the purification, in this way, of all the things beneath the moon, the earth being thus washed and appearing new again, and such as it appeared to be when it was at first created, along with the entire universe, Noah came forth out of his wooden edifice, himself and his wife, and his sons and their wives, and with his family there came forth likewise, in one company, all the races of animals which had gone in with them, in order to the generation and propagation of similar creatures in future. 2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness;
139. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.41-1.50, 1.81, 1.171, 2.176, 3.47-3.48, 3.83, 3.169-3.178, 4.72-4.75, 4.112, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image, of god •image, word as image of god •image of god, and human hybridity •image of god, •god,image of Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190, 197; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 429; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 141, 145, 199; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 242; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72, 157; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 356
1.41. Which that interpreter of the divine word, Moses, the man most beloved by God, having a regard to, besought God and said, "Show me thyself"--all but urging him, and crying out in loud and distinct words--"that thou hast a real being and existence the whole world is my teacher, assuring me of the fact and instructing me as a son might of the existence of his father, or the work of the existence of the workman. But, though I am very desirous to know what thou art as to thy essence, I can find no one who is able to explain to me anything relating to this branch of learning in any part of the universe whatever. 1.42. On which account, I beg and entreat of thee to receive the supplication of a man who is thy suppliant and devoted to God's service, and desirous to serve thee alone; for as the light is not known by the agency of anything else, but is itself its own manifestation, so also thou must alone be able to manifest thyself. For which reason I hope to receive pardon, if, from want of any one to teach me, I am so bold as to flee to thee, desiring to receive instruction from thyself." 1.43. But God replied, "I receive, indeed, your eagerness, inasmuch as it is praiseworthy; but the request which you make is not fitting to be granted to any created being. And I only bestow such gifts as are appropriate to him who receives them; for it is not possible for a man to receive all that it is easy for me to give. On which account I give to him who is deserving of my favour all the gifts which he is able to receive. 1.44. But not only is the nature of mankind, but even the whole heaven and the whole world is unable to attain to an adequate comprehension of me. So know yourself, and be not carried away with impulses and desires beyond your power; and let not a desire of unattainable objects carry you away and keep you in suspense. For you shall not lack anything which may be possessed by you." 1.45. When Moses heard this he betook himself to a second supplication, and said, "I am persuaded by thy explanations that I should not have been able to receive the visible appearance of thy form. But I beseech thee that I may, at all events, behold the glory that is around thee. And I look upon thy glory to be the powers which attend thee as thy guards, the comprehension of which having escaped me up to the present time, worketh in me no slight desire of a thorough understanding of it." 1.46. But God replied and said, "The powers which you seek to behold are altogether invisible, and appreciable only by the intellect; since I myself am invisible and only appreciable by the intellect. And what I call appreciable only by the intellect are not those which are already comprehended by the mind, but those which, even if they could be so comprehended, are still such that the outward senses could not at all attain to them, but only the very purest intellect. 1.47. And though they are by nature incomprehensible in their essence, still they show a kind of impression or copy of their energy and operation; as seals among you, when any wax or similar kind of material is applied to them, make an innumerable quantity of figures and impressions, without being impaired as to any portion of themselves, but still remaining unaltered and as they were before; so also you must conceive that the powers which are around me invest those things which have no distinctive qualities with such qualities, and those which have no forms with precise forms, and that without having any portion of their own everlasting nature dismembered or weakened. 1.48. And some of your race, speaking with sufficient correctness, call them ideas (ideai 1.49. "Do not, then, ever expect to be able to comprehend me nor any one of my powers, in respect of our essence. But, as I have said, I willingly and cheerfully grant unto you such things as you may receive. And this gift is to call you to the beholding of the world and all the things that are in it, which must be comprehended, not indeed by the eyes of the body, but by the sleepless vision of the soul. 1.50. The desire of wisdom alone is continual and incessant, and it fills all its pupils and disciples with famous and most beautiful doctrines." When Moses heard this he did not cease from his desire, but he still burned with a longing for the understanding of invisible things. [...]{7}{mangey thinks that there is a considerable hiatus here. What follows relates to the regulations respecting proselytes, which as the text stands is in no way connected with what has gone before about the worship of God.}IX. 1.81. For if it was necessary to examine the mortal body of the priest that it ought not be imperfect through any misfortune, much more was it necessary to look into his immortal soul, which they say is fashioned in the form of the living God. Now the image of God is the Word, by which all the world was made. 1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 2.176. The solemn assembly on the occasion of the festival of the sheaf having such great privileges, is the prelude to another festival of still greater importance; for from this day the fiftieth day is reckoned, making up the sacred number of seven sevens, with the addition of a unit as a seal to the whole; and this festival, being that of the first fruits of the corn, has derived its name of pentecost from the number of fifty, (penteµkosto 3.47. And some persons prefer mules to every other kind of animal for the yoke, since their bodies are very compact, and are very strong and powerful; and accordingly, in the pastures and stalls where they keep their horses, they also keep asses of an extraordinary size, which they call celones, in order that they may breed with the mares; and then the mares produce a mixed animal, half horse and half ass, which, since Moses knew that its production was wholly contrary to nature, he forbade the existence of with all his might by a general injunction, that that no union or combination between different kinds of animals should on any account be permitted. 3.48. Therefore he provided thus against those evils in a manner suited to and consistent with nature; and from a long distance off, as from a watchtower, he admonished men and kept them in the straight path, in order that both men and women, learning from these percepts of his, might abstain from unlawful connections. 3.83. The name of homicide is that affixed to him who has slain a man; but in real truth it is a sacrilege, and the very greatest of all sacrileges, because, of all the possessions and sacred treasures in the whole world, there is nothing more holy in appearance, nor more godlike than man, the all-beautiful copy of an all-beautiful model, a representation admirably made after an archetypal rational idea. 3.169. Market places, and council chambers, and courts of justice, and large companies and assemblies of numerous crowds, and a life in the open air full of arguments and actions relating to war and peace, are suited to men; but taking care of the house and remaining at home are the proper duties of women; the virgins having their apartments in the centre of the house within the innermost doors, and the full-grown women not going beyond the vestibule and outer courts; 3.170. for there are two kinds of states, the greater and the smaller. And the larger ones are called really cities; but the smaller ones are called houses. And the superintendence and management of these is allotted to the two sexes separately; the men having the government of the greater, which government is called a polity; and the women that of the smaller, which is called oeconomy. 3.171. Therefore let no woman busy herself about those things which are beyond the province of oeconomy, but let her cultivate solitude, and not be seen to be going about like a woman who walks the streets in the sight of other men, except when it is necessary for her to go to the temple, if she has any proper regard for herself; and even then let her not go at noon when the market is full, but after the greater part of the people have returned home; like a well-born woman, a real and true citizen, performing her vows and her sacrifices in tranquillity, so as to avert evils and to receive blessings. 3.172. But when men are abusing one another or fighting, for women to venture to run out under pretence of assisting or defending them, is a blameable action and one of no slight shamelessness, since even, in the times of war and of military expeditions, and of dangers to their whole native land, the law does not choose that they should be enrolled as its defenders; looking at what is becoming, which it thinks desirable to preserve unchangeable at all times and in all places, thinking that this very thing is of itself better than victory, or then freedom, or than any kind of success and prosperity. 3.173. Moreover, if any woman, hearing that her husband is being assaulted, being out of her affection for him carried away by love for her husband, should yield to the feelings which overpower her and rush forth to aid him, still let her not be so audacious as to behave like a man, outrunning the nature of a woman; {16}{#de 25:11.} but even while aiding him let her continue a woman. For it would be a very terrible thing if a woman, being desirous to deliver her husband from an insult, should expose herself to insult, by exhibiting human life as full of shamelessness and liable to great reproaches for her incurable boldness; 3.174. for shall a woman utter abuse in the marketplace and give vent to unlawful language? and if another man uses foul language, will not she stop her ears and run away? But as it is now, some women are advanced to such a pitch of shamelessness as not only, though they are women, to give vent to intemperate language and abuse among a crowd of men, but even to strike men and insult them, with hands practised rather in works of the loom and spinning than in blows and assaults, like competitors in the pancratium or wrestlers. And other things, indeed, may be tolerable, and what any one might easily bear, but that is a shocking thing if a woman were to proceed to such a degree of boldness as to seize hold of the genitals of one of the men quarrelling. 3.175. For let not such a woman be let go on the ground that she appears to have done this action in order to assist her own husband; but let her be impeached and suffer the punishment due to her excessive audacity, so that if she should ever be inclined to commit the same offence again she may not have an opportunity of doing so; and other women, also, who might be inclined to be precipitate, may be taught by fear to be moderate and to restrain themselves. And let the punishment be the cutting off of the hand which has touched what it ought not to have touched. 3.176. And it is fitting to praise those who have been the judges and managers of the gymnastic games, who have kept women from the spectacle, in order that they might not be thrown among naked men and so mar the approved coinage of their modesty, neglecting the ordices of nature, which she has appointed for each section of our race; for neither is it right for men to mix with women when they have laid aside their garments, but each of the sexes ought to avoid the sight of the other when they are naked, in accordance with the promptings of nature. 3.177. Well, then, of those things of which we are to abstain from the sight, are not the hands much more to be blamed for the touch? For the eyes, being wholly at freedom, are nevertheless often constrained so as to see things which they do not wish to see; but the hands are ranked among those parts which are completely under subjection, and obey our commands, and are subservient to us.XXXII. 3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature. 4.72. And in addition to what has already been said, there is another most admirable precept given which enjoins the judge "not to show pity upon the poor man in his Judgment."{13}{#ex 23:3.} While in other precepts the lawgiver has filled nearly the whole of the law with precepts of mercy and humanity, and has uttered great threats against arrogant and insolent men, and has proposed great rewards for those who endeavour to make amends for the misfortunes of their neighbours, and who look upon their superfluities not as their own exclusive possessions, but as the common property of every one in want; 4.73. for it was a felicitous and true saying of one of the wise men of old, that men never act in a manner more resembling the gods than when they are bestowing benefits; and what can be a greater good than for mortal men to imitate the everlasting God? 4.74. Let not then the rich man collect in his house vast quantities of silver and gold, and store them up, but let him bring them forward freely in order by his cheerful bounty to soften the hard condition of the poor; nor let any man be puffed up with vain glory, and raise himself and boast himself in pride and arrogance, but let a man rather honour equality, and allow freedom of speech to those of low estate. And let the man who enjoys vigour of body be the prop of those who are weaker, and let him not like the men at the gymnastic contests strive by every means to overthrow those who are inferior in strength, but let him be willing and eager to assist with his own power those who, as far as they themselves are concerned, are ready to faint. 4.75. For all those who have drunk deep of the fountains of wisdom, having banished envy entirely out of their minds, are of their own accord, and without any prompting, ready to undertake the assistance of their neighbours, pouring the streams of their words into their souls through their ears, so as to impart to them a participation in similar knowledge with themselves. And when they see young men of good dispositions springing up like flourishing and vigorous shoots of a vine, they rejoice, thinking that they have found proper inheritors for this wealth of their souls, which is the only real riches, and having taken them they cultivate their souls with doctrines and good meditations, until they arrive at full strength and maturity, so as to bring forth the fruit of excellence. 4.112. Now both these things are symbols; the former of a soul devoted to pleasure, and the latter of one which loves perseverance and temperance. For the road which leads to pleasure is a down-hill one and very easy, being rather an absorbing gulf than a path. But the path which leads to temperance is up hill and laborious, but above all other roads advantageous. And the one leads men downwards, and prevents those who travel by it from retracing their steps until they have arrived at the very lowest bottom, but the other leads to heaven; making those who do not weary before they reach it immortal, if they are only able to endure its rugged and difficult ascent.ABOUT Reptile 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God.
140. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 101-102, 15, 169, 28, 14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 139
14. At all events, he will now penetrate into "the darkness where God Was." That is to say, into those unapproachable and invisible conceptions which are formed of the living Do. For the great Cause of all things does not exist in time, nor at all in place, but he is superior to both time and place; for, having made all created things in subjection to himself, he is surrounded by nothing, but he is superior to everything. And being superior to, and being also external to the world that he has made, he nevertheless fills the whole world with himself; for, having by his own power extended it to its utmost limits, he has connected every portion with another portion according to the principles of harmony.
141. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 18, 20, 27, 9, 19 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 75, 108; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157
142. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.19-1.20, 1.31-1.32, 1.35-1.40, 1.42-1.43, 1.63-1.78, 2.1, 2.4, 2.49, 2.65, 2.83, 3.75, 3.95-3.96, 3.175, 3.207 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 74, 76, 78, 109; Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 122; Gunderson (2022), The Social Worlds of Ancient Jews and Christians: Essays in Honor of L. Michael White, 190, 197; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 310; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 860; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 144, 146; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157, 158, 159, 205; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 130; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020), Testing and Temptation in Second Temple Jewish and Early Christian Texts, 19; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 81
143. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 272, 270 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 429
270. and then again relapsing into sleep, he became tranquil, getting into a better condition than at first, as those about him could conjecture from his breathing and from the state of his body.
144. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 101, 110, 112, 12, 135, 62, 68-69, 95, 63 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72
63. This, too, one of the most eminent among the men who have been admired for their wisdom has asserted, speaking in a magnificent strain in the Theaetetus, where he says, "But it is impossible for evils to come to and end. For it is indispensable that there should always be something in opposition to God. And it is equally impossible that it should have a place in the divine regions; but it must of necessity hover around mortal nature and this place where we live; on which account we ought to endeavor to flee from this place as speedily as possible. And our flight will be a likening of ourselves to God, to the best of our power. And such a likening consists of being just and holy in conjunction with Prudence."
145. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
22. For there is in truth no created Lord, not even a king shall have extended his authority and spread it from one end of the world even to the other end, but only the uncreated God, the real governor, whose authority he who reverences and fears receives a most beneficial reward, namely, the admonitions of God, but utterly miserable destruction awaits the man who despises him;
146. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 10-18, 28-29, 58-59, 6, 60-61, 65-67, 7-9, 31 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335
31. For those souls which are devoid of flesh and of the body, remaining undisturbed in the theatre of the universe, occupied in seeing and hearing divine things, of which an insatiable desire has seized them, enjoy a pleasure to which no one offers any interruption. But those which bear the heavy burden of the flesh, being weighed down and oppressed by it, are unable to look upwards to the revolutions of the heaven, but being dragged downwards, have their necks forcibly pressed to the ground like so many quadrupeds. VIII.
147. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, None (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 72
148. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Exodus, 2.3, 2.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
149. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 10-12, 126, 13, 134-139, 14, 140-141, 144-146, 149, 15, 151-152, 155-157, 16, 165-166, 17, 174, 18-35, 6, 64-69, 7, 70-79, 8, 80-88, 9, 154 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 156; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV.
150. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 6, 181 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250
181. but he differs from them widely in their opinion of God, not intimating that either the world itself, or the soul of the world, is the original God, nor that the stars or their motions are the primary causes of the events which happen among men; but he teaches that this universe is held together by invisible powers, which the Creator has spread from the extreme borders of the earth to heaven, making a beautiful provision to prevent what he has joined together from being dissolved; for the indissoluble chains which bind the universe are his powers.
151. New Testament, Hebrews, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62
1.4. τοσούτῳ κρείττων γενόμενος τῶν ἀγγέλων ὅσῳ διαφορώτερον παρʼ αὐτοὺς κεκληρονόμηκεν ὄνομα. 1.4. having become so much better than the angels, as he has inherited a more excellent name than they have.
152. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1-1.2, 1.11, 1.20, 2.19, 3.6, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 221, 429; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 55
1.1. ΠΕΤΡΟΣ ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, Γαλατίας, Καππαδοκίας, Ἀσίας, καὶ Βιθυνίας, 1.2. κατὰ πρόγνωσιν θεοῦ πατρός, ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος, εἰς ὑπακοὴν καὶ ῥαντισμὸν αἵματος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη πληθυνθείη. 1.11. ἐραυνῶντες εἰς τίνα ἢ ποῖον καιρὸν ἐδήλου τὸ ἐν αὐτοῖς πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ προμαρτυρόμενον τὰ εἰς Χριστὸν παθήματα καὶ τὰς μετὰ ταῦτα δόξας· 1.20. προεγνωσμένου μὲν πρὸ. καταβολῆς κόσμου, 2.19. τοῦτο γὰρ χάρις εἰ διὰ συνείδησιν θεοῦ ὑποφέρει τις λύπας πάσχων ἀδίκως· 3.6. ὡς Σάρρα ὑπήκουεν τῷ Ἀβραάμ,κύριοναὐτὸν καλοῦσα· ἧς ἐγενήθητε τέκνα ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι καὶμὴ φοβούμεναιμηδεμίανπτόησιν. 5.1. Πρεσβυτέρους οὖν ἐν ὑμῖν παρακαλῶ ὁ συνπρεσβύτερος καὶ μάρτυς τῶν τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθημάτων, ὁ καὶ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κοινωνός, 1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, 1.2. according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification of the Spirit, that you may obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled in his blood: Grace to you and peace be multiplied. 1.11. searching for who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 1.20. who was foreknown indeed before the foundation of the world, but was revealed at the end of times for your sake, 2.19. For it is commendable if someone endures pain, suffering unjustly, because of conscience toward God. 3.6. as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord, whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror. 5.1. I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and who will also share in the glory that will be revealed.
153. New Testament, 1 John, 2.2, 3.2, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god •image, , image of god in man, imago Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 248; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 69
2.2. καὶ αὐτὸς ἱλασμός ἐστιν περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν, οὐ περὶ τῶν ἡμετέρων δὲ μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ ὅλου τοῦ κόσμου. 3.2. Ἀγαπητοί, νῦν τέκνα θεοῦ ἐσμέν, καὶ οὔπω ἐφανερώθη τί ἐσόμεθα. οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἐὰν φανερωθῇ ὅμοιοι αὐτῷ ἐσόμεθα, ὅτι ὀψόμεθα αὐτὸν καθώς ἐστιν. 4.10. ἐν τούτῳ ἐστὶν ἡ ἀγάπη, οὐχ ὅτι ἡμεῖς ἠγαπήκαμεν τὸν θεόν, ἀλλʼ ὅτι αὐτὸς ἠγάπησεν ἡμᾶς καὶ ἀπέστειλεν τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἱλασμὸν περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. 2.2. And he is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. 3.2. Beloved, now we are children of God, and it is not yet revealed what we will be. But we know that, when he is revealed, we will be like him; for we will see him just as he is. 4.10. In this is love, not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son as the atoning sacrifice for our sins.
154. Anon., Didache, 1.3, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228, 239
155. Mishnah, Yevamot, 16.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213
16.3. "אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַל פַּרְצוּף פָּנִים עִם הַחֹטֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ סִימָנִין בְּגוּפוֹ וּבְכֵלָיו. אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁתֵּצֵא נַפְשׁוֹ, וַאֲפִלּוּ רָאוּהוּ מְגֻיָּד, וְצָלוּב, וְהַחַיָּה אוֹכֶלֶת בּוֹ. אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בָּבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא כָל הָאָדָם וְלֹא כָל הַמָּקוֹם וְלֹא כָל הַשָּׁעוֹת שָׁוִין: \n", 16.3. "They are allowed to testify only about the face with the nose, even though there were also marks on the man’s body or clothing. They are allowed to testify only when his soul has departed, even though they have seen him cut up or crucified or being devoured by a wild beast. They are allowed to testify only [if they saw the body] within three days [of death]. Rabbi Judah ben Baba says: not all men, all places, or all times are alike.",
156. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5, 4.13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 103
4.5. "כֵּיצַד מְאַיְּמִין אֶת הָעֵדִים עַל עֵדֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, הָיוּ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתָן וּמְאַיְּמִין עֲלֵיהֶן. שֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מֵאֹמֶד, וּמִשְּׁמוּעָה, עֵד מִפִּי עֵד וּמִפִּי אָדָם נֶאֱמָן שָׁמַעְנוּ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אִי אַתֶּם יוֹדְעִין שֶׁסּוֹפֵנוּ לִבְדֹּק אֶתְכֶם בִּדְרִישָׁה וּבַחֲקִירָה. הֱווּ יוֹדְעִין שֶׁלֹּא כְדִינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת. דִּינֵי מָמוֹנוֹת, אָדָם נוֹתֵן מָמוֹן וּמִתְכַּפֵּר לוֹ. דִּינֵי נְפָשׁוֹת, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו תְּלוּיִין בּוֹ עַד סוֹף הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְקַיִן שֶׁהָרַג אֶת אָחִיו, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ד) דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ צֹעֲקִים, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר דַּם אָחִיךָ אֶלָּא דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, דָּמוֹ וְדַם זַרְעִיּוֹתָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דְּמֵי אָחִיךָ, שֶׁהָיָה דָמוֹ מֻשְׁלָךְ עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הָאֲבָנִים. לְפִיכָךְ נִבְרָא אָדָם יְחִידִי, לְלַמֶּדְךָ, שֶׁכָּל הַמְאַבֵּד נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ אִבֵּד עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וְכָל הַמְקַיֵּם נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מַעֲלֶה עָלָיו הַכָּתוּב כְּאִלּוּ קִיֵּם עוֹלָם מָלֵא. וּמִפְּנֵי שְׁלוֹם הַבְּרִיּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ אַבָּא גָדוֹל מֵאָבִיךָ. וְשֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מִינִין אוֹמְרִים, הַרְבֵּה רָשֻׁיּוֹת בַּשָּׁמָיִם. וּלְהַגִּיד גְּדֻלָּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁאָדָם טוֹבֵעַ כַּמָּה מַטְבְּעוֹת בְּחוֹתָם אֶחָד וְכֻלָּן דּוֹמִין זֶה לָזֶה, וּמֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא טָבַע כָּל אָדָם בְּחוֹתָמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶן דּוֹמֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ. לְפִיכָךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד חַיָּב לוֹמַר, בִּשְׁבִילִי נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ וְלַצָּרָה הַזֹּאת, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (ויקרא ה) וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם לוֹא יַגִּיד וְגוֹ'. וְשֶׁמָּא תֹאמְרוּ מַה לָּנוּ לָחוּב בְּדָמוֹ שֶׁל זֶה, וַהֲלֹא כְבָר נֶאֱמַר (משלי יא) וּבַאֲבֹד רְשָׁעִים רִנָּה: \n", 4.5. "How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]",
157. Mishnah, Niddah, 3.1-3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and adam’s image Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 38
3.1. "הַמַּפֶּלֶת חֲתִיכָה, אִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהּ דָּם, טְמֵאָה. וְאִם לָאו, טְהוֹרָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בֵּין כָּךְ וּבֵין כָּךְ, טְמֵאָה: \n", 3.2. "הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין קְלִפָּה, כְּמִין שַׂעֲרָה, כְּמִין עָפָר, כְּמִין יַבְחוּשִׁים אֲדֻמִּים, תַּטִּיל לַמַּיִם. אִם נִמֹּחוּ, טְמֵאָה. וְאִם לָאו, טְהוֹרָה. הַמַּפֶּלֶת כְּמִין דָּגִים, חֲגָבִים, שְׁקָצִים וּרְמָשִׂים, אִם יֵשׁ עִמָּהֶם דָּם, טְמֵאָה. וְאִם לָאו, טְהוֹרָה. הַמַּפֶּלֶת מִין בְּהֵמָה, חַיָּה וָעוֹף, בֵּין טְמֵאִין בֵּין טְהוֹרִים, אִם זָכָר, תֵּשֵׁב לְזָכָר. וְאִם נְקֵבָה, תֵּשֵׁב לִנְקֵבָה. וְאִם אֵין יָדוּעַ, תֵּשֵׁב לְזָכָר וְלִנְקֵבָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מִצּוּרַת אָדָם, אֵינוֹ וָלָד: \n", 3.1. "A woman who aborted a shapeless object: If there was blood with it, she is unclean, If not, she is clean. Rabbi Judah says: in either case she is unclean.", 3.2. "If a woman miscarried an object that was like a rind, like a hair, like earth, like red flies, let her put it in water: If it dissolves she is unclean, But if it does not she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of fishes, locusts, or any forbidden things or creeping things: If there was blood with them she is unclean, If not, she is clean. If she miscarried an object in the shape of a beast, a wild animal or a bird, whether clean or unclean: If it was a male she sits in uncleanness as she would for a male; And if it was a female she sits in uncleanness as she would for a female. But if the sex is unknown she sits in uncleanness for both male and female, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages say: anything that has not the shape of a human being cannot be regarded as a human child.",
158. Mishnah, Kilayim, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and human hybridity Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 121
8.2. "בְּהֵמָה עִם בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה עִם חַיָּה, בְּהֵמָה עִם חַיָּה וְחַיָּה עִם בְּהֵמָה, טְמֵאָה עִם טְמֵאָה וּטְהוֹרָה עִם טְהוֹרָה, טְמֵאָה עִם טְהוֹרָה וּטְהוֹרָה עִם טְמֵאָה, אֲסוּרִין לַחֲרֹשׁ וְלִמְשֹׁךְ וּלְהַנְהִיג: \n", 8.2. "A beast (behemah) with a beast [of another species]; a wild animal (hayyah) with a wild animal [of another species]; a behemah with a hayyah; a hayyah with a behemah; an unclean beast with an unclean beast [of another species]; a clean beast with a clean beast [of another species]; or an unclean beast with a clean beast; or a clean beast with an unclean beast; they are forbidden for plowing, and [it is forbidden] to pull them or lead them [tied together].",
159. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, and the conception of the creation of humanity in gods image Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256
5.9. "נוֹתֵן לָהּ מָעָה כֶסֶף לְצָרְכָּהּ, וְאוֹכֶלֶת עִמּוֹ מִלֵּילֵי שַׁבָּת לְלֵילֵי שַׁבָּת. וְאִם אֵין נוֹתֵן לָהּ מָעָה כֶסֶף לְצָרְכָּהּ, מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ שֶׁלָּהּ. וּמַה הִיא עוֹשָׂה לוֹ, מִשְׁקַל חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שְׁתִי בִּיהוּדָה, שֶׁהֵן עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים בַּגָּלִיל, אוֹ מִשְׁקַל עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים עֵרֶב בִּיהוּדָה, שֶׁהֵן עֶשְׂרִים סְלָעִים בַּגָּלִיל. וְאִם הָיְתָה מֵנִיקָה, פּוֹחֲתִים לָהּ מִמַּעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ, וּמוֹסִיפִין לָהּ עַל מְזוֹנוֹתֶיהָ. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּעָנִי שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל. אֲבָל בִּמְכֻבָּד, הַכֹּל לְפִי כְבוֹדוֹ: \n", 5.9. "He must also give her [every week] a silver ma'ah for her [other] needs and she is to eat with him every Friday eve. If he does not give her a silver ma'ah for her other needs, her handiwork belongs to her. And what [is the quantity of work that] she must do for him? The weight of five sela’s of warp in Judea, which amounts to ten sela's in Galilee, or the weight of ten sela's of woof in Judea, which amounts to twenty sela's in Galilee. If she was nursing, her handiwork is reduced and her maintece is increased. All this applies to a poor person in Israel, but in the case of a more respectable [husband] all is fixed according to his dignity.",
160. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2, 6.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image of god, and adam’s image •image of god, not exclusive to humans •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 32, 38, 213
1.2. "פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו: \n", 6.8. "נִשְׁבַּר עֶצֶם יָדוֹ, וְעֶצֶם רַגְלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר. מוּמִין אֵלּוּ מָנָה אִילָא בְיַבְנֶה, וְהוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. וְעוֹד שְׁלשָׁה הוֹסִיף. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא שָׁמַעְנוּ אֶת אֵלּוּ. אֵת שֶׁגַּלְגַּל עֵינוֹ עָגוֹל כְּשֶׁל אָדָם, וּפִיו דּוֹמֶה לְשֶׁל חֲזִיר, וְשֶׁנִּטַּל רֹב הַמְדַבֵּר שֶׁל לְשׁוֹנוֹ. וּבֵית דִּין שֶׁל אַחֲרֵיהֶן אָמְרוּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מוּמִין: \n", 1.2. "If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from [the law of] the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice [to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply] until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not [the clean fish's] growth.", 6.8. "If the bone of the fore-leg or of its hind-leg is broken, even though it is not noticeable, [this is a blemish]. These blemishes Ila enumerated in Yavneh and the sages agreed with him. He also added another three cases [of blemishes]. They said to him: we have only heard these [already mentioned previously]. [The three added by Ila were]: one whose eyeball is round like that of a human or whose mouth is like that of a pig or if the greater part of the speaking part of the tongue has been removed. A subsequent court ruled however: each of these cases is a [disqualifying] blemish.",
161. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 4, 13 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 259
162. New Testament, Luke, 3.19, 4.13, 4.16, 4.18-4.19, 6.20-6.49, 7.33-7.34, 9.58, 10.25-10.37, 11.29-11.30, 12.8, 17.22, 17.24, 17.26, 17.30, 22.30, 24.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •god, image of Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45, 87, 282; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 119, 216; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430, 875; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 202; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
3.19. ὁ δὲ Ἡρῴδης ὁ τετραάρχης, ἐλεγχόμενος ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἡρῳδιάδος τῆς γυναικὸς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ καὶ περὶ πάντων ὧν ἐποίησεν πονηρῶν ὁ Ἡρῴδης, 4.13. Οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου. Καὶ συντελέσας πάντα πειρασμὸν ὁ διάβολος ἀπέστη ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ ἄχρι καιροῦ. 4.16. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρά, οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι. 4.18. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, 4.19. κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν. 6.20. Καὶ αὐτὸς ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἔλεγεν Μακάριοι οἱ πτωχοί, ὅτι ὑμετέρα ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ. 6.21. μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν, ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε. μακάριοι οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν, ὅτι γελάσετε. 6.22. μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι, καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν καὶ ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν ἕνεκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου· 6.23. χάρητε ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ καὶ σκιρτήσατε, ἰδοὺ γὰρ ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ· κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς προφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν. 6.24. Πλὴν οὐαὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς πλουσίοις, ὅτι ἀπέχετε τὴν παράκλησιν ὑμῶν. 6.25. οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν, ὅτι πεινάσετε. οὐαί, οἱ γελῶντες νῦν, ὅτι πενθήσετε καὶ κλαύσετε. 6.26. οὐαὶ ὅταν καλῶς ὑμᾶς εἴπωσιν πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι, κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ γὰρ ἐποίουν τοῖς ψευδοπροφήταις οἱ πατέρες αὐτῶν. 6.27. Ἀλλὰ ὑμῖν λέγω τοῖς ἀκούουσιν, ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε τοῖς μισοῦσιν ὑμᾶς, 6.28. εὐλογεῖτε τοὺς καταρωμένους ὑμᾶς, προσεύχεσθε περὶ τῶν ἐπηρεαζόντων ὑμᾶς. 6.29. τῷ τύπτοντί σε ἐπὶ τὴν σιαγόνα πάρεχε καὶ τὴν ἄλλην, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντός σου τὸ ἱμάτιον καὶ τὸν χιτῶνα μὴ κωλύσῃς. 6.30. παντὶ αἰτοῦντί σε δίδου, καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴροντος τὰ σὰ μὴ ἀπαίτει. 6.31. καὶ καθὼς θέλετε ἵνα ποιῶσιν ὑμῖν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ποιεῖτε αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως. 6.32. καὶ εἰ ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; καὶ γὰρ οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας αὐτοὺς ἀγαπῶσιν. 6.33. καὶ [γὰρ] ἐὰν ἀγαθοποιῆτε τοὺς ἀγαθοποιοῦντας ὑμᾶς, ποία ὑμῖν χάρις ἐστίν; καὶ οἱ ἁμαρτωλοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν. 6.34. καὶ ἐὰν δανίσητε παρʼ ὧν ἐλπίζετε λαβεῖν, ποία ὑμῖν χάρις [ἐστίν]; καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ ἁμαρτωλοῖς δανίζουσιν ἵνα ἀπολάβωσιν τὰ ἴσα. 6.35. πλὴν ἀγαπᾶτε τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑμῶν καὶ ἀγαθοποιεῖτε καὶ δανίζετε μηδὲν ἀπελπίζοντες· καὶ ἔσται ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολύς, καὶ ἔσεσθε υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου, ὅτι αὐτὸς χρηστός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἀχαρίστους καὶ πονηρούς. 6.36. Γίνεσθε οἰκτίρμονες καθὼς ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν οἰκτίρμων ἐστίν· 6.37. καὶ μὴ κρίνετε, καὶ οὐ μὴ κριθῆτε· καὶ μὴ καταδικάζετε, καὶ οὐ μὴ καταδικασθῆτε. ἀπολύετε, καὶ ἀπολυθήσεσθε· 6.38. δίδοτε, καὶ δοθήσεται ὑμῖν· μέτρον καλὸν πεπιεσμένον σεσαλευμένον ὑπερεκχυννόμενον δώσουσιν εἰς τὸν κόλπον ὑμῶν· ᾧ γὰρ μέτρῳ μετρεῖτε ἀντιμετρηθήσεται ὑμῖν. 6.39. Εἶπεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν αὐτοῖς Μήτι δύναται τυφλὸς τυφλὸν ὁδηγεῖν; οὐχὶ ἀμφότεροι εἰς βόθυνον ἐμπεσοῦνται; 6.40. οὐκ ἔστιν μαθητὴς ὑπὲρ τὸν διδάσκαλον, κατηρτισμένος δὲ πᾶς ἔσται ὡς ὁ διδάσκαλος αὐτοῦ. 6.41. Τί δὲ βλέπεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου, τὴν δὲ δοκὸν τὴν ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ ὀφθαλμῷ οὐ κατανοεῖς; 6.42. πῶς δύνασαι λέγειν τῷ ἀδελφῷ σου Ἀδελφέ, ἄφες ἐκβάλω τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σου, αὐτὸς τὴν ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ σοῦ δοκὸν οὐ βλέπων; ὑποκριτά, ἔκβαλε πρῶτον τὴν δοκὸν ἐκ τοῦ ὀφθαλμοῦ σοῦ, καὶ τότε διαβλέψεις τὸ κάρφος τὸ ἐν τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου ἐκβαλεῖν. 6.43. Οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν, οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν. ἕκαστον γὰρ δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται· 6.44. οὐ γὰρ ἐξ ἀκανθῶν συλλέγουσιν σῦκα, οὐδὲ ἐκ βάτου σταφυλὴν τρυγῶσιν. 6.45. ὁ ἀγαθὸς ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ θησαυροῦ τῆς καρδίας προφέρει τὸ ἀγαθόν, καὶ ὁ πονηρὸς ἐκ τοῦ πονηροῦ προφέρει τὸ πονηρόν· ἐκ γὰρ περισσεύματος καρδίας λαλεῖ τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ. 6.46. Τί δέ με καλεῖτε Κύριε κύριε, καὶ οὐ ποιεῖτε ἃ λέγω; 6.47. πᾶς ὁ ἐρχόμενος πρός με καὶ ἀκούων μου τῶν λόγων καὶ ποιῶν αὐτούς, ὑποδείξω ὑμῖν τίνι ἐστὶν ὅμοιος· 6.48. ὅμοιός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομοῦντι οἰκίαν ὃς ἔσκαψεν καὶ ἐβάθυνεν καὶ ἔθηκεν θεμέλιον ἐπὶ τὴν πέτραν· πλημμύρης δὲ γενομένης προσέρηξεν ὁ ποταμὸς τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐκείνῃ, καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσεν σαλεῦσαι αὐτὴν διὰ τὸ καλῶς οἰκοδομῆσθαι αὐτήν. 6.49. ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας καὶ μὴ ποιήσας ὅμοιός ἐστιν ἀνθρώπῳ οἰκοδομήσαντι οἰκίαν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν χωρὶς θεμελίου, ᾗ προσέρηξεν ὁ ποταμός, καὶ εὐθὺς συνέπεσεν, καὶ ἐγένετο τὸ ῥῆγμα τῆς οἰκίας ἐκείνης μέγα. 7.33. ἐλήλυθεν γὰρ Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτιστὴς μὴ ἔσθων ἄρτον μήτε πίνων οἶνον, καὶ λέγετε Δαιμόνιον ἔχει· 7.34. ἐλήλυθεν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔσθων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγετε Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, φίλος τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν. 9.58. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς Αἱ ἀλώπεκες φωλεοὺς ἔχουσιν καὶ τὰ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κατασκηνώσεις, ὁ δὲ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ ἔχει ποῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν κλίνῃ. 10.25. Καὶ ἰδοὺ νομικός τις ἀνέστη ἐκπειράζων αὐτὸν λέγων Διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσας ζωὴν αἰώνιον κληρονομήσω; 10.26. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτόν Ἐν τῷ νόμῳ τί γέγραπται; πῶς ἀναγινώσκεις; 10.27. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου καὶ ἐν ὅλη τῇ ψυχῇ σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ ἰσχύι σου καὶ ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ διανοίᾳ σου, καὶ τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 10.28. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Ὀρθῶς ἀπεκρίθης· τοῦτο ποίει καὶ ζήσῃ. 10.29. Ὁ δὲ θέλων δικαιῶσαι ἑυντὸν εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν Καὶ τίς ἐστίν μου πλησίον; 10.30. ὑπολαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἄνθρωπός τις κατέβαινεν ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς Ἰερειχὼ καὶ λῃσταῖς περιέπεσεν, οἳ καὶ ἐκδύσαντες αὐτὸν καὶ πληγὰς ἐπιθέντες ἀπῆλθον ἀφέντες ἡμιθανῆ. 10.31. κατὰ συγκυρίαν δὲ ἱερεύς τις κατέβαινεν [ἐν] τῇ ὁδῷ ἐκείνῃ, καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν ἀντιπαρῆλθεν· 10.32. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Λευείτης κατὰ τὸν τόπον ἐλθὼν καὶ ἰδὼν ἀντιπαρῆλθεν. 10.33. Σαμαρείτης δέ τις ὁδεύων ἦλθεν κατʼ αὐτὸν καὶ ἰδὼν ἐσπλαγχνίσθη, 10.34. καὶ προσελθὼν κατέδησεν τὰ τραύματα αὐτοῦ ἐπιχέων ἔλαιον καὶ οἶνον, ἐπιβιβάσας δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ ἴδιον κτῆνος ἤγαγεν αὐτὸν εἰς πανδοχεῖον καὶ ἐπεμελήθη αὐτοῦ. 10.35. καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν αὔριον ἐκβαλὼν δύο δηνάρια ἔδωκεν τῷ πανδοχεῖ καὶ εἶπεν Ἐπιμελήθητι αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὅτι ἂν προσδαπανήσῃς ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ ἐπανέρχεσθαί με ἀποδώσω σοι. 10.36. τίς τούτων τῶν τριῶν πλησίον δοκεῖ σοι γεγονέναι τοῦ ἐμπεσόντος εἰς τοὺς λῃστάς; 10.37. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετʼ αὐτοῦ. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς Πορεύου καὶ σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως. 11.29. Τῶν δὲ ὄχλων ἐπαθροιζομένων ἤρξατο λέγειν Ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη γενεὰ πονηρά ἐστιν· σημεῖον ζητεῖ, καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ. 11.30. καθὼς γὰρ ἐγένετο [ὁ] Ἰωνᾶς τοῖς Νινευείταις σημεῖον, οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ. 12.8. Λέγω δὲ ὑμῖν, πᾶς ὃς ἂν ὁμολογήσει ἐν ἐμοὶ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὁμολογήσει ἐν αὐτῷ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀγγέλων τοῦ θεοῦ· 17.22. Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητάς Ἐλεύσονται ἡμέραι ὅτε ἐπιθυμήσετε μίαν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἰδεῖν καὶ οὐκ ὄψεσθε. 17.24. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰς τὴν ὑπʼ οὐρανὸν λάμπει, οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου . 17.26. καὶ καθὼς ἐγένετο ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις Νῶε, οὕτως ἔσται καὶ ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου· 17.30. κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ ἔσται ᾗ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀποκαλύπτεται. 22.30. ἵνα ἔσθητε καὶ πίνητε ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης μου ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ μου, καὶ καθῆσθε ἐπὶ θρόνων τὰς δώδεκα φυλὰς κρίνοντες τοῦ Ἰσραήλ. 24.44. Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι μου οὓς ἐλάλησα πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔτι ὢν σὺν ὑμῖν, ὅτι δεῖ πληρωθῆναι πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωυσέως καὶ τοῖς προφήταις καὶ Ψαλμοῖς περὶ ἐμοῦ. 3.19. but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil things which Herod had done, 4.13. When the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from him until another time. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.18. "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed, 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 6.20. He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed are you poor, For yours is the Kingdom of God. 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.23. Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets. 6.24. "But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 6.25. Woe to you, you who are full now! For you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now! For you will mourn and weep. 6.26. Woe, when men speak well of you! For their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 6.27. "But I tell you who hear: love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, 6.28. bless those who curse you, and pray for those who insult you. 6.29. To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak, don't withhold your coat also. 6.30. Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 6.31. "As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 6.32. If you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. 6.33. If you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. 6.34. If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit is that to you? Even sinners lend to sinners, to receive back as much. 6.35. But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil. 6.36. Therefore be merciful, Even as your Father is also merciful. 6.37. Don't judge, And you won't be judged. Don't condemn, And you won't be condemned. Set free, And you will be set free. 6.38. "Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you. For with the same measure you measure it will be measured back to you." 6.39. He spoke a parable to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 6.40. A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained will be like his teacher. 6.41. Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 6.42. Or how can you tell your brother, 'Brother, let me remove the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's eye. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 6.45. The good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings out that which is good, and the evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil, for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 6.46. "Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 6.47. Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 6.48. He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 6.49. But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great." 7.33. For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say, 'He has a demon.' 7.34. The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, 'Behold, a gluttonous man, and a drunkard; a friend of tax collectors and sinners!' 9.58. Jesus said to him, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head." 10.25. Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" 10.26. He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it?" 10.27. He answered, "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself." 10.28. He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live." 10.29. But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbor?" 10.30. Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 10.31. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 10.32. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 10.33. But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion, 10.34. came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 10.35. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 10.36. Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers?" 10.37. He said, "He who showed mercy on him."Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise." 11.29. When the multitudes were gathering together to him, he began to say, "This is an evil generation. It seeks after a sign. No sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah, the prophet. 11.30. For even as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so will also the Son of Man be to this generation. 12.8. "I tell you, everyone who confesses me before men, him will the Son of Man also confess before the angels of God; 17.22. He said to the disciples, "The days will come, when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 17.24. for as the lightning, when it flashes out of the one part under the sky, shines to the other part under the sky; so will the Son of Man be in his day. 17.26. As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. 17.30. It will be the same way in the day that the Son of Man is revealed. 22.30. that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled."
163. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 69
4.10. εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ κοπιῶμεν καὶ ἀγωνιζόμεθα, ὅτι ἠλπίκαμεν ἐπὶ θεῷ ζῶντι, ὅς ἐστιν σωτὴρ πάντων ἀνθρώπων, μάλιστα πιστῶν. 4.10. For to this end we both labor and suffer reproach, because we have set our trust in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, especially of those who believe.
164. New Testament, John, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 148; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 94, 260; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 159
1.3. πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made.
165. New Testament, 2 Peter, 1.3, 1.5-1.9, 1.14, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •imago dei/image of god •king as image/glory of gods, of christ Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 207; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 168
1.3. ὡς πάντα ἡμῖν τῆς θείας δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ τὰ πρὸς ζωὴν καὶ εὐσέβειαν δεδωρημένης διὰ τῆς ἐπιγνώσεως τοῦ καλέσαντος ἡμᾶς διὰ δόξης καὶ ἀρετῆς, 1.5. καὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο δὲ σπουδὴν πᾶσαν παρεισενέγκαντες ἐπιχορηγήσατε ἐν τῇ πίστει ὑμῶν τὴν ἀρετήν, ἐν δὲ τῇ ἀρετῇ τὴν γνῶσιν, 1.6. ἐν δὲ τῇ γνώσει τὴν ἐγκράτειαν, ἐν δὲ τῇ ἐγκρατείᾳ τὴν ὑπομονήν, ἐν δὲ τῇ ὑπομονῇ τὴν εὐσέβειαν, 1.7. ἐν δὲ τῇ εὐσεβείᾳ τὴν φιλαδελφίαν, ἐν δὲ τῇ φιλαδελφίᾳ τὴν ἀγάπην· 1.8. ταῦτα γὰρ ὑμῖν ὑπάρχοντα καὶ πλεονάζοντα οὐκ ἀργοὺς οὐδὲ ἀκάρπους καθίστησιν εἰς τὴν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐπίγνωσιν· 1.9. ᾧ γὰρ μὴ πάρεστιν ταῦτα, τυφλός ἐστιν μυωπάζων, λήθην λαβὼν τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ τῶν πάλαι αὐτοῦ ἁμαρτιῶν. 1.14. εἰδὼς ὅτι ταχινή ἐστιν ἡ ἀπόθεσις τοῦ σκηνώματός μου, καθὼς καὶ ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς ἐδήλωσέν μοι· 1.16. οὐ γὰρ σεσοφισμένοις μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες ἐγνωρίσαμεν ὑμῖν τὴν τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ δύναμιν καὶ παρουσίαν, ἀλλʼ ἐπόπται γενηθέντες τῆς ἐκείνου μεγαλειότητος. 1.3. seeing that his divine power has granted to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of him who called us by his own glory and virtue; 1.5. Yes, and for this very cause adding on your part all diligence, in your faith supply moral excellence; and in moral excellence, knowledge; 1.6. and in knowledge, self-control; and in self-control patience; and in patience godliness; 1.7. and in godliness brotherly affection; and in brotherly affection, love. 1.8. For if these things are yours and abound, they make you to be not idle nor unfruitful to the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1.9. For he who lacks these things is blind, seeing only what is near, having forgotten the cleansing from his old sins. 1.14. knowing that the putting off of my tent comes swiftly, even as our Lord Jesus Christ made clear to me. 1.16. For we did not follow cunningly devised fables, when we made known to you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.
166. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3, 3.3, 3.12-4.6, 3.18, 3.18-4.6, 4, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.16, 5.7, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 186
4.16. Διὸ οὐκ ἐγκακοῦμεν, ἀλλʼ εἰ καὶ ὁ ἔξω ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος διαφθείρεται, ἀλλʼ ὁ ἔσω ἡμῶν ἀνακαινοῦται ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ.
167. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430
2.13. Ἡμεῖς δὲ ὀφείλομεν εὐχαριστεῖν τῷ θεῷ πάντοτε περὶ ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοὶἠγαπημένοι ὑπὸ Κυρίου,ὅτι εἵλατο ὑμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς εἰς σωτηρίαν ἐν ἁγιασμῷ πνεύματος καὶ πίστει ἀληθείας, 2.13. But we are bound to always give thanks to God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because God chose you from the beginning for salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief in the truth;
168. New Testament, Romans, 1.7, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 1.29, 1.30, 1.31, 1.32, 2.14, 2.15, 5, 5.5, 5.12, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17, 5.18, 5.19, 5.20, 5.21, 6.4, 7, 7.5-8.17, 7.24, 8, 8.17, 8.19, 8.20, 8.21, 8.22, 8.23, 8.29, 9, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.13, 10.17, 11.16, 12.2, 16.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62
10.9. ὅτι ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃςτὸ ῥῆμα ἐν τῷ στόματί σουὅτι ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, καὶ πιστεύσῃςἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σουὅτι ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, σωθήσῃ· 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.
169. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 2.22, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 429; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62
2.22. τὰς δὲ νεωτερικὰς ἐπιθυμίας φεῦγε, δίωκε δὲ δικαιοσύνην, πίστιν, ἀγάπην, εἰρήνην μετὰ τῶν ἐπικαλουμένων τὸν κύριον ἐκ καθαρᾶς καρδίας. 3.11. διωγμοῖς, τοῖς παθήμασιν, οἷά μοι ἐγένετο ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ, ἐν Ἰκονίῳ, ἐν Λύστροις, οἵους διωγμοὺς ὑπήνεγκα· καὶ ἐκ πάντων με ἐρύσατο ὁ κύριος. 2.22. Flee from youthful lusts; but pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace with those who call on the Lord out of a pure heart. 3.11. persecutions, and sufferings: those things that happened to me at Antioch, Iconium, and Lystra. I endured those persecutions. Out of them all the Lord delivered me.
170. New Testament, Philippians, 2.9, 2.13, 3.9-3.11, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •imago dei/image of god •image, , image of god in man, imago Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324, 325, 327; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 275; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 69
2.9. διὸ καὶ ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ὑπερύψωσεν, καὶ ἐχαρίσατο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τὸ ὑπὲρ πᾶν ὄνομα, 2.13. θεὸς γάρ ἐστιν ὁ ἐνεργῶν ἐν ὑμῖν καὶ τὸ θέλειν καὶ τὸ ἐνεργεῖν ὑπὲρ τῆς εὐδοκίας· 3.9. μὴ ἔχων ἐμὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ νόμου ἀλλὰ τὴν διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ, τὴν ἐκ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει, 3.10. τοῦ γνῶναι αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ καὶ κοινωνίαν παθημάτων αὐτοῦ, συμμορφιζόμενος τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτοῦ, 3.11. εἴ πως καταντήσω εἰς τὴν ἐξανάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν. οὐχ ὅτι ἤδη ἔλαβον ἢ ἤδη τετελείωμαι, 3.21. ὃς μετασχηματίσει τὸ σῶμα τῆς ταπεινώσεως ἡμῶν σύμμορφον τῷ σώματι τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ κατὰ τὴν ἐνέργειαν τοῦ δύνασθαι αὐτὸν καὶ ὑποτάξαι αὑτῷ τὰ πάντα. 2.9. Therefore God also highly exalted him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 2.13. For it is God who works in you both to will and to work, for his good pleasure. 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.21. who will change the body of our humiliation to be conformed to the body of his glory, according to the working by which he is able even to subject all things to himself.
171. New Testament, Acts, 2.17-2.21, 2.24, 2.36, 2.38, 2.44-2.47, 5.38, 7.56, 9.1, 9.14, 13.34, 17.7, 17.16, 17.22-17.31, 17.34, 19.9, 22.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •king as image/glory of gods, of christ •gods, images/statues of •image of god (in man) Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 80, 83, 84, 356; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 323; Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 280; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 875; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 207; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62, 202; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 284; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 239
2.17. 2.18. 2.19. 2.20. 2.21. 2.24. ὃν ὁ θεὸς ἀνέστησεν λύσας τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου, καθότι οὐκ ἦν δυνατὸν κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· 2.36. ἀσφαλῶς οὖν γινωσκέτω πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι καὶ κύριον αὐτὸν καὶ χριστὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ θεός, τοῦτον τὸν Ἰησοῦν ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε. 2.38. ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί; Πέτρος δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Μετανοήσατε, καὶ βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, καὶ λήμψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος· 2.44. πάντες δὲ οἱ πιστεύσαντες ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ εἶχον ἅπαντα κοινά, 2.45. καὶ τὰ κτήματα καὶ τὰς ὑπάρξεις ἐπίπρασκον καὶ διεμέριζον αὐτὰ πᾶσιν καθότι ἄν τις χρείαν εἶχεν· 2.46. καθʼ ἡμέραν τε προσκαρτεροῦντες ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, κλῶντές τε κατʼ οἶκον ἄρτον, μετελάμβανον τροφῆς ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει καὶ ἀφελότητι καρδίας, 2.47. αἰνοῦντες τὸν θεὸν καὶ ἔχοντες χάριν πρὸς ὅλον τὸν λαόν. ὁ δὲ κύριος προσετίθει τοὺς σωζομένους καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό. 5.38. καὶ [τὰ] νῦν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπόστητε ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τούτων καὶ ἄφετε αὐτούς·?̔ὅτι ἐὰν ᾖ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἡ βουλὴ αὕτη ἢ τὸ ἔργον τοῦτο, καταλυθήσεται· 7.56. καὶ εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ θεωρῶ τοὺς οὐρανοὺς διηνοιγμένους καὶ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν ἑστῶτα τοῦ θεοῦ. 9.1. Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος, ἔτι ἐνπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου, 9.14. καὶ ὧδε ἔχει ἐξουσίαν παρὰ τῶν ἀρχιερέων δῆσαι πάντας τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους τὸ ὄνομά σου. 13.34. ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτιΔώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυεὶδ τὰ πιστά. 17.7. οὓς ὑποδέδεκται Ἰάσων· καὶ οὗτοι πάντες ἀπέναντι τῶν δογμάτων Καίσαρος πράσσουσι, βασιλέα ἕτερον λέγοντες εἶναι Ἰησοῦν. 17.16. Ἐν δὲ ταῖς Ἀθήναις ἐκδεχομένου αὐτοὺς τοῦ Παύλου, παρωξύνετο τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ θεωροῦντος κατείδωλον οὖσαν τὴν πόλιν. 17.22. σταθεὶς δὲ Παῦλος ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ Ἀρείου Πάγου ἔφη Ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, κατὰ πάντα ὡς δεισιδαιμονεστέρους ὑμᾶς θεωρῶ· 17.23. διερχόμενος γὰρ καὶ ἀναθεωρῶν τὰ σεβάσματα ὑμῶν εὗρον καὶ βωμὸν ἐν ᾧ ἐπεγέγραπτο ΑΓΝΩΣΤΩ ΘΕΩ. ὃ οὖν ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε, τοῦτο ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν. 17.24. ὁ θεὸς ὁ ποιήσας τὸν κόσμον καὶ πάντατὰ ἐν αὐτῷ, οὗτος οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς ὑπάρχων κύριος οὐκ ἐν χειροποιήτοις ναοῖς κατοικεῖ 17.25. οὐδὲ ὑπὸ χειρῶν ἀνθρωπίνων θεραπεύεται προσδεόμενός τινος, αὐτὸςδιδοὺς πᾶσι ζωὴν καὶ πνοὴν καὶ τὰ πάντα· 17.26. ἐποίησέν τε ἐξ ἑνὸς πᾶν ἔθνος ανθρώπων κατοικεῖν ἐπὶ παντὸς προσώπου τῆς γῆς, ὁρίσας προστεταγμένους καιροὺς καὶ τὰς ὁροθεσίας τῆς κατοικίας αὐτῶν, 17.27. ζητεῖν τὸν θεὸν εἰ ἄρα γε ψηλαφήσειαν αὐτὸν καὶ εὕροιεν, καί γε οὐ μακρὰν ἀπὸ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου ἡμῶν ὑπάρχοντα. 17.28. ἐν αὐτῷ γὰρ ζῶμεν καὶ κινούμεθα καὶ ἐσμέν, ὡς καί τινες τῶν καθʼ ὑμᾶς ποιητῶν εἰρήκασιν q type="spoken" 17.29. γένος οὖν ὑπάρχοντες τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ὀφείλομεν νομίζειν χρυσῷ ἢ ἀργύρῳ ἢ λίθῳ, χαράγματι τέχνής καὶ ἐνθυμήσεως ἀνθρώπου, τὸ θεῖον εἶναι ὅμοιον. 17.30. τοὺς μὲν οὖν χρόνους τῆς ἀγνοίας ὑπεριδὼν ὁ θεὸς τὰ νῦν ἀπαγγέλλει τοῖς ἀνθρώποις πάντας πανταχοῦ μετανοεῖν, 17.31. καθότι ἔστησεν ἡμέραν ἐν ᾗ μέλλει κρίνειν τὴν οἰκουμένην ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ ἐν ἀνδρὶ ᾧ ὥρισεν, πίστιν παρασχὼν πᾶσιν ἀναστήσας αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν. 17.34. τινὲς δὲ ἄνδρες κολληθέντες αὐτῷ ἐπίστευσαν, ἐν οἷς καὶ Διονύσιος [ὁ] Ἀρεοπαγίτης καὶ γυνὴ ὀνόματι Δάμαρις καὶ ἕτεροι σὺν αὐτοῖς. pb n="289" / 19.9. ὡς δέ τινες ἐσκληρύνοντο καὶ ἠπείθουν κακολογοῦντες τὴν ὁδὸν ἐνώπιον τοῦ πλήθους, ἀποστὰς ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ἀφώρισεν τοὺς μαθητάς, καθʼ ἡμέραν διαλεγόμενος ἐν τῇ σχολῇ Τυράννου . 22.16. καὶ νῦν τί μέλλεις; ἀναστὰς βάπτισαι καὶ ἀπόλουσαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου ἐπικαλεσάμενος τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ. 2.17. 'It will be in the last days, says God, I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy. Your young men will see visions. Your old men will dream dreams. 2.18. Yes, and on my servants and on my handmaidens in those days, I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. 2.19. I will show wonders in the the sky above, And signs on the earth beneath; Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. 2.20. The sun will be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. 2.21. It will be, that whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.' 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it. 2.36. "Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly that God has made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom you crucified." 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.44. All who believed were together, and had all things common. 2.45. They sold their possessions and goods, and distributed them to all, according as anyone had need. 2.46. Day by day, continuing steadfastly with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread at home, they took their food with gladness and singleness of heart, 2.47. praising God, and having favor with all the people. The Lord added to the assembly day by day those who were being saved. 5.38. Now I tell you, refrain from these men, and leave them alone. For if this counsel or this work is of men, it will be overthrown. 7.56. and said, "Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of Man standing on the right hand of God!" 9.1. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest, 9.14. Here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name." 13.34. "Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 17.7. whom Jason has received. These all act contrary to the decrees of Caesar, saying that there is another king, Jesus!" 17.16. Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw the city full of idols. 17.22. Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. 17.24. The God who made the world and all things in it, he, being Lord of heaven and earth, dwells not in temples made with hands, 17.25. neither is he served by men's hands, as though he needed anything, seeing he himself gives to all life and breath, and all things. 17.26. He made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the surface of the earth, having determined appointed seasons, and the bounds of their habitation, 17.27. that they should seek the Lord, if perhaps they might reach out for him and find him, though he is not far from each one of us. 17.28. 'For in him we live, and move, and have our being.' As some of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.' 17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent, 17.31. because he has appointed a day in which he will judge the world in righteousness by the man whom he has ordained; whereof he has given assurance to all men, in that he has raised him from the dead." 17.34. But certain men joined with him, and believed, among whom also was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them. 19.9. But when some were hardened and disobedient, speaking evil of the Way before the multitude, he departed from them, and separated the disciples, reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus. 22.16. Now why do you wait? Arise, be baptized, and wash away your sins, calling on the name of the Lord.'
172. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 1.14, 2.11, 3.14, 12.7-12.9, 14.4, 20.6, 20.14, 22.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430, 504; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 86, 184; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 161, 239; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 346
1.5. καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός,ὁπρωτότοκοςτῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς.Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶλύσαντιἡμᾶςἐκ τῶν αμαρτιῶν[ἡμῶν] ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ, 1.14. ἡ δὲκεφαλὴ αὐτοῦκαὶαἱ τρίχες λευκαὶ ὡς ἔριονλευκόν,ὡς χιών, καὶ οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ ὡςφλὸξ πυρός, 2.11. Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις. Ὁ νικῶν οὐ μὴ ἀδικηθῇ ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ δευτέρου. 3.14. Καὶ τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῆς ἐν Λαοδικίᾳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον Τάδε λέγει ὁ Ἀμήν,ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστὸςκαὶ [ὁ] ἀληθινός,ἡ ἀρχὴ τῆς κτίσεωςτοῦ θεοῦ, 12.7. Καὶ ἐγένετο πόλεμος ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὁΜιχαὴλκαὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦτοῦ πολεμῆσαιμετὰ τοῦ δράκοντος. καὶ ὁ δράκων ἐπολέμησεν καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ, 12.8. καὶ οὐκ ἴσχυσεν, οὐδὲ τόπος εὑρέθη αὐτῶν ἔτι ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ. 12.9. καὶ ἐβλήθη ὁ δράκων ὁ μέγας,ὁ ὄφιςὁ ἀρχαῖος, ὁ καλούμενοςΔιάβολοςκαὶ ὉΣατανᾶς,ὁ πλανῶν τὴν οἰκουμένην ὅλην, — ἐβλήθη εἰς τὴν γῆν, καὶ οἱ ἄγγελοι αὐτοῦ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ἐβλήθησαν. 14.4. οὗτοί εἰσιν οἳ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν, παρθένοι γάρ εἰσιν· οὗτοι οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες τῷ ἀρνίῳ ὅπου ἂν ὑπάγει· οὗτοι ἠγοράσθησαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἀπαρχὴ τῷ θεῷ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ, 20.6. μακάριος καὶ ἅγιος ὁ ἔχων μέρος ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τῇ πρώτῃ· ἐπὶ τούτων ὁ δεύτερος θάνατος οὐκ ἔχει ἐξουσίαν, ἀλλʼ ἔσονταιἱερεῖς τοῦ θεοῦκαὶ τοῦ χριστοῦ, καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν μετʼ αὐτοῦ [τὰ] χίλια ἔτη. 20.14. καὶ ὁ θάνατος καὶ ὁ ᾄδης ἐβλήθησαν εἰς τὴν λίμνην τοῦ πυρός. οὗτος ὁ θάνατος ὁ δεύτερός ἐστιν, ἡ λίμνη τοῦ πυρός. 22.4. καὶὄψονται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ,καὶ τὸ ὄνομα ὰὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. 1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood; 1.14. His head and his hair were white as white wool, like snow. His eyes were like a flame of fire. 2.11. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. He who overcomes won't be harmed by the second death. 3.14. "To the angel of the assembly in Laodicea write: "The Amen, the Faithful and True Witness, the Head of God's creation, says these things: 12.7. There was war in the sky. Michael and his angels made war on the dragon. The dragon and his angels made war. 12.8. They didn't prevail, neither was a place found for him any more in heaven. 12.9. The great dragon was thrown down, the old serpent, he who is called the devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world. He was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. 14.4. These are those who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins. These are those who follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed by Jesus from among men, the first fruits to God and to the Lamb. 20.6. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. 20.14. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads.
173. New Testament, James, 1.18, 2.8, 2.19, 3.9, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image, , image of god in man, imago •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 248; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 430; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 41, 101
1.18. βουληθεὶς ἀπεκύησεν ἡμᾶς λόγῳ ἀληθείας, εἰς τὸ εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἀπαρχήν τινα τῶν αὐτοῦ κτισμάτων. 2.8. εἰ μέντοι νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν κατὰ τὴν γραφήν Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν, καλῶς ποιεῖτε· 2.19. σὺ πιστεύεις ὅτι εἷς θεὸς ἔστιν; καλῶς ποιεῖς· καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια πιστεύουσιν καὶ φρίσσουσιν. 3.9. ἐν αὐτῇ εὐλογοῦμεν τὸν κύριον καὶ πατέρα, καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ καταρώμεθα τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τοὺς καθʼ ὁμοίωσιν θεοῦ γεγονότας· 4.6. μείζονα δὲ δίδωσιν χάριν· διὸ λέγει Ὁ θεὸς ὑπερηφάνοις ἀντιτάσσεται ταπεινοῖς δὲ δίδωσιν χάριν. 1.18. of his own will he brought us forth by the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first fruits of his creatures. 2.8. However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself," you do well. 2.19. You believe that God is one. You do well. The demons also believe, and shudder. 3.9. With it we bless our God and Father, and with it we curse men, who are made in the image of God. 4.6. But he gives more grace. Therefore it says, "God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble."
174. New Testament, Jude, 9, 6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 84
175. New Testament, Ephesians, 1.3-1.11, 4.24, 5.1, 5.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image, , image of god in man, imago •homonymy, image of god •god, image of Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 243, 245, 247; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 221; Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 186; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 55
1.3. Εὐλογητὸς ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, ὁ εὐλογήσας ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ εὐλογίᾳ πνευματικῇ ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις ἐν Χριστῷ, 1.4. καθὼς ἐξελέξατο ἡμᾶς ἐν αὐτῷ πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, εἶναι ἡμᾶς ἁγίους καὶ ἀμώμους κατενώπιον αὐτοῦ ἐν ἀγάπῃ, 1.5. προορίσας ἡμᾶς εἰς υἱοθεσίαν διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς αὐτόν, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, 1.6. εἰς ἔπαινον δόξης τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ ἧς ἐχαρίτωσεν ἡμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἠγαπημένῳ, 1.7. ἐν ᾧ ἔχομεν τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν διὰ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτοῦ, τὴν ἄφεσιν τῶν παραπτωμάτων, 1.8. κατὰ τὸ πλοῦτος τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 1.9. ἧς ἐπερίσσευσεν εἰς ἡμᾶς ἐν πάσῃ σοφίᾳ καὶ φρονήσει γνωρίσας ἡμῖν τὸ μυστήριον τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, κατὰ τὴν εὐδοκίαν αὐτοῦ ἣν προέθετο ἐν αὐτῷ 1.10. εἰς οἰκονομίαν τοῦ πληρώματος τῶν καιρῶν, ἀνακεφαλαιώσασθαι τὰ πάντα ἐν τῷ χριστῷ, τὰ ἐπὶ τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· ἐν αὐτῷ, 1.11. ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἐκληρώθημεν προορισθέντες κατὰ πρόθεσιν τοῦ τὰ πάντα ἐνεργοῦντος κατὰ τὴν βουλὴν τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ, 4.24. καὶ ἐνδύσασθαι τὸν καινὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν κατὰ θεὸν κτισθέντα ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ὁσιότητι τῆς ἀληθείας. 5.1. γίνεσθε οὖν μιμηταὶ τοῦ θεοῦ, ὡς τέκνα ἀγαπητά, καὶ περιπατεῖτε ἐν ἀγάπῃ, 5.30. ὅτι μέλη ἐσμὲν τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ. 1.3. Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ; 1.4. even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we would be holy and without blemish before him in love; 1.5. having predestined us for adoption as sons through Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his desire, 1.6. to the praise of the glory of his grace, by which he freely bestowed favor on us in the Beloved, 1.7. in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace, 1.8. which he made to abound toward us in all wisdom and prudence, 1.9. making known to us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him 1.10. to an administration of the fullness of the times, to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens, and the things on the earth, in him; 1.11. in whom also we were assigned an inheritance, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who works all things after the counsel of his will; 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.1. Be therefore imitators of God, as beloved children. 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones.
176. New Testament, Galatians, 3.19, 5.6, 5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 247; Stuckenbruck (2007), 1 Enoch 91-108, 99
3.19. Τί οὖν ὁ νόμος; τῶν παραβάσεων χάριν προσετέθη, ἄχρις ἂν ἔλθῃ τὸ σπέρμα ᾧ ἐπήγγελται, διαταγεὶς διʼ ἀγγέλων ἐν χειρὶ μεσίτου· 5.6. ἐν γὰρ Χριστῷ [Ἰησοῦ] οὔτε περιτομή τι ἰσχύει οὔτε ἀκροβυστία, ἀλλὰ πίστις διʼ ἀγάπης ἐνεργουμένη. 5.14. ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ἐν ἑνὶ λόγῳ πεπλήρωται, ἐν τῷἈγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 3.19. What then is the law? It was added because of transgressions,until the seed should come to whom the promise has been made. It wasordained through angels by the hand of a mediator. 5.6. For in Christ Jesusneither circumcision amounts to anything, nor uncircumcision, but faithworking through love. 5.14. For the whole law is fulfilled in one word, in this:"You shall love your neighbor as yourself."
177. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 207
3.11. Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ θεὸς καὶ πατὴρ ἡμῶν καὶ ὁ κύριος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦς κατευθύναι τὴν ὁδὸν ἡμῶν πρὸς ὑμᾶς· 3.11. Now may our God and Father himself, and our Lord Jesus Christ, direct our way to you;
178. Mishnah, Avot, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 68
3.14. "הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חָבִיב אָדָם שֶׁנִּבְרָא בְצֶלֶם. חִבָּה יְתֵרָה נוֹדַעַת לוֹ שֶׁנִּבְרָא בְצֶלֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ט) כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם. חֲבִיבִין יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ בָנִים לַמָּקוֹם. חִבָּה יְתֵרָה נוֹדַעַת לָהֶם שֶׁנִּקְרְאוּ בָנִים לַמָּקוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יד) בָּנִים אַתֶּם לַה' אֱלֹהֵיכֶם. חֲבִיבִין יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנִּתַּן לָהֶם כְּלִי חֶמְדָּה. חִבָּה יְתֵרָה נוֹדַעַת לָהֶם שֶׁנִּתַּן לָהֶם כְּלִי חֶמְדָּה שֶׁבּוֹ נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ד) כִּי לֶקַח טוֹב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם, תּוֹרָתִי אַל תַּעֲזֹבוּ:", 3.14. "He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2).",
179. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.28, 2.177, 2.181, 2.190-2.192 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 208, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 904
1.28. 6. As to the care of writing down the records from the earliest antiquity among the Egyptians and Babylonians; that the priests were intrusted therewith, and employed a philosophical concern about it; that they were the Chaldean priests that did so among the Babylonians; and that the Phoenicians, who were mingled among the Greeks, did especially make use of their letters, both for the common affairs of life, and for the delivering down the history of common transactions, I think I may omit any proof, because all men allow it so to be: 2.177. Those also who are in the highest and principal posts of the government, confess they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take such persons for their assessors in public administrations as profess to have skill in those laws; 2.181. Nor can any one perceive amongst us any difference in the conduct of our lives; but all our works are common to us all. We have one sort of discourse concerning God, which is conformable to our law, and affirms that he sees all things; as also, we have but one way of speaking concerning the conduct of our lives, that all other things ought to have piety for their end; and this any body may hear from our women, and servants themselves. 2.190. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden?—They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and affirms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and supplying all other beings; the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things. He is manifest in his works and benefits, and more conspicuous than any other being whatsoever, but as to his form and magnitude, he is most obscure. 2.191. All materials, let them be ever so costly, are unworthy to compose an image for him; and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is it agreeable to piety to form a resemblance of him. 2.192. We see his works, the light, the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the waters, the generations of animals, the productions of fruits. These things hath God made, not with hands, nor with labor, nor as wanting the assistance of any to cooperate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good also, they were made, and became good immediately. All men ought to follow this Being, and to worship him in the exercise of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most holy of all others. /p
180. Plutarch, On The Delays of Divine Vengeance, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 479
181. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 31.11, 41.4, 76.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 48, 230
182. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 3.14.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •athens, images of the gods Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 168
3.14.6. Κραναὸν δὲ ἐκβαλὼν Ἀμφικτύων ἐβασίλευσε· τοῦτον ἔνιοι μὲν Δευκαλίωνος, ἔνιοι δὲ αὐτόχθονα 3 -- λέγουσι. βασιλεύσαντα δὲ αὐτὸν ἔτη 4 -- δώδεκα Ἐριχθόνιος ἐκβάλλει. τοῦτον οἱ μὲν Ἡφαίστου καὶ τῆς Κραναοῦ θυγατρὸς Ἀτθίδος εἶναι λέγουσιν, οἱ δὲ Ἡφαίστου καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς, οὕτως· Ἀθηνᾶ παρεγένετο πρὸς Ἥφαιστον, ὅπλα κατασκευάσαι θέλουσα. ὁ δὲ ἐγκαταλελειμμένος 5 -- ὑπὸ Ἀφροδίτης εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν ὤλισθε τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς, καὶ διώκειν αὐτὴν ἤρξατο· ἡ δὲ ἔφευγεν. ὡς δὲ ἐγγὺς αὐτῆς ἐγένετο πολλῇ ἀνάγκῃ (ἦν γὰρ χωλός), ἐπειρᾶτο συνελθεῖν. ἡ δὲ ὡς σώφρων καὶ παρθένος οὖσα οὐκ ἠνέσχετο· ὁ δὲ ἀπεσπέρμηνεν εἰς τὸ σκέλος τῆς θεᾶς. ἐκείνη δὲ μυσαχθεῖσα ἐρίῳ ἀπομάξασα τὸν γόνον εἰς γῆν ἔρριψε. φευγούσης δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ τῆς γονῆς εἰς γῆν πεσούσης Ἐριχθόνιος γίνεται. τοῦτον Ἀθηνᾶ κρύφα τῶν ἄλλων θεῶν ἔτρεφεν, ἀθάνατον θέλουσα ποιῆσαι· καὶ καταθεῖσα αὐτὸν εἰς κίστην Πανδρόσῳ τῇ Κέκροπος παρακατέθετο, ἀπειποῦσα τὴν κίστην ἀνοίγειν. αἱ δὲ ἀδελφαὶ τῆς Πανδρόσου ἀνοίγουσιν ὑπὸ περιεργίας, καὶ θεῶνται τῷ βρέφει παρεσπειραμένον δράκοντα· καὶ ὡς μὲν ἔνιοι λέγουσιν, ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ διεφθάρησαν τοῦ δράκοντος, ὡς δὲ ἔνιοι, διʼ ὀργὴν Ἀθηνᾶς ἐμμανεῖς γενόμεναι κατὰ τῆς ἀκροπόλεως αὑτὰς ἔρριψαν. ἐν δὲ τῷ τεμένει τραφεὶς Ἐριχθόνιος ὑπʼ αὐτῆς Ἀθηνᾶς, ἐκβαλὼν Ἀμφικτύονα ἐβασίλευσεν Ἀθηνῶν, καὶ τὸ ἐν ἀκροπόλει ξόανον τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἱδρύσατο, καὶ τῶν Παναθηναίων τὴν ἑορτὴν συνεστήσατο, καὶ Πραξιθέαν 1 -- νηίδα νύμφην ἔγημεν, ἐξ ἧς αὐτῷ παῖς Πανδίων ἐγεννήθη.
183. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 3.11, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 581
184. Appian, The War Against Hannibal, 7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 248
185. Tacitus, Annals, 3.62 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 169, 228
3.62. Proximi hos Magnetes L. Scipionis et L. Sullae constitutis nitebantur, quorum ille Antiocho, hic Mithridate pulsis fidem atque virtutem Magnetum decoravere, uti Dianae Leucophrynae perfugium inviolabile foret. Aphrodisienses posthac et Stratonicenses dictatoris Caesaris ob vetusta in partis merita et recens divi Augusti decretum adtulere, laudati quod Parthorum inruptionem nihil mutata in populum Romanum constantia pertulissent. sed Aphrodisiensium civitas Veneris, Stratonicensium Iovis et Triviae religionem tuebantur. altius Hierocaesarienses exposuere, Persicam apud se Dianam, delubrum rege Cyro dicatum; et memorabantur Perpennae, Isaurici multaque alia imperatorum nomina qui non modo templo sed duobus milibus passuum eandem sanctitatem tribuerant. exim Cy- prii tribus de delubris, quorum vetustissimum Paphiae Veneri auctor Ae+rias, post filius eius Amathus Veneri Amathusiae et Iovi Salaminio Teucer, Telamonis patris ira profugus, posuissent. 3.62.  The Magnesians, who followed, rested their case on the rulings of Lucius Scipio and Lucius Sulla, who, after their defeats of Antiochus and Mithridates respectively, had honoured the loyalty and courage of Magnesia by making the shrine of Leucophryne Diana an inviolable refuge. Next, Aphrodisias and Stratonicea adduced a decree of the dictator Julius in return for their early services to his cause, together with a modern rescript of the deified Augustus, who praised the unchanging fidelity to the Roman nation with which they had sustained the Parthian inroad. Aphrodisias, however, was championing the cult of Venus; Stratonicea, that of Jove and Diana of the Crossways. The statement of Hierocaesarea went deeper into the past: the community owned a Persian Diana with a temple dedicated in the reign of Cyrus; and there were references to Perpenna, Isauricus, and many other commanders who had allowed the same sanctity not only to the temple but to the neighbourhood for two miles round. The Cypriotes followed with an appeal for three shrines — the oldest erected by their founder Aërias to the Paphian Venus; the second by his son Amathus to the Amathusian Venus; and a third by Teucer, exiled by the anger of his father Telamon, to Jove of Salamis.
186. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, creation as Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 233
2.3. "אין משכירין להם בתים שדות וכרמים ואין נותנין להן אריסיות וקבולת בהמה [אחד העובד כוכבים ואחד הכותי] במה דברים אמורים בארץ ישראל ובסוריא משכירין בתים אבל לא שדות כאן וכאן לא ישכיר אדם שדהו לעובד כוכבים דברי ר\"מ רבי יוסי אומר אף בא\"י משכירין בתים ובסוריא מוכרין בתים ומשכירין שדות ובחוצה לארץ מוכרין אלו ואלו. כאן וכאן לא ישכיר ישראל את ביתו לעובד כוכבים שבידוע שמכניס לתוכו עבודת כוכבים אבל משכירין להם אוריאות אוצרות ופונדקיות אע\"פ שבידוע שמכניס לתוכו עבודת כוכבים משכיר ישראל ביתו לכותי ואינו חושש שמכניס בתוכו עבודת כוכבים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר בכל מקום לא ישכיר ישראל מרחץ לעובד כוכבים מפני שנקראת על שם ישראל ורוחצין בו בשבת ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר בכ\"מ לא ישכיר ישראל שדהו לעובד כוכבים מפני שנקראת על שם ישראל ועושין בה ביו\"ט. ",
187. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 8.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, creation as Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 233
188. Tosefta, Bekhorot, 1.6, 1.9, 4.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213
1.6. "פרה שילדה מין שה אין פודין בו פטר חמור שכל מקום שנאמר שה תופס כבשים ועזים גדולים וקטנים זכרים ונקבות תמימים ובעלי מומין פודה בו שונה ומשלש ומביאו בנדר ונדבה לחטאתו ולאשמו וחייב בבכורה ובמתנות. רבי אלעזר אומר הכלאים מן הרחל ומן הגדי פודין בו מן החיה אין פודין בו. כשם שאין פודין בשחוטה כך אין פודין בפטר חמור שמת. פטר חמור מצותו לקיימו שלשים יום מכאן ואילך או פודו או עורפו. מכמה לא יפחות ר' יוסי בר' יהודה אומר לא יפחות משוה שקל. איזה הוא פדיון פטר חמור הנכנס לדיר להתעשר ישראל שהיו לו ספיקות ועמד ופדאן וכן כהן שירש את אביו ואת אמו ישראל או שניתן לו במתנה פטר חמור לפדותו. איזה הוא פדיון פטר חמור הנכנס לדיר להתעשר הרי שיש לו פטר חמור אין לו לפדותו. אמר לו כהן תנהו לי ואני פודה אותו הרי זה לא יתננו לו אא\"כ יודע שהוא פודה אותו. עורפו בקופץ מאחריו וקוברו ואסור בהנאה לא ימיתנו לא במקל ולא בקנה ולא ינעול דלת בפניו בשביל שימות ואם עשה כן ה\"ז יצא. בחייו אסור בגיזה ובעבודה. ור' שמעון מתיר ובכור אדם מותר בכולן. חמורה שלא ביכרה וילדה שני זכרים נותן טלה אחד לכהן זכר ונקבה מפריש טלה והוא לעצמו. חמור וטלה שהיו בכרו וילדו שני זכרים נותן שני טלאים לכהן זכר ונקבה או שני זכרים ונקבה נותן טלה אחד לכהן שתי נקבות וזכר או שני זכרים וב' נקבות ואין יודע אין כאן לכהן כלום אלא מפריש טלה אחד ופודה בו כל אחד ואחד לעצמו. ",
189. Tosefta, Berachot, a b c d\n0 6(7).6 6(7).6 6(7) 6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 213
190. Tosefta, Kilayim, 1.8, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and human hybridity •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 121, 213
1.8. "אין מרכיבין כשות על גבי [תאנא] מפני שהוא ירק באילן רבי יהודה מתיר ירק באילן אילן בירק רבן שב\"ג מתיר משום ר' יהודה בן אגרא איש כפר עכו.", 5.8. "צמר הגמלים וצמר הרחלים [אסור] בד\"א בזמן שטרפן זה בזה והביא פשתן ביניהם [וטרף] אבל העושה חלוק שכולל צמר הגמלים וכולל צמר הארנבים וארג בו חוט אחד של צמר בצד זה וחוט אחד של פשתן בצד זה אסור בגד שיש בראשו אחד כלאים לא יתכסה בצד השני אף על פי שהכלאים מונח בארץ.",
191. Tosefta, Niddah, 4.5-4.7, 4.10-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, diversity within •humans, as image of god •image of god •image of god, and adam’s image •image of god, not exclusive to humans Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 3, 19, 32, 33, 213
4.5. "אין משערין במים מפני שהמים עזין ומבערין אותו ואין משערין אותו אלא בשמן מפני שהשמן רך ומזכך ואין רואין אותו אלא בחמה. המפלת שפיר שאינו מרוקם ר' יהושע אומר ולד וחכ\"א אינו ולד ור' שמעון בר' יוסי אומר משם אביו קורעין אותו אם יש בו דם הרי זה נדה והבשר ה\"ז ולד.", 4.6. "השליא בבית הבית טמא דברי ר\"מ. רבי יוסי ור' יהודה ור' שמעון אומרים הבית טהור. אמרו לר\"מ אי אתה מודה שאם הוציאה בספל בבית החיצון שהוא טהור אמר להם מפני שבטל בחיצון. אמרו לו כשם שבטל בחיצון כך בפנימי אינו. יצא מחותך או מסורס אינו ולד עד שיצא רובו רבי יוסי אומר עד שיצא כדרכו יצא כדרכו עד שיצא ראשו רבי יוסי אומר רוב ראשו ואי זו רוב ראשו זו פדחתו.", 4.7. "המפלת בריית גוף שאינו חתוך ובריית ראש שאינו חתוך אינו ולד יד חתוכה הרי זה ולד. יד אטומה ורגל אטומה אינו ולד גוף אטום ולד. איזהו גוף אטום כדי שניטל מן החי ויחיה הרי זה ולד מן החי וימות אינו ולד.",
192. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 7.11, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 87; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213
193. Polycarp of Smyrna, Letter To The Philippians, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132
5.1. Gal. 6, 7 Εἰδότες, οὖν, ὅτι θεὸς οὐ μυκτηρίζεται, ὀφείλομεν ἀξίως τῆς ἐντολῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ δόξης περιπατεῖν. 5.1.
194. Plutarch, On The Education of Children, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 318
12e. "Do not taste of black-tails;" that, "Do not spend your time with men of black character, because of their malevolence.""Do not step over the beam of a balance"; that is, one should give greatest heed to justice and not transgress it."Do not sit on a peck measure"; as much as to say that we should avoid idleness and have forethought for providing our daily bread."Do not give your hand to everybody"; instead of, "Do not make friends too readily.""Do not wear a tight ring"; means that one should live his life unhampered, and not subject it to any bond."Do not poke a fire with steel"; instead of,"Do not provoke an angry man." Indeed, it is wrong to do so, and we should yield to men who are in a temper."Do not eat your heart"; as much as to say, "Do not injure your soul by wasting it with worries."
195. Plutarch, Themistocles, 30.1-30.3, 31.1, 31.5, 32.3-32.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 87, 274
30.1. τὴν δὲ πρὸς Πειρίθουν φιλίαν τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον αὐτῷ γενέσθαι λέγουσι. δόξαν εἶχεν ἐπὶ ῥώμῃ καὶ ἀνδρείᾳ μεγίστην· βουλόμενος οὖν ὁ Πειρίθους ἐξελέγξαι καὶ λαβεῖν διάπειραν, ἠλάσατο βοῦς ἐκ Μαραθῶνος αὐτοῦ, καὶ πυθόμενος διώκειν μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων ἐκεῖνον οὐκ ἔφυγεν, ἀλλʼ ἀναστρέψας ἀπήντησεν. 30.2. ὡς δὲ εἶδεν ἅτερος τὸν ἕτερον καὶ τὸ κάλλος ἐθαύμασε καὶ τὴν τόλμαν ἠγάσθη, μάχης μὲν ἔσχοντο, Πειρίθους δὲ πρότερος τὴν δεξιὰν προτείνας ἐκέλευσεν αὐτὸν γενέσθαι δικαστὴν τὸν Θησέα τῆς βοηλασίας· ἑκὼν γὰρ ὑφέξειν ἣν ἂν ὁρίσῃ δίκην ἐκεῖνος· Θησεὺς δὲ καὶ τὴν δίκην ἀφῆκεν αὐτῷ καὶ προὐκαλεῖτο φίλον εἶναι καὶ σύμμαχον· ἐποιήσαντο δὲ τὴν φιλίαν ἔνορκον. 30.3. ἐκ δὲ τούτου γαμῶν ὁ Πειρίθους Δηϊδάμειαν, ἐδεήθη τοῦ Θησέως ἐλθεῖν καὶ τὴν χώραν ἱστορῆσαι καὶ συγγενέσθαι τοῖς Λαπίθαις. ἐτύγχανε δὲ καὶ τοὺς Κενταύρους κεκληκὼς ἐπὶ τὸ δεῖπνον. ὡς δὲ ἠσέλγαινον ὕβρει καὶ μεθύοντες οὐκ ἀπείχοντο τῶν γυναικῶν, ἐτράποντο πρὸς ἄμυναν οἱ Λαπίθαι· καὶ τοὺς μὲν ἔκτειναν αὐτῶν, τοὺς δὲ πολέμῳ κρατήσαντες ὕστερον ἐξέβαλον ἐκ τῆς χώρας, τοῦ Θησέως αὐτοῖς συμμαχομένου καὶ συμπολεμοῦντος. 31.1. ἤδη δὲ πεντήκοντα ἔτη γεγονώς, ὥς φησιν Ἑλλάνικος, ἔπραξε τὰ περὶ τὴν Ἑλένην, οὐ καθʼ ὥραν. ὅθεν ὡς δὴ μέγιστον ἐπανορθούμενοι τοῦτο τῶν ἐγκλημάτων, ἔνιοι λέγουσιν οὐκ αὐτὸν ἁρπάσαι τὴν Ἑλένην, ἀλλὰ Ἴδα καὶ Λυγκέως ἁρπασάντων παρακαταθήκην λαβόντα τηρεῖν καὶ μὴ προΐεσθαι τοῖς Διοσκούροις ἀπαιτοῦσιν· ἢ νὴ Δία Τυνδάρεω παραδόντος αὐτοῦ, φοβηθέντος Ἐναρσφόρον τὸν Ἱπποκόωντος ἔτι νηπίαν οὖσαν βιαζόμενον τὴν Ἑλένην λαβεῖν. τὰ δὲ εἰκότα καὶ πλείστους ἔχοντα μάρτυρας τοιαῦτά ἐστιν. 32.3. φράζει δὲ αὐτοῖς Ἀκάδημος ᾐσθημένος ᾧ δή τινι τρόπῳ τὴν ἐν Ἀφίδναις κρύψιν αὐτῆς. ὅθεν ἐκείνῳ τε τιμαὶ ζῶντι παρὰ τῶν Τυνδαριδῶν ἐγένοντο, καὶ πολλάκις ὕστερον εἰς τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἐμβαλόντες Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ πᾶσαν ὁμοῦ τὴν χώραν τέμνοντες, τῆς Ἀκαδημείας ἀπείχοντο διὰ τὸν Ἀκάδημον. 32.4. ὁ δὲ Δικαίαρχος Ἐχεδήμου Ἐχεδήμου with Coraës, Sintenis 1 , and Bekker, after Xylander: Ἐχέμου . φησὶ καὶ Μαράθου συστρατευσάντων τότε τοῖς Τυνδαρίδαις ἐξ Ἀρκαδίας, ἀφʼ οὗ μὲν Ἐχεδημίαν προσαγορευθῆναι τὴν νῦν Ἀκαδήμειαν, ἀφʼ οὗ δὲ Μαραθῶνα τὸν δῆμον, ἐπιδόντος ἑαυτὸν ἑκουσίως κατά τι λόγιον σφαγιάσασθαι πρὸ τῆς παρατάξεως. ἐλθόντες οὖν ἐπὶ τὰς Ἀφίδνας καὶ μάχῃ κρατήσαντες ἐξεῖλον τὸ χωρίον. 32.5. ἐνταῦθά φασι καὶ Ἄλυκον πεσεῖν τὸν Σκείρωνος υἱόν, συστρατευόμενον τότε τοῖς Διοσκούροις, ἀφʼ οὗ καὶ τόπον τῆς Μεγαρικῆς Ἄλυκον καλεῖσθαι τοῦ σώματος ἐνταφέντος. Ἡρέας δʼ ὑπὸ Θησέως αὐτοῦ περὶ Ἀφίδνας ἀποθανεῖν τὸν Ἄλυκον ἱστόρηκε, καὶ μαρτύρια ταυτὶ τὰ ἔπη παρέχεται περὶ τοῦ Ἀλύκου· τὸν ἐν εὐρυχόρῳ ποτʼ Ἀφίδνῃ μαρνάμενον Θησεὺς Ἑλένης ἕνεκʼ ἠϋκόμοιο κτεῖνεν. Οὐ μὴν εἰκὸς αὐτοῦ Θησέως παρόντος ἁλῶναι τήν τε μητέρα καὶ τὰς Ἀφίδνας.
196. Plutarch, Table Talk, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 335
197. Plutarch, Platonic Questions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 250; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 72
198. Plutarch, Pericles, 31.2-31.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •athens, images of the gods Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 171, 172
31.2. ἡ δὲ χειρίστη μὲν αἰτία πασῶν, ἔχουσα δὲ πλείστους μάρτυρας, οὕτω πως λέγεται. Φειδίας ὁ πλάστης ἐργολάβος μὲν ἦν τοῦ ἀγάλματος, ὥσπερ εἴρηται, φίλος δὲ τῷ Περικλεῖ γενόμενος καὶ μέγιστον παρʼ αὐτῷ δυνηθεὶς τοὺς μὲν διʼ αὑτὸν ἔσχεν ἐχθροὺς φθονούμενος, οἱ δὲ τοῦ δήμου ποιούμενοι πεῖραν ἐν ἐκείνῳ, ποῖός τις ἔσοιτο τῷ Περικλεῖ τῷ Περικλεῖ Fuhr and Blass, with F a S: Περικλεῖ . κριτής, Μένωνά τινα τῶν Φειδίου συνεργῶν πείσαντες ἱκέτην ἐν ἀγορᾷ καθίζουσιν, αἰτούμενον ἄδειαν ἐπὶ μηνύσει καὶ κατηγορίᾳ τοῦ Φειδίου. 31.3. προσδεξαμένου δὲ τοῦ δήμου τὸν ἄνθρωπον καὶ γενομένης ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ διώξεως, κλοπαὶ μὲν οὐκ ἠλέγχοντο· τὸ γὰρ χρυσίον οὕτως εὐθὺς ἐξ ἀρχῆς τῷ ἀγάλματι προσειργάσατο καὶ περιέθηκεν ὁ Φειδίας γνώμῃ τοῦ Περικλέους ὥστε πᾶν δυνατὸν εἶναι περιελοῦσιν ἀποδεῖξαι τὸν σταθμόν, ὃ καὶ τότε τοὺς κατηγόρους ἐκέλευσε ποιεῖν ὁ Περικλῆς. 31.4. ἡ δὲ δόξα τῶν ἔργων ἐπίεζε φθόνῳ τὸν Φειδίαν, καὶ μάλισθʼ ὅτι τὴν πρὸς Ἀμαζόνας μάχην ἐν τῇ ἀσπίδι ποιῶν αὑτοῦ τινα μορφὴν ἐνετύπωσε πρεσβύτου φαλακροῦ πέτρον ἐπῃρμένου διʼ ἀμφοτέρων τῶν χειρῶν, καὶ τοῦ Περικλέους εἰκόνα παγκάλην ἐνέθηκε μαχομένου πρὸς Ἀμαζόνα. τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τῆς χειρός, ἀνατεινούσης δόρυ πρὸ τῆς ὄψεως τοῦ Περικλέους, πεποιημένον εὐμηχάνως οἷον ἐπικρύπτειν βούλεται τὴν ὁμοιότητα παραφαινομένην ἑκατέρωθεν. 31.2. But the worst charge of all, and yet the one which has the most vouchers, runs something like this. Pheidias the sculptor was contractor for the great statue, as I have said, and being admitted to the friendship of Pericles, and acquiring the greatest influence with him, made some enemies through the jealousy which he excited; others also made use of him to test the people and see what sort of a judge it would be in a case where Pericles was involved. These latter persuaded one Menon, an assistant of Pheidias, to take a suppliant’s seat in the market-place and demand immunity from punishment in case he should bring information and accusation against Pheidias. 31.3. The people accepted the man’s proposal, and formal prosecution of Pheidias was made in the assembly. Embezzlement, indeed, was not proven, for the gold of the statue, from the very start, had been so wrought upon and cast about it by Pheidias, at the wise suggestion of Pericles, that it could all be taken off and weighed, Cf. Thuc. 2.13.5 . and this is what Pericles actually ordered the accusers of Pheidias to do at this time. 31.4. But the reputation of his works nevertheless brought a burden of jealous hatred upon Pheidias, and especially the fact that when he wrought the battle of the Amazons on the shield of the goddess, he carved out a figure that suggested himself as a bald old man lifting on high a stone with both hands, and also inserted a very fine likeness of Pericles fighting with an Amazon. And the attitude of the hand, which holds out a spear in front of the face of Pericles, is cunningly contrived as it were with a desire to conceal the resemblance, which is, however, plain to be seen from either side.
199. Plutarch, Numa Pompilius, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 702
200. Plutarch, It Is Impossible To Live Pleasantly In The Manner of Epicurus, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 148
201. Plutarch, Virtues of Women, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 221
202. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 146
203. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.20, 1.69, 1.230, 2.89, 7.32, 7.391, 13.345, 16.163 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 214; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 430, 860, 880, 904
1.20. neither could the legislator himself have a right mind without such a contemplation; nor would any thing he should write tend to the promotion of virtue in his readers; I mean, unless they be taught first of all, that God is the Father and Lord of all things, and sees all things, and that thence he bestows a happy life upon those that follow him; but plunges such as do not walk in the paths of virtue into inevitable miseries. 1.69. All these proved to be of good dispositions. They also inhabited the same country without dissensions, and in a happy condition, without any misfortunes falling upon them, till they died. They also were the inventors of that peculiar sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies, and their order. 1.230. Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, 2.89. Accordingly Pharaoh being surprised at Joseph, not only for his interpretation of the dream, but for the counsel he had given him, intrusted him with dispensing the corn; with power to do what he thought would be for the benefit of the people of Egypt, and for the benefit of the king, as believing that he who first discovered this method of acting, would prove the best overseer of it. 7.32. In the first place, he endeavored to calumniate Abner to the king, exhorting him to have a care of him, and not to give attention to what he had engaged to do for him, because all he did tended to confirm the government to Saul’s son; that he came to him deceitfully and with guile, and was gone away in hopes of gaining his purpose by this management: 7.391. He was also of very great abilities in understanding, and apprehension of present and future circumstances, when he was to manage any affairs. He was prudent and moderate, and kind to such as were under any calamities; he was righteous and humane, which are good qualities, peculiarly fit for kings; nor was he guilty of any offense in the exercise of so great an authority, but in the business of the wife of Uriah. He also left behind him greater wealth than any other king, either of the Hebrews or, of other nations, ever did. 13.345. 6. After this victory, Ptolemy overran all the country; and when night came on, he abode in certain villages of Judea, which when he found full of women and children, he commanded his soldiers to strangle them, and to cut them in pieces, and then to cast them into boiling caldrons, and then to devour their limbs as sacrifices. 16.163. it seemed good to me and my counselors, according to the sentence and oath of the people of Rome, that the Jews have liberty to make use of their own customs, according to the law of their forefathers, as they made use of them under Hyrcanus the high priest of the Almighty God; and that their sacred money be not touched, but be sent to Jerusalem, and that it be committed to the care of the receivers at Jerusalem; and that they be not obliged to go before any judge on the Sabbath day, nor on the day of the preparation to it, after the ninth hour.
204. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.15, 1.648-1.655, 2.128-2.129, 2.148-2.149, 6.197, 7.150 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 210, 211; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 429, 904
1.15. But then, an undertaking to preserve the memory of what hath not been before recorded, and to represent the affairs of one’s own time to those that come afterward, is really worthy of praise and commendation. Now he is to be esteemed to have taken good pains in earnest, not who does no more than change the disposition and order of other men’s works, but he who not only relates what had not been related before, but composes an entire body of history of his own: 1.648. 2. There also now happened to him, among his other calamities, a certain popular sedition. There were two men of learning in the city [Jerusalem], who were thought the most skillful in the laws of their country, and were on that account held in very great esteem all over the nation; they were, the one Judas, the son of Sepphoris, and the other Matthias, the son of Margalus. 1.649. There was a great concourse of the young men to these men when they expounded the laws, and there got together every day a kind of an army of such as were growing up to be men. Now when these men were informed that the king was wearing away with melancholy, and with a distemper, they dropped words to their acquaintance, how it was now a very proper time to defend the cause of God, and to pull down what had been erected contrary to the laws of their country; 1.650. for it was unlawful there should be any such thing in the temple as images, or faces, or the like representation of any animal whatsoever. Now the king had put up a golden eagle over the great gate of the temple, which these learned men exhorted them to cut down; and told them, that if there should any danger arise, it was a glorious thing to die for the laws of their country; because that the soul was immortal, and that an eternal enjoyment of happiness did await such as died on that account; while the mean-spirited, and those that were not wise enough to show a right love of their souls, preferred death by a disease, before that which is the result of a virtuous behavior. 1.651. 3. At the same time that these men made this speech to their disciples, a rumor was spread abroad that the king was dying, which made the young men set about the work with greater boldness; they therefore let themselves down from the top of the temple with thick cords, and this at midday, and while a great number of people were in the temple, and cut down that golden eagle with axes. 1.652. This was presently told to the king’s captain of the temple, who came running with a great body of soldiers, and caught about forty of the young men, and brought them to the king. 1.653. And when he asked them, first of all, whether they had been so hardy as to cut down the golden eagle, they confessed they had done so; and when he asked them by whose command they had done it, they replied, at the command of the law of their country; and when he further asked them how they could be so joyful when they were to be put to death, they replied, because they should enjoy greater happiness after they were dead. 1.654. 4. At this the king was in such an extravagant passion, that he overcame his disease [for the time], and went out and spake to the people; wherein he made a terrible accusation against those men, as being guilty of sacrilege, and as making greater attempts under pretense of their law, and he thought they deserved to be punished as impious persons. 1.655. Whereupon the people were afraid lest a great number should be found guilty and desired that when he had first punished those that put them upon this work, and then those that were caught in it, he would leave off his anger as to the rest. With this the king complied, though not without difficulty, and ordered those that had let themselves down, together with their Rabbins, to be burnt alive, but delivered the rest that were caught to the proper officers to be put to death by them. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them. 6.197. Moreover, their hunger was so intolerable, that it obliged them to chew everything, while they gathered such things as the most sordid animals would not touch, and endured to eat them; nor did they at length abstain from girdles and shoes; and the very leather which belonged to their shields they pulled off and gnawed: 7.150. and the last of all the spoils, was carried the Law of the Jews.
205. Josephus Flavius, Life, 65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211
206. Plutarch, Fragments, 139 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, Found in books: Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 399
207. Juvenal, Satires, 14.96-14.106 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 215
208. Plutarch, On Superstition, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 322
209. Plutarch, How A Man May Become Aware of His Progress In Virtue, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324
81e. but when the holy rites are being performed and disclosed the people are immediately attentive in awe and silence, so too at the beginning of philosophy: about its portals also you will see great tumult and talking and boldness, as some boorishly and violently try to jostle their way towards the repute it bestows; but he who has succeeded in getting inside, and has seen a great light, as though a shrine were opened, adopts another bearing of silence and amazement, and "humble and orderly attends upon" reason as upon a god. To these the humorous remark of Menedemus may, as it seems, be nicely applied;
210. New Testament, Mark, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 202
14.62. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ὄψεσθε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν καθήμενον τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky."
211. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 1.29, 2.8, 2.12-2.13, 4.7, 6.11, 6.15, 8.6, 10.7, 10.13, 11.1-11.16, 12.12-12.13, 12.17, 13.12, 14.24, 15.20-15.28, 15.45-15.49, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 6, 145, 154; Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 325, 326, 327; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 245; Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 221; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 310; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411, 413, 429, 430, 580; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 86, 90, 207; Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 64, 250; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 62; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 321, 326; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 253, 279
1.2. τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ, ἡγιασμένοις ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, κλητοῖς ἁγίοις, σὺν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐπικαλουμένοις τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ αὐτῶν καὶ ἡμῶν· 1.29. ὅπως μὴ καυχήσηται πᾶσα σὰρξ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.8. ἣν οὐδεὶς τῶν ἀρχόντων τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου ἔγνωκεν, εἰ γὰρ ἔγνωσαν, οὐκ ἂν τὸν κύριον τῆς δόξης ἐσταύρωσαν· 2.12. ἡμεῖς δὲ οὐ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ κόσμου ἐλάβομεν ἀλλὰ τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα εἰδῶμεν τὰ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ χαρισθέντα ἡμῖν· 2.13. ἃ καὶ λαλοῦμεν οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις, ἀλλʼ ἐν διδακτοῖς πνεύματος, πνευματικοῖς πνευματικὰ συνκρίνοντες. 4.7. τίς γάρ σε διακρίνει; τί δὲ ἔχεις ὃ οὐκ ἔλαβες; εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔλαβες, τί καυχᾶσαι ὡς μὴ λαβών; 6.11. Καὶ ταῦτά τινες ἦτε· ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, ἀλλὰ ἐδικαιώθητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι τοῦ κυρίου [ἡμῶν] Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἡμῶν. 6.15. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν μέλη Χριστοῦ ἐστίν; ἄρας οὖν τὰ μέλη τοῦ χριστοῦ ποιήσω πόρνης μέλη; μὴ γένοιτο. 8.6. [ἀλλʼ] ἡμῖν εἷς θεὸς ὁ πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, καὶ εἷς κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς διʼ αὐτοῦ. Ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις· 10.7. μηδὲ εἰδωλολάτραι γίνεσθε, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν· ὥσπερ γέγραπταιἘκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν, καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν. 10.13. πειρασμὸς ὑμᾶς οὐκ εἴληφεν εἰ μὴ ἀνθρώπινος· πιστὸς δὲ ὁ θεός, ὃς οὐκ ἐάσει ὑμᾶς πειρασθῆναι ὑπὲρ ὃ δύνασθε, ἀλλὰ ποιήσει σὺν τῷ πειρασμῷ καὶ τὴν ἔκβασιν τοῦ δύνασθαι ὑπενεγκεῖν. 11.1. μιμηταί μου γίνεσθε, καθὼς κἀγὼ Χριστοῦ. 11.2. Ἐπαινῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς ὅτι πάντα μου μέμνησθε καὶ καθὼς παρέδωκα ὑμῖν τὰς παραδόσεις κατέχετε. 11.3. Θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς εἰδέναι ὅτι παντὸς ἀνδρὸς ἡ κεφαλὴ ὁ χριστός ἐστιν, κεφαλὴ δὲ γυναικὸς ὁ ἀνήρ, κεφαλὴ δὲ τοῦ χριστοῦ ὁ θεός. 11.4. πᾶς ἀνὴρ προσευχόμενος ἢ προφητεύων κατὰ κεφαλῆς ἔχων καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ· 11.5. πᾶσα δὲ γυνὴ προσευχομένη ἢ προφητεύουσα ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλῇ καταισχύνει τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτῆς, ἓν γάρ ἐστιν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ τῇ ἐξυρημένῃ. 11.6. εἰ γὰρ οὐ κατακαλύπτεται γυνή, καὶ κειράσθω· εἰ δὲ αἰσχρὸν γυναικὶ τὸ κείρασθαι ἢ ξυρᾶσθαι, κατακαλυπτέσθω. 11.7. ἀνὴρ μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ὀφείλει κατακαλύπτεσθαι τὴν κεφαλήν,εἰκὼνκαὶ δόξαθεοῦὑπάρχων· ἡ γυνὴ δὲ δόξα ἀνδρός ἐστιν. 11.8. οὐ γάρ ἐστιν ἀνὴρ ἐκ γυναικός, ἀλλὰγυνὴ ἐξ ἀνδρός· 11.9. καὶ γὰρ οὐκ ἐκτίσθη ἀνὴρ διὰ τὴν γυναῖκα, ἀλλὰ γυνὴ διὰ τὸν ἄνδρα. 11.10. διὰ τοῦτο ὀφείλει ἡ γυνὴ ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς διὰ τοὺς ἀγγέλους. 11.11. πλὴν οὔτε γυνὴ χωρὶς ἀνδρὸς οὔτε ἀνὴρ χωρὶς γυναικὸς ἐν κυρίῳ· 11.12. ωσπερ γὰρ ἡ γυνὴ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνδρός, οὕτως καὶ ὁ ἀνὴρ διὰ τῆς γυναικός· τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ. 11.13. ἐν ὑμῖν αὐτοῖς κρίνατε· πρέπον ἐστὶν γυναῖκα ἀκατακάλυπτον τῷ θεῷ προσεύχεσθαι; 11.14. οὐδὲ ἡ φύσις αὐτὴ διδάσκει ὑμᾶς ὅτι ἀνὴρ μὲν ἐὰν κομᾷ, ἀτιμία αὐτῷ ἐστίν, 11.15. γυνὴ δὲ ἐὰν κομᾷ, δόξα αὐτῇ ἐστίν; ὅτι ἡ κόμη ἀντὶ περιβολαίου δέδοται αὐτῇ. 11.16. Εἰ δέ τις δοκεῖ φιλόνεικος εἶναι, ἡμεῖς τοιαύτην συνήθειαν οὐκ ἔχομεν, οὐδὲ αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τοῦ θεοῦ. 12.12. Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ χριστός· 12.13. καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν, εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι, καὶ πάντες ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν. 12.17. εἰ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα ὀφθαλμός, ποῦ ἡ ἀκοή; εἰ ὅλον ἀκοή, ποῦ ἡ ὄσφρησις; 13.12. βλέπομεν γὰρ ἄρτι διʼ ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι, τότε δὲ πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον· ἄρτι γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους, τότε δὲ ἐπιγνώσομαι καθὼς καὶ ἐπεγνώσθην. 14.24. ἐὰν δὲ πάντες προφητεύωσιν, εἰσέλθῃ δέ τις ἄπιστος ἢ ἰδιώτης, ἐλέγχεται ὑπὸ πάντων, ἀνακρίνεται ὑπὸ πάντων, 15.20. Νυνὶ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἀπαρχὴ τῶν κεκοιμημένων. 15.21. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ διʼ ἀνθρώπου θάνατος, καὶ διʼ ἀνθρώπου ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν· 15.22. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ Ἀδὰμ πάντες ἀποθνήσκουσιν, οὕτως καὶ ἐν τῷ χριστῷ πάντες ζωοποιηθήσονται. 15.23. Ἕκαστος δὲ ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ τάγματι· ἀπαρχὴ Χριστός, ἔπειτα οἱ τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ αὐτοῦ· 15.24. εἶτα τὸ τέλος, ὅταν παραδιδῷ τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί, ὅταν καταργήσῃ πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν, 15.25. δεῖ γὰρ αὐτὸν βασιλεύεινἄχρι οὗθῇπάνταςτοὺς ἐχθροὺς ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδαςαὐτοῦ. 15.26. ἔσχατος ἐχθρὸς καταργεῖται ὁ θάνατος, 15.27. πάνταγὰρὑπέταξεν ὑπὸ τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ.ὅταν δὲ εἴπῃ ὅτι πάντα ὑποτέτακται, δῆλον ὅτι ἐκτὸς τοῦ ὑποτάξαντος αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα. 15.28. ὅταν δὲ ὑποταγῇ αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, τότε [καὶ] αὐτὸς ὁ υἱὸς ὑποταγήσεται τῷ ὑποτάξαντι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, ἵνα ᾖ ὁ θεὸς πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν. 15.45. οὕτως καὶ γέγραπταιἘγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν·ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν. 15.46. ἀλλʼ οὐ πρῶτον τὸ πνευματικὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ψυχικόν, ἔπειτα τὸ πνευματικόν. ὁ πρῶτοςἄνθρωπος ἐκ γῆς Χοϊκός, 15.47. ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ. 15.48. οἷος ὁ χοϊκός, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ χοϊκοί, καὶ οἷος ὁ ἐπουράνιος, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ ἐπουράνιοι· 15.49. καὶ καθὼς ἐφορέσαμεν τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ χοϊκοῦ φορέσωμεν καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ ἐπουρανίου. 16.15. Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί· οἴδατε τὴν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαίας καὶ εἰς διακονίαν τοῖς ἁγίοις ἔταξαν ἑαυτούς· 1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 1.29. that noflesh should boast before God. 2.8. which none of the rulers of this worldhas known. For had they known it, they wouldn't have crucified the Lordof glory. 2.12. But we received, not the spirit of the world, but theSpirit which is from God, that we might know the things that werefreely given to us by God. 2.13. Which things also we speak, not inwords which man's wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches,comparing spiritual things with spiritual things. 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 6.11. Such were some of you, but you were washed. But you were sanctified.But you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and in the Spiritof our God. 6.15. Don't you know that your bodies aremembers of Christ? Shall I then take the members of Christ, and makethem members of a prostitute? May it never be! 8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him. 10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play." 10.13. No temptation has taken you but such as man can bear. God isfaithful, who will not allow you to be tempted above what you are able,but will with the temptation also make the way of escape, that you maybe able to endure it. 11.1. Be imitators of me, even as I also am of Christ. 11.2. Now Ipraise you, brothers, that you remember me in all things, and hold firmthe traditions, even as I delivered them to you. 11.3. But I wouldhave you know that the head of every man is Christ, and the head of thewoman is the man, and the head of Christ is God. 11.4. Every manpraying or prophesying, having his head covered, dishonors his head. 11.5. But every woman praying or prophesying with her head unveileddishonors her head. For it is one and the same thing as if she wereshaved. 11.6. For if a woman is not covered, let her also be shorn.But if it is shameful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her becovered. 11.7. For a man indeed ought not to have his head covered,because he is the image and glory of God, but the woman is the glory ofthe man. 11.8. For man is not from woman, but woman from man; 11.9. for neither was man created for the woman, but woman for the man. 11.10. For this cause the woman ought to have authority on her head,because of the angels. 11.11. Nevertheless, neither is the woman independent of the man,nor the man independent of the woman, in the Lord. 11.12. For as womancame from man, so a man also comes through a woman; but all things arefrom God. 11.13. Judge for yourselves. Is it appropriate that a womanpray to God unveiled? 11.14. Doesn't even nature itself teach you thatif a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him? 11.15. But if a womanhas long hair, it is a glory to her, for her hair is given to her for acovering. 11.16. But if any man seems to be contentious, we have nosuch custom, neither do God's assemblies. 12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ. 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 12.17. If the whole body were aneye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where wouldthe smelling be? 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 14.24. But if all prophesy, and someoneunbelieving or unlearned comes in, he is reproved by all, and he isjudged by all. 15.20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.22. For as inAdam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive. 15.23. Buteach in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then those who areChrist's, at his coming. 15.24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.25. For he mustreign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 15.26. The lastenemy that will be abolished is death. 15.27. For, "He put all thingsin subjection under his feet." But when he says, "All things are put insubjection," it is evident that he is excepted who subjected all thingsto him. 15.28. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual. 15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly. 15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints),
212. New Testament, Colossians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 68, 173, 175, 178, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190, 248; Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 157, 158, 159, 161
1.20. καὶ διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀποκαταλλάξαι τὰ πάντα εἰς αὐτόν, εἰρηνοποιήσας διὰ τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ σταυροῦ αὐτοῦ, [διʼ αὐτοῦ] εἴτε τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς εἴτε τὰ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· 1.20. and through him to reconcile all things to himself, having made peace through the blood of his cross. Through him, I say, whether things on the earth, or things in the heavens.
213. Plutarch, On Living Unoticed, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 148
214. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 264, 319
3. Moreover, many writers have held her to be the daughter of Hermes, Cf. 355 f, infra . and many others the daughter of Prometheus, Cf. 365 f, infra , and Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis , i. 106. 1, 21 (p. 382, Potter). because of the belief that Prometheus is the discoverer of wisdom and forethought, and Hermes the inventor of grammar and music. For this reason they call the first of the Muses at Hermopolis Isis as well as Justice: for she is wise, as I have said, supra , 351 f. and discloses the divine mysteries to those who truly and justly have the name of bearers of the sacred vessels and wearers of the sacred robes. These are they who within their own soul, as though within a casket, bear the sacred writings about the gods clear of all superstition and pedantry; and they cloak them with secrecy, thus giving intimations, some dark and shadowy, some clear and bright, of their concepts about the gods, intimations of the same sort as are clearly evidenced in the wearing of the sacred garb. Cf. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum , No. 754 (not included in the third edition), or Altertümer von Pergamon , viii. 2, p. 248, no. 326; also Moralia , 382 c. For this reason, too, the fact that the deceased votaries of Isis are decked with these garments is a sign that these sacred writings accompany them, and that they pass to the other world possessed of these and of naught else. It is a fact, Clea, that having a beard and wearing a coarse cloak does not make philosophers, nor does dressing in linen and shaving the hair make votaries of Isis; but the true votary of Isis is he who, when he has legitimately received what is set forth in the ceremonies connected with these gods, uses reason in investigating and in studying the truth contained therein.
215. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 3.53 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 133
3.53.  Virtue he regards as holiness and vice as utter impiety, being firmly persuaded that not only those who rob temples or blaspheme the gods are sinners and accursed but, much more so, the cowardly, the unjust, the licentious, the fools, and, in general, those who act contrary to the power and will of the gods.
216. Plutarch, On The Sign of Socrates, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 324
217. Plutarch, On The E At Delphi, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brenk and Lanzillotta (2023), Plutarch on Literature, Graeco-Roman Religion, Jews and Christians, 208; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 72
218. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145
415c. afew souls still, in the long reach of time, because of supreme excellence, come, after being purified, to share completely in divine qualities. But with some of these souls it comes to pass that they do not maintain control over themselves, but yield to temptation and are again clothed with mortal bodies and have a dim and darkened life, like mist or vapour."Hesiod thinks that with the lapse of certain periods of years the end comes even to the demigods; for, speaking in the person of the Naiad, he indirectly suggests the length of time with these words: Nine generations long is the life of the crow and his cawing, Nine generations of vigorous men. Lives of four crows together Equal the life of a stag, and three stages the old age of a raven; Nine of the lives of the raven the life of the Phoenix doth equal;
219. Anon., 2 Baruch, 14.17-14.19, 48.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 87; Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 411
220. Plutarch, On Affection For offspring, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 148
221. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 27.7, 59.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132
27.7. εἰ οἱ οὐρανοὶ διηγοῦνται δόξαν θεοῦ, ποίησιν δὲ χειρῶν αὐτοῦ ἀναγγέλλει τὸ στερέωμα: ἡ ἡμέρα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐρεύγεται ῥῆμα, καὶ νὺξ νυκτὶ ἀναγγέλλει γνῶσιν: καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν λόγοι οὐδὲ λαλιαί, ὧν οὐχὶ ἀκούονται αἱ φωναὶ αὐτῶν. 59.2. ἡμεῖς δὲ ἀθῷοι ἐσόμεθα ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ αἰτησόμεθα ἐκτενῆ τὴν δέησιν καὶ ἱκεσίαν ποιούμενοι, ὅπως τὸν ἀριθμὸν τὸν κατηριθμημένον τῶν ἐκλεκτῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ διαφυλάξῃ ἄθραυστον ὁ δημιουργὸς τῶν ἁπάντων διὰ τοῦ ἠγαπημένου παιδὸς αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δἰ οὗ Acts 26, 18 ἐκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ σκότους εἰς φῶς, ἀπὸ ἀγνωσίας εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν δόξης ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ,
222. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.30.110, 35.95, 36.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 63, 146
223. Plutarch, To An Uneducated Ruler, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 58, 87
224. Plutarch, Alcibiades, 1.2, 32.2-32.3, 34.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 169; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 329, 330
1.2. λέγεται δʼ οὐ κακῶς ὅτι τῆς Σωκράτους πρὸς αὐτὸν εὐνοίας καὶ φιλανθρωπίας οὐ μικρὰ πρὸς δόξαν ἀπέλαυσεν, εἴγε Νικίου μὲν καὶ Δημοσθένους καὶ Λαμάχου καὶ Φορμίωνος Θρασυβούλου τε καὶ Θηραμένους, ἐπιφανῶν ἀνδρῶν γενομένων κατʼ αὐτόν, οὐδενὸς οὐδʼ ἡ μήτηρ ὀνόματος τετύχηκεν, Ἀλκιβιάδου δὲ καὶ τίτθην, γένος Λάκαιναν, Ἀμύκλαν ὄνομα, καὶ Ζώπυρον παιδαγωγὸν ἴσμεν, ὧν τὸ μὲν Ἀντισθένης, τὸ δὲ Πλάτων ἱστόρηκε. 32.2. ἃ δὲ Δοῦρις ὁ Σάμιος Ἀλκιβιάδου φάσκων ἀπόγονος εἶναι προστίθησι τούτοις, αὐλεῖν μὲν εἰρεσίαν τοῖς ἐλαύνουσι Χρυσόγονον τὸν πυθιονίκην, κελεύειν δὲ Καλλιππίδην τὸν τῶν τραγῳδιῶν ὑποκριτήν, στατοὺς καὶ ξυστίδας καὶ τὸν ἄλλον ἐναγώνιον ἀμπεχομένους κόσμον, ἱστίῳ δʼ ἁλουργῷ τὴν ναυαρχίδα προσφέρεσθαι τοῖς λιμέσιν, ὥσπερ ἐκ μέθης ἐπικωμάζοντος, 32.3. οὔτε Θεόπομπος οὔτʼ Ἔφορος οὔτε Ξενοφῶν γέγραφεν, οὔτʼ εἰκὸς ἦν οὕτως ἐντρυφῆσαι τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις μετὰ φυγὴν καὶ συμφορὰς τοσαύτας κατερχόμενον, ἀλλʼ ἐκεῖνος καὶ δεδιὼς κατήγετο, καὶ καταχθεὶς οὐ πρότερον ἀπέβη τῆς τριήρους, πρὶν στὰς ἐπὶ τοῦ καταστρώματος ἰδεῖν Εὐρυπτόλεμόν τε τὸν ἀνεψιὸν παρόντα καὶ τῶν ἄλλων φίλων καὶ οἰκείων συχνοὺς ἐκδεχομένους καὶ παρακαλοῦντας. 34.1. οὕτω δὲ τοῦ Ἀλκιβιάδου λαμπρῶς εὐημεροῦντος ὑπέθραττεν ἐνίους ὅμως ὁ τῆς καθόδου καιρός. ᾗ γὰρ ἡμέρᾳ κατέπλευσεν, ἐδρᾶτο τὰ Πλυντήρια τῇ θεῷ. δρῶσι δὲ τὰ ὄργια Πραξιεργίδαι Θαργηλιῶνος ἕκτῃ φθίνοντος ἀπόρρητα, τόν τε κόσμον καθελόντες καὶ τὸ ἕδος κατακαλύψαντες. ὅθεν ἐν ταῖς μάλιστα τῶν ἀποφράδων τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην ἄπρακτον Ἀθηναῖοι νομίζουσιν. 1.2. It is said, and with good reason, that the favour and affection which Socrates showed him contributed not a little to his reputation. Certain it is that Nicias, Demosthenes, Lamachus, Phormio, Thrasybulus, and Theramenes were prominent men, and his contemporaries, and yet we cannot so much as name the mother of any one of them; whereas, in the case of Alcibiades, we even know that his nurse, who was a Spartan woman, was called Amycla, and his tutor Zopyrus. The one fact is mentioned by Antisthenes, the other by Plato. Plat. Alc. 1 122 32.2. Duris the Samian, who claims that he was a descendant of Alcibiades, gives some additional details. He says that the oarsmen of Alcibiades rowed to the music of a flute blown by Chrysogonus the Pythian victor; that they kept time to a rhythmic call from the lips of Callipides the tragic actor; that both these artists were arrayed in the long tunics, flowing robes, and other adornment of their profession; and that the commander’s ship put into harbors with a sail of purple hue, as though, after a drinking bout, he were off on a revel. 32.3. But neither Theopompus, nor Ephorus, nor Xenophon mentions these things, nor is it likely that Alcibiades put on such airs for the Athenians, to whom he was returning after he had suffered exile and many great adversities. Nay, he was in actual fear as he put into the harbor, and once in, he did not leave his trireme until, as he stood on deck, he caught sight of his cousin Euryptolemus on shore, with many other friends and kinsmen, and heard their cries of welcome. 34.1. But while Alcibiades was thus prospering brilliantly, some were nevertheless disturbed at the particular season of his return. For he had put into harbor on the very day when the Plynteria of the goddess Athena were being celebrated. The Praxiergidae celebrate these rites on the twenty-fifth day of Thargelion in strict secrecy, removing the robes of the goddess and covering up her image. Wherefore the Athenians regard this day as the unluckiest of all days for business of any sort.
225. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 127
2.2. ἡ μὲν οὖν νύμφη, πρὸ τῆς νυκτός ᾗ συνείρχθησαν εἰς τὸν θάλαμον, ἔδοξε βροντῆς γενομένης ἐμπεσεῖν αὐτῆς τῇ γαστρὶ κεραυνόν, ἐκ δὲ τῆς πληγῆς πολὺ πῦρ ἀναφθέν, εἶτα ῥηγνύμενον εἰς φλόγας πάντῃ φερομένας διαλυθῆναι. ὁ δὲ Φίλιππος ὑστέρῳ χρόνῳ μετὰ τὸν γάμον εἶδεν ὄναρ αὑτὸν ἐπιβάλλοντα σφραγῖδα τῇ γαστρὶ τῆς γυναικός· ἡ δὲ γλυφὴ τῆς σφραγῖδος, ὡς ᾤετο, λέοντος εἶχεν εἰκόνα. 2.2. Well, then, the night before that on which the marriage was consummated, the bride dreamed that there was a peal of thunder and that a thunder-bolt fell upon her womb, and that thereby much fire was kindled, which broke into flames that travelled all about, and then was extinguished. At a later time, too, after the marriage, Philip dreamed that he was putting a seal upon his wife’s womb; and the device of the seal, as he thought, was the figure of a lion.
226. New Testament, Matthew, 1.22, 4.25, 5.1, 5.2-7.27, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.44, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 6.13, 6.22, 7.29, 11.10, 12.33, 17.2, 18.15, 19.14, 22.29, 22.39, 23.37 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 391
5.7. μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy.
227. Plutarch, Beasts Are Rational, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 322
228. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.5.3-1.5.5, 1.10.4, 1.14.6, 2.17.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •god,image of Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 325, 327; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
229. Plutarch, On The Face Which Appears In The Orb of The Moon, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 145, 148
230. Plutarch, Whether An Old Man Should Engage In Public Affairs, 796 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 323
231. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, 52.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90
232. Periplus Maris Erythraei, Anonymi (Arriani, Ut Fertur) Periplus Maris Erythraei, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 63
233. Arrian, Anabasis of Alexander, 2.3.3 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 99
2.3.3. καί ποτε ἀροῦντος αὐτοῦ ἐπιστῆναι ἐπὶ τὸν ζυγὸν ἀετὸν καὶ ἐπιμεῖναι ἔστε ἐπὶ βουλυτὸν καθήμενον· τὸν δὲ ἐκπλαγέντα τῇ ὄψει ἰέναι κοινώσοντα ὑπὲρ τοῦ θείου παρὰ τοὺς Τελμισσέας τοὺς μάντεις· εἶναι γὰρ τοὺς Τελμισσέας σοφοὺς τὰ θεῖα ἐξηγεῖσθαι καὶ σφισιν ἀπὸ γένους δεδόσθαι αὐτοῖς καὶ γυναιξὶν καὶ παισὶ τὴν μαντείαν.
234. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, None (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levison (2023), The Greek Life of Adam and Eve. 409
235. Palestinian Talmud, Shabbat, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 246
236. Palestinian Talmud, Niddah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213
237. Palestinian Talmud, Nedarim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45
238. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, 5.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, and the conception of the creation of humanity in gods image Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 257, 265
239. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 144
240. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.6, 2.4, 3.4, 8.9, 14.4, 20.11, 23.6, 24.6, 26.7, 27.1, 73.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 43; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 31, 32, 33, 34; McDonough (2009), Christ as Creator: Origins of a New Testament Doctrine, 92, 94; Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 156, 211, 246
1.6. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן פָּתַח (דניאל ב, כב): הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא. הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא, זוֹ גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ט, יח): וְלֹא יָדַע כִּי רְפָאִים שָׁם, וְאוֹמֵר (ישעיה ל, לג): הֶעְמִיק הִרְחִב. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, זוֹ גַּן עֵדֶן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ד, ו): לְמַחְסֶה וּלְמִסְתּוֹר מִזֶּרֶם וּמִמָּטָר, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים לא, כא): תַּסְתִּירֵם בְּסֵתֶר פָּנֶיךָ. דָּבָר אַחֵר הוּא גָּלֵא עַמִּיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): הוֹי הַמַּעֲמִיקִים מֵה'. וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): לַסְתִּר עֵצָה. (דניאל ב, כב): יָדַע מָה בַחֲשׁוֹכָא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה כט, טו): וְהָיָה בְמַחְשָׁךְ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם. (דניאל ב' כב): וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, אֵלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶם שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים, דִּכְתִיב (משלי ד, יח): וְאֹרַח צַדִּיקִים כְּאוֹר נֹגַהּ, וְאוֹמֵר (תהלים צז, יא): אוֹר זָרֻעַ לַצַּדִּיק וגו'. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סָרוֹנְגַיָא, וּנְהוֹרָא עִמֵּהּ שְׁרֵא, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ס, א): קוּמִי אוֹרִי וגו'. בִּפְסִיקְתָּא, אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם הוּא גָּלֵא עֲמִיקָתָא וּמְסַתְּרָתָא, בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים וגו', וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (ישעיה מ, כב): הַנּוֹטֶה כַדֹּק שָׁמַיִם. וְאֶת הָאָרֶץ, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ לְהַלָּן (איוב לז, ו): כִּי לַשֶּׁלֶג יֹאמַר הֱוֵא אָרֶץ (איוב לח, לח): בְּצֶקֶת עָפָר לַמּוּצָק וגו'. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי אוֹר, וְלֹא פֵּרַשׁ, וְהֵיכָן פֵּרַשׁ (תהלים קד, ב): עֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה. 2.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ פָּתַר קְרָיָא בַּגָּלֻיּוֹת, וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ירמיה ד, כט): רָאִיתִי אֶת הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה תֹהוּ. וָבֹהוּ, זֶה גָּלוּת מָדַי (אסתר ו, יד): וַיַּבְהִלוּ לְהָבִיא אֶת הָמָן. וְחשֶׁךְ, זֶה גָּלוּת יָוָן, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה עֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּגְזֵרוֹתֵיהֶן, שֶׁהָיְתָה אוֹמֶרֶת לָהֶם, כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. עַל פְּנֵי תְהוֹם, זֶה גָּלוּת מַמְלֶכֶת הָרְשָׁעָה, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵקֶר כְּמוֹ הַתְּהוֹם, מַה הַתְּהוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין לוֹ חֵקֶר, אַף הָרְשָׁעִים כֵּן. וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת, זֶה רוּחוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ישעיה יא, ב): וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ ה', בְּאֵיזוֹ זְכוּת מְמַשְׁמֶשֶׁת וּבָאָה, הַמְרַחֶפֶת עַל פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם, בִּזְכוּת הַתְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁנִּמְשְׁלָה כַּמַּיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (איכה ב, יט): שִׁפְכִי כַמַּיִם לִבֵּךְ. רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי פְּדָת אָמַר, בְּרִית כְּרוּתָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת שָׁרָב רוּחָה שַׁיְיפָה, וּכְבָר הָיָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן זוֹמָא יוֹשֵׁב וְתוֹהֶא, וְעָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְשָׁאַל בִּשְׁלוֹמוֹ, פַּעַם וּשְׁתַּיִם וְלֹא הֵשִׁיבוֹ, בַּשְׁלִישִׁית הֵשִׁיבוֹ בִּבְהִילוּת, אָמַר לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם, אָמַר לוֹ מְעַיֵּן הָיִיתִי, אָמַר לוֹ מֵעִיד אֲנִי עָלַי שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינִי זָז מִכָּאן עַד שֶׁתּוֹדִיעֵנִי מֵאַיִן הָרַגְלַיִם. אָמַר לוֹ מִסְתַּכֵּל הָיִיתִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית, וְלֹא הָיָה בֵּין מַיִם הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לַמַּיִם הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתַּיִם וְשָׁלשׁ אֶצְבָּעוֹת, וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְנַשֶּׁבֶת אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן אֶלָּא מְרַחֶפֶת, כָּעוֹף הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא מְרַפְרֵף בִּכְנָפָיו וּכְנָפָיו נוֹגְעוֹת וְאֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת. נֶהְפַּךְ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וְאָמַר לְתַלְמִידָיו, הָלַךְ לוֹ בֶּן זוֹמָא, וְלֹא שָׁהוּ יָמִים מֻעָטִים וּבֶן זוֹמָא בָּעוֹלָם. 3.4. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יְהוֹצָדָק שָׁאַל לְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, אָמַר לוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשָּׁמַעְתִּי עָלֶיךָ שֶׁאַתָּה בַּעַל אַגָּדָה, מֵהֵיכָן נִבְרֵאת הָאוֹרָה, אָמַר לוֹ מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנִּתְעַטֵּף בָּהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה וְהִבְהִיק זִיו הֲדָרוֹ מִסּוֹף הָעוֹלָם וְעַד סוֹפוֹ. אֲמָרָהּ לֵיהּ בִּלְחִישָׁה, אָמַר לוֹ מִקְרָא מָלֵא הוּא (תהלים קד, ב): עוֹטֶה אוֹר כַּשַֹּׂלְמָה, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ לִי בִּלְחִישָׁה, אֶתְמְהָא. אָמַר לוֹ כְּשֵׁם שֶׁשְּׁמַעְתִּיהָ בִּלְחִישָׁה כָּךְ אֲמַרְתִּיהָ לָךְ בִּלְחִישָׁה. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה, אִלּוּלֵי שֶׁדְּרָשָׁהּ רַבִּי יִצְחָק בָּרַבִּים לֹא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְאָמְרָהּ, מִקַּמֵּי כֵּן מָה הָיוּ אָמְרִין. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק אָמַר מִמָּקוֹם בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ נִבְרֵאת הָאוֹרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל מג, ב): וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא מִדֶּרֶךְ הַקָּדִים, וְאֵין כְּבוֹדוֹ אֶלָּא בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן מְקוֹם מִקְדָּשֵׁנוּ וגו'. 8.9. שָׁאֲלוּ הַמִּינִים אֶת רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי, כַּמָּה אֱלֹהוֹת בָּרְאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם. אָמַר לָהֶם אֲנִי וְאַתֶּם נִשְׁאַל לְיָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים לְמִן הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים אָדָם, אֲשֶׁר בָּרְאוּ אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא אֲשֶׁר בָּרָא. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב: בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים, אָמַר לָהֶם בָּרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאַתָּה מוֹצֵא פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לַמִּינִים, אַתָּה מוֹצֵא תְּשׁוּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מָה הוּא דֵּין דִּכְתִיב: נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ. אָמַר לָהֶם קִרְאוּן מַה דְּבַתְרֵיהּ, וַיִּבְרְאוּ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמֵיהֶם, לֹא נֶאֱמַר, אֶלָּא וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצְאוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, רַבִּי, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִית בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתְּ מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, לְשֶׁעָבַר אָדָם נִבְרָא מִן הָאֲדָמָה, חַוָּה נִבְרֵאת מִן הָאָדָם, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ, לֹא אִישׁ בְּלֹא אִשָּׁה וְלֹא אִשָּׁה בְּלֹא אִישׁ וְלֹא שְׁנֵיהֶם בְּלֹא שְׁכִינָה. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ אוֹתוֹ, אָמְרוּ לֵיהּ, מַה דֵּין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כב, כב): אֵל אֱלֹהִים ה' וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הֵם יוֹדְעִים אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (יהושע כב, כב): הוּא יֹדֵעַ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו, לְאֵלּוּ דָּחִיתָ בְּקָנֶה, לָנוּ מָה אַתָּה מֵשִׁיב. אָמַר לָהֶם, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן שֵׁם אֱלֹהִים הֵן. כְּאֵינַשׁ דַּאֲמַר, בְּסִילוּגוּס קֵיסָר, אֲגוּסְטוּס קֵיסָר. חָזְרוּ וְשָׁאֲלוּ לוֹ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ מָה הוּא דֵין דִּכְתִיב (יהושע כד, יט): כִּי אֱלֹהִים קְדשִׁים הוּא, אָמַר לָהֶן, קְדשִׁים הֵמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב, אֶלָּא קְדשִׁים הוּא. 14.4. וַיִּיצֶר, שְׁנֵי יְצָרִים, יֵצֶר טוֹב וְיֵצֶר הָרָע. שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה לִבְהֵמָה ב' יְצָרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה רוֹאָה סַכִּין בְּיַד אָדָם לְשָׁחֲטָהּ הָיְתָה מְפַחֶדֶת וּמֵתָה, וַהֲרֵי אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ ב' יְצָרִים, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר אִידָא (זכריה יב, א): וְיֹצֵר רוּחַ אָדָם בְּקִרְבּוֹ, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁנַּפְשׁוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם צְרוּרָה בְּקִרְבּוֹ, אִלְּמָלֵא כֵּן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיְתָה הַצָּרָה בָּאָה עָלָיו הָיָה שׁוֹמְטָהּ וּמַשְׁלִיכָהּ. 20.11. וַיִּקְרָא הָאָדָם שֵׁם אִשְׁתּוֹ חַוָּה (בראשית ג, כ), נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְחִיּוּתוֹ וּמְיַעַצְתּוֹ כְּחִוְיָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר חַוָּה, חִוָּה לָהּ אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן כַּמָּה דוֹרוֹת אִבְּדָה. וְרַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר חִוְיָא חִוְויִךְ וְאַתְּ חִוְיָא דְּאָדָם. (בראשית ג, כ): כִּי הִוא הָיְתָה אֵם כָּל חָי, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר אָמַר עִם כָּל חָי. תָּנֵי הֶעֱשִׁיר עוֹלָה עִמּוֹ, הֶעֱנִי אֵינָה יוֹרֶדֶת עִמּוֹ. רַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמַר אֵם כָּל חָי, אִמָּן שֶׁל כָּל הַחַיִּים, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן כָּל מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שָׁנָה שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה חַוָּה מֵאָדָם, הָיוּ רוּחוֹת הַזְּכָרִים מִתְחַמְּמִין מִמֶּנָּה וְהִיא יוֹלֶדֶת מֵהֶם, וְרוּחוֹת נְקֵבוֹת מִתְחַמְּמוֹת מֵאָדָם וּמוֹלִידוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב ז, יד): אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֹתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם, בְּנוֹי דְּאָדָם קַדְמָאָה, מַאן דַּאֲמַר רוּחֵי דְבֵיתָא טָבָן, דְּרָבִין עִמֵּיהּ, מַאן דַּאֲמַר אִינּוּן בִּישִׁין, דְּחַכְּמִין יִצְרֵיהּ. רוּחִין דְּחַקְלָא, מַאן דַּאֲמַר דְּאִינּוּן טָבִין, דְּלָא חַכִּימִין יִצְרֵיהּ, וּמַאן דַּאֲמַר דְּאִינּוּן בִּישִׁין, דְּלָא רָבִין עִמֵּיהּ. 23.6. וּלְשֵׁת גַּם הוּא יֻלַּד בֵּן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת שְׁמוֹ אֱנוֹשׁ (בראשית ד, כו), בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי אַבָּא כֹּהֵן בַּרְדְּלָא אָדָם שֵׁת אֱנוֹשׁ, וְשָׁתַק, אָמַר עַד כָּאן בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, מִכָּאן וָאֵילָךְ נִתְקַלְקְלוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת וְנִבְרְאוּ קִנְטוּרִין. אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים נִשְׁתַּנּוּ בִּימֵי אֱנוֹשׁ בֶּן שֵׁת, הֶהָרִים נַעֲשׂוּ טְרָשִׁים, וְהִתְחִיל הַמֵּת מַרְחִישׁ, וְנַעֲשׂוּ פְּנֵיהֶם כְּקוֹפוֹת, וְנַעֲשׂוּ חֻלִּין לַמַּזִּיקִין. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק הֵן הֵן שֶׁגָּרְמוּ לְעַצְמָן לִהְיוֹת חֻלִּין לַמַּזִּיקִין, מַה בֵּין דְּגָחֵין לְצַלְמָא לְמַאן דְּגָחֵין לְבַר נָשׁ. 24.6. דָּבָר אַחֵר, זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם, אִלֵּין תּוֹלָדוֹת וְאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹנִים תּוֹלָדוֹת, וּמָה הֵן אֱלֹהוֹת. בְּעוֹן קוֹמֵי אַבָּא כֹּהֵן בַּרְדְּלָא, אָדָם שֵׁת אֱנוֹשׁ, וְשָׁתַק, אָמַר לָהֶם עַד כָּאן בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים וכו' כְּדִכְתִיב לְעֵיל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֵלּוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת וְאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹנִים תּוֹלָדוֹת, וּמָה הֵן רוּחוֹת, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן כָּל מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים שָׁנָה שֶׁפֵּרְשָׁה חַוָּה מֵאָדָם הָיוּ רוּחוֹת הַזְּכָרִים מִתְחַמְּמִים מִמֶּנָּהּ וְהָיוּ מוֹלִידִים מִמֶּנָּהּ, וְרוּחוֹת נְקֵבוֹת מִתְחַמְּמוֹת מֵאָדָם וּמוֹלִידִים מִמֶּנּוּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (שמואל ב ז, יד): אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֹתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם, בְּנוֹי דְּאָדָם קַדְמָאָה מַאן דְּאָמַר דְּרוּחֵי דְבֵיתָא טָבִין דְּרָבוּ עִמֵּיהּ, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר דְּאִינּוּן בִּישִׁין דְּחַכְּמִין יִצְרֵיהּ, מַאן דְּאָמַר דְּרוּחֵי דְחַקְלָא בִּישִׁין דְּלָא רָבִין עִמֵּיהּ, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר דְּאִינּוּן טָבִין דְּלָא חַכְּמִין יִצְרֵיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֵלּוּ תּוֹלָדוֹת וְאֵין הָרִאשׁוֹנִים תּוֹלָדוֹת, לָמָּה שֶׁהֵן כָּלִין בַּמַּיִם, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כָּל הַשֵּׁמוֹת הַלָּלוּ לָשׁוֹן מַרְדּוּת הֵן, עִירָד, עוֹרְדָן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם וכו', עַד מַה לִּי לְלֶמֶךְ וּלְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו. 26.7. הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם (בראשית ו, ד), שִׁבְעָה שֵׁמוֹת נִקְרְאוּ לָהֶם, אֵימִים, רְפָאִים, גִּבּוֹרִים, זַמְזֻמִּים, עֲנָקִים, עַוִּים, נְפִלִים. אֵימִים, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן הָיְתָה אֵימָתָן נוֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו. רְפָאִים, שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁרָאָה אוֹתָן הָיָה לִבּוֹ רָפֶה כְּשַׁעֲוָה. גִּבּוֹרִים, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר מֹחַ קוּלִיתוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶם הָיְתָה נִמְדֶדֶת י"ח אַמָּה. זַמְזֻמִּים, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר חֲנִינָא מְנַטְרוֹמִין מְגִיסְטֵי מִלְחָמָה. עֲנָקִים, רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי אַחָא, רַבָּנָן אָמְרוּ שֶׁהָיוּ מַרְבִּים עֲנָקִים עַל גַּבֵּי עֲנָקִים [פרוש תכשיטיז], רַבִּי אַחָא אָמַר שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹנְקִים גַּלְגַּל חַמָּה, וְאוֹמְרִים הוֹרֵד לָנוּ גְשָׁמִים. עַוִּים, שֶׁצָּדוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם וְשֶׁהֻצְדוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁגָּרְמוּ לָעוֹלָם שֶׁיִּצּוֹד, הֵיךְ מַה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (יחזקאל כא, לב): עַוָּה עַוָּה עַוָּה אֲשִׂימֶנָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן שֶׁהָיוּ בְּקִיאִים בַּעֲפָרוֹת כִּנְחָשִׁים. בְּגָלִילָא צָוְחִין לְחִוְיָא אִוְיָא. נְפִלִים, שֶׁהִפִּילוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁנָּפְלוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם וְשֶׁמִּלְּאוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם נְפָלִים בַּזְנוּת שֶׁלָּהֶם. (בראשית ו, ד): וְגַם אַחֲרֵי כֵן, יְהוּדָה בַּר רַבִּי אַמֵּי אָמַר, אַחֲרָאֵי לָא יִלְּפוּן מִן קֳדָמָאֵי, דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל לֹא לָקְחוּ מוּסָר מִדּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ, וְדוֹר הַפְלָגָה מִדּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. (בראשית ו, ד): וְגַם אַחֲרֵי כֵן אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הָיְתָה אִשָּׁה יוֹצֵאת בַּשּׁוּק וְהָיְתָה רוֹאָה בָּחוּר וּמִתְאַוָּה לוֹ וְהָיְתָה הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת אֶת מִטָּתָהּ וְהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בָּחוּר כַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם (בראשית ו, ד), אָמַר רַבִּי אֲחָא (איוב ל, ח): בְּנֵי נָבָל גַּם בְּנֵי בְלִי שֵׁם, וְאַתְּ אֲמַרְתְּ אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, אֶלָּא שֶׁהִשִּׁימוּ אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁהוּשַׁמּוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם, וְשֶׁגָּרְמוּ לָעוֹלָם שֶׁיִּשֹּׁוֹם. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אֲנָשִׁים שֶׁנִּתְפָּרְשׁוּ שְׁמוֹתָן לְמַעְלָן, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי כָּל הַשֵּׁמוֹת הַלָּלוּ לָשׁוֹן מַרְדּוּת הֵן, עִירָד, עוֹרְדָּן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מְחוּיָאֵל, מוֹחָן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מְתוּשָׁאֵל, מַתִּישָׁן אֲנִי מִן הָעוֹלָם. מַה לִּי לְלֶמֶךְ וּלְתוֹלְדוֹתָיו. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, וּמִי פֵּרַשׁ מַעֲשֵׂיהֶן, אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי, וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי, וְצוֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר אִלּוּ לֹא בָּא אִיּוֹב לָעוֹלָם אֶלָּא לְפָרֵשׁ לָנוּ מַעֲשֶׂה הַמַּבּוּל, דַּיּוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי חָנִין אִלּוּ לֹא בָּא אֱלִיהוּא אֶלָּא לְפָרֵשׁ לָנוּ מַעֲשֵׂה יְרִידַת הַגְּשָׁמִים, דַּיּוֹ, דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן כָּל אוֹרָה שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר בֶּאֱלִיהוּא אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּירִידַת גְּשָׁמִים. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה אָמַר אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בְּמַתַּן תּוֹרָה, כְּמָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ו, כג): כִּי נֵר מִצְוָה וְתוֹרָה אוֹר. רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, קָשָׁה הִיא הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת כְּדוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם, וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (במדבר טז, ב): קְרִאֵי מוֹעֵד אַנְשֵׁי שֵׁם, מַה אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר לְהַלָּן מַחֲלֹקֶת אַף אַנְשֵׁי שֵׁם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר כָּאן מַחֲלֹקֶת. 27.1. וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם (בראשית ו, ה), כְּתִיב (קהלת ב, כא): כִּי יֵשׁ אָדָם שֶׁעֲמָלוֹ בְּחָכְמָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכִשְׁרוֹן, אָמַר רַבִּי יוּדָן גָּדוֹל כֹּחָן שֶׁל נְבִיאִים שֶׁמְדַמִּין צוּרָה לְיוֹצְרָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ח, טז): וָאֶשְׁמַע קוֹל אָדָם בֵּין אוּלָי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן אִית לָן קְרָיָא אוֹחֳרָן דִּמְחַוַּר יֶתֶר מִן דֵּין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל א, כו): וְעַל דְּמוּת הַכִּסֵּא דְּמוּת כְּמַרְאֵה אָדָם עָלָיו מִלְּמָעְלָה. שֶׁעֲמָלוֹ בְּחָכְמָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ. וּבְדַעַת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, כ): בְּדַעְתּוֹ תְּהוֹמוֹת נִבְקָעוּ. וּבְכִשְׁרוֹן, רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּר סִימוֹן לֹא בֶעָמָל וְלֹא בִיגִיעָה בָּרָא הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֶת עוֹלָמוֹ, אֶלָּא (תהלים לג, ו): בִּדְבַר ה' שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ. בִּדְבַר ה' וּכְבָר שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ. (קהלת ב, כא): וּלְאָדָם שֶׁלֹא עָמַל בּוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ חֶלְקוֹ, זֶה דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל. (קהלת ב, כא): גַּם זֶה הֶבֶל וְרָעָה רַבָּה, וַיַּרְא ה' כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ. 1.6. "Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon opened with (Daniel 2:22): \"He reveals the deep and secret. He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him.\" \"He reveals the deep\"--this is Hell, as it says (Proverbs 9:18): \"He does not know there are spirits there,\" and it says (Isaiah 30:33): \"deep and large\". \"And secret\"--this is Paradise, as it says (Isaiah 4:6): \"for a cover and refuge from storm and rain,\" and it says (Psalms 31:21): \"You hide them in the cover of Your presence.\" Alternatively, \"he reveals the deep and secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says (Isaiah 29:15): \"Woe to the ones who seek deep from God to make their counsel secret.\" \"And secret\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as the verse states. \"He knows what is in the dark\"--these are the acts of the wicked, as it says in Isaiah: \"Their acts are in the dark.\" \"The light dwells with Him\"--these are the acts of the righteous, as it is written (Proverbs 4:18): \"The path of the righteous is like the light at dawn,\" and it says (Psalms 97:11): \"Light is sown for the righteous.\" Rabbi Abba Srungia said: \"The light dwells with Him\"--this is the Messiah, as it says (Isaiah 60:1): \"Arise, shine, for your light has come.\" Rabbi Yehudah Bar Simon said: From the beginning of the creation of the world, \"he revealed the dark and secret\". \"In the beginning God created the heavens,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Isaiah 40:22): \"He stretches out the heavens like a curtain.\" \"And the land,\" but it is not explained. Where is it explained? Here (Job 37:6): \"For He says to the snow: 'Fall on the earth.'\" and (Job 38:38) \"When the dust runs into a mass, and the clods cleave together.\" \"And God said: 'Let there be light,'\" and it is not explained. Where is it explained? (Psalms 104:2) \"You cover Yourself with light like a garment.\"", 3.4. "Rabbi Shimeon Ben Yehotzadak asked Rabbi Shmuel Bar Nachman: Since I heard that you are a master of agadot, tell me from where was the light created? He answered: [the text] teaches that the Holy One of Blessing enveloped Himself [in it] as [one does with] a cloak, and made the splendor of His glory shine from one end of the world to the other. He told him this agadah in a whisper: he said to him - there is even a full verse [about it] 'He wears light as a cloak' (Ps. 104:2). [Rabbi Shmuel Bar Nachman said] And you are telling this to me in a whisper? This is surprising! He told him: Just as I heard it in a whisper, I'm telling you in a whisper. Said Rabbi Berachia in the name of Rabbi Itzchak: The light was created from the place of the Beit Hamikdash, since it is written 'And behold the glory of the God of Israel comes from the way of the East' (Ezekiel 43:2) and there is no His glory except the Beit Hamikdash, as you say: 'A throne of glory, on high from the beginning, the place of our sanctuary' (Jeremiah 17:12) etc.", 8.9. "... [R’ Simlai] said to them: In the past Adam was created from the adamah and Chavah was created from the adam. From here and onward, “in our image as our likeness”—not man without woman and not woman without man, and not both of them without Shekhinah (God’s presence).", 14.4. "Wayyiyzer: two formations, the good and the evil. For if an animal possessed two [such] formations, it would die of fright on seeing a man holding a knife to kill it. But surely a man does possess these two faculties! Said R. Hanina (rjinena) b. Idi: He bound up the spirit of man within him (Zechariah 12:1); for if that were not so, whenever a trouble came upon him he would remove and cast it from him.", 27.1. "\"and god saw the evil of man was great\" it says: there is a person who's fortune is with wisdom and knowledge and skill, r yudan says the ability of the prophets is great for they compare a creation to its creator, as it says: i heard the voice of a man from inside the river. r yehuda the son of simon says i have a verse which is more logical than this as it says: and on the shape of a chair was the shape of a man standing above it. we expound on the verse above, that his fortune was with wisdom,this refers to the verse \"and god made the earth with wisdom\" ",
241. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 37.17.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211, 213
37.17.2.  They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life, and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth.
242. Hermas, Similitudes, 5.6.7, 9.14.5, 9.16.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 83; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 423
243. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 259
244. Irenaeus, Demonstration of The Apostolic Teaching, 14.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 65; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 51
245. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.6.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90
246. Aelius Aristides, Sacred Tales, 4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 322
247. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.1-1.30, 1.1.4, 1.3.5, 1.7.2, 1.8.2, 1.15.1, 1.18.3, 1.22.6, 1.22.8, 1.24.5-1.24.7, 1.26.4, 1.28.2, 1.28.8-1.28.9, 1.33.2, 2.2.3, 2.4, 2.4.6, 2.27.5, 2.31.5, 5.11.10, 5.13.7, 5.14.8, 5.17.1, 6.3.15-6.3.16, 7.22.4, 8.37.3, 9.22.1, 9.25.3, 9.33.6, 14.1, 19.6, 22.3, 29.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods, images/statues of •mother of the gods, statues and images of •athens, images of the gods •image, fertile, of goddess, bearers of Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 80, 83; Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 174; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 17, 264; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 63, 87, 129, 274, 329, 339, 343, 347, 349
1.1.4. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος Ἀθηναίοις ὁ μὲν ἐπὶ Μουνυχίᾳ λιμὴν καὶ Μουνυχίας ναὸς Ἀρτέμιδος, ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ Φαληρῷ, καθὰ καὶ πρότερον εἴρηταί μοι, καὶ πρὸς αὐτῷ Δήμητρος ἱερόν. ἐνταῦθα καὶ Σκιράδος Ἀθηνᾶς ναός ἐστι καὶ Διὸς ἀπωτέρω, βωμοὶ δὲ θεῶν τε ὀνομαζομένων Ἀγνώστων καὶ ἡρώων καὶ παίδων τῶν Θησέως καὶ Φαληροῦ· τοῦτον γὰρ τὸν Φαληρὸν Ἀθηναῖοι πλεῦσαι μετὰ Ἰάσονός φασιν ἐς Κόλχους. ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ἀνδρόγεω βωμὸς τοῦ Μίνω, καλεῖται δὲ Ἥρωος· Ἀνδρόγεω δὲ ὄντα ἴσασιν οἷς ἐστιν ἐπιμελὲς τὰ ἐγχώρια σαφέστερον ἄλλων ἐπίστασθαι. 1.3.5. ᾠκοδόμηται δὲ καὶ Μητρὸς θεῶν ἱερόν, ἣν Φειδίας εἰργάσατο, καὶ πλησίον τῶν πεντακοσίων καλουμένων βουλευτήριον, οἳ βουλεύουσιν ἐνιαυτὸν Ἀθηναίοις· Βουλαίου δὲ ἐν αὐτῷ κεῖται ξόανον Διὸς καὶ Ἀπόλλων τέχνη Πεισίου καὶ Δῆμος ἔργον Λύσωνος . τοὺς δὲ θεσμοθέτας ἔγραψε Πρωτογένης Καύνιος, Ὀλβιάδης δὲ Κάλλιππον, ὃς Ἀθηναίους ἐς Θερμοπύλας ἤγαγε φυλάξοντας τὴν ἐς τὴν Ἑλλάδα Γαλατῶν ἐσβολήν. 1.7.2. καὶ Πτολεμαῖος μὲν τὴν ἐσβολὴν φραξάμενος ὑπέμενεν ἐπιόντας Κυρηναίους, Μάγᾳ δὲ ἀπαγγέλλεται καθʼ ὁδὸν ἀφεστηκέναι Μαρμαρίδας· εἰσὶ δὲ Λιβύων οἱ Μαρμαρίδαι τῶν νομάδων. καὶ τότε μὲν ἐς Κυρήνην ἀπηλλάσσετο· Πτολεμαῖον δὲ ὡρμημένον διώκειν αἰτία τοιάδε ἐπέσχεν. ἡνίκα παρεσκευάζετο ἐπιόντα ἀμύνεσθαι Μάγαν, ξένους ἐπηγάγετο καὶ ἄλλους καὶ Γαλάτας ἐς τετρακισχιλίους· τούτους λαβὼν ἐπιβουλεύοντας κατασχεῖν Αἴγυπτον, ἀνήγαγε σφᾶς ἐς νῆσον ἔρημον διὰ τοῦ ποταμοῦ. καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐνταῦθα ἀπώλοντο ὑπό τε ἀλλήλων καὶ τοῦ λιμοῦ· 1.8.2. μετὰ δὲ τὰς εἰκόνας τῶν ἐπωνύμων ἐστὶν ἀγάλματα θεῶν, Ἀμφιάραος καὶ Εἰρήνη φέρουσα Πλοῦτον παῖδα. ἐνταῦθα Λυκοῦργός τε κεῖται χαλκοῦς ὁ Λυκόφρονος καὶ Καλλίας, ὃς πρὸς Ἀρταξέρξην τὸν Ξέρξου τοῖς Ἕλλησιν, ὡς Ἀθηναίων οἱ πολλοὶ λέγουσιν, ἔπραξε τὴν εἰρήνην· ἔστι δὲ καὶ Δημοσθένης, ὃν ἐς Καλαυρείαν Ἀθηναῖοι τὴν πρὸ Τροιζῆνος νῆσον ἠνάγκασαν ἀποχωρῆσαι, δεξάμενοι δὲ ὕστερον διώκουσιν αὖθις μετὰ τὴν ἐν Λαμίᾳ πληγήν. 1.15.1. ἰοῦσι δὲ πρὸς τὴν στοάν, ἣν Ποικίλην ὀνομάζουσιν ἀπὸ τῶν γραφῶν, ἔστιν Ἑρμῆς χαλκοῦς καλούμενος Ἀγοραῖος καὶ πύλη πλησίον· ἔπεστι δέ οἱ τρόπαιον Ἀθηναίων ἱππομαχίᾳ κρατησάντων Πλείσταρχον, ὃς τῆς ἵππου Κασσάνδρου καὶ τοῦ ξενικοῦ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀδελφὸς ὢν ἐπετέτραπτο. αὕτη δὲ ἡ στοὰ πρῶτα μὲν Ἀθηναίους ἔχει τεταγμένους ἐν Οἰνόῃ τῆς Ἀργεία; ἐναντία Λακεδαιμονίων· γέγραπται δὲ οὐκ ἐς ἀκμὴν ἀγῶνος οὐδὲ τολμημάτων ἐς ἐπίδειξιν τὸ ἔργον ἤδη προῆκον, ἀλλὰ ἀρχομένη τε ἡ μάχη καὶ ἐς χεῖρας ἔτι συνιόντες. 1.18.3. πλησίον δὲ πρυτανεῖόν ἐστιν, ἐν ᾧ νόμοι τε οἱ Σόλωνός εἰσι γεγραμμένοι καὶ θεῶν Εἰρήνης ἀγάλματα κεῖται καὶ Ἑστίας, ἀνδριάντες δὲ ἄλλοι τε καὶ Αὐτόλυκος ὁ παγκρατιαστής· τὰς γὰρ Μιλτιάδου καὶ Θεμιστοκλέους εἰκόνας ἐς Ῥωμαῖόν τε ἄνδρα καὶ Θρᾷκα μετέγραψαν. 1.22.6. —ἔστι δὲ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ τῶν προπυλαίων οἴκημα ἔχον γραφάς· ὁπόσαις δὲ μὴ καθέστηκεν ὁ χρόνος αἴτιος ἀφανέσιν εἶναι, Διομήδης ἦν, ὁ μὲν ἐν Λήμνῳ τὸ Φιλοκτήτου τόξον, ὁ δὲ τὴν Ἀθηνᾶν ἀφαιρούμενος ἐξ Ἰλίου. ἐνταῦθα ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς Ὀρέστης ἐστὶν Αἴγισθον φονεύων καὶ Πυλάδης τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς Ναυπλίου βοηθοὺς ἐλθόντας Αἰγίσθῳ· τοῦ δὲ Ἀχιλλέως τάφου πλησίον μέλλουσά ἐστι σφάζεσθαι Πολυξένη. Ὁμήρῳ δὲ εὖ μὲν παρείθη τόδε τὸ ὠμὸν οὕτως ἔργον· εὖ δέ μοι φαίνεται ποιῆσαι Σκῦρον ὑπὸ Ἀχιλλέως ἁλοῦσαν, οὐδὲν ὁμοίως καὶ ὅσοι λέγουσιν ὁμοῦ ταῖς παρθένοις Ἀχιλλέα ἔχειν ἐν Σκύρῳ δίαιταν, ἃ δὴ καὶ Πολύγνωτος ἔγραψεν. ἔγραψε δὲ καὶ πρὸς τῷ ποταμῷ ταῖς ὁμοῦ Ναυσικᾷ πλυνούσαις ἐφιστάμενον Ὀδυσσέα κατὰ τὰ αὐτὰ καθὰ δὴ καὶ Ὅμηρος ἐποίησε. γραφαὶ δέ εἰσι καὶ ἄλλαι καὶ Ἀλκιβιάδης, 1.22.8. κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἔσοδον αὐτὴν ἤδη τὴν ἐς ἀκρόπολιν Ἑρμῆν ὃν Προπύλαιον ὀνομάζουσι καὶ Χάριτας Σωκράτην ποιῆσαι τὸν Σωφρονίσκου λέγουσιν, ᾧ σοφῷ γενέσθαι μάλιστα ἀνθρώπων ἐστὶν ἡ Πυθία μάρτυς, ὃ μηδὲ Ἀνάχαρσιν ἐθέλοντα ὅμως καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἀφικόμενον προσεῖπεν. 1.24.5. ὁπόσα ἐν τοῖς καλουμένοις ἀετοῖς κεῖται, πάντα ἐς τὴν Ἀθηνᾶς ἔχει γένεσιν, τὰ δὲ ὄπισθεν ἡ Ποσειδῶνος πρὸς Ἀθηνᾶν ἐστιν ἔρις ὑπὲρ τῆς γῆς· αὐτὸ δὲ ἔκ τε ἐλέφαντος τὸ ἄγαλμα καὶ χρυσοῦ πεποίηται. μέσῳ μὲν οὖν ἐπίκειταί οἱ τῷ κράνει Σφιγγὸς εἰκών—ἃ δὲ ἐς τὴν Σφίγγα λέγεται, γράψω προελθόντος ἐς τὰ Βοιώτιά μοι τοῦ λόγου—, καθʼ ἑκάτερον δὲ τοῦ κράνους γρῦπές εἰσιν ἐπειργασμένοι. 1.24.6. τούτους τοὺς γρῦπας ἐν τοῖς ἔπεσιν Ἀριστέας ὁ Προκοννήσιος μάχεσθαι περὶ τοῦ χρυσοῦ φησιν Ἀριμασποῖς τοῖς ὑπὲρ Ἰσσηδόνων· τὸν δὲ χρυσόν, ὃν φυλάσσουσιν οἱ γρῦπες, ἀνιέναι τὴν γῆν· εἶναι δὲ Ἀριμασποὺς μὲν ἄνδρας μονοφθάλμους πάντας ἐκ γενετῆς, γρῦπας δὲ θηρία λέουσιν εἰκασμένα, πτερὰ δὲ ἔχειν καὶ στόμα ἀετοῦ. καὶ γρυπῶν μὲν πέρι τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω· 1.24.7. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ὀρθόν ἐστιν ἐν χιτῶνι ποδήρει καί οἱ κατὰ τὸ στέρνον ἡ κεφαλὴ Μεδούσης ἐλέφαντός ἐστιν ἐμπεποιημένη· καὶ Νίκην τε ὅσον τεσσάρων πηχῶν, ἐν δὲ τῇ χειρί δόρυ ἔχει, καί οἱ πρὸς τοῖς ποσὶν ἀσπίς τε κεῖται καὶ πλησίον τοῦ δόρατος δράκων ἐστίν· εἴη δʼ ἂν Ἐριχθόνιος οὗτος ὁ δράκων. ἔστι δὲ τῷ βάθρῳ τοῦ ἀγάλματος ἐπειργασμένη Πανδώρας γένεσις. πεποίηται δὲ Ἡσιόδῳ τε καὶ ἄλλοις ὡς ἡ Πανδώρα γένοιτο αὕτη γυνὴ πρώτη· πρὶν δὲ ἢ γενέσθαι Πανδώραν οὐκ ἦν πω γυναικῶν γένος. ἐνταῦθα εἰκόνα ἰδὼν οἶδα Ἀδριανοῦ βασιλέως μόνου, καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἔσοδον Ἰφικράτους ἀποδειξαμένου πολλά τε καὶ θαυμαστὰ ἔργα. 1.26.4. τῆς δὲ εἰκόνος πλησίον τῆς Ὀλυμπιοδώρου χαλκοῦν Ἀρτέμιδος ἄγαλμα ἔστηκεν ἐπίκλησιν Λευκοφρύνης, ἀνέθεσαν δὲ οἱ παῖδες οἱ Θεμιστοκλέους· Μάγνητες γάρ, ὧν ἦρχε Θεμιστοκλῆς λαβὼν παρὰ βασιλέως, Λευκοφρύνην Ἄρτεμιν ἄγουσιν ἐν τιμῇ. δεῖ δέ με ἀφικέσθαι τοῦ λόγου πρόσω, πάντα ὁμοίως ἐπεξιόντα τὰ Ἑλληνικά. Ἔνδοιος ἦν γένος μὲν Ἀθηναῖος, Δαιδάλου δὲ μαθητής, ὃς καὶ φεύγοντι Δαιδάλῳ διὰ τὸν Κάλω θάνατον ἐπηκολούθησεν ἐς Κρήτην· τούτου καθήμενόν ἐστιν Ἀθηνᾶς ἄγαλμα, ἐπίγραμμα ἔχον ὡς Καλλίας μὲν ἀναθείη, ποιήσειε δὲ Ἔνδοιος. 1.28.2. χωρὶς δὲ ἢ ὅσα κατέλεξα δύο μὲν Ἀθηναίοις εἰσὶ δεκάται πολεμήσασιν, ἄγαλμα Ἀθηνᾶς χαλκοῦν ἀπὸ Μήδων τῶν ἐς Μαραθῶνα ἀποβάντων τέχνη Φειδίου —καί οἱ τὴν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀσπίδος μάχην Λαπιθῶν πρὸς Κενταύρους καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἐστὶν ἐπειργασμένα λέγουσι τορεῦσαι Μῦν , τῷ δὲ Μυῒ ταῦτά τε καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τῶν ἔργων Παρράσιον καταγράψαι τὸν Εὐήνορος· ταύτης τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ἡ τοῦ δόρατος αἰχμὴ καὶ ὁ λόφος τοῦ κράνους ἀπὸ Σουνίου προσπλέουσίν ἐστιν ἤδη σύνοπτα—, καὶ ἅρμα κεῖται χαλκοῦν ἀπὸ Βοιωτῶν δεκάτη καὶ Χαλκιδέων τῶν ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ. δύο δὲ ἄλλα ἐστὶν ἀναθήματα, Περικλῆς ὁ Ξανθίππου καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν Φειδίου θέας μάλιστα ἄξιον Ἀθηνᾶς ἄγαλμα ἀπὸ τῶν ἀναθέντων καλουμένης Λημνίας. 1.28.8. ἔστι δὲ Ἀθηναίοις καὶ ἄλλα δικαστήρια οὐκ ἐς τοσοῦτο δόξης ἥκοντα. τὸ μὲν οὖν καλούμενον παράβυστον καὶ τρίγωνον, τὸ μὲν ἐν ἀφανεῖ τῆς πόλεως ὂν καὶ ἐπʼ ἐλαχίστοις συνιόντων ἐς αὐτό, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ σχήματος ἔχει τὰ ὀνόματα· βατραχιοῦν δὲ καὶ φοινικιοῦν ἀπὸ χρωμάτων τὸ δὲ καὶ ἐς τόδε διαμεμένηκεν ὀνομάζεσθαι. τὸ δὲ μέγιστον καὶ ἐς ὃ πλεῖστοι συνίασιν, ἡλιαίαν καλοῦσιν. ὁπόσα δὲ ἐπὶ τοῖς φονεῦσιν, ἔστιν ἄλλα· καὶ ἐπὶ Παλλαδίῳ καλοῦσι καὶ τοῖς ἀποκτείνασιν ἀκουσίως κρίσις καθέστηκε. καὶ ὅτι μὲν Δημοφῶν πρῶτος ἐνταῦθα ὑπέσχε δίκας, ἀμφισβητοῦσιν οὐδένες· 1.28.9. ἐφʼ ὅτῳ δέ, διάφορα ἐς τοῦτο εἴρηται. Διομήδην φασὶν ἁλούσης Ἰλίου ταῖς ναυσὶν ὀπίσω κομίζεσθαι, καὶ ἤδη τε νύκτα ἐπέχειν ὡς κατὰ Φάληρον πλέοντες γίνονται καὶ τοὺς Ἀργείους ὡς ἐς πολεμίαν ἀποβῆναι τὴν γῆν, ἄλλην που δόξαντας ἐν τῇ νυκτὶ καὶ οὐ τὴν Ἀττικὴν εἶναι. ἐνταῦθα Δημοφῶντα λέγουσιν ἐκβοηθήσαντα, οὐκ ἐπιστάμενον οὐδὲ τοῦτον τοὺς ἀπὸ τῶν νεῶν ὡς εἰσὶν Ἀργεῖοι, καὶ ἄνδρας αὐτῶν ἀποκτεῖναι καὶ τὸ Παλλάδιον ἁρπάσαντα οἴχεσθαι, Ἀθηναῖόν τε ἄνδρα οὐ προϊδόμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ ἵππου τοῦ Δημοφῶντος ἀνατραπῆναι καὶ συμπατηθέντα ἀποθανεῖν· ἐπὶ τούτῳ Δημοφῶντα ὑποσχεῖν δίκας οἱ μὲν τοῦ συμπατηθέντος τοῖς προσήκουσιν, οἱ δὲ Ἀργείων φασὶ τῷ κοινῷ. 1.33.2. Μαραθῶνος δὲ σταδίους μάλιστα ἑξήκοντα ἀπέχει Ῥαμνοῦς τὴν παρὰ θάλασσαν ἰοῦσιν ἐς Ὠρωπόν. καὶ αἱ μὲν οἰκήσεις ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις εἰσί, μικρὸν δὲ ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἄνω Νεμέσεώς ἐστιν ἱερόν, ἣ θεῶν μάλιστα ἀνθρώποις ὑβρισταῖς ἐστιν ἀπαραίτητος. δοκεῖ δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἀποβᾶσιν ἐς Μαραθῶνα τῶν βαρβάρων ἀπαντῆσαι μήνιμα ἐκ τῆς θεοῦ ταύτης· καταφρονήσαντες γὰρ μηδέν σφισιν ἐμποδὼν εἶναι τὰς Ἀθήνας ἑλεῖν, λίθον Πάριον ὃν ὡς ἐπʼ ἐξειργασμένοις ἦγον ἐς τροπαίου ποίησιν. 2.2.3. Κορινθίοις δὲ τοῖς ἐπινείοις τὰ ὀνόματα Λέχης καὶ Κεγχρίας ἔδοσαν, Ποσειδῶνος εἶναι καὶ Πειρήνης τῆς Ἀχελῴου λεγόμενοι· πεποίηται δὲ ἐν Ἠοίαις μεγάλαις Οἰβάλου θυγατέρα εἶναι Πειρήνην. ἔστι δὲ ἐν Λεχαίῳ μὲν Ποσειδῶνος ἱερὸν καὶ ἄγαλμα χαλκοῦν, τὴν δὲ ἐς Κεγχρέας ἰόντων ἐξ ἰσθμοῦ ναὸς Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ ξόανον ἀρχαῖον. ἐν δὲ Κεγχρέαις Ἀφροδίτης τέ ἐστι ναὸς καὶ ἄγαλμα λίθου, μετὰ δὲ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῷ ἐρύματι τῷ διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης Ποσειδῶνος χαλκοῦν, κατὰ δὲ τὸ ἕτερον πέρας τοῦ λιμένος Ἀσκληπιοῦ καὶ Ἴσιδος ἱερά. Κεγχρεῶν δὲ ἀπαντικρὺ τὸ Ἑλένης ἐστὶ λουτρόν· ὕδωρ ἐς θάλασσαν ἐκ πέτρας ῥεῖ πολὺ καὶ ἁλμυρὸν ὕδατι ὅμοιον ἀρχομένῳ θερμαίνεσθαι. 2.4.6. ἀνιοῦσι δὲ ἐς τὸν Ἀκροκόρινθον—ἡ δέ ἐστιν ὄρους ὑπὲρ τὴν πόλιν κορυφή, Βριάρεω μὲν Ἡλίῳ δόντος αὐτὴν ὅτε ἐδίκαζεν, Ἡλίου δὲ ὡς οἱ Κορίνθιοί φασιν Ἀφροδίτῃ παρέντος—ἐς δὴ τὸν Ἀκροκόρινθον τοῦτον ἀνιοῦσίν ἐστιν Ἴσιδος τεμένη, ὧν τὴν μὲν Πελαγίαν, τὴν δὲ Αἰγυπτίαν αὐτῶν ἐπονομάζουσιν, καὶ δύο Σαράπιδος, ἐν Κανώβῳ καλουμένου τὸ ἕτερον. μετὰ δὲ αὐτὰ Ἡλίῳ πεποίηνται βωμοί, καὶ Ἀνάγκης καὶ Βίας ἐστὶν ἱερόν· ἐσιέναι δὲ ἐς αὐτὸ οὐ νομίζουσιν. 2.27.5. Ἐπιδαυρίοις δέ ἐστι θέατρον ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ μάλιστα ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν θέας ἄξιον· τὰ μὲν γὰρ Ῥωμαίων πολὺ δή τι καὶ ὑπερῆρ κ ε τῶν πανταχοῦ τῷ κόσμῳ, μεγέθει δὲ Ἀρκάδων τὸ ἐν Μεγάλῃ πόλει· ἁρμονίας δὲ ἢ κάλλους ἕνεκα ἀρχιτέκτων ποῖος ἐς ἅμιλλαν Πολυκλείτῳ γένοιτʼ ἂν ἀξιόχρεως; Πολύκλειτος γὰρ καὶ θέατρον τοῦτο καὶ οἴκημα τὸ περιφερὲς ὁ ποιήσας ἦν. ἐντὸς δὲ τοῦ ἄλσους ναός τέ ἐστιν Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ ἄγαλμα Ἠπιόνης καὶ Ἀφροδίτης ἱερὸν καὶ Θέμιδος καὶ στάδιον, οἷα Ἕλλησι τὰ πολλὰ γῆς χῶμα, καὶ κρήνη τῷ τε ὀρόφῳ καὶ κόσμῳ τῷ λοιπῷ θέας ἀξία. 2.31.5. εἰσὶ δὲ οὐ μακρὰν τῆς Λυκείας Ἀρτέμιδος βωμοὶ διεστηκότες οὐ πολὺ ἀπʼ ἀλλήλων· ὁ μὲν πρῶτός ἐστιν αὐτῶν Διονύσου κατὰ δή τι μάντευμα ἐπίκλησιν Σαώτου, δεύτερος δὲ Θεμίδων ὀνομαζόμενος· Πιτθεὺς τοῦτον ἀνέθηκεν, ὡς λέγουσιν. Ἡλίου δὲ Ἐλευθερίου καὶ σφόδρα εἰκότι λόγῳ δοκοῦσί μοι ποιῆσαι βωμόν, ἐκφυγόντες δουλείαν ἀπὸ Ξέρξου τε καὶ Περσῶν. 5.11.10. ὅσον δὲ τοῦ ἐδάφους ἐστὶν ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ ἀγάλματος, τοῦτο οὐ λευκῷ, μέλανι δὲ κατεσκεύασται τῷ λίθῳ· περιθεῖ δὲ ἐν κύκλῳ τὸν μέλανα λίθου Παρίου κρηπίς, ἔρυμα εἶναι τῷ ἐλαίῳ τῷ ἐκχεομένῳ. ἔλαιον γὰρ τῷ ἀγάλματί ἐστιν ἐν Ὀλυμπίᾳ συμφέρον, καὶ ἔλαιόν ἐστι τὸ ἀπεῖργον μὴ γίνεσθαι τῷ ἐλέφαντι βλάβος διὰ τὸ ἑλῶδες τῆς Ἄλτεως. ἐν ἀκροπόλει δὲ τῇ Ἀθηναίων τὴν καλουμένην Παρθένον οὐκ ἔλαιον, ὕδωρ δὲ τὸ ἐς τὸν ἐλέφαντα ὠφελοῦν ἐστιν· ἅτε γὰρ αὐχμηρᾶς τῆς ἀκροπόλεως οὔσης διὰ τὸ ἄγαν ὑψηλόν, τὸ ἄγαλμα ἐλέφαντος πεποιημένον ὕδωρ καὶ δρόσον τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ ὕδατος ποθεῖ. 5.13.7. Πέλοπος δὲ καὶ Ταντάλου τῆς παρʼ ἡμῖν ἐνοικήσεως σημεῖα ἔτι καὶ ἐς τόδε λείπεται, Ταντάλου μὲν λίμνη τε ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ καλουμένη καὶ οὐκ ἀφανὴς τάφος, Πέλοπος δὲ ἐν Σιπύλῳ μὲν θρόνος ἐν κορυφῇ τοῦ ὄρους ἐστὶν ὑπὲρ τῆς Πλαστήνης μητρὸς τὸ ἱερόν, διαβάντι δὲ Ἕρμον ποταμὸν Ἀφροδίτης ἄγαλμα ἐν Τήμνῳ πεποιημένον ἐκ μυρσίνης τεθηλυίας· ἀναθεῖναι δὲ Πέλοπα αὐτὸ παρειλήφαμεν μνήμῃ, προϊλασκόμενόν τε τὴν θεὸν καὶ γενέσθαι οἱ τὸν γάμον τῆς Ἱπποδαμείας αἰτούμενον. 5.14.8. τὰ δὲ ἐς τὸν μέγαν βωμὸν ὀλίγῳ μέν τι ἡμῖν πρότερόν ἐστιν εἰρημένα, καλεῖται δὲ Ὀλυμπίου Διός· πρὸς αὐτῷ δέ ἐστιν Ἀγνώστων θεῶν βωμὸς καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Καθαρσίου Διὸς καὶ Νίκης καὶ αὖθις Διὸς ἐπωνυμίαν Χθονίου. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ θεῶν πάντων βωμοὶ καὶ Ἥρας ἐπίκλησιν Ὀλυμπίας, πεποιημένος τέφρας καὶ οὗτος· Κλυμένου δέ φασιν αὐτὸν ἀνάθημα εἶναι. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Ἀπόλλωνος καὶ Ἑρμοῦ βωμός ἐστιν ἐν κοινῷ, διότι Ἑρμῆν λύρας, Ἀπόλλωνα δὲ εὑρέτην εἶναι κιθάρας Ἑλλήνων ἐστὶν ἐς αὐτοὺς λόγος. 5.17.1. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ἔχει κατὰ τὰ προειρημένα· τῆς Ἥρας δέ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ ναῷ Διός, τὸ δὲ Ἥρας ἄγαλμα καθήμενόν ἐστιν ἐπὶ θρόνῳ· παρέστηκε δὲ γένειά τε ἔχων καὶ ἐπικείμενος κυνῆν ἐπὶ τῇ κεφαλῇ, ἔργα δέ ἐστιν ἁπλᾶ. τὰς δὲ ἐφεξῆς τούτων καθημένας ἐπὶ θρόνων Ὥρας ἐποίησεν Αἰγινήτης Σμῖλις . παρὰ δὲ αὐτὰς Θέμιδος ἅτε μητρὸς τῶν Ὡρῶν ἄγαλμα ἕστηκε Δορυκλείδου τέχνη, γένος μὲν Λακεδαιμονίου, μαθητοῦ δὲ Διποίνου καὶ Σκύλλιδος . 6.3.15. κατὰ τὸ λεγόμενον ὑπʼ αὐτῶν Ἰώνων, τοὺς τοίχους τοὺς δύο ἐπαλείφοντες. Ἀλκιβιάδου μέν γε τριήρεσιν Ἀθηναίων περὶ Ἰωνίαν ἰσχύοντος ἐθεράπευον αὐτὸν Ἰώνων οἱ πολλοί, καὶ εἰκὼν Ἀλκιβιάδου χαλκῆ παρὰ τῇ Ἥρᾳ τῇ Σαμίων ἐστὶν ἀνάθημα· ὡς δὲ ἐν Αἰγὸς ποταμοῖς ἑάλωσαν αἱ ναῦς αἱ Ἀττικαί, Σάμιοι μὲν ἐς Ὀλυμπίαν τὸν Λύσανδρον, Ἐφέσιοι δὲ ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν ἀνετίθεσαν τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος Λύσανδρόν τε αὐτὸν καὶ Ἐτεόνικον καὶ Φάρακα καὶ ἄλλους Σπαρτιατῶν ἥκιστα ἔς γε τὸ Ἑλληνικὸν γνωρίμους. 6.3.16. μεταπεσόντων δὲ αὖθις τῶν πραγμάτων καὶ Κόνωνος κεκρατηκότος τῇ ναυμαχίᾳ περὶ Κνίδον καὶ ὄρος τὸ Δώριον ὀνομαζόμενον, οὕτω μετεβάλλοντο οἱ Ἴωνες, καὶ Κόνωνα ἀνακείμενον χαλκοῦν καὶ Τιμόθεον ἐν Σάμῳ τε ἔστιν ἰδεῖν παρὰ τῇ Ἥρᾳ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἐν Ἐφέσῳ παρὰ τῇ Ἐφεσίᾳ θεῷ. ταῦτα μέν ἐστιν ἔχοντα οὕτω τὸν ἀεὶ χρόνον, καὶ Ἴωσιν ὡσαύτως οἱ πάντες ἄνθρωποι θεραπεύουσι τὰ ὑπερέχοντα τῇ ἰσχύι. 7.22.4. τοιαύτη καὶ Αἰγυπτίοις ἑτέρα περὶ τοῦ Ἄπιδος τὸ ἱερὸν μαντεία καθέστηκεν· ἐν Φαραῖς δὲ καὶ ὕδωρ ἱερόν ἐστι τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ· Ἑρμοῦ νᾶμα μὲν τῇ πηγῇ τὸ ὄνομα, τοὺς δὲ ἰχθῦς οὐχ αἱροῦσιν ἐξ αὐτῆς, ἀνάθημα εἶναι τοῦ θεοῦ νομίζοντες. ἑστήκασι δὲ ἐγγύτατα τοῦ ἀγάλματος τετράγωνοι λίθοι τριάκοντα μάλιστα ἀριθμόν· τούτους σέβουσιν οἱ Φαρεῖς, ἑκάστῳ θεοῦ τινὸς ὄνομα ἐπιλέγοντες. τὰ δὲ ἔτι παλαιότερα καὶ τοῖς πᾶσιν Ἕλλησι τιμὰς θεῶν ἀντὶ ἀγαλμάτων εἶχον ἀργοὶ λίθοι. 8.37.3. θεῶν δὲ αὐτὰ τὰ ἀγάλματα, Δέσποινα καὶ ἡ Δημήτηρ τε καὶ ὁ θρόνος ἐν ᾧ καθέζονται, καὶ τὸ ὑπόθημα τὸ ὑπὸ τοῖς ποσίν ἐστιν ἑνὸς ὁμοίως λίθου· καὶ οὔτε τῶν ἐπὶ τῇ ἐσθῆτι οὔτε ὁπόσα εἴργασται περὶ τὸν θρόνον οὐδέν ἐστιν ἑτέρου λίθου προσεχὲς σιδήρῳ καὶ κόλλῃ, ἀλλὰ τὰ πάντα ἐστὶν εἷς λίθος. οὗτος οὐκ ἐσεκομίσθη σφίσιν ὁ λίθος, ἀλλὰ κατὰ ὄψιν ὀνείρατος λέγουσιν αὐτὸν ἐξευρεῖν ἐντὸς τοῦ περιβόλου τὴν γῆν ὀρύξαντες. τῶν δὲ ἀγαλμάτων ἐστὶν ἑκατέρου μέγεθος κατὰ τὸ Ἀθήνῃσιν ἄγαλμα μάλιστα τῆς Μητρός· 9.22.1. ἐν Τανάγρᾳ δὲ παρὰ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Διονύσου Θέμιδός ἐστιν, ὁ δὲ Ἀφροδίτης, καὶ ὁ τρίτος τῶν ναῶν Ἀπόλλωνος, ὁμοῦ δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ Ἄρτεμίς τε καὶ Λητώ. ἐς δὲ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τὰ ἱερὰ τοῦ τε Κριοφόρου καὶ ὃν Πρόμαχον καλοῦσι, τοῦ μὲν ἐς τὴν ἐπίκλησιν λέγουσιν ὡς ὁ Ἑρμῆς σφισιν ἀποτρέψαι νόσον λοιμώδη περὶ τὸ τεῖχος κριὸν περιενεγκών, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ Κάλαμις ἐποίησεν ἄγαλμα Ἑρμοῦ φέροντα κριὸν ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων· ὃς δʼ ἂν εἶναι τῶν ἐφήβων προκριθῇ τὸ εἶδος κάλλιστος, οὗτος ἐν τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τῇ ἑορτῇ περίεισιν ἐν κύκλῳ τὸ τεῖχος ἔχων ἄρνα ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων· 9.25.3. διαβάντων δὲ ποταμὸν καλούμενον ἀπὸ γυναικὸς τῆς Λύκου Δίρκην—ὑπὸ ταύτης δὲ ἔχει λόγος Ἀντιόπην κακοῦσθαι καὶ διʼ αὐτὸ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀντιόπης παίδων συμβῆναι τῇ Δίρκῃ τὴν τελευτήν—, διαβᾶσιν οὖν τὴν Δίρκην οἰκίας τε ἐρείπια τῆς Πινδάρου καὶ μητρὸς Δινδυμήνης ἱερόν, Πινδάρου μὲν ἀνάθημα, τέχνη δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα Ἀριστομήδους τε καὶ Σωκράτους Θηβαίων. μιᾷ δὲ ἐφʼ ἑκάστων ἐτῶν ἡμέρᾳ καὶ οὐ πέρα τὸ ἱερὸν ἀνοίγειν νομίζουσιν· ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀφικέσθαι τε ἐξεγεγόνει τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην καὶ τὸ ἄγαλμα εἶδον λίθου τοῦ Πεντελῆσι καὶ αὐτὸ καὶ τὸν θρόνον. 9.33.6. Σύλλα δὲ ἔστι μὲν καὶ τὰ ἐς Ἀθηναίους ἀνήμερα καὶ ἤθους ἀλλότρια τοῦ Ῥωμαίων, ἐοικότα δὲ τούτοις καὶ τὰ ἐς Θηβαίους τε καὶ Ὀρχομενίους· προσεξειργάσατο δὲ καὶ ἐν ταῖς Ἀλαλκομεναῖς, τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς τὸ ἄγαλμα αὐτὸ συλήσας. τοῦτον μὲν τοιαῦτα ἔς τε Ἑλληνίδας πόλεις καὶ θεοὺς τοὺς Ἑλλήνων ἐκμανέντα ἐπέλαβεν ἀχαριστοτάτη νόσος πασῶν· φθειρῶν γὰρ ἤνθησεν, ἥ τε πρότερον εὐτυχία δοκοῦσα ἐς τοιοῦτο περιῆλθεν αὐτῷ τέλος. τὸ δὲ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν ταῖς Ἀλαλκομεναῖς ἠμελήθη τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦδε ἅτε ἠρημωμένον τῆς θεοῦ. 1.1.4. The Athenians have also another harbor, at Munychia, with a temple of Artemis of Munychia, and yet another at Phalerum, as I have already stated, and near it is a sanctuary of Demeter. Here there is also a temple of Athena Sciras, and one of Zeus some distance away, and altars of the gods named Unknown, and of heroes, and of the children of Theseus and Phalerus; for this Phalerus is said by the Athenians to have sailed with Jason to Colchis . There is also an altar of Androgeos, son of Minos, though it is called that of Heros; those, however, who pay special attention to the study of their country's antiquities know that it belongs to Androgeos. 1.3.5. Here is built also a sanctuary of the Mother of the gods; the image is by Pheidias 490-432 B.C. . Hard by is the council chamber of those called the Five Hundred, who are the Athenian councillors for a year. In it are a wooden figure of Zeus Counsellor and an Apollo, the work of Peisias, The dates of these artists are unknown. and a Demos by Lyson. The thesmothetae (lawgivers) were painted by Protogenes A contemporary of Alexander the Great. the Caunian, and Olbiades An unknown painter. portrayed Callippus, who led the Athenians to Thermopylae to stop the incursion of the Gauls into Greece . 279 B.C. 1.7.2. Ptolemy fortified the entrance into Egypt and awaited the attack of the Cyrenians. But while on the march Magas was in formed that the Marmaridae,a tribe of Libyan nomads, had revolted, and thereupon fell back upon Cyrene . Ptolemy resolved to pursue, but was checked owing to the following circumstance. When he was preparing to meet the attack of Magas, he engaged mercenaries, including some four thousand Gauls. Discovering that they were plotting to seize Egypt , he led them through the river to a deserted island. There they perished at one another's hands or by famine. 1.8.2. After the statues of the eponymoi come statues of gods, Amphiaraus, and Eirene (Peace) carrying the boy Plutus (Wealth). Here stands a bronze figure of Lycurgus, An Athenian orator who did great service to Athens when Demosthenes was trying to stir up his countrymen against Philip of Macedon . son of Lycophron, and of Callias, who, as most of the Athenians say, brought about the peace between the Greeks and Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes. c. 448 B.C. Here also is Demosthenes, whom the Athenians forced to retire to Calauria, the island off Troezen , and then, after receiving him back, banished again after the disaster at Lamia . 1.15.1. As you go to the portico which they call painted, because of its pictures, there is a bronze statue of Hermes of the Market-place, and near it a gate. On it is a trophy erected by the Athenians, who in a cavalry action overcame Pleistarchus, to whose command his brother Cassander had entrusted his cavalry and mercenaries. This portico contains, first, the Athenians arrayed against the Lacedaemonians at Oenoe in the Argive territory. Date unknown. What is depicted is not the crisis of the battle nor when the action had advanced as far as the display of deeds of valor, but the beginning of the fight when the combatants were about to close. 1.18.3. Hard by is the Prytaneum (Town-hall), in which the laws of Solon are inscribed, and figures are placed of the goddesses Peace and Hestia (Hearth), while among the statues is Autolycus the pancratiast. See Paus. 1.35.6 . For the likenesses of Miltiades and Themistocles have had their titles changed to a Roman and a Thracian. 1.22.6. On the left of the gateway is a building with pictures. Among those not effaced by time I found Diomedes taking the Athena from Troy , and Odysseus in Lemnos taking away the bow of Philoctetes. There in the pictures is Orestes killing Aegisthus, and Pylades killing the sons of Nauplius who had come to bring Aegisthus succor. And there is Polyxena about to be sacrificed near the grave of Achilles. Homer did well in passing by this barbarous act. I think too that he showed poetic insight in making Achilles capture Scyros, differing entirely from those who say that Achilles lived in Scyros with the maidens, as Polygnotus has re presented in his picture. He also painted Odysseus coming upon the women washing clothes with Nausicaa at the river, just like the description in Homer. There are other pictures, including a portrait of Alcibiades, 1.22.8. Right at the very entrance to the Acropolis are a Hermes (called Hermes of the Gateway) and figures of Graces, which tradition says were sculptured by Socrates, the son of Sophroniscus, who the Pythia testified was the wisest of men, a title she refused to Anacharsis, although he desired it and came to Delphi to win it. 1.24.5. Their ritual, then, is such as I have described. As you enter the temple that they name the Parthenon, all the sculptures you see on what is called the pediment refer to the birth of Athena, those on the rear pediment represent the contest for the land between Athena and Poseidon. The statue itself is made of ivory and gold. On the middle of her helmet is placed a likeness of the Sphinx—the tale of the Sphinx I will give when I come to my description of Boeotia—and on either side of the helmet are griffins in relief. 1.24.6. These griffins, Aristeas An early Greek traveller and writer. of Proconnesus says in his poem, fight for the gold with the Arimaspi beyond the Issedones. The gold which the griffins guard, he says, comes out of the earth; the Arimaspi are men all born with one eye; griffins are beasts like lions, but with the beak and wings of an eagle. I will say no more about the griffins. 1.24.7. The statue of Athena is upright, with a tunic reaching to the feet, and on her breast the head of Medusa is worked in ivory. She holds a statue of Victory about four cubits high, and in the other hand a spear; at her feet lies a shield and near the spear is a serpent. This serpent would be Erichthonius. On the pedestal is the birth of Pandora in relief. Hesiod and others have sung how this Pandora was the first woman; before Pandora was born there was as yet no womankind. The only portrait statue I remember seeing here is one of the emperor Hadrian, and at the entrance one of Iphicrates, A famous Athenian soldier.fl. 390 B.C. who accomplished many remarkable achievements. 1.26.4. Near the statue of Olympiodorus stands a bronze image of Artemis surnamed Leucophryne, dedicated by the sons of Themistocles; for the Magnesians, whose city the King had given him to rule, hold Artemis Leucophryne in honor. But my narrative must not loiter, as my task is a general description of all Greece . Endoeus fl. 540 B.C. was an Athenian by birth and a pupil of Daedalus, who also, when Daedalus was in exile because of the death of Calos, followed him to Crete . Made by him is a statue of Athena seated, with an inscription that Callias dedicated the image, but Endoeus made it. 1.28.2. In addition to the works I have mentioned, there are two tithes dedicated by the Athenians after wars. There is first a bronze Athena, tithe from the Persians who landed at Marathon. It is the work of Pheidias, but the reliefs upon the shield, including the fight between Centaurs and Lapithae, are said to be from the chisel of Mys fl. 430 B.C. , for whom they say Parrhasius the son of Evenor, designed this and the rest of his works. The point of the spear of this Athena and the crest of her helmet are visible to those sailing to Athens , as soon as Sunium is passed. Then there is a bronze chariot, tithe from the Boeotians and the Chalcidians in Euboea c. 507 B.C. . There are two other offerings, a statue of Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, and the best worth seeing of the works of Pheidias, the statue of Athena called Lemnian after those who dedicated it. 1.28.8. The Athenians have other law courts as well, which are not so famous. We have the Parabystum (Thrust aside) and the Triangle; the former is in an obscure part of the city, and in it the most trivial cases are tried; the latter is named from its shape. The names of Green Court and Red Court, due to their colors, have lasted down to the present day. The largest court, to which the greatest numbers come, is called Heliaea. One of the other courts that deal with bloodshed is called “At Palladium,” into which are brought cases of involuntary homicide. All are agreed that Demophon was the first to be tried there, but as to the nature of the charge accounts differ. 1.28.9. It is reported that after the capture of Troy Diomedes was returning home with his fleet when night overtook them as in their voyage they were off Phalerum. The Argives landed, under the impression that it was hostile territory, the darkness preventing them from seeing that it was Attica . Thereupon they say that Demophon, he too being unaware of the facts and ignorant that those who had landed were Argives, attacked them and, having killed a number of them, went off with the Palladium. An Athenian, however, not seeing before him in the dark, was knocked over by the horse of Demophon, trampled upon and killed. Whereupon Demophon was brought to trial, some say by the relatives of the man who was trampled upon, others say by the Argive commonwealth. 1.33.2. About sixty stades from Marathon as you go along the road by the sea to Oropus stands Rhamnus. The dwelling houses are on the coast, but a little way inland is a sanctuary of Nemesis, the most implacable deity to men of violence. It is thought that the wrath of this goddess fell also upon the foreigners who landed at Marathon. For thinking in their pride that nothing stood in the way of their taking Athens , they were bringing a piece of Parian marble to make a trophy, convinced that their task was already finished. 2.2.3. The names of the Corinthian harbors were given them by Leches and Cenchrias, said to be the children of Poseidon and Peirene the daughter of Achelous, though in the poem called The Great Eoeae Said to be a work of Hesiod. Peirene is said to be a daughter of Oebalus. In Lechaeum are a sanctuary and a bronze image of Poseidon, and on the road leading from the Isthmus to Cenchreae a temple and ancient wooden image of Artemis. In Cenchreae are a temple and a stone statue of Aphrodite, after it on the mole running into the sea a bronze image of Poseidon, and at the other end of the harbor sanctuaries of Asclepius and of Isis. Right opposite Cenchreae is Helen's Bath. It is a large stream of salt, tepid water, flowing from a rock into the sea. 2.4.6. The Acrocorinthus is a mountain peak above the city, assigned to Helius by Briareos when he acted as adjudicator, and handed over, the Corinthians say, by Helius to Aphrodite. As you go up this Acrocorinthus you see two precincts of Isis, one if Isis surnamed Pelagian (Marine) and the other of Egyptian Isis, and two of Serapis, one of them being of Serapis called “in Canopus .” After these are altars to Helius, and a sanctuary of Necessity and Force, into which it is not customary to enter. 2.27.5. The Epidaurians have a theater within the sanctuary, in my opinion very well worth seeing. For while the Roman theaters are far superior to those anywhere else in their splendor, and the Arcadian theater at Megalopolis is unequalled for size, what architect could seriously rival Polycleitus in symmetry and beauty? For it was Polycleitus Probably the younger artist of that name. who built both this theater and the circular building. Within the grove are a temple of Artemis, an image of Epione, a sanctuary of Aphrodite and Themis, a race-course consisting, like most Greek race-courses, of a bank of earth, and a fountain worth seeing for its roof and general splendour. 2.31.5. Not far from Artemis Lycea are altars close to one another. The first of them is to Dionysus, surnamed, in accordance with an oracle, Saotes (Saviour); the second is named the altar of the Themides (Laws), and was dedicated, they say, by Pittheus. They had every reason, it seems to me, for making an altar to Helius Eleutherius (Sun, God of Freedom), seeing that they escaped being enslaved by Xerxes and the Persians. 5.11.10. All the floor in front of the image is paved, not with white, but with black tiles. In a circle round the black stone runs a raised rim of Parian marble, to keep in the olive oil that is poured out. For olive oil is beneficial to the image at Olympia , and it is olive oil that keeps the ivory from being harmed by the marshiness of the Altis. On the Athenian Acropolis the ivory of the image they call the Maiden is benefited, not by olive oil, but by water. For the Acropolis, owing to its great height, is over-dry, so that the image, being made of ivory, needs water or dampness. 5.13.7. That Pelops and Tantalus once dwelt in my country there have remained signs right down to the present day. There is a lake called after Tantalus and a famous grave, and on a peak of Mount Sipylus there is a throne of Pelops beyond the sanctuary of Plastene the Mother. If you cross the river Hermus you see an image of Aphrodite in Temnus made of a living myrtle-tree. It is a tradition among us that it was dedicated by Pelops when he was propitiating the goddess and asking for Hippodameia to be his bride. 5.14.8. An account of the great altar I gave a little way back; it is called the altar of Olympian Zeus. By it is an altar of Unknown Gods, and after this an altar of Zeus Purifier, one of Victory, and another of Zeus—this time surnamed Underground. There are also altars of all gods, and of Hera surnamed Olympian, this too being made of ashes. They say that it was dedicated by Clymenus. After this comes an altar of Apollo and Hermes in common, because the Greeks have a story about them that Hermes invented the lyre and Apollo the lute. 5.17.1. These things, then, are as I have already described. In the temple of Hera is an image of Zeus, and the image of Hera is sitting on a throne with Zeus standing by her, bearded and with a helmet on his head. They are crude works of art. The figures of Seasons next to them, seated upon thrones, were made by the Aeginetan Smilis. circa 580-540 B.C. Beside them stands an image of Themis, as being mother of the Seasons. It is the work of Dorycleidas, a Lacedaemonian by birth and a disciple of Dipoenus and Scyllis. 6.3.15. So plainly “the Samians and the rest of the Ionians,” as the Ionians themselves phrase it, painted both the walls. For when Alcibiades had a strong fleet of Athenian triremes along the coast of Ionia , most of the Ionians paid court to him, and there is a bronze statue of Alcibiades dedicated by the Samians in the temple of Hera. But when the Attic ships were captured at Aegospotami 405 B.C. , the Samians set up a statue of Lysander at Olympia , and the Ephesians set up in the sanctuary of Artemis not only a statue of Lysander himself but also statues of Eteonicus, Pharax and other Spartans quite unknown to the Greek world generally. 6.3.16. But when fortune changed again, and Conon had won the naval action off Cnidus and the mountain called Dorium 394 B.C. , the Ionians likewise changed their views, and there are to be seen statues in bronze of Conon and of Timotheus both in the sanctuary of Hera in Samos and also in the sanctuary of the Ephesian goddess at Ephesus . It is always the same; the Ionians merely follow the example of all the world in paying court to strength. 7.22.4. There is a similar method of divination practised at the sanctuary of Apis in Egypt . At Pharae there is also a water sacred to Hermes. The name of the spring is Hermes' stream, and the fish in it are not caught, being considered sacred to the god. Quite close to the image stand square stones, about thirty in number. These the people of Pharae adore, calling each by the name of some god. At a more remote period all the Greeks alike worshipped uncarved stones instead of images of the gods. 8.37.3. The actual images of the goddesses, Mistress and Demeter, the throne on which they sit, along with the footstool under their feet, are all made out of one piece of stone. No part of the drapery, and no part of the carvings about the throne, is fastened to another stone by iron or cement, but the whole is from one block. This stone was not brought in by them, but they say that in obedience to a dream they dug up the earth within the enclosure and so found it. The size of both images just about corresponds to the image of the Mother at Athens . 9.22.1. Beside the sanctuary of Dionysus at Tanagra are three temples, one of Themis, another of Aphrodite, and the third of Apollo; with Apollo are joined Artemis and Leto. There are sanctuaries of Hermes Ram-bearer and of Hermes called Champion. They account for the former surname by a story that Hermes averted a pestilence from the city by carrying a ram round the walls; to commemorate this Calamis made an image of Hermes carrying a ram upon his shoulders. Whichever of the youths is judged to be the most handsome goes round the walls at the feast of Hermes, carrying a lamb on his shoulders. 9.25.3. There is a river called Dirce after the wife of Lycus. The story goes that Antiope was ill-treated by this Dirce, and therefore the children of Antiope put Dirce to death. Crossing the river you reach the ruins of the house of Pindar, and a sanctuary of the Mother Dindymene. Pindar dedicated the image, and Aristomedes and Socrates, sculptors of Thebes , made it. Their custom is to open the sanctuary on one day in each year, and no more. It was my fortune to arrive on that day, and I saw the image, which, like the throne, is of Pentelic marble. 9.33.6. Sulla's treatment of the Athenians was savage and foreign to the Roman character, but quite consistent with his treatment of Thebes and Orchomenus . But in Alalcomenae he added yet another to his crimes by stealing the image of Athena itself. After these mad outrages against the Greek cities and the gods of the Greeks he was attacked by the most foul of diseases. He broke out into lice, and what was formerly accounted his good fortune came to such an end. The sanctuary at Alalcomenae, deprived of the goddess, was hereafter neglected.
248. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 7.2, 23.12, 33.5, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of •image of god, and adam’s image •image of god, and human hybridity •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 156, 213; Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 103, 107, 108
7.2. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה וגו' (תהלים נא, יט), זַבְדִּי בֶּן לֵוִי וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן פֶּטְרָס וְרַבָּנָן, חַד אָמַר, אָמַר דָּוִד לִפְנֵי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אֲנִי כָּבַשְׁתִּי אֶת יִצְרִי וְעָשִׂיתִי תְּשׁוּבָה לְפָנֶיךָ, אִם אַתָּה מְקַבְּלֵנִי בִּתְשׁוּבָה הֲרֵי יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁשְּׁלֹמֹה בְּנִי עוֹמֵד וּבוֹנֶה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבוֹנֶה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְטִיר עָלָיו אֶת הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. וָחֳרָנָא אָמַר מִנַיִן לְמִי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה תְּשׁוּבָה שֶׁמַּעֲלִין עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ עָלָה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם וּבָנָה אֶת בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבָנָה אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמַקְרִיב עָלָיו כָּל הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, מִן הָדֵין קְרָיָא: זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה, וְרַבָּנִין אָמְרֵי מִנַּיִן לְעוֹבֵר לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַזְכִּיר עֲבוֹדָה וְקָרְבָּנוֹת וְלָשֹׁחַ, מִן הֲדָא בִּרְכָתָא, רְצֵה אֱלֹהֵינוּ שְׁכֹן בְּצִיּוֹן מְהֵרָה יַעַבְדוּךָ בָּנֶיךָ. אִית דְּבָעֵי מַשְׁמַעְנָא מִן הֲדָא, זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן כָּל מַה שֶׁפָּסַל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בִּבְהֵמָה הִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם, פָּסַל בִּבְהֵמָה (ויקרא כב, כב): עֲוֶרֶת אוֹ שָׁבוּר אוֹ חָרוּץ אוֹ יַבֶּלֶת, וְהִכְשִׁיר בְּאָדָם (תהלים נא, יט): לֵב נִשְׁבָּר וְנִדְכֶּה. אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי הַהֶדְיוֹט הַזֶּה אִם מְשַׁמֵּשׁ הוּא בְּכֵלִים שְׁבוּרִים גְּנַאי הוּא לוֹ, אֲבָל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּלֵי תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ שְׁבוּרִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים לד, יט): קָרוֹב ה' לְנִשְׁבְּרֵי לֵב, (תהלים קמז, ג): הָרוֹפֵא לִשְׁבוּרֵי לֵב, (ישעיה נז, טו): וְאֶת דַּכָּא וּשְׁפַל רוּחַ. זִבְחֵי אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ נִשְׁבָּרָה לֵב נִשְׁבָּר, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוּדָא בַּר רַבִּי סִימוֹן, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ בַּמִּדְבָּר, וּבָא אוֹהֲבוֹ וְכִבְּדוֹ בְּכַלְכָּלָה אַחַת שֶׁל תְּאֵנִים וְחָבִית אַחַת שֶׁל יַיִן, אָמַר לוֹ זֶה כִּבּוּד גָּדוֹל, אָמַר לוֹ אֲדוֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ לְפִי שָׁעָה כִּבַּדְתִּיךָ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאַתָּה נִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ פָּלָטִין שֶׁלְךָ, אַתָּה רוֹאֶה כַּמָּה אֲנִי מְכַבְּדֶךָ. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל (ויקרא ו, ב): זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה, אָמְרוּ לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹן הָעוֹלָמִים לְפִי שָׁעָה הִקְרַבְנוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, אֲבָל לִכְשֶׁתֵּיטִיב (תהלים נא, כ כא): בִּרְצוֹנְךָ אֶת צִיּוֹן תִּבְנֶה חוֹמוֹת יְרוּשָׁלָיִם, אָז תַּחְפֹּץ זִבְחֵי צֶדֶק עֹלָה וְכָלִיל. 23.12. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יח, ג): כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אֶרֶץ מִִצְרַיִם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כד, טו): וְעֵין נֹאֵף שָׁמְרָה נֶשֶׁף לֵאמֹר לֹא תְשׁוּרֵנִי עָיִן וְסֵתֶר פָּנִים יָשִׂים, אָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא תֹאמַר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא בְּגוּפוֹ נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, נוֹאֵף בְּעֵינָיו נִקְרָא נוֹאֵף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וְעֵין נֹאֵף, וְהַנּוֹאֵף הַזֶּה יוֹשֵׁב וּמְשַׁמֵּר אֵימָתַי נֶשֶׁף בָּא אֵימָתַי עֶרֶב בָּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ז, ט): בְּנֶשֶׁף בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם, וְהוּא אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיּוֹשֵׁב בְּסִתְרוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, זֶה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ, הוּא שֶׁאִיּוֹב אוֹמֵר (איוב י, ג): הֲטוֹב לְךָ כִּי תַעֲשֹׁק, זֶה זָן וּמְפַרְנֵס וְהוּא צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אַחֵר, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): כִּי תִמְאַס יְגִיעַ כַּפֶּיךָ, וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁאַתָּה יָגֵעַ בּוֹ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם אַתָּה חוֹזֵר וּמְקַלְקְלוֹ, אֶלָּא (איוב י, ג): וְעַל עֲצַת רְשָׁעִים הוֹפָעְתָּ, כָּךְ הוּא כְבוֹדְךָ לַעֲמֹד בֵּין נוֹאֵף לְנוֹאָפֶת. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא אִיּוֹב רָאוּי אַתָּה לְפַיֵּס אֶלָּא יְהִי אוֹמֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתָּ (איוב י, ד): הַעֵינֵי בָשָׂר לָךְ, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּת אָבִיו בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי מָשָׁל לְתַלְמִידוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר שֶׁגָּנַב בֵּיצַת יוֹצְרִים וְעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, מֶה עָשָׂה עָמַד וַעֲשָׂאוֹ כְּלִי וְתָלוֹ בְּפָנָיו, וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה לְהוֹדִיעַ שֶׁעָמַד רַבּוֹ עַל גְּנֵבָתוֹ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵינִי צָר כָּל קִטּוֹרִין שֶׁלּוֹ בִּדְמוּתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל לְפַרְסְמוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי בֶּן פְּרָטָא כְּתִיב (דברים לב, יח): צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתֶּם כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. מָשָׁל לְצַיָּר שֶׁהָיָה יוֹשֵׁב וְצָר אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, מִשֶּׁהוּא גּוֹמְרָהּ בָּאוּ וְאָמְרוּ לוֹ נִתְחַלֵּף הַמֶּלֶךְ, מִיָּד תָּשׁוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, כָּךְ כָּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹסֵק בְּצוּרַת הַוָּלָד וּלְסוֹף אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם הִיא הוֹלֶכֶת וּמְקַלְקֶלֶת עִם אַחֵר, מִיָּד רָפוּ יָדָיו שֶׁל יוֹצֵר, אָמַר שֶׁל מִי אָצוּר שֶׁל רִאשׁוֹן אוֹ שֶׁל שֵׁנִי, הֱוֵי: צוּר יְלָדְךָ תֶּשִׁי, הִתַּשְׁתָּ כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל יוֹצֵר. יו"ד זְעֵירָא וְלֵית בִּקְרָיָה כַּוָּתָהּ, אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק מָצִינוּ כָּל עוֹבְרֵי עֲבֵרוֹת הַגּוֹנֵב נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְנָב מַפְסִיד, הַגּוֹזֵל נֶהֱנֶה וְהַנִּגְזָל מַפְסִיד, בְּרַם הָכָא שְׁנֵיהֶם נֶהֱנִין מִי מַפְסִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוּא מְאַבֵּד סַמָּנָיו. 33.5. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, יז): וַיַּכּוּ בָהֶם אֲבִיָּה וְעַמּוֹ מַכָּה רַבָּה, מַה הוּא מַכָּה רַבָּה, רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִיר צוּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה ג, ט): הַכָּרַת פְּנֵיהֶם עָנְתָה בָּם, שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר אַמֵּי אָמַר שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוֹמְרִים שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים עַד שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלָה צוּרָתָם, דִּתְנִינַן תַּמָּן אֵין מְעִידִין אֶלָּא עַל פַּרְצוּף פָּנִים עִם הַחֹטֶם, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנִים וּבְכֵלָיו, וְאֵין מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, כ): וְלֹא עָצַר כֹּחַ יָרָבְעָם עוֹד בִּימֵי אֲבִיָּהוּ וַיִּגְּפֵהוּ ה'. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמֵנִי אַתָּה סָבוּר לוֹמַר שֶׁיָּרָבְעָם נִגָּף וַהֲלֹא לֹא נִגַּף אֶלָּא אֲבִיָּה, וְלָמָּה נִגַּף, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ וְרַבָּנָן, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁחִסְּדָן בָּרַבִּים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, ח): וְאַתֶּם הָמוֹן רָב וְעִמָּכֶם עֶגְלֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָכֶם יָרָבְעָם לֵאלֹהִים. וְרֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבִּזָּה לַאֲחִיָּה הַשִּׁלּוֹנִי וְקָרָא אוֹתוֹ בְּלִיָּעַל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, ח): וַיִּקָּבְצוּ עָלָיו אֲנָשִׁים רֵקִים בְּנֵי בְלִיַּעַל. וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי עַל יְדֵי שֶׁבָּאת עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה לְיָדוֹ וְלֹא בִּעֲרָהּ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דברי הימים ב יג, יט): וַיִּרְדֹּף אֲבִיָּה אַחֲרֵי יָרָבְעָם וַיִּלְכֹּד מִמֶּנּוּ עָרִים אֶת בֵּית אֵל, וּכְתִיב (מלכים א יב, כט): וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת הָאֶחָד בְּבֵית אֵל, וַהֲרֵי דְבָרִים קַל וָחֹמֶר וּמָה אִם הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוֹנָה מֶלֶךְ כָּמוֹהוּ עֲנָשׁוֹ הַכָּתוּב, מִי שֶׁהוֹנָה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אוֹ קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ וגו'. 34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 34.3. "Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!...",
249. Pollux, Onomasticon, 9.83 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 146
250. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, and the conception of the creation of humanity in gods image Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 264
251. Tertullian, Apology, 22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60
22. And we affirm indeed the existence of certain spiritual essences; nor is their name unfamiliar. The philosophers acknowledge there are demons; Socrates himself waiting on a demon's will. Why not? Since it is said an evil spirit attached itself specially to him even from his childhood - turning his mind no doubt from what was good. The poets are all acquainted with demons too; even the ignorant common people make frequent use of them in cursing. In fact, they call upon Satan, the demon-chief, in their execrations, as though from some instinctive soul-knowledge of him. Plato also admits the existence of angels. The dealers in magic, no less, come forward as witnesses to the existence of both kinds of spirits. We are instructed, moreover, by our sacred books how from certain angels, who fell of their own free-will, there sprang a more wicked demon-brood, condemned of God along with the authors of their race, and that chief we have referred to. It will for the present be enough, however, that some account is given of their work. Their great business is the ruin of mankind. So, from the very first, spiritual wickedness sought our destruction. They inflict, accordingly, upon our bodies diseases and other grievous calamities, while by violent assaults they hurry the soul into sudden and extraordinary excesses. Their marvellous subtleness and tenuity give them access to both parts of our nature. As spiritual, they can do no harm; for, invisible and intangible, we are not cognizant of their action save by its effects, as when some inexplicable, unseen poison in the breeze blights the apples and the grain while in the flower, or kills them in the bud, or destroys them when they have reached maturity; as though by the tainted atmosphere in some unknown way spreading abroad its pestilential exhalations. So, too, by an influence equally obscure, demons and angels breathe into the soul, and rouse up its corruptions with furious passions and vile excesses; or with cruel lusts accompanied by various errors, of which the worst is that by which these deities are commended to the favour of deceived and deluded human beings, that they may get their proper food of flesh-fumes and blood when that is offered up to idol-images. What is daintier food to the spirit of evil, than turning men's minds away from the true God by the illusions of a false divination? And here I explain how these illusions are managed. Every spirit is possessed of wings. This is a common property of both angels and demons. So they are everywhere in a single moment; the whole world is as one place to them; all that is done over the whole extent of it, it is as easy for them to know as to report. Their swiftness of motion is taken for divinity, because their nature is unknown. Thus they would have themselves thought sometimes the authors of the things which they announce; and sometimes, no doubt, the bad things are their doing, never the good. The purposes of God, too, they took up of old from the lips of the prophets, even as they spoke them; and they gather them still from their works, when they hear them read aloud. Thus getting, too, from this source some intimations of the future, they set themselves up as rivals of the true God, while they steal His divinations. But the skill with which their responses are shaped to meet events, your Crœsi and Pyrrhi know too well. On the other hand, it was in that way we have explained, the Pythian was able to declare that they were cooking a tortoise with the flesh of a lamb; in a moment he had been to Lydia. From dwelling in the air, and their nearness to the stars, and their commerce with the clouds, they have means of knowing the preparatory processes going on in these upper regions, and thus can give promise of the rains which they already feel. Very kind too, no doubt, they are in regard to the healing of diseases. For, first of all, they make you ill; then, to get a miracle out of it, they command the application of remedies either altogether new, or contrary to those in use, and straightway withdrawing hurtful influence, they are supposed to have wrought a cure. What need, then, to speak of their other artifices, or yet further of the deceptive power which they have as spirits: of these Castor apparitions, of water carried by a sieve, and a ship drawn along by a girdle, and a beard reddened by a touch, all done with the one object of showing that men should believe in the deity of stones, and not seek after the only true God?
252. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, 5.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209
253. Tertullian, Against The Valentinians, 29 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 61
29. I will now collect from different sources, by way of conclusion, what they affirm concerning the dispensation of the whole human race. Having at first stated their views as to man's threefold nature - which was, however, united in one in the case of Adam - they then proceed after him to divide it (into three) with their special characteristics, finding opportunity for such distinction in the posterity of Adam himself, in which occurs a threefold division as to moral differences. Cain and Abel, and Seth, who were in a certain sense the sources of the human race, become the fountain-heads of just as many qualities of nature and essential character. The material nature, which had become reprobate for salvation, they assign to Cain; the animal nature, which was poised between divergent hopes, they find in Abel; the spiritual, preordained for certain salvation, they store up in Seth. In this way also they make a twofold distinction among souls, as to their property of good and evil- according to the material condition derived from Cain, or the animal from Abel. Men's spiritual state they derive over and above the other conditions, from Seth adventitiously, not in the way of nature, but of grace, in such wise that Achamoth infuses it among superior beings like rain into good souls, that is, those who are enrolled in the animal class. Whereas the material class - in other words, those which are bad souls- they say, never receive the blessings of salvation; for that nature they have pronounced to be incapable of any change or reform in its natural condition. This grain, then, of spiritual seed is modest and very small when cast from her hand, but under her instruction increases and advances into full conviction, as we have already said; and the souls, on this very account, so much excelled all others, that the Demiurge, even then in his ignorance, held them in great esteem. For it was from their list that he had been accustomed to select men for kings and for priests; and these even now, if they have once attained to a full and complete knowledge of these foolish conceits of theirs, since they are already naturalized in the fraternal bond of the spiritual state, will obtain a sure salvation, nay, one which is on all accounts their due.
254. Tertullian, Against Praxeas, 10.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 219
255. Tertullian, On Baptism, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 61
18. But they whose office it is, know that baptism is not rashly to be administered. Give to every one who begs you, has a reference of its own, appertaining especially to almsgiving. On the contrary, this precept is rather to be looked at carefully: Give not the holy thing to the dogs, nor cast your pearls before swine; Matthew 7:6 and, Lay not hands easily on any; share not other men's sins. If Philip so easily baptized the chamberlain, let us reflect that a manifest and conspicuous evidence that the Lord deemed him worthy had been interposed. Acts 8:26-40 The Spirit had enjoined Philip to proceed to that road: the eunuch himself, too, was not found idle, nor as one who was suddenly seized with an eager desire to be baptized; but, after going up to the temple for prayer's sake, being intently engaged on the divine Scripture, was thus suitably discovered - to whom God had, unasked, sent an apostle, which one, again, the Spirit bade adjoin himself to the chamberlain's chariot. The Scripture which he was reading falls in opportunely with his faith: Philip, being requested, is taken to sit beside him; the Lord is pointed out; faith lingers not; water needs no waiting for; the work is completed, and the apostle snatched away. But Paul too was, in fact, 'speedily' baptized: for Simon, his host, speedily recognized him to be an appointed vessel of election. God's approbation sends sure premonitory tokens before it; every petition may both deceive and be deceived. And so, according to the circumstances and disposition, and even age, of each individual, the delay of baptism is preferable; principally, however, in the case of little children. For why is it necessary - if (baptism itself) is not so necessary - that the sponsors likewise should be thrust into danger? Who both themselves, by reason of mortality, may fail to fulfil their promises, and may be disappointed by the development of an evil disposition, in those for whom they stood? The Lord does indeed say, Forbid them not to come unto me. Let them come, then, while they are growing up; let them come while they are learning, while they are learning whither to come; let them become Christians when they have become able to know Christ. Why does the innocent period of life hasten to the remission of sins? More caution will be exercised in worldly matters: so that one who is not trusted with earthly substance is trusted with divine! Let them know how to ask for salvation, that you may seem (at least) to have given to him that asks. For no less cause must the unwedded also be deferred - in whom the ground of temptation is prepared, alike in such as never were wedded by means of their maturity, and in the widowed by means of their freedom - until they either marry, or else be more fully strengthened for continence. If any understand the weighty import of baptism, they will fear its reception more than its delay: sound faith is secure of salvation.
256. Tertullian, On The Flesh of Christ, 3.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 219
257. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 2.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 61
258. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 2.5, 2.14, 4.26.4, 5.6, 6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •god, image of Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 259; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60, 61
2.5. Now then, you dogs, whom the apostle puts outside, Revelation 22:15 and who yelp at the God of truth, let us come to your various questions. These are the bones of contention, which you are perpetually gnawing! If God is good, and prescient of the future, and able to avert evil, why did He permit man, the very image and likeness of Himself, and, by the origin of his soul, His own substance too, to be deceived by the devil, and fall from obedience of the law into death? For if He had been good, and so unwilling that such a catastrophe should happen, and prescient, so as not to be ignorant of what was to come to pass, and powerful enough to hinder its occurrence, that issue would never have come about, which should be impossible under these three conditions of the divine greatness. Since, however, it has occurred, the contrary proposition is most certainly true, that God must be deemed neither good, nor prescient, nor powerful. For as no such issue could have happened had God been such as He is reputed - good, and prescient, and mighty - so has this issue actually happened, because He is not such a God. In reply, we must first vindicate those attributes in the Creator which are called in question - namely, His goodness and foreknowledge, and power. But I shall not linger long over this point for Christ's own definition John 10:25 comes to our aid at once. From works must proofs be obtained. The Creator's works testify at once to His goodness, since they are good, as we have shown, and to His power, since they are mighty, and spring indeed out of nothing. And even if they were made out of some (previous) matter, as some will have it, they are even thus out of nothing, because they were not what they are. In short, both they are great because they are good; and God is likewise mighty, because all things are His own, whence He is almighty. But what shall I say of His prescience, which has for its witnesses as many prophets as it inspired? After all, what title to prescience do we look for in the Author of the universe, since it was by this very attribute that He foreknew all things when He appointed them their places, and appointed them their places when He foreknew them? There is sin itself. If He had not foreknown this, He would not have proclaimed a caution against it under the penalty of death. Now if there were in God such attributes as must have rendered it both impossible and improper for any evil to have happened to man, and yet evil did occur, let us consider man's condition also - whether it were not, in fact, rather the cause why that came to pass which could not have happened through God. I find, then, that man was by God constituted free, master of his own will and power; indicating the presence of God's image and likeness in him by nothing so well as by this constitution of his nature. For it was not by his face, and by the lineaments of his body, though they were so varied in his human nature, that he expressed his likeness to the form of God; but he showed his stamp in that essence which he derived from God Himself (that is, the spiritual, which answered to the form of God), and in the freedom and power of his will. This his state was confirmed even by the very law which God then imposed upon him. For a law would not be imposed upon one who had it not in his power to render that obedience which is due to law; nor again, would the penalty of death be threatened against sin, if a contempt of the law were impossible to man in the liberty of his will. So in the Creator's subsequent laws also you will find, when He sets before man good and evil, life and death, that the entire course of discipline is arranged in precepts by God's calling men from sin, and threatening and exhorting them; and this on no other ground than that man is free, with a will either for obedience or resistance. 2.14. On all occasions does God meet you: it is He who smites, but also heals; who kills, but also makes alive; who humbles, and yet exalts; who creates evil, but also makes peace; - so that from these very (contrasts of His providence) I may get an answer to the heretics. Behold, they say, how He acknowledges Himself to be the creator of evil in the passage, It is I who create evil. They take a word whose one form reduces to confusion and ambiguity two kinds of evils (because both sins and punishments are called evils), and will have Him in every passage to be understood as the creator of all evil things, in order that He may be designated the author of evil. We, on the contrary, distinguish between the two meanings of the word in question, and, by separating evils of sin from penal evils, mala culp from mala pœn , confine to each of the two classes its own author - the devil as the author of the sinful evils (culp ), and God as the creator of penal evils (pœn ); so that the one class shall be accounted as morally bad, and the other be classed as the operations of justice passing penal sentences against the evils of sin. of the latter class of evils which are compatible with justice, God is therefore avowedly the creator. They are, no doubt, evil to those by whom they are endured, but still on their own account good, as being just and defensive of good and hostile to sin. In this respect they are, moreover, worthy of God. Else prove them to be unjust, in order to show them deserving of a place in the sinful class, that is to say, evils of injustice; because if they turn out to belong to justice, they will be no longer evil things, but good - evil only to the bad, by whom even directly good things are condemned as evil. In this case, you must decide that man, although the wilful contemner of the divine law, unjustly bore the doom which he would like to have escaped; that the wickedness of those days was unjustly smitten by the deluge, afterwards by the fire (of Sodom); that Egypt, although most depraved and superstitious, and, worse still, the harasser of its -population, was unjustly stricken with the chastisement of its ten plagues. God hardens the heart of Pharaoh. He deserved, however, to be influenced to his destruction, who had already denied God, already in his pride so often rejected His ambassadors, accumulated heavy burdens on His people, and (to sum up all) as an Egyptian, had long been guilty before God of Gentile idolatry, worshipping the ibis and the crocodile in preference to the living God. Even His own people did God visit in their ingratitude. Against young lads, too, did He send forth bears, for their irreverence to the prophet. 5.6. By all these statements, therefore, does he show us what God he means, when he says, We speak the wisdom of God among them that are perfect. 1 Corinthians 2:6-7 It is that God who has confounded the wisdom of the wise, who has brought to nought the understanding of the prudent, who has reduced to folly the world's wisdom, by choosing its foolish things, and disposing them to the attainment of salvation. This wisdom, he says, once lay hidden in things that were foolish, weak, and lacking in honour; once also was latent under figures, allegories, and enigmatical types; but it was afterwards to be revealed in Christ, who was set as a light to the Gentiles, Isaiah 42:6 by the Creator who promised through the mouth of Isaiah that He would discover the hidden treasures, which eye had not seen. Now, that that god should have ever hidden anything who had never made a cover wherein to practise concealment, is in itself a wholly incredible idea. If he existed, concealment of himself was out of the question - to say nothing of any of his religious ordices. The Creator, on the contrary, was as well known in Himself as His ordices were. These, we know, were publicly instituted in Israel; but they lay overshadowed with latent meanings, in which the wisdom of God was concealed, to be brought to light by and by among the perfect, when the time should come, but pre-ordained in the counsels of God before the ages. 1 Corinthians 2:7 But whose ages, if not the Creator's? For because ages consist of times, and times are made up of days, and months, and years; since also days, and months, and years are measured by suns, and moons, and stars, which He ordained for this purpose (for they shall be, says He, for signs of the months and the years), it clearly follows that the ages belong to the Creator, and that nothing of what was fore-ordained before the ages can be said to be the property of any other being than Him who claims the ages also as His own. Else let Marcion show that the ages belong to his god. He must then also claim the world itself for him; for it is in it that the ages are reckoned, the vessel as it were of the times, as well as the signs thereof, or their order. But he has no such demonstration to show us. I go back therefore to the point, and ask him this question: Why did (his god) fore-ordain our glory before the ages of the Creator? I could understand his having predetermined it before the ages, if he had revealed it at the commencement of time. But when he does this almost at the very expiration of all the ages of the Creator, his predestination before the ages, and not rather within the ages, was in vain, because he did not mean to make any revelation of his purpose until the ages had almost run out their course. For it is wholly inconsistent in him to be so forward in planning purposes, who is so backward in revealing them. In the Creator, however, the two courses were perfectly compatible - both the predestination before the ages and the revelation at the end thereof, because that which He both fore-ordained and revealed He also in the intermediate space of time announced by the pre-ministration of figures, and symbols, and allegories. But because (the apostle) subjoins, on the subject of our glory, that none of the princes of this world knew it, for had they known it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory, 1 Corinthians 2:8 the heretic argues that the princes of this world crucified the Lord (that is, the Christ of the rival god) in order that this blow might even recoil on the Creator Himself. Any one, however, who has seen from what we have already said how our glory must be regarded as issuing from the Creator, will already have come to the conclusion that, inasmuch as the Creator settled it in His own secret purpose, it properly enough was unknown to all the princes and powers of the Creator, on the principle that servants are not permitted to know their masters' plans, much less the fallen angels and the leader of transgression himself, the devil; for I should contend that these, on account of their fall, were greater strangers still to any knowledge of the Creator's dispensations. But it is no longer open to me even to interpret the princes and powers of this world as the Creator's, since the apostle imputes ignorance to them, whereas even the devil according to our Gospel recognised Jesus in the temptation, Matthew 4:1-11 and, according to the record which is common to both (Marcionites and ourselves) the evil spirit knew that Jesus was the Holy One of God, and that Jesus was His name, and that He had come to destroy them. Luke 4:34 The parable also of the strong man armed, whom a stronger than he overcame and seized his goods, is admitted by Marcion to have reference to the Creator: therefore the Creator could not have been ignorant any longer of the God of glory, since He is overcome by him; nor could He have crucified him whom He was unable to cope with. The inevitable inference, therefore, as it seems to me, is that we must believe that the princes and powers of the Creator did knowingly crucify the God of glory in His Christ, with that desperation and excessive malice with which the most abandoned slaves do not even hesitate to slay their masters. For it is written in my Gospel that Satan entered into Judas. Luke 22:3 According to Marcion, however, the apostle in the passage under consideration 1 Corinthians 2:8 does not allow the imputation of ignorance, with respect to the Lord of glory, to the powers of the Creator; because, indeed, he will have it that these are not meant by the princes of this world. But (the apostle) evidently did not speak of spiritual princes; so that he meant secular ones, those of the princely people, (chief in the divine dispensation, although) not, of course, among the nations of the world, and their rulers, and king Herod, and even Pilate, and, as represented by him, that power of Rome which was the greatest in the world, and then presided over by him. Thus the arguments of the other side are pulled down, and our own proofs are thereby built up. But you still maintain that our glory comes from your god, with whom it also lay in secret. Then why does your god employ the self-same Scripture which the apostle also relies on? What has your god to do at all with the sayings of the prophets? Who has discovered the mind of the Lord, or who has been His counsellor? Isaiah 40:13 So says Isaiah. What has he also to do with illustrations from our God? For when (the apostle) calls himself a wise master-builder, 1 Corinthians 3:10 we find that the Creator by Isaiah designates the teacher who sketches out the divine discipline by the same title, I will take away from Judah the cunning artifi cer, etc. And was it not Paul himself who was there foretold, destined to be taken away from Judah - that is, from Judaism- for the erection of Christianity, in order to lay that only foundation, which is Christ? 1 Corinthians 3:11 of this work the Creator also by the same prophet says, Behold, I lay in Sion for a foundation a precious stone and honourable; and he that rests thereon shall not be confounded. Isaiah 28:16 Unless it be, that God professed Himself to be the builder up of an earthly work, that so He might not give any sign of His Christ, as destined to be the foundation of such as believe in Him, upon which every man should build at will the superstructure of either sound or worthless doctrine; forasmuch as it is the Creator's function, when a man's work shall be tried by fire, (or) when a reward shall be recompensed to him by fire; because it is by fire that the test is applied to the building which you erect upon the foundation which is laid by Him, that is, the foundation of His Christ. Do you not know that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? 1 Corinthians 3:16 Now, since man is the property, and the work, and the image and likeness of the Creator, having his flesh, formed by Him of the ground, and his soul of His afflatus, it follows that Marcion's god wholly dwells in a temple which belongs to another, if so be we are not the Creator's temple. But if any man defile the temple of God, he shall be himself destroyed - of course, by the God of the temple. 1 Corinthians 3:17 If you threaten an avenger, you threaten us with the Creator. You must become fools, that you may be wise. 1 Corinthians 3:18 Wherefore? Because the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. 1 Corinthians 3:19 With what God? Even if the ancient Scriptures have contributed nothing in support of our view thus far, an excellent testimony turns up in what (the apostle) here adjoins: For it is written, He takes the wise in their own craftiness; and again, The Lord knows the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain. For in general we may conclude for certain that he could not possibly have cited the authority of that God whom he was bound to destroy, since he would not teach for Him. Therefore, says he, let no man glory in man; 1 Corinthians 3:21 an injunction which is in accordance with the teaching of the Creator, wretched is the man that trusts in man; Jeremiah 17:5 again, It is better to trust in the Lord than to confide in man; and the same thing is said about glorying (in princes).
259. Tertullian, Exhortation To Chastity, 2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 61
260. Tertullian, Against Hermogenes, 10.2-10.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 219
261. Tertullian, On The Soul, 3.4, 11.2, 19.6, 22.1-22.2, 24.2, 27.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 219; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60
262. Palestinian Talmud, Kilayim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 121
263. Tertullian, On The Resurrection of The Flesh, 45 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 60
45. But in their blindness they again impale themselves on the point of the old and the new man. When the apostle enjoins us to put off the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts; and to be renewed in the spirit of our mind; and to put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness, Ephesians 4:22-24 (they maintain) that by here also making a distinction between the two substances, and applying the old one to the flesh and the new one to the spirit, he ascribes to the old man - that is to say, the flesh - a permanent corruption. Now, if you follow the order of the substances, the soul cannot be the new man because it comes the later of the two; nor can the flesh be the old man because it is the former. For what fraction of time was it that intervened between the creative hand of God and His afflatus? I will venture to say, that even if the soul was a good deal prior to the flesh, by the very circumstance that the soul had to wait to be itself completed, it made the other really the former. For everything which gives the finishing stroke and perfection to a work, although it is subsequent in its mere order, yet has the priority in its effect. Much more is that prior, without which preceding things could have no existence. If the flesh be the old man, when did it become so? From the beginning? But Adam was wholly a new man, and of that new man there could be no part an old man. And from that time, ever since the blessing which was pronounced upon man's generation, Genesis 1:28 the flesh and the soul have had a simultaneous birth, without any calculable difference in time; so that the two have been even generated together in the womb, as we have shown in our Treatise on the Soul. Contemporaneous in the womb, they are also temporally identical in their birth. The two are no doubt produced by human parents of two substances, but not at two different periods; rather they are so entirely one, that neither is before the other in point of time. It is more correct (to say), that we are either entirely the old man or entirely the new, for we cannot tell how we can possibly be anything else. But the apostle mentions a very clear mark of the old man. For put off, says he, concerning the former conversation, the old man; Ephesians 4:22 (he does) not say concerning the seniority of either substance. It is not indeed the flesh which he bids us to put off, but the works which he in another passage shows to be works of the flesh. Galatians 5:19 He brings no accusation against men's bodies, of which he even writes as follows: Putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbor: for we are members one of another. Be angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath: neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands (the thing which is good), that he may have to give to him that needs. Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good for the edification of faith, that it may minister grace unto the hearers. And grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed unto the day of redemption. Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil-speaking, be put away from you, with all malice: but be kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another, even as God in Christ has forgiven you. Ephesians 4:25-32 Why, therefore, do not those who suppose the flesh to be the old man, hasten their own death, in order that by laying aside the old man they may satisfy the apostle's precepts? As for ourselves, we believe that the whole of faith is to be administered in the flesh, nay more, by the flesh, which has both a mouth for the utterance of all holy words, and a tongue to refrain from blasphemy, and a heart to avoid all irritation, and hands to labour and to give; while we also maintain that as well the old man as the new has relation to the difference of moral conduct, and not to any discrepancy of nature. And just as we acknowledge that that which according to its former conversation was the old man was also corrupt, and received its very name in accordance with its deceitful lusts, so also (do we hold) that it is the old man in reference to its former conversation, Ephesians 4:22 and not in respect of the flesh through any permanent dissolution. Moreover, it is still unimpaired in the flesh, and identical in that nature, even when it has become the new man; since it is of its sinful course of life, and not of its corporeal substance, that it has been divested.
264. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 155
265. Tatian, Oration To The Greeks, None (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
266. Tertullian, Antidote For The Scorpion'S Sting, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 61
11. In the same manner, therefore, we maintain that the other announcements too refer to the condition of martyrdom. He, says Jesus, who will value his own life also more than me, is not worthy of me, Luke 14:26 - that is, he who will rather live by denying, than die by confessing, me; and he who finds his life shall lose it; but he who loses it for my sake shall find it. Matthew 10:39 Therefore indeed he finds it, who, in winning life, denies; but he who thinks that he wins it by denying, will lose it in hell. On the other hand, he who, through confessing, is killed, will lose it for the present, but is also about to find it unto everlasting life. In fine, governors themselves, when they urge men to deny, say, Save your life; and, Do not lose your life. How would Christ speak, but in accordance with the treatment to which the Christian would be subjected? But when He forbids thinking about what answer to make at a judgment-seat, Matthew 10:19 He is preparing His own servants for what awaited them, He gives the assurance that the Holy Spirit will answer by them; and when He wishes a brother to be visited in prison, Matthew 25:36 He is commanding that those about to confess be the object of solicitude; and He is soothing their sufferings when He asserts that God will avenge His own elect. Luke 18:7 In the parable also of the withering of the word Matthew 13:3 after the green blade had sprung up, He is drawing a picture with reference to the burning heat of persecutions. If these announcements are not understood as they are made, without doubt they signify something else than the sound indicates; and there will be one thing in the words, another in their meanings, as is the case with allegories, with parables, with riddles. Whatever wind of reasoning, therefore, these scorpions may catch (in their sails), with whatever subtlety they may attack, there is now one line of defense: an appeal will be made to the facts themselves, whether they occur as the Scriptures represent that they would; since another thing will then be meant in the Scriptures if that very one (which seems to be so) is not found in actual facts. For what is written, must needs come to pass. Besides, what is written will then come to pass, if something different does not. But, lo! We are both regarded as persons to be hated by all men for the sake of the name, as it is written; and are delivered up by our nearest of kin also, as it is written; and are brought before magistrates, and examined, and tortured, and make confession, and are ruthlessly killed, as it is written. So the Lord ordained. If He ordained these events otherwise, why do they not come to pass otherwise than He ordained them, that is, as He ordained them? And yet they do not come to pass otherwise than He ordained. Therefore, as they come to pass, so He ordained; and as He ordained, so they come to pass. For neither would they have been permitted to occur otherwise than He ordained, nor for His part would He have ordained otherwise than He would wish them to occur. Thus these passages of Scripture will not mean ought else than we recognise in actual facts; or if those events are not yet taking place which are announced, how are those taking place which have not been announced? For these events which are taking place have not been announced, if those which are announced are different, and not these which are taking place. Well now, seeing the very occurrences are met with in actual life which are believed to have been expressed with a different meaning in words, what would happen if they were found to have come to pass in a different manner than had been revealed? But this will be the waywardness of faith, not to believe what has been demonstrated, to assume the truth of what has not been demonstrated. And to this waywardness I will offer the following objection also, that if these events, which occur as is written, will not be the very ones which are announced, those too (which are meant) ought not to occur as is written, that they themselves also may not, after the example of these others, be in danger of exclusion, since there is one thing in the words and another in the facts; and there remains that even the events which have been announced are not seen when they occur, if they are announced otherwise than they have to occur. And how will those be believed (to have come to pass), which will not have been announced as they come to pass? Thus heretics, by not believing what is announced as it has been shown to have taken place, believe what has not been even announced.
267. Apuleius, Florida, 23, 9, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 11
268. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 1.14, 2.25, 3.23 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 323; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
1.14. Therefore, do not be sceptical, but believe; for I myself also used to disbelieve that this would take place, but now, having taken these things into consideration, I believe. At the same time, I met with the sacred Scriptures of the holy prophets, who also by the Spirit of God foretold the things that have already happened, just as they came to pass, and the things now occurring as they are now happening, and things future in the order in which they shall be accomplished. Admitting, therefore, the proof which events happening as predicted afford, I do not disbelieve, but I believe, obedient to God, whom, if you please, do you also submit to, believing Him, lest if now you continue unbelieving, you be convinced hereafter, when you are tormented with eternal punishments; which punishments, when they had been foretold by the prophets, the later-born poets and philosophers stole from the holy Scriptures, to make their doctrines worthy of credit. Yet these also have spoken beforehand of the punishments that are to light upon the profane and unbelieving, in order that none be left without a witness, or be able to say, We have not heard, neither have we known. But do you also, if you please, give reverential attention to the prophetic Scriptures, and they will make your way plainer for escaping the eternal punishments, and obtaining the eternal prizes of God. For He who gave the mouth for speech, and formed the ear to hear, and made the eye to see, will examine all things, and will judge righteous judgment, rendering merited awards to each. To those who by patient continuance in well-doing Romans 2:7 seek immortality, He will give life everlasting, joy, peace, rest, and abundance of good things, which neither has eye seen, nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man to conceive. 1 Corinthians 2:9 But to the unbelieving and despisers, who obey not the truth, but are obedient to unrighteousness, when they shall have been filled with adulteries and fornications, and filthiness, and covetousness, and unlawful idolatries, there shall be anger and wrath, tribulation and anguish, Romans 2:8-9 and at the last everlasting fire shall possess such men. Since you said, Show me your God, this is my God, and I counsel you to fear Him and to trust Him. 2.25. The tree of knowledge itself was good, and its fruit was good. For it was not the tree, as some think, but the disobedience, which had death in it. For there was nothing else in the fruit than only knowledge; but knowledge is good when one uses it discreetly. But Adam, being yet an infant in age, was on this account as yet unable to receive knowledge worthily. For now, also, when a child is born it is not at once able to eat bread, but is nourished first with milk, and then, with the increment of years, it advances to solid food. Thus, too, would it have been with Adam; for not as one who grudged him, as some suppose, did God command him not to eat of knowledge. But He wished also to make proof of him, whether he was submissive to His commandment. And at the same time He wished man, infant as he was, to remain for some time longer simple and sincere. For this is holy, not only with God, but also with men, that in simplicity and guilelessness subjection be yielded to parents. But if it is right that children be subject to parents, how much more to the God and Father of all things? Besides, it is unseemly that children in infancy be wise beyond their years; for as in stature one increases in an orderly progress, so also in wisdom. But as when a law has commanded abstinence from anything, and some one has not obeyed, it is obviously not the law which causes punishment, but the disobedience and transgression;- for a father sometimes enjoins on his own child abstinence from certain things, and when he does not obey the paternal order, he is flogged and punished on account of the disobedience; and in this case the actions themselves are not the [cause of] stripes, but the disobedience procures punishment for him who disobeys - so also for the first man, disobedience procured his expulsion from Paradise. Not, therefore, as if there were any evil in the tree of knowledge; but from his disobedience did man draw, as from a fountain, labour, pain, grief, and at last fall a prey to death. 3.23. So then let what has been said suffice for the testimony of the Phœnicians and Egyptians, and for the account of our chronology given by the writers Manetho the Egyptian, and Meder the Ephesian, and also Josephus, who wrote the Jewish war, which they waged with the Romans. For from these very old records it is proved that the writings of the rest are more recent than the writings given to us through Moses, yes, and than the subsequent prophets. For the last of the prophets, who was called Zechariah, was contemporary with the reign of Darius. But even the lawgivers themselves are all found to have legislated subsequently to that period. For if one were to mention Solon the Athenian, he lived in the days of the kings Cyrus and Darius, in the time of the prophet Zechariah first mentioned, who was by many years the last of the prophets. Or if you mention the lawgivers Lycurgus, or Draco, or Minos, Josephus tells us in his writings that the sacred books take precedence of them in antiquity, since even before the reign of Jupiter over the Cretans, and before the Trojan War, the writings of the divine law which has been given to us through Moses were in existence. And that we may give a more accurate exhibition of eras and dates, we will, God helping us, now give an account not only of the dates after the deluge, but also of those before it, so as to reckon the whole number of all the years, as far as possible; tracing up to the very beginning of the creation of the world, which Moses the servant of God recorded through the Holy Spirit. For having first spoken of what concerned the creation and genesis of the world, and of the first man, and all that happened after in the order of events, he signified also the years that elapsed before the deluge. And I pray for favour from the only God, that I may accurately speak the whole truth according to His will, that you and every one who reads this work may be guided by His truth and favour. I will then begin first with the recorded genealogies, and I begin my narration with the first man.
269. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 1.1, 5.13, 6.25, 8.24, 10.35, 11.17, 11.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, fertile, of goddess •image, fertile, of goddess, of highest deity •image, fertile, of goddess, bearers of •image, fertile, of goddess, images of gods •gods/goddesses, cult images of •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 11, 17, 259, 264; Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 13, 90
11.17. When we had come to the temple, the great priest and those who were assigned to carry the divine images (but especially those who had long been worshippers of the religion) went into the secret chamber of the goddess where they placed the images in order. This done, one of the company, who was a scribe or interpreter of letters, in the manner of a preacher stood up on a chair before the holy college and began to read out of a book. He began pronounce benedictions upon the great emperor, the senate, the knights, and generally to all the Roman people, and to all who are under the jurisdiction of Rome. These words following signified the end of their divine service and that it was lawful for every man to depart. Whereupon all the people gave a great shout and, filled with much joy, bore all kind of herbs and garlands of flowers home to their houses, kissing and embracing the steps where the goddess had passed. However, I could not do as the rest did, for my mind would not allow me to depart one foot away. This was how eager I was to behold the beauty of the goddess, remembering the great misery I had endured. 11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane.
270. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 6.3 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods, images/statues of Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 83
6.3. τοιαῦτα διαλεγόμενος καὶ ξυμβούλους τῶν διαλέξεων, ὥσπερ εἰώθει, ποιούμενος τοὺς καιροὺς ἐχώρει ἐπὶ Μέμνονος, ἡγεῖτο δ' αὐτοῖς μειράκιον Αἰγύπτιον, ὑπὲρ οὗ τάδε ἀναγράφει Δάμις: Τιμασίων μὲν τῷ μειρακίῳ τούτῳ ὄνομα ἦν, ἐφήβου δὲ ἄρτι ὑπαπῄει καὶ τὴν ὥραν ἔτι ἔρρωτο. σωφρονοῦντι δὲ αὐτῷ μητρυιὰ ἐρῶσα ἐνέκειτο καὶ χαλεπὸν τὸν πατέρα ἐποίει, ξυντιθεῖσα μὲν οὐδὲν ὧνπερ ἡ Φαίδρα, διαβάλλουσα δ' αὐτὸν ὡς θῆλυν καὶ ἐρασταῖς μᾶλλον ἢ γυναίοις χαίροντα. ὁ δ' ἐκλιπὼν Ναύκρατιν, ἐκεῖ γὰρ ταῦτα ἐγίγνετο, περὶ Μέμφιν διῃτᾶτο, καὶ ναῦν δὲ ἰδιόστολον ἐκέκτητο καὶ ἐναυκλήρει ἐν τῷ Νείλῳ. ἰδὼν οὖν ἀναπλέοντα τὸν ̓Απολλώνιον καταπλέων αὐτὸς ξυνῆκέ τε, ὡς ἀνδρῶν σοφῶν εἴη τὸ πλήρωμα ξυμβαλλόμενος τοῖς τρίβωσι καὶ τοῖς βιβλίοις, οἷς προσεσπούδαζον, καὶ ἱκέτευε προσδοῦναί οἱ τῆς τοῦ πλοῦ κοινωνίας ἐρῶντι σοφίας, ὁ δ' ̓Απολλώνιος “σώφρων” ἔφη “ὁ νεανίσκος, ὦ ἄνδρες, καὶ ἀξιούσθω ὧν δεῖται,” καὶ διῆλθε τὸν περὶ τῆς μητρυιᾶς λόγον πρὸς τοὺς ἐγγὺς τῶν ἑταίρων ὑφειμένῳ τῷ τόνῳ προσπλέοντος τοῦ μειρακίου ἔτι. ὡς δὲ ξυνῄεσαν αἱ νῆες, μεταβὰς ὁ Τιμασίων καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ κυβερνήτην εἰπών τι ὑπὲρ τοῦ φόρτου προσεῖπε τοὺς ἄνδρας. κελεύσας οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος κατ' ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ ἱζῆσαι “μειράκιον” ἔφη “Αἰγύπτιον, ἔοικας γὰρ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων εἶναί τις, τί σοι φαῦλον ἢ τί χρηστὸν εἴργασται, λέξον, ὡς τῶν μὲν λύσις παρ' ἐμοῦ γένοιτό σοι δι' ἡλικίαν, τῶν δ' αὖ ἐπαινεθεὶς ἐμοί τε ξυμφιλοσοφοίης καὶ τοῖσδε.” ὁρῶν δὲ τὸν Τιμασίωνα ἐρυθριῶντα καὶ μεταβάλλοντα τὴν ὁρμὴν τοῦ στόματος ἐς τὸ λέξαι τι ἢ μή, θαμὰ ἤρειδε τὴν ἐρώτησιν, ὥσπερ οὐδεμιᾷ προγνώσει ἐς αὐτὸν κεχρημένος, ἀναθαρσήσας δὲ ὁ Τιμασίων “ὦ θεοί,” ἔφη “τίνα ἐμαυτὸν εἴπω; κακὸς μὲν γὰρ οὐκ εἰμί, ἀγαθὸν δὲ εἰ χρὴ νομίζεσθαί με, οὐκ οἶδα, τὸ γὰρ μὴ ἀδικεῖν οὔπω ἔπαινος.” καὶ ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “βαβαί,” ἔφη “μειράκιον, ὡς ἀπὸ ̓Ινδῶν μοι διαλέγῃ, ταυτὶ γὰρ καὶ ̓Ιάρχᾳ δοκεῖ τῷ θείῳ. ἀλλ' ̔εἰπὲ̓ ὅπως ταῦτα δοξάζεις, κἀξ ὅτου; φυλαξομένῳ γάρ τι ἁμαρτεῖν ἔοικας.” ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀρξαμένου λέγειν, ὡς ἡ μητρυιὰ μὲν ἐπ' αὐτὸν φέροιτο, αὐτὸς δ' ἐρώσῃ ἐκσταίη, βοὴ ἐγένετο, ὡς δαιμονίως αὐτὰ τοῦ ̓Απολλωνίου προειπόντος, ὑπολαβὼν ὁ Τιμασίων “ὦ λῷστοι,” ἔφη “τί πεπόνθατε; τοσοῦτον γὰρ ἀπέχει τὰ εἰρημένα θαύματος, ὅσον, οἶμαι, γέλωτος.” καὶ ὁ Δάμις “ἕτερόν τι” ἔφη “ἐθαυμάσαμεν, ὃ μήπω γιγνώσκεις. καὶ σὲ δέ, μειράκιον, ἐπαινοῦμεν, ὅτι μηδὲν οἴει λαμπρὸν εἰργάσθαι.” “̓Αφροδίτῃ δὲ θύεις, ὦ μειράκιον;” ἤρετο ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, καὶ ὁ Τιμασίων, “νὴ Δί',” εἶπεν, “ὁσημέραι γε, πολλὴν γὰρ ἡγοῦμαι τὴν θεὸν ̔ἐν' ἀνθρωπείοις τε καὶ θείοις πράγμασιν.” ὑπερησθεὶς οὖν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ψηφισώμεθα,” ἔφη “ὦ ἄνδρες, ἐστεφανῶσθαι αὐτὸν ἐπὶ σωφροσύνῃ καὶ πρὸ ̔Ιππολύτου τοῦ Θησέως, ὁ μὲν γὰρ ἐς τὴν ̓Αφροδίτην ὕβρισε καὶ διὰ τουτὶ ἴσως οὐδὲ ἀφροδισίων ἥττητο, οὐδὲ ἔρως ἐπ' αὐτὸν οὐδεὶς ἐκώμαζεν, ἀλλ' ἦν τῆς ἀγροικοτέρας τε καὶ ἀτέγκτου μοίρας, οὑτοσὶ δὲ ἡττᾶσθαι τῆς θεοῦ φάσκων οὐδὲν πρὸς τὴν ἐρῶσαν ἔπαθεν, ἀλλ' ἀπῆλθεν αὐτὴν δείσας τὴν θεόν, εἰ τὸ κακῶς ἐρᾶσθαι μὴ φυλάξοιτο, καὶ αὐτὸ δὲ τὸ διαβεβλῆσθαι πρὸς ὁντιναδὴ τῶν θεῶν, ὥσπερ πρὸς τὴν ̓Αφροδίτην ὁ ̔Ιππόλυτος, οὐκ ἀξιῶ σωφροσύνης, σωφρονέστερον γὰρ τὸ περὶ πάντων θεῶν εὖ λέγειν καὶ ταῦτα ̓Αθήνησιν, οὗ καὶ ἀγνώστων δαιμόνων βωμοὶ ἵδρυνται.” τοσαῦτα ἐς τὸν Τιμασίωνα αὐτῷ ἐσπουδάσθη. πλὴν ἀλλὰ ̔Ιππόλυτόν γε ἐκάλει αὐτὸν διὰ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς, οἷς τὴν μητρυιὰν εἶδεν. ἐδόκει δὲ καὶ τοῦ σώματος ἐπιμεληθῆναι καὶ γυμναστικῆς ἐπαφροδίτως ἅψασθαι. 6.3. With such conversations, the occasions providing as usual the topics he talked about, he turned his steps towards Memnon; an Egyptian showed them the way, of whom Damis gives the following account: Timasion was the name of this stripling, who was just emerging from boyhood, and was now in the prime of life and strength. He had a stepmother who had fallen in love with him; and when he rejected her overtures, she set upon him and by way of spiting him had poisoned his father's mind against him, condescending to a lower intrigue than ever Phaedra had done, for she accused him of being effeminate, and of finding his pleasure in pederasts rather than in women. He had accordingly abandoned Naucratis, for it was there that all this happened, and was living in the neighborhood of Memphis; and he had acquired and manned a boat of his own and was plying as a waterman on the Nile. He then, was going down the river when he saw Apollonius sailing up it; and he concluded that the crew consisted of wise men, because he judged them by the cloaks they wore and the books they were hard at work studying. So he asked them whether they would allow one who was so passionately fond of wisdom as himself to share their voyage; and Apollonius said: This youth is wise, my friends, so let him be granted his request. And he further related the story about his stepmother to those of his companions who were nearest to him in a low tone while the stripling was still sailing towards them. But when the ships were alongside of one another, Timasion stepped out of his boat, and after addressing a word or two to his pilot, about the cargo in his own boat, he greeted the company. Apollonius then ordered him to sit down under his eyes, and said: You stripling of Egypt, for you seem to be one of the natives, tell me what you have done of evil or what of good; for in the one case you shall be forgiven by me, in consideration of your youth; but in the other you shall reap my commendation and become a fellow-student of philosophy with me and with these gentlemen. Then noticing that Timasion blushed and checked his impulse to speak, and hesitated whether to say or not what he had been going to say, he pressed his question and repeated it, just as if he had no foreknowledge of the youth at his command. Then Timasion plucked up courage and said: O Heavens, how shall I describe myself? for I am not a bad boy, and yet I do not know whether I ought to be considered a good one, for there is no particular merit in having abstained from wrong. But Apollonius cried: Bravo, my boy, you answer me just as if you were a sage from India; for this was just the sentiment of the divine Iarchas. But tell me how you came to form these opinions, and how long ago; for it strikes me that you have been on your guard against some sin. The youth then began to tell them of his stepmother's infatuation for himself, and of how he had rejected her advances; and when he did so, there was a shout in recognition of the divine inspiration under which Apollonius had foretold these details. Timasion, however, caught them up and said: Most excellent people, what is the matter with you? for my story is one which calls as little for your admiration, I think, as for your ridicule. But Damis said: It was not that we were admiring, but something else which you don't know about yet. As for you, my boy, we praise you because you think that you did nothing very remarkable. And Apollonius said: Do you sacrifice to Aphrodite, my boy? And Timasion answered: Yes, by Zeus, every day; for I consider that this goddess has great influence in human and divine affairs. Thereat Apollonius was delighted beyond measure, and cried: Let us, gentlemen, vote a crown to him for his continence rather than to Hippolytus the son of Theseus, for the latter insulted Aphrodite; and that perhaps is why he never fell a victim to the tender passion, and why love never ran riot in his soul; but he was allotted an austere and unbending nature. But our friend here admits that he is devoted to the goddess, and yet did not respond to his stepmother's guilty overtures, but went away in terror of the goddess herself, in case he were not on his guard against another's evil passions; and the mere aversion to any one of the gods, such as Hippolytus entertained in regard to Aphrodite, I do not class as a form of sobriety; for it is a much greater proof of wisdom and sobriety to speak well of the gods, especially at Athens, where altars are set up in honor even of unknown gods. So great was the interest which he took in Timasion. Nevertheless he called him Hippolytus for the eyes with which he looked at his stepmother. It seemed also that he was a young man who was particular about his person and enhanced its charms by attention to athletic exercises.
271. Tertullian, On Prayer, 6.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 259
272. Hermas, Mandates, 12.4.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132
273. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 22.4, 22.6-22.7, 26.1, 27.1-27.5, 86.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 83
274. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 1.8-1.9, 2.19.100-2.19.101 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fear of god, image/discipline/practice •images/imagery, and fear of god •image of god •image of god, distinguished from likeness Found in books: Dilley (2019), Monasteries and the Care of Souls in Late Antique Christianity: Cognition and Discipline, 157; Hirsch-Luipold (2022), Plutarch and the New Testament in Their Religio-Philosophical Contexts, 149; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 136; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 254, 421
275. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 83
276. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 49 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 210
277. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 45
278. Marcus Aurelius Emperor of Rome, Meditations, 4.40, 6.47 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •image of god, Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 327; Wilson (2010), Philo of Alexandria: On Virtues: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary, 399
279. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Greek Religion, 166
280. Aelian, Nature of Animals, 12.4, 13.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86
281. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 5.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 326
282. Clement of Alexandria, A Discourse Concerning The Salvation of Rich Men, 21.1-21.2, 28.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 142; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 59
283. Lucian, The Downward Journey, Or The Tyrant, 24 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 322
284. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 141.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 209; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 50
114. Some rules for discerning what is said about Christ. The circumcision of the Jews is very different from that which Christians receive Justin: For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something, which was the type of the future, should be done clearly; sometimes He uttered words about what was to take place, as if it was then taking place, or had taken place. And unless those who read perceive this art, they will not be able to follow the words of the prophets as they ought. For example's sake, I shall repeat some prophetic passages, that you may understand what I say. When He speaks by Isaiah, 'He was led as a sheep to the slaughter, and like a lamb before the shearer,' Isaiah 53:7 He speaks as if the suffering had already taken place. And when He says again, 'I have stretched out my hands to a disobedient and gainsaying people;' Isaiah 65:2 and when He says, 'Lord, who has believed our report?' Isaiah 53:1— the words are spoken as if announcing events which had already come to pass. For I have shown that Christ is oftentimes called a Stone in parable, and in figurative speech Jacob and Israel. And again, when He says, 'I shall behold the heavens, the works of Your fingers,' unless I understand His method of using words, I shall not understand intelligently, but just as your teachers suppose, fancying that the Father of all, the unbegotten God, has hands and feet, and fingers, and a soul, like a composite being; and they for this reason teach that it was the Father Himself who appeared to Abraham and to Jacob. Blessed therefore are we who have been circumcised the second time with knives of stone. For your first circumcision was and is performed by iron instruments, for you remain hard-hearted; but our circumcision, which is the second, having been instituted after yours, circumcises us from idolatry and from absolutely every kind of wickedness by sharp stones, i.e., by the words [preached] by the apostles of the corner-stone cut out without hands. And our hearts are thus circumcised from evil, so that we are happy to die for the name of the good Rock, which causes living water to burst forth for the hearts of those who by Him have loved the Father of all, and which gives those who are willing to drink of the water of life. But you do not comprehend me when I speak these things; for you have not understood what it has been prophesied that Christ would do, and you do not believe us who draw your attention to what has been written. For Jeremiah thus cries: 'Woe unto you! Because you have forsaken the living fountain, and have dug for yourselves broken cisterns that can hold no water. Shall there be a wilderness where Mount Zion is, because I gave Jerusalem a bill of divorce in your sight?' Jeremiah 2:13
285. Hermas, Visions, 3.5.9, 3.11.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 132
286. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 5.65, 9.84.6, 10.98, 10.105.4, 11.111.1-11.111.3, 11.117, 12.120.3-12.120.4, 12.121.2, 95.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •mother of the gods, statues and images of •image of god, platonic eternal •image of god, and likeness •image of god, distinguished from likeness •image of god (in man) Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 228; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 286; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 130, 136, 198, 199
287. Justin, First Apology, 1.28.3, 1.43.8, 15.9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 325; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
60. And the physiological discussion concerning the Son of God in the Tim us of Plato, where he says, He placed him crosswise in the universe, he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, If you look to this figure, and believe, you shall be saved thereby. Numbers 21:8 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, that the Spirit of God moved over the waters. For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, And the third around the third. And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath. Deuteronomy 32:22 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God.
288. Galen, On The Differences of The Pulses, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 408
289. Galen, On Semen, 2.1. (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and human hybridity Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 144
290. Galen, On The Use of Parts, 3.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, loss of Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 211
291. Galen, Commentary On Hippocrates' 'Aphorisms', None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 426
292. Galen, Commentary On Hippocrates' 'Epidemics Iii', None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 787
293. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 1.20.33-1.20.34, 3.1.10-3.1.11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, distinguished from likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 613
294. Lucian, Nigrinus, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022), Religious and Philosophical Conversion in the Ancient Mediterranean Traditions, 323
295. Origen, Exhortation To Martyrdom, 47, 35 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 425
296. Origen, Dialogue With Heraclides, a b c d\n0 10 10 10 0\n1 16 16 16 0\n2 12403. 12403. 12403 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 381
297. Origen, Fragments On Luke, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of Found in books: Langstaff, Stuckenbruck, and Tilly, (2022), The Lord’s Prayer, 259
298. Origen, Fragmenta In Jeremiam (In Catenis), a b c d\n0 28 174.210. 28 174.210. 28 174 210 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 219
299. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.15, 2.55, 3.34, 4.3, 4.51, 5.16, 5.55, 6.7, 6.63, 7.3, 7.58, 7.62, 7.68, 8.12, 8.17-8.18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 487
6.7. There might also be found in the writings of Moses and of the prophets, who are older not only than Plato, but even than Homer and the invention of letters among the Greeks, passages worthy of the grace of God bestowed upon them, and filled with great thoughts, to which they gave utterance, but not because they understood Plato imperfectly, as Celsus imagines. For how was it possible that they should have heard one who was not yet born? And if any one should apply the words of Celsus to the apostles of Jesus, who were younger than Plato, say whether it is not on the very face of it an incredible assertion, that Paul the tentmaker, and Peter the fisherman, and John who left his father's nets, should, through misunderstanding the language of Plato in his Epistles, have expressed themselves as they have done regarding God? But as Celsus now, after having often required of us immediate assent (to his views), as if he were babbling forth something new in addition to what he has already advanced, only repeats himself, what we have said in reply may suffice. Seeing, however, he produces another quotation from Plato, in which he asserts that the employment of the method of question and answer sheds light on the thoughts of those who philosophize like him, let us show from the holy Scriptures that the word of God also encourages us to the practice of dialectics: Solomon, e.g., declaring in one passage, that instruction unquestioned goes astray; and Jesus the son of Sirach, who has left us the treatise called Wisdom, declaring in another, that the knowledge of the unwise is as words that will not stand investigation. Our methods of discussion, however, are rather of a gentle kind; for we have learned that he who presides over the preaching of the word ought to be able to confute gainsayers. But if some continue indolent, and do not train themselves so as to attend to the reading of the word, and to search the Scriptures, and, agreeably to the command of Jesus, to investigate the meaning of the sacred writings, and to ask of God concerning them, and to keep knocking at what may be closed within them, the Scripture is not on that account to be regarded as devoid of wisdom.
300. Origen, On Prayer, 26.1, 27.1, 27.2, 27.13139. (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 425
301. Origen, Fragments On Psalms 1-150, 18.6, 74.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 219, 381
302. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.2, 17.27, 17.32139. (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 210
10.2. After these things He answered and said to them, He that sows the good seed is the Son of man. Matthew 13:37 Though we have already, in previous sections, according to our ability discussed these matters, none the less shall we now say what is in harmony with them, even if there is reasonable ground for another explanation. And consider now, if in addition to what we have already recounted, you can otherwise take the good seed to be the children of the kingdom, because whatsoever good things are sown in the human soul, these are the offspring of the kingdom of God and have been sown by God the Word who was in the beginning with God, John 1:2 so that wholesome words about anything are children of the kingdom. But while men are asleep who do not act according to the command of Jesus, Watch and pray that you enter not into temptation, Matthew 26:41 the devil on the watch sows what are called tares - that is, evil opinions - over and among what are called by some natural conceptions, even the good seeds which are from the Word. And according to this the whole world might be called a field, and not the Church of God only, for in the whole world the Son of man sowed the good seed, but the wicked one tares - that is, evil words - which, springing from wickedness, are children of the evil one. And at the end of things, which is called the consummation of the age, there will of necessity be a harvest, in order that the angels of God who have been appointed for this work may gather up the bad opinions that have grown upon the soul, and overturning them may give them over to fire which is said to burn, that they may be consumed. And so the angels and servants of the Word will gather from all the kingdom of Christ all things that cause a stumbling-block to souls and reasonings that create iniquity, which they will scatter and cast into the burning furnace of fire. Then those who become conscious that they have received the seeds of the evil one in themselves, because of their having been asleep, shall wail and, as it were, be angry against themselves; for this is the gnashing of teeth. Matthew 13:42 Wherefore, also, in the Psalms it is said, They gnashed upon me with their teeth. Then above all shall the righteous shine, no longer differently as at the first, but all as one sun in the kingdom of their Father. Matthew 13:43 Then, as if to indicate that there was indeed a hidden meaning, perhaps, in all that is concerned with the explanation of the parable, perhaps most of all in the saying, Then shall the righteous shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father, the Saviour adds, He that has ears to hear, let him hear, Matthew 13:43 thereby teaching those who think that in the exposition, the parable has been set forth with such perfect clearness that it can be understood by the vulgar, that even the things connected with the interpretation of the parable stand in need of explanation.
303. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.5, 5.8.12-5.8.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness •homonymy, image of god Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 186; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
304. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 3.8, 4.5, 4.11, 5.8.12-5.8.14, 5.9, 7.8, 7.16, 8.11 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god, and likeness •homonymy, image of god Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 186; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 69, 278
305. Origen, Commentary On John, a b c d\n0 10.37210. 10.37210. 10 37210 \n1 32.3.34 32.3.34 32 3 \n2 32.3.33 32.3.33 32 3 \n3 32.3.32 32.3.32 32 3 \n4 32.3.30 32.3.30 32 3 \n5 32.3.31 32.3.31 32 3 \n6 1.16139. 1.16139. 1 16139 \n7 18.6 18.6 18 6 \n8 28.6 28.6 28 6 \n9 20.11210. 20.11210. 20 11210 \n10 13.46.299 13.46.299 13 46 \n11 20.22(20)181. 20.22(20)181. 20 22(20)181\n12 2.23(17) 2.23(17) 2 23(17) \n13 2.23.148 2.23.148 2 23 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 384
306. Origen, Commentary On Romans, 4.5, 5.8.12-5.8.14 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness •homonymy, image of god Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 186; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
307. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 11.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 228
308. Origen, On First Principles, a b c d\n0 1632.660.727. 1632.660.727. 1632 660\n1 3.6.6149.159. 3.6.6149.159. 3 6 \n2 4163.237.732. 4163.237.732. 4163 237\n3 3.6.4148. 3.6.4148. 3 6 \n4 301.304. 301.304. 301 304\n5 3.6.9.15.140.182. 3.6.9.15.140.182. 3 6 \n6 1.3.8140.183. 1.3.8140.183. 1 3 \n7 4.4.9197. 4.4.9197. 4 4 \n8 3.1.13 3.1.13 3 1 \n9 2178. 2178. 2178 \n10 3.6.13.3 3.6.13.3 3 6 \n11 1.17 1.17 1 17 \n12 2.1.3 2.1.3 2 1 \n13 2.11.6 2.11.6 2 11 \n14 3.6 3.6 3 6 \n15 1.2.6 1.2.6 1 2 \n16 2.10.7 2.10.7 2 10 \n17 2.2 2.2 2 2 \n18 3.5.4424. 3.5.4424. 3 5 \n19 2.3 2.3 2 3 \n20 3.2.4 3.2.4 3 2 \n21 2.6.1 2.6.1 2 6 \n22 219 219 219 0 \n23 1.2.13 1.2.13 1 2 \n24 3.6.1151.181.197.200. 3.6.1151.181.197.200. 3 6 \n25 2.3.510.13.209. 2.3.510.13.209. 2 3 \n26 3.1.18 3.1.18 3 1 \n27 3.1.20 3.1.20 3 1 \n28 3.1.21 3.1.21 3 1 \n29 4.4.10 4.4.10 4 4 \n30 3.2.1 3.2.1 3 2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 732
309. Origen, Homilies On Ezekiel, a b c d\n0 13.2 184.197. 13.2 184.197. 13 2 184 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 199
310. Methodius of Olympus, De Resurrectione, 3.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 384
311. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 50.12-50.15 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 256
312. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.1.12, 1.6, 3.2.47, 3.5.26, 4.3.12, 4.8.5, 6.7.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 250; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 32
313. Origen, Homilies On Numbers, 17.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 181
314. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 8.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 87
315. Origen, Homilies On Luke, 39.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 181
316. Origen, On Jeremiah (Homilies 1-11), 1.13, 1.15, 1.15-16188., 1.1657.147., 1.14197.258., 2.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 481
317. Origen, Selecta In Genesim (Fragmenta E Catenis), 1.26 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 198
318. Origen, Selections On Psalms, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 425
319. Origen, Homiliae In Genesim (In Catenis), 1.13181., 16.7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 219
320. Lactantius, Deaths of The Persecutors, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 755
321. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 1.37.4, 2.46.1, 2.54, 3.26.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •mother of the gods, statues and images of Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 272; Wilson (2012), The Sentences of Sextus, 59, 133, 423
2.54. 54.And that we do not carelessly assert these things, but that what we have said is abundantly confirmed by history, the following narrations sufficiently testify. For in Rhodes, on the sixth day of June, a man was sacrificed to Saturn; which custom having prevailed for a long time, was afterwards changed [into a more human mode of sacrificing]. For one of those men who, by the public decision, had been sentenced to death, was kept in prison till the Saturnalia commenced; but as soon as this festival began, they brought the man out of the gates of the city, opposite to the temple of Aristobulus, and giving him wine to drink, they cut his throat. But in the island which is now called Salamis, but was formerly denominated Coronis, in the month according to the Cyprians Aphrodisius, a man was sacrificed to Agraule, the daughter of Cecrops, and the nymph Agraulis. And this custom continued till the time of Diomed. Afterwards it was changed, so that a man was sacrificed to Diomed. But the temples of Minerva, of Agraule, and Diomed, were contained in one and the same enclosure. The man who was also about to be slain, was first led by young men thrice round the altar, afterwards the priest pierced him with a lance in the stomach, and thus being thrown on the pyre, he was entirely consumed. SPAN
322. Origen, Homiliae In Job (Fragmenta In Catenis, Typus Ii) (E Codd. Marc. Gr. 21, 538), None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 181
323. Methodius of Olympus, Symposium, 1.3, 3.2-3.7, 5.2, 5.7, 8.1, 8.8-8.9, 8.16, 10.1-10.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god •homonymy, image of god •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018), Resurrection as Salvation: Development and Conflict in Pre-Nicene Paulinism, 249, 250; Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 269, 271; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 89
324. Origen, Homiliae In Job (Fragmenta In Catenis, Typus I+Ii) (E Codd. Vat.), None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 181
325. Origen, Homiliae In Job (Fragmenta In Catenis, Typus I) (E Codd. Paris.), None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 181
326. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of The Egyptians, 56.22, 56.23, 56.24, 56.25, 58.25-59.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 256
327. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 104.18-104.30, 128.24-128.30 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Novenson (2020), Monotheism and Christology in Greco-Roman Antiquity, 259, 261
328. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.22.13-1.22.14, 5.22.3-5.22.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods/goddesses, cult images of Found in books: Mackey (2022), Belief and Cult: Rethinking Roman Religion, 12, 13, 88, 90
329. Origen, Commentary On The Song of Songs, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 210
330. Pseudo-Justinus, On The Resurrection, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17-18634., 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.40, 1.41, 1.42, 1.43, 1.44, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 (3rd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 648
331. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Garcia (2021), On Human Nature in Early Judaism: Creation, Composition, and Condition, 43
61a. הכל לטובה:,ואמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר' מאיר לעולם יהיו דבריו של אדם מועטין לפני הקב"ה שנאמר (קהלת ה, א) אל תבהל על פיך ולבך אל ימהר להוציא דבר לפני האלהים כי האלהים בשמים ואתה על הארץ על כן יהיו דבריך מעטים:,דרש רב נחמן בר רב חסדא מאי דכתיב (בראשית ב, ז) וייצר ה' אלהים את האדם בשני יודי"ן שני יצרים ברא הקב"ה אחד יצר טוב ואחד יצר רע,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה בהמה דלא כתיב בה וייצר לית לה יצרא והא קא חזינן דמזקא ונשכא ובעטא אלא כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי ואוי לי מיצרי,אי נמי כדר' ירמיה בן אלעזר דאמר ר' ירמיה בן אלעזר דו פרצופין ברא הקב"ה באדם הראשון שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני:,(בראשית ב, כב) ויבן ה' אלהים את הצלע,רב ושמואל חד אמר פרצוף וחד אמר זנב,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב אחור וקדם צרתני אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי אחור וקדם צרתני כדרבי אמי דאמר ר' אמי אחור למעשה בראשית וקדם לפורענות,בשלמא אחור למעשה בראשית דלא אברי עד מעלי שבתא אלא וקדם לפורענות פורענות דמאי אילימא פורענות דנחש והתניא רבי אומר בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול ובקללה מתחילין מן הקטן,בגדולה מתחילין מן הגדול דכתיב (ויקרא י, יב) וידבר משה אל אהרן ואל אלעזר ואל איתמר בניו הנותרים קחו וגו' בקללה מתחילין מן הקטן בתחלה נתקלל נחש ולבסוף נתקללה חוה ולבסוף נתקלל אדם,אלא פורענות דמבול דכתיב (בראשית ז, כג) וימח את כל היקום אשר על פני האדמה מאדם ועד בהמה ברישא אדם והדר בהמה,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב וייצר בשני יודי"ן אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי וייצר,כדר"ש בן פזי דאמר ר' שמעון בן פזי אוי לי מיוצרי אוי לי מיצרי,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ה, ב) זכר ונקבה בראם אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי זכר ונקבה בראם כדר' אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב זכר ונקבה בראם וכתיב (בראשית ט, ו) כי בצלם אלהים עשה את האדם הא כיצד בתחלה עלה במחשבה לבראת ב' ולבסוף לא נברא אלא אחד,בשלמא למאן דאמר פרצוף היינו דכתיב (בראשית ב, כא) ויסגור בשר תחתנה אלא למאן דאמר זנב מאי ויסגור בשר תחתנה א"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רב זביד ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא נצרכה אלא למקום חתך,בשלמא למ"ד זנב היינו דכתיב ויבן אלא למ"ד פרצוף מאי ויבן,לכדר"ש בן מנסיא דדרש ר"ש בן מנסיא מאי דכתיב ויבן ה' את הצלע מלמד שקלעה הקב"ה לחוה והביאה לאדם הראשון שכן בכרכי הים קורין לקליעתא בנייתא,דבר אחר ויבן אמר רב חסדא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מלמד שבנאה הקב"ה לחוה כבנין אוצר מה אוצר זה קצר מלמעלה ורחב מלמטה כדי לקבל את הפירות אף אשה קצרה מלמעלה ורחבה מלמטה כדי לקבל את הולד,ויביאה אל האדם א"ר ירמיה בן אלעזר מלמד שנעשה הקב"ה שושבין לאדם הראשון מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שיחזור גדול עם קטן בשושבינות ואל ירע לו,ולמאן דאמר פרצוף הי מינייהו סגי ברישא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא דגברא סגי ברישא דתניא לא יהלך אדם אחורי אשה בדרך ואפי' אשתו נזדמנה לו על הגשר יסלקנה לצדדין וכל העובר אחורי אשה בנהר אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,תנו רבנן המרצה מעות לאשה מידו לידה כדי להסתכל בה אפילו יש בידו תורה ומעשים טובים כמשה רבינו לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם שנאמר (משלי יא, כא) יד ליד לא ינקה רע לא ינקה מדינה של גיהנם,א"ר נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה דכתיב (שופטים יג, יא) וילך מנוח אחרי אשתו,מתקיף לה רב נחמן בר יצחק אלא מעתה גבי אלקנה דכתיב וילך אלקנה אחרי אשתו וגבי אלישע דכתיב (מלכים ב ד, ל) ויקם וילך אחריה הכי נמי אחריה ממש אלא אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה הכא נמי אחרי דבריה ואחרי עצתה,א"ר אשי ולמאי דקאמר רב נחמן מנוח עם הארץ היה אפי' בי רב נמי לא קרא שנאמר (בראשית כד, סא) ותקם רבקה ונערותיה ותרכבנה על הגמלים ותלכנה אחרי האיש ולא לפני האיש,א"ר יוחנן אחורי ארי ולא אחורי אשה אחורי אשה ולא אחורי עכו"ם אחורי עכו"ם ולא אחורי בהכ"נ בשעה שהצבור מתפללין,ולא אמרן אלא דלא דרי מידי ואי דרי מידי לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דליכא פתחא אחרינא ואי איכא פתחא אחרינא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא רכיב חמרא אבל רכיב חמרא לית לן בה ולא אמרן אלא דלא מנח תפילין אבל מנח תפילין לית לן בה:,אמר רב יצר הרע דומה לזבוב ויושב בין שני מפתחי הלב שנא' (קהלת י, א) זבובי מות יבאיש יביע שמן רוקח ושמואל אמר כמין חטה הוא דומה שנאמר (בראשית ד, ז) לפתח חטאת רובץ,ת"ר שתי כליות יש בו באדם אחת יועצתו לטובה ואחת יועצתו לרעה ומסתברא דטובה לימינו ורעה לשמאלו דכתיב (קהלת י, ב) לב חכם לימינו ולב כסיל לשמאלו:,תנו רבנן כליות יועצות לב מבין לשון מחתך פה גומר ושט מכניס ומוציא כל מיני מאכל קנה מוציא קול 61a. b He does for the best. /b , b And Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: One’s words should always be few before the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Be not rash with your mouth and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before God; for God is in heaven, and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few” /b (Ecclesiastes 5:1)., b Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda interpreted homiletically: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Then the Lord God formed [ i vayyitzer /i ] man” /b (Genesis 2:7), b with a double i yod /i ? /b This double i yod /i alludes to that fact that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, created two inclinations; one a good inclination and one an evil inclination. /b , b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so, /b does b an animal, with regard to whom i vayyitzer /i is not written /b with a double i yod /i , b not have an inclination? Don’t we see that it causes damage and bites and kicks? Rather, /b interpret the double i yod /i homiletically, b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: /b This alludes to the difficulty of human life; b woe unto me from my Creator [ i yotzri /i ] and woe unto me from my inclination [ i yitzri /i ]. /b If one opts to follow either his Creator or his inclination, woe unto him from the other., b Alternatively, /b this duplication in the language of creation can be explained b in accordance with /b the statement of b Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar, as Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, created two faces [ i du partzufin /i ] on Adam the first /b man; he was created both male and female in a single body, b as it is stated: “You have formed me [ i tzartani /i ] behind and before” /b (Psalms 139:5); i tzartani /i is derived from the word i tzura /i [face]. God formed two faces on a single creation, back and front.,It is stated: b “And the i tzela /i which the Lord, God, /b had taken from the man, b He made /b a woman, and brought her unto the man” (Genesis 2:22)., b Rav and Shmuel /b disagree over the meaning of the word i tzela /i : b One said: /b It means b face. /b Eve was originally one face or side of Adam. b And one said: /b It means b tail, /b which he explains to mean that the i tzela /i was an appendage, i.e., one of the ribs in Adam’s chest.,The Gemara analyzes this dispute: b Granted, /b according b to the one who said /b that i tzela /i means b face; that is /b why b it is written: “You have formed me [ i tzartani /i ] behind and before.” However, /b according b to the one who said /b that i tzela /i means b tail, what is /b meant by the verse: b “You have formed me [ i tzartani /i ] behind and before”? /b The Gemara answers: It can be explained b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Ami, as Rabbi Ami said: Behind /b means Adam was created at the end of b the act of creation; and before /b means that he was first b for punishment. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b Adam was b behind, /b or last, b in the act of creation, /b meaning that b he was not created until /b the sixth day, b Shabbat eve; however, before, /b or first, b for punishment, /b to b what punishment /b does this refer? b If you say /b that he was first b for punishment /b in the wake of the episode with b the snake, wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that, with regard to punishment, b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: In /b conferring b honor, one begins with the greatest; in cursing, one begins with the least significant. /b ,The Gemara explains: b In /b conferring b honor, one begins with the greatest, as it is written: “And Moses said unto Aaron, and Elazar and Itamar, his remaining sons: Take /b the meal-offering that remains” (Leviticus 10:12). Aaron, who was the greatest among those involved, is mentioned first. And b in cursing, one begins with the least significant, /b as b first /b the b snake was cursed, then Eve was cursed, and ultimately Adam /b himself b was cursed. /b The punishment did not begin with Adam., b Rather, /b this refers to b the punishment of the flood, as it is written: “And He blotted out every living substance which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle, /b creeping things and fowl of the heaven” (Genesis 7:23); the punishment b began with man, then the animals, /b and ultimately all the other creatures.,Returning to interpretation of i vayyitzer /i , the Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who said /b that Eve was originally a b face /b or side of Adam; b that is /b why b it is written i vayyitzer /i , /b with a double i yod /i , which allude to the two formations. b However, according to the one who said /b that she was a b tail, /b or appendage, of Adam, b what is /b conveyed by spelling b i vayyitzer /i /b with a double i yod /i ?,The Gemara responds: This is interpreted homiletically b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, as Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi said: /b This comes to emphasize that which a person says to himself in every circumstance: b Woe unto me from my Creator and woe unto me from my inclination. /b , b Granted, according to the one who said /b that Eve was a b face, that is /b why b it is written: “Male and female, He created them” /b (Genesis 5:2). b However, according to the one who said /b that Eve was a b tail, what is /b the meaning of the verse: b “Male and female, He created them”? /b The Gemara answers: It can be explained in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Abbahu. /b As b Rabbi Abbahu raised a contradiction /b between the verses: On the one hand b it is written: “Male and female, He created them,” and /b on the other hand b it is written: “For in the image of God He made man” /b (Genesis 9:6), indicating that man was created alone. b How, then, /b does he resolve the contradiction? b At first, the thought entered /b God’s mind b to create two, and ultimately, only one was /b actually b created. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who said /b that Eve was a b face, that is /b why b it is written: /b “And He took one of his sides b and closed up the place with flesh in its place” /b (Genesis 2:21), as it was necessary to close the side that was open. b However, according to the one who said /b that Eve was originally a b tail, what is /b meant by the verse: b “And closed up the place with flesh in its place”? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say Rav Zevid /b said, b and some say Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b said: b It was necessary /b to say that b only with regard to the place of the incision. /b ,The Gemara challenges the other opinion: b Granted, according to the one /b who said that Eve was a b tail, that is /b why b it is written: “And /b the Lord God b built /b the i tzela /i ” (Genesis 2:22); it was a completely new building. b However, according to the one who said /b that Eve was a complete b face /b or side, b what is /b the meaning of: b “And He built”? /b What needed to be built?,The Gemara responds: This must be interpreted homiletically, b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya, as Rabbi Shimon ben Menasya interpreted homiletically: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “And the Lord God built the i tzela /i ”? /b This verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, braided Eve’s /b hair, b and /b then b brought her to Adam, as in the coastal towns, they call braiding /b hair, b building. /b , b Alternatively, /b the verse: b And He built, /b could be understood as a description of her basic shape, as b Rav Ḥisda said, and some say that it is taught in a i baraita /i : /b This verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, built Eve like the structure of a storehouse. Just as a storehouse is /b built b narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold produce /b without collapsing; b so too a woman /b is created b narrow on top and wide on the bottom, in order to hold the fetus. /b ,With regard to the verse: b “And brought her unto the man” /b (Genesis 2:22), b Rabbi Yirmeya ben Elazar said: /b This verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, was Adam the first /b man’s b best man. From here, the Torah taught that it is a desired mode of behavior for a greater individual to seek out a lesser individual to /b assist him and b serve as his best man. /b The greater individual should help the lesser b and should not feel badly /b about it, that it might be beneath his dignity.,The Gemara asks: b And according to the one who said /b that Eve was a b face /b or side of Adam, b which one of them walked in front? Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: It is reasonable /b to say b that the man walked in front, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A man should not walk behind a woman on a path, /b as he will look at her constantly, b even if it is his wife. /b If a woman b happens upon him along a bridge, he should /b walk quickly in order to b move her to /b his b side /b so that she will not walk in front of him. b And anyone who walks behind a woman in a river /b in order to see her exposed skin when she lifts her clothing as she passes through the water b has no portion in the World-to-Come. /b /b , b The Sages taught: One who counts money for a woman from his hand to her hand in order to look upon her, even if he has accumulated Torah and good deeds like Moses our teacher, he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, as it is stated: “Hand to hand, the evil man shall not go unpunished” /b (Proverbs 11:21); one who hands money from his hand to her hand, even if he received the Torah from God’s hand to his own, like Moses, b he will not be absolved from the punishment of Gehenna, /b which is called evil., b Rav Naḥman said: /b From the following verse we know that Samson’s father, b Manoah, was an ignoramus, as it is written: “And Manoah…went after his wife” /b (Judges 13:11)., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak strongly objects to this: If that is so /b that you understand the verse literally, what do you say about the verse b with regard to Elkana, /b the father of the prophet Samuel, b as it is written: “And Elkana walked after his wife,” /b and what of the verse b with regard to /b the prophet b Elisha, as it is written: “And he arose and followed her” /b (II Kings 4:30)? b Does /b this verse b mean /b that he b literally walked after her? Rather, /b certainly this verse means that b he followed her words and advice. /b b Here, too, /b then the verse concerning Manoah may be similarly interpreted; he b followed /b his wife’s b words /b b and followed her advice, /b and did not literally walk behind her. , b Rav Ashi said: And according to what Rav Naḥman said, /b that b Manoah was an ignoramus; he did not even /b learn to b read /b the basic Torah stories that even children learn b in school, as it is stated: “Rebecca arose, and her damsels, and they rode upon the camels, and followed the man” /b (Genesis 24:61); they followed him and did b not /b walk b before the man. /b ,On this topic, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It is preferable to walk b behind a lion and not behind a woman, /b and preferable to walk b behind a woman and not behind idolatry, /b for then it will appear as if he is accompanying the idolatry. It is preferable to walk b behind idolatry and not behind a synagogue when the congregation is praying, /b as he appears to separate himself from the community in that he does not wish to join them in prayer.,This last i halakha /i has numerous caveats: b And we only said /b this b in a case where he is not carrying something, and if he is carrying something, this does not apply, /b as everyone will understand why he did not enter the synagogue. b And we only said /b this b in a case where there is no other entrance /b to the synagogue, b and if there is another entrance, this does not apply. And we only said /b this b in a case where he is not riding a donkey, and if he is riding a donkey, this does not apply. And we only said /b this b in a case where he is not donning phylacteries, but if he is donning phylacteries, this does not apply. /b , b Rav said: The evil inclination is like a fly and it sits between the two entrances of the heart, as it is stated: “Dead flies make the ointment of the perfumer fetid and putrid” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:1). b And Shmuel said: /b The evil inclination b is like a type of wheat, as it is stated: “Transgression [ i ḥatat /i ] couches at the door” /b (Genesis 4:7); i ḥatat /i is interpreted homiletically as related to i ḥitta /i , wheat., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b A person has two kidneys; one advises him to /b do b good and one advises him to /b do b evil. And it stands to reason /b that the one advising him to do b good is to his right and /b the one that advises him to do b evil is to his left, as it is written: “A wise man’s understanding is at his right hand, but a fool’s understanding is at his left” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:2).,Tangential to the subject of kidneys, the Gemara cites that which b the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the roles of various organs: b The kidneys advise, the heart understands, the tongue shapes /b the sounds that emerges from the mouth, the b mouth completes /b the shaping of the voice, the b esophagus takes in and lets out all kinds of food, /b the b trachea produces the voice, /b
332. Athanasius, Letter To Ammoun, 7.2.6-7.2.7, 7.9.31 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 253
333. Athanasius, On The Incarnation, a b c d\n0 10 10 10 0\n1 16.4 16.4 16 4\n2 4244. 4244. 4244 \n3 13 13 13 0\n4 3 3 3 0\n5 16.5 16.5 16 5\n6 43 43 43 0\n7 45 45 45 0 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 248
334. Athanasius, Defense of The Nicene Definition, 27 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and likeness Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 198
335. Athanasius, Defense Against The Arians, 2.54, 2.75-2.77 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 341
336. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.110, 7.143 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •gods, images/statues of •god,image of Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 83; Levison (2009), Filled with the Spirit, 147
1.110. So he became famous throughout Greece, and was believed to be a special favourite of heaven.Hence, when the Athenians were attacked by pestilence, and the Pythian priestess bade them purify the city, they sent a ship commanded by Nicias, son of Niceratus, to Crete to ask the help of Epimenides. And he came in the 46th Olympiad, purified their city, and stopped the pestilence in the following way. He took sheep, some black and others white, and brought them to the Areopagus; and there he let them go whither they pleased, instructing those who followed them to mark the spot where each sheep lay down and offer a sacrifice to the local divinity. And thus, it is said, the plague was stayed. Hence even to this day altars may be found in different parts of Attica with no name inscribed upon them, which are memorials of this atonement. According to some writers he declared the plague to have been caused by the pollution which Cylon brought on the city and showed them how to remove it. In consequence two young men, Cratinus and Ctesibius, were put to death and the city was delivered from the scourge. 7.143. It is a living thing in the sense of an animate substance endowed with sensation; for animal is better than non-animal, and nothing is better than the world, ergo the world is a living being. And it is endowed with soul, as is clear from our several souls being each a fragment of it. Boethus, however, denies that the world is a living thing. The unity of the world is maintained by Zeno in his treatise On the Whole, by Chrysippus, by Apollodorus in his Physics, and by Posidonius in the first book of his Physical Discourse. By the totality of things, the All, is meant, according to Apollodorus, (1) the world, and in another sense (2) the system composed of the world and the void outside it. The world then is finite, the void infinite.
337. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and human hybridity Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 21
338. Babylonian Talmud, Bekhorot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, diversity within Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 213
7a. אישתני מגמל שפיר דמי או דלמא לא שנא,ת"ש בהמה טהורה שילדה מין בהמה טמאה אסור באכילה ואם דומה ראשו ורובו לאמו חייב בבכורה שמע מינה לאכילה נמי בעי ר' שמעון ראשו ורובו,לא לבכורה דוקא דיקא נמי דקא שבקה לאכילה וקם ליה אבכור ש"מ לבכורה הוא דבעי ר' שמעון ראשו ורובו אבל לאכילה לא,לעולם אימא לך לאכילה נמי בעי ובכורה איצטריך סד"א הואיל וכתיב (במדבר יח, יז) אך בכור שור עד שיהא הוא שור ובכורו שור ולא תיסגי ליה בראשו ורובו עד דאיכא כוליה קמשמע לן,ת"ש (ויקרא יא, ד) אך את זה לא תאכלו ממעלי הגרה וממפריסי הפרסה זה אי אתה אוכל אבל אתה אוכל הבא בסימן אחד,ואי זה זה הבא בסימן אחד זה טמא הנולד מן הטהור ועבורו מן הטהור,יכול אפילו עבורו מן הטמא ת"ל (דברים יד, ד) שה כשבים ושה עזים עד שיהא אביו כבש ואמו כבשה דברי ר' יהושע,ר' אליעזר אומר לא בא הכתוב להתיר את המותר אלא להוסיף על המותר ואיזה זה טמא הנולד מן הטהור ועבורו מן הטמא או אינו אלא עבורו מן הטהור תלמוד לומר שור שה כשבים ושה עזים מכל מקום,קרי ליה טמא כרבי שמעון וקאמר אבל אתה אוכל הבא בסימן אחד,האי תנא סבר ליה כוותיה בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא,ואיכא דמקשי ומותיב עבורו מן הטמא מי מעברא,והאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי לעולם אין מתעברת לא טמאה מן הטהור ולא טהורה מן הטמא ולא גסה מן הדקה ולא דקה מן הגסה ולא בהמה מן חיה ולא חיה מן בהמה,חוץ מר' אליעזר ומחלוקתו שהיו אומרים חיה מתעברת מבהמה,וא"ר ירמיה דאיעבר מקלוט בן פרה ואליבא דרבי שמעון קאמר וקאמר אבל אתה אוכל הבא בסימן אחד,האי תנא סבר לה כוותיה בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא,למימרא דרבי אליעזר סבר זה וזה גורם מותר ור' יהושע סבר זה וזה גורם אסור,והא איפכא שמעינן להו ולד טריפה רבי אליעזר אומר לא יקרב לגבי מזבח ורבי יהושע אומר יקרב לגבי מזבח,בעלמא סבר ר' אליעזר זה וזה גורם אסור ושאני הכא דאם כן נכתוב קרא שה כשבים ועזים שה ושה למה לי שמע מינה שה מכל מקום,ורבי יהושע אמר לך בעלמא זה וזה גורם מותר והכא אם כן לכתוב קרא שור כשב ועז כשבים ועזים למה לי ש"מ עד שיהא אביו כבש ואמו כבשה,ת"ש רבי שמעון אומר גמל גמל שני פעמים אחד גמל הנולד מן הגמל ואחד גמל הנולד מן הפרה ואם ראשו ורובו דומה לאמו מותר באכילה,שמע מינה לאכילה נמי בעי רבי שמעון ראשו ורובו שמע מינה:,שהיוצא מן הטמא וכו': בעו מינה מרב ששת מי רגלים של חמור מהו,ותיבעי (ליה) דסוסים וגמלים דסוסים וגמלים לא מיבעיא להו דלא עכירי ולא דמו לחלב מיא עול מיא נפוק כי קמיבעיא להו דחמור דעכירי ודמו לחלב מאי מגופיה קא מימצצי ואסירי או דלמא מיא עול מיא נפוק והאי דעכירי הבלא דבישרא הוא,אמר להו רב ששת תניתוה שהיוצא מן הטמא טמא והיוצא מן הטהור טהור מטמא לא קאמר אלא מן 7a. it b is different from /b an ordinary b camel /b and has some characteristics of its mother, perhaps it is b permitted /b to eat it. b Or perhaps /b there b is no difference, /b and with regard to consumption Rabbi Shimon also requires that its head and the majority of its body resemble its mother.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from a i baraita /i : With regard to b a kosher animal that gave birth to a non-kosher animal of sorts, /b the offspring b is forbidden for consumption, /b in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon; b but if its head and the majority of /b its body are b similar to its mother, it is obligated in, /b i.e., subject to the obligations of, b firstborn /b status. b Learn from it /b that b with regard to consumption, Rabbi Shimon also requires /b that b its head and the majority of /b its body resemble the mother.,The Gemara rejects the proof: b No, /b the requirement that its head and the majority of its body resemble the mother is relevant b specifically with regard to firstborn /b status. The Gemara comments: The language of the i baraita /i b is also precise, as /b the i tanna /i b leaves /b the i halakha /i of b consumption /b with which he began b and addresses /b the i halakha /i of b firstborn /b status. b Learn from it /b that it b is with regard to firstborn /b status b that Rabbi Shimon requires /b that b its head and the majority of /b its body resemble the mother, b but with regard to consumption /b he does b not /b require this, and even a partial similarity suffices.,The Gemara rejects this conclusion as well: b Actually, I will say to you /b that b with regard to /b the permissibility of b consumption he also requires /b that its head and the majority of its body be similar to the mother. b But /b it b was necessary /b to state this condition specifically with regard to the i halakha /i of b firstborn /b status, as it might b enter your mind to say /b that b since it is written: “But the firstborn of an ox” /b (Numbers 18:17), perhaps firstborn status does not apply b unless it is an ox and its firstborn is an ox, and /b a resemblance b of the /b offspring’s b head and the majority of /b its body to the mother b does not suffice unless its whole /b body b has /b the appearance of an ox. Therefore, the i tanna /i b teaches us /b that a resemblance of its head and the majority of its body to the mother do suffice.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from a i baraita /i : The Torah states: b “Nevertheless these shall you not eat from them that only chew the cud, or from them that only have a split hoof: /b The camel” (Leviticus 11:4). The phrase: “From them that only chew the cud,” which is referring to animals that are forbidden for consumption, indicates that a camel or other non-kosher animal that is born to a kosher animal is forbidden. Furthermore, the word “these” teaches that concerning b these /b animals that resemble a non-kosher animal, b you may not eat /b them when they are born to a kosher animal, b but you may eat /b a non-kosher animal b that comes with one characteristic /b of its mother., b And which /b animal b is this that comes with one characteristic /b of its mother? b This is a non-kosher /b animal b that is born from a kosher /b female animal b and its impregnation /b came b from a kosher /b male animal.,The i baraita /i continues: One b might /b have thought that b even /b if b its conception /b came b from a non-kosher /b male animal it should be permitted. Therefore, b the verse states: /b “These are the beasts which you may eat: “The ox, b the sheep [ i seh kesavim /i ], and goat [ i veseh izzim /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 14:4). The plural form of “ i kesavim /i ” and “ i izzim /i ” indicates that a lamb is not kosher b unless its father is a male lamb and its mother is a female lamb. /b This is b the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua. /b , b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b offspring whose father and mother are both kosher are permitted, and b this verse /b which renders permitted an offspring that partially resembles its mother b does not come to permit that which is permitted, /b i.e., where both parents are kosher, but it comes b rather to add to that which is permitted; and which /b case b is this? /b It is a case of b a non-kosher /b animal b that is born from a kosher /b animal b and its conception /b came b from a non-kosher /b animal. b Or /b perhaps it permits b only /b an animal whose b conception /b came b from a kosher /b animal? b The verse states: “The ox, the sheep [ i seh kesavim /i ], and goat [ i veseh izzim /i ].” /b The repetition of the word i seh /i indicates that it is permitted to be eaten b in any case, /b even if only its mother was a ewe.,In any event, the i tanna /i of this i baraita /i b refers to /b a non-kosher animal that was born to a kosher animal as b non-kosher, in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, /b who deems a camel that was born to a cow forbidden to eat, b and he says: But you may eat /b a non-kosher animal b that comes with one characteristic /b that is similar to its mother. Apparently, Rabbi Shimon does not require that the head and the majority of the body resemble the mother for it to be rendered fit for consumption.,The Gemara responds: No proof may be brought from here, as b this i tanna /i holds in accordance with /b the opinion of Rabbi Shimon b with regard to one /b matter, where a kosher animal gave birth to a non-kosher animal, maintaining that it is forbidden, b and disagrees with his /b opinion b with regard to one /b other matter, where the animal has some characteristics of the mother, in which case this i tanna /i deems it permitted to be eaten. Concerning the second matter, Rabbi Shimon deems it forbidden unless the head and majority of the body resemble the mother.,The Gemara comments that b there are those who raise a difficulty /b with this i baraita /i b and resolve /b it, thereby resolving the dilemma concerning the opinion of Rabbi Shimon: The i baraita /i states that the kosher animal’s b impregnation /b came b from a non-kosher /b animal. b Can /b a kosher animal b become pregt /b from a non-kosher animal?, b But doesn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: A non-kosher /b animal b never becomes pregt from a kosher /b one, e.g., a camel from an ox, b nor a kosher /b animal b from a non-kosher /b one, e.g., a cow from a horse, b nor a large /b animal b from a small /b animal, e.g., a cow from a goat, b nor a small /b one b from a large /b one, e.g., a ewe from an ox, b nor a domesticated animal from an undomesticated animal, /b e.g., a goat from a deer, b nor an undomesticated animal from a domesticated animal, /b e.g., a gazelle from a goat.,With regard to all these cases, everyone agrees that pregcy is impossible b except for Rabbi Eliezer and his disputants, who would say /b that b an undomesticated animal can become pregt from a domesticated animal /b (see Ḥullin 79b). Those Sages disagree with regard to whether slaughtering the offspring of a gazelle that became pregt from a goat is included in the prohibition against slaughtering a mother and its offspring on the same day., b And Rabbi Yirmeya says /b in response to the difficulty: When the i baraita /i discusses the case of a kosher animal that became pregt from a non-kosher animal, the reference is to a case b where /b the kosher animal b became pregt from /b an animal b with closed hooves /b that is b the offspring of a cow. /b A cow can become pregt from such an animal because the mother of that animal was a cow. b And /b the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b said /b his opinion b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Shimon, /b that a non-kosher animal that was born from a kosher animal is considered non-kosher, b and he says: But you may eat that which comes with one characteristic /b of its mother. Apparently, Rabbi Shimon does deem permitted the consumption of an animal with some characteristics similar to its mother.,The Gemara responds: b This i tanna /i holds in accordance with /b the opinion of Rabbi Shimon b with regard to one /b matter, where a kosher animal gave birth to a non-kosher animal, maintaining that it is forbidden, b and disagrees with his /b opinion b with regard to one /b other matter, where the animal has some characteristics of the mother, in which case this i tanna /i deems it fit for consumption. Concerning the second matter, Rabbi Shimon deems it forbidden unless the head and majority of the body resemble the mother.,§ The Gemara asks concerning the dispute between Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua in the i baraita /i : b Is this to say that Rabbi Eliezer holds /b that when both b this and that cause /b it, i.e., both permitted and forbidden items contribute to a result, the result is b permitted, /b and he therefore permits the consumption of the offspring of a kosher animal that became pregt from a non-kosher animal; b and Rabbi Yehoshua holds /b that when both b this and that cause /b it, it is b forbidden? /b , b But we have heard them /b saying b the opposite: /b With regard to b the offspring of an animal with a wound that will cause it to die within twelve months [ i tereifa /i ] /b and is forbidden to be eaten or sacrificed as an offering upon the altar, b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b The offspring b may not be sacrificed upon the altar /b either, despite the fact that its father is kosher, b and Rabbi Yehoshua says: /b The offspring b may be sacrificed upon the altar /b despite the fact that its mother is a i tereifa /i , since its father is kosher.,The Gemara answers: b Generally, Rabbi Eliezer holds /b that when both b this and that cause /b the result, it is b forbidden. But /b it b is different here /b in the case of a kosher animal that became pregt from a non-kosher animal, b because if /b it is b so, /b i.e., that the offspring is forbidden, b let the verse write: Sheep and goats [ i seh kesavim ve’izzim /i ]. Why do I /b need the verse to repeat the term “ i seh /i ” in the phrase b “ i seh /i /b i kesavim b veseh /b izzim /i ”? b Learn from it /b that b a i seh /i /b is permitted b in any case, /b i.e., even if only the mother is kosher it is permitted to eat the offspring., b And /b as for b Rabbi Yehoshua, /b he could have b said to you: Generally, /b if both b this and that cause /b the result it is b permitted. But here /b it is different, as b if so, /b i.e., if the offspring of a kosher animal that became pregt from a non-kosher animal is permitted, b let the verse write: /b These are the animals that you may eat: b An ox, a lamb, and a goat. Why do I /b need it to state: b “ i Seh kesavim veseh izzim /i ,” /b in the plural? b Learn from it /b that the offspring may not be eaten b unless its father is a male lamb and its mother is a female lamb. /b ,§ The Gemara returns to the dilemma of whether Rabbi Shimon permits the consumption of the offspring of a kosher animal that resembles a non-kosher animal but has some of the characteristics of its mother. b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Shimon says /b it is stated: b “Camel” /b (Leviticus 11:4), b “camel” /b (Deuteronomy 14:7), i.e., the term is written b two times /b with regard to the prohibition against consumption. This teaches that b both a camel that is born from a camel and a camel that is born from a cow /b are non-kosher. b And if /b in the latter case b its head and the majority of /b its body b are similar to its mother, it is permitted for consumption. /b , b Learn from it /b that not only with regard to firstborn status, but b with regard to consumption as well Rabbi Shimon requires /b that b its head and the majority of /b its body resemble the mother, and a partial resemblance does not suffice. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from it /b that this is so.,§ The mishna (5b) teaches: This is b because that which emerges from the non-kosher /b animal is non-kosher and that which emerges from the kosher animal is kosher. The Sages b raised a dilemma before Rav Sheshet: /b With regard to b the urine of a donkey, what is /b the i halakha /i ? Is it forbidden, like the milk of a donkey?,The Gemara asks: b And /b should they b raise the dilemma /b also b with regard to /b the urine b of horses and camels? /b The Gemara answers: With regard to the urine b of horses and camels they did not raise the dilemma, as /b their urine b is not turbid and /b consequently b is not similar to milk. /b Rather, b water enters /b their body and b water exits /b their body. b When they raised the dilemma /b it was concerning the urine b of a donkey, which is turbid and is /b consequently b similar to milk. What /b is the i halakha /i ? b Does it get excreted from its body, and it is /b therefore b forbidden, or perhaps water enters /b and b water exits, and /b the fact b that it is turbid is /b due to b the heat of the flesh? /b , b Rav Sheshet said to them: You learned /b the answer in the mishna: This is b because that which emerges from the non-kosher /b animal b is non-kosher and that which emerges from the kosher /b animal b is kosher. /b From the fact that it b does not state: /b That which emerges b from a non-kosher /b animal [ i mittamei /i ], meaning from the body of a non-kosher animal, but b rather /b it says: b From /b
339. Eusebius of Caesarea, De Theophania (Fragmenta), 1.40, 1.42, 1.44-1.45, 1.48, 1.68, 2.69 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 370, 371
340. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •god, image of Found in books: Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 128
70a. ענבי תאלא במים,לחזזיתא ליתי שב חיטי ארזנייתא וניקלינהו אמרא חדתא ונפיק משחא מינייהו ונישוף רב שימי בר אשי עבד ליה לההוא עובד כוכבים לדבר אחר ואיתסי,אמר שמואל האי מאן דמחו ליה באלונכי דפרסאי מיחייא לא חיי אדהכי והכי ניספו ליה בשרא שמינא אגומרי וחמרא חייא אפשר דחיי פורתא ומפקיד אביתיה,אמר רב אידי בר אבין האי מאן דבלע זיבורא מיחייא לא חיי אדהכי והכי נשקיה רביעתא דחלא שמזג אפשר דחיי פורתא ומפקיד לביתיה,א"ר יהושע בן לוי אכל בשר שור בלפת ולן בלבנה בלילי י"ד או ט"ו בתקופת תמוז אחזתו אחילו,תנא והממלא כריסו מכל דבר אחזתו אחילו אמר רב פפא אפי' מתמרי פשיטא סד"א הואיל ואמר מר תמרי משבען ומשחנן ומשלשלן ומאשרן ולא מפנקן אימא לא קמ"ל,מאי אחילו א"ר אלעזר אש של עצמות מאי אש של עצמות אמר אביי אש גרמי,מאי אסותיה אמר אביי אמרה לי אם כולהו שקייני תלתא ושבעא ותריסר והאי עד דמתסי,כולהו שקייני אליבא ריקנא והאי בתר דאכל ושתי ועייל לבית הכסא ונפיק ומשי ידיה ומייתו ליה בונא דשתיתא דטלפחי ובונא דחמרא עתיקא וניגבלינהו בהדי הדדי וניכול וניכרוך בסדיניה וניגניה וליכא דנוקמיה עד דקאי מנפשיה וכי קאי לישקליה לסדיניה מיניה ואי לא הדר עילויה,אמר ליה אליהו לר' נתן אכול שליש ושתה שליש והנח שליש לכשתכעוס תעמוד על מילואך,תני ר' חייא הרוצה שלא יבא לידי חולי מעיים יהא רגיל בטיבול קיץ וחורף סעודתך שהנאתך ממנה משוך ידך הימנה ואל תשהה עצמך בשעה שאתה צריך לנקביך,אמר מר עוקבא האי מאן דשתי טיליא חיורא אחזתו ויתק אמר רב חסדא שיתין מיני חמרא הוו מעליא דכולהו סומקא ריחתנא גריעא דכולהו טיליא חיורא,אמר רב יהודה האי מאן דיתיב בצפרני ניסן גבי נורא ושייף משחא ונפיק ויתיב בשמשא אחזתו ויתק,תנו רבנן הקיז דם ושימש מטתו הוויין לו בנים ויתקין הקיזו שניהם ושימשו הוויין להן בנים בעלי ראתן אמר רב פפא לא אמרן אלא דלא טעים מידי אבל טעים מידי לית לן בה,אמר רבה בר רב הונא בא מן הדרך ושימש מטתו הוויין לו בנים ויתקין תנו רבנן הבא מבית הכסא אל ישמש מטתו עד שישהה שיעור חצי מיל מפני ששד בית הכסא מלוה עמו ואם שימש הוויין לו בנים נכפים,תנו רבנן המשמש מטתו מעומד אוחזתו עוית מיושב אוחזתו דלריא היא מלמעלה והוא מלמטה אוחזתו דלריא,מאי דלריא אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי סם דלריא דרדרא מאי דרדרא אמר אביי מוריקא דחוחי רב פפא אליס ובלע ליה רב פפי אליס ושדי ליה,אמר אביי מי שאינו בקי בדרך ארץ ליתי ג' קפיזי קורטמי דחוחי ונידוקינהו ונישליקינהו בחמרא ונישתי אמר רבי יוחנן הן הן החזירוני לנערותי:,שלשה דברים מכחישים כחו של אדם ואלו הן פחד דרך ועון פחד דכתיב (תהלים לח, יא) לבי סחרחר עזבני כחי דרך דכתיב (תהלים קב, כד) ענה בדרך כחי עון דכתיב (תהלים לא, יא) כשל בעוני כחי:,שלשה דברים מתיזין גופו של אדם ואלו הן אכל מעומד ושתה מעומד ושימש מטתו מעומד,חמשה קרובין למיתה יותר מן החיים ואלו הן אכל ועמד שתה ועמד הקיז דם ועמד ישן ועמד שימש מטתו ועמד:,ששה העושה אותן מיד מת ואלו הן הבא בדרך ונתייגע הקיז דם ונכנס לבית המרחץ ושתה ונשתכר וישן על גבי קרקע ושימש מטתו אמר רבי יוחנן והוא שעשאן כסידרן,אמר אביי כסידרן מת שלא כסידרן חליש איני והא מעורת עבדה ליה לעבדה תלת מינייהו ומית ההוא כחוש הוה:,שמונה רובן קשה ומיעוטן יפה ואלו הן דרך ודרך ארץ עושר ומלאכה יין ושינה חמין והקזת דם,שמונה ממעטים את הזרע ואלו הן המלח והרעב והנתק בכייה ושינה על גבי קרקע וגדגדניות וכשות שלא בזמנה והקזת דם למטה כפלים,תנא כשם שקשה למטה כפלים כך יפה למעלה כפלים אמר רב פפא 70a. b grapes /b grown by trellising the vine on b a palm tree /b soaked b in water. /b ,As a remedy b for lichen planus [ i ḥazazita /i ] /b on one’s skin, b let him bring seven large wheat kernels [ i arzanayata /i ] and /b let him b roast them over /b a fire on the blade of b a new hoe. And /b let him b extract oil from /b the wheat b and rub /b it into his skin. It is told: b Rav Shimi bar Ashi used this /b remedy b for a certain gentile /b who had b something else, /b i.e., leprosy, b and he was healed. /b , b Shmuel said: One who is struck with Persian spears [ i alunkei /i ] will not live /b long afterward, as he will certainly die from this wound. b In the meantime, they should force-feed him fatty meat /b that was roasted b over coals, and undiluted wine. /b If they do this, it is b possible that he will live /b for b a little bit /b longer b and /b have time to b instruct his household /b with regard to what they should do after his death.,Similarly, b Rav Idi bar Avin said: One who swallowed a hornet will not live. In the meantime they should give him a quarter- /b i log /i b of sharp [ i shamzag /i ] vinegar to drink. /b If they do this, b it is possible that he will live /b for b a little bit /b longer b and /b have time to b instruct his household /b with regard to what they should do after his death.,§ b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: /b If one b ate ox meat with a turnip, and slept by /b the light of b the moon on the night of the fourteenth or the fifteenth /b of the month b in the season of Tammuz, /b i.e., summer, he will be b afflicted with i aḥilu /i , /b a severe fever.,A Sage b taught: And one who fills his stomach with anything, /b meaning that he eats too much, will be b afflicted with i aḥilu /i . Rav Pappa said: Even /b if he fills his stomach b with dates. /b The Gemara asks: b Isn’t /b this b obvious, /b as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi explicitly mentioned if one fills his stomach with anything. The Gemara answers: b It might enter your mind to say /b that b since the Master said /b the following in praise of dates: b Dates satisfy /b the body, b warm /b it up, b act as a laxative, strengthen /b the body, b and do not spoil /b it, one might b say /b that as dates are beneficial, he would not be harmed by eating too many. Nevertheless, it b teaches us /b that they can also cause harm when eaten in excess.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the affliction b i aḥilu /i /b mentioned here? b Rabbi Elazar says: A fire of the bones. /b The Gemara asks: b What is a fire of the bones? Abaye said: /b This is what is called b i esh garmei /i /b in Aramaic., b What is its remedy? Abaye said: My mother told me /b that b any drink /b consumed for medicinal purposes should be taken for either b three or seven or twelve /b days, depending on what is necessary for that specific ailment. b And /b if b this /b is taken to treat i aḥilu /i then he must drink it b until he is healed. /b , b Any drink /b consumed for medicinal purposes should be consumed b with an empty heart, /b i.e., without eating first. b And /b for b this /b disease of i aḥilu /i he consumes the medicine b after he eats and drinks and enters the bathroom, and exits and washes his hands, and they bring him a fistful of i shetita /i , /b a type of food made b from lentils, and a fistful of aged wine. And let him mix them together and let him eat /b this mixture. b And let him wrap himself with his sheet and sleep. And let there be no /b one b who will awaken him until he awakens on his own. And when he awakens let him remove the sheet from himself. And if /b he does b not /b do this then the illness b will return to him. /b ,§ b Elijah /b the prophet b said to Rabbi Natan: Eat a third /b of your fill, b and drink a third /b of your fill, b and leave a third /b of your fill, so that b when you become angry you /b will b become full. /b If you do this, there will be room, as it were, for the anger. If you become angry when your stomach is full you will be harmed., b Rabbi Ḥiyya teaches: One who does not want to come to /b a situation whereby he contracts b intestinal disease /b should b become accustomed to dipping /b his food in wine or vinegar, both in the b summer /b and in the b winter. /b He also teaches: b You should remove your hand, /b i.e., stop eating, b from a meal that you enjoy /b so that you do not overeat. b And do not delay yourself at the time when it is necessary to relieve yourself. /b , b Mar Ukva said: This one who drinks inferior white wine [ i tilya /i ] /b will be b afflicted with weakness [ i vitak /i ]. Rav Ḥisda said: There are sixty types of wine. The best of them all /b is b red, fragrant /b wine. b The worst of them all /b is b inferior white wine. /b , b Rav Yehuda said: This one who sits near the fire during the mornings /b in the month b of Nisan and rubs /b himself b with oil and /b then b goes out and sits in the sun /b will be b afflicted with weakness. /b , b The Sages taught: /b One who b let blood and /b afterward b engaged in sexual intercourse has weak children /b conceived from those acts of intercourse. If b both of them, /b husband and wife, b let blood and engaged in sexual intercourse they will have children afflicted /b with a disease known as b i ra’atan /i . Rav Pappa said: We said /b this b only /b if b he did not taste anything /b after letting blood. b But /b if b he tasted something /b then b we have no /b problem b with it. /b , b Rabba bar Rav Huna says: /b One who b came /b back b from /b traveling on b the road and engaged in sexual intercourse /b immediately b has weak children /b conceived from those acts of intercourse. b The Sages taught: /b With regard to b one who comes /b in b from the bathroom, /b he should b not engage in sexual intercourse until he waits the measure of /b time it takes to walk b half a i mil /i because the demon of the bathroom accompanies him. And if he engaged in sexual intercourse /b without waiting this measure of time, b he has children /b who are b epileptic. /b , b The Sages taught: One who engages in sexual intercourse /b while b standing /b will be b afflicted by spasms. /b One who engages in sexual intercourse while b sitting /b will be b afflicted with i dalarya /i . /b If b she, /b the woman, is b above and he, /b the husband, is b below /b during sexual intercourse, then he will be b afflicted with i dalarya /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b What /b is b i dalarya /i ? Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: /b The b remedy for i dalarya /i /b is b i dardara /i . /b The Gemara asks: b What /b is b i dardara /i ? Abaye said: Saffron of thorns. Rav Pappa /b would b chew [ i aleis /i ] and swallow /b this remedy. b Rav Pappi /b would b chew and spit it /b out., b Abaye says: /b As a remedy for b one who is not an expert, /b i.e., does not have strength, b in /b the b way of the world, /b i.e., in sexual intercourse, b let him bring three vessels [ i kefizei /i ], /b each containing three-quarters of a i log /i of b safflower thorns. And let him grind them, and boil them in wine, and drink /b the mixture. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: These are /b the remedies that b return me to my youth /b with regard to sexual intercourse.,§ b Three things diminish a person’s strength, and they are: Fear, /b traveling on the b road, and sin. /b The Gemara explains: b Fear, as it is written: “My heart flutters, my strength fails me” /b (Psalms 38:11). Traveling on the b road, as it is written: “He has weakened my strength on the road” /b (Psalms 102:24). b Sin, as it is written: “My strength fails because of my sin” /b (Psalms 31:11)., b Three things break a person’s body, and they are: /b If he b ate /b while b standing, /b if he b drank /b while b standing, and /b if he b engaged in sexual intercourse /b while b standing. /b ,There are b five /b actions that bring one b closer to death than /b to b life, and they are: /b If he b ate and stood /b up immediately, if he b drank and stood /b up immediately, if he b let blood and stood /b up immediately, if he b slept and stood /b up immediately, and if he b engaged in sexual intercourse and stood /b up immediately.,With regard to b one who performs /b the following acts, if he performs the b six /b of b them /b consecutively b he dies immediately, and they are: /b If b one came /b back b from /b a journey b on the road and was exhausted, let blood, and entered the bathhouse, and drank and became intoxicated, and slept on the ground, and engaged in sexual intercourse, /b then he will die. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: But he /b will die for certain only in the case b where he performs them in this order. /b , b Abaye said: /b If he performs these actions b in this order he will die. /b But if he performs them b out of order he will become weak. /b The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t /b a woman named b Me’oret make her slave /b perform b three of these /b actions b and he died /b as a result? The Gemara answers: b That /b slave b was weak, /b which is why he died. But an ordinary individual would die only upon performing all of these acts in the previously mentioned order., b Eight /b actions are b difficult /b for the body and the soul to handle b in large /b amounts b and /b are b beneficial in small /b amounts, b and they are: /b Traveling on the b road, /b engaging in the b way of the world, /b i.e., engaging in sexual intercourse, having b wealth, work, /b drinking b wine, sleep, hot water, and bloodletting. /b , b Eight /b actions or illnesses b decrease the semen, and they are: Salt, hunger, /b a skin disease called b i netek /i , crying, sleeping on the ground, /b the b melilot /b plant, b and dodder /b eaten b not in its time, /b i.e., before it is ripe. b And bloodletting /b performed b below, /b on the lower portion of the body, causes b twice /b as much harm as the other actions mentioned.,The Sage b taught: Just as /b bloodletting b below /b causes b twice /b as much b harm, so too, /b bloodletting b above, /b on the upper portion of the body, is b twice /b as b effective. Rav Pappa said: /b
341. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, and the conception of the creation of humanity in gods image Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 256
62b. אכולהו והא ששה חדשים קאמר אינו דומה מי שיש לו פת בסלו למי שאין לו פת בסלו,א"ל רבה בר רב חנן לאביי חמר ונעשה גמל מאי א"ל רוצה אשה בקב ותיפלות מעשרה קבין ופרישות:,הספנים אחת לששה חדשים דברי ר' אליעזר: אמר רב ברונא אמר רב הלכה כר"א אמר רב אדא בר אהבה אמר רב זו דברי ר' אליעזר אבל חכמים אומרים התלמידים יוצאין לת"ת ב' וג' שנים שלא ברשות אמר רבא סמכו רבנן אדרב אדא בר אהבה ועבדי עובדא בנפשייהו,כי הא דרב רחומי הוה שכיח קמיה דרבא במחוזא הוה רגיל דהוה אתי לביתיה כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא הוה מסכיא דביתהו השתא אתי השתא אתי לא אתא חלש דעתה אחית דמעתא מעינה הוה יתיב באיגרא אפחית איגרא מתותיה ונח נפשיה,עונה של תלמידי חכמים אימת אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל מע"ש לע"ש (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו אמר רב יהודה ואיתימא רב הונא ואיתימא רב נחמן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,יהודה בריה דר' חייא חתניה דר' ינאי הוה אזיל ויתיב בבי רב וכל בי שמשי הוה אתי לביתיה וכי הוה אתי הוה קא חזי קמיה עמודא דנורא יומא חד משכתיה שמעתא כיון דלא חזי ההוא סימנא אמר להו רבי ינאי כפו מטתו שאילמלי יהודה קיים לא ביטל עונתו הואי (קהלת י, ה) כשגגה שיוצא מלפני השליט ונח נפשיה,רבי איעסק ליה לבריה בי רבי חייא כי מטא למיכתב כתובה נח נפשה דרביתא אמר רבי ח"ו פסולא איכא יתיבו ועיינו במשפחות רבי אתי משפטיה בן אביטל ורבי חייא אתי משמעי אחי דוד,אזיל איעסק ליה לבריה בי ר' יוסי בן זימרא פסקו ליה תרתי סרי שנין למיזל בבי רב אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו ניהוו שית שנין אחלפוה קמיה אמר להו איכניס והדר איזיל הוה קא מכסיף מאבוה א"ל בני דעת קונך יש בך,מעיקרא כתיב (שמות טו, יז) תביאמו ותטעמו ולבסוף כתיב (שמות כה, ח) ועשו לי מקדש ושכנתי בתוכם,אזיל יתיב תרתי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתא איעקרא דביתהו אמר רבי היכי נעביד נגרשה יאמרו ענייה זו לשוא שימרה נינסיב איתתא אחריתי יאמרו זו אשתו וזו זונתו בעי עלה רחמי ואיתסיאת:,רבי חנניה בן חכינאי הוה קאזיל לבי רב בשילהי הלוליה דר"ש בן יוחאי א"ל איעכב לי עד דאתי בהדך לא איעכבא ליה אזל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי רב עד דאתי אישתנו שבילי דמתא ולא ידע למיזל לביתיה,אזל יתיב אגודא דנהרא שמע לההיא רביתא דהוו קרו לה בת חכינאי בת חכינאי מלי קולתך ותא ניזיל אמר ש"מ האי רביתא דידן אזל בתרה הוה יתיבא דביתהו קא נהלה קמחא דל עינה חזיתיה סוי לבה פרח רוחה אמר לפניו רבש"ע ענייה זו זה שכרה בעא רחמי עלה וחייה,רבי חמא בר ביסא אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שני בבי מדרשא כי אתא אמר לא איעביד כדעביד בן חכינאי עייל יתיב במדרשא שלח לביתיה אתא ר' אושעיא בריה יתיב קמיה הוה קא משאיל ליה שמעתא חזא דקא מתחדדי שמעתיה חלש דעתיה אמר אי הואי הכא הוה לי זרע כי האי,על לביתיה על בריה קם קמיה הוא סבר למשאליה שמעתתא קא בעי אמרה ליה דביתהו מי איכא אבא דקאים מקמי ברא קרי עליה רמי בר חמא (קהלת ד, יב) החוט המשולש לא במהרה ינתק זה ר' אושעיא בנו של רבי חמא בר ביסא,ר"ע רעיא דבן כלבא שבוע הוה חזיתיה ברתיה דהוה צניע ומעלי אמרה ליה אי מקדשנא לך אזלת לבי רב אמר לה אין איקדשא ליה בצינעה ושדרתיה שמע אבוה אפקה מביתיה אדרה הנאה מנכסיה אזיל יתיב תרי סרי שנין בבי רב כי אתא אייתי בהדיה תרי סרי אלפי תלמידי שמעיה לההוא סבא דקאמר לה עד כמה 62b. the i tanna /i taught us a i halakha /i b with regard to all of them, /b not only a man of leisure or a laborer. He asked him: b But /b with regard to a sailor b it said /b that the set interval for conjugal relations is b six months; /b why, then, should he have to divorce her if he vowed to forbid these relations for only a week? He answered him: It is well known that b one who has bread in his basket is not comparable to one who does not have bread in his basket. /b On a fast day, one who does not have bread available in his basket suffers more than one who does have bread available and knows that he will be able to eat later. In this case as well, when a woman knows that marital relations are forbidden to her due to a vow, her suffering from waiting for her husband to return is increased., b Rabba bar Rav Ha said to Abaye: If a donkey driver /b who is already married wants to b become a camel driver, what /b is the i halakha /i ? Is he permitted to change his profession in order to earn more money from his work, even though this will mean he reduces the frequency with which he engages in conjugal relations with his wife? b He answered him: A woman prefers a i kav /i , /b i.e., modest means, b with conjugal relations to ten i kav /i with abstinence. /b Consequently, he is not allowed to change his profession without her permission.,§ The mishna stated: For b sailors, /b the set interval for conjugal relations is b once every six months. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Berona said /b that b Rav said: /b The b i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer. Rav Adda bar Ahava said /b that b Rav said: This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer, but the Rabbis say: Students may leave /b their homes b to study Torah /b for as long as b two or three years without permission /b from their wives. b Rava said: The Sages relied on Rabbi Adda bar Ahava’s /b opinion b and performed an action /b like this b themselves, /b but the results were sometimes fatal.,This is b as /b it is related b about Rav Reḥumi, who would commonly /b study b before Rava in Meḥoza: He was accustomed to come /b back b to his home every /b year on the b eve of Yom Kippur. One day he was /b particularly b engrossed in /b the b i halakha /i /b he was studying, and so he remained in the study hall and did not go home. b His wife was expecting him /b that day and continually said to herself: b Now he is coming, now he is coming. /b But in the end, b he did not come. She was distressed /b by this and b a tear fell from her eye. /b At that exact moment, Rav Reḥumi b was sitting on the roof. The roof collapsed under him and he died. /b This teaches how much one must be careful, as he was punished severely for causing anguish to his wife, even inadvertently.,§ b When /b is b the /b ideal b time for Torah scholars /b to fulfill their conjugal obligations? b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Shmuel said: /b The appropriate time for them is b from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve, /b i.e., on Friday nights. Similarly, it is stated with regard to the verse b “that brings forth its fruit in its season” /b (Psalms 1:3): b Rav Yehuda said, and some say /b that it was b Rav Huna, and some say /b that it was b Rav Naḥman: This /b is referring to one b who engages in marital relations, /b bringing forth his fruit, b from Shabbat eve to Shabbat eve. /b ,It is related further that b Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya /b and b son-in-law of Rabbi Yannai, would go and sit in the study hall, and every /b Shabbat eve b at twilight he would come to his house. When he would come, /b Rabbi Yannai b would see a pillar of fire preceding him /b due to his sanctity. b One day he was engrossed in /b the b i halakha /i /b he was studying, and he stayed in the study hall and did not return home. b When Rabbi Yannai did not see that sign /b preceding him, b he said to /b the family: b Turn his bed over, /b as one does at times of mourning, since he must have died, reasoning that b if Yehuda were alive he would not have missed his set interval /b for conjugal relations and would certainly have come home. What he said b became “like an error that proceeds from a ruler” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:5), b and /b Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, b died. /b ,It is related further that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b arranged for his son /b to marry a daughter of b the household of Rabbi Ḥiyya. When he came to write the marriage contract, the girl died. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: Is there, Heaven forbid, some disqualification /b in these families, as it appears that God prevented this match from taking place? b They sat and looked into the families’ /b ancestry and found that b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b was descended from Shefatya ben Avital, /b the wife of David, whereas b Rabbi Ḥiyya was descended from Shimi, David’s brother. /b , b He went and arranged for his son /b to marry a daughter b of the household of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra. They agreed for him /b that they would support him for b twelve years to go to study in the study hall. /b It was assumed that he would first go to study and afterward get married. b They passed /b the girl b in front of /b the groom and when he saw her b he said: Let it be /b just b six years. They passed her in front of him /b again and b he said to them: I will marry her /b now b and then go /b to study. b He was /b then b ashamed /b to see b his father, /b as he thought he would reprimand him because when he saw the girl he desired her and could not wait. His father placated him and b said to him: My son, you have your Maker’s perception, /b meaning you acted the same way that God does.,The proof for this is that b initially it is written: “You bring them and plant them /b in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place that You, O Lord, have made for You to dwell in” (Exodus 15:17), which indicates that God’s original intention was to build a Temple for the Jewish people after they had entered Eretz Yisrael. b And ultimately it is written: “And let them make Me a Sanctuary, that I may dwell among them” /b (Exodus 25:8), i.e., even while they were still in the desert, which indicates that due to their closeness to God, they enjoyed greater affection and He therefore advanced what would originally have come later.,After his wedding b he went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back his wife had become infertile, /b as a consequence of spending many years without her husband. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: What /b should we b do? If he will divorce her, /b people b will say: This poor woman waited /b and hoped b for naught. If he will marry another woman /b to beget children, people b will say: This one, /b who bears him children, b is his wife and that one, /b who lives with him, b is his mistress. /b Therefore, her husband b pleaded /b with God b to have mercy on her and she was cured. /b , b Rabbi Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai went to the study hall at the end of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai’s wedding feast. /b Rabbi Shimon b said to him: Wait for me until I /b can b come with you, /b after my days of celebration are over. However, since he wanted to learn Torah, b he did not wait /b and b went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. By the time he came back, all the paths of his city had changed and he did not know how to go to his home. /b , b He went /b and b sat on the bank of the river and heard people calling to a certain girl: Daughter of Ḥakhinai, daughter of Ḥakhinai, fill your pitcher and come up. He said: I can conclude from this that this is our daughter, /b meaning his own daughter, whom he had not recognized after so many years. b He followed her /b to his house. b His wife was sitting and sifting flour. She lifted her eyes up, saw him /b and recognized him, b and her heart fluttered /b with agitation and b she passed away /b from the emotional stress. Rabbi Ḥaya b said before /b God: b Master of the universe, is this the reward of this poor woman? He pleaded for mercy for her and she lived. /b , b Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa went and sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came /b back to his house, b he said: I will not do what the son of Ḥakhinai, /b who came home suddenly with tragic consequences for his wife, b did. He went and sat in the study hall /b in his hometown, b and sent /b a message b to his house /b that he had arrived. While he was sitting there b his son Rabbi Oshaya, /b whom he did not recognize, b came and sat before him. /b Rabbi Oshaya b asked him /b questions about b i halakha /i , and /b Rabbi Ḥama b saw that the i halakhot /i of /b Rabbi Oshaya b were incisive, /b i.e., he was very sharp. Rabbi Ḥama b was distressed and said: If I had been here /b and had taught my son b I would have had a child like this. /b ,Rabbi Ḥama b went in to his house /b and b his son went in /b with him. Rabbi Ḥama then b stood up before him /b to honor a Torah scholar, since b he thought /b that b he wanted to ask him a matter of i halakha /i . His wife said to him: Is there a father who stands up before his son? /b The Gemara comments: b Rami bar Ḥama read /b the verse b about him: “A threefold cord is not quickly broken” /b (Ecclesiastes 4:12). b This /b is referring to b Rabbi Oshaya, son of Rabbi Ḥama bar Bisa, /b as he represented the third generation of Torah scholars in his family.,The Gemara further relates: b Rabbi Akiva was the shepherd of ben Kalba Savua, /b one of the wealthy residents of Jerusalem. The b daughter /b of Ben Kalba Savua b saw that he was humble and refined. She said to him: If I betroth myself to you, will you go to the study hall /b to learn Torah? b He said to her: Yes. She became betrothed to him privately and sent him /b off to study. b Her father heard /b this and became angry. b He removed her from his house /b and took a b vow /b prohibiting her from b benefiting from his property. /b Rabbi Akiva b went /b and b sat for twelve years in the study hall. When he came /b back to his house b he brought twelve thousand students /b with him, and as he approached b he heard an old man saying to /b his wife: b For how long /b
342. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 1.2.17-1.2.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man) Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 371
1.2.17. But why the Gospel was not preached in ancient times to all men and to all nations, as it is now, will appear from the following considerations. The life of the ancients was not of such a kind as to permit them to receive the all-wise and all-virtuous teaching of Christ. 1.2.18. For immediately in the beginning, after his original life of blessedness, the first man despised the command of God, and fell into this mortal and perishable state, and exchanged his former divinely inspired luxury for this curse-laden earth. His descendants having filled our earth, showed themselves much worse, with the exception of one here and there, and entered upon a certain brutal and insupportable mode of life. 1.2.19. They thought neither of city nor state, neither of arts nor sciences. They were ignorant even of the name of laws and of justice, of virtue and of philosophy. As nomads, they passed their lives in deserts, like wild and fierce beasts, destroying, by an excess of voluntary wickedness, the natural reason of man, and the seeds of thought and of culture implanted in the human soul. They gave themselves wholly over to all kinds of profanity, now seducing one another, now slaying one another, now eating human flesh, and now daring to wage war with the Gods and to undertake those battles of the giants celebrated by all; now planning to fortify earth against heaven, and in the madness of ungoverned pride to prepare an attack upon the very God of all.
343. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 242
31a. מאי קרא (תהלים עא, ו) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מאי משמע דהאי גוזי לישנא דאשתבועי הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו ז, כט) גזי נזרך והשליכי,ואמר רבי אלעזר למה ולד דומה במעי אמו לאגוז מונח בספל של מים אדם נותן אצבעו עליו שוקע לכאן ולכאן,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים ולד דר במדור התחתון אמצעיים ולד דר במדור האמצעי אחרונים ולד דר במדור העליון וכיון שהגיע זמנו לצאת מתהפך ויוצא וזהו חבלי אשה,והיינו דתנן חבלי של נקבה מרובין משל זכר,ואמר רבי אלעזר מאי קרא (תהלים קלט, טו) אשר עשיתי בסתר רקמתי בתחתיות ארץ דרתי לא נאמר אלא רקמתי,מאי שנא חבלי נקבה מרובין משל זכר זה בא כדרך תשמישו וזה בא כדרך תשמישו זו הופכת פניה וזה אין הופך פניו,תנו רבנן שלשה חדשים הראשונים תשמיש קשה לאשה וגם קשה לולד אמצעיים קשה לאשה ויפה לולד אחרונים יפה לאשה ויפה לולד שמתוך כך נמצא הולד מלובן ומזורז,תנא המשמש מטתו ליום תשעים כאילו שופך דמים מנא ידע אלא אמר אביי משמש והולך (תהלים קטז, ו) ושומר פתאים ה',תנו רבנן שלשה שותפין יש באדם הקב"ה ואביו ואמו אביו מזריע הלובן שממנו עצמות וגידים וצפרנים ומוח שבראשו ולובן שבעין אמו מזרעת אודם שממנו עור ובשר ושערות ושחור שבעין והקב"ה נותן בו רוח ונשמה וקלסתר פנים וראיית העין ושמיעת האוזן ודבור פה והלוך רגלים ובינה והשכל,וכיון שהגיע זמנו להפטר מן העולם הקב"ה נוטל חלקו וחלק אביו ואמו מניח לפניהם אמר רב פפא היינו דאמרי אינשי פוץ מלחא ושדי בשרא לכלבא,דרש רב חיננא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (איוב ט, י) עושה גדולות עד אין חקר ונפלאות עד אין מספר בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם נותן חפץ בחמת צרורה ופיה למעלה ספק משתמר ספק אין משתמר ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה פתוחה ופיה למטה ומשתמר,דבר אחר אדם נותן חפציו לכף מאזנים כל זמן שמכביד יורד למטה ואילו הקב"ה כל זמן שמכביד הולד עולה למעלה,דרש רבי יוסי הגלילי מאי דכתיב {תהילים קל״ט:י״ד } אודך (ה') על כי נוראות נפליתי נפלאים מעשיך ונפשי יודעת מאד בא וראה שלא כמדת הקב"ה מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם אדם נותן זרעונים בערוגה כל אחת ואחת עולה במינו ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה וכולם עולין למין אחד,דבר אחר צבע נותן סמנין ליורה כולן עולין לצבע אחד ואילו הקב"ה צר העובר במעי אשה כל אחת ואחת עולה למינו,דרש רב יוסף מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו יב, א) אודך ה' כי אנפת בי ישוב אפך ותנחמני במה הכתוב מדבר,בשני בני אדם שיצאו לסחורה ישב לו קוץ לאחד מהן התחיל מחרף ומגדף לימים שמע שטבעה ספינתו של חבירו בים התחיל מודה ומשבח לכך נאמר ישוב אפך ותנחמני,והיינו דאמר רבי אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים עב, יח) עושה נפלאות (גדולות) לבדו וברוך שם כבודו לעולם אפילו בעל הנס אינו מכיר בנסו,דריש רבי חנינא בר פפא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קלט, ג) ארחי ורבעי זרית וכל דרכי הסכנת מלמד שלא נוצר אדם מן כל הטפה אלא מן הברור שבה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל משל לאדם שזורה בבית הגרנות נוטל את האוכל ומניח את הפסולת,כדרבי אבהו דרבי אבהו רמי כתיב (שמואל ב כב, מ) ותזרני חיל וכתיב (תהלים יח, לג) האל המאזרני חיל אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע זיריתני וזרזתני,דרש רבי אבהו מאי דכתיב (במדבר כג, י) מי מנה עפר יעקב ומספר את רובע ישראל מלמד שהקב"ה יושב וסופר את רביעיותיהם של ישראל מתי תבא טיפה שהצדיק נוצר הימנה,ועל דבר זה נסמית עינו של בלעם הרשע אמר מי שהוא טהור וקדוש ומשרתיו טהורים וקדושים יציץ בדבר זה מיד נסמית עינו דכתיב (במדבר כד, ג) נאם הגבר שתום העין,והיינו דאמר רבי יוחנן מאי דכתיב (בראשית ל, טז) וישכב עמה בלילה הוא מלמד שהקב"ה סייע באותו מעשה שנאמר (בראשית מט, יד) יששכר חמור גרם חמור גרם לו ליששכר,אמר רבי יצחק אמר רבי אמי אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחילה יולדת נקבה שנאמר (ויקרא יג, כט) אשה כי תזריע וילדה זכר,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו אומרים אשה מזרעת תחילה יולדת זכר איש מזריע תחלה יולדת נקבה ולא פירשו חכמים את הדבר עד שבא רבי צדוק ופירשו (בראשית מו, טו) אלה בני לאה אשר ילדה ליעקב בפדן ארם ואת דינה בתו תלה הזכרים בנקבות ונקבות בזכרים,(דברי הימים א ח, מ) ויהיו בני אולם אנשים גבורי חיל דורכי קשת ומרבים בנים ובני בנים וכי בידו של אדם להרבות בנים ובני בנים אלא מתוך 31a. b What is the verse /b from which it is derived that a fetus is administered an oath on the day of its birth? “Upon You I have relied from birth; b You are He Who took me out [ i gozi /i ] of my mother’s womb” /b (Psalms 71:6). b From where may /b it b be inferred that this /b word: b “ i Gozi /i ,” is a term of administering an oath? As it is written: “Cut off [ i gozi /i ] your hair and cast it away” /b (Jeremiah 7:29), which is interpreted as a reference to the vow of a nazirite, who must cut off his hair at the end of his term of naziriteship., b And Rabbi Elazar says: To what is a fetus in its mother’s womb comparable? /b It is comparable b to a nut placed in a basin /b full b of water, /b floating on top of the water. If b a person puts his finger on top of /b the nut, b it sinks /b either b in this direction or in that direction. /b ,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : During b the first three months /b of pregcy, the b fetus resides in the lower compartment /b of the womb; in the b middle /b three months, the b fetus resides in the middle compartment; /b and during the b last /b three months of pregcy the b fetus resides in the upper compartment. And once its time to emerge arrives, it turns upside down and emerges; and this is /b what causes b labor pains. /b ,With regard to the assertion that labor pains are caused by the fetus turning upside down, the Gemara notes: b And this is /b the explanation for b that which we learned /b in a i baraita /i : b The labor pains experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a female are greater than /b those b experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a male. /b The Gemara will explain this below., b And Rabbi Elazar says: What is the verse /b from which it is derived that a fetus initially resides in the lower part of the womb? b “When I was made in secret, and I was woven together in the lowest parts of the earth” /b (Psalms 139:15). Since it b is not stated: I resided /b in the lowest parts of the earth, b but rather: “I was woven together /b in the lowest parts of the earth,” this teaches that during the initial stage of a fetus’s development, when it is woven together, its location is in the lower compartment of the womb.,The Gemara asks: b What is different /b about b the labor pains experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a female, /b that they b are greater than those experienced by /b a woman who gives birth to b a male? /b The Gemara answers: b This /b one, a male fetus, b emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse. /b Just as a male engages in intercourse facing downward, so too, it is born while facing down. b And that /b one, a female fetus, b emerges in the manner in which it engages in intercourse, /b i.e., facing upward. Consequently, b that /b one, a female fetus, b turns its face around /b before it is born, b but this /b one, a male fetus, b does not turn its face around /b before it is born.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : During b the first three months /b of pregcy, b sexual intercourse is difficult /b and harmful b for the woman and is also difficult for the offspring. /b During the b middle /b three months, intercourse is b difficult for the woman but is beneficial for the offspring. /b During the b last /b three months, sexual intercourse is b beneficial for the woman and beneficial for the offspring; as a result of it the offspring is found to be strong and fair skinned. /b ,The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who engages in intercourse /b with his wife b on the ninetieth day /b of her pregcy, b it is as though he spills /b her b blood. /b The Gemara asks: b How does one know /b that it is the ninetieth day of her pregcy? b Rather, Abaye says: One should go ahead and engage in intercourse /b with his wife even if it might be the ninetieth day, b and /b rely on God to prevent any ensuing harm, as the verse states: b “The Lord preserves the simple” /b (Psalms 116:6).,§ b The Sages taught: There are three partners in /b the creation of b a person: The Holy One, Blessed be He, and his father, and his mother. His father emits the white seed, from which /b the following body parts are formed: The b bones, /b the b sinews, /b the b nails, /b the b brain that is in its head, and /b the b white of the eye. His mother emits red seed, from which /b are formed the b skin, /b the b flesh, /b the b hair, and /b the b black of the eye. And the Holy One, Blessed be He, inserts into him a spirit, a soul, /b his b countece [ i ukelaster /i ], eyesight, hearing of the ear, /b the capability of b speech /b of b the mouth, /b the capability of b walking /b with b the legs, understanding, and wisdom. /b , b And when /b a person’s b time to depart from the world arrives, the Holy One, Blessed be He, retrieves His part, and He leaves the part of /b the person’s b father and mother before them. Rav Pappa said: This /b is in accordance with the adage b that people say: Remove the salt /b from a piece of meat, b and /b you may then b toss the meat to a dog, /b as it has become worthless.,§ b Rav Ḥina bar Pappa taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “Who does great deeds beyond comprehension, wondrous deeds without number” /b (Job 9:10)? b Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood /b is that if one b puts an article in a flask, /b even if the flask is b tied and its opening /b faces b upward, it is uncertain whether /b the item b is preserved /b from getting lost, b and it is uncertain whether it is not preserved /b from being lost. b But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s open womb, and its opening /b faces b downward, and /b yet the fetus b is preserved. /b , b Another matter /b that demonstrates the difference between the attributes of God and the attributes of people is that when b a person places his articles on a scale /b to be measured, b the heavier /b the item b is, /b the more b it descends. But /b when b the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b forms a fetus, b the heavier the offspring gets, /b the more b it ascends upward /b in the womb., b Rabbi Yosei HaGelili taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “I will give thanks to You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; wonderful are Your works, and that my soul knows very well” /b (Psalms 139:14)? b Come and see that the attribute of flesh and blood is unlike the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He. The attribute of flesh and blood /b is that when b a person plants seeds /b of different species b in /b one b garden bed, each and every one /b of the seeds b emerges /b as a grown plant b according to its species. But the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, and all of /b the seeds, i.e., those of both the father and the mother, b emerge /b when the offspring is formed b as one /b sex., b Alternatively, /b when b a dyer puts herbs in a cauldron [ i leyora /i ], they all emerge as one color /b of dye, b whereas the Holy One, Blessed be He, forms the fetus in a woman’s womb, /b and b each and every one /b of the seeds b emerges as its own type. /b In other words, the seed of the father form distinct elements, such as the white of the eye, and the seed of the mother forms other elements, such as the black of the eye, as explained above., b Rav Yosef taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: /b “And on that day you shall say: b I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me; Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me” /b (Isaiah 12:1)? b With regard to what /b matter b is the verse speaking? /b ,It is referring, for example, b to two people who left /b their homes to go b on a business /b trip. b A thorn penetrated /b the body b of one of them, /b and he was consequently unable to go with his colleague. b He started blaspheming and cursing /b in frustration. b After a period of time, he heard that the ship of the other /b person b had sunk in the sea, /b and realized that the thorn had saved him from death. He then b started thanking /b God b and praising /b Him for his delivery due to the slight pain caused to him by the thorn. This is the meaning of the statement: I will give thanks to You, Lord, for You were angry with me. b Therefore, it is stated /b at the end of the verse: b “Your anger is turned away, and You comfort me.” /b , b And this /b statement b is /b identical to b that which Rabbi Elazar said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: /b “Blessed be the Lord God, the God of Israel, b Who does wondrous things alone; and blessed be His glorious name forever” /b (Psalms 72:18–19)? What does it mean that God “does wondrous things alone”? It means that b even the one for whom the miracle was performed does not recognize the miracle /b that was performed for b him. /b , b Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “You measure [ i zerita /i ] my going about [ i orḥi /i ] and my lying down [ i riv’i /i ], and are acquainted with all my ways” /b (Psalms 139:3)? This verse b teaches that a person is not created from the entire drop /b of semen, b but from its clear /b part. i Zerita /i can mean to winnow, while i orḥi /i and i riv’i /i can both be explained as references to sexual intercourse. Therefore the verse is interpreted homiletically as saying that God separates the procreative part of the semen from the rest. b The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught a parable: /b This matter is comparable b to a person who winnows /b grain b in the granary; he takes the food and leaves the waste. /b ,This is b in accordance with /b a statement b of Rabbi Abbahu, as Rabbi Abbahu raises a contradiction: It is written /b in one of King David’s psalms: b “For You have girded me [ i vatazreni /i ] with strength for battle” /b (II Samuel 22:40), without the letter i alef /i in i vatazreni /i ; b and it is written /b in another psalm: b “Who girds me [ i hame’azreni /i ] with strength” /b (Psalms 18:33), with an i alef /i in i hame’azreini /i . What is the difference between these two expressions? b David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, You selected me [ i zeiritani /i ], /b i.e., You separated between the procreative part and the rest of the semen in order to create me, b and You have girded me [ i zeraztani /i ] with strength. /b , b Rabbi Abbahu taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written /b in Balaam’s blessing: b “Who has counted the dust of Jacob, or numbered the stock [ i rova /i ] of Israel” /b (Numbers 23:10)? The verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sits and counts the times that the Jewish people engage in intercourse [ i revi’iyyoteihem /i ], /b anticipating the time b when the drop from which the righteous person will be created will arrive. /b , b And /b it was b due to this matter /b that b the eye of wicked Balaam went blind. He said: Should /b God, b who is pure and holy, and whose ministers are pure and holy, peek at this matter? Immediately his eye was blinded /b as a divine punishment, b as it is written: “The saying of the man whose eye is shut” /b (Numbers 24:3)., b And this /b statement b is /b the same as that b which Rabbi Yoḥa said: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written, /b with regard to Leah’s conceiving Issachar: b “And he lay with her that night” /b (Genesis 30:16)? The verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, contributed to that act. /b The manner in which God contributed to this act is derived from another verse, b as it is stated: “Issachar is a large-boned [ i garem /i ] donkey” /b (Genesis 49:14). This teaches that God directed Jacob’s b donkey /b toward Leah’s tent so that he would engage in intercourse with her, thereby b causing [ i garam /i ] /b Leah’s conceiving b Issachar. /b ,§ b Rabbi Yitzḥak says /b that b Rabbi Ami says: /b The sex of a fetus is determined at the moment of conception. If the b woman emits seed first, she gives birth to a male, /b and if the b man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female, as it is stated: “If a woman bears seed and gives birth to a male” /b (Leviticus 12:2)., b The Sages taught: At first, /b people b would say /b that if the b woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, /b and if the b man emits seed first, she gives birth to a female. But the Sages did not explain /b from which verse this b matter /b is derived, b until Rabbi Tzadok came and explained /b that b it /b is derived from the following verse: b “These are the sons of Leah, whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, with his daughter Dinah” /b (Genesis 46:15). From the fact that the verse b attributes the males to the females, /b as the males are called: The sons of Leah, b and /b it attributes b the females to the males, /b in that Dinah is called: His daughter, it is derived that if the woman emits seed first she gives birth to a male, whereas if the man emits seed first, she bears a female.,This statement is also derived from the following verse: b “And the sons of Ulam were mighty men of valor, archers, and had many sons and sons’ sons” /b (I Chronicles 8:40). b Is it in a person’s power to have many sons and sons’ sons? Rather, because /b
344. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Rubenstein (2018), The Land of Truth: Talmud Tales, Timeless Teachings, 128
345. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, and the conception of the creation of humanity in gods image Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 264
55a. ואמר ר' יוחנן לידע שהוקבע ר"ח בזמנו תרי היכירא עבדינן דחזי האי חזי וחזי בהאי חזי,מיתיבי דתני רבא בר שמואל יכול כשם שתוקעין על שבת בפני עצמו ועל ראש חדש בפני עצמו כך יהיו תוקעין על כל מוסף ומוסף ת"ל (במדבר י, י) ובראשי חדשיכם תיובתא דרבי אחא תיובתא,מאי תלמודא אמר אביי אמר קרא ובראשי חדשיכם הוקשו כל חדשים כולם זה לזה רב אשי אמר כתיב חדשכם וכתיב ובראשי ואיזה חדש שיש לו שני ראשים הוי אומר זה ר"ה ואמר רחמנא חדשכם חד היא,ועוד תניא בחולו של מועד בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' בני אלים בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים בשלישי מה היו אומרים (תהלים צד, טז) מי יקום לי עם מרעים,ברביעי מה היו אומרים (תהלים צד, ח) בינו בוערים בעם בחמישי מה היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ז) הסירותי מסבל שכמו בששי מה היו אומרים (תהלים פב, ה) ימוטו כל מוסדי ארץ ואם חל שבת באחד מהם ימוטו ידחה,רב ספרא מנח בהו סימנא הומבה"י רב פפא מנח בהו סמנא הומהב"י וסימנך אמבוהא דספרי,תיובתא דר' אחא בר חנינא תיובתא והא ר' אחא בר חנינא קרא ומתניתא קאמר,אמר רבינא לומר שמאריכין בתקיעות רבנן דקיסרי משמיה דר' אחא אמרי לומר שמרבה בתוקעין,ואנן דאית לן תרי יומי היכי עבדינן אביי אמר שני ידחה,רבא אמר שביעי ידחה תניא כותיה דרבא אם חל שבת להיות באחד מהן ימוטו ידחה,אתקין אמימר בנהרדעא דמדלגי דלוגי: 55a. b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b Why was it placed in this manner? It was as an indicator for the people b to know that the New Moon was established at its /b proper b time, /b after the twenty-ninth day of the previous month. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as b they implemented two indicators: /b One b who saw this /b one, i.e., the sequence of the songs, b saw /b it; b and /b one who b saw that /b one, i.e., where the fats were placed, b saw /b it, and there is no contradiction.,The Gemara b raises /b another b objection /b to the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa, b as Rava bar Shmuel taught /b this i baraita /i : I b might /b have thought b that just as /b when Shabbat and the New Moon do not coincide b they sound /b the trumpets b for /b the additional b Shabbat /b offering b in and of itself, and for the /b additional b New Moon /b offering b in and of itself, so too would they sound /b the trumpets b for each and every additional offering /b when the days coincide. Therefore, b the verse states: /b “And on the day of your rejoicing, and at your appointed times, b and on your New Moons, /b and you shall sound the trumpets for your burnt-offerings and your peace-offerings, and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the Lord your God” (Numbers 10:10), indicating that one blast is sounded for all. The Gemara suggests: This is b a conclusive refutation /b of the opinion b of Rabbi Aḥa. /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is b a conclusive refutation. /b ,Since the i baraita /i was cited, the Gemara asks: b What is the derivation /b cited in this i baraita /i ? How does the phrase: And on your New Moons, prove that the trumpets are sounded once for all the additional offerings? b Abaye said: The verse states: “And on your New Moons,” /b in plural, indicating that b all the months are equated to each other, /b and just as on a typical New Moon the trumpets are sounded once for the additional offering, so too when Shabbat and the New Moon coincide the trumpets are sounded once and no more. b Rav Ashi said /b that in this verse b it is written: Your moon [ i ḥodshekhem /i ], /b without a i yod /i , in the singular, b and /b in the same verse b it is written: “And on /b your b new [ i uverashei /i ],” /b in the plural. b And which /b is the b month that has two new /b beginnings? b You must say it is Rosh HaShana, /b which is the beginning of both the new year and the new month. b And /b yet b the Merciful One says: Your moon, /b in the singular, indicating b it is one /b and the trumpets are sounded once., b And furthermore, /b contrary to the statement of Rabbi Aḥa, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On the intermediate days of the Festival, on the first /b day, b what would they say /b as the song accompanying the offering on that day? b “Ascribe [ i havu /i ] unto the Lord, O you sons of might” /b (Psalms 29:1). b On the second /b day, b what would they say? /b The psalm that contains the verse: b “But unto the wicked [ i velarasha /i ] God says: /b What have you to do to declare My statutes?” (Psalms 50:16). b On the third /b day, b what would they say? /b The psalm containing the verse: b “Who [ i mi /i ] will rise up for me against the evildoers?” /b (Psalms 94:16)., b On the fourth /b day, b what would they say? “Consider [ i binu /i ], you brutish among the people” /b (Psalms 94:8). b On the fifth /b day, b what would they say? “I removed [ i hasiroti /i ] his shoulder from the burden” /b (Psalms 81:7). b On the sixth /b day, b what would they say? “All the foundations of the earth are moved [ i yimotu /i ]” /b (Psalms 82:5). b And if Shabbat occurred on any /b of the intermediate days of the Festival, since Shabbat has its own song (Psalms 92), the last of the songs of the intermediate days, i.e., “All the foundations of the earth b are moved,” is superseded, /b and all the other songs are recited in their proper sequence., b Rav Safra established a mnemonic for /b the sequence of the psalms recited during the intermediate days of the Festival: b i Heh /i , i vav /i , i mem /i , i beit /i , i heh /i , i yod /i , /b the first letters of the transliterated word in the verses cited. b Rav Pappa established a /b different b mnemonic for /b a different sequence of the Psalms: b i Heh /i , i vav /i , i mem /i , i heh /i , i beit /i , i yod /i , /b as in his opinion, the psalm containing: “I removed” is recited before the psalm containing: “Consider.” The Gemara notes: b A mnemonic /b to identify which i amora /i established which mnemonic is the expression: b Convoy [ i ambuha /i ] of scribes [ i desafrei /i ], /b as the spelling of i ambuha /i is like the mnemonic of Rav Safra.,The Gemara concludes: This i baraita /i is b a conclusive refutation /b of the opinion b of Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina, /b as on Shabbat the song for Shabbat was recited alone without the song for the Festival, and similarly, separate trumpet blasts are not sounded for the various additional offerings. Rabbi Aḥa’s opinion was rejected based on several sources. The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Rabbi Aḥa say a verse and a i baraita /i /b in support of his opinion? How can those citations be rejected?, b Ravina said: /b The verse and the i baraita /i that he cited do not teach that trumpet blasts were sounded for each additional offering. Rather, they come b to say that one extends /b the duration b of the blasts /b to honor the added additional offerings, but does not sound even one additional blast. b The Sages of Caesarea, in the name of Rabbi Aḥa, said: /b The verse and the i baraita /i cited by Rabbi Aḥa come b to say that one increases /b the number of b trumpeters /b to honor the added additional offerings, but not the number of blasts sounded.,Apropos the psalms recited during the Festival, the Gemara asks: b And we, /b outside Eretz Yisrael, b who have two days /b of Festival due to the uncertainty, as well as uncertainty with regard to each of the intermediate days, b how do we conduct /b ourselves with regard to the mention of the additional offerings in the additional prayer of the Festival during the intermediate days, and with regard to Torah reading on those days? b Abaye said: /b Mention of b the second /b day b will be superseded. /b Since the first of the intermediate days outside Eretz Yisrael is the third day of the Festival in Eretz Yisrael, the additional offering for the third day alone is mentioned, and the offerings for the fourth day on the fourth day, etc. No mention is made of the second day outside Eretz Yisrael., b Rava said: /b Mention of the b seventh /b day b will be superseded. /b On the first of the intermediate days outside Eretz Yisrael, the third day of the Festival, the passage beginning “And on the second day” (Numbers 29:17) is mentioned in the additional i Amida /i prayer and read in the Torah, and on each succeeding day the succeeding passage is mentioned and read. There is no mention of the seventh day on the eighth day, as that is no longer i Sukkot /i but rather the Eighth Day of Assembly. The Gemara notes: A i baraita /i b was taught in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rava: And if Shabbat occurs on any /b of the intermediate days of the Festival, the song of the seventh day of i Sukkot /i : “All the foundations of the earth b are moved,” is superseded. /b ,The Gemara cites a third opinion: b Ameimar instituted in /b his city of b Neharde’a that /b during the intermediate days, b one repeats /b the second of the additional offerings that he mentioned the day before and adds the additional offerings of the subsequent day. On the first of the intermediate days in the Diaspora, one mentions the additional offerings of both the second and third days of i Sukkot /i . On the second of the intermediate days, one repeats the verses of the third day of i Sukkot /i and adds the verses of the fourth day.
346. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 33
104a. ושל עיר הנדחת ושל זקן העשוי לכבודו לא תחלוץ ואם חלצה חליצתה פסולה,א"ל רבינא לרב אשי מאי שנא זקן העשוי לכבודו דלאו להילוכא עביד דבי דינא נמי לאו להילוכא עביד,א"ל אילו מסגי ביה שלוחא דבי דינא מי קפיד עליה דיינא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חלצה בלילה חליצתה כשרה ורבי אלעזר פוסל בשמאל חליצתה פסולה ור' אלעזר מכשיר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big לימא בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר מקשינן ריבים לנגעים ומר סבר לא מקשינן ריבים לנגעים,לא דכ"ע לא מקשינן ריבים לנגעים דאי מקשינן אפילו גמר דין בלילה נמי לא והכא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר חליצה כתחלת דין דמיא ומר סבר חליצה כגמר דין דמיא,רבה בר חייא קטוספאה עבד עובדא במוק וביחידי ובלילה אמר שמואל כמה רב גובריה דעביד כיחידאה,מאי קשיא אי מוק סתמא תניא אי לילה סתמא תניא,אלא יחידי קא קשיא ליה היכי עביד ביחידי דיחידאה קתני לה דתנן חלצה בשנים או בשלשה ונמצא אחד מהן קרוב או פסול חליצתה פסולה ור"ש ורבי יוחנן הסנדלר מכשירים ומעשה באחד שחלץ בינו לבינה בבית האסורים ובא מעשה לפני ר"ע והכשיר,ואמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין הלכה כאותו הזוג ואב"א כולהו נמי יחידאה קתני להו דתניא א"ר ישמעאל בר' יוסי אני ראיתי את רבי ישמעאל בן אלישע שחלץ במוק ביחידי ובלילה:,בשמאל חליצתה כו': מ"ט דרבנן אמר עולא ילפינן רגל (ויקרא יד, יד) רגל ממצורע מה להלן דימין אף כאן דימין,ורבי אלעזר לא יליף רגל רגל ממצורע והתניא ר"א אומר מנין לרציעה שהיא באזן הימנית נאמר כאן אזן ונאמר להלן אזן מה להלן ימין אף כאן ימין,אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר ר' יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה,רבא אמר לעולם לא תיפוך אזן אזן מופני רגל רגל לא מופני,וכי לא מופני מאי פירכא איכא איכא למיפרך מה למצורע שכן טעון עץ ארז ואזוב ושני תולעת:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big חלצה ורקקה אבל לא קראה חליצתה כשרה קראה ורקקה אבל לא חלצה חליצתה פסולה חלצה וקראה אבל לא רקקה רבי אלעזר אומר חליצתה פסולה ר"ע אומר חליצתה כשרה 104a. b or /b a sandal b belonging to /b an inhabitant of b an idolatrous city, /b a city the majority of whose inhabitants committed idolatry, which stands to be destroyed with all of the city’s property; b and /b likewise, the sandal b of an Elder made in accordance with his dignity /b to be worn upon his death as part of his shroud, i.e., it is not meant for walking as a normal shoe, the i yevama /i b may not perform i ḥalitza /i /b using any of these shoes. b And if she did perform i ḥalitza /i , her i ḥalitza /i is invalid /b even after the fact, as these are not halakhically considered shoes., b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: What is different /b about the sandal of b an Elder that is made in accordance with his dignity /b that one should say that even though it is the proper size for his foot, it is not valid b because it was not made for walking, /b but merely for him to wear after his death. But b the court’s /b sandal b also was not made for walking, /b as the court kept a sandal that met all the other necessary qualifications for a sandal for i ḥalitza /i and gave it to the i yavam /i to be worn during the i ḥalitza /i procedure. Since the i yavam /i would return the i ḥalitza /i sandal after the conclusion of the i ḥalitza /i , therefore, the sandal was never used for walking and should be invalidated for i ḥalitza /i just as the sandal made for the dignity of an Elder?, b He said to him: If a messenger of the court had walked in /b the i ḥalitza /i shoe used by the court, b would the judge reprimand him? /b Although the court’s sandal was designed for the express purpose of i ḥalitza /i , it may also be used for walking. A shoe designed for a dead person, on the other hand, is forbidden for any other use and is not made for walking at all, and it is consequently disqualified., strong MISHNA: /strong If a woman b performed i ḥalitza /i at night, her i ḥalitza /i is valid, but Rabbi Elazar invalidates it. /b If she performed i ḥalitza /i b on /b the b left foot, her i ḥalitza /i is invalid, but Rabbi Elazar validates it. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Let us say that they disagree about this /b issue: One b Sage, /b Rabbi Elazar, b holds that we compare /b the i halakhot /i governing monetary b disputes, /b which category includes i ḥalitza /i , as i ḥalitza /i carries with it monetary ramifications and requires payment of the marriage contract to the i yevama /i , b with /b the i halakhot /i of b leprosy. /b Just as leprosy cases are judged only during the day (see Leviticus 13:14), likewise, monetary cases may take place only during the day. b And /b one b Sage, /b the first i tanna /i , b holds that we do not compare /b monetary b disputes with leprosy. /b ,The Gemara responds: b No, everyone /b holds b that we do not compare /b monetary b disputes with leprosy, for if we would compare /b them fully, then b even /b delivering the b verdict /b of the court b case /b could b not /b be done b at night, /b but it is permitted to complete monetary judgments and deliver the verdict at night, provided the proceedings began during the day. b And here, /b with respect to performing i ḥalitza /i at night b they disagree about this /b issue: One b Sage, /b Rabbi Elazar, b holds /b that b i ḥalitza /i is considered like the commencement of judgment /b of monetary cases, b and /b one b Sage, /b the first i tanna /i , b holds /b that b i ḥalitza /i is considered like the verdict /b of a monetary judgment, and therefore it may also be conducted at night.,It is told: b Rabba bar Ḥiyya Ketosfa’a, /b from Ctesiphon, b conducted /b i ḥalitza /i b using a slipper /b that was not made of leather, b and /b he did so b in private, /b as he was the only judge, b and by night. Shmuel said /b disparagingly: b How great is the power /b of this master b who follows an individual /b opinion, as in his practice he relied on individual opinions that are not accepted as i halakha /i .,The Gemara asks: b What is difficult /b for Shmuel about Rabba bar Ḥiyya’s actions? b If it was /b the fact that he conducted i ḥalitza /i using b a slipper, an unattributed opinion is taught /b in a i baraita /i stating that this is valid. As the opinion is unattributed, this indicates that it is not the view of one individual, but rather the opinion of the majority. b If it was /b the fact that he performed i ḥalitza /i at b night, an unattributed opinion is taught /b in the mishna stating that it is valid as well., b Rather, it was difficult for him /b that Rabba bar Ḥiyya conducted i ḥalitza /i b in private, /b as the sole judge: b How could he do so in private, as that is taught only in accordance with an individual /b opinion, b as we learned /b in a mishna: b If she performed i ḥalitza /i before two or three /b judges b and one of them is found to be a relative or disqualified, her i ḥalitza /i is invalid. And Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler validate /b the judge who is not a relative or disqualified. If there are two judges who are not relatives, then they hold that the i ḥalitza /i is valid, as they validate a i ḥalitza /i performed before two judges. b And an incident /b occurred b involving one who performed i ḥalitza /i between him and her /b alone b in prison, /b as there was no judge present at all, b and the incident came before Rabbi Akiva and he validated /b it., b And Rav Yosef bar Minyumi said /b that b Rav Naḥman said: The i halakha /i does not follow that pair, /b i.e., Rabbi Shimon and Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler. Evidently, Rabba bar Ḥiyya relied on the individual opinion of Rabbi Akiva, who permitted i ḥalitza /i in private, and therefore Shmuel commented regarding Rabbi bar Ḥiyya’s power to rule based on an individual’s opinion. b And if you wish, say /b that not only does this detail follow an individual opinion, but rather b all of these /b details b are taught by an individual /b opinion. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw that Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha /b performed b a i ḥalitza /i using a slipper, in private, and at night. /b This statement implies that these details are all according to his individual opinion, contrary to the opinion of the rest of the Sages.,It was taught in the mishna that if i ḥalitza /i was performed b using /b his b left foot, her i ḥalitza /i /b is invalid, while Rabbi Elazar validates it. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason of the Rabbis’ /b opinion? b Ulla said: We derive /b a verbal analogy from the word b “foot” /b stated here, and the word b “foot” stated regarding the leper. Just as there, /b with respect to the leper, b it is the right /b foot (Leviticus 14:14), b so too here, /b with respect to i ḥalitza /i , b it is the right /b foot that must be used.,The Gemara notes: b And /b this would seem to indicate that b Rabbi Elazar does not derive “foot” /b with regard to i ḥalitza /i from the word b “foot” from the leper. But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Elazar says: From where /b is it derived b that piercing /b a Hebrew slave’s ear with an awl when the slave chooses to remain in servitude b is done /b specifically b on the right ear? “Ear” is stated here /b in the i halakhot /i pertaining to a pierced slave, b and “ear” is stated there /b in the i halakhot /i of the leper. b Just as there, /b with regard to leprosy, b it is the right /b ear, as it is stated explicitly there, b so too here, /b with regard to piercing the ear, b it is the right /b ear. This statement of Rabbi Elazar implies that he does learn a verbal analogy about the word “right.”, b Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The /b attribution of b the opinions is reversed, /b meaning that it is Rabbi Elazar who invalidates i ḥalitza /i on the left foot, as he learns an analogy from the i halakha /i with regard to piercing the ear that the right must be used., b Rava said: Actually, do not reverse /b the opinions. The words b “ear” /b and b “ear” are free /b terms, i.e., they are superfluous in their context and therefore it is clear that the Torah included those terms for the express purpose of establishing the verbal analogy. A verbal analogy that is based on otherwise extraneous terms cannot be logically refuted. Therefore, the superfluous “ear” teaches that piercing is done on the right ear. However, the words b “foot” /b and b “foot” are not free, /b because the word “foot,” written with regard to the i yavam /i , is necessary in its context and is not superfluous. Therefore, the verbal analogy of the word “foot” is incomplete.,The Gemara asks: b And even if they are not /b both b free /b to be used for exposition, b what refutation is there? /b A verbal analogy that is free to be used for exposition in only one place is still valid, provided there is no reason to refute the comparison. The Gemara explains: It b can be refuted, as the leper /b is unique in that there is a very specific process necessary for his purification: He requires that the blood of the offering be sprinkled upon him, and b he requires cedarwood, hyssop, and scarlet thread. /b Therefore, it is possible to say that the Torah also specified the use of the right foot in the case of the leper. However, this would not necessarily be required with respect to i ḥalitza /i , which lacks such specific i halakhot /i . Consequently, i ḥalitza /i performed using the left foot could be valid., strong MISHNA: /strong If she, i.e., the i yevama /i , b removed /b the shoe b and spat /b in accordance with the i halakha /i b but did not recite /b the necessary text, b her i ḥalitza /i is valid. /b If b she recited /b the text b and spat but did not remove /b the shoe, b her i ḥalitza /i is disqualified. /b If b she removed /b the shoe b and recited /b the text b but did not spit, Rabbi Elazar says: Her i ḥalitza /i is disqualified, /b while b Rabbi Akiva says: Her i ḥalitza /i is valid. /b
347. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2019), Philo of Alexandria: On Planting: Introduction, Translation and Commentary, 127
348. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god, and adam’s image Found in books: Neis (2012), When a Human Gives Birth to a Raven: Rabbis and the Reproduction of Species. 246
20b. בניך יפיפין ביותר אמרה להן אינו מספר עמי לא בתחלת הלילה ולא בסוף הלילה אלא בחצות הלילה וכשהוא מספר מגלה טפח ומכסה טפח ודומה עליו כמי שכפאו שד,ואמרתי לו מה טעם ואמר לי כדי שלא אתן את עיני באשה אחרת ונמצאו בניו באין לידי ממזרות,לא קשיא הא במילי דתשמיש הא במילי אחרנייתא,אמר רבי יוחנן זו דברי יוחנן בן דהבאי אבל אמרו חכמים אין הלכה כיוחנן בן דהבאי אלא כל מה שאדם רוצה לעשות באשתו עושה משל לבשר הבא מבית הטבח רצה לאוכלו במלח אוכלו צלי אוכלו מבושל אוכלו שלוק אוכלו וכן דג הבא מבית הצייד,אמר אמימר מאן מלאכי השרת רבנן דאי תימא מלאכי השרת ממש אמאי אמר רבי יוחנן אין הלכה כיוחנן בן דהבאי הא אינהו בקיאי בצורת הולד טפי ואמאי קרו להו מלאכי השרת דמצייני כמלאכי השרת,ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרבי אמרה לו רבי ערכתי לו שולחן והפכו אמר לה בתי תורה התירתך ואני מה אעשה ליך ההיא דאתאי לקמיה דרב אמרה לו רבי ערכתי לו שולחן והפכו אמר מאי שנא מן ביניתא,ולא תתורו אחרי לבבכם מכאן אמר רבי אל ישתה אדם בכוס זה ויתן עיניו בכוס אחר אמר רבינא לא נצרכא אלא דאפילו שתי נשיו,וברותי מכם המורדים והפושעים בי אמר רבי לוי אלו בני תשע מדות בני אסנ"ת משגע"ח,בני אימה בני אנוסה בני שנואה בני נידוי בני תמורה בני מריבה בני שכרות בני גרושת הלב בני ערבוביא בני חצופה,איני והאמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן כל אדם שאשתו תובעתו הויין לו בנים שאפילו בדורו של משה רבינו לא היו כמותם שנאמר הבו לכם אנשים חכמים ונבונים וכתיב ואקח את ראשי שבטיכם ולא כתיב נבונים,וכתיב יששכר חמור גרם וכתיב מבני יששכר יודעי בינה לעתים,ההיא דמרציא ארצויי:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ואלו מותרין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongארבעה /strong /big נדרים התירו חכמים נדרי זרוזין ונדרי הבאי ונדרי שגגות ונדרי אונסין נדרי זרוזין כיצד היה מוכר חפץ ואמר קונם שאיני פוחת לך מן הסלע והלה אומר קונם שאיני מוסיף לך על השקל 20b. b are your children so beautiful? She said to them: /b My husband b does not converse with me /b while engaging in sexual intercourse, b neither at the beginning of the night nor at the end of the night, /b but b rather at midnight. And when he converses /b with me while engaging in sexual intercourse, b he reveals a handbreadth /b of my body b and covers a handbreadth, and /b he covers himself up b as though he were being coerced by a demon /b and is covering himself out of fear., b And I said to /b my husband: b What is the reason /b for this behavior? b And he said to me: /b It is b so that I will not set my eyes on another woman, /b i.e., think about another woman; if a man thinks about another woman during sexual intercourse with his wife, b his children consequently come /b close b to /b receiving b a i mamzer /i status, /b i.e., the nature of their souls is tantamount to that of a i mamzer /i . Therefore I engage in sexual intercourse with you at an hour when there are no people in the street, and in this manner. In any event, it can be seen from her words that a Sage conversed with his wife while engaging in sexual intercourse with her.,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b permission to converse with her is b with regard to matters of sexual intercourse, /b whereas b that /b restriction of conversation is b with regard to other matters /b that are not related to sexual intercourse., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That is the statement of Yoḥa ben Dehavai. However, the Rabbis said: The i halakha /i is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Yoḥa ben Dehavai. Rather, whatever a man wishes to do with his wife he may do. /b He may engage in sexual intercourse with her in any manner that he wishes, and need not concern himself with these restrictions. As b an allegory, /b it is b like meat that comes from the butcher. /b If b he wants to eat it with salt, he may eat it /b that way. If he wants to eat it b roasted, he may eat it /b roasted. If he wants to eat it b cooked, he may eat it /b cooked. If he wants to eat it b boiled, he may eat it /b boiled. b And likewise /b with regard to b fish that come from the fisherman. /b , b Ameimar said: Who are the ministering angels /b that Rabbi Yoḥa ben Dehavai mentioned? He was referring to b the Sages, /b for whom he employed the honorary title: Ministering angels. b Because if you say /b that he was referring to b actual ministering angels, why did Rabbi Yoḥa say /b that b the i halakha /i is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Yoḥa ben Dehavai? /b The ministering angels b are more knowledgeable about the forming of the fetus /b than people are. Clearly, if the ministering angels were the source for the ruling of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Dehavai it would have been imperative to heed his instructions. b And why are /b the Sages b called ministering angels? Because they stand out like ministering angels, /b as they are recognized by their clothing.,The Gemara relates: b A certain woman, who came before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi to complain about her husband, b said to him: My teacher, I set him a table, /b using a euphemism to say that she lay before him during intimacy, b and he turned it over. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to her: My daughter, the Torah permitted /b him to engage in sexual intercourse with b you /b even in an atypical manner, b and what can I do for you /b if he does so? Similarly, b a certain woman who came before Rav said to him: My teacher, I set a table for him and he turned it over. He said /b to her: In b what /b way b is /b this case b different from a fish [ i binnita /i ] /b that one may eat any way he wishes?,§ The verse states: b “And that you not go about after your own heart” /b (Numbers 15:39). b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said /b that it is derived b from here /b that b a man should not drink from this cup while setting his eyes on another cup, /b i.e., one should not engage in sexual intercourse with one woman while thinking about another woman. b Ravina said: /b This statement is not necessary with regard to an unrelated woman. Rather, it b is necessary only /b to state b that even /b with regard to b his /b own b two wives, /b he should not engage in sexual intercourse with one while thinking about the other.,The verse states: b “And I will purge out from among you the rebels, and those that transgress against Me” /b (Ezekiel 20:38). b Rabbi Levi said: These are children of /b those who have b nine traits, /b who are defective from their conception and from whom rebels and transgressors emerge. The mnemonic for these nine traits is b children of /b the acronym b i aleph /i , i samekh /i , i nun /i , i tav /i , i mem /i , i shin /i , i gimmel /i , i ayin /i , i ḥet /i . /b ,The children of nine traits are as follows: b Children of fear [ i eima /i ], /b i.e., where the wife was afraid of her husband and engaged in sexual intercourse with him out of fear; b children of a woman who was raped [ i anusa /i ]; children of a hated woman [ i senua /i ], /b i.e., a woman who was hated by her husband; b children of ostracism [ i niddui /i ], /b i.e., one of the parents was ostracized by the court; b children of substitution [ i temura /i ], /b i.e., while engaging in intercourse with the woman, the man thought that she was another woman; b children of strife [ i meriva /i ], /b i.e., the parents engaged in intercourse while they were quarreling; b children of drunkenness [ i shikhrut /i ], /b i.e., the parents engaged in intercourse while they were drunk; b children of a woman who was divorced in the heart [ i gerushat halev /i ], /b i.e., the husband had already decided to divorce her when they engaged in intercourse; b children of mixture [ i irbuveya /i ], /b i.e., the man did not know with which woman he was engaging in intercourse; b children of a shameless woman [ i ḥatzufa /i ] /b who demands of her husband that he engage in intercourse with her.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani say /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: Any man whose wife demands of him /b that he engage in sexual intercourse with her b will have children the likes of whom did not exist even in the generation of Moses our teacher? As it is stated: “Get you wise men, and understanding, /b and well known from each one of your tribes, and I will make them head over you” (Deuteronomy 1:13); b and it is written /b subsequently: b “So I took the heads of your tribes, /b wise men, and well known” (Deuteronomy 1:15). b And it does not say /b that they were b understanding. /b Evidently, even Moses could not find understanding men in his generation., b And /b by contrast, b it is written: “Issachar is a large-boned donkey” /b (Genesis 49:14). The Sages transmitted a tradition that this is an allusion to the incident when Jacob came in from the field riding on a donkey, and Leah went out to greet him, saying: “You must come in to me; for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes” (Genesis 30:16). Issachar was conceived from their subsequent sexual intercourse. b And it is written: “And of the children of Issachar, men that had understanding of the times” /b (I Chronicles 12:33). The descendants of Issachar were understanding men. It is derived from here that a woman who demands from her husband that he engage in sexual intercourse with her has a positive effect on their children.,The Gemara answers: b That /b i baraita /i is not referring to a woman who demands intercourse explicitly, but rather to one b who entices /b her husband, so that he understands that she wants to engage in sexual intercourse with him. They consequently have excellent children.,, strong MISHNA: /strong b The Sages dissolved four /b types of b vows /b without the requirement of a request to a halakhic authority: b Vows of exhortation, vows of exaggeration, vows that are unintentional, and vows /b whose fulfillment is impeded by b circumstances beyond /b one’s b control. /b The mishna explains: b Vows of exhortation /b are those by which one encourages another using vow terminology that is exaggerated. b How so? One was selling an item and said: I will not lower /b the price b for you /b to less b than a i sela /i , /b as b that is i konam /i , /b forbidden b as if /b it were b an offering, /b for me. b And the other one, /b the buyer, b says: I will not raise /b my payment b to you /b to b more than a shekel, /b as b that is i konam /i /b for me.
349. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis Et Remissione Et De Baptismo Parvulorum, 3.30-3.31 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 150
350. Augustine, De Quantitate Animae, 1.2-2.3, 32.73, 34.77, 36.80 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 18
351. Augustine, De Sermone Domini In Monte Secundum Matthaeum, 1.4.12, 1.9, 1.32, 1.41, 1.52, 1.72, 2.23, 2.37, 2.69 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, , image of god in man, imago •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 49; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 101
352. Augustine, De Spiritu Et Littera, 2.4, 3.5, 21.36, 24.41, 25.42, 26.43-26.44, 28.48 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, , image of god in man, imago Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 182
353. Augustine, De Natura Et Gratia Ad Timasium Et Jacobum Contra Pelagium, 25 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 253
354. Augustine, De Natura Boni Contra Manichaeos, 46 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god (in man), in manichaeism Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 192
355. Augustine, On The Morals of The Manichaeans, 1.22, 1.32 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 99
356. Augustine, De Magistro, 38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •imago dei/image of god Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 101
357. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 245
358. Hilary of Poitiers, Tractatus Mysteriorum, 1.5 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image of god Found in books: Ramelli (2013), The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena, 241
359. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, a b c d\n0 5.1 5.1 5 1\n1 32(2).1.4 32(2).1.4 32(2) 1\n2 32(2).2.16 32(2).2.16 32(2) 2 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 99
360. Augustine, De Vera Religione Liber Unus, 44.82 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 17; Wilson (2018), Augustine's Conversion from Traditional Free Choice to "Non-free Free Will": A Comprehensive Methodology, 99
361. Augustine, In Evangelium Joannis Tractatus Cxxiv, 3.4, 5.12, 14.6, 17.2, 17.6, 17.8, 21.7-21.8, 65.3, 74.2, 82.3, 102.5, 122.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •image, , image of god in man, imago Found in books: Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 241, 242, 243, 245, 248
362. Augustine, The City of God, 4.31, 9.8-9.9, 9.15, 10.22, 12.1-12.2, 12.6, 13.3, 13.5, 13.14, 14.1, 14.15, 14.26-14.27, 15.2, 15.6, 15.21, 15.23, 16.27, 16.35, 18.18, 21.15-21.16, 22.2, 22.24, 22.30 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Goodman (2006), Judaism in the Roman World: Collected Essays, 211; Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 11; Karfíková (2012), Grace and the Will According to Augustine, 274, 275
4.31. What says Varro himself, whom we grieve to have found, although not by his own judgment, placing the scenic plays among things divine? When in many passages he is exhorting, like a religious man, to the worship of the gods, does he not in doing so admit that he does not in his own judgment believe those things which he relates that the Roman state has instituted; so that he does not hesitate to affirm that if he were founding a new state, he could enumerate the gods and their names better by the rule of nature? But being born into a nation already ancient, he says that he finds himself bound to accept the traditional names and surnames of the gods, and the histories connected with them, and that his purpose in investigating and publishing these details is to incline the people to worship the gods, and not to despise them. By which words this most acute man sufficiently indicates that he does not publish all things, because they would not only have been contemptible to himself, but would have seemed despicable even to the rabble, unless they had been passed over in silence. I should be thought to conjecture these things, unless he himself, in another passage, had openly said, in speaking of religious rites, that many things are true which it is not only not useful for the common people to know, but that it is expedient that the people should think otherwise, even though falsely, and therefore the Greeks have shut up the religious ceremonies and mysteries in silence, and within walls. In this he no doubt expresses the policy of the so-called wise men by whom states and peoples are ruled. Yet by this crafty device the malign demons are wonderfully delighted, who possess alike the deceivers and the deceived, and from whose tyranny nothing sets free save the grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. The same most acute and learned author also says, that those alone seem to him to have perceived what God is, who have believed Him to be the soul of the world, governing it by design and reason. And by this, it appears, that although he did not attain to the truth - for the true God is not a soul, but the maker and author of the soul - yet if he could have been free to go against the prejudices of custom, he could have confessed and counselled others that the one God ought to be worshipped, who governs the world by design and reason; so that on this subject only this point would remain to be debated with him, that he had called Him a soul, and not rather the creator of the soul. He says, also, that the ancient Romans, for more than a hundred and seventy years, worshipped the gods without an image. And if this custom, he says, could have remained till now, the gods would have been more purely worshipped. In favor of this opinion, he cites as a witness among others the Jewish nation; nor does he hesitate to conclude that passage by saying of those who first consecrated images for the people, that they have both taken away religious fear from their fellow citizens, and increased error, wisely thinking that the gods easily fall into contempt when exhibited under the stolidity of images. But as he does not say they have transmitted error, but that they have increased it, he therefore wishes it to be understood that there was error already when there were no images. Wherefore, when he says they alone have perceived what God is who have believed Him to be the governing soul of the world, and thinks that the rites of religion would have been more purely observed without images, who fails to see how near he has come to the truth? For if he had been able to do anything against so inveterate an error, he would certainly have given it as his opinion both that the one God should be worshipped, and that He should be worshipped without an image; and having so nearly discovered the truth, perhaps he might easily have been put in mind of the mutability of the soul, and might thus have perceived that the true God is that immutable nature which made the soul itself. Since these things are so, whatever ridicule such men have poured in their writings against the plurality of the gods, they have done so rather as compelled by the secret will of God to confess them, than as trying to persuade others. If, therefore, any testimonies are adduced by us from these writings, they are adduced for the confutation of those who are unwilling to consider from how great and maligt a power of the demons the singular sacrifice of the shedding of the most holy blood, and the gift of the imparted Spirit, can set us free. 9.8. The definition which Apuleius gives of demons, and in which he of course includes all demons, is that they are in nature animals, in soul subject to passion, in mind reasonable, in body aerial, in duration eternal. Now in these five qualities he has named absolutely nothing which is proper to good men and not also to bad. For when Apuleius had spoken of the celestials first, and had then extended his description so as to include an account of those who dwell far below on the earth, that, after describing the two extremes of rational being, he might proceed to speak of the intermediate demons, he says, Men, therefore, who are endowed with the faculty of reason and speech, whose soul is immortal and their members mortal, who have weak and anxious spirits, dull and corruptible bodies, dissimilar characters, similar ignorance, who are obstinate in their audacity, and persistent in their hope, whose labor is vain, and whose fortune is ever on the wane, their race immortal, themselves perishing, each generation replenished with creatures whose life is swift and their wisdom slow, their death sudden and their life a wail - these are the men who dwell on the earth. In recounting so many qualities which belong to the large proportion of men, did he forget that which is the property of the few when he speaks of their wisdom being slow? If this had been omitted, this his description of the human race, so carefully elaborated, would have been defective. And when he commended the excellence of the gods, he affirmed that they excelled in that very blessedness to which he thinks men must attain by wisdom. And therefore, if he had wished us to believe that some of the demons are good, he should have inserted in his description something by which we might see that they have, in common with the gods, some share of blessedness, or, in common with men, some wisdom. But, as it is, he has mentioned no good quality by which the good may be distinguished from the bad. For although he refrained from giving a full account of their wickedness, through fear of offending, not themselves but their worshippers, for whom he was writing, yet he sufficiently indicated to discerning readers what opinion he had of them; for only in the one article of the eternity of their bodies does he assimilate them to the gods, all of whom, he asserts, are good and blessed, and absolutely free from what he himself calls the stormy passions of the demons; and as to the soul, he quite plainly affirms that they resemble men and not the gods, and that this resemblance lies not in the possession of wisdom, which even men can attain to, but in the perturbation of passions which sway the foolish and wicked, but is so ruled by the good and wise that they prefer not to admit rather than to conquer it. For if he had wished it to be understood that the demons resembled the gods in the eternity not of their bodies but of their souls, he would certainly have admitted men to share in this privilege, because, as a Platonist, he of course must hold that the human soul is eternal. Accordingly, when describing this race of living beings, he said that their souls were immortal, their members mortal. And, consequently, if men have not eternity in common with the gods because they have mortal bodies, demons have eternity in common with the gods because their bodies are immortal. 9.9. How, then, can men hope for a favorable introduction to the friendship of the gods by such mediators as these, who are, like men, defective in that which is the better part of every living creature, viz., the soul, and who resemble the gods only in the body, which is the inferior part? For a living creature or animal consists of soul and body, and of these two parts the soul is undoubtedly the better; even though vicious and weak, it is obviously better than even the soundest and strongest body, for the greater excellence of its nature is not reduced to the level of the body even by the pollution of vice, as gold, even when tarnished, is more precious than the purest silver or lead. And yet these mediators, by whose interposition things human and divine are to be harmonized, have an eternal body in common with the gods, and a vicious soul in common with men, - as if the religion by which these demons are to unite gods and men were a bodily, and not a spiritual matter. What wickedness, then, or punishment has suspended these false and deceitful mediators, as it were head downwards, so that their inferior part, their body, is linked to the gods above, and their superior part, the soul, bound to men beneath; united to the celestial gods by the part that serves, and miserable, together with the inhabitants of earth, by the part that rules? For the body is the servant, as Sallust says: We use the soul to rule, the body to obey; adding, the one we have in common with the gods, the other with the brutes. For he was here speaking of men; and they have, like the brutes, a mortal body. These demons, whom our philosophic friends have provided for us as mediators with the gods, may indeed say of the soul and body, the one we have in common with the gods, the other with men; but, as I said, they are as it were suspended and bound head downwards, having the slave, the body, in common with the gods, the master, the soul, in common with miserable men, - their inferior part exalted, their superior part depressed. And therefore, if any one supposes that, because they are not subject, like terrestrial animals, to the separation of soul and body by death, they therefore resemble the gods in their eternity, their body must not be considered a chariot of an eternal triumph, but rather the chain of an eternal punishment. 9.15. But if, as is much more probable and credible, it must needs be that all men, so long as they are mortal, are also miserable, we must seek an intermediate who is not only man, but also God, that, by the interposition of His blessed mortality, He may bring men out of their mortal misery to a blessed immortality. In this intermediate two things are requisite, that He become mortal, and that He do not continue mortal. He did become mortal, not rendering the divinity of the Word infirm, but assuming the infirmity of flesh. Neither did He continue mortal in the flesh, but raised it from the dead; for it is the very fruit of His mediation that those, for the sake of whose redemption He became the Mediator, should not abide eternally in bodily death. Wherefore it became the Mediator between us and God to have both a transient mortality and a permanent blessedness, that by that which is transient He might be assimilated to mortals, and might translate them from mortality to that which is permanent. Good angels, therefore, cannot mediate between miserable mortals and blessed immortals, for they themselves also are both blessed and immortal; but evil angels can mediate, because they are immortal like the one party, miserable like the other. To these is opposed the good Mediator, who, in opposition to their immortality and misery, has chosen to be mortal for a time, and has been able to continue blessed in eternity. It is thus He has destroyed, by the humility of His death and the benignity of His blessedness, those proud immortals and hurtful wretches, and has prevented them from seducing to misery by their boast of immortality those men whose hearts He has cleansed by faith, and whom He has thus freed from their impure dominion. Man, then, mortal and miserable, and far removed from the immortal and the blessed, what medium shall he choose by which he may be united to immortality and blessedness? The immortality of the demons, which might have some charm for man, is miserable; the mortality of Christ, which might offend man, exists no longer. In the one there is the fear of an eternal misery; in the other, death, which could not be eternal, can no longer be feared, and blessedness, which is eternal, must be loved. For the immortal and miserable mediator interposes himself to prevent us from passing to a blessed immortality, because that which hinders such a passage, namely, misery, continues in him; but the mortal and blessed Mediator interposed Himself, in order that, having passed through mortality, He might of mortals make immortals (showing His power to do this in His own resurrection), and from being miserable to raise them to the blessed company from the number of whom He had Himself never departed. There is, then, a wicked mediator, who separates friends, and a good Mediator, who reconciles enemies. And those who separate are numerous, because the multitude of the blessed are blessed only by their participation in the one God; of which participation the evil angels being deprived, they are wretched, and interpose to hinder rather than to help to this blessedness, and by their very number prevent us from reaching that one beatific good, to obtain which we need not many but one Mediator, the uncreated Word of God, by whom all things were made, and in partaking of whom we are blessed. I do not say that He is Mediator because He is the Word, for as the Word He is supremely blessed and supremely immortal, and therefore far from miserable mortals; but He is Mediator as He is man, for by His humanity He shows us that, in order to obtain that blessed and beatific good, we need not seek other mediators to lead us through the successive steps of this attainment, but that the blessed and beatific God, having Himself become a partaker of our humanity, has afforded us ready access to the participation of His divinity. For in delivering us from our mortality and misery, He does not lead us to the immortal and blessed angels, so that we should become immortal and blessed by participating in their nature, but He leads us straight to that Trinity, by participating in which the angels themselves are blessed. Therefore, when He chose to be in the form of a servant, and lower than the angels, that He might be our Mediator, He remained higher than the angels, in the form of God - Himself at once the way of life on earth and life itself in heaven. 10.22. It is by true piety that men of God cast out the hostile power of the air which opposes godliness; it is by exorcising it, not by propitiating it; and they overcome all the temptations of the adversary by praying, not to him, but to their own God against him. For the devil cannot conquer or subdue any but those who are in league with sin; and therefore he is conquered in the name of Him who assumed humanity, and that without sin, that Himself being both Priest and Sacrifice, He might bring about the remission of sins, that is to say, might bring it about through the Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, by whom we are reconciled to God, the cleansing from sin being accomplished. For men are separated from God only by sins, from which we are in this life cleansed not by our own virtue, but by the divine compassion; through His indulgence, not through our own power. For, whatever virtue we call our own is itself bestowed upon us by His goodness. And we might attribute too much to ourselves while in the flesh, unless we lived in the receipt of pardon until we laid it down. This is the reason why there has been vouchsafed to us, through the Mediator, this grace, that we who are polluted by sinful flesh should be cleansed by the likeness of sinful flesh. By this grace of God, wherein He has shown His great compassion toward us, we are both governed by faith in this life, and, after this life, are led onwards to the fullest perfection by the vision of immutable truth. 12.1. It has already, in the preceding book, been shown how the two cities originated among the angels. Before I speak of the creation of man, and show how the cities took their rise so far as regards the race of rational mortals I see that I must first, so far as I can, adduce what may demonstrate that it is not incongruous and unsuitable to speak of a society composed of angels and men together; so that there are not four cities or societies - two, namely, of angels, and as many of men - but rather two in all, one composed of the good, the other of the wicked, angels or men indifferently. That the contrary propensities in good and bad angels have arisen, not from a difference in their nature and origin, since God, the good Author and Creator of all essences, created them both, but from a difference in their wills and desires, it is impossible to doubt. While some steadfastly continued in that which was the common good of all, namely, in God Himself, and in His eternity, truth, and love; others, being enamored rather of their own power, as if they could be their own good, lapsed to this private good of their own, from that higher and beatific good which was common to all, and, bartering the lofty dignity of eternity for the inflation of pride, the most assured verity for the slyness of vanity, uniting love for factious partisanship, they became proud, deceived, envious. The cause, therefore, of the blessedness of the good is adherence to God. And so the cause of the others' misery will be found in the contrary, that is, in their not adhering to God. Wherefore, if when the question is asked, why are the former blessed, it is rightly answered, because they adhere to God; and when it is asked, why are the latter miserable, it is rightly answered, because they do not adhere to God - then there is no other good for the rational or intellectual creature save God only. Thus, though it is not every creature that can be blessed (for beasts, trees, stones, and things of that kind have not this capacity), yet that creature which has the capacity cannot be blessed of itself, since it is created out of nothing, but only by Him by whom it has been created. For it is blessed by the possession of that whose loss makes it miserable. He, then, who is blessed not in another, but in himself, cannot be miserable, because he cannot lose himself. Accordingly we say that there is no unchangeable good but the one, true, blessed God; that the things which He made are indeed good because from Him, yet mutable because made not out of Him, but out of nothing. Although, therefore, they are not the supreme good, for God is a greater good, yet those mutable things which can adhere to the immutable good, and so be blessed, are very good; for so completely is He their good, that without Him they cannot but be wretched. And the other created things in the universe are not better on this account, that they cannot be miserable. For no one would say that the other members of the body are superior to the eyes, because they cannot be blind. But as the sentient nature, even when it feels pain, is superior to the stony, which can feel none, so the rational nature, even when wretched, is more excellent than that which lacks reason or feeling, and can therefore experience no misery. And since this is so, then in this nature which has been created so excellent, that though it be mutable itself, it can yet secure its blessedness by adhering to the immutable good, the supreme God; and since it is not satisfied unless it be perfectly blessed, and cannot be thus blessed save in God - in this nature, I say, not to adhere to God, is manifestly a fault. Now every fault injures the nature, and is consequently contrary to the nature. The creature, therefore, which cleaves to God, differs from those who do not, not by nature, but by fault; and yet by this very fault the nature itself is proved to be very noble and admirable. For that nature is certainly praised, the fault of which is justly blamed. For we justly blame the fault because it mars the praiseworthy nature. As, then, when we say that blindness is a defect of the eyes, we prove that sight belongs to the nature of the eyes; and when we say that deafness is a defect of the ears, hearing is thereby proved to belong to their nature;- so, when we say that it is a fault of the angelic creature that it does not cleave to God, we hereby most plainly declare that it pertained to its nature to cleave to God. And who can worthily conceive or express how great a glory that is, to cleave to God, so as to live to Him, to draw wisdom from Him, to delight in Him, and to enjoy this so great good, without death, error, or grief? And thus, since every vice is an injury of the nature, that very vice of the wicked angels, their departure from God, is sufficient proof that God created their nature so good, that it is an injury to it not to be with God. 12.2. This may be enough to prevent any one from supposing, when we speak of the apostate angels, that they could have another nature, derived, as it were, from some different origin, and not from God. From the great impiety of this error we shall disentangle ourselves the more readily and easily, the more distinctly we understand that which God spoke by the angel when He sent Moses to the children of Israel: I am that I am. Exodus 3:14 For since God is the supreme existence, that is to say, supremely is, and is therefore unchangeable, the things that He made He empowered to be, but not to be supremely like Himself. To some He communicated a more ample, to others a more limited existence, and thus arranged the natures of beings in ranks. For as from sapere comes sapientia, so from esse comes essentia - a new word indeed, which the old Latin writers did not use, but which is naturalized in our day, that our language may not want an equivalent for the Greek οὐσία . For this is expressed word for word by essentia. Consequently, to that nature which supremely is, and which created all else that exists, no nature is contrary save that which does not exist. For nonentity is the contrary of that which is. And thus there is no being contrary to God, the Supreme Being, and Author of all beings whatsoever. 12.6. Thus the true cause of the blessedness of the good angels is found to be this, that they cleave to Him who supremely is. And if we ask the cause of the misery of the bad, it occurs to us, and not unreasonably, that they are miserable because they have forsaken Him who supremely is, and have turned to themselves who have no such essence. And this vice, what else is it called than pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Ecclesiastes 10:13 They were unwilling, then, to preserve their strength for God; and as adherence to God was the condition of their enjoying an ampler being, they diminished it by preferring themselves to Him. This was the first defect, and the first impoverishment, and the first flaw of their nature, which was created, not indeed supremely existent, but finding its blessedness in the enjoyment of the Supreme Being; while by abandoning Him it should become, not indeed no nature at all, but a nature with a less ample existence, and therefore wretched. If the further question be asked, What was the efficient cause of their evil will? There is none. For what is it which makes the will bad, when it is the will itself which makes the action bad? And consequently the bad will is the cause of the bad action, but nothing is the efficient cause of the bad will. For if anything is the cause, this thing either has or has not a will. If it has, the will is either good or bad. If good, who is so left to himself as to say that a good will makes a will bad? For in this case a good will would be the cause of sin; a most absurd supposition. On the other hand, if this hypothetical thing has a bad will, I wish to know what made it so; and that we may not go on forever, I ask at once, what made the first evil will bad? For that is not the first which was itself corrupted by an evil will, but that is the first which was made evil by no other will. For if it were preceded by that which made it evil, that will was first which made the other evil. But if it is replied, Nothing made it evil; it always was evil, I ask if it has been existing in some nature. For if not, then it did not exist at all; and if it did exist in some nature, then it vitiated and corrupted it, and injured it, and consequently deprived it of good. And therefore the evil will could not exist in an evil nature, but in a nature at once good and mutable, which this vice could injure. For if it did no injury, it was no vice; and consequently the will in which it was, could not be called evil. But if it did injury, it did it by taking away or diminishing good. And therefore there could not be from eternity, as was suggested, an evil will in that thing in which there had been previously a natural good, which the evil will was able to diminish by corrupting it. If, then, it was not from eternity, who, I ask, made it? The only thing that can be suggested in reply is, that something which itself had no will, made the will evil. I ask, then, whether this thing was superior, inferior, or equal to it? If superior, then it is better. How, then, has it no will, and not rather a good will? The same reasoning applies if it was equal; for so long as two things have equally a good will, the one cannot produce in the other an evil will. Then remains the supposition that that which corrupted the will of the angelic nature which first sinned, was itself an inferior thing without a will. But that thing, be it of the lowest and most earthly kind, is certainly itself good, since it is a nature and being, with a form and rank of its own in its own kind and order. How, then, can a good thing be the efficient cause of an evil will? How, I say, can good be the cause of evil? For when the will abandons what is above itself, and turns to what is lower, it becomes evil- not because that is evil to which it turns, but because the turning itself is wicked. Therefore it is not an inferior thing which has made the will evil, but it is itself which has become so by wickedly and inordinately desiring an inferior thing. For if two men, alike in physical and moral constitution, see the same corporal beauty, and one of them is excited by the sight to desire an illicit enjoyment while the other steadfastly maintains a modest restraint of his will, what do we suppose brings it about, that there is an evil will in the one and not in the other? What produces it in the man in whom it exists? Not the bodily beauty, for that was presented equally to the gaze of both, and yet did not produce in both an evil will. Did the flesh of the one cause the desire as he looked? But why did not the flesh of the other? Or was it the disposition? But why not the disposition of both? For we are supposing that both were of a like temperament of body and soul. Must we, then, say that the one was tempted by a secret suggestion of the evil spirit? As if it was not by his own will that he consented to this suggestion and to any inducement whatever! This consent, then, this evil will which he presented to the evil suasive influence - what was the cause of it, we ask? For, not to delay on such a difficulty as this, if both are tempted equally and one yields and consents to the temptation while the other remains unmoved by it, what other account can we give of the matter than this, that the one is willing, the other unwilling, to fall away from chastity? And what causes this but their own wills, in cases at least such as we are supposing, where the temperament is identical? The same beauty was equally obvious to the eyes of both; the same secret temptation pressed on both with equal violence. However minutely we examine the case, therefore, we can discern nothing which caused the will of the one to be evil. For if we say that the man himself made his will evil, what was the man himself before his will was evil but a good nature created by God, the unchangeable good? Here are two men who, before the temptation, were alike in body and soul, and of whom one yielded to the tempter who persuaded him, while the other could not be persuaded to desire that lovely body which was equally before the eyes of both. Shall we say of the successfully tempted man that he corrupted his own will, since he was certainly good before his will became bad? Then, why did he do so? Was it because his will was a nature, or because it was made of nothing? We shall find that the latter is the case. For if a nature is the cause of an evil will, what else can we say than that evil arises from good or that good is the cause of evil? And how can it come to pass that a nature, good though mutable, should produce any evil- that is to say, should make the will itself wicked? 13.3. But a question not to be shirked arises: Whether in very truth death, which separates soul and body, is good to the good? For if it be, how has it come to pass that such a thing should be the punishment of sin? For the first men would not have suffered death had they not sinned. How, then, can that be good to the good, which could not have happened except to the evil? Then, again, if it could only happen to the evil, to the good it ought not to be good, but non-existent. For why should there be any punishment where there is nothing to punish? Wherefore we must say that the first men were indeed so created, that if they had not sinned, they would not have experienced any kind of death; but that, having become sinners, they were so punished with death, that whatsoever sprang from their stock should also be punished with the same death. For nothing else could be born of them than that which they themselves had been. Their nature was deteriorated in proportion to the greatness of the condemnation of their sin, so that what existed as punishment in those who first sinned, became a natural consequence in their children. For man is not produced by man, as he was from the dust. For dust was the material out of which man was made: man is the parent by whom man is begotten. Wherefore earth and flesh are not the same thing, though flesh be made of earth. But as man the parent is, such is man the offspring. In the first man, therefore, there existed the whole human nature, which was to be transmitted by the woman to posterity, when that conjugal union received the divine sentence of its own condemnation; and what man was made, not when created, but when he sinned and was punished, this he propagated, so far as the origin of sin and death are concerned. For neither by sin nor its punishment was he himself reduced to that infantine and helpless infirmity of body and mind which we see in children. For God ordained that infants should begin the world as the young of beasts begin it, since their parents had fallen to the level of the beasts in the fashion of their life and of their death; as it is written, Man when he was in honor understood not; he became like the beasts that have no understanding. Nay more, infants, we see, are even feebler in the use and movement of their limbs, and more infirm to choose and refuse, than the most tender offspring of other animals; as if the force that dwells in human nature were destined to surpass all other living things so much the more eminently, as its energy has been longer restrained, and the time of its exercise delayed, just as an arrow flies the higher the further back it has been drawn. To this infantine imbecility the first man did not fall by his lawless presumption and just sentence; but human nature was in his person vitiated and altered to such an extent, that he suffered in his members the warring of disobedient lust, and became subject to the necessity of dying. And what he himself had become by sin and punishment, such he generated those whom he begot; that is to say, subject to sin and death. And if infants are delivered from this bondage of sin by the Redeemer's grace, they can suffer only this death which separates soul and body; but being redeemed from the obligation of sin, they do not pass to that second endless and penal death. 13.5. The apostle, wishing to show how hurtful a thing sin is, when grace does not aid us, has not hesitated to say that the strength of sin is that very law by which sin is prohibited. The sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law. 1 Corinthians 15:56 Most certainly true; for prohibition increases the desire of illicit action, if righteousness is not so loved that the desire of sin is conquered by that love. But unless divine grace aid us, we cannot love nor delight in true righteousness. But lest the law should be thought to be an evil, since it is called the strength of sin, the apostle, when treating a similar question in another place, says, The law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good. Was then that which is holy made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful. Romans 7:12-13 Exceeding, he says, because the transgression is more heinous when through the increasing lust of sin the law itself also is despised. Why have we thought it worth while to mention this? For this reason, because, as the law is not an evil when it increases the lust of those who sin, so neither is death a good thing when it increases the glory of those who suffer it, since either the former is abandoned wickedly, and makes transgressors, or the latter is embraced, for the truth's sake, and makes martyrs. And thus the law is indeed good, because it is prohibition of sin, and death is evil because it is the wages of sin; but as wicked men make an evil use not only of evil, but also of good things, so the righteous make a good use not only of good, but also of evil things. Whence it comes to pass that the wicked make an ill use of the law, though the law is good; and that the good die well, though death is an evil. 13.14. For God, the author of natures, not of vices, created man upright; but man, being of his own will corrupted, and justly condemned, begot corrupted and condemned children. For we all were in that one man, since we all were that one man, who fell into sin by the woman who was made from him before the sin. For not yet was the particular form created and distributed to us, in which we as individuals were to live, but already the seminal nature was there from which we were to be propagated; and this being vitiated by sin, and bound by the chain of death, and justly condemned, man could not be born of man in any other state. And thus, from the bad use of free will, there originated the whole train of evil, which, with its concatenation of miseries, convoys the human race from its depraved origin, as from a corrupt root, on to the destruction of the second death, which has no end, those only being excepted who are freed by the grace of God. 14.1. We have already stated in the preceding books that God, desiring not only that the human race might be able by their similarity of nature to associate with one another, but also that they might be bound together in harmony and peace by the ties of relationship, was pleased to derive all men from one individual, and created man with such a nature that the members of the race should not have died, had not the two first (of whom the one was created out of nothing, and the other out of him) merited this by their disobedience; for by them so great a sin was committed, that by it the human nature was altered for the worse, and was transmitted also to their posterity, liable to sin and subject to death. And the kingdom of death so reigned over men, that the deserved penalty of sin would have hurled all headlong even into the second death, of which there is no end, had not the undeserved grace of God saved some therefrom. And thus it has come to pass, that though there are very many and great nations all over the earth, whose rites and customs, speech, arms, and dress, are distinguished by marked differences, yet there are no more than two kinds of human society, which we may justly call two cities, according to the language of our Scriptures. The one consists of those who wish to live after the flesh, the other of those who wish to live after the spirit; and when they severally achieve what they wish, they live in peace, each after their kind. 14.15. Therefore, because the sin was a despising of the authority of God - who had created man; who had made him in His own image; who had set him above the other animals; who had placed him in Paradise; who had enriched him with abundance of every kind and of safety; who had laid upon him neither many, nor great, nor difficult commandments, but, in order to make a wholesome obedience easy to him, had given him a single very brief and very light precept by which He reminded that creature whose service was to be free that He was Lord, - it was just that condemnation followed, and condemnation such that man, who by keeping the commandments should have been spiritual even in his flesh, became fleshly even in his spirit; and as in his pride he had sought to be his own satisfaction, God in His justice abandoned him to himself, not to live in the absolute independence he affected, but instead of the liberty he desired, to live dissatisfied with himself in a hard and miserable bondage to him to whom by sinning he had yielded himself, doomed in spite of himself to die in body as he had willingly become dead in spirit, condemned even to eternal death (had not the grace of God delivered him) because he had forsaken eternal life. Whoever thinks such punishment either excessive or unjust shows his inability to measure the great iniquity of sinning where sin might so easily have been avoided. For as Abraham's obedience is with justice pronounced to be great, because the thing commanded, to kill his son, was very difficult, so in Paradise the disobedience was the greater, because the difficulty of that which was commanded was imperceptible. And as the obedience of the second Man was the more laudable because He became obedient even unto death, Philippians 2:8 so the disobedience of the first man was the more detestable because he became disobedient even unto death. For where the penalty annexed to disobedience is great, and the thing commanded by the Creator is easy, who can sufficiently estimate how great a wickedness it is, in a matter so easy, not to obey the authority of so great a power, even when that power deters with so terrible a penalty? In short, to say all in a word, what but disobedience was the punishment of disobedience in that sin? For what else is man's misery but his own disobedience to himself, so that in consequence of his not being willing to do what he could do, he now wills to do what he cannot? For though he could not do all things in Paradise before he sinned, yet he wished to do only what he could do, and therefore he could do all things he wished. But now, as we recognize in his offspring, and as divine Scripture testifies, Man is like to vanity. For who can count how many things he wishes which he cannot do, so long as he is disobedient to himself, that is, so long as his mind and his flesh do not obey his will? For in spite of himself his mind is both frequently disturbed, and his flesh suffers, and grows old, and dies; and in spite of ourselves we suffer whatever else we suffer, and which we would not suffer if our nature absolutely and in all its parts obeyed our will. But is it not the infirmities of the flesh which hamper it in its service? Yet what does it matter how its service is hampered, so long as the fact remains, that by the just retribution of the sovereign God whom we refused to be subject to and serve, our flesh, which was subjected to us, now torments us by insubordination, although our disobedience brought trouble on ourselves, not upon God? For He is not in need of our service as we of our body's; and therefore what we did was no punishment to Him, but what we receive is so to us. And the pains which are called bodily are pains of the soul in and from the body. For what pain or desire can the flesh feel by itself and without the soul? But when the flesh is said to desire or to suffer, it is meant, as we have explained, that the man does so, or some part of the soul which is affected by the sensation of the flesh, whether a harsh sensation causing pain, or gentle, causing pleasure. But pain in the flesh is only a discomfort of the soul arising from the flesh, and a kind of shrinking from its suffering, as the pain of the soul which is called sadness is a shrinking from those things which have happened to us in spite of ourselves. But sadness is frequently preceded by fear, which is itself in the soul, not in the flesh; while bodily pain is not preceded by any kind of fear of the flesh, which can be felt in the flesh before the pain. But pleasure is preceded by a certain appetite which is felt in the flesh like a craving, as hunger and thirst and that generative appetite which is most commonly identified with the name lust, though this is the generic word for all desires. For anger itself was defined by the ancients as nothing else than the lust of revenge; although sometimes a man is angry even at iimate objects which cannot feel his vengeance, as when one breaks a pen, or crushes a quill that writes badly. Yet even this, though less reasonable, is in its way a lust of revenge, and is, so to speak, a mysterious kind of shadow of [the great law of] retribution, that they who do evil should suffer evil. There is therefore a lust for revenge, which is called anger; there is a lust of money, which goes by the name of avarice; there is a lust of conquering, no matter by what means, which is called opinionativeness; there is a lust of applause, which is named boasting. There are many and various lusts, of which some have names of their own, while others have not. For who could readily give a name to the lust of ruling, which yet has a powerful influence in the soul of tyrants, as civil wars bear witness? 14.26. In Paradise, then, man lived as he desired so long as he desired what God had commanded. He lived in the enjoyment of God, and was good by God's goodness; he lived without any want, and had it in his power so to live eternally. He had food that he might not hunger, drink that he might not thirst, the tree of life that old age might not waste him. There was in his body no corruption, nor seed of corruption, which could produce in him any unpleasant sensation. He feared no inward disease, no outward accident. Soundest health blessed his body, absolute tranquillity his soul. As in Paradise there was no excessive heat or cold, so its inhabitants were exempt from the vicissitudes of fear and desire. No sadness of any kind was there, nor any foolish joy; true gladness ceaselessly flowed from the presence of God, who was loved out of a pure heart, and a good conscience, and faith unfeigned. 1 Timothy 1:5 The honest love of husband and wife made a sure harmony between them. Body and spirit worked harmoniously together, and the commandment was kept without labor. No languor made their leisure wearisome; no sleepiness interrupted their desire to labor. In tanta facilitate rerum et felicitate hominum, absit ut suspicemur, non potuisse prolem seri sine libidinis morbo: sed eo voluntatis nutu moverentur illa membra qua c tera, et sine ardoris illecebroso stimulo cum tranquillitate animi et corporis nulla corruptione integritatis infunderetur gremio maritus uxoris. Neque enim quia experientia probari non potest, ideo credendum non est; quando illas corporis partes non ageret turbidus calor, sed spontanea potestas, sicut opus esset, adhiberet; ita tunc potuisse utero conjugis salva integritate feminei genitalis virile semen immitti, sicut nunc potest eadem integritate salva ex utero virginis fluxus menstrui cruoris emitti. Eadem quippe via posset illud injici, qua hoc potest ejici. Ut enim ad pariendum non doloris gemitus, sed maturitatis impulsus feminea viscera relaxaret: sic ad fœtandum et concipiendum non libidinis appetitus, sed voluntarius usus naturam utramque conjungeret. We speak of things which are now shameful, and although we try, as well as we are able, to conceive them as they were before they became shameful, yet necessity compels us rather to limit our discussion to the bounds set by modesty than to extend it as our moderate faculty of discourse might suggest. For since that which I have been speaking of was not experienced even by those who might have experienced it - I mean our first parents (for sin and its merited banishment from Paradise anticipated this passionless generation on their part) - when sexual intercourse is spoken of now, it suggests to men's thoughts not such a placid obedience to the will as is conceivable in our first parents, but such violent acting of lust as they themselves have experienced. And therefore modesty shuts my mouth, although my mind conceives the matter clearly. But Almighty God, the supreme and supremely good Creator of all natures, who aids and rewards good wills, while He abandons and condemns the bad, and rules both, was not destitute of a plan by which He might people His city with the fixed number of citizens which His wisdom had foreordained even out of the condemned human race, discriminating them not now by merits, since the whole mass was condemned as if in a vitiated root, but by grace, and showing, not only in the case of the redeemed, but also in those who were not delivered, how much grace He has bestowed upon them. For every one acknowledges that he has been rescued from evil, not by deserved, but by gratuitous goodness, when he is singled out from the company of those with whom he might justly have borne a common punishment, and is allowed to go scathless. Why, then, should God not have created those whom He foresaw would sin, since He was able to show in and by them both what their guilt merited, and what His grace bestowed, and since, under His creating and disposing hand, even the perverse disorder of the wicked could not pervert the right order of things? 14.27. The sins of men and angels do nothing to impede the great works of the Lord which accomplish His will. For He who by His providence and omnipotence distributes to every one his own portion, is able to make good use not only of the good, but also of the wicked. And thus making a good use of the wicked angel, who, in punishment of his first wicked volition, was doomed to an obduracy that prevents him now from willing any good, why should not God have permitted him to tempt the first man, who had been created upright, that is to say, with a good will? For he had been so constituted, that if he looked to God for help, man's goodness should defeat the angel's wickedness; but if by proud self-pleasing he abandoned God, his Creator and Sustainer, he should be conquered. If his will remained upright, through leaning on God's help, he should be rewarded; if it became wicked, by forsaking God, he should be punished. But even this trusting in God's help could not itself be accomplished without God's help, although man had it in hi