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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
idol Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320, 321, 322
idol, food Allison (2020) 125, 126, 127, 128
Keener(2005) 75, 76
Wilson (2022) 131, 161, 166, 184
idol, idolatry, Frey and Levison (2014) 180, 223
Novenson (2020) 45, 52, 53, 56, 59, 136, 238, 277, 290, 291, 292, 300, 316
idol, maker Garcia (2021) 23, 60
idol, meat Brodd and Reed (2011) 145, 200
idol, meat paul, apostle, and consumption of Brodd and Reed (2011) 145
idol, polemics Dürr (2022) 201, 202
idol, polemics, jewish Dürr (2022) 201, 202
idol, vs. image, art Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907, 908, 909, 912, 920, 921, 922, 923, 924, 925
idol/idolatry Levison (2009) 57, 91, 92, 93, 94, 123, 141, 142, 143, 145, 183, 207, 265, 266, 282, 284, 300, 301, 302, 303, 305, 319
idol/s Binder (2012) 43, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 89, 97, 121, 123, 129, 135, 136, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 183, 185, 189
idolatry/idol/image Williams (2009) 19, 22, 24, 33, 47, 50, 53, 68, 112, 130, 191, 211, 261, 281
idolatry/idol/image, origin Williams (2009) 18
idolatry/idol/image, permitted during persecution Williams (2009) 49, 50
idolatry/idol/image, samaritan Williams (2009) 33
idolatry/idol/image, simonian Williams (2009) 65
idols Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 240, 243
Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 194, 197, 199
Garcia (2021) 59, 61, 66, 169, 170, 173, 188, 239
Gwynne (2004) 111, 117, 133, 134, 145, 195, 196
Iricinschi et al. (2013) 342
Malherbe et al (2014) 293, 307, 310, 315, 361, 384, 584, 826
Osborne (2010) 123
Stuckenbruck (2007) 143, 156, 178, 179, 180, 211, 375, 381, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, 404, 407, 582, 587
Wilson (2012) 65
Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 281
idols, abraham, and Gwynne (2004) 74, 97, 108, 134, 145, 194, 195, 196
idols, are images of the dead Sider (2001) 30
idols, as demons McDonough (2009) 152, 158, 160, 161, 163, 166, 169
idols, as mediators McDonough (2009) 68, 152, 158, 160, 169, 171
idols, as statues McDonough (2009) 154, 169
idols, breaking, striking of de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 174, 193, 210
idols, called gods Sider (2001) 126
idols, conversion from Malherbe et al (2014) 314, 360
idols, cult Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 174, 176, 177, 178
idols, cult statues Rohmann (2016) 53, 62, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 108, 113, 122, 128, 131, 133, 135, 136, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 157, 161, 182, 187, 192, 208, 211, 218, 223, 228, 239, 241, 249, 253, 259, 266, 268
idols, demons, xii, inhabit Sider (2001) 97, 126
idols, destruction, of Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 300
idols, food sacrificed to Lieu (2004) 127, 137
McDonough (2009) 68, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
idols, food, impurity of offered to Blidstein (2017) 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 82, 86, 187, 192, 205, 206, 211, 221, 222
idols, foolishness, of Malherbe et al (2014) 361
idols, images, material for Stuckenbruck (2007) 392, 398, 399, 400
idols, in procession at games Sider (2001) 88, 89, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98
idols, in public, mockery of pagan Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 176
idols, inhabited by demons Sider (2001) 97, 126
idols, making/fashioning of Stuckenbruck (2007) 143, 179, 392, 396, 398, 399, 406, 407
idols, of defeated into exile, war, transportation of Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 972, 973
idols, old testament polemic against Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44
idols, originated crowns Sider (2001) 128
idols, originated games Sider (2001) 90
idols, sibylline oracles, polemic against Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44
idols, spirits Stuckenbruck (2007) 404
idols, stones Stuckenbruck (2007) 392, 396, 398, 406
idols, temple Stuckenbruck (2007) 143
idols, their temples Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 305
idols/idolatry/idolatrous Piotrkowski (2019) 138, 140, 143, 148, 152, 157, 160, 220, 221, 222, 223, 230, 303, 305, 322, 408, 440
idols/pagan, gods, sacrifice to Blidstein (2017) 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 82, 187
“idols”, from, cyclades Simon (2021) 6, 259, 261, 267, 268, 386

List of validated texts:
30 validated results for "idol"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15, 32.16-32.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Idol/s • Idols • Idols, As demons • Idols, As mediators • Images, Material for Idols • idol, idolatry

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 920; Binder (2012) 159; McDonough (2009) 160, 161; Novenson (2020) 52; Stuckenbruck (2007) 400, 401

4.15. וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃
32.16. יַקְנִאֻהוּ בְּזָרִים בְּתוֹעֵבֹת יַכְעִיסֻהוּ׃ 32.17. יִזְבְּחוּ לַשֵּׁדִים לֹא אֱלֹהַ אֱלֹהִים לֹא יְדָעוּם חֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרֹב בָּאוּ לֹא שְׂעָרוּם אֲבֹתֵיכֶם׃''. None
4.15. Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire—
32.16. They roused Him to jealousy with strange gods, With abominations did they provoke Him. 32.17. They sacrificed unto demons, no-gods, Gods that they knew not, New gods that came up of late, Which your fathers dreaded not.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 20.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Idol/s • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Stones, Idols

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 920; Binder (2012) 73, 159; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398, 403

20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ''. None
20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.4, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • Idol/s • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Stones, Idols

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 920; Binder (2012) 159; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398

19.4. אַל־תִּפְנוּ אֶל־הָאֱלִילִים וֵאלֹהֵי מַסֵּכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃
26.1. וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃'
26.1. לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ '. None
19.4. Turn ye not unto the idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the LORD your God.
26.1. Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 96.5, 106.37, 115.4-115.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/s • Idols • Idols, As demons • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Old Testament polemic against idols • Sibylline Oracles, Polemic against idols • Stones, Idols

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 73, 81; McDonough (2009) 161; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398, 399, 401

96.5. כִּי כָּל־אֱלֹהֵי הָעַמִּים אֱלִילִים וַיהוָה שָׁמַיִם עָשָׂה׃
106.37. וַיִּזְבְּחוּ אֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בְּנוֹתֵיהֶם לַשֵּׁדִים׃
115.4. עֲ\u200dצַבֵּיהֶם כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵי אָדָם׃ 115.5. פֶּה־לָהֶם וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ עֵינַיִם לָהֶם וְלֹא יִרְאוּ׃''. None
96.5. For all the gods of the peoples are things of nought; But the LORD made the heavens.
106.37. Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters unto demons,' "
115.4. Their idols are silver and gold, The work of men's hands." '115.5. They have mouths, but they speak not; Eyes have they, but they see not;''. None
5. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idols • Idols, As mediators • Idols, Food sacrificed to • idol maker

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 23; McDonough (2009) 68; Stuckenbruck (2007) 582

6. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 44.9-44.20, 45.1, 65.3, 65.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, As demons • Old Testament polemic against idols • Paul (Apostle), and consumption of idol meat • Sibylline Oracles, Polemic against idols • idol meat • idols • idols/idolatry/idolatrous

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 145; Garcia (2021) 59; Levison (2009) 57; McDonough (2009) 161; Piotrkowski (2019) 230; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44; Stuckenbruck (2007) 401, 403

44.9. יֹצְרֵי־פֶסֶל כֻּלָּם תֹּהוּ וַחֲמוּדֵיהֶם בַּל־יוֹעִילוּ וְעֵדֵיהֶם הֵמָּה בַּל־יִרְאוּ וּבַל־יֵדְעוּ לְמַעַן יֵבֹשׁוּ׃' '44.11. הֵן כָּל־חֲבֵרָיו יֵבֹשׁוּ וְחָרָשִׁים הֵמָּה מֵאָדָם יִתְקַבְּצוּ כֻלָּם יַעֲמֹדוּ יִפְחֲדוּ יֵבֹשׁוּ יָחַד׃ 44.12. חָרַשׁ בַּרְזֶל מַעֲצָד וּפָעַל בַּפֶּחָם וּבַמַּקָּבוֹת יִצְּרֵהוּ וַיִּפְעָלֵהוּ בִּזְרוֹעַ כֹּחוֹ גַּם־רָעֵב וְאֵין כֹּחַ לֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם וַיִּיעָף׃ 44.13. חָרַשׁ עֵצִים נָטָה קָו יְתָאֲרֵהוּ בַשֶּׂרֶד יַעֲשֵׂהוּ בַּמַּקְצֻעוֹת וּבַמְּחוּגָה יְתָאֳרֵהוּ וַיַּעֲשֵׂהוּ כְּתַבְנִית אִישׁ כְּתִפְאֶרֶת אָדָם לָשֶׁבֶת בָּיִת׃ 44.14. לִכְרָת־לוֹ אֲרָזִים וַיִּקַּח תִּרְזָה וְאַלּוֹן וַיְאַמֶּץ־לוֹ בַּעֲצֵי־יָעַר נָטַע אֹרֶן וְגֶשֶׁם יְגַדֵּל׃ 44.15. וְהָיָה לְאָדָם לְבָעֵר וַיִּקַּח מֵהֶם וַיָּחָם אַף־יַשִּׂיק וְאָפָה לָחֶם אַף־יִפְעַל־אֵל וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ עָשָׂהוּ פֶסֶל וַיִּסְגָּד־לָמוֹ׃ 44.16. חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַף בְּמוֹ־אֵשׁ עַל־חֶצְיוֹ בָּשָׂר יֹאכֵל יִצְלֶה צָלִי וְיִשְׂבָּע אַף־יָחֹם וְיֹאמַר הֶאָח חַמּוֹתִי רָאִיתִי אוּר׃ 44.17. וּשְׁאֵרִיתוֹ לְאֵל עָשָׂה לְפִסְלוֹ יסגוד־יִסְגָּד־ לוֹ וְיִשְׁתַּחוּ וְיִתְפַּלֵּל אֵלָיו וְיֹאמַר הַצִּילֵנִי כִּי אֵלִי אָתָּה׃ 44.18. לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כִּי טַח מֵרְאוֹת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵהַשְׂכִּיל לִבֹּתָם׃ 44.19. וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶל־לִבּוֹ וְלֹא דַעַת וְלֹא־תְבוּנָה לֵאמֹר חֶצְיוֹ שָׂרַפְתִּי בְמוֹ־אֵשׁ וְאַף אָפִיתִי עַל־גֶּחָלָיו לֶחֶם אֶצְלֶה בָשָׂר וְאֹכֵל וְיִתְרוֹ לְתוֹעֵבָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לְבוּל עֵץ אֶסְגּוֹד׃
45.1. הוֹי אֹמֵר לְאָב מַה־תּוֹלִיד וּלְאִשָּׁה מַה־תְּחִילִין׃
45.1. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לִמְשִׁיחוֹ לְכוֹרֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־הֶחֱזַקְתִּי בִימִינוֹ לְרַד־לְפָנָיו גּוֹיִם וּמָתְנֵי מְלָכִים אֲפַתֵּחַ לִפְתֹּחַ לְפָנָיו דְּלָתַיִם וּשְׁעָרִים לֹא יִסָּגֵרוּ׃
65.3. הָעָם הַמַּכְעִיסִים אוֹתִי עַל־פָּנַי תָּמִיד זֹבְחִים בַּגַּנּוֹת וּמְקַטְּרִים עַל־הַלְּבֵנִים׃
65.11. וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי יְהוָה הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת־הַר קָדְשִׁי הַעֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ׃''. None
44.9. They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity, And their delectable things shall not profit; And their own witnesses see not, nor know; That they may be ashamed. 44.10. Who hath fashioned a god, or molten an image That is profitable for nothing? 44.11. Behold, all the fellows thereof shall be ashamed; And the craftsmen skilled above men; Let them all be gathered together, let them stand up; They shall fear, they shall be ashamed together. 44.12. The smith maketh an axe, And worketh in the coals, and fashioneth it with hammers, And worketh it with his strong arm; Yea, he is hungry, and his strength faileth; He drinketh no water, and is faint. 44.13. The carpenter stretcheth out a line; He marketh it out with a pencil; He fitteth it with planes, And he marketh it out with the compasses, And maketh it after the figure of a man, According to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house. 44.14. He heweth him down cedars, And taketh the ilex and the oak, And strengtheneth for himself one among the trees of the forest; He planteth a bay-tree, and the rain doth nourish it. 44.15. Then a man useth it for fuel; And he taketh thereof, and warmeth himself; Yea, he kindleth it, and baketh bread; Yea, he maketh a god, and worshippeth it; He maketh it a graven image, and falleth down thereto. 44.16. He burneth the half thereof in the fire; With the half thereof he eateth flesh; He roasteth roast, and is satisfied; Yea, he warmeth himself, and saith: ‘Aha, I am warm, I have seen the fire’; 44.17. And the residue thereof he maketh a god, even his graven image; He falleth down unto it and worshippeth, and prayeth unto it, And saith: ‘Deliver me, for thou art my god.’ 44.18. They know not, neither do they understand; For their eyes are bedaubed, that they cannot see, And their hearts, that they cannot understand. 44.19. And none considereth in his heart, Neither is there knowledge nor understanding to say: ‘I have burned the half of it in the fire; Yea, also I have baked bread upon the coals thereof; I have roasted flesh and eaten it; And shall I make the residue thereof an abomination? Shall I fall down to the stock of a tree?’ 44.20. He striveth after ashes, A deceived heart hath turned him aside, That he cannot deliver his soul, nor say: ‘Is there not a lie in my right hand?’
45.1. Thus saith the LORD to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and to loose the loins of kings; to open the doors before him, and that the gates may not be shut:
65.3. A people that provoke Me to My face continually, that sacrifice in gardens, and burn incense upon bricks;
65.11. But ye that forsake the LORD, That forget My holy mountain, That prepare a table for Fortune, And that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Destiny,''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 10.5, 10.8, 10.10, 10.14, 16.18, 31.34 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol, idolatry • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Old Testament polemic against idols • Sibylline Oracles, Polemic against idols • idol

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320; Frey and Levison (2014) 223; Levison (2009) 57, 265; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44; Stuckenbruck (2007) 399, 400

10.5. כְּתֹמֶר מִקְשָׁה הֵמָּה וְלֹא יְדַבֵּרוּ נָשׂוֹא יִנָּשׂוּא כִּי לֹא יִצְעָדוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ מֵהֶם כִּי־לֹא יָרֵעוּ וְגַם־הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֹתָם׃
10.8. וּבְאַחַת יִבְעֲרוּ וְיִכְסָלוּ מוּסַר הֲבָלִים עֵץ הוּא׃' '
10.14. נִבְעַר כָּל־אָדָם מִדַּעַת הֹבִישׁ כָּל־צוֹרֵף מִפָּסֶל כִּי שֶׁקֶר נִסְכּוֹ וְלֹא־רוּחַ בָּם׃
16.18. וְשִׁלַּמְתִּי רִאשׁוֹנָה מִשְׁנֵה עֲוֺנָם וְחַטָּאתָם עַל חַלְּלָם אֶת־אַרְצִי בְּנִבְלַת שִׁקּוּצֵיהֶם וְתוֹעֲבוֹתֵיהֶם מָלְאוּ אֶת־נַחֲלָתִי׃
31.34. וְלֹא יְלַמְּדוּ עוֹד אִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו לֵאמֹר דְּעוּ אֶת־יְהוָה כִּי־כוּלָּם יֵדְעוּ אוֹתִי לְמִקְטַנָּם וְעַד־גְּדוֹלָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה כִּי אֶסְלַח לַעֲוֺנָם וּלְחַטָּאתָם לֹא אֶזְכָּר־עוֹד׃''. None
10.5. They are like a pillar in a garden of cucumbers, and speak not; They must needs be borne, because they cannot go. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil, Neither is it in them to do good.
10.8. But they are altogether brutish and foolish: The vanities by which they are instructed are but a stock;
10.10. But the LORD God is the true God, He is the living God, and the everlasting King; At His wrath the earth trembleth, And the nations are not able to abide His indignation.
10.14. Every man is proved to be brutish, without knowledge, Every goldsmith is put to shame by the graven image, His molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them.
16.18. And first I will recompense their iniquity and their sin double; Because they have profaned My land; They have filled Mine inheritance With the carcasses of their detestable things and their abominations.
31.34. and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying: ‘Know the LORD’; for they shall all know Me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD; for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.25-36.27 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol, idolatry • Idol/Idolatry

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 223; Levison (2009) 93, 207

36.25. וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם מִכֹּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם׃ 36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃ 36.27. וְאֶת־רוּחִי אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וְעָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־בְּחֻקַּי תֵּלֵכוּ וּמִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם׃''. None
36.25. And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you. 36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh. 36.27. And I will put My spirit within you, and cause you to walk in My statutes, and ye shall keep Mine ordices, and do them.''. None
9. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 34.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Stones, Idols • idols

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 170; Stuckenbruck (2007) 400, 406

34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies.''. None
10. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 13.10, 13.17, 14.11-14.12, 15.7-15.13, 15.15, 15.17, 15.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Spirits, Idols • Stones, Idols • food, impurity of offered to idols • foolishness, of idols • idol food • idol maker • idols • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 128; Blidstein (2017) 73; Garcia (2021) 59, 60, 66; Levison (2009) 142, 143; Malherbe et al (2014) 361, 384; Stuckenbruck (2007) 179, 398, 399, 400, 404

13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand.
13.10. But sinners shall be taken away into destruction, And their memorial shall be found no more.
13.17. When he prays about possessions and his marriage and children,he is not ashamed to address a lifeless thing.
14.11. Therefore there will be a visitation also upon the heathen idols,because, though part of what God created, they became an abomination,and became traps for the souls of men and a snare to the feet of the foolish. 14.12. For the idea of making idols was the beginning of fornication,and the invention of them was the corruption of life,
15.7. When it goeth forth from the face of the Lord against sinners, To destroy all the substance of sinners,
15.7. For when a potter kneads the soft earth and laboriously molds each vessel for our service,he fashions out of the same clay both the vessels that serve clean uses and those for contrary uses, making all in like manner;but which shall be the use of each of these the worker in clay decides. 15.8. For the mark of God is upon the righteous that they .may be saved. Famine and sword and pestilence (shall be) far from the righteous, 15.8. With misspent toil, he forms a futile god from the same clay -- this man who was made of earth a short time before and after a little while goes to the earth from which he was taken,when he is required to return the soul that was lent him. 15.9. But he is not concerned that he is destined to die or that his life is brief,but he competes with workers in gold and silver,and imitates workers in copper;and he counts it his glory that he molds counterfeit gods. 15.9. For they shall flee away from the pious as men pursued in war; But they shall pursue sinners and overtake (them), And they that do lawlessness shall not escape the judgement of God; As by enemies experienced (in war) shall they be overtaken, 15.10. For the mark of destruction is upon their forehead. 15.10. His heart is ashes, his hope is cheaper than dirt,and his life is of less worth than clay, 15.11. And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath. 15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit." 15.12. Their inheritance shall not be found of their children, 15.12. But he considered our existence an idle game,and life a festival held for profit,for he says one must get money however one can, even by base means. 15.13. For sins shall lay waste the houses of sinners. And sinners shall perish for ever in the day of the Lord’s judgement, 15.13. For this man, more than all others, knows that he sins when he makes from earthy matter fragile vessels and graven images.
15.15. But they that fear the Lord shall find mercy therein, And shall live by the compassion of their God; But sinners shall perish for ever.
15.15. For they thought that all their heathen idols were gods,though these have neither the use of their eyes to see with,nor nostrils with which to draw breath,nor ears with which to hear,nor fingers to feel with,and their feet are of no use for walking.
15.17. He is mortal, and what he makes with lawless hands is dead,for he is better than the objects he worships,since he has life, but they never have.
15.19. and even as animals they are not so beautiful in appearance that one would desire them,but they have escaped both the praise of God and his blessing.''. None
11. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol, idolatry • Idol/Idolatry

 Found in books: Frey and Levison (2014) 180; Levison (2009) 303

12. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, As demons

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 319; McDonough (2009) 163; Stuckenbruck (2007) 401

13. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.1-3.279, 3.285-3.294, 3.545-3.639, 3.645-3.784, 3.795-3.808, 5.497 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Old Testament polemic against idols • Sibylline Oracles, Polemic against idols • idol • idols • idols/idolatry/idolatrous

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 321; Levison (2009) 319; Malherbe et al (2014) 315; Piotrkowski (2019) 220, 221, 222, 223, 408; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 44; Stuckenbruck (2007) 399

3.1. O THOU high-thundering blessed heavenly One, 3.2. Who hast set in their place the cherubim, 3.3. I, who have uttered what is all too true, 3.4. Entreat thee, let me have a little rest; 3.5. 5 For my heart has grown weary from within. 3.6. But why again leaps my heart, and my soul 3.7. With a whip smitten from within constrained 3.8. To utter forth its message unto all? 3.9. But yet again will I proclaim all thing
3.10. 10 Which God commands me to proclaim to men.
3.11. O men, that in your image have a form
3.12. Fashioned of God, why do ye vainly stray
3.13. And walk not in the straight way, always mindful
3.14. of the immortal Maker? God is one,
3.15. 15 Sovereign, ineffable, dwelling in heaven,
3.16. The self-existent and invisible,
3.17. Himself alone beholding everything;' "
3.18. Him sculptor's hand made not, nor is his form" "
3.19. Shown by man's art from gold or ivory;" '3.20. 20 But he, eternal Lord, proclaims himself 3.21. As one who is and was erst and shall be 3.22. Again hereafter. For who being mortal 3.23. Can see God with his eyes? Or who shall bear' "3.24. To hear the only name of heaven's great God," '3.25. 25 The ruler of the world? He by his word 3.26. Created all things, even heaven and sea, 3.27. And tireless sun, and full moon and bright stars, 3.28. 28 of the Chaldeans, nor astronomize; 3.28. And mighty mother Tethys, springs and rivers, 3.29. Imperishable fire, and days and nights. 3.29. O For these are all deceptive, in so far 3.30. 30 This is the God who formed four-lettered Adam, 3.30. As foolish men go seeking day by day 3.31. The first one formed, and filling with his name 3.31. Training their souls unto no useful work; 3.32. And then did they teach miserable men 3.32. East, west, and south, and north. The same is he 3.33. Deceptions, whence to mortals on the earth 3.33. Who fixed the pattern of the human form, 3.34. And made wild beasts, and creeping things, and fowls. 3.35. 35 Ye do not worship neither fear ye God, 3.36. But vainly go astray and bow the knee 3.37. To serpents, and make offering to cats, 3.38. And idols, and stone images of men, 3.39. And sit before the doors of godless temples; 3.40. 40 Ye guard him who is God, who keeps all things, 3.41. And merry with the wickedness of stone 3.42. Forget the judgment of the immortal Saviour 3.43. Who made the heaven and earth. Alas! a race 3.44. That has delight in blood, deceitful, vile, 3.45. 45 Ungodly, of false, double-tongued, immoral men, 3.46. Adulterous, idolous, designing fraud, 3.47. An evil madness raving in their hearts, 3.48. For themselves plundering, having shameless soul; 3.49. For no one who has riches will impart 3.50. 50 To another, but dire wickedness shall be 3.51. Among all mortals, and for sake of gain 3.52. Will many widows not at all keep faith, 3.53. But secretly love others, and the bond 3.54. of life those who have husbands do not keep.' "3.55. 55 But when Rome shall o'er Egypt also rule" '3.56. Governing always, then shall there appear 3.57. The greatest kingdom of the immortal King 3.58. Over men. And a holy Lord shall come 3.59. To hold the scepter over every land 3.60. 60 Unto all ages of fast-hastening time. 3.61. And then shall come inexorable wrath 3.62. On Latin men; three shall by piteous fate 3.63. Endamage Rome. And perish shall all men, 3.64. With their own houses, when from heaven shall flow 3.65. 65 A fiery cataract. Ah, wretched me! 3.66. When shall that day and when shall judgment come 3.67. of the immortal God, the mighty King? 3.68. But just now, O ye cities, ye are built 3.69. And all adorned with temples and race-grounds, 3.70. 70 Markets, and images of wood, of gold, 3.71. of silver and of stone, that ye may come 3.72. Unto the bitter day. For it shall come, 3.73. When there shall pass among all men a stench 3.74. of brimstone. Yet each thing will I declare, 3.75. 75 In all the cities where men suffer ills. 3.76. From the Sebastenes Beliar shall come 3.77. Hereafter, and the height of hills shall he 3.78. Establish, and shall make the sea stand still 3.79. And the great fiery sun and the bright moon 3.80. 80 And he shall raise the dead, and many sign 3.81. Work before men: but nothing shall be brought 3.82. By him unto completion but deceit, 3.83. And many mortals shall be lead astray 3.84. Hebrews both true and choice, and lawless men' "3.85. 85 Besides who never gave ear to God's word." '3.86. But when the threatenings of the mighty God 3.87. Shall draw near, and a flaming power shall come 3.88. By billow to the earth, it shall consume 3.89. Both Beliar and all the haughty men 3.90. 90 Who put their trust in him. And thereupon 3.91. Shall the whole world be governed by the hand 3.92. of a woman and obedient everywhere.' "3.93. Then when a widow shall o'er all the world" '3.94. Gain the rule, and cast in the mighty sea 3.95. 95 Both gold and silver, also brass and iron 3.96. of short lived men into the deep shall cast, 3.97. Then all the elements shall be bereft 3.98. of order, when the God who dwells on high 3.99. Shall roll the heaven, even as a scroll is rolled;
3.100. 100 And to the mighty earth and sea shall fall
3.101. The entire multiform sky; and there shall flow
3.102. A tireless cataract of raging fire,
3.103. And it shall burn the land, and burn the sea,
3.104. And heavenly sky, and night, and day, and melt
3.105. 105 Creation itself together and pick out
3.106. What is pure. No more laughing spheres of light,
3.107. Nor night, nor dawn, nor many days of care,
3.108. Nor spring, nor winter, nor the summer-time,
3.109. Nor autumn. And then of the mighty God
3.110. 110 The judgment midway in a mighty age
3.111. Shall come, when all these things shall come to pass.
3.112. O navigable waters and each land
3.113. of the Orient and of the Occident,
3.114. Subject shall all things be to him who come
3.115. 115 Into the world again, and therefore he
3.116. Himself became first conscious of his power.
3.118. Are fulfilled, which he threatened mortals once,
3.119. When in Assyrian land they built a tower;–
3.120. 120 (And they all spoke one language, and resolved
3.121. To mount aloft into the starry heaven;
3.122. But on the air the Immortal straightway put
3.123. A mighty force; and then winds from above
3.124. Cast down the great tower and stirred mortals up
3.125. 125 To wrangling with each other; therefore men
3.126. Gave to that city the name of Babylon);–
3.127. Now when the tower fell and the tongues of men
3.128. Turned to all sorts of sounds, straightway all earth
3.129. Was filled with men and kingdoms were divided;
3.130. 130 And then the generation tenth appeared
3.131. of mortal men, from the time when the flood
3.132. Came upon earlier men. And Cronos reigned,
3.133. And Titan and Iapetus; and men called them
3.134. Best offspring of Gaia and of Uranus,
3.135. 135 Giving to them names both of earth and heaven,
3.136. Since they were very first of mortal men.
3.137. So there were three divisions of the earth
3.138. According to the allotment of each man,
3.139. And each one having his own portion reigned' "
3.140. 140 And fought not; for a father's oaths were there" '
3.141. And equal were their portions. But the time
3.142. Complete of old age on the father came,
3.143. And he died; and the sons infringing oath
3.144. Stirred up against each other bitter strife,
3.145. 145 Which one should have the royal rank and rule
3.146. Over all mortals; and against each other
3.147. Cronos and Titan fought. But Rhea and Gaia,
3.148. And Aphrodite fond of crowns, Demeter,
3.149. And Hestia and Dione of fair lock
3.150. 150 Brought them to friendship, and together called
3.151. All who were kings, both brothers and near kin,
3.152. And others of the same ancestral blood,
3.153. And they judged Cronos should reign king of all,
3.154. For he was oldest and of noblest form.
3.155. 155 But Titan laid on Cronos mighty oath
3.156. To rear no male posterity, that he
3.157. Himself might reign when age and fate should come
3.158. To Cronos. And whenever Rhea bore
3.159. Beside her sat the Titans, and all male
3.160. 160 In pieces tore, but let the females live
3.161. To be reared by the mother. But When now
3.162. At the third birth the august Rhea bore,
3.163. She brought forth Hera first; and when they saw
3.164. A female offspring, the fierce Titan men
3.165. 165 Betook them to their homes. And thereupon
3.166. Rhea a male child bore, and having bound
3.167. Three men of Crete by oath she quickly sent
3.168. Him into Phrygia to be reared apart
3.169. In secret; therefore did they name him Zeus,
3.170. 170 For he was sent away. And thus she sent
3.171. Poseidon also secretly away.
3.172. And Pluto, third, did Rhea yet again,
3.173. Noblest of women, at Dodona bear,' "
3.174. Whence flows Europus' river's liquid course," '
3.175. 175 And with Peneus mixed pours in the sea
3.176. Its water, and men call it Stygian.
3.177. But when the Titans heard that there were son
3.178. Kept secretly, whom Cronos and his wife
3.179. Rhea begat, then Titan sixty youth
3.180. 180 Together gathered, and held fast in chain
3.181. Cronos and his wife Rhea, and concealed
3.182. Them in the earth and guarded them in bonds.
3.183. And then the sons of powerful Cronos heard,
3.184. And a great war and uproar they aroused.
3.185. 185 And this is the beginning of dire war
3.186. Among all mortals. For it is indeed
3.187. With mortals the prime origin of war.
3.188. And then did God award the Titans evil.
3.189. And all of Titans and of Cronos born
3.190. 190 Died. But then as time rolled around there rose
3.191. The Egyptian kingdom, then that of the Persian
3.192. And of the Medes, and Ethiopians,
3.193. And of Assyria and Babylon,
3.194. And then that of the Macedonians,
3.195. 195 Egyptian yet again, then that of Rome.
3.196. And then a message of the mighty God
3.197. Was set within my breast, and it bade me
3.198. Proclaim through all earth and in royal heart
3.199. Plant things which are to be. And to my mind 3.200. 200 This God imparted first, bow many kingdom 3.201. Have been together gathered of mankind. 3.202. For first of all the house of Solomon 3.203. Shall include horsemen of Phœnicia 3.204. And Syria, and of the islands too, 3.205. 205 And the race of Pamphylians and Persian 3.206. And Phrygians, Carians, and Mysian 3.207. And the race of the Lydians rich in gold. 3.208. And then shall Hellenes, proud and impure, 3.209. Then shall a Macedonian nation rule, 3.210. 210 Great, shrewd, who as a fearful cloud of war 3.211. Shall come to mortals. But the God of heaven 3.212. Shall utterly destroy them from the depth. 3.213. And then shall be another kingdom, white 3.214. And many-headed, from the western sea, 3.215. 215 Which shall rule much land, and shake many men, 3.216. And to all kings bring terror afterwards, 3.217. And out of many cities shall destroy 3.218. Much gold and silver; but in the vast earth 3.219. There will again be gold, and silver too, 3.220. 220 And ornament. And they will oppress mortals; 3.221. And to those men shall great disaster be, 3.222. When they begin unrighteous arrogance. 3.223. And forthwith in them there shall be a force 3.224. of wickedness, male will consort with male, 3.225. 225 And children they will place in dens of shame; 3.226. And in those days there shall be among men 3.227. A great affliction, and it shall disturb 3.228. All things, and break all things, and fill all thing 3.229. With evils by a shameful covetousness, 3.230. 230 And by ill-gotten wealth in many lands, 3.231. But most of all in Macedonia. 3.232. And it shall stir up hatred, and all guile 3.233. Shalt be with them even to the seventh kingdom, 3.234. of which a king of Egypt shall be king 3.235. 235 Who shall be a descendant from the Greeks. 3.236. And then the nation of the mighty God 3.237. Shall be again strong and they shall be guide 3.238. of life to all men. But why did God place 3.239. This also in my mind to tell: what first, 3.240. 240 And what next, and what evil last shall be 3.241. On all men? Which of these shall take the lead? 3.242. First on the Titans will God visit evil.' "3.243. For they shall pay to mighty Cronos's son" '3.244. The penal satisfaction, since they bound 3.245. 245 Both Cronos and the mother dearly loved. 3.246. Again shall there be tyrants for the Greek 3.247. And fierce kings overweening and impure, 3.248. Adulterous and altogether bad; 3.249. And for men shall be no more rest from war. 3.250. 250 And the dread Phrygians shall perish all, 3.251. And unto Troy shall evil come that day. 3.252. And to the Persians and Assyrian 3.253. Evil shall straightaway come, and to all Egypt 3.254. And Libya and the Ethiopians, 3.255. 255 And to the Carians and Pamphylians– 3.256. Evil to pass from one place to another, 3.257. And to all mortals. Why now one by one 3.258. Do I speak forth? But when the first receive 3.259. Fulfillment, then straightway shall come on men' "3.260. 260 The second. So the very first I'll tell." '3.261. There shall an evil come to pious men 3.262. Who dwell by the great temple of Solomon 3.263. And who are progeny of righteous men. 3.264. Alike of all these also I will tell 3.265. 265 The tribe and line of fathers and homeland– 3.266. All things with care, O mortal shrewd in mind. 3.267. There is a city . . . on the earth, 3.268. Ur of the Chaldees, whence there is a race 3.269. of men most righteous, to whom both good will 3.270. 270 And noble deeds have ever been a care. 3.271. For they have no concern about the course' "3.272. of the sun's revolution, nor the moon's," '3.273. Nor wondrous things beneath the earth, nor depth 3.274. of joy-imparting sea Oceanus, 3.275. 275 Nor signs of sneezing, nor the wings of birds, 3.276. Nor soothsayers, nor wizards, nor enchanters, 3.277. Nor tricks of dull words of ventriloquists, 3.278. Neither do they astrologize with skill
3.285. 285 Come many evils leading them astray 3.286. From good ways and just deeds. But they have care 3.287. For righteousness and virtue, and not greed, 3.288. Which breeds unnumbered ills to mortal men, 3.289. War and unending famine. But with them 3.290. 290 Just measure, both in fields and cities, holds, 3.291. Nor steal they from each other in the night, 3.292. Nor drive off herds of cattle, sheep, and goats, 3.293. Nor neighbor remove landmarks of a neighbor, 3.294. Nor any man of great wealth grieve the one
3.545. 545 Shall an Ætolian youth sometime despoil. 3.546. Cyzicus, also thy vast wealth the sea 3.547. Shall break off. And, Byzantium of Ares, 3.548. Thou some time shalt by Asia be laid waste, 3.549. And also groans and blood immeasurable 3.550. 550 Shalt thou receive. And Cragus, lofty mount 3.551. of Lycia, from thy peaks by yawning chasm 3.552. of opened rock shall babbling water flow,' "3.553. Until even Patara's oracles shall cease." '3.554. O Cyzicus, that dwellest by Proponti 3.555. 555 The wine-producing, round thee Rhyndacu 3.556. Shall crash the crested billow. And thou, Rhodes, 3.557. Daughter of day, shalt long be unenslaved, 3.558. And great shall be thy happiness hereafter, 3.559. And on the sea thy power shall be supreme. 3.560. 560 But afterwards a spoil shalt thou become 3.561. For greedy men, and put upon thy neck 3.562. By beauty and by wealth a fearful yoke. 3.563. A Lydian earthquake shall again despoil 3.564. The power of Persia, and most horribly 3.565. 565 Shall the people of Europe and Asia suffer pain.' "3.566. And Sidon's hurtful king with battle-din" '3.567. Dreadful shall work a mournful overthrow 3.568. To the seafaring Samians. On the soil' "3.569. Shall slain men's dark blood babble to the sea;" '3.570. 570 And wives together with the noble bride 3.571. Shall their outrageous insolence lament, 3.572. Some for their bridegrooms, some for fallen sons. 3.573. O sign of Cyprus, may an earthquake waste 3.574. Thy phalanxes away, and many soul 3.575. 575 With one accord shall Hades bold in charge. 3.576. And Trallis near by Ephesus, and wall 3.577. Well made, and very precious wealth of men 3.578. Shall be dissolved by earthquake; and the land 3.579. Shall burst out with hot water; and the earth 3.580. 580 Shall swallow down those who are by the fire 3.581. And stench of brimstone heavily oppressed. 3.582. And Samos shall in time build royal houses. 3.583. But to thee, Italy, no foreign war 3.584. Shall come, but lamentable tribal blood 3.585. 585 Not easily exhausted, much renowned, 3.586. Shall make thee, impudent one, desolate. 3.587. And thou thyself beside hot ashes stretched, 3.588. As thou in thine own heart didst not foresee, 3.589. Shalt slay thyself. And thou shalt not of men 3.590. 590 Be mother, but a nurse of beasts of prey. 3.591. But when from Italy shall come a man, 3.592. A spoiler, then, Laodicea, thou, 3.593. Beautiful city of the Carian' "3.594. By Lycus's wondrous water, falling prone," '3.595. 595 Shalt weep in silence for thy boastful sire. 3.596. Thracian Crobyzi shall rise up on Hæmus. 3.597. Chatter of teeth to the Campanians come 3.598. Because of wasting famine; Corsica 3.599. Weeps her old father, and Sardinia 3.600. 600 Shall by great storms of winter and the stroke 3.601. of a holy God sink down in ocean depths, 3.602. Great wonder to the of the sea. 3.603. Alas, alas, how many virgin maid 3.604. Will Hades wed, and of as many youth 3.605. 605 Will the deep take without funeral rites! 3.606. Alas, alas, the helpless little one 3.607. And the vast riches swimming in the sea! 3.608. O happy land of Mysians, suddenly 3.609. A royal race shall be formed. Truly now 3.610. 610 Not for a long time shall Chalcedon be. 3.610. 610 Woe, woe to thee, O Thrace! So shalt thou come 3.611. And there shall be a very bitter grief 3.611. Beneath a servile yoke, when the Galatian 3.612. To the Galatians. And to Tenedo 3.612. United with the sons of Dardanu 3.613. Rush on to ravage Hellas, thine shall be 3.613. Shall there a last but greatest evil come. 3.614. And Sicyon, with strong yells, and Corinth, thou 3.614. The evil; and unto a foreign land' "3.615. 615 Shalt boast o'er all, but flute shall sound like strain." '3.616. . . . . . . . Now, when my soul had. rest from inspired song. 3.617. Even again within my heart was set 3.618. A message of the mighty God, and he 3.619. Commanded me to prophesy on earth. 3.620. 620 Woe, woe to the race of Phœnician men 3.621. And women, and all cities by the sea; 3.622. Not one of you shall in the common light 3.623. Abide before the shining of the sun, 3.624. Nor of life shall there any longer be 3.625. 625 Number and tribe, because of unjust speech 3.626. And lawless life impure which they lived, 3.627. Opening a mouth impure, and fearful word 3.628. Deceitful and unrighteous forth, 3.629. And stood against the God, the King, 3.630. 630 And opened loathsome month deceitfully 3.631. Therefore may he subdue them terribly' "3.632. By strokes o'er all the earth, and bitter fate" '3.633. Shall God send on them burning from the ground. 3.634. Cities and of the cities the foundations. 3.635. 635 Woe, woe to thee, O Crete! To thee shall come 3.636. A very painful stroke, and terribly 3.637. Shall the Eternal sack thee; and again 3.638. Shall every land behold thee black with smoke,' "3.639. Fire ne'er shall leave thee, but thou shalt be burned." '
3.645. 645 Much shalt thou give, not anything receive. 3.646. Woe to thee, Gog and Magog, and to all, 3.647. One after another, Mardians and Daians; 3.648. How many evils fate, shall bring on thee! 3.649. Woe also to the soil of Lycia, 3.650. 650 And those of Mysia and Phrygia. 3.651. And many nations of Pamphylians, 3.652. And Lydians, Carians, Cappadocians, 3.653. And Ethiopian and Arabian men 3.654. of a strange tongue shall fall. How now may I 3.655. 655 of each speak fitly? For on all the nation 3.656. Which dwell on earth the Highest shall send dire plague. 3.657. When now again a barbarous nation come 3.658. Against the Greeks it shall slay many head 3.659. of chosen men; and they shall tear in piece 3.660. 660 Many fat flocks of sheep of men, and herd 3.661. of horses and of mules and lowing kine; 3.662. And well-made houses shall they burn with fire 3.663. Lawlessly; and unto a foreign land 3.664. Shall they by force lead many slaves away, 3.665. 665 And children, and deep-girded women soft 3.666. From bridal chambers creeping on before 3.667. With delicate feet; and they shall be bound fast 3.668. With fetters by their foes of foreign tongue, 3.669. Suffering all fearful outrage; and to them 3.670. 670 There shall not be one to supply the toil 3.671. of battle and come to their help in life. 3.672. And they shall see their goods and all their wealth 3.673. Enrich the enemy; and there shall be 3.674. A trembling of the knees. And there shall fly 3.675. 675 A hundred, and one shall destroy them all; 3.676. And five shall rout a mighty company; 3.677. But they, among themselves mixed shamefully, 3.678. Shall by war and dire tumult bring delight 3.679. To enemies, but sorrow to the Greeks. 3.680. 680 And then upon all Hellas there shall be 3.681. A servile yoke; and war and pestilence 3.682. Together shall upon all mortals come. 3.683. And God will make the mighty heaven on high 3.684. Like brass and over all the earth a drought, 3.685. 685 And earth itself like iron. And thereupon 3.686. Shall mortals all lament the barrenne 3.687. And lack of cultivation; and on earth 3.688. Shall he set, who created heaven and earth, 3.689. A much-distressing fire; and of all men 3.690. 690 The third part only shall thereafter be. 3.691. O Greece, why hast thou trusted mortal men 3.692. As leaders, who cannot escape from death? 3.693. And wherefore bringest thou thy foolish gift 3.694. Unto the dead and sacrifice to idols? 3.695. 695 Who put the error in thy heart to do 3.696. These things and leave the face of God the mighty?' "3.697. Honor the All-Father's name, and let it not" '3.698. Escape thee. It is now a thousand years, 3.699. Yea, and five hundred more, since haughty king' "3.700. 700 Ruled o'er the Greeks, who first to mortal men" '3.701. Introduced evils, setting up for worship 3.702. Images many of gods that are dead, 3.703. Because of which ye were taught foolish thoughts. 3.704. But when the anger of the mighty God' "3.705. 705 Shall come upon you, then ye'll recognize" '3.706. The face of God the mighty. And all soul 3.707. of men, with mighty groaning lifting up 3.708. Their hands to the broad heaven, shall begin 3.709. To call the great King helper, and to seek 3.710. 710 The rescuer from great wrath who is to be. 3.711. But come and learn this and store in your hearts, 3.712. What troubles in the rolling years shall come. 3.713. And what as whole burnt-offering Hellas brought 3.714. of cows and bellowing bulls unto the temple 3.715. 715 of the great God, she from ill-sounding war 3.716. And fear and pestilence shall flee away 3.717. And from the servile yoke escape again. 3.718. But until that time there shall be a race 3.719. of godless men, even when that fated day 3.720. 720 Shall reach its end. For offering to God 3.721. Ye should not make till all things come to pass, 3.722. Which God alone shall purpose not in vain 3.723. To be all fulfilled; and strong force shall urge. 3.724. And there shall be again a holy race 3.725. 725 of godly men who, keeping to the counsel 3.726. And mind of the Most High, shall honor much' "3.727. The great God's temple with drink-offerings," '3.728. Burnt-offerings, and holy hecatombs, 3.729. With sacrifices of fat bulls, choice rams, 3.730. 730 Firstlings of sheep and the fat thighs of lambs, 3.731. Sacredly offering whole burnt-offering 3.732. On the great altar. And in righteousness, 3.733. Having obtained the law of the Most High, 3.734. Blest shall they dwell in cities and rich fields. 3.735. 735 And prophets shall be set on high for them 3.736. By the Immortal, bringing great delight 3.737. Unto all mortals. For to them alone 3.738. The mighty God his gracious counsel gave 3.739. And faith and noblest thought within their hearts; 3.740. 740 They have not by vain things been led astray, 3.741. Nor pay they honor to the works of men 3.742. Made of gold, brass, silver, and ivory, 3.743. Nor statues of dead gods of wood and stone' "3.744. Besmeared clay, figures of the painter's art," '3.745. 745 And all that empty-minded mortals will; 3.746. But they lift up their pure arms unto heaven, 3.747. Rise from the couch at daybreak, always hand 3.748. With water cleanse, and honor only Him 3.749. Who is immortal and who ever rules, 3.750. 750 And then their parents; and above all men 3.751. Do they respect the lawful marriage-bed; 3.752. And they have not base intercourse with boys, 3.753. As do Phœnicians, Latins, and Egyptian 3.754. And spacious Greece, and nations many more 3.755. 755 of Persians and Galatians and all Asia,' "3.756. Transgressing the immortal God's pure law" '3.757. Which they were under. Therefore on all men 3.758. Will the Immortal put bane, famine, pains, 3.759. Groans, war, and pestilence and mournful woes; 3.760. 760 Because they would not honor piously 3.761. The immortal Sire of all men, but revered 3.762. And worshiped idols made with hands, which thing 3.763. Mortals themselves will cast down and for shame 3.764. Conceal in clefts of rocks, when a young king, 3.765. 765 The seventh of Egypt, shall rule his own land, 3.766. Reckoned from the dominion of the Greeks, 3.767. Which countless Macedonian men shall rule; 3.768. And there shall come from Asia a great king, 3.769. fiery eagle, who with foot and horse 3.770. 770 Shall cover all the land, cut up all things, 3.771. And fill all things with evils; he will cast 3.772. The Egyptian kingdom down; and taking off 3.773. All its possessions carry them away 3.774. Over the spacious surface of the sea. 3.775. 775 And then shall they before, the mighty God, 3.776. The King immortal, bend the fair white knee 3.777. On the much-nourishing earth; and all the work 3.778. Made with hands shall fall by a flame of fire. 3.779. And then will God bestow great joy on men; 3.780. 780 For land and trees and countless flocks of sheep 3.781. Their genuine fruit to men shall offer–wine, 3.782. And the sweet honey, and white milk, and wheat, 3.783. Which is for mortals of all things the best. 3.784. But thou, O mortal full of various wiles,
3.795. 795 The cause of the wrath of the mighty God, 3.796. When on all mortals there shall come the height 3.797. of pestilence and conquered they shall meet 3.798. A fearful judgment, and king shall seize king 3.799. And wrest his land away, and nations bring 3.800. 800 Ruin on nations and lords plunder tribes, 3.801. And chiefs all flee into another land, 3.802. And the land change its men, and foreign rule 3.803. Ravage all Hellas and drain the rich land. 3.804. of its wealth, and to strife among themselve 3.805. 805 Because of gold and silver they shall come– 3.806. The love of gain an evil shepherde 3.807. Will be for cities–in a foreign land. 3.808. And they shall all be without burial,
5.497. And he shall raise up them that are afraid' '. None
14. Anon., Didache, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • food, impurity of offered to idols • idols • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 240, 243; Blidstein (2017) 72, 73

6.3. See that no one cause you to err from this way of the Teaching, since apart from God it teaches you. For if you are able to bear all the yoke of the Lord, you will be perfect; but if you are not able, what you are able that do. And concerning food, bear what you are able; but against that which is sacrificed to idols be exceedingly on your guard; for it is the service of dead gods. ''. None
15. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • food, impurity of offered to idols • idol food • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 73; Keener(2005) 76

2.3. אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁל גּוֹיִם אֲסוּרִין וְאִסּוּרָן אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה. הַיַּיִן, וְהַחֹמֶץ שֶׁל גּוֹיִם שֶׁהָיָה מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ יַיִן, וְחֶרֶס הַדְרִיָּנִי, וְעוֹרוֹת לְבוּבִין. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַקֶּרַע שֶׁלּוֹ עָגוֹל, אָסוּר. מָשׁוּךְ, מֻתָּר. בָּשָׂר הַנִּכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, מֻתָּר. וְהַיּוֹצֵא, אָסוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כְזִבְחֵי מֵתִים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. הַהוֹלְכִין לַתַּרְפּוּת, אָסוּר לָשֵׂאת וְלָתֵת עִמָּהֶם. וְהַבָּאִין, מֻתָּרִין:"''. None
2.3. The following things belonging to non-Jews are forbidden for Jews to use and the prohibition extends to any benefit that may be derived from them: wine, or a non-Jew’s vinegar that was formerly wine, Hadrianic earthenware, skins pierced at the animal’s heart. Rabban Shimon Gamaliel says: when its tear is round, the skin is forbidden, but if oblong it is permitted. Meat which is being brought into a place of idol worship is permitted, but that which is brought out is forbidden, because it is like a sacrifice to the dead, this is the opinion of Rabbi Akiba. With non-Jews going on a pilgrimage to worship idols it is forbidden to have any business transactions, but with those returning it is permitted."''. None
16. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • food, impurity of offered to idols • idols/idolatry/idolatrous

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 211; Piotrkowski (2019) 303

5.8. Νήψατε, γρηγορήσατε. ὁ ἀντίδικος ὑμῶν διάβολος ὡς λέων ὠρυόμενος περιπατεῖ ζητῶν καταπιεῖν·''. None
5.8. Be sober and self-controlled. Be watchful. Your adversary the devil, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour. ''. None
17. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2, 5.9, 6.12, 8, 8.1, 8.1-11.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.13, 9, 9.13, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.24, 10.1, 10.7, 10.9, 10.10, 10.14, 10.15, 10.16, 10.17, 10.18, 10.19, 10.20, 10.21, 10.22, 10.23, 10.23-11.1, 10.24, 10.25, 10.26, 10.27, 10.28, 10.29, 10.30, 10.31, 10.32, 10.33, 12.2, 15.18, 15.20, 15.21, 15.24, 15.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, As demons • Idols, As mediators • Idols, As statues • Idols, Food sacrificed to • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • food, impurity of offered to idols • idol food • idol, idolatry • idols • idols, food sacrificed to • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 125, 126, 127, 128; Blidstein (2017) 68, 69, 70, 206, 221; Levison (2009) 282, 284, 302; Lieu (2004) 127; Malherbe et al (2014) 293, 307, 310, 384; McDonough (2009) 68, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 163, 166, 169, 171; Novenson (2020) 52, 136, 300, 316; Stuckenbruck (2007) 399, 401; Wilson (2022) 131, 161, 166, 184

9. Ἔγραψα ὑμῖν ἐν τῇ ἐπιστολῇ μὴ συναναμίγνυσθαι πόρνοις, 6.1
2. Πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. πάντα μοι ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐγὼ ἐξουσιασθήσομαι ὑπό τινος.

8.1. Περὶ δὲ τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων, οἴδαμεν ὅτι πάντες γνῶσιν ἔχομεν.
2. ἡ γνῶσις φυσιοῖ, ἡ δὲ ἀγάπη οἰκοδομεῖ.

8.3. εἴ τις δοκεῖ ἐγνωκέναι τι, οὔπω ἔγνω καθὼς δεῖ γνῶναι· εἰ δέ τις ἀγαπᾷ τὸν θεόν, οὗτος ἔγνωσται ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ.

8.4. Περὶ τῆς βρώσεως οὖν τῶν εἰδωλοθύτων οἴδαμεν ὅτι οὐδὲν εἴδωλον ἐν κόσμῳ, καὶ ὅτι οὐδεὶς θεὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς.

8.5. καὶ γὰρ εἴπερ εἰσὶν λεγόμενοι θεοὶ εἴτε ἐν οὐρανῷ εἴτε ἐπὶ γῆς, ὥσπερ εἰσὶν θεοὶ πολλοὶ καὶ κύριοι πολλοί,

8.6. ἀλλʼ ἡμῖν εἷς θεὸς ὁ πατήρ, ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, καὶ εἷς κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστός, διʼ οὗ τὰ πάντα καὶ ἡμεῖς διʼ αὐτοῦ. Ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐν πᾶσιν ἡ γνῶσις·

8.7. τινὲς δὲ τῇ συνηθείᾳ ἕως ἄρτι τοῦ εἰδώλου ὡς εἰδωλόθυτον ἐσθίουσιν, καὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτῶν ἀσθενὴς οὖσα μολύνεται.
8. βρῶμα δὲ ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ θεῷ· οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν, ὑστερούμεθα, οὔτε ἐὰν φάγωμεν, περισσεύομεν.

9. βλέπετε δὲ μή πως ἡ ἐξουσία ὑμῶν αὕτη πρόσκομμα γένηται τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν.

8.10. ἐὰν γάρ τις ἴδῃ σὲ τὸν ἔχοντα γνῶσιν ἐν εἰδωλίῳ κατακείμενον, οὐχὶ ἡ συνείδησις αὐτοῦ ἀσθενοῦς ὄντος οἰκοδομηθήσεται εἰς τὸ τὰ εἰδωλόθυτα ἐσθίειν;

8.11. ἀπόλλυται γὰρ ὁ ἀσθενῶν ἐν τῇ σῇ γνώσει, ὁ ἀδελφὸς διʼ ὃν Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν.

2. οὕτως δὲ ἁμαρτάνοντες εἰς τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς καὶ τύπτοντες αὐτῶν τὴν συνείδησιν ἀσθενοῦσαν εἰς Χριστὸν ἁμαρτάνετε.

8.13. διόπερ εἰ βρῶμα σκανδαλίζει τὸν ἀδελφόν μου, οὐ μὴ φάγω κρέα εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἵνα μὴ τὸν ἀδελφόν μου σκανδαλίσω.

9.13. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ τὰ ἱερὰ ἐργαζόμενοι τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἐσθίουσιν, οἱ τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ παρεδρεύοντες τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ συνμερίζονται;
9. Ἐλεύθερος γὰρ ὢν ἐκ πάντων πᾶσιν ἐμαυτὸν ἐδούλωσα, ἵνα τοὺς πλείονας κερδήσω·
20. καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω·
21. τοῖς ἀνόμοις ὡς ἄνομος, μὴ ὢν ἄνομος θεοῦ ἀλλʼ ἔννομος Χριστοῦ, ἵνα κερδανῶ τοὺς ἀνόμους·
2. ἐγενόμην τοῖς ἀσθενέσιν ἀσθενής, ἵνα τοὺς ἀσθενεῖς κερδήσω· τοῖς πᾶσιν γέγονα πάντα, ἵνα πάντως τινὰς σώσω.
24. Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἐν σταδίῳ τρέχοντες πάντες μὲν τρέχουσιν, εἷς δὲ λαμβάνει τὸ βραβεῖον; οὕτως τρέχετε ἵνα καταλάβητε.'
10.1. Οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν πάντες ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν καὶ πάντες διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον,
10.7. μηδὲ εἰδωλολάτραι γίνεσθε, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν· ὥσπερ γέγραπταιἘκάθισεν ὁ λαὸς φαγεῖν καὶ πεῖν, καὶ ἀνέστησαν παίζειν. 10.
9. μηδὲ ἐκπειράζωμεν τὸν κύριον, καθώς τινες αὐτῶν ἐπείρασαν, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὄφεων ἀπώλλυντο.

10.10. μηδὲ γογγύζετε, καθάπερ τινὲς αὐτῶν ἐγόγγυσαν, καὶ ἀπώλοντο ὑπὸ τοῦ ὀλοθρευτοῦ.

10.14. Διόπερ, ἀγαπητοί μου, φεύγετε ἀπὸ τῆς εἰδωλολατρίας.

10.15. ὡς φρονίμοις λέγω· κρίνατε ὑμεῖς ὅ φημι.

10.16. Τὸ ποτήριον τῆς εὐλογίας ὃ εὐλογοῦμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία ἐστὶν τοῦ αἵματος τοῦ χριστοῦ; τὸν ἄρτον ὃν κλῶμεν, οὐχὶ κοινωνία τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ ἐστίν;

10.17. ὅτι εἷς ἄρτος, ἓν σῶμα οἱ πολλοί ἐσμεν, οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν. βλέπετε τὸν Ἰσραὴλ κατὰ σάρκα·
8. οὐχ οἱ ἐσθίοντες τὰς θυσίας κοινωνοὶ τοῦ θυσιαστηρίου εἰσίν;
9. τί οὖν φημί; ὅτι εἰδωλόθυτόν τί ἐστιν, ἢ ὅτι εἴδωλόν τί ἐστιν; 10.
20. ἀλλʼ ὅτι ἃ θύουσιν τὰ ἔθνη,δαιμονίοις καὶ οὐ θεῷ θύουσιν,οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς κοινωνοὺς τῶν δαιμονίων γίνεσθαι. 10.
21. οὐ δύνασθε ποτήριον Κυρίου πίνειν καὶ ποτήριον δαιμονίων· οὐ δύνασθετραπέζης Κυρίουμετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων. 10.
2. ἢπαραζηλοῦμεν τὸν κύριον;μὴ ἰσχυρότεροι αὐτοῦ ἐσμέν; Πάντα ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐ πάντα συμφέρει. 10.
23. πάντα ἔξεστιν· ἀλλʼ οὐ πάντα οἰκοδομεῖ. 10.
24. μηδεὶς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ζητείτω ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου. 10.
25. Πᾶν τὸ ἐν μακέλλῳ πωλούμενον ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν, 10.
26. τοῦ κυρίουγὰρἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς. 10.
27. εἴ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν· 10.
8. ἐὰν δέ τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Τοῦτο ἱερόθυτόν ἐστιν, μὴ ἐσθίετε διʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν μηνύσαντα καὶ τὴν συνείδησιν· 10.
9. συνείδησιν δὲ λέγω οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀλλὰ τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου· ἵνα τί γὰρ ἡ ἐλευθερία μου κρίνεται ὑπὸ ἄλλης συνειδήσεως;
10.30. εἰ ἐγὼ χάριτι μετέχω, τί βλασφημοῦμαι ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εὐχαριστῶ;
10.31. Εἴτε οὖν ἐσθίετε εἴτε πίνετε εἴτε τι ποιεῖτε, πάντα εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ ποιεῖτε. 10.3
2. ἀπρόσκοποι καὶ Ἰουδαίοις γίνεσθε καὶ Ἕλλησιν καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ,
10.33. καθὼς κἀγὼ πάντα πᾶσιν ἀρέσκω, μὴ ζητῶν τὸ ἐμαυτοῦ σύμφορον ἀλλὰ τὸ τῶν πολλῶν, ἵνα σωθῶσιν. 1
2. Οἴδατε ὅτι ὅτε ἔθνη ἦτε πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ ἄφωνα ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι. 15.1
8. ἄρα καὶ οἱ κοιμηθέντες ἐν Χριστῷ ἀπώλοντο. 15.
20. Νυνὶ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἀπαρχὴ τῶν κεκοιμημένων. 15.
21. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ διʼ ἀνθρώπου θάνατος, καὶ διʼ ἀνθρώπου ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν· 15.
24. εἶτα τὸ τέλος, ὅταν παραδιδῷ τὴν βασιλείαν τῷ θεῷ καὶ πατρί, ὅταν καταργήσῃ πᾶσαν ἀρχὴν καὶ πᾶσαν ἐξουσίαν καὶ δύναμιν, 15.
8. ὅταν δὲ ὑποταγῇ αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, τότε καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ υἱὸς ὑποταγήσεται τῷ ὑποτάξαντι αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα, ἵνα ᾖ ὁ θεὸς πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν. '. None
9. I wrote to you in my letter to have no company with sexual sinners; 6.1
2. "All things are lawful for me," but not all thingsare expedient. "All things are lawful for me," but I will not bebrought under the power of anything.

8.1. Now concerning things sacrificed to idols: We know that we allhave knowledge. Knowledge puffs up, but love builds up.' "
2. But ifanyone thinks that he knows anything, he doesn't yet know as he oughtto know." '

8.3. But if anyone loves God, the same is known by him.

8.4. Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we knowthat no idol is anything in the world, and that there is no other Godbut one.

8.5. For though there are things that are called "gods,"whether in the heavens or on earth; as there are many "gods" and many"lords;"

8.6. yet to us there is one God, the Father, of whom are allthings, and we for him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom areall things, and we live through him.' "

8.7. However, that knowledgeisn't in all men. But some, with consciousness of the idol until now,eat as of a thing sacrificed to an idol, and their conscience, beingweak, is defiled." "
8. But food will not commend us to God. Forneither, if we don't eat, are we the worse; nor, if we eat, are we thebetter." '

9. But be careful that by no means does this liberty ofyours become a stumbling block to the weak.' "

8.10. For if a man seesyou who have knowledge sitting in an idol's temple, won't hisconscience, if he is weak, be emboldened to eat things sacrificed toidols?" '

8.11. And through your knowledge, he who is weak perishes, thebrother for whose sake Christ died.

2. Thus, sinning against thebrothers, and wounding their conscience when it is weak, you sinagainst Christ.' "

8.13. Therefore, if food causes my brother to stumble,I will eat no meat forevermore, that I don't cause my brother tostumble." "

9.13. Don't you know that those who serve around sacred thingseat from the things of the temple, and those who wait on the altar havetheir portion with the altar?" '
9. For though I was free fromall, I brought myself under bondage to all, that I might gain the more.
20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law;
21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law.
2. To the weak I became asweak, that I might gain the weak. I have become all things to all men,that I may by all means save some.' "
24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win."
10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea;
10.7. Neither be idolaters, as someof them were. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink,and rose up to play." 10.
9. Neither let us test the Lord, as some of them tested, andperished by the serpents.

10.10. Neither grumble, as some of them alsogrumbled, and perished by the destroyer.

10.14. Therefore, my beloved, flee fromidolatry.

10.15. I speak as to wise men. Judge what I say.' "

10.16. Thecup of blessing which we bless, isn't it a communion of the blood ofChrist? The bread which we break, isn't it a communion of the body ofChrist?" '

10.17. Because we, who are many, are one bread, one body; forwe all partake of the one bread.' "
8. Consider Israel after theflesh. Don't those who eat the sacrifices have communion with the altar?" '
9. What am I saying then? That a thing sacrificed to idols isanything, or that an idol is anything?' "10.
20. But I say that thethings which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and notto God, and I don't desire that you would have communion with demons." "10.
21. You can't both drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons.You can't both partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table ofdemons." '10.
2. Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we strongerthan he? 10.
23. "All things are lawful for me," but not all things areprofitable. "All things are lawful for me," but not all things buildup.' "10.
24. Let no one seek his own, but each one his neighbor's good." '10.
25. Whatever is sold in the butcher shop, eat, asking no questionfor the sake of conscience, 10.
26. for "the earth is the Lord\'s, andits fullness."' "10.
27. But if one of those who don't believe invitesyou to a meal, and you are inclined to go, eat whatever is set beforeyou, asking no questions for the sake of conscience." '10.
8. But ifanyone says to you, "This was offered to idols," don\'t eat it for thesake of the one who told you, and for the sake of conscience. For "theearth is the Lord\'s, and all its fullness."' "10.
9. Conscience, I say,not your own, but the other's conscience. For why is my liberty judgedby another conscience?" '
10.30. If I partake with thankfulness, why am Idenounced for that for which I give thanks?
10.31. Whether thereforeyou eat, or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. 10.3
2. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God;
10.33. even as I also please all men in allthings, not seeking my own profit, but the profit of the many, thatthey may be saved. 1
2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led. 15.1
8. Then they also who arefallen asleep in Christ have perished. 15.
20. But now Christ has been raised from the dead. He became thefirst fruits of those who are asleep. 15.
21. For since death came byman, the resurrection of the dead also came by man. 15.
24. Then the end comes, when he willdeliver up the Kingdom to God, even the Father; when he will haveabolished all rule and all authority and power. 15.
8. When all things have been subjected to him, then theSon will also himself be subjected to him who subjected all things tohim, that God may be all in all. '. None
18. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.5-1.6, 1.8-1.9, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • foolishness, of idols • idol • idol, idolatry • idols • idols, conversion from • idols, food sacrificed to

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320, 321, 322; Levison (2009) 265, 266; Lieu (2004) 127; Malherbe et al (2014) 314, 360, 361, 384, 584; Novenson (2020) 136

1.5. ὅτι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐγενήθη εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν λόγῳ μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει καὶ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πληροφορίᾳ πολλῇ, καθὼς οἴδατε οἷοι ἐγενήθημεν ὑμῖν διʼ ὑμᾶς· 1.6. καὶ ὑμεῖς μιμηταὶ ἡμῶν ἐγενήθητε καὶ τοῦ κυρίου, δεξάμενοι τὸν λόγον ἐν θλίψει πολλῇ μετὰ χαρᾶς πνεύματος ἁγίου,
1.8. ἀφʼ ὑμῶν γὰρ ἐξήχηται ὁ λόγος τοῦ κυρίου οὐ μόνον ἐν τῇ Μακεδονίᾳ καὶ Ἀχαίᾳ, ἀλλʼ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἐξελήλυθεν, ὥστε μὴ χρείαν ἔχειν ἡμᾶς λαλεῖν τι· 1.9. αὐτοὶ γὰρ περὶ ἡμῶν ἀπαγγέλλουσιν ὁποίαν εἴσοδον ἔσχομεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ πῶς ἐπεστρέψατε πρὸς τὸν θεὸν ἀπὸ τῶν εἰδώλων δουλεύειν θεῷ ζῶντι καὶ ἀληθινῷ,
4.3. Τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, ὁ ἁγιασμὸς ὑμῶν, ἀπέχεσθαι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς πορνείας, 4.4. εἰδέναι ἕκαστον ὑμῶν τὸ ἑαυτοῦ σκεῦος κτᾶσθαι ἐν ἁγιασμῷ καὶ τιμῇ,''. None
1.5. and that our gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and with much assurance. You know what kind of men we showed ourselves to be among you for your sake. 1.6. You became imitators of us, and of the Lord, having received the word in much affliction, with joy of the Holy Spirit,
1.8. For from you has sounded forth the word of the Lord, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God has gone forth; so that we need not to say anything. 1.9. For they themselves report concerning us what kind of a reception we had from you; and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God,
4.3. For this is the will of God: your sanctification, that you abstain from sexual immorality, 4.4. that each one of you know how to possess himself of his own vessel in sanctification and honor, ''. None
19. New Testament, Acts, 8.9, 8.11, 17.29-17.30 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cult statues (idols) • Idol/Idolatry • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • Stones, Idols • idol

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 321; Levison (2009) 284; Rohmann (2016) 113, 187; Stuckenbruck (2007) 398

8.9. Ἀνὴρ δέ τις ὀνόματι Σίμων προυπῆρχεν ἐν τῇ πόλει μαγεύων καὶ ἐξιστάνων τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρίας, λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτὸν μέγαν,
8.11. προσεῖχον δὲ αὐτῷ διὰ τὸ ἱκανῷ χρόνῳ ταῖς μαγίαις ἐξεστακέναι αὐτούς.
17.29. γένος οὖν ὑπάρχοντες τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ὀφείλομεν νομίζειν χρυσῷ ἢ ἀργύρῳ ἢ λίθῳ, χαράγματι τέχνής καὶ ἐνθυμήσεως ἀνθρώπου, τὸ θεῖον εἶναι ὅμοιον. 17.30. τοὺς μὲν οὖν χρόνους τῆς ἀγνοίας ὑπεριδὼν ὁ θεὸς τὰ νῦν ἀπαγγέλλει τοῖς ἀνθρώποις πάντας πανταχοῦ μετανοεῖν,''. None
8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one,
8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries.
17.29. Being then the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold, or silver, or stone, engraved by art and device of man. 17.30. The times of ignorance therefore God overlooked. But now he commands that all men everywhere should repent, ''. None
20. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.2, 2.14, 2.20, 9.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cult statues (idols) • Idols • Spirits, Idols • food, impurity of offered to idols • idol meat • idols, food sacrificed to • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 73, 74; Brodd and Reed (2011) 200; Lieu (2004) 127, 137; Rohmann (2016) 113; Stuckenbruck (2007) 404

2.2. Οἶδα τὰ ἔργα σου, καὶ τὸν κόπον καὶ τὴν ὑπομονήν σου, καὶ ὅτι οὐ δύνῃ βαστάσαι κακούς, καὶ ἐπείρασας τοὺς λέγοντας ἑαυτοὺς ἀποστόλους, καὶ οὐκ εἰσίν, καὶ εὗρες αὐτοὺς ψευδεῖς·
2.14. ἀλλὰ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὀλίγα, ὅτι ἔχεις ἐκεῖ κρατοῦντας τὴν διδαχὴνΒαλαάμ,ὃς ἐδίδασκεν τῷ Βαλὰκ βαλεῖν σκάνδαλον ἐνώπιοντῶν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ, φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα καὶ πορνεῦσαι·

2.20. ἀλλὰ ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ ὅτι ἀφεῖς τὴν γυναῖκα Ἰεζάβελ, ἡ λέγουσα ἑαυτὴν προφῆτιν, καὶ διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ τοὺς ἐμοὺς δούλουςπορνεῦσαι καὶ φαγεῖν εἰδωλόθυτα.
9.21. καὶ οὐ μετενόησαν ἐκ τῶν φόνων αὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκτῶν φαρμάκωναὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκτῆς πορνείαςαὐτῶν οὔτε ἐκ τῶν κλεμμάτων αὐτῶν.''. None
2.2. "I know your works, and your toil and perseverance, and that you can\'t tolerate evil men, and have tested those who call themselves apostles, and they are not, and found them false.
2.14. But I have a few things against you, because you have there some who hold the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to throw a stumbling block before the children of Israel , to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit sexual immorality.

2.20. But I have this against you, that you tolerate your woman, Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess. She teaches and seduces my servants to commit sexual immorality, and to eat things sacrificed to idols.' "
9.21. They didn't repent of their murders, nor of their sorceries, nor of their sexual immorality, nor of their thefts. "'. None
21. New Testament, Colossians, 2.8-2.10, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cult statues (idols) • Idols, As mediators • Idols, Food sacrificed to • food, impurity of offered to idols • sacrifice to idols/pagan gods

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 68; McDonough (2009) 68; Rohmann (2016) 157

2.8. Βλέπετε μή τις ὑμᾶς ἔσται ὁ συλαγωγῶν διὰ τῆς φιλοσοφίας καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, κατὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου καὶ οὐ κατὰ Χριστόν· 2.9. ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ κατοικεῖ πᾶν τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς θεότητος σωματικῶς, 2.10. καὶ ἐστὲ ἐν αὐτῷ πεπληρωμένοι, ὅς ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλὴ πάσης ἀρχῆς καὶ ἐξουσίας,
2.15. ἀπεκδυσάμενος τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ἐξουσίας ἐδειγμάτισεν ἐν παρρησίᾳ θριαμβεύσας αὐτοὺς ἐν αὐτῷ.''. None
2.8. Be careful that you don't let anyone rob you through his philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the elements of the world, and not after Christ. " '2.9. For in him all the fullness of the Godhead dwells bodily, 2.10. and in him you are made full, who is the head of all principality and power;
2.15. having stripped the principalities and the powers, he made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it. '". None
22. New Testament, Galatians, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idols • foolishness, of idols • idol • idols

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320; Malherbe et al (2014) 361, 384; Stuckenbruck (2007) 401

4.8. Ἀλλὰ τότε μὲν οὐκ εἰδότες θεὸν ἐδουλεύσατε τοῖς φύσει μὴ οὖσι θεοῖς· 4.9. νῦν δὲ γνόντες θεόν, μᾶλλον δὲ γνωσθέντες ὑπὸ θεοῦ, πῶς ἐπιστρέφετε πάλιν ἐπὶ τὰ ἀσθενῆ καὶ πτωχὰ στοιχεῖα, οἷς πάλιν ἄνωθεν δουλεῦσαι θέλετε;''. None
4.8. However at that time, not knowing God, youwere in bondage to those who by nature are not gods. 4.9. But now thatyou have come to know God, or rather to be known by God, why do youturn back again to the weak and miserable elements, to which you desireto be in bondage all over again? ''. None
23. New Testament, Romans, 1.18-1.32, 11.26, 14.13, 14.15, 14.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idols • Jewish idol polemics • Spirits, Idols • foolishness, of idols • idol • idol food • idol polemics • idol, idolatry • idols

 Found in books: Allison (2020) 128; Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320, 321; Dürr (2022) 201, 202; Keener(2005) 75; Malherbe et al (2014) 361, 384; Novenson (2020) 316; Stuckenbruck (2007) 404

1.18. Ἀποκαλύπτεται γὰρ ὀργὴ θεοῦ ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ἀσέβειαν καὶ ἀδικίαν ἀνθρώπων τῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐν ἀδικίᾳ κατεχόντων, 1.19. διότι τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς, ὁ θεὸς γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἐφανέρωσεν. 1.20. τὰ γὰρ ἀόρατα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου τοῖς ποιήμασιν νοούμενα καθορᾶται, ἥ τε ἀΐδιος αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους, 1.21. διότι γνόντες τὸν θεὸν οὐχ ὡς θεὸν ἐδόξασαν ἢ ηὐχαρίστησαν, ἀλλὰ ἐματαιώθησαν ἐν τοῖς διαλογισμοῖς αὐτῶν καὶ ἐσκοτίσθη ἡ ἀσύνετος αὐτῶν καρδία· 1.22. φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοὶ ἐμωράνθησαν, 1.23. καὶἤλλαξαν τὴν δόξαντοῦ ἀφθάρτου θεοῦἐν ὁμοιώματιεἰκόνος φθαρτοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πετεινῶν καὶ τετραπόδων καὶ ἑρπετῶν. 1.24. Διὸ παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν αὐτῶν εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς, 1.25. οἵτινες μετήλλαξαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ψεύδει, καὶ ἐσεβάσθησαν καὶ ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, ὅς ἐστιν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας· ἀμήν. 1.26. Διὰ τοῦτο παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς πάθη ἀτιμίας· αἵ τε γὰρ θήλειαι αὐτῶν μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν, 1.27. ὁμοίως τε καὶ οἱ ἄρσενες ἀφέντες τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν τῆς θηλείας ἐξεκαύθησαν ἐν τῇ ὀρέξει αὐτῶν εἰς ἀλλήλους ἄρσενες ἐν ἄρσεσιν, τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι καὶ τὴν ἀντιμισθίαν ἣν ἔδει τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν ἐν αὑτοῖς ἀπολαμβάνοντες. 1.28. Καὶ καθὼς οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν θεὸν ἔχειν ἐν ἐπιγνώσει, παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον νοῦν, ποιεῖν τὰ μὴ καθήκοντα, 1.29. πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ πονηρίᾳ πλεονεξίᾳ κακίᾳ, μεστοὺς φθόνου φόνου ἔριδος δόλου κακοηθίας, ψιθυριστάς, 1.30. καταλάλους, θεοστυγεῖς, ὑβριστάς, ὑπερηφάνους, ἀλαζόνας, ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, ἀσυνέτους, 1.31. ἀσυνθέτους, ἀστόργους, ἀνελεήμονας· 1.32. οἵτινες τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπιγνόντες,ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες ἄξιοι θανάτου εἰσίν, οὐ μόνον αὐτὰ ποιοῦσιν ἀλλὰ καὶ συνευδοκοῦσιν τοῖς πράσσουσιν.
11.26. καθὼς γέγραπται
14.13. Μηκέτι οὖν ἀλλήλους κρίνωμεν· ἀλλὰ τοῦτο κρίνατε μᾶλλον, τὸ μὴ τιθέναι πρόσκομμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ ἢ σκάνδαλον.
14.15. εἰ γὰρ διὰ βρῶμα ὁ ἀδελφός σου λυπεῖται, οὐκέτι κατὰ ἀγάπην περιπατεῖς. μὴ τῷ βρώματί σου ἐκεῖνον ἀπόλλυε ὑπὲρ οὗ Χριστὸς ἀπέθανεν.
14.21. καλὸν τὸ μὴ φαγεῖν κρέα μηδὲ πεῖν οἶνον μηδὲ ἐν ᾧ ὁ ἀδελφός σου προσκόπτει·''. None
1.18. For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 1.19. because that which is known of God is revealed in them, for God revealed it to them. 1.20. For the invisible things of him since the creation of the world are clearly seen, being perceived through the things that are made, even his everlasting power and divinity; that they may be without excuse. ' "1.21. Because, knowing God, they didn't glorify him as God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their reasoning, and their senseless heart was darkened. " '1.22. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, 1.23. and traded the glory of the incorruptible God for the likeness of an image of corruptible man, and of birds, and four-footed animals, and creeping things. 1.24. Therefore God also gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to uncleanness, that their bodies should be dishonored among themselves, 1.25. who exchanged the truth of God for a lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen. 1.26. For this reason, God gave them up to vile passions. For their women changed the natural function into that which is against nature. 1.27. Likewise also the men, leaving the natural function of the woman, burned in their lust toward one another, men doing what is inappropriate with men, and receiving in themselves the due penalty of their error. 1.28. Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 1.29. being filled with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil habits, secret slanderers, 1.30. backbiters, hateful to God, insolent, haughty, boastful, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 1.31. without understanding, covet-breakers, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 1.32. who, knowing the ordice of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but also approve of those who practice them.
11.26. and so all Israel will be saved. Even as it is written, "There will come out of Zion the Deliverer, And he will turn away ungodliness from Jacob. ' "
14.13. Therefore let's not judge one another any more, but judge this rather, that no man put a stumbling block in his brother's way, or an occasion for falling. " "
14.15. Yet if because of food your brother is grieved, you walk no longer in love. Don't destroy with your food him for whom Christ died. " '
14.21. It is good to not eat meat, drink wine, nor do anything by which your brother stumbles, is offended, or is made weak. ''. None
24. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/Idolatry • foolishness, of idols • idol • idols

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 320; Levison (2009) 284, 300; Malherbe et al (2014) 315, 361

25. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 17 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/s • idols; are images of the dead

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 80; Sider (2001) 30

17. An apologist must adduce more precise arguments than I have yet given, both concering the names of the gods, to show that they are of recent origin, and concerning their images, to show that they are, so to say, but of yesterday. You yourselves, however, are thoroughly acquainted with these matters, since you are versed in all departments of knowledge, and are beyond all other men familiar with the ancients. I assert, then, that it was Orpheus, and Homer, and Hesiod who gave both genealogies and names to those whom they call gods. Such, too, is the testimony of Herodotus. My opinion, he says, is that Hesiod and Homer preceded me by four hundred years, and no more; and it was they who framed a theogony for the Greeks, and gave the gods their names, and assigned them their several honours and functions, and described their forms. Representations of the gods, again, were not in use at all, so long as statuary, and painting, and sculpture were unknown; nor did they become common until Saurias the Samian, and Crato the Sicyonian, and Cleanthes the Corinthian, and the Corinthian damsel appeared, when drawing in outline was invented by Saurias, who sketched a horse in the sun, and painting by Crato, who painted in oil on a whitened tablet the outlines of a man and woman; and the art of making figures in relief (&'. None
26. Tertullian, Apology, 12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/s • demons, xii; inhabit idols • idols; in procession at games • idols; inhabited by demons

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 66, 68; Sider (2001) 97

12. But I pass from these remarks, for I know and I am going to show what your gods are not, by showing what they are. In reference, then, to these, I see only names of dead men of ancient times; I hear fabulous stories; I recognize sacred rites founded on mere myths. As to the actual images, I regard them as simply pieces of matter akin to the vessels and utensils in common use among us, or even undergoing in their consecration a hapless change from these useful articles at the hands of reckless art, which in the transforming process treats them with utter contempt, nay, in the very act commits sacrilege; so that it might be no slight solace to us in all our punishments, suffering as we do because of these same gods, that in their making they suffer as we do themselves. You put Christians on crosses and stakes: what image is not formed from the clay in the first instance, set on cross and stake? The body of your god is first consecrated on the gibbet. You tear the sides of Christians with your claws; but in the case of your own gods, axes, and planes, and rasps are put to work more vigorously on every member of the body. We lay our heads upon the block; before the lead, and the glue, and the nails are put in requisition, your deities are headless. We are cast to the wild beasts, while you attach them to Bacchus, and Cybele, and C lestis. We are burned in the flames; so, too, are they in their original lump. We are condemned to the mines; from these your gods originate. We are banished to islands; in islands it is a common thing for your gods to have their birth or die. If it is in this way a deity is made, it will follow that as many as are punished are deified, and tortures will have to be declared divinities. But plain it is these objects of your worship have no sense of the injuries and disgraces of their consecrating, as they are equally unconscious of the honours paid to them. O impious words! O blasphemous reproaches! Gnash your teeth upon us - foam with maddened rage against us - you are the persons, no doubt, who censured a certain Seneca speaking of your superstition at much greater length and far more sharply! In a word, if we refuse our homage to statues and frigid images, the very counterpart of their dead originals, with which hawks, and mice, and spiders are so well acquainted, does it not merit praise instead of penalty, that we have rejected what we have come to see is error? We cannot surely be made out to injure those who we are certain are nonentities. What does not exist, is in its nonexistence secure from suffering. ''. None
27. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 4, 8, 10-11, 16, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Idol/s • Idols • idols; in procession at games

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 65, 68, 80, 81, 85, 86, 97, 121, 123, 142, 147, 152, 153, 157, 158, 159; Sider (2001) 88, 93; Stuckenbruck (2007) 403

4. God prohibits an idol as much to be made as to be worshipped. In so far as the making what may be worshipped is the prior act, so far is the prohibition to make (if the worship is unlawful) the prior prohibition. For this cause- the eradicating, namely, of the material of idolatry- the divine law proclaims, You shall make no idol; and by conjoining, Nor a similitude of the things which are in the heaven, and which are in the earth, and which are in the sea, has interdicted the servants of God from acts of that kind all the universe over. Enoch had preceded, predicting that the demons, and the spirits of the angelic apostates, would turn into idolatry all the elements, all the garniture of the universe, all things contained in the heaven, in the sea, in the earth, that they might be consecrated as God, in opposition to God. All things, therefore, does human error worship, except the Founder of all Himself. The images of those things are idols; the consecration of the images is idolatry. Whatever guilt idolatry incurs, must necessarily be imputed to every artificer of every idol. In short, the same Enoch fore-condemns in general menace both idol-worshippers and idol-makers together. And again: I swear to you, sinners, that against the day of perdition of blood repentance is being prepared. You who serve stones, and you who make images of gold, and silver, and wood, and stones and clay, and serve phantoms, and demons, and spirits in fanes, and all errors not according to knowledge, shall find no help from them. But Isaiah says, You are witnesses whether there is a God except Me. And they who mould and carve out at that time were not: all vain! Who do that which likes them, which shall not profit them! And that whole ensuing discourse sets a ban as well on the artificers as the worshippers: the close of which is, Learn that their heart is ashes and earth, and that none can free his own soul. In which sentence David equally includes the makers too. Such, says he, let them become who make them. And why should I, a man of limited memory, suggest anything further? Why recall anything more from the Scriptures? As if either the voice of the Holy Spirit were not sufficient; or else any further deliberation were needful, whether the Lord cursed and condemned by priority the artificers of those things, of which He curses and condemns the worshippers! ' "
8. There are also other species of very many arts which, although they extend not to the making of idols, yet, with the same criminality, furnish the adjuncts without which idols have no power. For it matters not whether you erect or equip: if you have embellished his temple, altar, or niche; if you have pressed out gold-leaf, or have wrought his insignia, or even his house: work of that kind, which confers not shape, but authority, is more important. If the necessity of maintece is urged so much, the arts have other species withal to afford means of livelihood, without outstepping the path of discipline, that is, without the confiction of an idol. The plasterer knows both how to mend roofs, and lay on stuccoes, and polish a cistern, and trace ogives, and draw in relief on party-walls many other ornaments beside likenesses. The painter, too, the marble mason, the bronze-worker, and every graver whatever, knows expansions of his own art, of course much easier of execution. For how much more easily does he who delineates a statue overlay a sideboard! How much sooner does he who carves a Mars out of a lime-tree, fasten together a chest! No art but is either mother or kinswoman of some neighbour art: nothing is independent of its neighbour. The veins of the arts are many as are the concupiscences of men. But there is difference in wages and the rewards of handicraft; therefore there is difference, too, in the labour required. Smaller wages are compensated by more frequent earning. How many are the party-walls which require statues? How many the temples and shrines which are built for idols? But houses, and official residences, and baths, and tenements, how many are they? Shoe- and slipper-gilding is daily work; not so the gilding of Mercury and Serapis. Let that suffice for the gain of handicrafts. Luxury and ostentation have more votaries than all superstition. Ostentation will require dishes and cups more easily than superstition. Luxury deals in wreaths, also, more than ceremony. When, therefore, we urge men generally to such kinds of handicrafts as do not come in contact with an idol indeed and with the things which are appropriate to an idol; since, moreover, the things which are common to idols are often common to men too; of this also we ought to beware that nothing be, with our knowledge, demanded by any person from our idols' service. For if we shall have made that concession, and shall not have had recourse to the remedies so often used, I think we are not free of the contagion of idolatry, we whose (not unwitting) hands are found busied in the tendence, or in the honour and service, of demons. " "
10. Moreover, we must inquire likewise touching schoolmasters; nor only of them, but also all other professors of literature. Nay, on the contrary, we must not doubt that they are in affinity with manifold idolatry: first, in that it is necessary for them to preach the gods of the nations, to express their names, genealogies, honourable distinctions, all and singular; and further, to observe the solemnities and festivals of the same, as of them by whose means they compute their revenues. What schoolmaster, without a table of the seven idols, will yet frequent the Quinquatria? The very first payment of every pupil he consecrates both to the honour and to the name of Minerva; so that, even though he be not said to eat of that which is sacrificed to idols nominally (not being dedicated to any particular idol), he is shunned as an idolater. What less of defilement does he recur on that ground, than a business brings which, both nominally and virtually, is consecrated publicly to an idol? The Minervalia are as much Minerva's, as the Saturnalia Saturn's; Saturn's, which must necessarily be celebrated even by little slaves at the time of the Saturnalia. New-year's gifts likewise must be caught at, and the Septimontium kept; and all the presents of Midwinter and the feast of Dear Kinsmanship must be exacted; the schools must be wreathed with flowers; the flamens' wives and the diles sacrifice; the school is honoured on the appointed holy-days. The same thing takes place on an idol's birthday; every pomp of the devil is frequented. Who will think that these things are befitting to a Christian master, unless it be he who shall think them suitable likewise to one who is not a master? We know it may be said, If teaching literature is not lawful to God's servants, neither will learning be likewise; and, How could one be trained unto ordinary human intelligence, or unto any sense or action whatever, since literature is the means of training for all life? How do we repudiate secular studies, without which divine studies cannot be pursued? Let us see, then, the necessity of literary erudition; let us reflect that partly it cannot be admitted, partly cannot be avoided. Learning literature is allowable for believers, rather than teaching; for the principle of learning and of teaching is different. If a believer teach literature, while he is teaching doubtless he commends, while he delivers he affirms, while he recalls he bears testimony to, the praises of idols interspersed therein. He seals the gods themselves with this name; whereas the Law, as we have said, prohibits the names of gods to be pronounced, and this name to be conferred on vanity. Hence the devil gets men's early faith built up from the beginnings of their erudition. Inquire whether he who catechizes about idols commit idolatry. But when a believer learns these things, if he is already capable of understanding what idolatry is, he neither receives nor allows them; much more if he is not yet capable. Or, when he begins to understand, it behooves him first to understand what he has previously learned, that is, touching God and the faith. Therefore he will reject those things, and will not receive them; and will be as safe as one who from one who knows it not, knowingly accepts poison, but does not drink it. To him necessity is attributed as an excuse, because he has no other way to learn. Moreover, the not teaching literature is as much easier than the not learning, as it is easier, too, for the pupil not to attend, than for the master not to frequent, the rest of the defilements incident to the schools from public and scholastic solemnities. "11. If we think over the rest of faults, tracing them from their generations, let us begin with covetousness, a root of all evils, 1 Timothy 6:
10 wherewith, indeed, some having been ensnared, have suffered shipwreck about faith. 1 Timothy 1:19 Albeit covetousness is by the same apostle called idolatry. In the next place proceeding to mendacity, the minister of covetousness (of false swearing I am silent, since even swearing is not lawful )- is trade adapted for a servant of God? But, covetousness apart, what is the motive for acquiring? When the motive for acquiring ceases, there will be no necessity for trading. Grant now that there be some righteousness in business, secure from the duty of watchfulness against covetousness and mendacity; I take it that that trade which pertains to the very soul and spirit of idols, which pampers every demon, falls under the charge of idolatry. Rather, is not that the principal idolatry? If the selfsame merchandises - frankincense, I mean, and all other foreign productions - used as sacrifice to idols, are of use likewise to men for medicinal ointments, to us Christians also, over and above, for solaces of sepulture, let them see to it. At all events, while the pomps, while the priesthoods, while the sacrifices of idols, are furnished by dangers, by losses, by inconveniences, by cogitations, by runnings to and fro, or trades, what else are you demonstrated to be but an idols' agent? Let none contend that, in this way, exception may be taken to all trades. All graver faults extend the sphere for diligence in watchfulness proportionably to the magnitude of the danger; in order that we may withdraw not only from the faults, but from the means through which they have being. For although the fault be done by others, it makes no difference if it be by my means. In no case ought I to be necessary to another, while he is doing what to me is unlawful. Hence I ought to understand that care must be taken by me, lest what I am forbidden to do be done by my means. In short, in another cause of no lighter guilt I observe that fore-judgment. In that I am interdicted from fornication, I furnish nothing of help or connivance to others for that purpose; in that I have separated my own flesh itself from stews, I acknowledge that I cannot exercise the trade of pandering, or keep that kind of places for my neighbour's behoof. So, too, the interdiction of murder shows me that a trainer of gladiators also is excluded from the Church; nor will any one fail to be the means of doing what he subministers to another to do. Behold, here is a more kindred fore-judgment: if a purveyor of the public victims come over to the faith, will you permit him to remain permanently in that trade? Or if one who is already a believer shall have undertaken that business, will you think that he is to be retained in the Church? No, I take it; unless any one will dissemble in the case of a frankincense-seller too. In truth, the agency of blood pertains to some, that of odours to others. If, before idols were in the world, idolatry, hitherto shapeless, used to be transacted by these wares; if, even now, the work of idolatry is perpetrated, for the most part, without the idol, by burnings of odours; the frankincense-seller is a something even more serviceable even toward demons, for idolatry is more easily carried on without the idol, than without the ware of the frankincense-seller. Let us interrogate thoroughly the conscience of the faith itself. With what mouth will a Christian frankincense-seller, if he shall pass through temples, with what mouth will he spit down upon and blow out the smoking altars, for which himself has made provision? With what consistency will he exorcise his own foster-children, to whom he affords his own house as store-room? Indeed, if he shall have ejected a demon, let him not congratulate himself on his faith, for he has not ejected an enemy; he ought to have had his prayer easily granted by one whom he is daily feeding. No art, then, no profession, no trade, which administers either to equipping or forming idols, can be free from the title of idolatry; unless we interpret idolatry to be altogether something else than the service of idol-tendence. " "
16. Touching the ceremonies, however, of private and social solemnities - as those of the white toga, of espousals, of nuptials, of name-givings - I should think no danger need be guarded against from the breath of the idolatry which is mixed up with them. For the causes are to be considered to which the ceremony is due. Those above-named I take to be clean in themselves, because neither manly garb, nor the marital ring or union, descends from honours done to any idol. In short, I find no dress cursed by God, except a woman's dress on a man: for cursed, says He, is every man who clothes himself in woman's attire. The toga, however, is a dress of manly name as well as of manly use. God no more prohibits nuptials to be celebrated than a name to be given. But there are sacrifices appropriated to these occasions. Let me be invited, and let not the title of the ceremony be assistance at a sacrifice, and the discharge of my good offices is at the service of my friends. Would that it were at their service indeed, and that we could escape seeing what is unlawful for us to do. But since the evil one has so surrounded the world with idolatry, it will be lawful for us to be present at some ceremonies which see us doing service to a man, not to an idol. Clearly, if invited unto priestly function and sacrifice, I will not go, for that is service peculiar to an idol; but neither will I furnish advice, or expense, or any other good office in a matter of that kind. If it is on account of the sacrifice that I be invited, and stand by, I shall be partaker of idolatry; if any other cause conjoins me to the sacrificer, I shall be merely a spectator of the sacrifice. " "1
8. But we must now treat of the garb only and apparatus of office. There is a dress proper to every one, as well for daily use as for office and dignity. That famous purple, therefore, and the gold as an ornament of the neck, were, among the Egyptians and Babylonians, ensigns of dignity, in the same way as bordered, or striped, or palm-embroidered togas, and the golden wreaths of provincial priests, are now; but not on the same terms. For they used only to be conferred, under the name of honour, on such as deserved the familiar friendship of kings (whence, too, such used to be styled the purpled-men of kings, just as among us, some, from their white toga, are called candidates ); but not on the understanding that that garb should be tied to priesthoods also, or to any idol-ceremonies. For if that were the case, of course men of such holiness and constancy would instantly have refused the defiled dresses; and it would instantly have appeared that Daniel had been no zealous slave to idols, nor worshipped Bel, nor the dragon, which long after did appear. That purple, therefore, was simple, and used not at that time to be a mark of dignity among the barbarians, but of nobility. For as both Joseph, who had been a slave, and Daniel, who through captivity had changed his state, attained the freedom of the states of Babylon and Egypt through the dress of barbaric nobility; so among us believers also, if need so be, the bordered toga will be proper to be conceded to boys, and the stole to girls, as ensigns of birth, not of power; of race, not of office; of rank, not of superstition. But the purple, or the other ensigns of dignities and powers, dedicated from the beginning to idolatry engrafted on the dignity and the powers, carry the spot of their own profanation; since, moreover, bordered and striped togas, and broad-barred ones, are put even on idols themselves; and fasces also, and rods, are borne before them; and deservedly, for demons are the magistrates of this world: they bear the fasces and the purples, the ensigns of one college. What end, then, will you advance if you use the garb indeed, but administer not the functions of it? In things unclean, none can appear clean. If you put on a tunic defiled in itself, it perhaps may not be defiled through you; but you, through it, will be unable to be clean. Now by this time, you who argue about Joseph and Daniel, know that things old and new, rude and polished, begun and developed, slavish and free, are not always comparable. For they, even by their circumstances, were slaves; but you, the slave of none, in so far as you are the slave of Christ alone, who has freed you likewise from the captivity of the world, will incur the duty of acting after your Lord's pattern. That Lord walked in humility and obscurity, with no definite home: for the Son of man, said He, has not where to lay His head; unadorned in dress, for else He had not said, Behold, they who are clad in soft raiment are in kings' houses: in short, inglorious in countece and aspect, just as Isaiah withal had fore-announced. Isaiah 53:2 If, also, He exercised no right of power even over His own followers, to whom He discharged menial ministry; if, in short, though conscious of His own kingdom, He shrank back from being made a king, John 6:15 He in the fullest manner gave His own an example for turning coldly from all the pride and garb, as well of dignity as of power. For if they were to be used, who would rather have used them than the Son of God? What kind and what number of fasces would escort Him? What kind of purple would bloom from His shoulders? What kind of gold would beam from His head, had He not judged the glory of the world to be alien both to Himself and to His? Therefore what He was unwilling to accept, He has rejected; what He rejected, He has condemned; what He condemned, He has counted as part of the devil's pomp. For He would not have condemned things, except such as were not His; but things which are not God's, can be no other's but the devil's. If you have forsworn the devil's pomp, know that whatever there you touch is idolatry. Let even this fact help to remind you that all the powers and dignities of this world are not only alien to, but enemies of, God; that through them punishments have been determined against God's servants; through them, too, penalties prepared for the impious are ignored. But both your birth and your substance are troublesome to you in resisting idolatry. For avoiding it, remedies cannot be lacking; since, even if they be lacking, there remains that one by which you will be made a happier magistrate, not in the earth, but in the heavens. " '". None
28. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cult statues (idols) • cult idols

 Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008) 171; Rohmann (2016) 228

29. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.6
 Tagged with subjects: • Idols • Idols, Making/Fashioning of • Images, Material for Idols • idols

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 315; Stuckenbruck (2007) 399

8.6. A man who worships God will kiss his mother and his sister that is of his own tribe and kin, and the wife that shares his couch, who with their mouths bless the living God. ''. None
30. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, idol vs. image • idol, idolatry

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 923; Novenson (2020) 56

43a. הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר\' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר\' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה\' ושל ו\' ושל ח\' ושל ז\' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי''. None
43a. The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it is prohibited to form only these figures, but it is not prohibited to form a figure of a dragon.,Rather, the Gemara concludes, it is obvious that this halakha is referring to a case where one finds a vessel with the figure of a dragon, and this is as we learned in the mishna: In the case of one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that the first clause and the last clause are referring to a case where one finds vessels with the specified figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms these figures?,Abaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause are referring to cases where one finds vessels with figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms figures.,Rava said: The entire statement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case where one finds vessels with these figures, and the middle clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda adds to the list of forbidden figures even a figure of a nursing woman and Sar Apis. The figure of a nursing woman is worshipped as it symbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world. The figure of Sar Apis is worshipped as it symbolizes Joseph, who ruled over sar and appeased mefis the entire world by distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). But the figure of Sar Apis is forbidden only when it is holding a dry measure and measuring with it; and the figure of a nursing woman is forbidden only when she is holding a child and nursing it.,§ The Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained: It is any figure that has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motioned with his hands to depict scales between the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar.,Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And he then encountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. He then encountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revoke the ring’s idolatrous status. But the gentile did not revoke it. Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then slapped him across his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed and revoked its idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident the following three halakhot: Learn from it that a gentile can revoke the idolatrous status of both his object of idol worship and that of another gentile. And learn from the fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who is aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revoke the idol’s status, but one who is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories, such as a minor, cannot revoke the idol’s status. And finally, learn from it that a gentile can revoke the status of an idol even against his will.,Rabbi Ḥanina ridiculed this ruling and asked: But why was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? Doesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintain in accordance with that which we learned in a baraita: In the case of one who saves an object from a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troop of soldiers, or from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, or similarly one who finds an object in a main thoroughfare or in a large plaza, or for that matter, anywhere frequented by the public, in all these cases, the objects belong to him, because the owners despair of recovering them? Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it.,Abaye said: Granted, the owner despairs of recovering the object itself, but does he despair of its forbidden me’issura idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, he says to himself: If a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who will then worship it. Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ We learned in a mishna there (Rosh HaShana 24a): Rabban Gamliel had diagrams of the different figures of moons drawn on a tablet that hung on the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinary people hahedyotot who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. And he would say to them: Did you see an image like this, or did you see an image like that?,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to form these figures? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me, i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only the figures of those attendants that one can possibly reproduce something that is truly in their likeness. Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities.,As it is taught in a baraita: A person may not construct a house in the exact image of the Sanctuary, nor a portico in the exact image of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, nor a courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard, nor a table corresponding to the Table in the Temple, nor a candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrum in the Temple. But one may fashion a candelabrum of five or of six or of eight lamps. And one may not fashion a candelabrum of seven lamps even if he constructs it from other kinds of metal rather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The baraita continues: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned it. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite a proof from there, i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum were fashioned from spits shappudin of iron, and they covered them with tin beva’atz. Later, when they grew richer and could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, they fashioned the Candelabrum from silver. When they grew even richer, they fashioned the Candelabrum from gold. In any event, Abaye proves from this baraita that the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it actually permitted to fashion figures of those attendants of God concerning which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high? Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon.,Abaye said:''. None

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