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119 results for "holy"
1. Septuagint, Deuteronomy, 32.17 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 31
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 8.3, 17.12, 24.2-24.10, 48.2-48.15, 81.2, 81.5-81.10, 81.12-81.17, 82.1-82.5, 82.7-82.8, 92.2-92.4, 92.7, 92.9-92.16, 93.1-93.4, 93.14-93.15, 94.3-94.19, 94.21, 94.23, 120.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 259; Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 277; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 120, 170, 171, 193, 198, 200, 201
8.3. "מִפִּי עוֹלְלִים וְיֹנְקִים יִסַּדְתָּ עֹז לְמַעַן צוֹרְרֶיךָ לְהַשְׁבִּית אוֹיֵב וּמִתְנַקֵּם׃", 17.12. "דִּמְיֹנוֹ כְּאַרְיֵה יִכְסוֹף לִטְרוֹף וְכִכְפִיר יֹשֵׁב בְּמִסְתָּרִים׃", 24.2. "כִּי־הוּא עַל־יַמִּים יְסָדָהּ וְעַל־נְהָרוֹת יְכוֹנְנֶהָ׃", 24.3. "מִי־יַעֲלֶה בְהַר־יְהוָה וּמִי־יָקוּם בִּמְקוֹם קָדְשׁוֹ׃", 24.4. "נְקִי כַפַּיִם וּבַר־לֵבָב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נָשָׂא לַשָּׁוְא נַפְשִׁי וְלֹא נִשְׁבַּע לְמִרְמָה׃", 24.5. "יִשָּׂא בְרָכָה מֵאֵת יְהוָה וּצְדָקָה מֵאֱלֹהֵי יִשְׁעוֹ׃", 24.6. "זֶה דּוֹר דרשו [דֹּרְשָׁיו] מְבַקְשֵׁי פָנֶיךָ יַעֲקֹב סֶלָה׃", 24.7. "שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃", 24.8. "מִי זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה עִזּוּז וְגִבּוֹר יְהוָה גִּבּוֹר מִלְחָמָה׃", 24.9. "שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃", 48.2. "גָּדוֹל יְהוָה וּמְהֻלָּל מְאֹד בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ הַר־קָדְשׁוֹ׃", 48.3. "יְפֵה נוֹף מְשׂוֹשׂ כָּל־הָאָרֶץ הַר־צִיּוֹן יַרְכְּתֵי צָפוֹן קִרְיַת מֶלֶךְ רָב׃", 48.4. "אֱלֹהִים בְּאַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ נוֹדַע לְמִשְׂגָּב׃", 48.5. "כִּי־הִנֵּה הַמְּלָכִים נוֹעֲדוּ עָבְרוּ יַחְדָּו׃", 48.6. "הֵמָּה רָאוּ כֵּן תָּמָהוּ נִבְהֲלוּ נֶחְפָּזוּ׃", 48.7. "רְעָדָה אֲחָזָתַם שָׁם חִיל כַּיּוֹלֵדָה׃", 48.8. "בְּרוּחַ קָדִים תְּשַׁבֵּר אֳנִיּוֹת תַּרְשִׁישׁ׃", 48.9. "כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְנוּ כֵּן רָאִינוּ בְּעִיר־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּעִיר אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֱלֹהִים יְכוֹנְנֶהָ עַד־עוֹלָם סֶלָה׃", 48.11. "כְּשִׁמְךָ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן תְּהִלָּתְךָ עַל־קַצְוֵי־אֶרֶץ צֶדֶק מָלְאָה יְמִינֶךָ׃", 48.12. "יִשְׂמַח הַר־צִיּוֹן תָּגֵלְנָה בְּנוֹת יְהוּדָה לְמַעַן מִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ׃", 48.13. "סֹבּוּ צִיּוֹן וְהַקִּיפוּהָ סִפְרוּ מִגְדָּלֶיהָ׃", 48.14. "שִׁיתוּ לִבְּכֶם לְחֵילָה פַּסְּגוּ אַרְמְנוֹתֶיהָ לְמַעַן תְּסַפְּרוּ לְדוֹר אַחֲרוֹן׃", 48.15. "כִּי זֶה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהֵינוּ עוֹלָם וָעֶד הוּא יְנַהֲגֵנוּ עַל־מוּת׃", 81.2. "הַרְנִינוּ לֵאלֹהִים עוּזֵּנוּ הָרִיעוּ לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃", 81.5. "כִּי חֹק לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא מִשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃", 81.6. "עֵדוּת בִּיהוֹסֵף שָׂמוֹ בְּצֵאתוֹ עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם שְׂפַת לֹא־יָדַעְתִּי אֶשְׁמָע׃", 81.7. "הֲסִירוֹתִי מִסֵּבֶל שִׁכְמוֹ כַּפָּיו מִדּוּד תַּעֲבֹרְנָה׃", 81.8. "בַּצָּרָה קָרָאתָ וָאֲחַלְּצֶךָּ אֶעֶנְךָ בְּסֵתֶר רַעַם אֶבְחָנְךָ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה סֶלָה׃", 81.9. "שְׁמַע עַמִּי וְאָעִידָה בָּךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם־תִּשְׁמַע־לִי׃", 81.12. "וְלֹא־שָׁמַע עַמִּי לְקוֹלִי וְיִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־אָבָה לִי׃", 81.13. "וָאֲשַׁלְּחֵהוּ בִּשְׁרִירוּת לִבָּם יֵלְכוּ בְּמוֹעֲצוֹתֵיהֶם׃", 81.14. "לוּ עַמִּי שֹׁמֵעַ לִי יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּדְרָכַי יְהַלֵּכוּ׃", 81.15. "כִּמְעַט אוֹיְבֵיהֶם אַכְנִיעַ וְעַל צָרֵיהֶם אָשִׁיב יָדִי׃", 81.16. "מְשַׂנְאֵי יְהוָה יְכַחֲשׁוּ־לוֹ וִיהִי עִתָּם לְעוֹלָם׃", 81.17. "וַיַּאֲכִילֵהוּ מֵחֵלֶב חִטָּה וּמִצּוּר דְּבַשׁ אַשְׂבִּיעֶךָ׃", 82.1. "מִזְמוֹר לְאָסָף אֱ‍לֹהִים נִצָּב בַּעֲדַת־אֵל בְּקֶרֶב אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁפֹּט׃", 82.2. "עַד־מָתַי תִּשְׁפְּטוּ־עָוֶל וּפְנֵי רְשָׁעִים תִּשְׂאוּ־סֶלָה׃", 82.3. "שִׁפְטוּ־דַל וְיָתוֹם עָנִי וָרָשׁ הַצְדִּיקוּ׃", 82.4. "פַּלְּטוּ־דַל וְאֶבְיוֹן מִיַּד רְשָׁעִים הַצִּילוּ׃", 82.5. "לֹא יָדְעוּ וְלֹא יָבִינוּ בַּחֲשֵׁכָה יִתְהַלָּכוּ יִמּוֹטוּ כָּל־מוֹסְדֵי אָרֶץ׃", 82.7. "אָכֵן כְּאָדָם תְּמוּתוּן וּכְאַחַד הַשָּׂרִים תִּפֹּלוּ׃", 82.8. "קוּמָה אֱלֹהִים שָׁפְטָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־אַתָּה תִנְחַל בְּכָל־הַגּוֹיִם׃", 92.2. "טוֹב לְהֹדוֹת לַיהוָה וּלְזַמֵּר לְשִׁמְךָ עֶלְיוֹן׃", 92.3. "לְהַגִּיד בַּבֹּקֶר חַסְדֶּךָ וֶאֱמוּנָתְךָ בַּלֵּילוֹת׃", 92.4. "עֲ‍לֵי־עָשׂוֹר וַעֲלֵי־נָבֶל עֲלֵי הִגָּיוֹן בְּכִנּוֹר׃", 92.7. "אִישׁ־בַּעַר לֹא יֵדָע וּכְסִיל לֹא־יָבִין אֶת־זֹאת׃", 92.9. "וְאַתָּה מָרוֹם לְעֹלָם יְהוָה׃", 92.11. "וַתָּרֶם כִּרְאֵים קַרְנִי בַּלֹּתִי בְּשֶׁמֶן רַעֲנָן׃", 92.12. "וַתַּבֵּט עֵינִי בְּשׁוּרָי בַּקָּמִים עָלַי מְרֵעִים תִּשְׁמַעְנָה אָזְנָי׃", 92.13. "צַדִּיק כַּתָּמָר יִפְרָח כְּאֶרֶז בַּלְּבָנוֹן יִשְׂגֶּה׃", 92.14. "שְׁתוּלִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה בְּחַצְרוֹת אֱלֹהֵינוּ יַפְרִיחוּ׃", 92.15. "עוֹד יְנוּבוּן בְּשֵׂיבָה דְּשֵׁנִים וְרַעֲנַנִּים יִהְיוּ׃", 92.16. "לְהַגִּיד כִּי־יָשָׁר יְהוָה צוּרִי וְלֹא־עלתה [עַוְלָתָה] בּוֹ׃", 93.1. "יְהוָה מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ לָבֵשׁ יְהוָה עֹז הִתְאַזָּר אַף־תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל בַּל־תִּמּוֹט׃", 93.2. "נָכוֹן כִּסְאֲךָ מֵאָז מֵעוֹלָם אָתָּה׃", 93.3. "נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת יְהוָה נָשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת קוֹלָם יִשְׂאוּ נְהָרוֹת דָּכְיָם׃", 93.4. "מִקֹּלוֹת מַיִם רַבִּים אַדִּירִים מִשְׁבְּרֵי־יָם אַדִּיר בַּמָּרוֹם יְהוָה׃", 94.3. "עַד־מָתַי רְשָׁעִים יְהוָה עַד־מָתַי רְשָׁעִים יַעֲלֹזוּ׃", 94.4. "יַבִּיעוּ יְדַבְּרוּ עָתָק יִתְאַמְּרוּ כָּל־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן׃", 94.5. "עַמְּךָ יְהוָה יְדַכְּאוּ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ יְעַנּוּ׃", 94.6. "אַלְמָנָה וְגֵר יַהֲרֹגוּ וִיתוֹמִים יְרַצֵּחוּ׃", 94.7. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא יִרְאֶה־יָּהּ וְלֹא־יָבִין אֱלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב׃", 94.8. "בִּינוּ בֹּעֲרִים בָּעָם וּכְסִילִים מָתַי תַּשְׂכִּילוּ׃", 94.9. "הֲנֹטַע אֹזֶן הֲלֹא יִשְׁמָע אִם־יֹצֵר עַיִן הֲלֹא יַבִּיט׃", 94.11. "יְהוָה יֹדֵעַ מַחְשְׁבוֹת אָדָם כִּי־הֵמָּה הָבֶל׃", 94.12. "אַשְׁרֵי הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר־תְּיַסְּרֶנּוּ יָּהּ וּמִתּוֹרָתְךָ תְלַמְּדֶנּוּ׃", 94.13. "לְהַשְׁקִיט לוֹ מִימֵי רָע עַד יִכָּרֶה לָרָשָׁע שָׁחַת׃", 94.14. "כִּי לֹא־יִטֹּשׁ יְהוָה עַמּוֹ וְנַחֲלָתוֹ לֹא יַעֲזֹב׃", 94.15. "כִּי־עַד־צֶדֶק יָשׁוּב מִשְׁפָּט וְאַחֲרָיו כָּל־יִשְׁרֵי־לֵב׃", 94.16. "מִי־יָקוּם לִי עִם־מְרֵעִים מִי־יִתְיַצֵּב לִי עִם־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן׃", 94.17. "לוּלֵי יְהוָה עֶזְרָתָה לִּי כִּמְעַט שָׁכְנָה דוּמָה נַפְשִׁי׃", 94.18. "אִם־אָמַרְתִּי מָטָה רַגְלִי חַסְדְּךָ יְהוָה יִסְעָדֵנִי׃", 94.19. "בְּרֹב שַׂרְעַפַּי בְּקִרְבִּי תַּנְחוּמֶיךָ יְשַׁעַשְׁעוּ נַפְשִׁי׃", 94.21. "יָגוֹדּוּ עַל־נֶפֶשׁ צַדִּיק וְדָם נָקִי יַרְשִׁיעוּ׃", 94.23. "וַיָּשֶׁב עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת־אוֹנָם וּבְרָעָתָם יַצְמִיתֵם יַצְמִיתֵם יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃", 120.1. "שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת אֶל־יְהוָה בַּצָּרָתָה לִּי קָרָאתִי וַיַּעֲנֵנִי׃", 8.3. "Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast Thou founded strength, Because of Thine adversaries; That Thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.", 17.12. "He is like a lion that is eager to tear in pieces, And like a young lion lurking in secret places.", 24.2. "For He hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.", 24.3. "Who shall ascend into the mountain of the LORD? And who shall stand in His holy place?", 24.4. "He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; Who hath not taken My name in vain, and hath not sworn deceitfully.", 24.5. "He shall receive a blessing from the LORD, and righteousness from the God of his salvation.", 24.6. "Such is the generation of them that seek after Him, that seek Thy face, even Jacob. Selah", 24.7. "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in.", 24.8. "'Who is the King of glory?' 'The LORD strong and mighty, The LORD mighty in battle.'", 24.9. "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in.", 24.10. "'Who then is the King of glory?' 'The LORD of hosts; He is the King of glory.' Selah", 48.2. "Great is the LORD, and highly to be praised, In the city of our God, His holy mountain,", 48.3. "Fair in situation, the joy of the whole earth; Even mount Zion, the uttermost parts of the north, The city of the great King.", 48.4. "God in her palaces Hath made Himself known for a stronghold.", 48.5. "For, lo, the kings assembled themselves, They came onward together.", 48.6. "They saw, straightway they were amazed; They were affrighted, they hasted away.", 48.7. "Trembling took hold of them there, Pangs, as of a woman in travail.", 48.8. "With the east wind Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish.", 48.9. "As we have heard, so have we seen In the city of the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God— God establish it for ever. Selah", 48.10. "We have thought on Thy lovingkindness, O God, In the midst of Thy temple.", 48.11. "As is Thy name, O God, So is Thy praise unto the ends of the earth; Thy right hand is full of righteousness.", 48.12. "Let mount Zion be glad, Let the daughters of Judah rejoice, Because of Thy judgments.", 48.13. "Walk about Zion, and go round about her; Count the towers thereof.", 48.14. "Mark ye well her ramparts, Traverse her palaces; That ye may tell it to the generation following. .", 48.15. "For such is God, our God, for ever and ever; He will guide us eternally.", 81.2. "Sing aloud unto God our strength; shout unto the God of Jacob.", 81.5. "For it is a statute for Israel, an ordice of the God of Jacob.", 81.6. "He appointed it in Joseph for a testimony, when He went forth against the land of Egypt. The speech of one that I knew not did I hear:", 81.7. "'I removed his shoulder from the burden; His hands were freed from the basket.", 81.8. "Thou didst call in trouble, and I rescued thee; I answered thee in the secret place of thunder; I proved thee at the waters of Meribah. Selah", 81.9. "Hear, O My people, and I will admonish thee: O Israel, if thou wouldest hearken unto Me!", 81.10. "There shall no strange god be in thee; neither shalt thou worship any foreign god.", 81.12. "But My people hearkened not to My voice; And Israel would none of Me.", 81.13. "So I let them go after the stubbornness of their heart, That they might walk in their own counsels.", 81.14. "Oh that My people would hearken unto Me, That Israel would walk in My ways!", 81.15. "I would soon subdue their enemies, And turn My hand against their adversaries.", 81.16. "The haters of the LORD should dwindle away before Him; And their punishment should endure for ever.", 81.17. "They should also be fed with the fat of wheat; and with honey out of the rock would I satisfy thee.'", 82.1. "A Psalm of Asaph. God standeth in the congregation of God; in the midst of the judges He judgeth:", 82.2. "'How long will ye judge unjustly, and respect the persons of the wicked? Selah", 82.3. "Judge the poor and fatherless; do justice to the afflicted and destitute.", 82.4. "Rescue the poor and needy; deliver them out of the hand of the wicked.", 82.5. "They know not, neither do they understand; they go about in darkness; all the foundations of the earth are moved.", 82.7. "Nevertheless ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the princes.'", 82.8. "Arise, O God, judge the earth; for Thou shalt possess all the nations.", 92.2. "It is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, And to sing praises unto Thy name, O Most High;", 92.3. "To declare Thy lovingkindness in the morning, And Thy faithfulness in the night seasons,", 92.4. "With an instrument of ten strings, and with the psaltery; With a solemn sound upon the harp.", 92.7. "A brutish man knoweth not, Neither doth a fool understand this.", 92.9. "But Thou, O LORD, art on high for evermore.", 92.10. "For, lo, Thine enemies, O LORD, For, lo, Thine enemies shall perish: All the workers of iniquity shall be scattered.", 92.11. "But my horn hast Thou exalted like the horn of the wild-ox; I am anointed with rich oil.", 92.12. "Mine eye also hath gazed on them that lie in wait for me, Mine ears have heard my desire of the evil-doers that rise up against me.", 92.13. "The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree; He shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon.", 92.14. "Planted in the house of the LORD, They shall flourish in the courts of our God.", 92.15. "They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; They shall be full of sap and richness;", 92.16. "To declare that the LORD is upright, My Rock, in whom there is no unrighteousness.", 93.1. "The LORD reigneth; He is clothed in majesty; The LORD is clothed, He hath girded Himself with strength; Yea, the world is established, that it cannot be moved.", 93.2. "Thy throne is established of old; Thou art from everlasting.", 93.3. "The floods have lifted up, O LORD, The floods have lifted up their voice; The floods lift up their roaring.", 93.4. "Above the voices of many waters, The mighty breakers of the sea, The LORD on high is mighty.", 94.3. "LORD, how long shall the wicked, How long shall the wicked exult?", 94.4. "They gush out, they speak arrogancy; All the workers of iniquity bear themselves loftily.", 94.5. "They crush Thy people, O LORD, And afflict Thy heritage.", 94.6. "They slay the widow and the stranger, And murder the fatherless.", 94.7. "And they say: 'The LORD will not see, Neither will the God of Jacob give heed.'", 94.8. "Consider, ye brutish among the people; And ye fools, when will ye understand?", 94.9. "He that planted the ear, shall He not hear? He that formed the eye, shall He not see?", 94.10. "He that instructeth nations, shall not He correct? Even He that teacheth man knowledge?", 94.11. "The LORD knoweth the thoughts of man, That they are vanity.", 94.12. "Happy is the man whom Thou instructest, O LORD, And teachest out of Thy law;", 94.13. "That Thou mayest give him rest from the days of evil, Until the pit be digged for the wicked.", 94.14. "For the LORD will not cast off His people, Neither will He forsake His inheritance.", 94.15. "For right shall return unto justice, And all the upright in heart shall follow it.", 94.16. "Who will rise up for me against the evil-doers? Who will stand up for me against the workers of iniquity?", 94.17. "Unless the LORD had been my help, My soul had soon dwelt in silence.", 94.18. "If I say: 'My foot slippeth', Thy mercy, O LORD, holdeth me up.", 94.19. "When my cares are many within me, Thy comforts delight my soul.", 94.21. "They gather themselves together against the soul of the righteous, And condemn innocent blood.", 94.23. "And He hath brought upon them their own iniquity, And will cut them off in their own evil; The LORD our God will cut them off.", 120.1. "A Song of Ascents. In my distress I called unto the LORD, And He answered me.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.12-19.13, 21.10, 22.20-22.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 260; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 193; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 120
19.12. "וְהִגְבַּלְתָּ אֶת־הָעָם סָבִיב לֵאמֹר הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וּנְגֹעַ בְּקָצֵהוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהָר מוֹת יוּמָת׃", 19.13. "לֹא־תִגַּע בּוֹ יָד כִּי־סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל אוֹ־יָרֹה יִיָּרֶה אִם־בְּהֵמָה אִם־אִישׁ לֹא יִחְיֶה בִּמְשֹׁךְ הַיֹּבֵל הֵמָּה יַעֲלוּ בָהָר׃", 22.21. "כָּל־אַלְמָנָה וְיָתוֹם לֹא תְעַנּוּן׃", 22.22. "אִם־עַנֵּה תְעַנֶּה אֹתוֹ כִּי אִם־צָעֹק יִצְעַק אֵלַי שָׁמֹעַ אֶשְׁמַע צַעֲקָתוֹ׃", 22.23. "וְחָרָה אַפִּי וְהָרַגְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בֶּחָרֶב וְהָיוּ נְשֵׁיכֶם אַלְמָנוֹת וּבְנֵיכֶם יְתֹמִים׃", 19.12. "And thou shalt set bounds unto the people round about, saying: Take heed to yourselves, that ye go not up into the mount, or touch the border of it; whosoever toucheth the mount shall be surely put to death;", 19.13. "no hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned, or shot through; whether it be beast or man, it shall not live; when the ram’s horn soundeth long, they shall come up to the mount.’", 21.10. "If he take him another wife, her food, her raiment, and her conjugal rights, shall he not diminish.", 22.20. "And a stranger shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt.", 22.21. "Ye shall not afflict any widow, or fatherless child.", 22.22. "If thou afflict them in any wise—for if they cry at all unto Me, I will surely hear their cry—", 22.23. "My wrath shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.6, 4.24, 6.1, 6.3, 6.6-6.27, 7.1-7.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy spirit, creation of man from dust •holy spirit, divine spirit over humans •holy war, division of humanity •holy spirit, resting on man Found in books: Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 43, 128, 277; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 119
1.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 1.2. "וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃", 1.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי רָקִיעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַמָּיִם וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם׃", 4.24. "כִּי שִׁבְעָתַיִם יֻקַּם־קָיִן וְלֶמֶךְ שִׁבְעִים וְשִׁבְעָה׃", 6.1. "וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃", 6.1. "וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃", 6.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃", 6.6. "וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃", 6.7. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃", 6.8. "וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃", 6.9. "אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃", 6.11. "וַתִּשָּׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָס׃", 6.12. "וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 6.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃", 6.14. "עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר קִנִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַתֵּבָה וְכָפַרְתָּ אֹתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בַּכֹּפֶר׃", 6.15. "וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַתֵּבָה חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃", 6.16. "צֹהַר תַּעֲשֶׂה לַתֵּבָה וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה וּפֶתַח הַתֵּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂהָ׃", 6.17. "וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃", 6.18. "וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃", 6.19. "וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃", 6.21. "וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃", 6.22. "וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים כֵּן עָשָׂה׃", 7.1. "וַיְהִי לְשִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים וּמֵי הַמַּבּוּל הָיוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 7.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה לְנֹחַ בֹּא־אַתָּה וְכָל־בֵּיתְךָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה כִּי־אֹתְךָ רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק לְפָנַי בַּדּוֹר הַזֶּה׃", 7.2. "מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה תִּקַּח־לְךָ שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא טְהֹרָה הִוא שְׁנַיִם אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ׃", 7.2. "חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מִלְמַעְלָה גָּבְרוּ הַמָּיִם וַיְכֻסּוּ הֶהָרִים׃", 7.3. "גַּם מֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה לְחַיּוֹת זֶרַע עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 7.4. "כִּי לְיָמִים עוֹד שִׁבְעָה אָנֹכִי מַמְטִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה וּמָחִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃", 7.5. "וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּהוּ יְהוָה׃", 7.6. "וְנֹחַ בֶּן־שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וְהַמַּבּוּל הָיָה מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 7.7. "וַיָּבֹא נֹחַ וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתּוֹ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה מִפְּנֵי מֵי הַמַּבּוּל׃", 7.8. "מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנָּה טְהֹרָה וּמִן־הָעוֹף וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־רֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃", 7.9. "שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם בָּאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ׃", 7.11. "בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃", 7.12. "וַיְהִי הַגֶּשֶׁם עַל־הָאָרֶץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃", 1.2. "Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.", 1.6. "And God said: ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.’", 4.24. "If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.", 6.1. "And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them,", 6.3. "And the LORD said: ‘My spirit shall not abide in man for ever, for that he also is flesh; therefore shall his days be a hundred and twenty years.’", 6.6. "And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.", 6.7. "And the LORD said: ‘I will blot out man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air; for it repenteth Me that I have made them.’", 6.8. "But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.", 6.9. "These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.", 6.10. "And Noah begot three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.", 6.11. "And the earth was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence.", 6.12. "And God saw the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth. .", 6.13. "And God said unto Noah: ‘The end of all flesh is come before Me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.", 6.14. "Make thee an ark of gopher wood; with rooms shalt thou make the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.", 6.15. "And this is how thou shalt make it: the length of the ark three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits.", 6.16. "A light shalt thou make to the ark, and to a cubit shalt thou finish it upward; and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof; with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.", 6.17. "And I, behold, I do bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; every thing that is in the earth shall perish.", 6.18. "But I will establish My covet with thee; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons’wives with thee.", 6.19. "And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female.", 6.20. "of the fowl after their kind, and of the cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort shall come unto thee, to keep them alive.", 6.21. "And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and gather it to thee; and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.’", 6.22. "Thus did Noah; according to all that God commanded him, so did he.", 7.1. "And the LORD said unto Noah: ‘Come thou and all thy house into the ark; for thee have I seen righteous before Me in this generation.", 7.2. "of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee seven and seven, each with his mate; and of the beasts that are not clean two [and two], each with his mate;", 7.3. "of the fowl also of the air, seven and seven, male and female; to keep seed alive upon the face of all the earth.", 7.4. "For yet seven days, and I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days and forty nights; and every living substance that I have made will I blot out from off the face of the earth.’", 7.5. "And Noah did according unto all that the LORD commanded him.", 7.6. "And Noah was six hundred years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth.", 7.7. "And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him, into the ark, before the waters of the flood.", 7.8. "of clean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the ground,", 7.9. "there went in two and two unto Noah into the ark, male and female, as God commanded Noah.", 7.10. "And it came to pass after the seven days, that the waters of the flood were upon the earth.", 7.11. "In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.", 7.12. "And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 259
6.6. "כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃", 6.6. "For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 14, 13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 46
7. Hebrew Bible, Job, 0.8, 3.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy spirit, creation of man from dust •holy man Found in books: Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 277; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 235
3.3. "יֹאבַד יוֹם אִוָּלֶד בּוֹ וְהַלַּיְלָה אָמַר הֹרָה גָבֶר׃", 3.3. "Let the day perish wherein I was born, And the night wherein it was said: ‘A man-child is brought forth.’",
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 16.3, 19.2, 26.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity •manumission, havurot, holy havurah Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 238; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 276
16.3. "כִּי־בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תִּטְהָרוּ׃", 16.3. "בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה׃", 19.2. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם קְדֹשִׁים תִּהְיוּ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 19.2. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְהִוא שִׁפְחָה נֶחֱרֶפֶת לְאִישׁ וְהָפְדֵּה לֹא נִפְדָּתָה אוֹ חֻפְשָׁה לֹא נִתַּן־לָהּ בִּקֹּרֶת תִּהְיֶה לֹא יוּמְתוּ כִּי־לֹא חֻפָּשָׁה׃", 26.1. "לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם אֱלִילִם וּפֶסֶל וּמַצֵּבָה לֹא־תָקִימוּ לָכֶם וְאֶבֶן מַשְׂכִּית לֹא תִתְּנוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת עָלֶיהָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 26.1. "וַאֲכַלְתֶּם יָשָׁן נוֹשָׁן וְיָשָׁן מִפְּנֵי חָדָשׁ תּוֹצִיאוּ׃", 16.3. "Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering.", 19.2. "Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them: Ye shall be holy; for I the LORD your God am holy.", 26.1. "Ye shall make you no idols, neither shall ye rear you up a graven image, or a pillar, neither shall ye place any figured stone in your land, to bow down unto it; for I am the LORD your God.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 6.6-6.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 273
6.6. "בַּמָּה אֲקַדֵּם יְהוָה אִכַּף לֵאלֹהֵי מָרוֹם הַאֲקַדְּמֶנּוּ בְעוֹלוֹת בַּעֲגָלִים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה׃", 6.7. "הֲיִרְצֶה יְהוָה בְּאַלְפֵי אֵילִים בְּרִבְבוֹת נַחֲלֵי־שָׁמֶן הַאֶתֵּן בְּכוֹרִי פִּשְׁעִי פְּרִי בִטְנִי חַטַּאת נַפְשִׁי׃", 6.8. "הִגִּיד לְךָ אָדָם מַה־טּוֹב וּמָה־יְהוָה דּוֹרֵשׁ מִמְּךָ כִּי אִם־עֲשׂוֹת מִשְׁפָּט וְאַהֲבַת חֶסֶד וְהַצְנֵעַ לֶכֶת עִם־אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 6.6. "’Wherewith shall I come before the LORD, And bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, With calves of a year old?", 6.7. "Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, With ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?’", 6.8. "It hath been told thee, O man, what is good, And what the LORD doth require of thee: Only to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God.",
10. Homer, Odyssey, 11.485, 11.491 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 187
11. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.7-7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 274
7.7. "בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדָבָר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי לִרְעוֹת אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה לֹא־בְנִיתֶם לִי בֵּית אֲרָזִים׃", 7.8. "וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מֵאַחַר הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 7.9. "וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃", 7.11. "וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃", 7.12. "כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃", 7.13. "הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 7.14. "אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃", 7.7. "In all the places where I have walked with all the children of Yisra᾽el, did I speak a word with any of the rulers of Yisra᾽el, whom I commanded as shepherds of my people Yisra᾽el, saying, Why do you not build me a house of cedar?", 7.8. "Now therefore so shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Yisra᾽el:", 7.9. "and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth.", 7.10. "Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning,", 7.11. "and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house.", 7.12. "And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.", 7.13. "He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever.", 7.14. "I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:",
12. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.24, 4.1-4.41 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 238
2.24. "וַיִּפֶן אַחֲרָיו וַיִּרְאֵם וַיְקַלְלֵם בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וַתֵּצֶאנָה שְׁתַּיִם דֻּבִּים מִן־הַיַּעַר וַתְּבַקַּעְנָה מֵהֶם אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁנֵי יְלָדִים׃", 4.1. "נַעֲשֶׂה־נָּא עֲלִיַּת־קִיר קְטַנָּה וְנָשִׂים לוֹ שָׁם מִטָּה וְשֻׁלְחָן וְכִסֵּא וּמְנוֹרָה וְהָיָה בְּבֹאוֹ אֵלֵינוּ יָסוּר שָׁמָּה׃", 4.1. "וְאִשָּׁה אַחַת מִנְּשֵׁי בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים צָעֲקָה אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע לֵאמֹר עַבְדְּךָ אִישִׁי מֵת וְאַתָּה יָדַעְתָּ כִּי עַבְדְּךָ הָיָה יָרֵא אֶת־יְהוָה וְהַנֹּשֶׁה בָּא לָקַחַת אֶת־שְׁנֵי יְלָדַי לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים׃", 4.2. "וַיִּשָּׂאֵהוּ וַיְבִיאֵהוּ אֶל־אִמּוֹ וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־בִּרְכֶּיהָ עַד־הַצָּהֳרַיִם וַיָּמֹת׃", 4.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֱלִישָׁע מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ הַגִּידִי לִי מַה־יֶּשׁ־לכי [לָךְ] בַּבָּיִת וַתֹּאמֶר אֵין לְשִׁפְחָתְךָ כֹל בַּבַּיִת כִּי אִם־אָסוּךְ שָׁמֶן׃", 4.3. "וַתֹּאמֶר אֵם הַנַּעַר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אַחֲרֶיהָ׃", 4.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי שַׁאֲלִי־לָךְ כֵּלִים מִן־הַחוּץ מֵאֵת כָּל־שכנכי [שְׁכֵנָיִךְ] כֵּלִים רֵקִים אַל־תַּמְעִיטִי׃", 4.4. "וּבָאת וְסָגַרְתְּ הַדֶּלֶת בַּעֲדֵךְ וּבְעַד־בָּנַיִךְ וְיָצַקְתְּ עַל כָּל־הַכֵּלִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהַמָּלֵא תַּסִּיעִי׃", 4.4. "וַיִּצְקוּ לַאֲנָשִׁים לֶאֱכוֹל וַיְהִי כְּאָכְלָם מֵהַנָּזִיד וְהֵמָּה צָעָקוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ מָוֶת בַּסִּיר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וְלֹא יָכְלוּ לֶאֱכֹל׃", 4.5. "וַתֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֹ וַתִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בַּעֲדָהּ וּבְעַד בָּנֶיהָ הֵם מַגִּשִׁים אֵלֶיהָ וְהִיא מיצקת [מוֹצָקֶת׃]", 4.6. "וַיְהִי כִּמְלֹאת הַכֵּלִים וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־בְּנָהּ הַגִּישָׁה אֵלַי עוֹד כֶּלִי וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ אֵין עוֹד כֶּלִי וַיַּעֲמֹד הַשָּׁמֶן׃", 4.7. "וַתָּבֹא וַתַּגֵּד לְאִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לְכִי מִכְרִי אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶן וְשַׁלְּמִי אֶת־נשיכי [נִשְׁיֵךְ] וְאַתְּ בניכי [וּבָנַיִךְ] תִחְיִי בַּנּוֹתָר׃", 4.8. "וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיַּעֲבֹר אֱלִישָׁע אֶל־שׁוּנֵם וְשָׁם אִשָּׁה גְדוֹלָה וַתַּחֲזֶק־בּוֹ לֶאֱכָל־לָחֶם וַיְהִי מִדֵּי עָבְרוֹ יָסֻר שָׁמָּה לֶאֱכָל־לָחֶם׃", 4.9. "וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־אִישָׁהּ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִישׁ אֱלֹהִים קָדוֹשׁ הוּא עֹבֵר עָלֵינוּ תָּמִיד׃", 4.11. "וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹא שָׁמָּה וַיָּסַר אֶל־הָעֲלִיָּה וַיִּשְׁכַּב־שָׁמָּה׃", 4.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־גֵּחֲזִי נַעֲרוֹ קְרָא לַשּׁוּנַמִּית הַזֹּאת וַיִּקְרָא־לָהּ וַתַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו׃", 4.13. "וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֱמָר־נָא אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה חָרַדְתְּ אֵלֵינוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַחֲרָדָה הַזֹּאת מֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לָךְ הֲיֵשׁ לְדַבֶּר־לָךְ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ אֶל־שַׂר הַצָּבָא וַתֹּאמֶר בְּתוֹךְ עַמִּי אָנֹכִי יֹשָׁבֶת׃", 4.14. "וַיֹּאמֶר וּמֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהּ וַיֹּאמֶר גֵּיחֲזִי אֲבָל בֵּן אֵין־לָהּ וְאִישָׁהּ זָקֵן׃", 4.15. "וַיֹּאמֶר קְרָא־לָהּ וַיִּקְרָא־לָהּ וַתַּעֲמֹד בַּפָּתַח׃", 4.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר לַמּוֹעֵד הַזֶּה כָּעֵת חַיָּה אתי [אַתְּ] חֹבֶקֶת בֵּן וַתֹּאמֶר אַל־אֲדֹנִי אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אַל־תְּכַזֵּב בְּשִׁפְחָתֶךָ׃", 4.17. "וַתַּהַר הָאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד בֵּן לַמּוֹעֵד הַזֶּה כָּעֵת חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר אֵלֶיהָ אֱלִישָׁע׃", 4.18. "וַיִּגְדַּל הַיָּלֶד וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיֵּצֵא אֶל־אָבִיו אֶל־הַקֹּצְרִים׃", 4.19. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־אָבִיו רֹאשִׁי רֹאשִׁי וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הַנַּעַר שָׂאֵהוּ אֶל־אִמּוֹ׃", 4.21. "וַתַּעַל וַתַּשְׁכִּבֵהוּ עַל־מִטַּת אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וַתִּסְגֹּר בַּעֲדוֹ וַתֵּצֵא׃", 4.22. "וַתִּקְרָא אֶל־אִישָׁהּ וַתֹּאמֶר שִׁלְחָה נָא לִי אֶחָד מִן־הַנְּעָרִים וְאַחַת הָאֲתֹנוֹת וְאָרוּצָה עַד־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים וְאָשׁוּבָה׃", 4.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ אתי [אַתְּ] הלכתי [הֹלֶכֶת] אֵלָיו הַיּוֹם לֹא־חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא שַׁבָּת וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃", 4.24. "וַתַּחֲבֹשׁ הָאָתוֹן וַתֹּאמֶר אֶל־נַעֲרָהּ נְהַג וָלֵךְ אַל־תַּעֲצָר־לִי לִרְכֹּב כִּי אִם־אָמַרְתִּי לָךְ׃", 4.25. "וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּבוֹא אֶל־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַר הַכַּרְמֶל וַיְהִי כִּרְאוֹת אִישׁ־הָאֱלֹהִים אֹתָהּ מִנֶּגֶד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־גֵּיחֲזִי נַעֲרוֹ הִנֵּה הַשּׁוּנַמִּית הַלָּז׃", 4.26. "עַתָּה רוּץ־נָא לִקְרָאתָהּ וֶאֱמָר־לָהּ הֲשָׁלוֹם לָךְ הֲשָׁלוֹם לְאִישֵׁךְ הֲשָׁלוֹם לַיָּלֶד וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃", 4.27. "וַתָּבֹא אֶל־אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֶל־הָהָר וַתַּחֲזֵק בְּרַגְלָיו וַיִּגַּשׁ גֵּיחֲזִי לְהָדְפָהּ וַיֹּאמֶר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים הַרְפֵּה־לָהּ כִּי־נַפְשָׁהּ מָרָה־לָהּ וַיהוָה הֶעְלִים מִמֶּנִּי וְלֹא הִגִּיד לִי׃", 4.28. "וַתֹּאמֶר הֲשָׁאַלְתִּי בֵן מֵאֵת אֲדֹנִי הֲלֹא אָמַרְתִּי לֹא תַשְׁלֶה אֹתִי׃", 4.29. "וַיֹּאמֶר לְגֵיחֲזִי חֲגֹר מָתְנֶיךָ וְקַח מִשְׁעַנְתִּי בְיָדְךָ וָלֵךְ כִּי־תִמְצָא אִישׁ לֹא תְבָרְכֶנּוּ וְכִי־יְבָרֶכְךָ אִישׁ לֹא תַעֲנֶנּוּ וְשַׂמְתָּ מִשְׁעַנְתִּי עַל־פְּנֵי הַנָּעַר׃", 4.31. "וְגֵחֲזִי עָבַר לִפְנֵיהֶם וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת־הַמִּשְׁעֶנֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַנַּעַר וְאֵין קוֹל וְאֵין קָשֶׁב וַיָּשָׁב לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיַּגֶּד־לוֹ לֵאמֹר לֹא הֵקִיץ הַנָּעַר׃", 4.32. "וַיָּבֹא אֱלִישָׁע הַבָּיְתָה וְהִנֵּה הַנַּעַר מֵת מֻשְׁכָּב עַל־מִטָּתוֹ׃", 4.33. "וַיָּבֹא וַיִּסְגֹּר הַדֶּלֶת בְּעַד שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיִּתְפַּלֵּל אֶל־יְהוָה׃", 4.34. "וַיַּעַל וַיִּשְׁכַּב עַל־הַיֶּלֶד וַיָּשֶׂם פִּיו עַל־פִּיו וְעֵינָיו עַל־עֵינָיו וְכַפָּיו עַל־כפו [כַּפָּיו] וַיִּגְהַר עָלָיו וַיָּחָם בְּשַׂר הַיָּלֶד׃", 4.35. "וַיָּשָׁב וַיֵּלֶךְ בַּבַּיִת אַחַת הֵנָּה וְאַחַת הֵנָּה וַיַּעַל וַיִּגְהַר עָלָיו וַיְזוֹרֵר הַנַּעַר עַד־שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וַיִּפְקַח הַנַּעַר אֶת־עֵינָיו׃", 4.36. "וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־גֵּיחֲזִי וַיֹּאמֶר קְרָא אֶל־הַשֻּׁנַמִּית הַזֹּאת וַיִּקְרָאֶהָ וַתָּבוֹא אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׂאִי בְנֵךְ׃", 4.37. "וַתָּבֹא וַתִּפֹּל עַל־רַגְלָיו וַתִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה וַתִּשָּׂא אֶת־בְּנָהּ וַתֵּצֵא׃", 4.38. "וֶאֱלִישָׁע שָׁב הַגִּלְגָּלָה וְהָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וּבְנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים יֹשְׁבִים לְפָנָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לְנַעֲרוֹ שְׁפֹת הַסִּיר הַגְּדוֹלָה וּבַשֵּׁל נָזִיד לִבְנֵי הַנְּבִיאִים׃", 4.39. "וַיֵּצֵא אֶחָד אֶל־הַשָּׂדֶה לְלַקֵּט אֹרֹת וַיִּמְצָא גֶּפֶן שָׂדֶה וַיְלַקֵּט מִמֶּנּוּ פַּקֻּעֹת שָׂדֶה מְלֹא בִגְדוֹ וַיָּבֹא וַיְפַלַּח אֶל־סִיר הַנָּזִיד כִּי־לֹא יָדָעוּ׃", 4.41. "וַיֹּאמֶר וּקְחוּ־קֶמַח וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַסִּיר וַיֹּאמֶר צַק לָעָם וְיֹאכֵלוּ וְלֹא הָיָה דָּבָר רָע בַּסִּיר׃", 2.24. "And he looked behind him and saw them, and cursed them in the name of the LORD. And there came forth two she-bears out of the wood, and tore forty and two children of them.", 4.1. "Now there cried a certain woman of the wives of the sons of the prophets unto Elisha, saying: ‘Thy servant my husband is dead; and thou knowest that thy servant did fear the LORD; and the creditor is come to take unto him my two children to be bondmen.’", 4.2. "And Elisha said unto her: ‘What shall I do for thee? tell me; what hast thou in the house?’ And she said: ‘Thy handmaid hath not any thing in the house, save a pot of oil.’", 4.3. "Then he said: ‘Go, borrow thee vessels abroad of all thy neighbours, even empty vessels; borrow not a few.", 4.4. "And thou shalt go in, and shut the door upon thee and upon thy sons, and pour out into all those vessels; and thou shalt set aside that which is full.’", 4.5. "So she went from him, and shut the door upon her and upon her sons; they brought the vessels to her, and she poured out.", 4.6. "And it came to pass, when the vessels were full, that she said unto her son: ‘Bring me yet a vessel.’ And he said unto her: ‘There is not a vessel more.’ And the oil stayed.", 4.7. "Then she came and told the man of God. And he said: ‘Go, sell the oil, and pay thy debt, and live thou and thy sons of the rest.’", 4.8. "And it fell on a day, that Elisha passed to Shunem, where was a great woman; and she constrained him to eat bread. And so it was, that as oft as he passed by, he turned in thither to eat bread.", 4.9. "And she said unto her husband: ‘Behold now, I perceive that this is a holy man of God, that passeth by us continually.", 4.10. "Let us make, I pray thee, a little chamber on the roof; and let us set for him there a bed, and a table, and a stool, and a candlestick; and it shall be, when he cometh to us, that he shall turn in thither.’", 4.11. "And it fell on a day, that he came thither, and he turned into the upper chamber and lay there.", 4.12. "And he said to Gehazi his servant: ‘Call this Shunammite.’ And when he had called her, she stood before him.", 4.13. "And he said unto him: ‘Say now unto her: Behold, thou hast been careful for us with all this care; what is to be done for thee? wouldest thou be spoken for to the king, or to the captain of the host?’ And she answered: ‘I dwell among mine own people.’", 4.14. "And he said: ‘What then is to be done for her?’ And Gehazi answered: ‘Verily she hath no son, and her husband is old.’", 4.15. "And he said: ‘Call her.’ And when he had called her, she stood in the door.", 4.16. "And he said: ‘At this season, when the time cometh round, thou shalt embrace a son.’ And she said: ‘Nay, my lord, thou man of God, do not lie unto thy handmaid.’", 4.17. "And the woman conceived, and bore a son at that season, when the time came round, as Elisha had said unto her.", 4.18. "And when the child was grown, it fell on a day, that he went out to his father to the reapers.", 4.19. "And he said unto his father: ‘My head, my head.’ And he said to his servant: ‘Carry him to his mother.’", 4.20. "And when he had taken him, and brought him to his mother, he sat on her knees till noon, and then died.", 4.21. "And she went up, and laid him on the bed of the man of God, and shut the door upon him, and went out.", 4.22. "And she called unto her husband, and said: ‘Send me, I pray thee, one of the servants, and one of the asses, that I may run to the man of God, and come back.’", 4.23. "And he said: Wherefore wilt thou go to him today? it is neither new moon nor sabbath.’ And she said: ‘It shall be well.’", 4.24. "Then she saddled an ass, and said to her servant: ‘Drive, and go forward; slacken me not the riding, except I bid thee.’", 4.25. "So she went, and came unto the man of God to mount Carmel. And it came to pass, when the man of God saw her afar off, that he said to Gehazi his servant: ‘Behold, yonder is that Shunammite.", 4.26. "Run, I pray thee, now to meet her, and say unto her: Is it well with thee? is it well with thy husband? is it well with the child?’ And she answered: ‘It is well.’", 4.27. "And when she came to the man of God to the hill, she caught hold of his feet. And Gehazi came near to thrust her away; but the man of God said: ‘Let her alone; for her soul is bitter within her; and the LORD hath hid it from me, and hath not told Me.’", 4.28. "Then she said: ‘Did I desire a son of my lord? did I not say: Do not deceive me?’", 4.29. "Then he said to Gehazi: ‘Gird up thy loins, and take my staff in thy hand, and go thy way; if thou meet any man, salute him not; and if any salute thee, answer him not; and lay my staff upon the face of the child.’", 4.30. "And the mother of the child said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ And he arose, and followed her.", 4.31. "And Gehazi passed on before them, and laid the staff upon the face of the child; but there was neither voice, nor hearing. Wherefore he returned to meet him, and told him, saying: ‘The child is not awaked.’", 4.32. "And when Elisha was come into the house, behold, the child was dead, and laid upon his bed.", 4.33. "He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the LORD.", 4.34. "And he went up, and lay upon the child, and put his mouth upon his mouth, and his eyes upon his eyes, and his hands upon his hands; and he stretched himself upon him; and the flesh of the child waxed warm.", 4.35. "Then he returned, and walked in the house once to and fro; and went up, and stretched himself upon him; and the child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes.", 4.36. "And he called Gehazi, and said: ‘Call this Shunammite.’ So he called her. And when she was come in unto him, he said: ‘Take up thy son.’", 4.37. "Then she went in, and fell at his feet, and bowed down to the ground; and she took up her son, and went out.", 4.38. "And Elisha came again to Gilgal; and there was a dearth in the land; and the sons of the prophets were sitting before him; and he said unto his servant: ‘Set on the great pot, and seethe pottage for the sons of the prophets.’", 4.39. "And one went out into the field to gather herbs, and found a wild vine, and gathered thereof wild gourds his lap full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage; for they knew them not.", 4.40. "So they poured out for the men to eat. And it came to pass, as they were eating of the pottage, that they cried out, and said: ‘O man of God, there is death in the pot.’ And they could not eat thereof.", 4.41. "But he said: ‘Then bring meal.’ And he cast it into the pot; and he said: ‘Pour out for the people, that they may eat.’ And there was no harm in the pot.",
13. Hesiod, Works And Days, 582-584, 586-596, 585 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 187
585. of an ox to keep the downpour from your back,
14. Homer, Iliad, 5.128 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 409
5.128. / for in thy breast have I put the might of thy father, the dauntless might, such as the horseman Tydeus, wielder of the shield, was wont to have. And the mist moreover have I taken from thine eyes that afore was upon them, to the end that thou mayest well discern both god and man. Wherefore now if any god come hither to make trial of thee,
15. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.11-1.17, 1.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity •holy war, division of humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 273; Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 120
1.11. "לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃", 1.12. "כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃", 1.13. "לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃", 1.14. "חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃", 1.15. "וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃", 1.16. "רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃", 1.17. "לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃", 1.23. "שָׂרַיִךְ סוֹרְרִים וְחַבְרֵי גַּנָּבִים כֻּלּוֹ אֹהֵב שֹׁחַד וְרֹדֵף שַׁלְמֹנִים יָתוֹם לֹא יִשְׁפֹּטוּ וְרִיב אַלְמָנָה לֹא־יָבוֹא אֲלֵיהֶם׃", 1.11. "To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats.", 1.12. "When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?", 1.13. "Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly.", 1.14. "Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them.", 1.15. "And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood.", 1.16. "Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;", 1.17. "Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.", 1.23. "Thy princes are rebellious, And companions of thieves; Every one loveth bribes, And followeth after rewards; They judge not the fatherless, Neither doth the cause of the widow come unto them.",
16. Alcaeus, Fragments, 347 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •charles iv, holy roman emperor Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 187
17. Alcaeus, Fragments, 347 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •charles iv, holy roman emperor Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 187
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.16-36.25 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56
36.16. "וַיְהִי דְבַר־יְהוָה אֵלַי לֵאמֹר׃", 36.17. "בֶּן־אָדָם בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל יֹשְׁבִים עַל־אַדְמָתָם וַיְטַמְּאוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּדַרְכָּם וּבַעֲלִילוֹתָם כְּטֻמְאַת הַנִּדָּה הָיְתָה דַרְכָּם לְפָנָי׃", 36.18. "וָאֶשְׁפֹּךְ חֲמָתִי עֲלֵיהֶם עַל־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר־שָׁפְכוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְגִלּוּלֵיהֶם טִמְּאוּהָ׃", 36.19. "וָאָפִיץ אֹתָם בַּגּוֹיִם וַיִּזָּרוּ בָּאֲרָצוֹת כְּדַרְכָּם וְכַעֲלִילוֹתָם שְׁפַטְתִּים׃", 36.21. "וָאֶחְמֹל עַל־שֵׁם קָדְשִׁי אֲשֶׁר חִלְּלוּהוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־בָּאוּ שָׁמָּה׃", 36.22. "לָכֵן אֱמֹר לְבֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לֹא לְמַעַנְכֶם אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי אִם־לְשֵׁם־קָדְשִׁי אֲשֶׁר חִלַּלְתֶּם בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־בָּאתֶם שָׁם׃", 36.23. "וְקִדַּשְׁתִּי אֶת־שְׁמִי הַגָּדוֹל הַמְחֻלָּל בַּגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר חִלַּלְתֶּם בְּתוֹכָם וְיָדְעוּ הַגּוֹיִם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה בְּהִקָּדְשִׁי בָכֶם לְעֵינֵיהֶם׃", 36.24. "וְלָקַחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִן־הַגּוֹיִם וְקִבַּצְתִּי אֶתְכֶם מִכָּל־הָאֲרָצוֹת וְהֵבֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם אֶל־אַדְמַתְכֶם׃", 36.25. "וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם מִכֹּל טֻמְאוֹתֵיכֶם וּמִכָּל־גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם אֲטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם׃", 36.16. "Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:", 36.17. "’Son of man, when the house of Israel dwelt in their own land, they defiled it by their way and by their doings; their way before Me was as the uncleanness of a woman in her impurity.", 36.18. "Wherefore I poured out My fury upon them for the blood which they had shed upon the land, and because they had defiled it with their idols;", 36.19. "and I scattered them among the nations, and they were dispersed through the countries; according to their way and according to their doings I judged them.", 36.20. "And when they came unto the nations, whither they came, they profaned My holy name; in that men said of them: These are the people of the LORD, and are gone forth out of His land.", 36.21. "But I had pity for My holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the nations, whither they came.", 36.22. "Therefore say unto the house of Israel: Thus saith the Lord GOD: I do not this for your sake, O house of Israel, but for My holy name, which ye have profaned among the nations, whither ye came.", 36.23. "And I will sanctify My great name, which hath been profaned among the nations, which ye have profaned in the midst of them; and the nations shall know that I am the LORD, saith the Lord GOD, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes.", 36.24. "For I will take you from among the nations, and gather you out of all the countries, and will bring you into your own land.", 36.25. "And I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean; from all your uncleannesses, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you.",
19. Aristophanes, Frogs, 323-401, 403-459, 402 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 187
402. καὶ δεῖξον ὡς ἄνευ πόνου
20. Alcaeus Comicus, Fragments, 347 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •charles iv, holy roman emperor Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 187
21. Theophrastus, Characters, 16 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
22. Anon., 1 Enoch, 92.1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 100
92.1. The book written by Enoch-[Enoch indeed wrote this complete doctrine of wisdom, (which is) praised of all men and a judge of all the earth] for all my children who shall dwell on the earth. And for the future generations who shall observe uprightness and peace.
23. Dead Sea Scrolls, Psalms, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 107, 108, 119, 120, 121, 159, 160, 170, 171, 193, 198, 200, 201, 209, 211, 212
24. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 4.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 100
4.13. Being perfected in a short time, he fulfilled long years;
25. Anon., Jubilees, 10.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 103; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 261
10.13. for these are for corruption and leading astray before my judgment, for great is the wickedness of the sons of men."
26. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 28.1-28.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy war, division of humanity Found in books: Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 119
28.1. He that takes vengeance will suffer vengeance from the Lord,and he will firmly establish his sins. 28.1. In proportion to the fuel for the fire, so will be the burning,and in proportion to the obstinacy of strife will be the burning;in proportion to the strength of the man will be his anger,and in proportion to his wealth he will heighten his wrath. 28.2. Forgive your neighbor the wrong he has done,and then your sins will be pardoned when you pray. 28.2. for its yoke is a yoke of iron,and its fetters are fetters of bronze; 28.3. Does a man harbor anger against another,and yet seek for healing from the Lord? 28.4. Does he have no mercy toward a man like himself,and yet pray for his own sins? 28.5. If he himself, being flesh, maintains wrath,who will make expiation for his sins? 28.6. Remember the end of your life, and cease from enmity,remember destruction and death, and be true to the commandments. 28.7. Remember the commandments, and do not be angry with your neighbor;remember the covet of the Most High, and overlook ignorance. 28.8. Refrain from strife, and you will lessen sins;for a man given to anger will kindle strife, 28.9. and a sinful man will disturb friends and inject enmity among those who are at peace. 28.11. A hasty quarrel kindles fire,and urgent strife sheds blood. 28.12. If you blow on a spark, it will glow;if you spit on it, it will be put out;and both come out of your mouth.
27. Anon., Testament of Solomon, 20.1-20.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ashmedai (asmodeus), portrayal of, as a holy man, in the babylonian talmud Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 110
28. Tibullus, Elegies, 1.2.60 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
29. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 7.257-7.263 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
7.257. Diffugiunt iussi. Passis Medea capillis 7.258. bacchantum ritu, flagrantes circuit aras 7.259. multifidasque faces in fossa sanguinis atra 7.260. tingit et infectas geminis accendit in aris 7.261. terque senem flamma, ter aqua, ter sulphure lustrat. 7.262. Interea validum posito medicamen aeno 7.263. fervet et exsultat spumisque tumentibus albet.
30. Mishnah, Pesahim, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 77
31. Plutarch, Table Talk, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 281
32. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, 4-8, 3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
3. Moreover, many writers have held her to be the daughter of Hermes, Cf. 355 f, infra . and many others the daughter of Prometheus, Cf. 365 f, infra , and Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis , i. 106. 1, 21 (p. 382, Potter). because of the belief that Prometheus is the discoverer of wisdom and forethought, and Hermes the inventor of grammar and music. For this reason they call the first of the Muses at Hermopolis Isis as well as Justice: for she is wise, as I have said, supra , 351 f. and discloses the divine mysteries to those who truly and justly have the name of bearers of the sacred vessels and wearers of the sacred robes. These are they who within their own soul, as though within a casket, bear the sacred writings about the gods clear of all superstition and pedantry; and they cloak them with secrecy, thus giving intimations, some dark and shadowy, some clear and bright, of their concepts about the gods, intimations of the same sort as are clearly evidenced in the wearing of the sacred garb. Cf. Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum , No. 754 (not included in the third edition), or Altertümer von Pergamon , viii. 2, p. 248, no. 326; also Moralia , 382 c. For this reason, too, the fact that the deceased votaries of Isis are decked with these garments is a sign that these sacred writings accompany them, and that they pass to the other world possessed of these and of naught else. It is a fact, Clea, that having a beard and wearing a coarse cloak does not make philosophers, nor does dressing in linen and shaving the hair make votaries of Isis; but the true votary of Isis is he who, when he has legitimately received what is set forth in the ceremonies connected with these gods, uses reason in investigating and in studying the truth contained therein.
33. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 75.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
75.1. ὁ δʼ οὖν Ἀλέξανδρος ὡς ἐνέδωκε τότε πρὸς τὰ θεῖα ταραχώδης γενόμενος καὶ περίφοβος τὴν διάνοιαν, οὐδὲν ἦν μικρὸν οὕτως τῶν ἀήθων καὶ ἀτόπων ὃ μὴ τέρας ἐποιεῖτο καὶ σημεῖον ἀλλὰ θυομένων καὶ καθαιρόντων καὶ μαντευόντων μεστὸν ἦν τὸ βασίλειον. 75.1. Alexander, then, since he had now become sensitive to indications of the divine will and perturbed and apprehensive in his mind, converted every unusual and strange occurrence, were it never so insignificant into a prodigy and portent; and sacrificers, purifiers, and diviners filled his palace.
34. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •isis, saviour goddess, holy and eternal saviour of human race •saviour goddess, holy and eternal saviour of human race Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 321
35. New Testament, Matthew, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 135
10.8. ἀσθενοῦντας θεραπεύετε, νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε, λεπροὺς καθαρίζετε, δαιμόνια ἐκβάλλετε· δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε. 10.8. Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give.
36. New Testament, Mark, 9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 216, 235, 246, 261, 266, 267, 268, 271, 272, 275, 276, 285, 398, 405, 420, 422, 423
37. New Testament, John, 0.2, 2.19-2.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy spirit, creation of man from dust •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 275; Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 277
2.19. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Λύσατε τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον καὶ [ἐν] τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερῶ αὐτόν. 2.20. εἶπαν οὖν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι Τεσσεράκοντα καὶ ἓξ ἔτεσιν οἰκοδομήθη ὁ ναὸς οὗτος, καὶ σὺ ἐν τρισὶν ἡμέραις ἐγερεῖς αὐτόν; 2.21. ἐκεῖνος δὲ ἔλεγεν περὶ τοῦ ναοῦ τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ. 2.22. Ὅτε οὖν ἠγέρθη ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἐμνήσθησαν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι τοῦτο ἔλεγεν, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν τῇ γραφῇ καὶ τῷ λόγῳ ὃν εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς. 2.19. Jesus answered them, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up." 2.20. The Jews therefore said, "Forty-six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days?" 2.21. But he spoke of the temple of his body. 2.22. When therefore he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he said this, and they believed the Scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.
38. New Testament, Romans, 6.4, 6.12-6.23, 8.5-8.6, 8.9-8.11, 8.17-8.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •spirit, holy, role for genuine humanness •holy spirit, role for genuine humanness •holy spirit, resting on man Found in books: Dürr (2022), Paul on the Human Vocation: Reason Language in Romans and Ancient Philosophical Tradition, 224, 225, 226; Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 128
6.4. συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. 6.12. Μὴ οὖν βασιλευέτω ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θνητῷ ὑμῶν σώματι εἰς τὸ ὑπακούειν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτοῦ, 6.13. μηδὲ παριστάνετε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἀλλὰ παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ὡσεὶ ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας καὶ τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα δικαιοσύνης τῷ θεῷ· 6.14. ἁμαρτία γὰρ ὑμῶν οὐ κυριεύσει, οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν. 6.15. Τί οὖν; ἁμαρτήσωμεν ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν; μὴ γένοιτο· 6.16. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην; 6.17. χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον διδαχῆς, 6.18. ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐδουλώθητε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ· 6.19. ἀνθρώπινον λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ [εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν], οὕτω νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν· 6.20. ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. 6.21. τίνα οὖν καρπὸν εἴχετε τότε ἐφʼ οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; τὸ γὰρ τέλος ἐκείνων θάνατος· 6.22. νυνὶ δέ, ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 6.23. τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. 8.5. οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος. 8.6. τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· 8.9. Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι. εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ. 8.10. εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν, τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην. 8.11. εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζωοποιήσει [καὶ] τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ τοῦ ἐνοικοῦντος αὐτοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ὑμῖν. 8.17. εἰ δὲ τέκνα, καὶ κληρονόμοι· κληρονόμοι μὲν θεοῦ, συνκληρονόμοι δὲ Χριστοῦ, εἴπερ συνπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν. 8.18. Λογίζομαι γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ ἄξια τὰ παθήματα τοῦ νῦν καιροῦ πρὸς τὴν μέλλουσαν δόξαν ἀποκαλυφθῆναι εἰς ἡμᾶς. 8.19. ἡ γὰρ ἀποκαραδοκία τῆς κτίσεως τὴν ἀποκάλυψιν τῶν υἱῶν τοῦ θεοῦ ἀπεκδέχεται· 8.20. τῇ γὰρ ματαιότητι ἡ κτίσις ὑπετάγη, οὐχ ἑκοῦσα ἀλλὰ διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα, ἐφʼ ἑλπίδι 8.21. ὅτι καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ κτίσις ἐλευθερωθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ. 8.22. οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι πᾶσα ἡ κτίσις συνστενάζει καὶ συνωδίνει ἄχρι τοῦ νῦν· 8.23. οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ τὴν ἀπαρχὴν τοῦ πνεύματος ἔχοντες [ἡμεῖς] καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν ἑαυτοῖς στενάζομεν, υἱοθεσίαν ἀπεκδεχόμενοι τὴν ἀπολύτρωσιν τοῦ σώματος ἡμῶν. 8.24. τῇ γὰρ ἐλπίδι ἐσώθημεν· ἐλπὶς δὲ βλεπομένη οὐκ ἔστιν ἐλπίς, ὃ γὰρ βλέπει τίς ἐλπίζει; 8.25. εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ βλέπομεν ἐλπίζομεν, διʼ ὑπομονῆς ἀπεκδεχόμεθα. 8.26. Ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τὸ πνεῦμα συναντιλαμβάνεται τῇ ἀσθενείᾳ ἡμῶν· τὸ γὰρ τί προσευξώμεθα καθὸ δεῖ οὐκ οἴδαμεν, ἀλλὰ αὐτὸ τὸ πνεῦμα ὑπερεντυγχάνει στεναγμοῖς ἀλαλήτοις, 8.27. ὁ δὲ ἐραυνῶν τὰς καρδίας οἶδεν τί τὸ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος, ὅτι κατὰ θεὸν ἐντυγχάνει ὑπὲρ ἁγίων. 8.28. οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγαπῶσι τὸν θεὸν πάντα συνεργεῖ [ὁ θεὸς] εἰς ἀγαθόν, τοῖς κατὰ πρόθεσιν κλητοῖς οὖσιν. 8.29. ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς· 8.30. οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν. 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.12. Therefore don't let sin reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in its lusts. 6.13. Neither present your members to sin as instruments of unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God, as alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness to God. 6.14. For sin will not have dominion over you. For you are not under law, but under grace. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 8.5. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. 8.6. For the mind of the flesh is death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace; 8.9. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if it is so that the Spirit of God dwells in you. But if any man doesn't have the Spirit of Christ, he is not his. 8.10. If Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is alive because of righteousness. 8.11. But if the Spirit of him who raised up Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised up Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you. 8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him. 8.18. For I consider that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which will be revealed toward us. 8.19. For the creation waits with eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed. 8.20. For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but because of him who subjected it, in hope 8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God. 8.22. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. 8.23. Not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for adoption, the redemption of our body. 8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees? 8.25. But if we hope for that which we don't see, we wait for it with patience. 8.26. In the same way, the Spirit also helps our weaknesses, for we don't know how to pray as we ought. But the Spirit himself makes intercession for us with groanings which can't be uttered. 8.27. He who searches the hearts knows what is on the Spirit's mind, because he makes intercession for the saints according to God. 8.28. We know that all things work together for good for those who love God, to those who are called according to his purpose. 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified.
39. New Testament, Hebrews, 10.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy war, division of humanity Found in books: Trudinger (2004), The Psalms of the Tamid Service: A Liturgical Text from the Second Temple, 119
10.30. οἴδαμεν γὰρ τὸν εἰπόνταἘμοὶ ἐκδίκησις,ἐγὼἀνταποδώσω·καὶ πάλινΚρινεῖ Κύριος τὸν λαὸν αὐτοῦ. 10.30. For we know him who said, "Vengeance belongs to me," says the Lord, "I will repay." Again, "The Lord will judge his people."
40. New Testament, Acts, 17.16, 17.22-17.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 66; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 26
17.16. Ἐν δὲ ταῖς Ἀθήναις ἐκδεχομένου αὐτοὺς τοῦ Παύλου, παρωξύνετο τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ θεωροῦντος κατείδωλον οὖσαν τὴν πόλιν. 17.22. σταθεὶς δὲ Παῦλος ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ Ἀρείου Πάγου ἔφη Ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι, κατὰ πάντα ὡς δεισιδαιμονεστέρους ὑμᾶς θεωρῶ· 17.23. διερχόμενος γὰρ καὶ ἀναθεωρῶν τὰ σεβάσματα ὑμῶν εὗρον καὶ βωμὸν ἐν ᾧ ἐπεγέγραπτο ΑΓΝΩΣΤΩ ΘΕΩ. ὃ οὖν ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε, τοῦτο ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν. 17.16. Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was provoked within him as he saw the city full of idols. 17.22. Paul stood in the midst of the Areopagus, and said, "You men of Athens, I perceive that you are very religious in all things. 17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you.
41. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.6-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 420
3.6. ἐκ τούτων γάρ εἰσιν οἱ ἐνδύνοιτες εἰς τὰς οἰκίας καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντες γυναικάρια σεσωρευμένα ἁμαρτίαις, ἀγόμενα ἐπιθυμίαις ποικίλαις, 3.7. πάντοτε μανθάνοντα καὶ μηδέποτε εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν δυνάμενα. 3.6. For of these are those who creep into houses, and take captive gullible women loaded down with sins, led away by various lusts, 3.7. always learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth.
42. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy spirit, creation of man from dust Found in books: Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 277
5.5. παραδοῦναι τὸν τοιοῦτον τῷ Σατανᾷ εἰς ὄλεθρον τῆς σαρκός, ἵνα τὸ πνεῦμα σωθῇ ἐν τῇ ᾑμέρᾳ τοῦ κυρίου. 5.5. are to deliver such a one to Satan for thedestruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day ofthe Lord Jesus.
43. Mishnah, Shekalim, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 71
44. Mishnah, Yoma, 4.2, 6.2, 7.5, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 258
4.2. "קָשַׁר לָשׁוֹן שֶׁל זְהוֹרִית בְּרֹאשׁ שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ כְנֶגֶד בֵּית שִׁלּוּחוֹ, וְלַנִּשְׁחָט כְּנֶגֶד בֵּית שְׁחִיטָתוֹ. בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל פָּרוֹ שְׁנִיָּה, וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עָלָיו וּמִתְוַדֶּה. וְכָךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם, עָוִיתִי פָּשַׁעְתִּי חָטָאתִי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶׁיךָ. אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם, כַּפֶּר נָא לָעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים וְלַחֲטָאִים, שֶׁעָוִיתִי וְשֶׁפָּשַׁעְתִּי וְשֶׁחָטָאתִי לְפָנֶיךָ אֲנִי וּבֵיתִי וּבְנֵי אַהֲרֹן עַם קְדוֹשֶׁךָ, כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ (ויקרא טז), כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְיָ תִּטְהָרוּ. וְהֵן עוֹנִין אַחֲרָיו, בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: \n", 6.2. "בָּא לוֹ אֵצֶל שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ וְסוֹמֵךְ שְׁתֵּי יָדָיו עָלָיו וּמִתְוַדֶּה. וְכָךְ הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אָנָּא הַשֵּׁם, עָווּ פָּשְׁעוּ חָטְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל. אָנָּא בַּשֵּׁם, כַּפֶּר נָא לָעֲוֹנוֹת וְלַפְּשָׁעִים וְלַחֲטָאִים, שֶׁעָווּ וְשֶׁפָּשְׁעוּ וְשֶׁחָטְאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ עַמְּךָ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל, כַּכָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדֶּךָ לֵאמֹר (ויקרא טז), כִּי בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְיָ תִּטְהָרוּ. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהָעָם הָעוֹמְדִים בָּעֲזָרָה, כְּשֶׁהָיוּ שׁוֹמְעִים שֵׁם הַמְפֹרָשׁ שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מִפִּי כֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, הָיוּ כּוֹרְעִים וּמִשְׁתַּחֲוִים וְנוֹפְלִים עַל פְּנֵיהֶם, וְאוֹמְרִים, בָּרוּךְ שֵׁם כְּבוֹד מַלְכוּתוֹ לְעוֹלָם וָעֶד: \n", 7.5. "כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מְשַׁמֵּשׁ בִּשְׁמֹנָה כֵלִים. וְהַהֶדְיוֹט בְּאַרְבָּעָה, בְּכֻתֹּנֶת וּמִכְנָסַיִם וּמִצְנֶפֶת וְאַבְנֵט. מוֹסִיף עָלָיו כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, חשֶׁן וְאֵפוֹד וּמְעִיל וָצִיץ. בְּאֵלּוּ נִשְׁאָלִין בְּאוּרִים וְתֻמִּים. וְאֵין נִשְׁאָלִין אֶלָּא לַמֶּלֶךְ וּלְבֵית דִּין וּלְמִי שֶׁהַצִּבּוּר צָרִיךְ בּוֹ: \n", 8.9. "הָאוֹמֵר, אֶחֱטָא וְאָשׁוּב, אֶחֱטָא וְאָשׁוּב, אֵין מַסְפִּיקִין בְּיָדוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּשׁוּבָה. אֶחֱטָא וְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר, אֵין יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר. עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבֵּין אָדָם לַמָּקוֹם, יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר. עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, אֵין יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר, עַד שֶׁיְּרַצֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. אֶת זוֹ דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְיָ תִּטְהָרוּ (ויקרא טז), עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבֵּין אָדָם לַמָּקוֹם, יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר. עֲבֵרוֹת שֶׁבֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, אֵין יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים מְכַפֵּר, עַד שֶׁיְּרַצֶּה אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אַשְׁרֵיכֶם יִשְׂרָאֵל, לִפְנֵי מִי אַתֶּם מִטַּהֲרִין, וּמִי מְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם, אֲבִיכֶם שֶׁבַּשָּׁמַיִם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל לו), וְזָרַקְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם מַיִם טְהוֹרִים וּטְהַרְתֶּם. וְאוֹמֵר (ירמיה יז), מִקְוֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל יְיָ, מַה מִּקְוֶה מְטַהֵר אֶת הַטְּמֵאִים, אַף הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְטַהֵר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל: \n", 4.2. "He bound a thread of crimson wool on the head of the goat which was to be sent away, and he placed it at the gate where it was later to be sent away, and on the goat that was to be slaughtered [he placed a thread of crimson wool on its neck] at the place of the slaughtering. He came to his bull a second time, pressed his two hands upon it and made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! I have done wrong, I have transgressed, I have sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people. Please, ‘Hashem’! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which I have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, I and my house and the sons of Aaron Your holy people, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And they answered after him: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”", 6.2. "He then came to the scapegoat and laid his two hands upon it and he made confession. And thus he would say: “Please, ‘Hashem’! They have done wrong, they have transgressed, they have sinned before You, Your people the House of Israel. Please, in the name of Hashem (Bashem)! Forgive the wrongdoings, the transgressions, the sins which your people, the House of Israel, have committed and transgressed and sinned before You, as it is written in the torah of Moses Your servant: “For on this day shall atonement be made for you [to cleanse you of all your sins; you shall be clean before the Lord”] (Leviticus 16:30). And the priests and the people standing in the courtyard, when they would hear God’s name explicated coming out of the high priest’s mouth, would bend their knees, bow down and fall on their faces and say “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever!”", 7.5. "The high priest performs the service in eight pieces of clothing, and the common priest in four: in tunic, breeches, a headdress, and a sash. The high priest adds the breastpiece, the ephod, the robe and the frontlet. In these were the Urim and Tummim inquired of. But they were not inquired of except by the king, by the head of the court or by one whom the community needs.", 8.9. "One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel.",
45. Mishnah, Taanit, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 74
1.7. "עָבְרוּ אֵלּוּ וְלֹא נַעֲנוּ, מְמַעֲטִין בְּמַשָּׂא וּמַתָּן, בְּבִנְיָן וּבִנְטִיעָה, בְּאֵרוּסִין וּבְנִשּׂוּאִין וּבִשְׁאֵלַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, כִּבְנֵי אָדָם הַנְּזוּפִין לַמָּקוֹם. הַיְחִידִים חוֹזְרִים וּמִתְעַנִּים עַד שֶׁיֵּצֵא נִיסָן. יָצָא נִיסָן וְלֹא יָרְדוּ גְשָׁמִים, סִימַן קְלָלָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א יב) הֲלוֹא קְצִיר חִטִּים הַיּוֹם, וְגוֹ': \n", 1.7. "If these passed and there was [still] no answer then they restrict engaging in business, and in building, planting, betrothal and marriage, and in greeting one another, as if they were people undesirable to God. The individuals go back to fasting anew until the end of Nisan. If Nisan passes and then rain falls this is a sign of a curse, as it is written, “It is the season of the wheat harvest. [I will pray to the Lord and He will send thunder and rain; then you will take thought and realize what a wicked thing you did in the sight of the Lord when you asked for a king” (I Samuel 12:17).",
46. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.85, 4.326, 9.28, 20.97 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 70; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 100
1.85. He lived nine hundred and sixty-two years; and then his son Enoch succeeded him, who was born when his father was one hundred and sixty-two years old. Now he, when he had lived three hundred and sixty-five years, departed and went to God; whence it is that they have not written down his death. 4.326. and as he was going to embrace Eleazar and Joshua, and was still discoursing with them, a cloud stood over him on the sudden, and he disappeared in a certain valley, although he wrote in the holy books that he died, which was done out of fear, lest they should venture to say that, because of his extraordinary virtue, he went to God. 9.28. Now at this time it was that Elijah disappeared from among men, and no one knows of his death to this very day; but he left behind him his disciple Elisha, as we have formerly declared. And indeed, as to Elijah, and as to Enoch, who was before the deluge, it is written in the sacred books that they disappeared, but so that nobody knew that they died. 20.97. 1. Now it came to pass, while Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain magician, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the river Jordan; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it;
47. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 4.462-4.464 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 221
4.462. for he went out of the city to this fountain, and threw into the current an earthen vessel full of salt; after which he stretched out his righteous hand unto heaven, and, pouring out a mild drink-offering, he made this supplication,—That the current might be mollified, and that the veins of fresh water might be opened; 4.463. that God also would bring into the place a more temperate and fertile air for the current, and would bestow upon the people of that country plenty of the fruits of the earth, and a succession of children; and that this prolific water might never fail them, while they continued to be righteous. 4.464. To these prayers Elisha joined proper operations of his hands, after a skillful manner, and changed the fountain; and that water, which had been the occasion of barrenness and famine before, from that time did supply a numerous posterity, and afforded great abundance to the country.
48. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 258
4.5. "מִצְוַת עֲרָבָה כֵּיצַד, מָקוֹם הָיָה לְמַטָּה מִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְנִקְרָא מוֹצָא. יוֹרְדִין לְשָׁם וּמְלַקְּטִין מִשָּׁם מֻרְבִּיּוֹת שֶׁל עֲרָבָה, וּבָאִין וְזוֹקְפִין אוֹתָן בְּצִדֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְרָאשֵׁיהֶן כְּפוּפִין עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. בְּכָל יוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ פַּעַם אַחַת, וְאוֹמְרִים, אָנָּא ה' הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא, אָנָּא ה' הַצְלִיחָה נָּא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲנִי וָהוֹ הוֹשִׁיעָה נָּא. וְאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם מַקִּיפִין אֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים. בִּשְׁעַת פְּטִירָתָן, מָה הֵן אוֹמְרִים, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ, יֹפִי לְךָ מִזְבֵּחַ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ. לְיָהּ וּלְךָ, מִזְבֵּחַ: \n", 4.5. "The mitzvah of the aravah how was it [performed]?There was a place below Jerusalem called Moza. They went down there and gathered tall branches of aravot and then they came and stood them up at the sides of the altar, and their tops were bent over the altar. They then sounded a teki’ah [long blast], a teru’ah [staccato blast] and again a teki’ah. Every day they went round the altar once, saying, “O Lord, save us, O Lord, make us prosper” (Psalms 118:. Rabbi Judah says: “Ani vaho, save us.” On that day they went round the altar seven times. When they departed, what did they say? “O altar, beauty is to you! O altar, beauty is to you!” Rabbi Eliezer said: [they would say,] “To the Lord and to you, O altar, to the Lord and to you, O altar.”",
49. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.5, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56; Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 263
9.5. "נִפְטְרוּ זִקְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶן. זִקְנֵי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר מְבִיאִין עֶגְלַת בָּקָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא עֻבַּד בָּהּ אֲשֶׁר לֹא מָשְׁכָה בְּעֹל (שם), וְאֵין הַמּוּם פּוֹסֵל בָּהּ, וּמוֹרִידִין אוֹתָהּ לְנַחַל אֵיתָן. וְאֵיתָן כְּמַשְׁמָעוֹ, קָשֶׁה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֵיתָן, כָּשֵׁר. וְעוֹרְפִין אוֹתָהּ בְּקוֹפִיץ מֵאֲחוֹרֶיהָ. וּמְקוֹמָהּ אָסוּר מִלִּזְרֹעַ וּמִלַּעֲבֹד, וּמֻתָּר לִסְרֹק שָׁם פִּשְׁתָּן וּלְנַקֵּר שָׁם אֲבָנִים: \n", 9.15. "מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי מֵאִיר, בָּטְלוּ מוֹשְׁלֵי מְשָׁלִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן עַזַּאי, בָּטְלוּ הַשַּׁקְדָּנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת בֶּן זוֹמָא, בָּטְלוּ הַדַּרְשָׁנִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, פָּסְקָה טוֹבָה מִן הָעוֹלָם. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, בָּא גוֹבַי וְרַבּוּ צָרוֹת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה, פָּסַק הָעשֶׁר מִן הַחֲכָמִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶּן דּוֹסָא, בָּטְלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי קַטְנוּתָא, פָּסְקוּ חֲסִידִים. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ קַטְנוּתָא, שֶׁהָיָה קַטְנוּתָן שֶׁל חֲסִידִים. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, בָּטַל זִיו הַחָכְמָה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל הַזָּקֵן, בָּטַל כְּבוֹד הַתּוֹרָה וּמֵתָה טָהֳרָה וּפְרִישׁוּת. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בֶּן פָּאבִי, בָּטַל זִיו הַכְּהֻנָּה. מִשֶּׁמֵּת רַבִּי, בָּטְלָה עֲנָוָה וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, בּוֹשׁוּ חֲבֵרִים וּבְנֵי חוֹרִין, וְחָפוּ רֹאשָׁם, וְנִדַּלְדְּלוּ אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה, וְגָבְרוּ בַעֲלֵי זְרוֹעַ וּבַעֲלֵי לָשׁוֹן, וְאֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, וְאֵין שׁוֹאֵל, עַל מִי לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר הַגָּדוֹל אוֹמֵר, מִיּוֹם שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, שָׁרוּ חַכִּימַיָּא לְמֶהֱוֵי כְסָפְרַיָּא, וְסָפְרַיָּא כְּחַזָּנָא, וְחַזָּנָא כְּעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא, וְעַמָּא דְאַרְעָא אָזְלָא וְדַלְדְּלָה, וְאֵין מְבַקֵּשׁ, עַל מִי יֵשׁ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. בְּעִקְּבוֹת מְשִׁיחָא חֻצְפָּא יִסְגֵּא, וְיֹקֶר יַאֲמִיר, הַגֶּפֶן תִּתֵּן פִּרְיָהּ וְהַיַּיִן בְּיֹקֶר, וְהַמַּלְכוּת תֵּהָפֵךְ לְמִינוּת, וְאֵין תּוֹכֵחָה, בֵּית וַעַד יִהְיֶה לִזְנוּת, וְהַגָּלִיל יֶחֱרַב, וְהַגַּבְלָן יִשּׁוֹם, וְאַנְשֵׁי הַגְּבוּל יְסוֹבְבוּ מֵעִיר לְעִיר וְלֹא יְחוֹנָּנוּ, וְחָכְמַת סוֹפְרִים תִּסְרַח, וְיִרְאֵי חֵטְא יִמָּאֲסוּ, וְהָאֱמֶת תְּהֵא נֶעְדֶּרֶת. נְעָרִים פְּנֵי זְקֵנִים יַלְבִּינוּ, זְקֵנִים יַעַמְדוּ מִפְּנֵי קְטַנִּים. (מיכה ז) בֵּן מְנַבֵּל אָב, בַּת קָמָה בְאִמָּהּ, כַּלָּה בַּחֲמֹתָהּ, אֹיְבֵי אִישׁ אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ. פְּנֵי הַדּוֹר כִּפְנֵי הַכֶּלֶב, הַבֵּן אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּיֵּשׁ מֵאָבִיו. וְעַל מִי יֵשׁ לָנוּ לְהִשָּׁעֵן, עַל אָבִינוּ שֶׁבַּשָּׁמָיִם. רַבִּי פִנְחָס בֶּן יָאִיר אוֹמֵר, זְרִיזוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי נְקִיּוּת, וּנְקִיּוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי טָהֳרָה, וְטָהֳרָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי פְרִישׁוּת, וּפְרִישׁוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי קְדֻשָּׁה, וּקְדֻשָּׁה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי עֲנָוָה, וַעֲנָוָה מְבִיאָה לִידֵי יִרְאַת חֵטְא, וְיִרְאַת חֵטְא מְבִיאָה לִידֵי חֲסִידוּת, וַחֲסִידוּת מְבִיאָה לִידֵי רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ, וְרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְבִיאָה לִידֵי תְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים, וּתְחִיַּת הַמֵּתִים בָּא עַל יְדֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ זָכוּר לַטּוֹב, אָמֵן: \n", 9.5. "The elders of Jerusalem departed and went away. The elders of that city bring “a heifer which has never been worked” (Deuteronomy 21:3). And a blemish does not disqualify it. They bring it down to a hard (etan) wadi “etan” is understood in its literal sense of “hard”. Even if it is not “hard”, it is valid [for the ceremony]. They break its neck with a hatchet from behind. The site may never be sown or tilled, but it is permitted to comb flax and chisel rocks.", 9.15. "When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”",
50. Mishnah, Shabbat, None (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 74
51. Juvenal, Satires, 9.124-9.129 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •charles iv, holy roman emperor Found in books: Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 221
52. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56
3.6. "מִי שֶׁהָיָה בֵיתוֹ סָמוּךְ לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה וְנָפַל, אָסוּר לִבְנוֹתוֹ. כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה, כּוֹנֵס בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת וּבוֹנֶה. הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ וְשֶׁל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, נִדּוֹן מֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה. אֲבָנָיו עֵצָיו וַעֲפָרוֹ, מְטַמְּאִין כַּשֶּׁרֶץ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ז) שַׁקֵּץ תְּשַׁקְּצֶנּוּ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, כַּנִּדָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ל) תִּזְרֵם כְּמוֹ דָוָה, צֵא תֹּאמַר לוֹ, מַה נִּדָּה מְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא, אַף עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה מְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא:", 3.6. "If [a Jew] has a house next to an idolatrous shrine and it collapsed, he is forbidden to rebuild it. What should he do? He withdraws a distance of four cubits into his own ground and build there. [If the wall] belonged both to him and the shrine, it is judged as being half and half. Its stones, timber and rubbish defile like a creeping thing, as it says, “you shall utterly detest it” (Deut. 7:26). ] Rabbi Akiba says: [it defiles] like a menstruous woman, as it says, “[and you will treat as unclean the silver overlay of your images and the golden plating of your idols]. You will cast them away like a menstruous woman. Out, you will call to them” (Isaiah 30:22), just as a menstruous woman impurifies [an object] by carrying it, so also an idolatrous object defiles by its being carried.",
53. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 69, 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 78, 100, 205, 216, 235, 246, 261, 266, 267, 268, 271, 272, 275, 276, 285, 398, 405, 420, 422, 423
5.5. "הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְטָעָה, סִימָן רַע לוֹ. וְאִם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא, סִימָן רַע לְשׁוֹלְחָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן דּוֹסָא, כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַחוֹלִים וְאוֹמֵר, זֶה חַי וְזֶה מֵת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ. אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְפִלָּתִי בְּפִי, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְקֻבָּל. וְאִם לָאו, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְטֹרָף: \n", 5.5. "One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”",
54. Mishnah, Avot, 1.1, 3.1, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •ashmedai (asmodeus), portrayal of, as a holy man, in the babylonian talmud Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 103; Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 210
1.1. "משֶׁה קִבֵּל תּוֹרָה מִסִּינַי, וּמְסָרָהּ לִיהוֹשֻׁעַ, וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ לִזְקֵנִים, וּזְקֵנִים לִנְבִיאִים, וּנְבִיאִים מְסָרוּהָ לְאַנְשֵׁי כְנֶסֶת הַגְּדוֹלָה. הֵם אָמְרוּ שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים, הֱווּ מְתוּנִים בַּדִּין, וְהַעֲמִידוּ תַלְמִידִים הַרְבֵּה, וַעֲשׂוּ סְיָג לַתּוֹרָה: \n", 3.1. "עֲקַבְיָא בֶן מַהֲלַלְאֵל אוֹמֵר, הִסְתַּכֵּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים וְאִי אַתָּה בָא לִידֵי עֲבֵרָה. דַּע מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן. מֵאַיִן בָּאתָ, מִטִּפָּה סְרוּחָה, וּלְאָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, לִמְקוֹם עָפָר רִמָּה וְתוֹלֵעָה. וְלִפְנֵי מִי אַתָּה עָתִיד לִתֵּן דִּין וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן, לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ מַלְכֵי הַמְּלָכִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא:", 4.1. "בֶּן זוֹמָא אוֹמֵר, אֵיזֶהוּ חָכָם, הַלּוֹמֵד מִכָּל אָדָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קיט) מִכָּל מְלַמְּדַי הִשְׂכַּלְתִּי כִּי עֵדְוֹתֶיךָ שִׂיחָה לִּי. אֵיזֶהוּ גִבּוֹר, הַכּוֹבֵשׁ אֶת יִצְרוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי טז) טוֹב אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם מִגִּבּוֹר וּמשֵׁל בְּרוּחוֹ מִלֹּכֵד עִיר. אֵיזֶהוּ עָשִׁיר, הַשָּׂמֵחַ בְּחֶלְקוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קכח) יְגִיעַ כַּפֶּיךָ כִּי תֹאכֵל אַשְׁרֶיךָ וְטוֹב לָךְ. אַשְׁרֶיךָ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. וְטוֹב לָךְ, לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. אֵיזֶהוּ מְכֻבָּד, הַמְכַבֵּד אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א ב) כִּי מְכַבְּדַי אֲכַבֵּד וּבֹזַי יֵקָלּוּ: \n", 1.1. "Moses received the torah at Sinai and transmitted it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the Men of the Great Assembly. They said three things: Be patient in [the administration of] justice, raise many disciples and make a fence round the Torah.", 3.1. "Akabyah ben Mahalalel said: mark well three things and you will not come into the power of sin: Know from where you come, and where you are going, and before whom you are destined to give an account and reckoning. From where do you come? From a putrid drop. Where are you going? To a place of dust, of worm and of maggot. Before whom you are destined to give an account and reckoning? Before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be he.", 4.1. "Ben Zoma said:Who is wise? He who learns from every man, as it is said: “From all who taught me have I gained understanding” (Psalms 119:99). Who is mighty? He who subdues his [evil] inclination, as it is said: “He that is slow to anger is better than the mighty; and he that rules his spirit than he that takes a city” (Proverbs 16:3). Who is rich? He who rejoices in his lot, as it is said: “You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors, you shall be happy and you shall prosper” (Psalms 128:2) “You shall be happy” in this world, “and you shall prosper” in the world to come. Who is he that is honored? He who honors his fellow human beings as it is said: “For I honor those that honor Me, but those who spurn Me shall be dishonored” (I Samuel 2:30).",
55. Statius, Thebais, 4.414-4.418 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
56. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 72
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.",
57. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 205, 216, 235, 246, 261, 266, 267, 268, 271, 272, 275, 276, 285, 398, 405, 420, 422, 423
58. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 66
5.1. Ἀλλ̓ ἵνα τῶν ἀρχαίων ὑποδειγμάτων παυσώμεθα, ἔλθωμεν ἐπὶ τοὺς ἔγγιστα γενομένους ἀθλητάς: λάβωμεν τῆς γενεᾶς ἡμῶν τὰ γενναῖα ὑποδείγματα.
59. Tosefta, Berachot, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 262
1.12. "מזכירין יציאת מצרים בלילות אמר ר' אלעזר בן עזריה הריני כבן שבעים שנה ולא זכיתי שתאמר יציאת מצרים בלילות עד שדרשה בן זומא שנאמר (דברים טז) למען תזכור את יום צאתך מארץ מצרים כל ימי חייך ימי חייך הימים כל ימי חייך הלילות אלו דברי בן זומא וחכ\"א ימי חייך העולם הזה כל ימי חייך להביא לימות המשיח אמר להם בן זומא לחכמים וכי מזכירים יציאת מצרים לימות המשיח הרי הוא אומר (ירמיהו כג) לכן הנה ימים באים נאם ה' וגו' אמרו לו לא שתעקר יציאת מצרים ממקומה אלא שתאמר יציאת מצרים מוסף על המלכיות ומלכיות עיקר ויציאת מצרים טפילה כיוצא בו (בראשית לה) ולא יקרא שמך עוד יעקב וגו' לא שתעקר שם יעקב ממנו אלא שתהא שם יעקב מוסף על ישראל ישראל עיקר ויעקב טפילה.",
60. Tosefta, Oholot, 18.1-18.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56
18.1. "מעשה ברבי ור' ישמעאל בר' יוסי ור' אלעזר הקפר ששבתו בחנות של עובד כוכבים בלוד והיה ר' פינחס בן יאיר יושב לפניהן אמרו לו אשקלון מה אתם בה אמר להן מוכרים חטין בבסילקאות שלהן וטופלין את פסחיהן לערב אמרו לו מהו שנהג בה מארץ העמים אמר להן כשישהה מ' יום אמרו לו א\"כ בואו ונמנה עליה לפוטרה מן המעשרות ולא נמנה עמהם ר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כשיצא אמר רבי מפני מה לא נמנית עמנו א\"ל על טומאה אחת שטמאתי טיהרתי ולא מעשרות מתירא אני מבית דין הגדול שמא יריצו את ראשי. ", 18.1. "חומר בארץ העמים שאין בבית הפרס ובבית הפרס שאין בארץ העמים שארץ העמים בתולה שלה טמאה ומטמאה בביאה ואין לך טהרה מטומאתה מה שאין כן בבית הפרס. חומר בבית הפרס שאפי' טהרה מקפתו מארבע רוחותיו הרי הוא בחזקת בית הפרס. ארץ העמים אם יכול ליכנס לה בטהרה טהורה וכמה תהא סמוכה ויהא יכול ליכנס לה בטהרה רשב\"ג אומר אפי' תלם אחד הרי זה מפסיק אמר ר\"ש יכול אני להאכיל את הכהנים טהרות בבורסקי שבצדן ושבעירות שבלבנות מפני שסמוכין לים או לנהר אמרו לו הרי פסלין מפסיק. חזקת דרכים של עולי בבל אע\"פ שמובלעות בארץ העמים טהורות רשב\"ג אומר עד מקום שאדם פונה מימינו ומשמאלו ואין בוש. עיירות המובלעות בארץ ישראל כגון סיסית וחברותיה אשקלון וחברותיה אע\"פ שפטורות מן המעשר ומן השביעית אין בהם משום ארץ העמים.", 18.2. "הנכנס לארץ העמים בשידה ובמגדל טהור בקרון בעגלה ובספינה ובאכסרא טמא. המכניס ראשו ורובו לארץ העמים טמא כלי חרס שהכניס אוירו לארץ העמים טמא. הספסלין והקתדראות שהכניס רובן לארץ העמים טמאין.",
61. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 74
1.7. "רשב\"א משום ר\"מ וכן היה רבי דוסא אומר כדבריו חצי תשרי מרחשון וחצי כסלו זרע חצי כסלו וטבת [וחצי שבט] חורף חצי שבט ואדר וחצי ניסן קור חצי ניסן אייר וחצי סיון קציר חצי סיון תמוז וחצי אב קיץ חצי אב אלול וחצי תשרי חום רבי יהודה היה מונה ממרחשון ר\"ש מונה מתשרי."
62. Tosefta, Zavim, 2.1, 5.6-5.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56
2.1. "העובדי כוכבים והגר תושב אינן מטמאין בזיבה ואע\"פ שאינן מטמאין בזיבה טמאין כזבין לכל דבריהם. ושורפין עליהן את התרומה ואין חייבין עליהן על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו. טומטום ואנדרוגינוס שראו בין לובן בין אודם אין שורפין עליהן את התרומה ואין חייבין עליהן על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו ראו לובן או אודם כאחד שורפין עליהן את התרומה ואין חייבין עליהן על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו. הנוגע בלובן ואודם ונכנס למקדש פטור. הוא עצמו שנגע בלובן ואודם ונכנס למקדש פטור. היה מונה ללובן וראה אודם לאודם וראה לובן הרי זה אינו סותר.", 5.6. "עבודת כוכבים כשרץ ומשמשיה כשרץ שנ' שקץ תשקצנו ר\"ע אומר כנדה שנא' (ישעיהו ל׳:כ״ב) תזרם כמו דוה צא תאמר לו מה נדה מטמאה במשא אף עבודת כוכבים מטמא במשא.", 5.7. "המכניס ראשו ורובו לבית עבודת כוכבים טמא. כלי חרס שהכניס אוירו לבית עבודת כוכבים טמא הספסלין והקתדראות שהכניס רובן לבית עבודת כוכבים טמא.",
63. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 8.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •manumission, havurot, holy havurah Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 238
64. Anon., Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, None (2nd cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •manumission, havurot, holy havurah Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 238
65. Palestinian Talmud, Bikkurim, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
66. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 264
67. Palestinian Talmud, Ketuvot, 5.6, 5.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •sanctity and holiness, its transformation from the temple to humanity Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 257, 265; Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 193
68. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 72
69. Palestinian Talmud, Gittin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 72
70. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 4.6, 6.5, 17.7, 25.1, 63.8, 68.3, 84.21, 87.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 77
4.6. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת הָרָקִיעַ, זֶה אֶחָד מִן הַמִּקְרָאוֹת שֶׁהִרְעִישׁ בֶּן זוֹמָא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וַיַּעַשׂ, אֶתְמְהָא, וַהֲלוֹא בְּמַאֲמָר הֵן, הֱוֵי (תהלים לג, ו): בִּדְבַר ה' שָׁמַיִם נַעֲשׂוּ וּבְרוּחַ פִּיו כָּל צְבָאָם, לָמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב בַּשֵּׁנִי כִּי טוֹב, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן תָּנֵי לָהּ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא, שֶׁבּוֹ נִבְרֵאת גֵּיהִנֹּם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ל, לג): כִּי עָרוּךְ מֵאֶתְמוּל תָּפְתֶּה, יוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֶתְמוֹל וְאֵין בּוֹ שִׁלְשׁוֹם. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא אוֹמֵר שֶׁבּוֹ נִבְרֵאת מַחְלֹקֶת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וִיהִי מַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לָמָיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי טַבְיוֹמֵי אִם מַחְלֹקֶת שֶׁהִיא לְתִקּוּנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם וּלְיִשּׁוּבוֹ, אֵין בָּהּ כִּי טוֹב. מַחְלֹקֶת שֶׁהִיא לְעִרְבּוּבוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל לְפִי שֶׁלֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, לְפִיכָךְ כָּתוּב בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי כִּי טוֹב שְׁנֵי פְּעָמִים, אֶחָד לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, וְאֶחָד לִמְלַאכְתּוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם. שָׁאֲלָה מַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ לָמָּה אֵין כְּתִיב בַּשֵּׁנִי כִּי טוֹב, אָמַר לָהּ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חָזַר וּכְלָלוֹ כֻּלּוֹ בַּסּוֹף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א, לא): וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה טוֹב מְאֹד, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ מָשָׁל שִׁשָּׁה בְּנֵי אָדָם בָּאִין אֶצְלְךָ וְאַתְּ נוֹתֵן לְכָל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מָנֶה, וּלְאֶחָד אֵין אַתְּ נוֹתֵן מָנֶה, וְאַתְּ חוֹזֵר וְנוֹתֵן לְכֻלָּם מָנֶה אֶחָד, לֹא נִמְצָא בְּיַד כָּל אֶחָד מָנֶה וּשְׁתוּת וּבְיַד אֶחָד שְׁתּוּת, אֶתְמָהָא. חָזַר וְאָמַר לָהּ כְּהַהוּא דְאָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, לְפִי שֶׁלֹא נִגְמְרָה מְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם, לְפִיכָךְ כְּתִיב בַּשְּׁלִישִׁי שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים כִּי טוֹב, אַחַת לִמְלֶאכֶת הַמַּיִם וְאַחַת לִמְלֶאכֶת הַיּוֹם. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בַּר חֲנִילָאִי אָמַר, כְּתִיב (ישעיה מו, י): מַגִּיד מֵרֵאשִׁית אַחֲרִית, מִתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם צָפָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא משֶׁה קָרוּי טוֹב (שמות ב, ב), וְעָתִיד לִטֹּל אֶת שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא כָּתוּב בָּהֶם כִּי טוֹב. רַבִּי סִימוֹן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ לִגְיוֹן קָשֶׁה, אָמַר הַמֶּלֶךְ הוֹאִיל וְלִגְיוֹן זֶה קָשֶׁה אַל יִכָּתֵב שְׁמִי עָלָיו. כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הוֹאִיל וְהַמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ לָקוּ בָּהֶם דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, וְדוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ, וְדוֹר הַפְלָגָה, לְפִיכָךְ אַל יִכָּתֵב בָּהֶן כִּי טוֹב. 6.5. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם, אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שְׁלשָׁה דְבָרִים נִתְּנוּ מַתָּנָה לָעוֹלָם, וְאֵלּוּ הֵן: הַתּוֹרָה, וְהַמְאוֹרוֹת, וְהַגְּשָׁמִים. הַתּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות לא, יח): וַיִּתֵּן אֶל משֶׁה וגו'. הַמְאוֹרוֹת מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם. גְּשָׁמִים מִנַּיִן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, ד): וְנָתַתִּי גִּשְׁמֵיכֶם בְּעִתָּם. רַבִּי עֲזַרְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן רַבִּי סִימוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף הַשָּׁלוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כו, ו): וְנָתַתִּי שָׁלוֹם בָּאָרֶץ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן רַבִּי נְחֶמְיָה אָמַר, אַף הַיְשׁוּעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יח, לו): וַתִּתֶּן לִי מָגֵן יִשְׁעֶךָ. רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא אָמַר, אַף אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, מד): וַיִּתֵּן לָהֶם אַרְצוֹת גּוֹיִם וגו'. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, אַף הַנְּקָמָה בֶּאֱדוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל כה, יד): וְנָתַתִּי נִקְמָתִי בֶּאֱדוֹם וגו'. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי, אַף הָרַחֲמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קו, מו): וַיִּתֵּן אוֹתָם לְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי כָּל שׁוֹבֵיהֶם. רַבִּי יִצְחָק בַּר מַרְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף הַפְרָשַׁת הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מג, טז): כֹּה אָמַר ה' הַנּוֹתֵן בַּיָּם דֶּרֶךְ וגו'. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי: הַנּוֹתֵן בַּיָּם דֶּרֶךְ, מֵעֲצֶרֶת וְעַד הֶחָג. וּבְמַיִם עַזִּים נְתִיבָה, מִן הֶחָג וְעַד הַחֲנֻכָּה. רַבִּי נָתָן בַּר אֲחוּהָ דְּרַבִּי חִיָּא בַּר אַבָּא הֲוָה מְפָרֵשׁ בְּיַמָּא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ לַאֲחוּי צַלֵּי עֲלַי, אֲמַר לֵיהּ מַה נְּצַלֵּי עֲלָךְ, מִן דְּאַתְּ קְטַר לוּלָבָךְ קְטוֹר רַגְלָיךְ, אִין עָיְילַת לִכְנִישְׁתָּא וּשְׁמַעְתָּן מְצַלְּיָן עַל מִטְרָא לָא תִסְמֹךְ עַל צְלוֹתִי. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּרֵיהּ דְרַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בֶּן רַבִּי חִיָּא דִּכְפַר חָנוּן, הֲוָה בְּאַסְיָא, בְּעָא דְּיִפְרשׁ, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ מַטְרוֹנָה, בְּאִילֵין יוֹמַיָא פָּרְשֵׁי, אֶתְמְהָא, אִתְחַזֵּי לֵיהּ אֲבוּי בְּחֶלְמָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרִי בְּלֹא קְבוּרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (קהלת ו, ג): גַּם קְבוּרָה לֹא הָיְתָה לוֹ, וְלָא שְׁמַע לָא לְמִילֵי דְדֵין וְלָא לְמִילֵי דְדֵין, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. 17.7. מַטְרוֹנָה אַחַת שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ, לָמָּה בִּגְנֵבָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם הִפְקִיד אָדָם לְיָדֵךְ אוּנְקְיָא שֶׁל כֶּסֶף בַּחֲשַׁאי וְחָזַרְתְּ לֵיהּ לִטְרָא שֶׁל זָהָב בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, זוֹ גְּנֵבָה. אָמְרָה לוֹ, לָמָּה בְּמַטְמוֹנִיּוֹת, וְאָמַר לָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה בְּרָאָהּ לוֹ, וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ מְלֵאָה רִירִין וְדָם הִפְלִיגָהּ מִמֶּנוּ, חָזַר וּבְרָאָהּ לוֹ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה. אָמְרָה לוֹ מוֹסֶפֶת אֲנִי עַל דְּבָרֶיךָ, אֲמוּרָה הָיִיתִי לְהִנָּשֵׂא לַאֲחִי אִמִּי, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁגָּדַלְתִּי עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת הִתְכַּעַרְתִּי בְּעֵינָיו, וְהָלַךְ וְנָשָׂא לוֹ אִשָּׁה אַחֶרֶת וְאֵינָהּ נָאָה כָּמוֹנִי. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּחָסִיד אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה נָשׂוּי לַחֲסִידָה אַחַת וְלֹא הֶעֱמִידוּ בָנִים זֶה מִזֶּה, אָמְרוּ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹעִילִים לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא כְּלוּם, עָמְדוּ וְגֵרְשׁוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה, הָלַךְ זֶה וְנָשָׂא רְשָׁעָה אַחַת וְעָשְׂתָה אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע, הָלְכָה זֹאת וְנִשַֹּׂאת לְרָשָׁע אֶחָד וְעָשְׂתָה אוֹתוֹ צַדִּיק, הֱוֵי שֶׁהַכֹּל מִן הָאִשָּׁה. 25.1. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים (בראשית ה, כד), אָמַר רַבִּי חָמָא בַּר הוֹשַׁעְיָא אֵינוֹ נִכְתַּב בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל צַדִּיקִים אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ טִימוֹסָן שֶׁל רְשָׁעִים. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ חֲנוֹךְ חָנֵף הָיָה, פְּעָמִים צַדִּיק פְּעָמִים רָשָׁע, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עַד שֶׁהוּא בְּצִדְקוֹ אֲסַלְּקֶנּוּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה דָּנוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא דָן כָּל בָּאֵי עוֹלָם. אֶפִּיקוֹרְסִים שָׁאֲלוּ לְרַבִּי אַבָּהוּ אָמְרוּ לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה לַחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לָמָּה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ נֶאֶמְרָה כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֶמְרָה לְהַלָּן (מלכים ב ב, ה): כִּי הַיּוֹם ה' לֹקֵחַ אֶת אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ, אָמַר לָהֶם אִם לִלְּקִיחָה אַתֶּם דּוֹרְשִׁים, נֶאֱמַר כָּאן לְקִיחָה וְנֶאֱמַר לְהַלָּן (יחזקאל כד, טז): הִנְנִי לֹקֵחַ מִמְּךָ אֶת מַחְמַד עֵינֶיךָ, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא יָפֶה הֵשִׁיבָן רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמְרָה לוֹ אֵין אָנוּ מוֹצְאִין מִיתָה בַּחֲנוֹךְ, אָמַר לָהּ אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כד): וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁתַק, הָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר כִּדְבָרַיִךְ, כְּשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים, וְאֵינֶנּוּ בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה כִּי לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים. 63.8. וַיִּמְלְאוּ יָמֶיהָ לָלֶדֶת (בראשית כה, כד), לְהַלָּן חֲסֵרִים וְכָאן מְלֵאִים, לְהַלָּן כְּתִיב (בראשית לח, כז): תְאוֹמִים, פֶּרֶץ וְזֶרַח שְׁנֵיהֶם צַדִּיקִים, וְכָאן תוֹמִם, יַעֲקֹב צַדִּיק וְעֵשָׂו רָשָׁע. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי חַגַּי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִצְחָק בִּזְכוּת (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֲנִי נִגְלֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה מד, ו): אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן, וּפוֹרֵעַ לָכֶם מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן, זֶה עֵשָׂו, דִּכְתִיב: וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן, וּבוֹנֶה לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ירמיה יז, יב): כִּסֵּא כָבוֹד מָרוֹם מֵרִאשׁוֹן, וְאָבִיא לָכֶם רִאשׁוֹן, זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַמָּשִׁיחַ, דִּכְתִיב בֵּיהּ (ישעיה מא, כז): רִאשׁוֹן לְצִיּוֹן הִנֵּה הִנָּם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיֵּצֵא הָרִאשׁוֹן אַדְמוֹנִי, לָמָה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ כְּהָדֵין פָּרָבִיטָא שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁטֵּף אֶת בֵּית הַמֶּרְחָץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַרְחִיץ בְּנוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, כָּךְ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּצֵא הוּא וְתֵצֵא סַרְיוּתוֹ עִמּוֹ. מַטְרוֹנָא שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא אָמְרָה לֵיהּ לָמָּה יָצָא עֵשָׂו תְּחִלָּה, אָמַר לָהּ, טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה, אָמַר לָהּ מָשָׁל אִם תַּנִּיחוּ שְׁתֵּי מַרְגָּלִיּוֹת בִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת אַחַת, לֹא זוֹ שֶׁאַתְּ נוֹתְנָהּ רִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצְאָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כָּךְ טִפָּה רִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁל יַעֲקֹב הָיְתָה. אַדְמוֹנִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא כְּאִלּוּ שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁרָאָה שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת דָּוִד אַדְמוֹנִי, דִּכְתִיב (שמואל א טז, יב): וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי, נִתְיָרֵא וְאָמַר אַף זֶה שׁוֹפֵךְ דָּמִים כְּעֵשָׂו. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא (שמואל א טז, יב): עִם יְפֵה עֵינַיִם, עֵשָׂו מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ הוּא הוֹרֵג אֲבָל זֶה מִדַּעַת סַנְהֶדְרִין הוּא הוֹרֵג. דִּקְלִיטְיָינוֹס מַלְכָּא הֲוָה רָעֵי חֲזִירִין בַּהֲדָא טְבֶרְיָה, וְכֵיוָן דַּהֲוָה מָטֵי סִדְרֵיהּ דְּרַבִּי הֲוֵי מֵינוֹקָא נָפְקִין וּמָחֲיִין לֵיהּ, לְבָתַר יוֹמִין אִיתְעֲבֵד מֶלֶךְ, נְחַת וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ בַּהֲדָא פַּנְיָיס נ"א: פַּמְיָיס, וּשְׁלַח כְּתָבִים לִטְבֶרְיָא מִפְּנֵי רַמְשָׁא דַעֲרוֹבְתָה, אֲמַר אֲנָא יָהֵיב קֵלֶווֹן דְּיֶהֱווֹן רַבְרְבָנֵי דִּיהוּדָאֵי קָיְימִין קֳדָמִי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבָּא. פַּקְדֵּיהּ לִשְׁלִיחָא אֲמַר לֵיהּ לָא תִתֵּן יָתְהוֹן לְהוֹן אֶלָּא עִם מַטְעֲמֵי יוֹמָא דַעֲרוֹבְתָא. נְחַת רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן לְמִיסְחֵי, חַמְתֵי לְרַבִּי דַּהֲוָה קָאֵים קוֹמֵי סִדְרָא רַבָּה רָאָה פָּנָיו חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אָמַר לוֹ לָמָּה פָנֶיךָ חוֹלָנִיּוֹת, אֲמַר כֵּן וְכֵן אִשְׁתַּדַּר לִי כְּתָבִין מִן מַלְכוּתָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִיתָא סְחֵי דְּבָרְיָיךְ עֲבֵיד לָנָא נִסִּין. עָלוֹן לְמִסְחֵי וַאֲתָא הָדֵין אַרְגִּינִיטוֹן מְגַחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד קֳדָמֵיהוֹן. בְּעָא רַבִּי דְּיִזְעוֹף בֵּיהּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן רַבִּי שַׁבְקֵיהּ דְּזִמְנִין עַל נִסִּין הוּא מִתְחֲמָא. אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָרָיךְ בְּעָקָא וְאַתְּ קָאֵים גָּחֵךְ וּמְרַקֵּד. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲזַלוּן וְאַכְלוּן וּשְׁתוֹן וְעַבְדוּן שַׁבָּא טָבָא דְּמָרֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין וַאֲנָא מְקִים לְכוֹן קֳדָמוֹי בְּצַפְרָא דְחַד בְּשַׁבְּתָא. בַּאֲפוּקֵי שַׁבְּתָא בָּתַר סִידְרָא, נְסַבוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי דְּפַנְיָיס. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ הָא קָיְימִין קֳדָם פְּיָילֵי. אֲמַר סִגְרוּן פְּיָילִי. נְסַבוּהוֹן וַאֲקִימוֹן עַל מְטַכְּסָא דִּמְדִינְתָּא. עָלוּן וְאָמְרִין לֵיהּ, אֲמַר אֲנָא קֵלֶווֹן אֲנָא דְּיִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמֵי וְיַעֲלוּן וְיִסְחוּן וְיֶאֱתוֹן לְגַבָּאי, אֲזַלוּן וְאִתְּזוּן בֵּי בַּנֵּי תְּלָתָא יוֹמִין וְעָאל חַד אַרְגִינִיטוֹן וּמוֹזְגָהּ קֳדָמֵיהוֹן וְעָלוּ וּסְחוּן וַאֲתוֹן לְגַבֵּיהּ. אֲמַר לְהוֹן בְּגִין דְּאַתּוּן יָדְעִין דֵּאלָהֵיכוֹן עָבֵיד לְכוֹן נִסִּין אַתּוּן מְקִילִין לְמַלְכָּא. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוֹס רָעֵי חֲזִירִין אֲקֵילֵינַן, בְּרַם לְדִיקְלֵיטְיָינוּס מַלְכָּא אֲנַן מְשֻׁעְבָּדִים. אֲמַר לְהוֹן אֲפִלּוּ כֵּן לָא תִבְזוֹן לָא בְּרוֹמִי זְעֵיר וְלָא בְּגוּלְיָיר זְעֵיר. (בראשית כה, כה): כֻּלּוֹ כְּאַדֶּרֶת שֵׂעָר, אָמַר רַבִּי חֲנִינָה כֻּלּוֹ רָאוּי לְאַדֶּרֶת. רַבָּנָן דָּרוֹמָאֵי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי וְרַחֲבָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּא בַּר כַּהֲנָא אָמַר יָצָא כֻּלּוֹ מְפֹזָר וּמְפֹרָד כְּאַדֶּרֶת, לִזְרוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹץ וּכְקַשׁ מֵאִדְּרָא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ב, לה): בֵּאדַיִן דָּקוּ כַחֲדָה פַּרְזְלָא וגו' וַהֲווֹ כְּעוּר מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בַּר יִצְחָק אָמַר מִי גָרַם לָהֶם לְהֵעָשׂוֹת כְּעוּר, מִן אִדְּרֵי קַיִט, עַל שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ יְדֵיהֶם בָּאַדִּירִים. (בראשית כה, כה): וַיִּקְרְאוּ שְׁמוֹ עֵשָׂו, הֵא שָׁוְא שֶׁבָּרָאתִי בְּעוֹלָמִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יִצְחָק אַתּוּן קְרֵיתוּן לַחֲזִירַתְכוֹן שֵׁם, אַף אֲנָא קוֹרֵא לִבְנִי בְכוֹרִי שֵׁם, (שמות ד, כב): כֹּה אָמַר ה' בְּנִי בְּכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל. 68.3. רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ פָּתַח (משלי יט, יד): בַּיִת וָהוֹן נַחֲלַת אָבוֹת וּמֵה' אִשָּׁה מַשְׂכָּלֶת, רַבִּי פִּינְחָס בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַבָּהוּ, מָצִינוּ בַּתּוֹרָה בַּנְבִיאִים וּבַכְּתוּבִים שֶׁאֵין זִוּוּגוֹ שֶׁל אִישׁ אֶלָּא מִן הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בַּתּוֹרָה מִנַּיִן (בראשית כד, נ): וַיַּעַן לָבָן וּבְתוּאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵה' יָצָא הַדָּבָר. בַּנְּבִיאִים (שופטים יד, ד): וְאָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ לֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי מֵה' הִיא. בַּכְּתוּבִים הַיְנוּ דִּכְתִיב: וּמֵה' אִשָּׁה מַשְׂכָּלֶת. יֵשׁ שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל זִוּוּגוֹ וְיֵשׁ שֶׁזִּוּוּגוֹ בָּא אֶצְלוֹ, יִצְחָק זִוּוּגוֹ בָּא אֶצְלוֹ, (בראשית כד, סג): וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה גְּמַלִּים בָּאִים. יַעֲקֹב הָלַךְ אֵצֶל זִוּוּגוֹ, דִּכְתִיב: וַיֵּצֵא יַעֲקֹב. 84.21. וַיָּקֻמוּ כָל בָּנָיו וְכָל בְּנֹתָיו (בראשית לז, לה), כַּמָּה בָּנוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ חֲדָא הֲוַת וְהַלְוַאי קְבָרָהּ, אֶלָּא אֵין אָדָם נִמְנַע מִלִקְרֹא לַחֲתָנוֹ בְּנוֹ וּלְכַלָּתוֹ בִּתּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר לְאַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם נָשְׂאוּ הַשְּׁבָטִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיָּקֻמוּ כָל בָּנָיו וְכָל בְּנֹתָיו לְנַחֲמוֹ. (בראשית לז, לה): וַיְמָאֵן לְהִתְנַחֵם, מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אָמְרָה לוֹ כְּתִיב (דברי הימים א ה, ב): כִּי יְהוּדָה גָּבַר בְּאֶחָיו, וּכְתִיב (בראשית לח, יב): וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל גֹּזְזֵי צֹאנוֹ, וְזֶה אֲבִיהֶם שֶׁל כֻּלָּם וַיְמָאֵן לְהִתְנַחֵם, אָמַר לָהּ מִתְנַחֲמִים עַל הַמֵּתִים וְאֵין מִתְנַחֲמִים עַל הַחַיִּים. (בראשית לז, לה): וַיֵּבְךְּ אֹתוֹ אָבִיו, זֶה יִצְחָק. רַבִּי לֵוִי וְרַבִּי סִימוֹן אָמְרוּ אֶצְלוֹ הָיָה בּוֹכֶה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא מֵאֶצְלוֹ הָיָה הוֹלֵךְ וְרוֹחֵץ וְסָךְ וְאוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה. וְלָמָּה לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ, אָמַר, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לֹא גִּלָּה לוֹ וַאֲנִי מְגַלֶּה לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי סִימוֹן עַל שֵׁם כָּל שֶׁמִּתְאַבְּלִין עָלָיו מִתְאַבְּלִין עִמּוֹ. 87.6. וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם (בראשית לט, י), רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין אָמַר בָּנֶיהָ שֶׁל רָחֵל נִסָּן שָׁוֶה וּגְדֻלָּתָן שָׁוָה, נִסָּן שָׁוֶה, וַיְהִי כְּדַבְּרָהּ אֶל יוֹסֵף יוֹם יוֹם, (אסתר ג, ד): וַיְהִי כְּאָמְרָם אֵלָיו יוֹם וָיוֹם. (בראשית לט, י): וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ (אסתר ג, ד): וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵיהֶם. וּגְדֻלָּתָן שָׁוָה (בראשית מא, מב): וַיָּסַר פַּרְעֹה אֶת טַבַּעְתּוֹ, (אסתר ח, ב): וַיָּסַר הַמֶּלֶךְ אֶת טַבַּעְתּוֹ. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ עַל יַד יוֹסֵף, (אסתר ח, ב): וַיִּתְּנָהּ לְמָרְדְּכָי. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיַּלְבֵּשׁ אֹתוֹ בִּגְדֵי שֵׁשׁ, (אסתר ו, ט): וְנָתוֹן הַלְּבוּשׁ וְהַסּוּס וגו' וַיִּקַּח הָמָן וגו'. (בראשית מא, מב): וַיָּשֶׂם רְבִיד הַזָּהָב עַל צַוָּארוֹ, (אסתר ח, ב): וַתָּשֶׂם אֶסְתֵּר אֶת מָרְדְּכַי עַל בֵּית הָמָן. (בראשית מא, מג): וַיַּרְכֵּב אֹתוֹ בְּמִרְכֶּבֶת הַמִּשְׁנֶה אֲשֶׁר לוֹ, (אסתר ו, ט): וַיַּרְכִּבֵהוּ עַל הַסּוּס בִּרְחוֹב הָעִיר. (בראשית מא, מג): וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו אַבְרֵךְ, (אסתר ו, יא): וַיִּקְרָא לְפָנָיו כָּכָה וגו'. וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ לִשְׁכַּב אֶצְלָהּ, בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה. לִהְיוֹת עִמָּהּ, שֶׁיִהְיֶה עִמָּהּ בַּגֵּיהִנֹּם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֵלֶיהָ, אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁכִיבָה בְּלֹא תַשְׁמִישׁ. מַטְרוֹנָה שָׁאֲלָה אֶת רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, אָמְרָה לוֹ, אֶפְשָׁר יוֹסֵף בֶּן שְׁבַע עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה הָיָה עוֹמֵד בְּכָל חֻמְאוֹ וְהָיָה עוֹשֶׂה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, הוֹצִיא לְפָנֶיהָ סֵפֶר בְּרֵאשִׁית וְהִתְחִיל קוֹרֵא לְפָנֶיהָ מַעֲשֵׂה רְאוּבֵן וּבִלְהָה, מַעֲשֵׂה יְהוּדָה וְתָמָר, אָמַר לָהּ מָה אִם אֵלּוּ שֶׁהֵם גְּדוֹלִים וּבִרְשׁוּת אֲבִיהֶן לֹא כִּסָּה עֲלֵיהֶם הַכָּתוּב, זֶה שֶׁהוּא קָטָן וּבִרְשׁוּת עַצְמוֹ עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. 4.6. "\"And God made the firmament\", this is one of the verses that Ben Zoma shook the world with. He i made i - how remarkable! sure it [came into existence] at [God's] i word i , [as it is written], \"With the word of God the heavens were made and with the wind of His mouth all of their armies\". why doesn't it say \"it was good\" on the second day of creation?r yocha taught in the name of r yosi the son of r chalafta, because hell was created on the second day, as it says \" the topheth has been ready for him since yesterday, a day that has a yesterday but not three days ago. another reason that it dose not say \"it was good\" on the second day, r channina says its because division was created on the second day, as it says: \"and it (the heavens) should separate between the two body's of water\". r tivyomi said if division that is for the sake of fixing the world does not have good all the more so division that is to mix up the world doesn't have good. r shmuel says because the creation of water wasnt finished, it was written on the third day \"it was good\" twice, one for the creation of water and one for the days work. a noble woman asked r yosi, why dosen't it say \"and it was good on the second day? he answered her even so it was included in the end as it says: \"and god saw all that he did and it was very good\" she said back to him this is analogous to six people coming to you give each one a manna and to one of them you don't give anything, then you go back and give one manna to everyone, is it not true that 5 of them have a mana and a 1/6 manna and the last one only has 1/6? he said to her like r shmuel says because the creation of water wasnt finished, it was written on the third day \"it was good\" twice, one for the creation of water and one for the days work. r levi in the name of r tanchum the son of r chnelyayi said, it states in the verse:\" he (god) tells the end in the beginning\", from the beginning of creation god saw Moses who is called \"good\" and was ultimately was going to be punished from an issue regarding water and therefore did not write and it was good regarding the water. r simon in the name of r levi said it is analogous to a king who had a bad legion, the king said since this legion is no good my name shouldn't be called on it, so too god said, since these waters punished the generation of the flood, dor enosh, and haflaga it should not be written regarding them \"forit was good\" /i /i /i /i ", 63.8. "“And her days to give birth were completed…” (Genesis 25:24) Below they were lacking, here they were full. Below where the word twins is written full, with the letter aleph, Peretz and Zerach were both righteous. Here it is written without an aleph, Yaakov was righteous and Esau was wicked. “And the first one emerged ruddy…” (Genesis 25:25) R’ Chaggai said in the name of R’ Yitzchak: in the merit of “And you shall take for yourselves on the first day…” (Leviticus 23:40) I will be revealed to you first, as it says “I am first and I am last” (Isaiah 44:6) and I will exact retribution on your behalf from the first who is Esau, as it is written “And the first one emerged” and I will build the first for you, which is the Holy Temple of which it is written “As a Throne of Glory, exalted from the beginning…” (Jeremiah 17:12) and I will bring for you the first who is the King Messiah of whom it is written “The first one to Zion, behold, behold them…” (Isaiah 41:27)", 87.6. "And he did not listen to her to lie down with her - in this world. 'To be with her' in Gehena, in the world to come. And another opinion: 'He did not listen to her' he did not even touch her bed. A certain Roman Matron asked Rabbi Yosi: Is it really possible that Yosef, a young man of 17 resisted all his heat and did this? Rabbi Yosi took out the book of Bereshit and began reading for her the stories of Reuven and Bilhah, Yehudah and Tamar, and said: 'if with those, adults and under their father's authority the Scripture did not hide their misdeed, with this one, not an adult and by himself, all the more so it would have revealed the misdeed!",
71. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.29.2, 1.30.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 290
1.29.2. Ἀθηναίοις δὲ καὶ ἔξω πόλεως ἐν τοῖς δήμοις καὶ κατὰ τὰς ὁδοὺς θεῶν ἐστιν ἱερὰ καὶ ἡρώων καὶ ἀνδρῶν τάφοι· ἐγγυτάτω δὲ Ἀκαδημία, χωρίον ποτὲ ἀνδρὸς ἰδιώτου, γυμνάσιον δὲ ἐπʼ ἐμοῦ. κατιοῦσι δʼ ἐς αὐτὴν περίβολός ἐστιν Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ ξόανα Ἀρίστης καὶ Καλλίστης· ὡς μὲν ἐγὼ δοκῶ καὶ ὁμολογεῖ τὰ ἔπη τὰ Πάμφω, τῆς Ἀρτέμιδός εἰσιν ἐπικλήσεις αὗται, λεγόμενον δὲ καὶ ἄλλον ἐς αὐτὰς λόγον εἰδὼς ὑπερβήσομαι. καὶ ναὸς οὐ μέγας ἐστίν, ἐς ὃν τοῦ Διονύσου τοῦ Ἐλευθερέως τὸ ἄγαλμα ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος κομίζουσιν ἐν τεταγμέναις ἡμέραις. 1.30.3. Ἀκαδημίας δὲ οὐ πόρρω Πλάτωνος μνῆμά ἐστιν, ᾧ προεσήμαινεν ὁ θεὸς ἄριστον τὰ ἐς φιλοσοφίαν ἔσεσθαι· προεσήμαινε δὲ οὕτω. Σωκράτης τῇ προτέρᾳ νυκτὶ ἢ Πλάτων ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαί οἱ μαθητὴς ἐσπτῆναί οἱ κύκνον ἐς τὸν κόλπον εἶδεν ὄνειρον· ἔστι δὲ κύκνῳ τῷ ὄρνιθι μουσικῆς δόξα, ὅτι Λιγύων τῶν Ἠριδανοῦ πέραν ὑπὲρ γῆς τῆς Κελτικῆς Κύκνον ἄνδρα μουσικὸν γενέσθαι βασιλέα φασί, τελευτήσαντα δὲ Ἀπόλλωνος γνώμῃ μεταβαλεῖν λέγουσιν αὐτὸν ἐς τὸν ὄρνιθα. ἐγὼ δὲ βασιλεῦσαι μὲν πείθομαι Λίγυσιν ἄνδρα μουσικόν, γενέσθαι δέ μοι ἄπιστον ὄρνιθα ἀπʼ ἀνδρός. 1.29.2. Outside the city, too, in the parishes and on the roads, the Athenians have sanctuaries of the gods, and graves of heroes and of men. The nearest is the Academy, once the property of a private individual, but in my time a gymnasium. As you go down to it you come to a precinct of Artemis, and wooden images of Ariste (Best) and Calliste (Fairest). In my opinion, which is supported by the poems of Pamphos, these are surnames of Artemis. There is another account of them, which I know but shall omit. Then there is a small temple, into which every year on fixed days they carry the image of Dionysus Eleuthereus. 1.30.3. Not far from the Academy is the monument of Plato, to whom heaven foretold that he would be the prince of philosophers. The manner of the foretelling was this. On the night before Plato was to become his pupil Socrates in a dream saw a swan fly into his bosom. Now the swan is a bird with a reputation for music, because, they say, a musician of the name of Swan became king of the Ligyes on the other side of the Eridanus beyond the Celtic territory, and after his death by the will of Apollo he was changed into the bird. I am ready to believe that a musician became king of the Ligyes, but I cannot believe that a bird grew out of a man.
72. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 4.19, 5, 6.3, 6.5, 7.26-8.5, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9, 8.10, 8.11, 8.12, 8.30 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
8.7. “ὁ μὲν ἀγὼν ὑπὲρ μεγάλων σοί τε, ὦ βασιλεῦ, κἀμοί: σύ τε γὰρ κινδυνεύεις ὑπὲρ ὧν μήποτε αὐτοκράτωρ, εἰ πρὸς φιλοσοφίαν οὐδεμιᾷ δίκῃ διαβεβλῆσθαι δόξεις, ἐγώ τε ὑπὲρ ὧν μηδὲ Σωκράτης ποτὲ ̓Αθήνησιν, ὃν οἱ γραψάμενοι τὴν γραφὴν καινὸν μὲν τὰ δαιμόνια ἡγοῦντο, δαίμονα δὲ οὔτε ἐκάλουν οὔτε ᾤοντο. κινδύνου δὲ ἐφ' ἑκάτερον ἡμῶν οὕτω χαλεποῦ ἥκοντος οὐκ ὀκνήσω καὶ σοὶ ξυμβουλεύειν, ὁπόσα ἐμαυτὸν πέπεικα: ἐπειδὴ γὰρ κατέστησεν ἡμᾶς ὁ κατήγορος ἐς τουτονὶ τὸν ἀγῶνα, ἐσῆλθε τοὺς πολλοὺς οὐκ ἀληθὴς περὶ ἐμοῦ τε καὶ σοῦ δόξα: σὲ μὲν γὰρ ᾤοντο ξυμβούλῳ τῆς ἀκροάσεως ὀργῇ χρήσεσθαι, δἰ ἣν κἂν ἀποκτεῖναί με, ὅ τι ποτέ ἐστι τὸ ἀποκτεῖναι, ἐμὲ δ' ἐκποιήσειν ἐμαυτὸν τοῦ δικαστηρίου τρόποις, ὁπόσοι τοῦ ἀποδρᾶναί εἰσιν, ἦσαν δ', ὦ βασιλεῦ, μυρίοι: καὶ τούτων ἀκούων οὐκ ἐς τὸ προκαταγιγνώσκειν ἦλθον, οὐδὲ κατεψηφισάμην τῆς σῆς ἀκροάσεως ὡς μὴ τὸ εὐθὺ ἐχούσης, ἀλλὰ ξυνθέμενος τοῖς νόμοις ἕστηκα ὑπὸ τῷ λόγῳ. τούτου ξύμβουλος καὶ σοὶ γίγνομαι: δίκαιον γὰρ τὸ μὴ προκαταγιγνώσκειν, μηδὲ καθῆσθαι πεπεισμένον, ὡς ἐγώ τί σε κακὸν εἴργασμαι, μηδ' ὑπὲρ μὲν τοῦ ̓Αρμενίου τε καὶ Βαβυλωνίου καὶ ὅσοι τῶν ἐκείνῃ ἄρχουσιν, οἷς ἵππος τε παμπόλλη ἐστὶ καὶ τοξεία πᾶσα καὶ χρυσῆ γῆ καὶ ἀνδρῶν ὄχλος, ὃν ἐγὼ οἶδα, ἀκούειν ξὺν γέλωτι τὸ πείσεσθαί τι ὑπ' αὐτῶν, ὅ σε καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν ταύτην ἀφαιρήσεται, κατ' ἀνδρὸς δὲ σοφοῦ καὶ γυμνοῦ πιστεύειν, ὥς ἐστι τούτῳ ὅπλον ἐπὶ τὸν ̔Ρωμαίων αὐτοκράτορα, καὶ προσδέχεσθαι ταῦτα Αἰγυπτίου συκοφάντου λέγοντος, ἃ μηδὲ τῆς ̓Αθηνᾶς ποτε ἤκουσας, ἣν σεαυτοῦ προορᾶν φῄς, εἰ μή, νὴ Δία, ἡ κολακευτικὴ καὶ τὸ συκοφαντεῖν οὕτω τι νῦν τοῖς ἀλιτηρίοις τούτοις ἐπιδέδωκεν, ὡς τοὺς θεοὺς ὑπὲρ μὲν τῶν σμικρῶν καὶ ὁπόσα ὀφθαλμίαι τέ εἰσι καὶ τὸ μὴ πυρέξαι, μηδ' ἀνοιδῆσαί τι τῶν σπλάγχνων, ἐπιτηδείους εἶναί σοι ξυμβούλους φάσκειν ἰατρῶν δίκην ἐφαπτομένους καὶ θεραπεύοντας, ὅτου αὐτῶν πονήρως ἔχοις, περὶ δὲ τῇ ἀρχῇ καὶ τῷ σώματι κινδυνεύοντί σοι μηθ' οὓς φυλάττεσθαι χρὴ ξυμβουλεύειν μήθ' ὅ τι ἔσται σοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅπλον διδάσκειν ἥκοντας, ἀλλ' εἶναί σοι τοὺς συκοφάντας αἰγίδα ̓Αθηνᾶς καὶ Διὸς χεῖρα, εἰδέναι μὲν ὑπὲρ σοῦ φάσκοντας, ἃ μηδ' οἱ θεοί, προεγρηγορότας δέ σου καὶ προκαθεύδοντας, εἰ δὴ καθεύδουσιν οὗτοι, κακοῖς, φασιν, ἐπαντλοῦντες κακὰ καὶ τὰς ̓Ιλιάδας ταύτας ἀεὶ ξυντιθέντες. καὶ τὸ μὲν ἱπποτροφεῖν αὐτοὺς κἀπὶ ζευγῶν ἐς τὴν ἀγορὰν ἐκκυκλεῖσθαι λευκῶν καὶ ἡ ἐν ἀργύρῳ καὶ χρυσῷ ὀψοφαγία καὶ γάμοι μυριάδων δύο καὶ τριῶν ἐωνημένα παιδικὰ καὶ τὸ μοιχεύειν μέν, ὃν λανθάνουσι χρόνον, γαμεῖν δέ, ἃς ἐμοίχευσαν, ὅταν ἐπ' αὐταῖς ληφθῶσι, καὶ οἱ κροτοῦντες αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ ταῖς καλαῖς νίκαις, ἐπειδὰν φιλόσοφός τις ἢ ὕπατος ἀδικῶν οὐδὲν ἁλῷ μὲν ὑπὸ τούτων, ἀπόληται δὲ ὑπὸ σοῦ, δεδόσθω τῇ τῶν καταράτων τρυφῇ καὶ τῷ μήτε νόμων αὐτοῖς ἔτι μήτ' ὀφθαλμῶν εἶναι φόβον, τὸ δ' οὕτω τι ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους φρονεῖν, ὡς προγιγνώσκειν βούλεσθαι τῶν θεῶν, ἐγὼ μὲν οὔτ' ἐπαινῶ καὶ ἀκούων δέδια, σὺ δ' εἰ προσδέξοιο, γράψονται καὶ σὲ ἴσως ὡς διαβάλλοντα τὴν περὶ τοῦ θείου δόξαν, ἐλπὶς γὰρ καὶ κατὰ σοῦ ξυγκείσεσθαι τοιαύτας γραφάς, ἐπειδὰν μηδεὶς τοῖς συκοφάνταις λοιπὸς ᾖ. καὶ ξυνίημι μὲν ἐπιτιμῶν μᾶλλον ἢ ἀπολογούμενος, εἰρήσθω δέ μοι ταῦθ' ὑπὲρ τῶν νόμων, οὓς εἰ μὴ ἄρχοντας ἡγοῖο, οὐκ ἄρξεις. τίς οὖν ξυνήγορος ἔσται μοι ἀπολογουμένῳ; εἰ γὰρ καλέσαιμι τὸν Δία, ὑφ' ᾧ βεβιωκὼς οἶδα, γοητεύειν με φήσουσι καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἐς τὴν γῆν ἄγειν. διαλεγώμεθα οὖν περὶ τούτου ἀνδρί, ὃν τεθνάναι μὲν οἱ πολλοί φασιν, ἐγὼ δὲ οὔ φημι: ἔστι δὲ οὗτος ὁ πατὴρ ὁ σός, ᾧ ἐγὼ τοσούτου ἄξιος, ὅσου περ ἐκεῖνος σοί: σὲ μὲν γὰρ ἐποίησεν, ὑπ' ἐμοῦ δὲ ἐγένετο. οὗτος, ὦ βασιλεῦ, ξυλλήπτωρ ἔσται μοι τῆς ἀπολογίας πολλῷ τἀμὰ βέλτιον ἢ σὺ γιγνώσκων: ἀφίκετο μὲν γὰρ ἐς Αἴγυπτον οὔπω αὐτοκράτωρ, θεοῖς τε τοῖς ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ θύσων κἀμοὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἀρχῆς διαλεξόμενος. ἐντυχὼν δέ μοι κομῶντί τε καὶ ὧδε ἐσταλμένῳ οὐδὲ ἤρετο οὐδὲ ἓν περὶ τοῦ σχήματος, ἡγούμενος τὸ ἐν ἐμοὶ πᾶν εὖ ἔχειν, ἐμοῦ δ' ἕνεχ' ἥκειν ὁμολογήσας ἀπῆλθεν ἐπαινέσας καὶ εἰπὼν μὲν ἃ μὴ πρὸς ἄλλον, ἀκούσας δ' ἃ μὴ παρ' ἄλλου, ἥ τε διάνοια, ᾗ ἐς τὸ ἄρχειν ἐχρῆτο, ἐρρώσθη αὐτῷ παρ' ἐμοῦ μάλιστα, μεθεστηκυῖα ἤδη ὑφ' ἑτέρων οὐκ ἀνεπιτηδείων μέν, οὐ μὴν σοί γε δόξαι, οἱ γὰρ μὴ ἄρχειν αὐτὸν πείθοντες καὶ σὲ δήπου αὐτὸ ἀφῃροῦντο τὸ μετ' ἐκεῖνον ταῦτ' ἔχειν, ἐμοῦ δὲ ξυμβουλεύοντος ἑαυτόν τε μὴ ἀπαξιοῦν ἀρχῆς ἐπὶ θύρας αὐτῷ φοιτώσης ὑμᾶς τε κληρονόμους αὐτῆς ποιεῖσθαι, εὖ ἔχειν τὴν γνώμην φήσας αὐτός τε μέγας ἤρθη καὶ ὑμᾶς ἦρεν: εἰ δὲ γόητά με ᾤετο, οὐδ' ἂν ξυνῆψέ μοι κοινωνίαν φροντίδων, οὐδὲ γὰρ τοιαῦτα ἥκων διελέγετο, οἷον: ἀνάγκασον τὰς Μοίρας ἢ τὸν Δία, τύραννον ἀποφῆναί με ἢ τεράτευσαι διοσημίας ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ δείξας τὸν ἥλιον ἀνίσχοντα μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς ἑσπέρας, δυόμενον δέ, ὅθεν ἄρχεται. οὐ γὰρ ἄν μοι ἐπιτήδειος ἄρχειν ἔδοξεν ἢ ἐμὲ ἡγούμενος ἱκανὸν ταῦτα ἢ σοφίσμασι θηρεύων ἀρχήν, ἣν ἀρεταῖς ἔδει κατακτᾶσθαι. καὶ μὴν καὶ δημοσίᾳ διελέχθην ἐν ἱερῷ, γοήτων δὲ ξυνουσίαι φεύγουσι μὲν ἱερὰ θεῶν, ἐχθρὰ γὰρ τοῖς περὶ τὴν τέχνην, νύκτα δὲ καὶ πᾶν, ὅ τι ἀφεγγές, αὑτῶν προβαλλόμενοι οὐ ξυγχωροῦσι τοῖς ἀνοήτοις οὐδὲ ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχειν οὔτε ὦτα. διελέχθη μοι καὶ ἰδίᾳ μέν, παρετύγχανον δὲ ὅμως Εὐφράτης καὶ Δίων, ὁ μὲν πολεμιώτατά μοι ἔχων, ὁ δ' οἰκειότατα, Δίωνα γὰρ μὴ παυσαίμην γράφων ἐν φίλοις. τίς ἂν οὖν ἐπ' ἀνδρῶν σοφῶν ἢ μεταποιουμένων γε σοφίας ἐς γόητας ἔλθοι λόγους; τίς δ' οὐκ ἂν παραπλησίως φυλάξαιτο καὶ ἐν φίλοις καὶ ἐν ἐχθροῖς κακὸς φαίνεσθαι; καὶ οἱ λόγοι ἦσαν ἐναντιούμενοι τοῖς γόησι: σὺ μὲν γὰρ ἴσως τὸν πατέρα ἡγῇ τὸν σεαυτοῦ βασιλείας ἐρῶντα γόησι μᾶλλον ἢ ἑαυτῷ πιστεῦσαι καὶ ἀνάγκην ἐπὶ τοὺς θεούς, ἵνα τούτου τύχοι, παρ' ἐμοῦ εὑρέσθαι, ὁ δὲ τοῦτο μὲν καὶ πρὶν ἐς Αἴγυπτον ἥκειν ἔχειν ᾤετο, μετὰ ταῦτα δ' ὑπὲρ μειζόνων ἐμοὶ διελέγετο, ὑπὲρ νόμων καὶ ὑπὲρ πλούτου δικαίου θεοί τε ὡς θεραπευτέοι καὶ ὁπόσα παρ' αὐτῶν ἀγαθὰ τοῖς κατὰ τοὺς νόμους ἄρχουσι, μαθεῖν ἤρα: οἷς πᾶσιν ἐναντίον χρῆμα οἱ γόητες, εἰ γὰρ ἰσχύοι ταῦτα, οὐκ ἔσται ἡ τέχνη. προσήκει δέ, ὦ βασιλεῦ, κἀκεῖνα ἐπεσκέφθαι: τέχναι ὁπόσαι κατ' ἀνθρώπους εἰσί, πράττουσι μὲν ἄλλο ἄλλη, πᾶσαι δ' ὑπὲρ χρημάτων, αἱ μὲν σμικρῶν, αἱ δ' αὖ μεγάλων, αἱ δ' ἀφ' ὧν θρέψονται, καὶ οὐχ αἱ βάναυσοι μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τεχνῶν σοφαί τε ὁμοίως καὶ ὑπόσοφοι πλὴν ἀληθοῦς φιλοσοφίας. καλῶ δὲ σοφὰς μὲν ποιητικὴν μουσικὴν ἀστρονομίαν σοφιστὰς καὶ τῶν ῥητόρων τοὺς μὴ ἀγοραίους, ὑποσόφους δὲ ζωγραφίαν πλαστικὴν ἀγαλματοποιοὺς κυβερνήτας γεωργούς, ἢν ταῖς ὥραις ἕπωνται, καὶ γὰρ αἵδε αἱ τέχναι σοφίας οὐ πολὺ λείπονται. ἔστι ̔δέ' τι, ὦ βασιλεῦ, ψευδόσοφοί τε καὶ ἀγείροντες, ὃ μὴ μαντικὴν ὑπολάβῃς, πολλοῦ μὲν γὰρ ἀξία, ἢν ἀληθεύῃ, εἰ δ' ἐστὶ τέχνη, οὔπω οἶδα, ἀλλὰ τοὺς γόητας ψευδοσόφους φημί: τὰ γὰρ οὐκ ὄντα εἶναι καὶ τὰ ὄντα ἀπιστεῖσθαι, πάντα ταῦτα προστίθημι τῇ τῶν ἐξαπατωμένων δόξῃ, τὸ γὰρ σοφὸν τῆς τέχνης ἐπὶ τῇ τῶν ἐξαπατωμένων τε καὶ θυομένων ἀνοίᾳ κεῖται, ἡ δὲ τέχνη φιλοχρήματοι γὰρ πάντες, ἃ γὰρ κομψεύονται, ταῦθ' ὑπὲρ μισθοῦ σφισιν εὕρηται, μαστεύουσι δ' ὑπερβολὰς χρημάτων ὑπαγόμενοι τοὺς ὁτουδὴ ἐρῶντας ὡς ἱκανοὶ πάντα. τίνα οὖν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, πλοῦτον περὶ ἡμᾶς ἰδὼν ψευδοσοφίαν ἐπιτηδεύειν με οἴει, καὶ ταῦτα τοῦ σοῦ πατρὸς κρείττω με ἡγουμένου χρημάτων; ὅτι δ' ἀληθῆ λέγω, ποῦ μοι ἡ ἐπιστολὴ τοῦ γενναίου τε καὶ θείου ἀνδρός; ὅς με ἐν αὐτῇ ᾅδει τά τε ἄλλα καὶ τὸ πένεσθαι.” αὐτοκράτωρ Οὐεσπασιανὸς ̓Απολλωνίῳ φιλοσόφῳ χαίρειν. “εἰ πάντες, ̓Απολλώνιε, κατὰ ταὐτά σοι φιλοσοφεῖν ἤθελον, σφόδρα ἂν εὐδαιμόνως ἔπραττε φιλοσοφία τε καὶ πενία: φιλοσοφία μὲν ἀδεκάστως ἔχουσα, πενία δὲ αὐθαιρέτως. ἔρρωσο.” “Ταῦθ' ὁ πατὴρ ὁ σὸς ὑπὲρ ἐμοῦ ἀπολογείσθω, φιλοσοφίας μὲν τὸ ἀδέκαστον, πενίας δὲ τὸ αὐθαίρετον ἐμοὶ ὁριζόμενος, ἐμέμνητο γάρ που καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Αἴγυπτον:, ὅτ' Εὐφράτης μὲν καὶ πολλοὶ τῶν προσποιουμένων φιλοσοφεῖν προσιόντες αὐτῷ χρήματα οὐδ' ἀφανῶς ᾔτουν, ἐγὼ δ' οὐ μόνον οὐ προσῄειν ὑπὲρ χρημάτων, ἀλλὰ κἀκείνους ἐώθουν ὡς οὐχ ὑγιαίνοντας, διεβεβλήμην δὲ πρὸς χρήματα μειράκιον ὢν ἔτι: τὰ γοῦν πατρῷα, λαμπρὰ δ' ἦν οὐσία ταῦτα, μιᾶς μόνης ἰδὼν ἡμέρας ἀδελφοῖς τε τοῖς ἐμαυτοῦ ἀφῆκα καὶ φίλοις καὶ τῶν ξυγγενῶν τοῖς πένησι μελετῶν που ἀφ' ̔Εστίας τὸ μηδενὸς δεῖσθαι, ἐάσθω δὲ Βαβυλὼν καὶ ̓Ινδῶν τὰ ὑπὲρ Καύκασόν τε καὶ ποταμὸν ̔́Υφασιν, δι' ὧν ἐπορευόμην ἐμαυτῷ ὅμοιος: ἀλλὰ τῶν γε ἐνταῦθα καὶ τοῦ μὴ πρὸς ἀργύριον βλέπειν ποιοῦμαι μάρτυρα τὸν Αἰγύπτιον τοῦτον: δεινὰ γὰρ πεπρᾶχθαί τε μοι καὶ βεβουλεῦσθαι φήσας οὔθ' ὁπόσων χρημάτων ἐπανούργουν ταῦτα, εἴρηκεν, οὔθ' ὅ τι ἐνθυμηθεὶς κέρδος, ἀλλ' οὕτως ἀνόητος αὐτῷ δοκῶ τις, ὡς γοητεύειν μέν, ἃ δ' ὑπὲρ πολλῶν ἕτεροι χρημάτων, αὐτὸς ἀδικεῖν οὐδ' ἐπὶ χρήμασιν, ἀγοράν, οἶμαι, προκηρύττων τοιαύτην: ἴτε, ὦ ἀνόητοι, γοητεύω γὰρ, καὶ οὐδ' ὑπὲρ χρημάτων, ἀλλὰ προῖκα, κερδανεῖτε δὲ ὑμεῖς μὲν τὸ ἀπελθεῖν ἕκαστος ἔχων, ὅτου ἐρᾷ, ἐγὼ δὲ κινδύνους καὶ γραφάς. ἀλλ' ἵνα μὴ ἐς ἀνοήτους ἴωμεν λόγους, ἐρώμεθα τὸν κατήγορον, ὑπὲρ ὅτου χρὴ λέγειν πρώτου. καίτοι τί χρὴ ἐρωτᾶν; διῆλθε γὰρ ὑπὲρ τῆς στολῆς τὰς ἀρχὰς τοῦ λόγου, καί, νὴ Δί', ὧν σιτοῦμαί τε καὶ οὐ σιτοῦμαι. ἀπολογοῦ δὴ ὑπὲρ τούτων, θεῖε Πυθαγόρα, κρινόμεθα γὰρ ὑπὲρ ὧν σὺ μὲν εὗρες, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπαινῶ. ἀνθρώποις ἡ γῆ φύει, βασιλεῦ, πάντα, καὶ σπονδὰς ἄγειν πρὸς τὰ ζῷα βουλομένοις δεῖ οὐδενός, τὰ μὲν γὰρ δρέπονται αὐτῆς, τὰ δ' ἀροῦνται κουροτροφούσης, ὡς ταῖς ὥραις ἔοικεν, οἱ δ' ὥσπερ ἀνήκοοι τῆς γῆς μάχαιραν ἐπ' αὐτὰ ἔθηξαν ὑπὲρ ἐσθῆτός τε καὶ βρώσεως. ̓Ινδοὶ τοίνυν Βραχμᾶνες αὐτοί τε οὐκ ἐπῄνουν ταῦτα καὶ τοὺς Γυμνοὺς Αἰγυπτίων ἐδίδασκον μὴ ἐπαινεῖν αὐτά: ἔνθεν Πυθαγόρας ἑλών, ̔Ελλήνων δὲ πρῶτος ἐπέμιξεν Αἰγυπτίοις, τὰ μὲν ἔμψυχα τῇ γῇ ἀνῆκεν, ἃ δ' αὐτὴ φύει, ἀκήρατα εἶναι φάσκων ἐσιτεῖτο, ἐπιτήδεια γὰρ σῶμα καὶ νοῦν τρέφειν, ἐσθῆτά τε, ἣν ἀπὸ θνησειδίων οἱ πολλοὶ φοροῦσιν, οὐ καθαρὰν εἶναι φήσας λίνον ἠμπίσχετο καὶ τὸ ὑπόδημα κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον βύβλου ἐπλέξατο, ἀπέλαυσέ τε τοῦ καθαρὸς εἶναι πολλὰ μέν, πρῶτον δὲ τὸ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ ψυχῆς αἰσθέσθαι: γενόμενος γὰρ κατὰ τοὺς χρόνους, οὓς ὑπὲρ τῆς ̔Ελένης ἡ Τροία ἐμάχετο, καὶ τῶν τοῦ Πάνθου παίδων κάλλιστος ὢν καὶ κάλλιστα ἐσταλμένος ἀπέθανε μὲν οὕτω νέος, ὡς καὶ ̔Ομήρῳ παρασχεῖν θρῆνον, παρελθὼν δ' ἐς πλείω σώματα κατὰ τὸν ̓Αδραστείας θεσμόν, ὃν ψυχὴ ἐναλλάττει, πάλιν ἐπανῆλθεν ἐς ἀνθρώπου εἶδος καὶ Μνησαρχίδῃ ἐτέχθη τῷ Σαμίῳ σοφὸς ἐκ βαρβάρου καὶ ̓́Ιων ἐκ Τρωὸς καὶ οὕτω τι ἀθάνατος, ὡς μηδ' ὅτι Εὔφορβος ἦν ἐκλελῆσθαι. τὸν μὲν δὴ πρόγονον τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ σοφίας εἴρηκα καὶ τὸ μὴ αὐτὸς εὑρών, κληρονομήσας δὲ ἑτέρου ταῦτ' ἔχειν. κἀγὼ μὲν οὐ κρίνω τοὺς τρυφῶντας ὑπὲρ τοῦ φοινικίου ὄρνιθος, οὐδ' ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἐκ Φάσιδος ἢ Παιόνων, οὓς πιαίνουσιν ἐς τὰς αὑτῶν δαῖτας οἱ τῇ γαστρὶ χαριζόμενοι πάντα, οὐδ' ἐγραψάμην πω οὐδένα ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰχθύων, οὓς ὠνοῦνται πλείονος ἢ τοὺς κοππατίας ποτὲ οἱ λαμπροί, οὐδ' ἁλουργίδος ἐβάσκηνα οὐδενί, οὐδὲ Παμφύλου τινὸς ἢ μαλακῆς ἐσθῆτος, ἀσφοδέλου δέ, ὦ θεοί, καὶ τραγημάτων καὶ καθαρᾶς ὀψοφαγίας γραφὴν φεύγω, καὶ οὐδὲ ἡ ἐσθὴς ἄσυλος, ἀλλὰ κἀκείνην λωποδυτεῖ με ὁ κατήγορος ὡς πολλοῦ ἀξίαν τοῖς γόησι. καίτοι ἀφελόντι τὸν ὑπὲρ ἐμψύχων τε καὶ ἀψύχων λόγον, δι' ὧν καθαρός τις ἢ μὴ δοκεῖ, τί βελτίων ἡ ὀθόνη τοῦ ἐρίου; τὸ μέν γε πρᾳοτάτου ζῴου ἐπέχθη καὶ σπουδαζομένου θεοῖς, οἳ μὴ ἀπαξιοῦσι τὸ ποιμαίνειν καί, νὴ Δί', ἠξίωσάν ποτε αὐτὸ καὶ χρυσοῦ εἴδους ἢ θεοὶ ἢ λόγοι. λίνον δὲ σπείρεται μέν, ὡς ἔτυχε, χρυσοῦ δὲ οὐδεὶς ἐπ' αὐτῷ λόγος, ἀλλ' ὅμως, ἐπειδὴ μὴ ἀπ' ἐμψύχου ἐδρέφθη, καθαρὸν μὲν ̓Ινδοῖς δοκεῖ, καθαρὸν δὲ Αἰγυπτίοις, ἐμοὶ δὲ καὶ Πυθαγόρᾳ διὰ τοῦτο σχῆμα γέγονε διαλεγομένοις εὐχομένοις θύουσι. καθαρὸν δὲ καὶ τὸ ἐννυχεύειν ὑπ' αὐτῷ, καὶ γὰρ τὰ ὀνείρατα τοῖς, ὡς ἐγώ, διαιτωμένοις ἐτυμωτέρας τὰς αὑτῶν φήμας ἄγει. ἀπολογώμεθα καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς οὔσης ποτὲ ἡμῖν κόμης, ἐπειδή τις γραφὴ καὶ αὐχμοῦ εὕρηται, κρινέτω δὲ μὴ ὁ Αἰγύπτιος, ἀλλὰ τὰ ξανθὰ καὶ διεκτενισμένα μειράκια, τοὺς ἐραστὰς ἐξαψάμενα καὶ τὰς ἑταίρας, ἐφ' ἃς κωμάζει, καὶ ἑαυτὰ μὲν εὐδαίμονα ἡγείσθω καὶ ζηλωτὰ τῆς κόμης καὶ τοῦ λειβομένου ἀπ' αὐτῆς μύρου, ἐμὲ δὲ ἀναφροδισίαν πᾶσαν καὶ ἐραστὴν τοῦ μὴ ἐρᾶν. εἰρήσεται γὰρ πρὸς αὐτά: ὦ κακοδαίμονες, μὴ συκοφαντεῖτε τὸ Δωριέων εὕρεμα, τὸ γὰρ κομᾶν ἐκ Λακεδαιμονίων ἥκει κατὰ ̔τοὺς' χρόνους ἐπιτηδευθὲν αὐτοῖς, ἐς οὓς μαχιμώτατα αὑτῶν εἶχον, καὶ βασιλεὺς τῆς Σπάρτης Λεωνίδας ἐγένετο κομῶν ὑπὲρ ἀνδρείας καὶ τοῦ σεμνὸς μὲν φίλοις, φοβερὸς δὲ ἐχθροῖς φαίνεσθαι: ταῦτά τοι καὶ ἡ Σπάρτη ἐπ' αὐτῷ κομᾷ μεῖον οὐδὲν ἢ ἐπὶ Λυκούργῳ τε καὶ ̓Ιφίτῳ. σοφοῦ δὲ ἀνδρὸς κόμης φειδέσθω σίδηρος, οὐ γὰρ θεμιτὸν ἐπάγειν αὐτόν, οὗ πᾶσαι μὲν αἰσθητηρίων πηγαί, πᾶσαι δ' ὀμφαί, ὅθεν εὐχαί τε ἀναφαίνονται καὶ σοφίας ἑρμηνεὺς λόγος. ̓Εμπεδοκλῆς μὲν γὰρ καὶ στρόφιον τῶν ἁλουργοτάτων περὶ αὐτὴν ἁρμόσας ἐσόβει περὶ τὰς τῶν ̔Ελλήνων ἀγυιὰς ὕμνους ξυντιθείς, ὡς θεὸς ἐξ ἀνθρώπου ἔσοιτο, ἐγὼ δὲ ἠμελημένῃ κόμῃ χρώμενος καὶ οὔπω τοιῶνδε ὕμνων ἐπ' αὐτῇ δεηθεὶς ἐς γραφὰς ἄγομαι καὶ δικαστήρια. καὶ τί φῶ τὸν ̓Εμπεδοκλέα; πότερ' ἑαυτὸν ἢ τὴν τῶν ἐπ' αὐτοῦ ἀνθρώπων εὐδαιμονίαν ᾅδειν, παρ' οἷς οὐκ ἐσυκοφαντεῖτο ταῦτα; μὴ πλείω διαλεγώμεθα ὑπὲρ τῆς κόμης, ἐτμήθη γὰρ καὶ προὔλαβε τὴν κατηγορίαν ὁ φθόνος, δι' ὃν ὑπὲρ τῆς ἑτέρας αἰτίας χρὴ ἀπολογεῖσθαι χαλεπῆς οὔσης, καὶ οἵας, ὦ βασιλεῦ, μὴ σοὶ μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ Διὶ παρασχεῖν φόβον: φησὶ γὰρ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους θεὸν ἡγεῖσθαί με καὶ δημοσίᾳ τοῦτ' ἐκφέρειν ἐμβεβροντημένους ὑπ' ἐμοῦ: καίτοι καὶ πρὸ τῆς αἰτίας ἐκεῖνα διδάσκειν ἔδει, τί διαλεχθεὶς ἐγώ, τί δ' οὕτω θαυμάσιον εἰπὼν ἢ πράξας ὑπηγαγόμην τοὺς ἀνθρώπους προσεύχεσθαί μοι, οὔτε γάρ, ἐς ὅ τι ἢ ἐξ ὅτου μετέβαλον ἢ μεταβαλεῖ μοι ἡ ψυχή, διελέχθην ἐν ̔́Ελλησι, καίτοι γιγνώσκων, οὔτε δόξας περὶ ἐμαυτοῦ τοιαύτας ἀπέστειλα, οὔτ' ἐς λόγια καὶ χρησμῶν ᾠδὰς ἐξῆλθον, οἷα τῶν θεοκλυτούντων φορά, οὐδ' οἶδα πόλιν οὐδεμίαν, ἐν ᾗ ἔδοξε ξυνιόντας ̓Απολλωνίῳ θύειν. καίτοι πολλοῦ ἄξιος ἑκάστοις ἐγενόμην, ὁπόσα ἐδέοντό μου, ἐδέοντο δὲ τοιαῦτα: μὴ νοσεῖν οἱ νοσοῦντες, ὁσιώτεροι μύειν ὁσιώτεροι θύειν ὕβριν ἐκτετμῆσθαι νόμους ἐρρῶσθαι. μισθὸς δ' ἐμοὶ μὲν τούτων ὑπῆρχε τὸ βελτίους αὐτοὺς αὑτῶν φαίνεσθαι, σοὶ δὲ ἐχαριζόμην ταῦτα: ὥσπερ γὰρ οἱ τῶν βοῶν ἐπιστάται τὸ μὴ ἀτακτεῖν αὐτὰς χαρίζονται τοῖς κεκτημένοις τὰς βοῦς καὶ οἱ τῶν ποιμνίων ἐπιμεληταὶ πιαίνουσιν αὐτὰ ἐς τὸ τῶν πεπαμένων κέρδος νόσους τε ἀφαιροῦσι μελιττῶν οἱ νομεῖς αὐτῶν, ὡς μὴ ἀπόλοιτο τῷ δεσπότῃ τὸ σμῆνος, οὕτω που καὶ ἐγὼ τὰ πολιτικὰ παύων ἐλαττώματα σοὶ διωρθούμην τὰς πόλεις, ὥστ' εἰ καὶ θεὸν ἡγοῦντό με, σοὶ κέρδος ἡ ἀπάτη εἶχε, ξὺν προθυμίᾳ γάρ που ἠκροῶντό μου, δεδιότες πράττειν, ἃ μὴ δοκεῖ θεῷ. ἀλλ' οὐχὶ τοῦτο ᾤοντο, ὅτι δ' ἐστί τις ἀνθρώπῳ πρὸς θεὸν ξυγγένεια, δι' ἣν μόνον ζῴων θεοὺς οἶδε, φιλοσοφεῖ δὲ καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ φύσεως καὶ ὅπη μετέχει τοῦ θείου. φησὶ μὲν οὖν καὶ τὸ εἶδος αὐτὸ θεῷ ἐοικέναι, ὡς ἀγαλματοποιία ἑρμηνεύει καὶ χρώματα, τάς τε ἀρετὰς θεόθεν ἥκειν ἐπ' αὐτὸν πέπεισται καὶ τοὺς μετέχοντας αὐτῶν ἀγχιθέους τε εἶναι καὶ θείους. διδασκάλους δὲ τῆς διανοίας ταύτης μὴ ̓Αθηναίους καλῶμεν, ἐπειδὴ τοὺς δικαίους καὶ τοὺς ̓Ολυμπίους καὶ τὰς τοιάσδε ἐπωνυμίας πρῶτοι ἔθεντο, θειοτέρας, ὡς τὸ εἰκός, οὔσας ἢ ἐπ' ἀνθρώπῳ κεῖσθαι, ἀλλὰ τὸν ̓Απόλλω τὸν ἐν τῇ Πυθοῖ: ἀφίκετο μὲν γὰρ ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν αὐτοῦ Λυκοῦργος ὁ ἐκ τῆς Σπάρτης ἄρτι γεγραμμένων αὐτῷ τῶν νόμων, οἷς ἡ Λακεδαίμων τέτακται, προσειπὼν δ' αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απόλλων βασανίζει τὴν περὶ αὐτοῦ δόξαν, ἐν ἀρχῇ τοῦ χρησμοῦ φάσκων ἀπορεῖν, πότερα χρὴ θεὸν ἢ ἄνθρωπον καλεῖν, προϊὼν δὲ ἀποφαίνεται καὶ ψηφίζεται τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν ταύτην, ὡς ἀνδρὶ ἀγαθῷ. καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐπὶ τὸν Λυκοῦργον ἀγὼν ̔ἧκεν' ἢ κίνδυνος ἐκ τούτων παρὰ Λακεδαιμονίοις, ὡς ἀθανατίζοντα, ἐπεὶ μὴ ἐπέπληξε τῷ Πυθίῳ προσρηθεὶς τούτοις, ἀλλὰ ξυνετίθεντο τῷ μαντείῳ, πεπεισμένοι δήπου καὶ πρὸ τοῦ χρησμοῦ ταῦτα. τὰ δὲ ̓Ινδῶν καὶ Αἰγυπτίων ταῦτα: ̓Ινδοὺς Αἰγύπτιοι τὰ μὲν ἄλλα συκοφαντοῦσι καὶ διαβάλλουσιν αὐτῶν τὰς ἐπὶ τοῖς πράγμασι δόξας, τὸν δὲ λόγον, ὃς ἐς τὸν δημιουργὸν τῶν ὅλων εἴρηται, οὕτω τι ἐπαινοῦσιν, ὡς καὶ ἑτέρους διδάξασθαι ̓Ινδῶν ὄντα. ὁ λόγος δὲ τῆς μὲν τῶν ὅλων γενέσεώς τε καὶ οὐσίας θεὸν δημιουργὸν οἶδε, τοῦ δὲ ἐνθυμηθῆναι ταῦτα αἴτιον τὸ ἀγαθὸν εἶναι αὐτόν: ἐπεὶ τοίνυν ξυγγενῆ ταῦτα, ἔχομαι τοῦ λόγου καὶ φημὶ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς τῶν ἀνθρώπων θεοῦ τι ἔχειν. κόσμος δὲ ὁ μὲν ἐπὶ θεῷ δημιουργῷ κείμενος τὰ ἐν οὐρανῷ νομιζέσθω καὶ τὰ ἐν θαλάττῃ καὶ γῇ πάντα, ὧν μετουσία ἴση ἀνθρώποις, πλὴν τύχης. ἔστι δέ τις καὶ ἐπ' ἀνδρὶ ἀγαθῷ κόσμος οὐχ ὑπερβάλλων τὰ σοφίας μέτρα, ὅν που καὶ αὐτός, ὦ βασιλεῦ, φήσεις ἀνδρὸς δεῖσθαι θεῷ εἰκασμένου: καὶ τί τὸ σχῆμα τοῦ κόσμου τοῦδε; αἱ ψυχαὶ ἀτακτοῦσαι μανικώτερον ἅπτονται παντὸς σχήματος, καὶ ἕωλοι μὲν αὐταῖς νόμοι, σωφροσύνη δ' οὐδαμοῦ, θεῶν δὲ τιμαὶ ἄτιμοι, λαλιᾶς δ' ἐρῶσι καὶ τρυφῆς, ἐξ ὧν ἀργία φύεται πονηρὰ ξύμβουλος ἔργου παντός. αἱ δὲ μεθύουσαι ψυχαὶ πηδῶσι μὲν ἐπὶ πολλά, τὸ δὲ σκίρτημα τοῦτο ἴσχει οὐδέν, οὐδ' εἰ πάντα πίνοιεν, ὁπόσα, ὥσπερ ὁ μανδραγόρας, ὑπνηλὰ ἐνομίσθη. ἀλλὰ δεῖ ἀνδρός, ὃς ἐπιμελήσεται τοῦ περὶ αὐτὰς κόσμου, θεὸς ὑπὸ σοφίας ἥκων. οὑτοσὶ γὰρ ἀπόχρη αὐτὰς ἐρώτων τε ἀπάγειν, ἐφ' οὓς ἀγριώτερον τῆς ξυνήθους ὁμιλίας ἐκφέρονται, καὶ φιλοχρηματίας, δι' ἣν οὔπω πᾶν ἔχειν φασίν, ἐπεὶ μὴ καὶ τὸ στόμα ὑπέχουσιν ἐπιρρέοντι τῷ πλούτῳ. φόνων γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν μὲν αὐτὰς μὴ προσάπτεσθαι οὐκ ἀδύνατον ἴσως ἀνδρὶ τοιούτῳ, ἀπονῖψαι δὲ οὔτε ἐμοὶ δυνατὸν οὔτε τῷ πάντων δημιουργῷ θεῷ: ἔστω, βασιλεῦ, κατηγορία καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς ̓Εφέσου, ἐπειδὴ ἐσώθη, καὶ κρινέτω με ὁ Αἰγύπτιος, ὡς ἔστι πρόσφορον τῇ γραφῇ. ἔστι γὰρ δήπου ἡ κατηγορία τοιαύτη: περὶ Σκύθας ἢ Κελτούς, οἳ ποταμὸν ̓́Ιστρον ἢ ̔Ρῆνον οἰκοῦσι, πόλις ᾤκισται μείων οὐδὲν ̓Εφέσου τῆς ἐν ̓Ιωνίᾳ: ταύτην ὁρμητήριον βαρβάρων οὖσαν, οἳ μὴ ἀκροῶνταί σου, λοιμὸς μέν τις ἀπολεῖν ἔμελλεν, ̓Απολλώνιος δὲ ἰάσατο. ἔστι μὲν γάρ τις καὶ πρὸς ταῦτα ἀπολογία σοφῷ ἀνδρί, ἢν ὁ βασιλεὺς τὸ ἀντίξοον ὅπλοις, ἀλλὰ μὴ νόσοις αἱρεῖν βούληται, μὴ γὰρ ἐξαλειφθείη πόλις μηδεμία, μήτε σοί, βασιλεῦ, μήτε ἐμοί, μήτε ἴδοιμι πρὸς ἱεροῖς νόσον, δι' ἣν οἱ νοσοῦντες ἐν αὐτοῖς κείσονται. ἀλλὰ μὴ ἔστω ἐν σπουδῇ τὰ βαρβάρων, μηδὲ τάττωμεν αὐτοὺς ἐς τὸ ὑγιαῖνον πολεμιωτάτους ὄντας καὶ οὐκ ἐνσπόνδους τῷ περὶ ἡμᾶς γένει. τὴν δὲ ̓́Εφεσον τίς ἀφαιρήσεται τὸ σώζεσθαι βεβλημένην μὲν τὰς ἀρχὰς τοῦ γένους ἐκ τῆς καθαρωτάτης ̓Ατθίδος, ἐπιδεδωκυῖαν δὲ παρὰ πάσας, ὁπόσαι ̓Ιωνικαί τε καὶ Λύδιοι, προβεβηκυῖαν δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν διὰ τὸ ὑπερήκειν τῆς γῆς, ἐφ' ἧς ᾠκίσθη, μεστὴν δὲ φροντισμάτων οὖσαν φιλοσόφων τε καὶ ῥητορικῶν, ὑφ' ὧν ἡ πόλις οὐχ ἵππῳ, μυριάσι δὲ ἀνθρώπων ἰσχύει, σοφίαν ἐπαινοῦσα; τίς δ' ἂν σοφὸς ἐκλιπεῖν σοι δοκεῖ τὸν ὑπὲρ πόλεως τοιαύτης ἀγῶνα ἐνθυμηθεὶς μὲν Δημόκριτον ἐλευθερώσαντα λοιμοῦ ποτε ̓Αβδηρίτας, ἐννοήσας δὲ Σοφοκλέα τὸν ̓Αθηναῖον, ὃς λέγεται καὶ ἀνέμους θέλξαι τῆς ὥρας πέρα πνεύσαντας, ἀκηκοὼς δὲ τὰ ̓Εμπεδοκλέους, ὃς νεφέλης ἀνέσχε φορὰν ἐπ' ̓Ακραγαντίνους ῥαγείσης; ἐπικόπτει με ὁ κατήγορος: ἀκούεις γάρ που καὶ σύ, ὦ βασιλεῦ, καί φησιν, οὐκ ἐπειδὴ σωτηρίας αἴτιος ̓Εφεσίοις ἐγενόμην, γράφεσθαί με, ἀλλ' ἐπειδὴ προεῖπον ἐμπεσεῖσθαί σφισι τὴν νόσον, τουτὶ γὰρ ὑπὲρ σοφίαν εἶναι καὶ τερατῶδες, τῆς δ' ἐπὶ τοσόνδε ἀληθείας οὐκ ἂν ἐφικέσθαι με, εἰ μὴ γόης τε ἦν καὶ ἀπόρρητος. τί οὖν ἐνταῦθα ἐρεῖ Σωκράτης ὑπὲρ ὧν ἔφασκε τοῦ δαιμονίου μανθάνειν; τί δὲ Θαλῆς τε καὶ ̓Αναξαγόρας, τὼ ̓́Ιωνε, ὁ μὲν τὴν εὐφορίαν τὴν τῶν ἐλαιῶν, ὁ δὲ πολλὰ τῶν οὐρανίων παθῶν προειπόντε; ἦ γοητεύοντε προειπεῖν ταῦτα; καὶ μὴν καὶ ὑπήχθησαν οὗτοι δικαστηρίοις ἐφ' ἑτέραις αἰτίαις, καὶ οὐδαμοῦ τῶν αἰτιῶν εἴρηται γόητας εἶναι σφᾶς, ἐπειδὴ προγιγνώσκουσι. καταγέλαστον γὰρ τοῦτο ἐδόκει καὶ οὐδ' ἐν Θετταλίᾳ πιθανὸν κατ' ἀνδρῶν λέγεσθαι σοφῶν, οὗ τὰ γύναια κακῶς ἤκουεν ἐπὶ τῇ τῆς σελήνης ἕλξει. πόθεν οὖν τοῦ περὶ τὴν ̓́Εφεσον πάθους ᾐσθόμην; ἤκουσας μὲν καὶ τοῦ κατηγόρου εἰπόντος, ὅτι μὴ κατὰ τοὺς ἄλλους διαιτῶμαι, κἀμοὶ δὲ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἐμαυτοῦ σιτίων, ὡς λεπτὰ καὶ ἡδίω τῆς ἑτέρων συβάριδος, ἐν ἀρχῇ εἴρηται: τοῦτό μοι, ὦ βασιλεῦ, τὰς αἰσθήσεις ἐν αἰθρίᾳ τινὶ ἀπορρήτῳ φυλάττει κοὐκ ἐᾷ θολερὸν περὶ αὐτὰς οὐδὲν εἶναι, διορᾶν τε, ὥσπερ ἐν κατόπτρου αὐγῇ, πάντα γιγνόμενά τε καὶ ἐσόμενα. οὐ γὰρ περιμενεῖ γε ὁ σοφὸς τὴν γῆν ἀναθυμιῶσαν ἢ τὸν ἀέρα διεφθορότα, ἢν τὸ δεινὸν ἄνωθεν ῥέῃ, ἀλλὰ ξυνήσει αὐτῶν καὶ ἐπὶ θύραις ὄντων ὕστερον μὲν ἢ οἱ θεοί, θᾶττον δὲ ἢ οἱ πολλοί, θεοὶ μὲν γὰρ μελλόντων, ἄνθρωποι δὲ γιγνομένων, σοφοὶ δὲ προσιόντων αἰσθάνονται. λοιμῶν δ' αἰτίας ἰδίᾳ, βασιλεῦ, ἐρώτα, σοφώτεραι γὰρ ἢ ἐς τοὺς πολλοὺς λέγεσθαι: ἆρ' οὖν τὸ οὕτως διαιτᾶσθαι λεπτότητα μόνον ἐργάζεται τῶν αἰσθήσεων ἢ ἰσχὺν ἐπὶ τὰ μέγιστά τε καὶ θαυμασιώτατα; θεωρεῖν δ' ἔξεστιν, ὃ λέγω, καὶ ἀπ' ἄλλων μέν, οὐχ ἥκιστα δὲ κἀκ τῶν ἐν ̓Εφέσῳ περὶ τὴν νόσον ἐκείνην πραχθέντων: τὸ γὰρ τοῦ λοιμοῦ εἶδος, πτωχῷ δὲ γέροντι εἴκαστο, καὶ εἶδον καὶ ἰδὼν εἷλον, οὐ παύσας νόσον, ἀλλ' ἐξελών, ὅτῳ δ' εὐξάμενος, δηλοῖ τὸ ἱερόν, ὃ ἐν ̓Εφέσῳ ὑπὲρ τούτου ἱδρυσάμην, ̔Ηρακλέους μὲν γὰρ ̓Αποτροπαίου ἐστί, ξυνεργὸν δ' αὐτὸν εἱλόμην, ἐπειδὴ σοφός τε καὶ ἀνδρεῖος ὢν ἐκάθηρέ ποτε λοιμοῦ τὴν ̓͂Ηλιν τὰς ἀναθυμιάσεις ἀποκλύσας, ἃς παρεῖχεν ἡ γῆ κατ' Αὐγέαν τυραννεύοντα. τίς ἂν οὖν σοι, βασιλεῦ, δοκεῖ φιλοτιμούμενος γόης φαίνεσθαι θεῷ ἀναθεῖναι, ὃ αὐτὸς εἴργαστο; τίνας δ' ἂν κτήσασθαι θαυμαστὰς τῆς τέχνης θεῷ παρεὶς τὸ θαυμάζεσθαι; τίς δ' ἂν ̔Ηρακλεῖ εὔξασθαι γόης ὤν; τὰ γὰρ τοιαῦτα οἱ κακοδαίμονες βόθροις ἀνατιθέασι καὶ χθονίοις θεοῖς, ὧν τὸν ̔Ηρακλέα ἀποτακτέον, καθαρὸς γὰρ καὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις εὔνους. ηὐξάμην αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν Πελοποννήσῳ ποτέ, λαμίας γάρ τι φάσμα κἀκεῖ περὶ τὴν Κόρινθον ἤλυε σιτούμενον τῶν νέων τοὺς καλούς, καὶ ξυνήρατό μοι τοῦ ἀγῶνος οὐ θαυμασίων δεηθεὶς δώρων, ἀλλὰ μελιττούτης καὶ λιβανωτοῦ καὶ τοῦ ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας τι ἀνθρώπων ἐργάσασθαι, τουτὶ γὰρ καὶ κατὰ τὸν Εὐρυσθέα μισθὸν τῶν ἄθλων ἡγεῖτο. μὴ ἄχθου, βασιλεῦ, τὰ ̔Ηρακλέους ἀκούων: ἔμελε γὰρ αὐτοῦ τῇ ̓Αθηνᾷ, ἐπειδὴ χρηστὸς καὶ σωτήριος τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. ἀλλ' ἐπεὶ κελεύεις με ὑπὲρ τῆς θυσίας ἀπολογεῖσθαι, τουτὶ γὰρ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐνδείκνυσαι, ἄκουε ἀπολογίας ἀληθοῦς: ἐγὼ γὰρ πάνθ' ὑπὲρ σωτηρίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων πράττων οὔπω ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν ἔθυσα, οὐδ' ἂν θύσαιμι οὐδέν, οὐδ' ἂν θίγοιμι ἱερῶν, ἐν οἷς αἷμα, οὐδ' ἂν εὐξαίμην ἐς μάχαιραν βλέπων ἢ θυσίαν, ἥν φησιν. οὐ Σκύθην με, ὦ βασιλεῦ, ᾕρηκας, οὐδ' ἐκ τῆς ἀμίκτου ποθέν, οὐδ' ἐπέμιξά πω Μασσαγέταις ἢ Ταύροις, ὡς κἀκείνους ἂν τοῦ τῆς θυσίας ἔθους μετέβαλον: ἀνοίας δ' ἂν ποῖ ἤλαυνον, ἵνα πλεῖστα μὲν ὑπὲρ μαντικῆς διαλεγόμενος καὶ ὅπη ἔρρωται ἢ μή, ἄριστα δ' ἀνθρώπων ᾐσθημένος, ὅτι τὰς αὑτῶν βουλὰς οἱ θεοὶ τοῖς ὁσίοις τε καὶ σοφοῖς ἀνδράσι καὶ μὴ μαντευομένοις φαίνουσι, μιαιφονίας ἅπτωμαι καὶ σπλάγχνων ἀθύτων ἐμοὶ καὶ ἀκαλλιερήτων; ἐφ' οἷς ἀπέλιπεν ἄν με καὶ ἡ τοῦ δαιμονίου ὀμφὴ μὴ καθαρὸν ὄντα. καὶ μὴν εἴ τις ἀφελὼν τὸ τῆς θυσίας μύσος ἐξετάζοι τὸν κατήγορον πρὸς ἃ μικρῷ πρόσθεν εἴρηκεν, ἀπαλλάττει με τῆς αἰτίας αὐτός, ὃν γάρ φησι προειπεῖν ̓Εφεσίοις τὴν νόσον θυσίας οὐδεμιᾶς δεηθέντα, τί σφαγίων ἐδεήθην ἂν ἐφ' ἃ καὶ μὴ θυσαμένῳ παρῆν εἰδέναι; μαντικῆς δὲ τί ἐδεόμην ὑπὲρ ὧν αὐτός τε ἐπεπείσμην καὶ ἕτερος; εἰ γὰρ ὑπὲρ Νερούα καὶ τῶν ἀμφ' αὐτὸν κρίνομαι, λέξω πάλιν, ἃ καὶ πρώην εἶπον, ἡνίκα ᾐτιῶ ταῦτα: Νερούαν γὰρ ἄξιον μὲν ἀρχῆς ἡγοῦμαι πάσης καὶ λόγου παντὸς ἐπ' εὐφημίαν ἥκοντος, ἀγωνιστὴν δὲ φροντίδων οὐ χρηστόν, καταλέλυται γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ὑπὸ τῆς νόσου, δι' ἣν καὶ ἡ γνώμη μεστὴ ἄσης καὶ οὐδὲ τὰ οἴκοι ἱκανή: σὲ γοῦν ἐπαινεῖ μὲν σώματος, ἐπαινεῖ δὲ γνώμης, εἰκὸς μὲν οἶμαί τι πράττων, προθυμοτέρα γὰρ ὄντως ἡ ἀνθρωπεία φύσις ἐπαινεῖν, ἃ μὴ αὐτὴ ἔρρωται. πέπονθε δέ τι καὶ πρὸς ἐμὲ χρηστὸν Νερούας, καὶ οὔτε γελάσαντά πω αὐτὸν ἐπ' ἐμοῦ οἶδα οὔτε εὐηθισάμενόν τι τῶν εἰωθότων ἐν φίλοις, ἀλλ' ὥσπερ τὰ μειράκια πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας τε καὶ διδασκάλους τοὺς αὑτῶν, εὐλαβῶς μὲν φθέγγεται τὸ ἐπ' ἐμοῦ πᾶν, ἐρυθριᾷ δὲ ἔτι, εἰδὼς δὲ τὸ ἐπιεικὲς ἐπαινοῦντά με οὕτω τι ἄγαν ἐπιτηδεύει αὐτό, ὡς κἀμοὶ ταπεινότερος τοῦ μετρίου φαίνεσθαι. πῶς οὖν πιθανὸν ἡγήσαιτο ἄν τις ἀρχῆς ἐπιθυμῆσαι Νερούαν ἀγαπῶντα, εἰ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ οἰκίας ἄρξοι, ἢ ὑπὲρ μεγάλων διαλέγεσθαί μοι τὸν μηδ' ὑπὲρ μικρῶν τεθαρρηκότα, ἢ ξυνάπτειν ἐμοὶ γνώμην ὑπὲρ ὧν μηδὲ πρὸς ἄλλον, εἰ τοὐμὸν ἐνεθυμήθη, ξυνῆψεν; ἢ πῶς ἔτ' ἐγὼ σοφὸς γνώμην ἑρμηνεύειν ἀνδρὸς μαντικῇ μὲν πιστεύων, ἀπιστῶν δὲ σοφίᾳ; τὸν δὲ ̓́Ορφιτον καὶ τὸν ̔Ροῦφον, τοὺς δικαίους μὲν καὶ σώφρονας, νωθροὺς δὲ ἄνδρας, ὡς εὖ οἶδα, εἰ μὲν ὡς τυραννησείοντας διαβεβλῆσθαί φασιν, οὐκ οἶδ' εἴτε τούτων πλέον διαμαρτάνουσιν, εἴτε Νερούα, εἰ δ' ὡς ξυμβούλω γεγονότε, πιθανώτερος ἀρχῇ ἐπιθέσθαι Νερούας, ἢ οἵδε ξυμβουλεῦσαι; ἀλλὰ μὴν τόν γε ὑπὲρ τούτων κρίνοντα κἀκεῖνα εἰκὸς ἦν ἐνθυμεῖσθαι, τί ἐβούλετό μοι τὸ ξυλλαμβάνειν τοῖς ἐπὶ νεώτερα ἥκουσι: χρήματα μὲν γὰρ οὔ φησι παρ' αὐτῶν γεγενῆσθαί μοι, οὐδὲ δώροις ἐπαρθέντα με ταῦτα εἰργάσθαι: σκεψώμεθα δέ, μὴ μεγάλων δεόμενος ἀνεβαλόμην τὰς παρ' αὐτῶν εὐεργεσίας ἐς ὃν ᾤοντο ἄρξειν χρόνον, ἐν ᾧ μεγάλα μὲν ἂν αἰτεῖν ὑπῆρξε, μειζόνων δ' ἀξιοῦσθαι: πῶς οὖν ταῦτα ἔσται δῆλα; ἐνθυμήθητι, βασιλεῦ, σεαυτὸν καὶ τοὺς ἔτι πρὸ σοῦ ἄρχοντας, ἀδελφὸν δήπου τὸν σεαυτοῦ καὶ πατέρα Νέρωνά τε, ἐφ' ὧν ἦρξαν, κατὰ τούτους γὰρ μάλιστα τοὺς βασιλέας βεβίωταί μοι ἐς τὸ φανερόν, τὸν ἄλλον χρόνον ̓Ινδοῖς φοιτῶντι. τούτων δὴ τῶν ὀκτὼ καὶ τριάκοντα ἐτῶν, τοσοῦτον γὰρ τὸ ἐς σὲ μῆκος, οὔτε ἐπὶ θύρας βασιλείους ἐφοίτησα πλὴν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τοῦ σοῦ πατρός, ἐπεὶ μήτε βασιλεύς πω ἐτύγχανεν ὢν ὡμολόγει τε δι' ἐμὲ ἥκειν, οὔτε ἀνελεύθερόν τι διελέχθην βασιλεῦσιν ἢ ὑπὲρ βασιλέων δήμοις οὔτ' ἐπιστολαῖς ἐλαμπρυνάμην ἢ γραφόντων ἐμοὶ βασιλέων ἢ αὐτὸς ἐνδεικνύμενος γράφειν, οὔθ' ὑπὲρ δωρεῶν κολακεύων βασιλέας ἐμαυτοῦ ἀπηνέχθην. εἰ γοῦν ἔροιό με πλουσίους ἐνθυμηθεὶς καὶ πένητας, ποτέρου τῶν ἐθνῶν τούτων ἐμαυτὸν γράφω, τῶν πλουσιωτάτων φήσω, τὸ γὰρ δεῖσθαι μηδενὸς ἐμοὶ Λυδία καὶ τὸ Πακτωλοῦ πᾶν. πῶς οὖν ἢ τὰς παρὰ τῶν οὔπω βασιλέων δωρεὰς ἀνεβαλλόμην ἐς ὃν ἄρξειν αὐτοὺς ᾤμην χρόνον ὁ μηδὲ τὰς παρ' ὑμῶν ἑλόμενος, οἷς βέβαιον ἡγούμην τὸ ἄρχειν, ἢ βασιλειῶν μεταβολὰς ἐπενόουν μηδὲ ταῖς καθεστηκυίαις ἐς τὸ τιμᾶσθαι χρώμενος; καὶ μὴν ὁπόσα γίγνεται φιλοσόφῳ ἀνδρὶ κολακεύοντι τοὺς δυνατούς, δηλοῖ τὰ Εὐφράτου: τούτῳ γὰρ ἐντεῦθεν τί λέγω χρήματα; πηγαὶ μὲν οὖν εἰσι πλούτου, κἀπὶ τῶν τραπεζῶν ἤδη διαλέγεται κάπηλος ὑποκάπηλος τελώνης ὀβολοστάτης πάντα γιγνόμενος τὰ πωλούμενά τε καὶ πωλοῦντα, ἐντετύπωται δ' ἀεὶ ταῖς τῶν δυνατῶν θύραις καὶ προσέστηκεν αὐταῖς πλείω καιρὸν ἢ οἱ θυρωροί, ἀπελήφθη δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ θυρωρῶν πολλάκις, ὥσπερ τῶν κυνῶν οἱ λίχνοι, δραχμὴν δὲ οὐδὲ φιλοσόφῳ ἀνδρὶ προέμενός ποτε ἐπιτειχίζει τὸν ἑαυτοῦ πλοῦτον ἑτέροις, τὸν Αἰγύπτιον τουτονὶ βόσκων χρήμασι καὶ ὀξύνων ἐπ' ἐμὲ γλῶτταν ἀξίαν ἐκτετμῆσθαι. Εὐφράτην μὲν δὴ καταλείπω σοί, σὺ γάρ, ἢν μὴ κόλακας ἐπαινῇς, εὑρήσεις τὸν ἄνθρωπον κακίω ὧν ἑρμηνεύω, τῆς δὲ λοιπῆς ἀπολογίας ἀκροῶ: τίς οὖν αὕτη καὶ ὑπὲρ τίνων; ᾔδετό τις, ὦ βασιλεῦ, παιδὸς ̓Αρκάδος ἐν τῇ κατηγορίᾳ θρῆνος, τετμῆσθαι μὲν αὐτὸν ὑπ' ἐμοῦ νύκτωρ, εἰ δ' ὄναρ φησίν, οὔπω οἶδα, εἶναι δὲ πατέρων τε ἀγαθῶν ὁ παῖς οὗτος καὶ τὸ εἶδος οἷοι ̓Αρκάδων οἱ ἐν αὐχμῷ καλοί. τοῦτόν φασιν ἱκετεύοντά τε καὶ ὀλοφυρόμενον ἀπεσφάχθαι κἀμὲ τὰς χεῖρας ἐς τὸ τοῦ παιδὸς αἷμα βάψαντα θεοῖς ὑπὲρ ἀληθείας εὔχεσθαι. μέχρι τούτων ἐμὲ κρίνουσιν, ὁ δὲ ἐφεξῆς λόγος τῶν θεῶν ἅπτεται, φασὶ γὰρ τοὺς θεοὺς ἀκοῦσαι μὲν ὧδέ μου εὐξαμένου, δοῦναι δὲ ἱερὰ εὔσημα καὶ μὴ ἀποκτεῖναι ἀσεβοῦντα. τὴν μὲν οὖν ἀκρόασιν, ὡς οὐ καθαρά, τί ἄν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, λέγοιμι; ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ὧν γέ μοι ἀπολογητέα, τίς ὁ ̓Αρκὰς οὗτος; εἰ γὰρ μὴ ἀνώνυμος τὰ πατέρων, μηδ' ἀνδραποδώδης τὸ εἶδος, ὥρα σοι ἐρωτᾶν, τί μὲν ὄνομα τοῖς γειναμένοις αὐτόν, τίνος δὲ οἰκίας οὗτος, τίς δ' ἐθρέψατο αὐτὸν ἐν ̓Αρκαδίᾳ πόλις, τίνων δὲ βωμῶν ἀπαχθεὶς ἐνταῦθα ἐθύετο. οὐ λέγει ταῦτα καίτοι δεινὸς ὢν μὴ ἀληθεύειν. οὐκοῦν ὑπὲρ ἀνδραπόδου κρίνει με. ᾧ γὰρ μήτ' αὐτῷ ὄνομα μήθ' ὧν ἔφυ:, μὴ πόλις μὴ κλῆρός ἐστιν, οὐχί, ὦ θεοί, τοῦτον ἐν ἀνδραπόδοις χρὴ τάττειν; ἀνώνυμα γὰρ πάντα. τίς οὖν ὁ κάπηλος τοῦ ἀνδραπόδου; τίς ὁ πριάμενος αὐτὸ ἐξ ̓Αρκάδων; εἰ γὰρ τὸ γένος τούτων ἐπιτήδειον τῇ σφαττούσῃ μαντικῇ, πολλῶν μὲν χρημάτων εἰκὸς ἐωνῆσθαι τὸν παῖδα, πεπλευκέναι δέ τινα ἐς Πελοπόννησον, ἵν' ἐνθένδε ἡμῖν ἀναχθείη ὁ ̓Αρκάς, ἀνδράποδα μὲν γὰρ Ποντικὰ ἢ Λύδια ἢ ἐκ Φρυγῶν πρίαιτ' ἂν κἀνταῦθά τις, ὧν γε καὶ ἀγέλαις ἐντυχεῖν ἐστιν ἅμα φοιτώσαις δεῦρο, ταυτὶ γὰρ τὰ ἔθνη καὶ ὁπόσα βαρβάρων, πάντα τὸν χρόνον ἑτέρων ἀκροώμενοι οὔπω τὸ δουλεύειν αἰσχρὸν ἡγοῦνται: Φρυξὶ γοῦν ἐπιχώριον καὶ ἀποδίδοσθαι τοὺς αὑτῶν καὶ ἀνδραποδισθέντων μὴ ἐπιστρέφεσθαι, ̔́Ελληνες δὲ ἐλευθερίας ἐρασταὶ ἔτι καὶ οὐδὲ δοῦλον ἀνὴρ ̔́Ελλην πέρα ὅρων ἀποδώσεται, ὅθεν οὐδὲ ἀνδραποδισταῖς οὔτε ἀνδραπόδων καπήλοις ἐς αὐτοὺς παριτητέα, ἐς δὲ ̓Αρκαδίαν καὶ μᾶλλον, πρὸς γὰρ τῷ παρὰ πάντας ἐλευθεριάζειν ̔́Ελληνας δέονται καὶ ὄχλου δούλων. ἔστι δὲ πολυλήιος ̔καὶ ποώδης' ἡ ̓Αρκαδία καὶ ὑλώδης οὐ τὰ μετέωρα μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰ ἐν ποσὶ πάντα. δεῖ δὴ αὐτοῖς πολλῶν μὲν γεωργῶν, πολλῶν δὲ αἰπόλων συφορβῶν τε καὶ ποιμένων καὶ βουκόλων τῶν μὲν ἐπὶ βουσί, τῶν δ' ἐφ' ἵπποις, δρυτόμων τε δεῖται πολλῶν ἡ χώρα καὶ τοῦτο ἐκ παίδων γυμνάζονται. εἰ δὲ καὶ μὴ τοιάδε ἦν τὰ τῶν ̓Αρκάδων, ἀλλ' εἶχον, ὥσπερ ἕτεροι, προσαποδίδοσθαι τοὺς αὑτῶν δούλους, τί τῇ θρυλουμένῃ σοφίᾳ ξυνεβάλλετο τὸ ἐξ ̓Αρκαδίας εἶναι τὸν σφαττόμενον; οὐδὲ γὰρ σοφώτατοι τῶν ̔Ελλήνων ̓Αρκάδες, ἵν' ἑτέρου τι ἀνθρώπου πλέον περὶ τὰ λογικὰ τῶν σπλάγχνων φαίνωσιν, ἀλλὰ ἀγροικότατοι ἀνθρώπων εἰσὶ καὶ συώδεις τά τε ἄλλα καὶ τὸ γαστρίζεθαι τῶν δρυῶν. ῥητορικώτερον ἴσως ἀπολελόγημαι τοὐμοῦ τρόπου, τὰ τῶν ̓Αρκάδων ἀφερμηνεύων ἤθη καὶ παριὼν ἐς Πελοπόννησον τῷ λόγῳ. ἡ γὰρ ἐμοὶ προσήκουσα ἀπολογία τίς; οὐκ ἔθυσα οὐ θύω οὐ θιγγάνω αἵματος, οὐδ' εἰ βώμιον αὐτὸ εἴη, Πυθαγόρας τε γὰρ ὧδε ἐγίγνωσκεν οἵ τε ἀπ' αὐτοῦ παραπλησίως, καὶ κατ' Αἴγυπτον δὲ οἱ Γυμνοὶ καὶ ̓Ινδῶν οἱ σοφοί, παρ' ὧν καὶ τοῖς ἀμφὶ Πυθαγόραν αἱ τῆς σοφίας ἀρχαὶ ἐφοίτησαν. κατὰ ταῦτα θύοντες οὐ δοκοῦσιν ἀδικεῖν τοῖς θεοῖς, ἀλλὰ γηράσκειν τε αὐτοῖς ξυγχωροῦσιν ἀρτίοις τὰ σώματα καὶ ἀνόσοις, καὶ σοφωτέροις ἀεὶ δοκεῖν μὴ τυραννεύεσθαι μηδενὸς δεῖσθαι. καὶ οὐκ ἀπεικός, οἶμαι, ἀγαθῶν δεῖσθαι σφᾶς ὑπὲρ καθαρῶν θυμάτων. δοκῶ γάρ μοι καὶ τοὺς θεοὺς τὸν αὐτὸν ἐμοὶ νοῦν ὑπὲρ θυσιῶν ἔχοντας τὰ λιβανοφόρα τῆς γῆς ἐν καθαρῷ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐκφυτεύειν, ἵν' ἀπ' αὐτῶν θύοιμεν μὴ σιδηροφοροῦντες ἐν ἱεροῖς, μηδ' αἷμα ἐς βωμοὺς ῥαίνοντες. ἐγὼ δ', ὡς ἔοικεν, ἐμαυτοῦ καὶ τῶν θεῶν ἐκλαθόμενος ἔθυον τρόπον, ὃν μήτ' αὐτὸς εἴωθα μήτε τις ἀνθρώπων θύοι. ἀπαλλαττέτω με τῆς αἰτίας καὶ ὁ καιρός, ὃν εἴρηκεν ὁ κατήγορος: τὴν γὰρ ἡμέραν ἐκείνην, ἐν ᾗ ταῦτα εἰργάσθαι μοί φησιν, εἰ μὲν ἐγενόμην ἐν ἀγρῷ, ἔθυσα, εἰ δὲ ἔθυσα, καὶ ἔφαγον. εἶτά με, ὦ βασιλεῦ, θαμινὰ ἐρωτᾷς, εἰ μὴ ἐπεχωρίαζον τῇ ̔Ρώμῃ τότε; καὶ σύ, βέλτιστε βασιλέων, ἐπεχωρίαζες, ἀλλ' οὐκ ἂν εἴποις θῦσαι τοιαῦτα, καὶ ὁ συκοφάντης, ἀλλ' οὐχ ὁμολογήσει τὰ τῶν ἀνδροφόνων πράττειν, εἰ κατὰ τὴν ̔Ρώμην διῃτᾶτο, καὶ μυριάδες ἀνθρώπων, ἃς βέλτιον ξενηλατεῖν ἢ ὑπάγειν γραφαῖς, ἐν αἷς τεκμήριον ἀδικημάτων ἔσται τὸ ἐνταῦθα εἶναι. καίτοι τὸ ἐς τὴν ̔Ρώμην ἥκειν καὶ παραιτεῖται τάχα τῆς τοῦ νεώτερα πράττειν δοκεῖν αἰτίας, τὸ γὰρ ἐν πόλει ζῆν, ἐν ᾗ πάντες μὲν ὀφθαλμοί, πᾶσα δὲ ἀκρόασις ὄντων τε καὶ οὐκ ὄντων, οὐ ξυγχωρεῖ νεωτέρων ἅπτεσθαι τοῖς γε μὴ λίαν θανατῶσι, τοὺς δ' εὐλαβεστέρους τε καὶ σώφρονας βραδέως ἄγει καὶ ἐφ' ἃ ἔξεστι. τί οὖν, ὦ συκοφάντα, κατὰ τὴν νύκτα ἐκείνην ἔπραττον; εἰ μὲν ὡς σεαυτὸν ἐρωτᾷς, ἐπειδὴ καὶ σὺ ἐρωτᾶν ἥκεις, ἀγῶνας ἡτοίμαζον καὶ κατηγορίας ἐπ' ἄνδρας χρηστοὺς καὶ ἀπολέσαι τοὺς οὐκ ἀδικοῦντας καὶ πεῖσαι τὸν βασιλέα μὴ ἀληθῆ λέγων, ἵν' ἐγὼ μὲν εὐδοκιμοίην, μιαίνοιτο δὲ οὗτος, εἰ δ' ὡς φιλοσόφου πυνθάνῃ, τὸν Δημοκρίτου ἐπῄνουν γέλωτα, ὃν ἐς πάντα τὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων γελᾷ, εἰ δ' ὡς ἐμοῦ, Φιλίσκος ὁ Μηλιεὺς ἐτῶν ξυμφιλοσοφήσας ἐμοὶ τεττάρων ἐνόσει τότε, καὶ παρ' αὐτῷ ἀπεκάθευδον οὕτω διακειμένῳ χαλεπῶς, ὡς καὶ ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὸ τῆς νόσου. καίτοι πολλὰς ἂν ηὐξάμην ἴυγγας ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκείνου ψυχῆς γενέσθαι μοι, καί, νὴ Δί', εἴ τινες ̓Ορφέως εἰσὶν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀποθανόντων μελῳδίαι, μηδ' ἐκείνας ἀγνοῆσαι, καὶ γὰρ ἄν μοι δοκῶ καὶ ὑπὸ τὴν γῆν πορευθῆναι δἰ αὐτόν, εἰ ἐφικτὰ ἦν ταῦτα: οὕτω με ἀνήρτητο πᾶσιν οἷς φιλοσόφως τε καὶ κατὰ τὸν ἐμὸν νοῦν ἔπραττε. ταῦτ' ἔστι μέν σοι, βασιλεῦ, καὶ Τελεσίνου ἀκοῦσαι τοῦ ὑπάτου, παρῆν γὰρ κἀκεῖνος τῷ Μηλιεῖ, θεραπεύων αὐτὸν νύκτωρ, ὁπόσα ἐγώ. εἰ δὲ Τελεσίνῳ ἀπιστεῖς, ἐπειδὴ τῶν φιλοσοφούντων ἐστί, καλῶ τοὺς ἰατροὺς μάρτυρας, εἰσὶ δ' οὗτοι Σέλευκός τε ὁ ἐκ Κυζίκου καὶ Στρατοκλῆς ὁ Σιδώνιος: τούτους ἐρώτα, εἰ ἀληθῆ λέγω: καὶ μαθηταὶ δ' αὐτοῖς ὑπὲρ τοὺς τριάκοντα εἵποντο, τῶν αὐτῶν δήπου μάρτυρες, τὸ γὰρ προκαλεῖσθαι δεῦρο τοὺς τῷ Φιλίσκῳ προσήκοντας ἀναβολὰς ἴσως ἡγήσῃ τῆς δίκης, ἐπειδὴ αὐτίκα τῆς ̔Ρώμης ἀπῆραν ἐς τὰ Μηλιέων ἤθη κατὰ ὁσίαν τοῦ νεκροῦ. ἴτε, ὦ μάρτυρες, καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ παρήγγελται ὑμῖν ὑπὲρ τούτου: ΜΑΡΤΥΡΕ*ς. παρ' ὅσον μὲν τοίνυν τῆς ἀληθείας ἡ γραφὴ ξυνετέθη, δηλοῖ σαφῶς ἡ μαρτυρία τῶν ἀνδρῶν, οὐ γὰρ ἐν προαστείοις, ἀλλ' ἐν ἄστει, οὐκ ἔξω τείχους, ἀλλ' ἐπ' οἰκίας, οὐδὲ παρὰ Νερούᾳ, παρὰ Φιλίσκῳ δέ, οὐδὲ ἀποσφάττων, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ψυχῆς εὐχόμενος, οὐδ' ὑπὲρ βασιλείας, ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ φιλοσοφίας, οὐδ' ἀντὶ σοῦ χειροτονῶν νεώτερον, ἀλλ' ἄνδρα σώζων ἐμαυτῷ ὅμοιον. τί οὖν ὁ ̓Αρκὰς ἐνταῦθα; τί δ' οἱ τῶν σφαγίων μῦθοι; τί δὲ τὸ τὰ τοιαῦτα πείθειν; ἔσται γάρ ποτε καὶ ὃ μὴ γέγονεν, ἂν ὡς γεγονὸς κριθῇ: τὸ δ' ἀπίθανον τῆς θυσίας, ὦ βασιλεῦ, ποῖ τάξεις; ἐγένοντο μὲν γὰρ καὶ πρότερον σφαγίων μάντεις ἀγαθοὶ τὴν τέχνην καὶ οἷοι ὀνομάσαι, Μεγιστίας ἐξ ̓Ακαρνανίας, ̓Αρίστανδρος ἐκ Λυκίας, ̓Αμπρακία δὲ Σιλανὸν ἤνεγκε, καὶ ἐθύοντο ὁ μὲν ̓Ακαρνὰν Λεωνίδᾳ βασιλεῖ Σπάρτης, ὁ δὲ Λύκιος ̓Αλεξάνδρῳ τῷ Μακεδόνι, Σιλανὸς δὲ Κύρῳ βασιλείας ἐρῶντι, καὶ εἴ τι ἐν ἀνθρώπου σπλάγχνοις ἢ σαφέστερον ἢ σοφώτερον ἢ ἐτυμώτερον ἀπέκειτο, οὐκ ἄπορος ἦν ἡ θυσία, βασιλέων γε προϊσταμένων αὐτῆς, οἷς πολλοὶ μὲν ἦσαν οἰνοχόοι, πολλὰ δ' αἰχμάλωτα, παρανομίαι δ' ἀκίνδυνοι καὶ φόβος οὐδεὶς κατηγορίας, εἴ τι ἔσφαττον: ἀλλ', οἶμαι, παρίστατο τοῖς ἀνδράσιν, ὃ κἀμοὶ νῦν κινδυνεύοντι ὑπὲρ τοιούτων, ὅτι τὰ μὲν ἄλογα τῶν ζῴων εἰκός, ἐπειδὴ ἐν ἀγνοίᾳ τοῦ θανάτου σφάττεται, μὴ θολοῦσθαί τι τῶν σπλάγχνων ὑπὸ ἀξυνεσίας ὧν πείσονται: ἄνθρωπον δὲ ἀεί τι ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ ἔχοντα θανάτου καὶ μήπω ἐφεστηκότος δεῖμα πῶς εἰκὸς παρόντος ἤδη καὶ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς ὄντος δεῖξαί τι ἐπὶ τῶν σπλάγχνων μαντικὸν ἢ ὅλως εὔθυτον; ὅτι δὲ ὀρθῶς τε καὶ κατὰ φύσιν στοχάζομαι τούτων, σκόπει, βασιλεῦ, ὧδε: τὸ ἧπαρ, ἐν ᾧ φασι τὸν τῆς αὐτῶν μαντικῆς εἶναι τρίποδα οἱ δεινοὶ ταῦτα, ξύγκειται μὲν οὐ καθαροῦ αἵματος, πᾶν γάρ, ὅ τι ἀκραιφνές, καρδία ἴσχει δι' αἱματηρῶν φλεβῶν ἀποχετεύουσα ἐς πᾶν τὸ σῶμα, χολὴν δ' ἐπὶ ἥπατι κειμένην ὀργὴ μὲν ἀνίστησι, φόβοι δὲ ὑπάγουσιν ἐς τὰ κοῖλα τοῦ ἥπατος. ὑπὸ μὲν δὴ τῶν παροξυνόντων ζέουσα καὶ μηδὲ τῷ ἑαυτῆς ἀγγείῳ φορητὸς οὖσα ὑπτίῳ ἐπιχεῖται τῷ ἥπατι, καθ' ὃ ἐπέχει χολὴ πᾶσα τὰ λεῖά τε καὶ μαντικὰ τοῦ σπλάγχνου, ὑπὸ δὲ τῶν δειματούντων ξυνιζάνουσα ξυνεπισπᾶται καὶ τὸ ἐν τοῖς λείοις φῶς, ὑπονοστεῖ γὰρ τότε καὶ τὸ καθαρὸν τοῦ αἵματος, ὑφ' οὗ σπληνοῦται τὸ ἧπαρ, ὑποτρέχοντος φύσει τὸν περὶ αὐτὸ ὑμένα καὶ τῷ πηλώδει ἐπιπολάζοντος. τί οὖν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, τῆς μιαιφονίας ἔργον, εἰ ἄσημα τὰ ἱερὰ ἔσται; ἄσημα δ' αὐτὰ ἡ ἀνθρωπεία φύσις ἐργάζεται ξυνιεῖσα τοῦ θανάτου καὶ αὐτοὶ οἱ ἀποθνήσκοντες, οἱ μὲν γὰρ εὔψυχοι ξὺν ὀργῇ τελευτῶσιν, οἱ δ' ἀθυμότεροι ξὺν δέει. ἔνθεν ἡ τέχνη παρὰ τοῖς οὐκ ἀνεπιστήμοσι βαρβάροις χιμαίρας μὲν καὶ ἄρνας ἐπαινεῖ σφάττειν, ἐπειδὴ εὐήθη τὰ ζῷα καὶ οὐ πόρρω ἀναισθήτων, ἀλεκτρυόνας δὲ καὶ σῦς καὶ ταύρους, ἐπειδὴ θυμοειδῆ ταῦτα, οὐκ ἀξιοῖ τῶν ἑαυτῆς ἀπορρήτων. ξυνίημι, ὦ βασιλεῦ, παροξύνων τὸν κατήγορον, ἐπειδὴ σοφώτερόν σε ἀκροατὴν εἴργασμαι, καί μοι δοκεῖς καὶ προσέχειν τῷ λόγῳ: εἰ δὲ μὴ σαφῶς τι αὐτοῦ φράζοιμι, ξυγχωρῶ σοι ἐρωτᾶν με. εἴρηταί μοι τὰ πρὸς τὴν τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου γραφήν: ἐπεὶ δ' , οἶμαι, χρὴ μηδὲ τὰς Εὐφράτου διαβολὰς ὑπερορᾶσθαι, σύ, ὦ βασιλεῦ, δικάζοις, ὁπότερος ἡμῶν φιλοσοφεῖ μᾶλλον: οὐκοῦν ὁ μὲν ἀγωνίζεται μὴ τἀληθῆ περὶ ἐμοῦ λέγειν, ἐγὼ δ' οὐκ ἀξιῶ, καὶ ὁ μέν σε ἡγεῖται δεσπότην, ἐγὼ δ' ἄρχοντα, καὶ ὁ μὲν ξίφος ἐπ' ἐμέ σοι δίδωσιν, ἐγὼ δὲ λόγον. ἀλλ' ὑπὲρ ὧν γε διαβέβληκεν, οἱ λόγοι εἰσίν, οὓς ἐν ̓Ιωνίᾳ εἶπον, φησὶ δ' αὐτοὺς οὐκ ἐς τὸ σοὶ ξυμφέρον ὑπ' ἐμοῦ εἰρῆσθαι. καίτοι τὰ μὲν λεχθέντα ἦν ὑπὲρ Μοιρῶν καὶ ἀνάγκης, παράδειγμα δ' ἐγίγνετό μοι τοῦ λόγου τὰ τῶν βασιλέων πράγματα, ἐπειδὴ μέγιστα τῶν ἀνθρωπείων δοκεῖ τὰ ὑμέτερα, Μοιρῶν τε ἰσχὺν ἐφιλοσόφουν καὶ τὸ οὕτως ἄτρεπτα εἶναι, ἃ κλώθουσιν, ὡς, εἰ καὶ βασιλείαν τῳ ψηφίσαιντο ἑτέρῳ δὴ ὑπάρχουσαν, ὁ δ' ἀποκτείνειε τοῦτον, ὡς μὴ ἀφαιρεθείη ποτὲ ὑπ' αὐτοῦ τὸ ἄρχειν, κἂν ἀναβιοίη ὁ ἀποθανὼν ὑπὲρ τῶν δοξάντων ταῖς Μοίραις. τὰς γὰρ ὑπερβολὰς τῶν λόγων ἐσαγόμεθα διὰ τοὺς τοῖς πιθανοῖς ἀπειθοῦντας, ὥσπερ ἂν εἰ καὶ τοιόνδε ἔλεγον: ὅτῳ πέπρωται γενέσθαι τεκτονικῷ, οὗτος, κἂν ἀποκοκῇ τὼ χεῖρε, τεκτονικὸς ἔσται, καὶ ὅτῳ νίκην ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ δρόμου ἄρασθαι, οὗτος, οὐδ' εἰ πηρωθείη τὸ σκέλος, ἁμαρτήσεται τῆς νίκης, καὶ ὅτῳ ἔνευσαν Μοῖραι τὸ ἐν τοξείᾳ κράτος, οὗτος, οὐδ' εἰ ἀποβάλοι τὰς ὄψεις, ἐκπεσεῖται τοῦ σκοποῦ τὰ δὲ τῶν βασιλέων ἔλεγον ἐς τοὺς ̓Ακρισίους δήπου ὁρῶν καὶ τοὺς Λαίους ̓Αστυάγη τε τὸν Μῆδον καὶ πολλοὺς ἑτέρους εὖ τίθεσθαι τὰ αὑτῶν ἐν ἀρχῇ δόξαντας, ὧν οἱ μὲν παῖδας, οἱ δὲ ἐκγόνους ἀποκτείνειν οἰηθέντες ἀφῃρέθησαν ὑπ' αὐτῶν τὸ βασιλεύειν ἀναφύντων ἐξ ἀφανοῦς ξὺν τῷ πεπρωμένῳ. καὶ εἰ μὲν ἠγάπων κολακευτικήν, εἶπον ἂν καὶ τὰ σὰ ἐντεθυμῆσθαι, ὅτε ἀπείληψο μὲν ὑπὸ Βιτελίου ἐνταῦθα, κατεπίμπρατο δὲ ὁ νεὼς τοῦ Διὸς περὶ τὰς ὀφρῦς τοῦ ἄστεος, ὁ δ' εὖ κείσεσθαι τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ἔφασκεν, εἰ μὴ διαφύγοις αὐτόν — καίτοι μειράκιον ἱκανῶς ἦσθα καὶ οὔπω οὗτος — ἀλλ' ὅμως, ἐπειδὴ Μοίραις ἐδόκει ἕτερα, ὁ μὲν ἀπώλετο αὐταῖς βουλαῖς, σὺ δὲ τἀκείνου νῦν ἔχεις. ἐπεὶ δ' ἁρμονίᾳ κολακευτικῇ ἄχθομαι, δοκεῖ γάρ μοι τῶν ἐκρύθμων τε καὶ οὐκ εὐφθόγγων εἶναι, τεμνέσθω μοι ἥδε ἡ νευρὰ καὶ μηδὲν ἡγοῦ τῶν σῶν ἐντεθυμῆσθαί με, ἀλλὰ διειλέχθαι μόνα τὰ ὑπὲρ Μοιρῶν καὶ ἀνάγκης, ταυτὶ γάρ φησιν εἰρῆσθαί μοι ἐπὶ σέ. καίτοι τὸν λόγον τοῦτον ἀνέχονται μὲν καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ τῶν θεῶν, οὐκ ἄχθεται δὲ οὐδὲ ὁ Ζεὺς ἀκούων καὶ ταῦτα τῶν ποιητῶν ἐν τοῖς Λυκίοις λόγοις ᾤμοι ἐγών, ὅτε μοι Σαρπηδόνα καὶ τοιαῦτ' ἐς αὐτὸν ᾀδόντων, ἐν οἷς τοῦ υἱέος ἐξίστασθαί φησι ταῖς Μοίραις, λεγόντων τε αὖ ἐν ψυχοστασίᾳ, ὅτι Μίνω τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ Σαρπηδόνος ἀποθανόντα χρυσῷ μὲν σκήπτρῳ ἐτίμησε καὶ δικάζειν ἔταξεν ἐν τῇ τοῦ Αἰδωνέως ἀγορᾷ, Μοιρῶν δ' οὐ παρῃτήσατο. σὺ δ', ὦ βασιλεῦ, τοῦ χάριν ἄχθῃ τῷ λόγῳ, θεῶν καρτερούντων αὐτόν, οἷς πέπηγεν ἀεὶ τὰ πράγματα, καὶ μὴ ἀποκτεινόντων τοὺς ποιητὰς ἐπ' αὐτῷ; προσήκει γὰρ ταῖς Μοίραις ἕπεσθαι καὶ πρὸς τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν πραγμάτων μὴ χαλεποὺς εἶναι, Σοφοκλεῖ τε μὴ ἀπιστεῖν μόνοις οὐ γίγνεται θεοῖσι γῆρας, οὐδὲ μὴν θανεῖν ποτε, τὰ δ' ἄλλα συγχεῖ πάνθ' ὁ παγκρατὴς χρόνος, ἄριστα δὴ ἀνθρώπων λέγοντι. ἐγκύκλιοι γὰρ αἱ κατ' ἀνθρώπους εὐπραγίαι καὶ ἐφήμερον, ὦ βασιλεῦ, τὸ τοῦ ὄλβου μῆκος: τἀμὰ οὗτος καὶ τὰ τούτου ἕτερος καὶ ὁ δεῖνα τὰ τοῦ δεῖνος ἔχων οὐκ ἔχει. ταῦτ' ἐννοῶν, ὦ βασιλεῦ, παῦε μὲν φυγάς, παῦε δ' αἷμα, καὶ φιλοσοφίᾳ μὲν ὅ τι βούλει χρῶ, ἀπαθὴς γὰρ ἥ γε ἀληθής, δάκρυα δὲ ἀνθρώπων ἀφαίρει, ὡς νῦν γε ἠχὼ μυρία μὲν ἐκ θαλάττης, πολλῷ δὲ πλείων ἐξ ἠπείρων φοιτᾷ θρηνούντων, ὅ τι ἑκάστῳ θρήνου ἄξιον. τὰ δὲ ἐντεῦθεν φυόμενα πλείω ὄντα ἢ ἀριθμεῖσθαι ταῖς τῶν συκοφαντῶν γλώτταις ἀνῆπται διαβαλλόντων σοί τε πάντας καὶ σέ, ὦ βασιλεῦ, πᾶσιν.”
73. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 7.10 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 70
74. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 71.8 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 241
75. Lucian, Dialogues of The Dead, 21.6-21.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
76. Lucian, The Lover of Lies, 10, 12-23, 29-31, 6-9, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 241
77. Lucian, The Passing of Peregrinus, 34, 37-41, 43, 45, 44 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 242
78. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 69
33a. מחזיר לו א"ל לאו ואם היית מחזיר לו מה היו עושים לך א"ל היו חותכים את ראשי בסייף א"ל והלא דברים ק"ו ומה אתה שהיית עומד לפני מלך בשר ודם שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר כך אני שהייתי עומד לפני מלך מלכי המלכים הקב"ה שהוא חי וקיים לעד ולעולמי עולמים על אחת כמה וכמה,מיד נתפייס אותו השר ונפטר אותו חסיד לביתו לשלום:,אפי' נחש כרוך על עקבו לא יפסיק: אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא נחש אבל עקרב פוסק,מיתיבי נפל לגוב אריות אין מעידין עליו שמת נפל לחפירה מלאה נחשים ועקרבים מעידין עליו שמת,שאני התם דאגב איצצא מזקי,א"ר יצחק ראה שוורים פוסק דתני רב אושעיא מרחיקין משור תם חמשים אמה ומשור מועד כמלא עיניו,תנא משמיה דר' מאיר ריש תורא בדקולא סליק לאגרא ושדי דרגא מתותך אמר שמואל הני מילי בשור שחור וביומי ניסן מפני שהשטן מרקד לו בין קרניו, ת"ר מעשה במקום אחד שהיה ערוד והיה מזיק את הבריות באו והודיעו לו לר' חנינא בן דוסא אמר להם הראו לי את חורו הראוהו את חורו נתן עקבו על פי החור יצא ונשכו ומת אותו ערוד, נטלו על כתפו והביאו לבית המדרש אמר להם ראו בני אין ערוד ממית אלא החטא ממית,באותה שעה אמרו אוי לו לאדם שפגע בו ערוד ואוי לו לערוד שפגע בו ר' חנינא בן דוסא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מזכירין גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים והבדלה בחונן הדעת ר"ע אומר אומרה ברכה רביעית בפני עצמה רבי אליעזר אומר בהודאה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מזכירין גבורות גשמים מאי טעמא,אמר רב יוסף מתוך ששקולה כתחיית המתים לפיכך קבעוה בתחיית המתים,ושאלה בברכת השנים מאי טעמא,אמר רב יוסף מתוך שהיא פרנסה לפיכך קבעוה בברכת פרנסה,הבדלה בחונן הדעת מ"ט,א"ר יוסף מתוך שהיא חכמה קבעוה בברכת חכמה ורבנן אמרי מתוך שהיא חול לפיכך קבעוה בברכת חול,א"ר אמי גדולה דעה שנתנה בתחלת ברכה של חול,וא"ר אמי גדולה דעה שנתנה בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (שמואל א ב, ג) כי אל דעות ה' וכל מי שאין בו דעה אסור לרחם עליו שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, יא) כי לא עם בינות הוא על כן לא ירחמנו עושהו,אמר רבי אלעזר גדול מקדש שנתן בין ב' אותיות שנאמר (שמות טו, יז) פעלת ה' מקדש ה',וא"ר אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו דעה כאילו נבנה בית המקדש בימיו דעה נתנה בין שתי אותיות מקדש נתן בין שתי אותיות,מתקיף לה רב אחא קרחינאה אלא מעתה גדולה נקמה שנתנה בין שתי אותיות שנאמר (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה',אמר ליה אין במילתה מיהא גדולה היא והיינו דאמר עולא שתי נקמות הללו למה אחת לטובה ואחת לרעה לטובה דכתיב (דברים לג, ב) הופיע מהר פארן לרעה דכתיב אל נקמות ה' אל נקמות הופיע:,רבי עקיבא אומר אומרה ברכה רביעית כו':,א"ל רב שמן בר אבא לר' יוחנן מכדי אנשי כנסת הגדולה תקנו להם לישראל ברכות ותפלות קדושות והבדלות נחזי היכן תקון,א"ל בתחלה קבעוה בתפלה העשירו קבעוה על הכוס הענו חזרו וקבעוה בתפלה והם אמרו המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס,איתמר נמי אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן אנשי כנסת הגדולה תקנו להם לישראל ברכות ותפלות קדושות והבדלות בתחלה קבעוה בתפלה העשירו קבעוה על הכוס חזרו והענו קבעוה בתפלה והם אמרו המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס,איתמר נמי רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס,אמר רבא ומותבינן אשמעתין טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו והבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס,לא תימא מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס אלא אימא מפני שאומרה על הכוס,איתמר נמי אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת שאל ר' יוסי את ר' יוחנן בצידן ואמרי לה ר' שמעון בן יעקב דמן צור את ר' יוחנן ואנא שמעית המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס או לא ואמר ליה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס,איבעיא להו המבדיל על הכוס מהו שיבדיל בתפילה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק קל וחומר מתפלה ומה תפלה דעיקר תקנתא היא אמרי המבדיל בתפלה צריך שיבדיל על הכוס המבדיל על הכוס דלאו עיקר תקנתא היא לא כ"ש,תני ר' אחא אריכא קמיה דרב חיננא המבדיל בתפלה משובח יותר ממי שיבדיל על הכוס ואם הבדיל בזו ובזו ינוחו לו ברכות על ראשו,הא גופא קשיא אמרת המבדיל בתפלה משובח יותר ממי שיבדיל על הכוס אלמא תפלה לחודה סגי והדר תני אם הבדיל בזו ובזו ינוחו לו ברכות על ראשו וכיון דנפיק ליה בחדא אפטר והויא ברכה שאינה צריכה ואמר רב ואיתימא ר"ל ואמרי לה ר' יוחנן ור"ל דאמרי תרוייהו כל המברך ברכה שאינה צריכה עובר משום (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא,אלא אימא הכי אם הבדיל בזו ולא הבדיל בזו ינוחו לו ברכות על ראשו,בעא מיניה רב חסדא מרב ששת טעה בזו ובזו מהו אמר ליה טעה בזו ובזו חוזר לראש 33a. The officer b said to him: No. /b br The pious man continued: b And if you would /b greet b him, what would they do to you? /b br The officer b said to him: They would cut /b off b my head with a sword. /b br The pious man b said to him: Isn’t this matter an i a fortiori /i inference? /b br b You who were standing before a king of flesh and blood, /b br of whom your fear is limited b because today he is here but tomorrow he is in the grave, /b br would have reacted in b that /b way; br b I, who was standing /b and praying b before the Supreme King of kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b br b Who lives and endures for all eternity, /b br b all the more so /b that I could not pause to respond to someone’s greeting.,When he heard this, b the officer was immediately appeased and the pious man returned home in peace. /b ,We learned in the mishna that b even if a snake is wrapped around his heel, he may not interrupt /b his prayer. In limiting application of this principle, b Rav Sheshet said: They only taught /b this mishna b with regard to a snake, /b as if one does not attack the snake it will not bite him. b But /b if b a scorpion /b approaches an individual while he is praying, b he stops, /b as the scorpion is liable to sting him even if he does not disturb it.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b based on what was taught in a i Tosefta /i : Those who saw one b fall into a lions’ den /b but did not see what happened to him thereafter, b do not testify that he died. /b Their testimony is not accepted by the court as proof that he has died as it is possible that the lions did not eat him. However, those who saw one b fall into a pit of snakes and scorpions, testify that he died /b as surely the snakes bit him.,The Gemara responds: This is not difficult. b There, /b in the case of one who falls into a pit of snakes, it b is different, as due to the pressure /b of his falling on top of them, the snakes b will harm him, /b but a snake who is not touched will not bite.,The Gemara cites another i halakha /i stating that he must interrupt his prayer in a case of certain danger. b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One who saw oxen /b coming toward him, b he interrupts /b his prayer, b as Rav Hoshaya taught: One distances himself fifty cubits from an innocuous ox [ i shor tam /i ], /b an ox with no history of causing damage with the intent to injure, b and from a forewarned ox [ i shor muad /i ], /b an ox whose owner was forewarned because his ox has gored three times already, one distances himself until it is beyond b eyeshot. /b ,It was b taught in the name of Rabbi Meir: /b While b the head of the ox is /b still b in the basket /b and he is busy eating, b go up on the roof and kick the ladder out from underneath you. Shmuel said: This applies only with regard to a black ox, and during the days of Nisan, because /b that species of ox is particularly dangerous, and during that time of year b Satan dances between its horns. /b ,With regard to the praise for one who prays and need not fear even a snake, b the Sages taught: /b There was b an incident in one place where an i arvad /i was harming the people. They came and told Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa /b and asked for his help. b He told them: Show me /b the b hole of the i arvad /i . They showed him its hole. He placed his heel over the mouth of the hole /b and the b i arvad /i came out and bit him, and died. /b ,Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa b placed /b the i arvad /i b over his shoulder and brought it to the study hall. He said to /b those assembled there: b See, my sons, it is not /b the b i arvad /i that kills /b a person, b rather transgression kills /b a person. The i arvad /i has no power over one who is free of transgression., b At that moment /b the Sages b said: Woe unto the person who was attacked by an i arvad /i and woe unto the i arvad /i that was attacked by Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong This mishna speaks of additions to the standard formula of the i Amida /i prayer and the blessings in which they are incorporated. b One mentions the might of the rains /b and recites: He makes the wind blow and the rain fall, b in /b the second blessing of the i Amida /i prayer, the blessing of b the revival of the dead. And the request /b for rain: And grant dew and rain as a blessing, b in /b the ninth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer, b the blessing of the years. And the prayer of distinction [ i havdala /i ], /b between the holy and the profane recited in the evening prayer following Shabbat and festivals, b in /b the fourth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer: b Who graciously grants knowledge. Rabbi Akiva says: /b i Havdala /i b is recited /b as b an independent fourth blessing. Rabbi Eliezer says /b that it is recited b in /b the seventeenth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer, the blessing of b thanksgiving. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that b one mentions the might of the rains /b in the second blessing of the i Amida /i prayer, the blessing of the revival of the dead. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that the might of the rains is mentioned specifically in that blessing?, b Rav Yosef said: Because /b the might of the rains b is equivalent to the resurrection of the dead, /b as rain revives new life in the plant world (Jerusalem Talmud), b therefore it was inserted in /b the blessing of b the revival of the dead. /b , b And /b we also learned in the mishna that the b request /b for rain is added to b the blessing of the years. /b Here, too, the Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that the request for rain is recited specifically in that blessing?, b Rav Yosef said: Because /b rain is a component of b sustece, therefore it was inserted in the blessing of sustece /b as part of our request for bountiful sustece.,We also learned in the mishna that b i havdala /i , /b distinguishing between Shabbat and the weekdays, is added b in /b the blessing of: b Who graciously grants knowledge. /b Here too the Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that i havdala /i is recited specifically in that blessing?, b Rav Yosef said: /b i Havdala /i is recited in that blessing b because it /b requires b wisdom /b to distinguish between two entities, b they established it in the blessing of wisdom. The Rabbis say /b a different reason: b Because /b i havdala /i b is /b the distinction between the sacred and the b profane, /b the Sages b established it in the blessing of weekdays. /b The first three blessings of the i Amida /i prayer are recited both on weekdays and on Shabbat and Festivals. The blessing: Who graciously grants knowledge, is the first of the blessings recited exclusively during the week.,Having mentioned the blessing of wisdom, the Gemara cites that which b Rav Ami said /b with regard to knowledge: b Great is knowledge that was placed at the beginning of the weekday blessings; /b an indication of its significance., b And Rav Ami said /b in praise of knowledge: b Great is knowledge that was placed between two letters, /b two names of God, b as it is stated: “For God of knowledge is the Lord” /b (I Samuel 2:3). b And /b since knowledge is regarded so highly, b anyone without knowledge, it is forbidden to have compassion upon him, as it is stated: “For they are a people of no wisdom, so their Creator will have no compassion upon them /b and their Creator will not be gracious unto them” (Isaiah 27:11). If God shows no mercy for those who lack wisdom, all the more so should people refrain from doing so.,Similarly, b Rabbi Elazar said: Great is the Holy Temple, as /b it too b was placed between two letters, /b two names of God, b as it is stated: /b “The place in which to dwell which b You have made, Lord, the Temple, Lord, /b which Your hands have prepared” (Exodus 15:17).,Noting the parallel between these two ideas, b Rabbi Elazar /b added b and said: Anyone with knowledge, /b it is b as if the Holy Temple was built in his days; knowledge was placed between two letters /b and b the Temple was placed between two letters, /b signifying that they stand together., b Rav Aḥa Karḥina’a strongly objects to this /b approach that being placed between two names of God accords significance: b However, if so, /b the same should hold true for vengeance. b Great /b is b revenge that was placed between two letters, as it is stated: “God of vengeance, Lord, /b God of vengeance shine forth” (Psalms 94:1)., b He said to him: Yes. At least in its place, /b in the appropriate context, b it is great. /b At times it is necessary. b That is that which Ulla said: Why /b are b these two vengeances /b mentioned in a single verse? b One for good and one for evil. /b Vengeance b for good, as it is written: “He shined forth from Mount Paran” /b (Deuteronomy 33:2) with regard to God’s vengeance against the wicked; vengeance b for evil, as it is written: “God of vengeance, Lord, God of vengeance shine forth” /b with regard to the punishment of Israel.,A tannaitic dispute is cited in the mishna with regard to the appropriate blessing in which to recite i havdala /i within the i Amida /i prayer. b Rabbi Akiva says: /b i Havdala /i b is recited /b as an independent b fourth blessing. /b Rabbi Eliezer says that it is recited in the seventeenth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer, the blessing of thanksgiving. The first i tanna /i says that it is recited in the fourth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer: Who graciously grants knowledge.,Regarding this, b Rav Shemen, /b Shimon, b bar Abba said to Rabbi Yoḥa: Now, since /b the eighteen blessings of the i Amida /i prayer and the other prayer formulas for prayer b were instituted for Israel by the members of the Great Assembly /b just like all the other b blessings and prayers, sanctifications and i havdalot /i ; let us see where /b in the i Amida /i prayer the members of the Great Assembly b instituted /b to recite i havdala /i .,Rabbi Yoḥa replied that that would be impossible, as the customs associated with i havdala /i went through several stages. b He said to him: Initially, /b during the difficult, early years of the Second Temple, b they established /b that i havdala /i is to be recited b in the /b i Amida /i b prayer. /b Subsequently, when the people b became wealthy, they established /b that i havdala /i is to be recited b over the cup /b of wine. When the people b became impoverished, they again established /b that b it /b was to be recited b in the /b i Amida /i b prayer. And they said: One who recites i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer must, /b if he is able ( i Shitta Mekubbetzet /i , i Me’iri /i ), b recite i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine as well. Due to all these changes, it was not clear when exactly i havdala /i was to be recited., b It was also stated: Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The members of the Great Assembly established for Israel blessings and prayers, sanctifications and i havdalot /i . Initially, they established /b that i havdala /i is to be recited b in the /b i Amida /i b prayer. /b Subsequently, when the people b became wealthy, they established /b that i havdala /i is to be recited b over the cup /b of wine. When the people b again became impoverished, they established /b that b it /b was to be recited b in the /b i Amida /i b prayer. And they said: One who recites i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer must recite i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine as well., b It was also stated: Rabba and Rav Yosef who both said: One who recites i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer must recite i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine as well., b Rava said: We raise an objection to our i halakha /i /b based on what was taught in a i Tosefta /i : b One who erred and did not mention the might of the rains in /b the second blessing in the i Amida /i , the blessing on b the revival of the dead, and /b one who erred and failed to recite b the request /b for rain b in /b the ninth blessing of the i Amida /i , b the blessing of the years, we require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite b i havdala /i in /b the blessing: b Who graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to return /b to the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, b as he can recite /b i havdala /i b over the cup /b of wine. Apparently, i havdala /i over the cup of wine is optional, not obligatory, at it says because he can recite and not that he must.,The Gemara answers: b Do not say /b as it appears in the i Tosefta /i : b Because he can recite /b i havdala /i b over the cup /b of wine. b Rather, say: Because he recites /b i havdala /i b over the cup /b of wine.,Proof that one must recite i havdala /i over the cup of wine as well as in the i Amida /i prayer b was also stated: Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said /b that b Rabbi Yosei asked Rabbi Yoḥa in Sidon, and some say that Rabbi Shimon ben Ya’akov from /b the city of b Tyre /b asked b Rabbi Yoḥa, and I, /b Binyamin bar Yefet, b heard: One who /b already b recited i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer, must he recite i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine b or not? And /b Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: He must recite i havdala /i over the cup. /b ,Having clarified the question whether one who recited i havdala /i during the i Amida /i prayer must also recite i havdala /i over the cup of wine, b a dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b One who /b already b recited i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine, b what is /b the ruling as far as his obligation b to recite i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer /b is concerned?, b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b This can be derived b i a fortiori /i from /b the established i halakha /i regarding i havdala /i in b the /b i Amida /i b prayer. Just as /b i havdala /i in b the /b i Amida /i b prayer, which is /b where b the principal ordice /b to recite i havdala /i was instituted, the Sages b said /b that it is not sufficient and b one who recited i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer must recite i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine as well, b all the more so /b that b one who recited i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine, b which is not /b where b the principal ordice /b to recite i havdala /i was instituted, but was merely a later addition, did not fulfill his obligation and must recite i havdala /i in the i Amida /i prayer., b Rabbi Aḥa Arikha, the tall, taught /b a i baraita /i b before Rav Ḥina: One who recited i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer /b is b more praiseworthy than one who recites it over the cup /b of wine, b and if he recited i havdala /i in this, /b the i Amida /i prayer, b and that, /b over the cup of wine, b may blessings rest upon his head. /b , b This /b i baraita /i b is /b apparently b self-contradictory. /b On the one hand, b you said that one who recites i havdala /i in the /b i Amida /i b prayer /b is b more praiseworthy than one who recites i havdala /i over the cup /b of wine, indicating that reciting i havdala /i in b the /b i Amida /i b prayer alone is sufficient. And then it is taught: If one recited i havdala /i in this, /b the i Amida /i prayer, b and that, /b over the cup of wine, b may blessings rest upon his head. And since he fulfilled /b his obligation to recite i havdala /i b with one, /b he is b exempt, and /b the additional recitation of i havdala /i over the cup of wine b is an unnecessary blessing. And Rav, and some say Reish Lakish, and /b still others b say Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakish both said: Anyone who recites an unnecessary blessing violates /b the biblical prohibition: b “Do not take /b the name of the Lord your God in vain” (Exodus 20:7)., b Rather, /b emend this i baraita /i b and say as follows: If one recited i havdala /i in this and not in that, may blessings rest upon his head. /b , b Rav Ḥisda asked Rav Sheshet /b with regard to these blessings: If b one erred /b in i havdala /i both b in this and in that, what is /b the ruling? Rav Sheshet b said to him: One who erred in this, /b the i Amida /i prayer, b and that, /b over the cup of wine, b returns to the beginning /b of both the i Amida /i prayer and the i havdala /i over the cup of wine.
79. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 15.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 281
80. Origen, Against Celsus, 3.24, 4.37 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man •holy spirit, creation of man from dust Found in books: Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 277; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 132
3.24. And again, when it is said of Æsculapius that a great multitude both of Greeks and Barbarians acknowledge that they have frequently seen, and still see, no mere phantom, but Æsculapius himself, healing and doing good, and foretelling the future; Celsus requires us to believe this, and finds no fault with the believers in Jesus, when we express our belief in such stories, but when we give our assent to the disciples, and eye-witnesses of the miracles of Jesus, who clearly manifest the honesty of their convictions (because we see their guilelessness, as far as it is possible to see the conscience revealed in writing), we are called by him a set of silly individuals, although he cannot demonstrate that an incalculable number, as he asserts, of Greeks and Barbarians acknowledge the existence of Æsculapius; while we, if we deem this a matter of importance, can clearly show a countless multitude of Greeks and Barbarians who acknowledge the existence of Jesus. And some give evidence of their having received through this faith a marvellous power by the cures which they perform, revoking no other name over those who need their help than that of the God of all things, and of Jesus, along with a mention of His history. For by these means we too have seen many persons freed from grievous calamities, and from distractions of mind, and madness, and countless other ills, which could be cured neither by men nor devils. 4.37. He charges us, moreover, with introducing a man formed by the hands of God, although the book of Genesis has made no mention of the hands of God, either when relating the creation or the fashioning of the man; while it is Job and David who have used the expression, Your hands have made me and fashioned me; with reference to which it would need a lengthened discourse to point out the sense in which these words were understood by those who used them, both as regards the difference between making and fashioning, and also the hands of God. For those who do not understand these and similar expressions in the sacred Scriptures, imagine that we attribute to the God who is over all things a form such as that of man; and according to their conceptions, it follows that we consider the body of God to be furnished with wings, since the Scriptures, literally understood, attribute such appendages to God. The subject before us, however, does not require us to interpret these expressions; for, in our explanatory remarks upon the book of Genesis, these matters have been made, to the best of our ability, a special subject of investigation. Observe next the malignity of Celsus in what follows. For the Scripture, speaking of the fashioning of the man, says, And breathed into his face the breath of life, and the man became a living soul. Whereon Celsus, wishing maliciously to ridicule the inbreathing into his face of the breath of life, and not understanding the sense in which the expression was employed, states that they composed a story that a man was fashioned by the hands of God, and was inflated by breath blown into him, in order that, taking the word inflated to be used in a similar way to the inflation of skins, he might ridicule the statement, He breathed into his face the breath of life,- terms which are used figuratively, and require to be explained in order to show that God communicated to man of His incorruptible Spirit; as it is said, For Your incorruptible Spirit is in all things. Wisdom 12:1
81. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 35
82. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 1.5-1.13, 2.35-2.40, 2.42, 2.44-2.47, 4.20 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 35; Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 31
1.5. 5.For I shall omit to mention the innumerable multitude of Nomades and Troglodyte, who know of no other nutriment than that of flesh; but to us who appear to live mildly and philanthropically, what work would be left for us on the earth or in the sea, what illustrious art, what ornament of our food would remain, if we conducted ourselves innoxiously and reverentially towards brutes, as if they were of a kindred nature with us? For it would be impossible to assign any work, any medicine, or any remedy for the want which is destructive of life, or that we can act justly, unless we preserve the ancient boundary and law. To fishes, savage beasts, and birds, devoid of justice, Jove to devour each other Granted; but justice to mankind he gave.5 i.e. towards each other. SPAN 1.6. 6.But it is not possible for us to act unjustly towards those to whom we are not obliged to act justly. Hence, for those who reject this reasoning, no other road of justice is left, either broad or narrow, into which they can enter. For, as we have already observed, our nature, not being |14 sufficient to itself, but indigent of many things, would be entirely destroyed, and enclosed in a life involved in difficulties, unorganic, and deprived of necessaries, if excluded from the assistance derived from animals. It is likewise said, that those first men did not live prosperously; for this superstition did not stop at animals, but compelled its votaries even to spare plants. For, indeed, what greater injury does he do, who cuts the throat of an ox or a sheep, than he who cuts down a fir tree or an oak? Since, from the doctrine of transmigration, a soul is also implanted in these. These therefore are the principal arguments of the Stoics and Peripatetics. The Arguments of the Epicureans, from Hermachus 6 SPAN 1.7. 7.The Epicureans, however, narrating, as it were, a long genealogy, say, that the ancient legislators, looking to the association of life, and the mutual actions of men, proclaimed that manslaughter was unholy, and punished it with no casual disgrace. Perhaps, indeed, a certain natural alliance which exists in men towards each other, though the similitude of form and soul, is the reason why they do not so readily destroy an animal of this kind, as some of the other animals which are conceded to our use. Nevertheless, the greatest cause why manslaughter was considered as a thing grievous to be borne, and impious, was the opinion that it did not contribute to the whole nature and condition of human life. For, from a principle of this kind, those who are capable of perceiving the advantage arising from this decree, require no other cause of being restrained from a deed so dire. But those who are not able to have a sufficient perception of this, being terrified by the magnitude of the punishment, will abstain from readily destroying each other. For those, indeed, who survey the utility of the before-mentioned ordice, will promptly observe it; but those who are not able to perceive the benefit with which it is attended, will obey the mandate, in consequence of fearing the threatenings of the laws; which threatenings certain persons ordained for the sake of those who could not, by a reasoning process, infer the beneficial tendency of the decree, at the same time that most would admit this to be evident. SPAN 1.8. 8.For none of those legal institutes which were established from the |15 first, whether written or unwritten, and which still remain, and are adapted to be transmitted, [from one generation to another] became lawful through violence, but through the consent of those that used them. For those who introduced things of this kind to the multitude, excelled in wisdom, and not in strength of body, and the power which subjugates the rabble. Hence, through this, some were led to a rational consideration of utility, of which they had only an irrational sensation, and which they had frequently forgotten; but others were terrified by the magnitude of the punishments. For it was not possible to use any other remedy for the ignorance of what is beneficial than the dread of the punishment ordained by law. For this alone even now keeps the vulgar in awe, and prevents them from doing any thing, either publicly or privately, which is not beneficial [to the community]. But if all men were similarly capable of surveying and recollecting what is advantageous, there would be no need of laws, but men would spontaneously avoid such things as are prohibited, and perform such as they were ordered to do. For a survey of what is useful and detrimental, is a sufficient incentive to the avoidance of the one and the choice of the other. But the infliction of punishment has a reference to those who do not foresee what is beneficial. For impendent punishment forcibly compels such as these to subdue those impulses which lead them to useless actions, and to do that which is right. SPAN 1.9. 9.Hence also, legislators ordained, that even involuntary manslaughter should not be entirely void of punishment; in order that they might not only afford no pretext for the voluntary imitation of those deeds which were involuntarily performed, but also that they might prevent many things of this kind from taking place, which happen, in reality, involuntarily. For neither is this advantageous through the same causes, by which men were forbidden voluntarily to destroy each other. Since, therefore, of involuntary deeds, some proceed from a cause which is unstable, and which cannot be guarded against by human nature; but others are produced by our negligence and inattention to different circumstances; hence legislators, wishing to restrain that indolence which is injurious to our neighbours, did not even leave an involuntary noxious deed without punishment, but, through the fear of penalties, prevented the commission of numerous offences of this kind. I also am of opinion, that the slaughters which are allowed by law, and which receive their accustomed expiations through certain purifications, were introduced by those ancient legislators, who first very properly instituted these things for no other reason than that they wished to prevent men as much as possible from voluntary slaughter. For the |16 vulgar everywhere require something which may impede them from promptly performing what is not advantageous [to the community]. Hence those who first perceived this to be the case, not only ordained the punishment of fines, but also excited a certain other irrational dread, though proclaiming those not to be pure who in any way whatever had slain a man, unless they used purifications after the commission of the deed. For that part of the soul which is void of intellect, being variously disciplined, acquired a becoming mildness, certain taming arts having been from the first invented for the purpose of subduing the irrational impulses of desire, by those who governed the people. And one of the precepts promulgated on this occasion was, that men should not destroy each other without discrimination. SPAN 1.10. 10.Those, however, who first defined what we ought to do, and what we ought not, very properly did not forbid us to kill other animals. For the advantage arising from these is effected by a contrary practice, since it is not possible that men could be preserved, unless they endeavoured to defend those who are nurtured with themselves from the attacks of other animals. At that time, therefore, some of those, of the most elegant manners, recollecting that they abstained from slaughter because it was useful to the public safety, they also reminded the rest of the people in their mutual associations of what was the consequence of this abstinence; in order that, by refraining from the slaughter of their kindred, they might preserve that communion which greatly contributes to the peculiar safety of each individual. But it was not only found to be useful for men not to separate from each other, and not to do any thing injurious to those who were collected together in the same place, for the purpose of repelling the attacks of animals of another species; but also for defence against men whose design was to act nefariously. To a certain extent, therefore, they abstained from the slaughter of men, for these reasons, viz. in order that there might be a communion among them in things that are necessary, and that a certain utility might be afforded in each of the above-mentioned incommodities. In the course of time, however, when the offspring of mankind, through their intercourse with each other, became more widely extended, and animals of a different species were expelled, certain persons directed their attention in a rational way to what was useful to men in their mutual nutriment, and did not alone recall this to their memory in an irrational manner. SPAN 1.11. 11.Hence they endeavoured still more firmly to restrain those who readily destroyed each other, and who, through an oblivion of past |17 transactions, prepared a more imbecile defence. But in attempting to effect this, they introduced those legal institutes which still remain in cities and nations; the multitude spontaneously assenting to them, in consequence of now perceiving, in a greater degree, the advantage arising from an association with each other. For the destruction of every thing noxious, and the preservation of that which is subservient to its extermination, similarly contribute to a fearless life. And hence it is reasonable to suppose, that one of the above-mentioned particulars was forbidden, but that the other was not prohibited. Nor must it be said, that the law allows us to destroy some animals which are not corruptive of human nature, and which are not in any other way injurious to our life. For as I may say, no animal among those which the law permits us to kill is of this kind; since, if we suffered them to increase excessively, they would become injurious to us. But through the number of them which is now preserved, certain advantages are imparted to human life. For sheep and oxen, and every such like animal, when the number of them is moderate, are beneficial to our necessary wants; but if they become redundant in the extreme, and far exceed the number which is sufficient, they then become detrimental to our life; the latter by employing their strength, in consequence of participating of this through an innate power of nature, and the former, by consuming the nutriment which springs up from the earth for our benefit alone. Hence, through this cause, the slaughter of animals of this kind is not prohibited, in order that as many of them as are sufficient for our use, and which we may be able easily to subdue, may be left. For it is not with horses, oxen, and sheep, and with all tame animals, as it is with lions and wolves, and, in short, with all such as are called savage animals, that, whether the number of them is small or great, no multitude of them can be assumed, which, if left, would alleviate the necessity of our life. And on this account, indeed, we utterly destroy some of them; but of others, we take away as many as are found to be more than commensurate to our use. SPAN 1.12. 12.On this account, from the above-mentioned causes, it is similarly requisite to think, that what pertains to the eating of animals, was ordained by those who from the first established the laws; and that the advantageous and the disadvantageous were the causes why some animals were permitted to be eaten and others not. So that those who assert, that every thing beautiful and just subsists conformably to the peculiar opinions of men respecting those who establish the laws, are full of a certain most profound stupidity. For it is not possible that this thing can take place in any other way than that in which the other utilities of |18 life subsist, such as those that are salubrious, and an innumerable multitude of others. Erroneous opinions, however, are entertained in many particulars, both of a public and private nature. For certain persons do not perceive those legal institutes, which are similarly adapted to all men; but some, conceiving them to rank among things of an indifferent nature, omit them; while others, who are of a contrary opinion, think that such things as are not universally profitable, are every where advantageous. Hence, through this cause, they adhere to things which are unappropriate; though in certain particulars they discover what is advantageous to themselves, and what contributes to general utility. And among these are to be enumerated the eating of animals, and the legally ordained destructions which are instituted by most nations on account of the peculiarity of the region. It is not necessary, however, that these institutes should be preserved by us, because we do not dwell in the same place as those did by whom they were made. If, therefore, it was possible to make a certain compact with other animals in the same manner as with men, that we should not kill them, nor they us, and that they should not be indiscriminately destroyed by us, it would be well to extend justice as far as to this; for this extent of it would be attended with security. But since it is among things impossible, that animals which are not recipients of reason should participate with us of law, on this account, utility cannot be in a greater degree procured by security from other animals, than from iimate natures. But we can alone obtain security from the liberty which we now possess of putting them to death. And such are the arguments of the Epicureans. The Arguments of Claudius the Neapolitan who published a Treatise against Abstinence from Animal Food. SPAN 1.13. 13.It now remains, that we should adduce what plebeians and the vulgar are accustomed to say on this subject. For they say, that the ancients abstained from animals, not through piety, but because they did not yet know the use of fire; but that as soon as they became acquainted with its utility, they then conceived it to be most honourable and sacred. They likewise called it Vesta, and from this the appellation of convestals or companions was derived; and afterwards they began to use animals. For it is natural to man to eat flesh, but contrary to his nature to eat it raw. Fire, therefore, being discovered, they embraced what is natural, and admitted the eating of boiled and masted flesh. Hence |19 lynxes are [said by Homer 7 to be] crudivorous, or eaters of raw flesh; and of Priam, also, he says, as a disgraceful circumstance, Raw flesh by you, O Priam, is devoured 8. And, Raw flesh, dilacerating, he devoured 9. And this is said, as if the eating of raw flesh pertained to the impious. Telemachus, also, when Minerva was his guest, placed before her not raw, but roasted flesh. At first, therefore, men did not eat animals, for man is not [naturally] a devourer of raw flesh. But when the use of fire was discovered, fire was employed not only for the cooking of flesh, but also for most other eatables. For that man is not [naturally] adapted to eat raw flesh, is evident from certain nations that feed on fishes. For these they roast, some upon stones that are very much heated by the sun; but others roast them in the sand. That man, however, is adapted to feed on flesh, is evident from this, that no nation abstains from animal food. Nor is this adopted by the Greeks through depravity, since the same custom is admitted by the barbarians. SPAN 2.35. 35.Now, however, many of those who apply themselves to philosophy are unwilling to do this; and, pursuing renown rather than honouring divinity, they are busily employed about statues, neither considering whether they are to be reverenced or not, nor endeavouring to learn from those who are divinely wise, to what extent, and to what degree, it is requisite to proceed in this affair. We, however, shall by no means contend with these, nor are we very desirous of being well instructed in a thing of this kind; but imitating holy and ancient men, we offer to the Gods, more than anything else, the first-fruits of contemplation, which they have imparted to us, and by the use of which we become partakers of true salvation. SPAN 2.36. 36.The Pythagoreans, therefore, diligently applying themselves to the study of numbers and lines, sacrificed for the most part from these to the Gods, denominating, indeed, a certain number Minerva, but another Diana, and another Apollo: and again, they called one number justice, but another temperance 15. In diagrams also they adopted a similar mode. And thus, by offerings of this kind, they rendered the Gods propitious to them, so as to obtain of them the object of their wishes, by the things which they dedicated to, and the names by which they invoked them. They likewise frequently employed their aid in divination, and if they were in want of a certain thing for the purpose of some investigation. In order, therefore to affect this, they made use of the Gods within the heavens, both the erratic and non-erratic, of all of whom it is requisite to consider the sun as the leader; but to rank the moon in the second place; and we should conjoin with these fire, in the third place, from its |66 alliance to them, as the theologist 16 says. He also says that no animal is to be sacrificed; but that first-fruits are to be offered from meal and honey, and the vegetable productions of the earth. He adds, that fire is not to be enkindled on a hearth defiled with gore; and asserts other things of the like kind. For what occasion is there to transcribe all he says? For he who is studious of piety knows, indeed, that to the Gods no animal is to be sacrificed, but that a sacrifice of this kind pertains to daemons, and other powers, whether they are beneficent, or depraved1. He likewise knows who those are that ought to sacrifice to these, and to what extent they ought to proceed in the sacrifices which they make. Other things, however, will be passed over by me in silence. But what some Platonists have divulged, I shall lay before the reader, in order that the things proposed to be discussed, may become manifest to the intelligent. What they have unfolded, therefore, is as follows: SPAN 2.37. 37.The first God being incorporeal, immoveable, and impartible, and neither subsisting in any thing, nor restrained in his energies, is not, as has been before observed, in want of any thing external to himself, as neither is the soul of the world; but this latter, containing in itself the principle of that which is triply divisible, and being naturally self-motive, is adapted to be moved in a beautiful and orderly manner, and also to move the body of the world, according to the most excellent reasons [i.e. productive principles or powers]. It is, however, connected with and comprehends body, though it is itself incorporeal, and liberated from the participation of any passion. To the remaining Gods, therefore, to the world, to the inerratic and erratic stars, who are visible Gods, consisting of soul and body, thanks are to be returned after the above-mentioned manner, through sacrifices from iimate natures. The multitude, therefore, of those invisible beings remains for us, whom Plato indiscriminately calls daemons 17; but of these, some being denominated by men, obtain from them honours, and other religious observances, similar to those which are paid to the Gods; but others, who for the most part are not explicitly denominated, receive an occult religious reverence and appellation from certain persons in villages and certain cities; and the remaining multitude is called in common by the |67 name of daemons. The general persuasion, however, respecting all these invisible beings, is this, that if they become angry through being neglected, and deprived of the religious reverence which is due to them, they are noxious to those by whom they are thus neglected, and that they again become beneficent, if they are appeased by prayers, supplications, and sacrifices, and other similar rites. SPAN 2.38. 38.But the confused notion which is formed of these beings, and which has proceeded to great crimination, necessarily requires that the nature of them should be distinguished according to reason. For perhaps it will be said, that it is requisite to show whence the error concerning them originated among men. The distinction, therefore, must be made after the following manner. Such souls as are the progeny of the whole soul of the universe, and who govern the great parts of the region under the moon, these, being incumbent on a pneumatic substance or spirit, and ruling over it conformably to reason, are to be considered as good daemons, who are diligently employed in causing every thing to be beneficial to the subjects of their government, whether they preside over certain animals, or fruits, which are arranged under their inspective care, or over things which subsist for the sake of these, such as showers of rain, moderate winds, serene weather, and other things which co-operate with these, such as the good temperament of the seasons of the year. They are also our leaders in the attainment of music, and the whole of erudition, and likewise of medicine and gymnastic, and of every thing else similar to these. For it is impossible that these daemons should impart utility, and yet become, in the very same things, the causes of what is detrimental. Among these two, those transporters, as Plato calls them, [in his Banquet] are to be enumerated, who announce the affairs of men to the Gods, and the will of the Gods to men; carrying our prayers, indeed, to the Gods as judges, but oracularly unfolding to us the exhortations and admonitions of the Gods. But such souls as do not rule over the pneumatic substance with which they are connected, but for the most part are vanquished by it; these are vehemently agitated and borne along [in a disorderly manner,] when the irascible motions and the desires of the pneumatic substance, received an impetus. These souls, therefore, are indeed daemons, but are deservedly called malefic daemons. SPAN 2.39. 39.All these being, likewise, and those who possess a contrary power, are invisible, and perfectly imperceptible by human senses; for they are not surrounded with a solid body, nor are all of them of one form, but they are fashioned in numerous figures. The forms, however, which |68 characterize their pneumatic substance, at one time become apparent, but at another are invisible. Sometimes also those that are malefic, change their forms; but the pneumatic substance, so far as it is corporeal, is passive and corruptible: and though, because it is thus bound by the souls [that are incumbent on it,] the form of it remains for a long time, yet it is not eternal. For it is probable that something continually flows from it, and also that it is nourished. The pneumatic substance, therefore, of good daemons, possesses symmetry, in the same manner as the bodies of the visible Gods; but the spirit of malefic dsemons is deprived of symmetry, and in consequence of its abounding in passivity, they are distributed about the terrestrial region. Hence, there is no evil which they do not attempt to effect; for, in short, being violent and fraudulent in their manners, and being also deprived of the guardian care of more excellent dsemons, they make, for the most part, vehement and sudden attacks; sometimes endeavouring to conceal their incursions, but at other times assaulting openly. Hence the molestations which are produced by them are rapid; but the remedies and corrections which proceed from more excellent dsemons, appear to be more slowly effected: for every thing which is good being tractable and equable, proceeds in an orderly manner, and does not pass beyond what is fit. By forming this opinion, therefore, you will never fall into that most absurd notion, that evil may be expected from the good, or good from the evil. For this notion is not truly attended with absurdity, but the multitude, receiving through it the most erroneous conceptions of the Gods, disseminate them among the rest of mankind. SPAN 2.40. 40.It must be admitted, therefore, that one of the greatest injuries occasioned by malefic dsemons is this, that though they are the causes of the calamities which take place upon the earth, such as pestilence, sterility, earthquakes, excessive dryness, and the like, yet they endeavour to persuade us, that they are the causes of things the most contrary to these, viz. of fertility, [salubrity, and elementary peace.] Hence, they exonerate themselves from blame, and, in the first place, endeavour to avoid being detected as the sources of injury; and, in the next place, they convert us to supplications and sacrifices to the beneficent Gods, as if they were angry. But they effect these, and things of a similar nature, in consequence of wishing to turn us from right conceptions of the Gods, and convert us to themselves; for they are delighted with all such as act thus incongruously and discordantly, and, as it were, assuming the persons of other Gods, they enjoy the effects of our imprudence and folly; conciliating to themselves the good opinion of the vulgar, by inflaming the minds of men with the love of riches, power, and pleasure, |69 and fulling them with the desire of vain glory, from which sedition, and war, and other things allied to these, are produced. But that which is the most dire of all things, they proceed still farther, and persuade men that similar things are effected by the greatest Gods, and do not stop till they even subject the most excellent of the divinities to these calumnies, through whom they say every thing is in perfect confusion. And not only the vulgar are affected in this manner, but not a few also of those who are conversant with philosophy. The cause of this, however, extends equally to philosophers, and the vulgar; for of philosophers, those who do not depart from the prevailing notions, fall into the same error with the multitude; and again, the multitude, on hearing assertions from celebrated men conformable to their own opinions, are in a greater degree corroborated in conceiving things of this kind of the Gods. SPAN 2.42. 42.For they are full of every kind of imagination, and are sufficiently qualified to deceive, through effects of a prodigious nature; and through these, unhappy men procure philtres, and amatory allurements. For all intemperance, and hope of possessing wealth and renown, and especially deception, exist through these, since falsehood is allied to these malevolent beings; for they wish to he considered as Gods, and the power which presides over them is ambitious to appear to be the greatest God. These are they that rejoice in libations, and the savour of sacrifices, through which their pneumatic vehicle is fattened; for this vehicle lives through vapours and exhalations, and the life of it is various through various exhalations. It is likewise corroborated by the savour of blood and flesh. SPAN 2.44. 44.Thus far what pertains to sacrifices has been elucidated. As we said, however, at first, as it is not entirely necessary, if animals are to be sacrificed, that they are also to be eaten, we shall now show that it is necessary we should not eat them, though it may be sometimes necessary that they should be sacrificed. For all theologists agree in this that in sacrifices, which are made for the purpose of averting some evil, the immolated animals are not to be tasted, but are to be used as expiations. For, say they, no one should go into the city, nor into his own house, till he has first purified his garments, and his body, in rivers, or some fountain. So that they order those whom they permit to sacrifice, to abstain from the victims, and to purify themselves before they sacrifice by fasting, and especially by abstaining from animals. They add, that purity is the guardian of piety; and is, as it were, a symbol or divine seal, which secures its possessor from the attacks and allurements of evil daemons. For such a one, being contrarily disposed to, and more divine in his operations than those by whom he is attacked, because he is more pure both in his body and in the passions of his soul, remains uninjured, in consequence of being surrounded with purity as with a bulwark. SPAN 2.45. 45.Hence a defence of this kind has appeared to be necessary even to enchanters; though it is not efficacious with them on all occasions. For they invoke evil daemons for lascivious purposes. So that purity does not belong to enchanters, but to divine men, and such as are divinely wise; since it everywhere becomes a guard to those that use it, and conciliates them with a divine nature. I wish, therefore, that enchanters would make use of purity continually, for then they would not employ themselves in incantations, because, through this, they would be: deprived of the enjoyment of those things, for the sake of which they act impiously. Whence becoming full of passions, and abstaining for a short time from impure food, they are notwithstanding replete with impurity, and suffer the punishment of their illegal conduct towards the whole of things, partly from those whom they irritate, and partly from Justice, who perceives all mortal deeds and conceptions. Both inward, |72 therefore, and external purity pertain to a divine man, who earnestly endeavours to be liberated from the passions of the soul, and who abstains from such food as excites the passions, and is fed with divine wisdom; and by right conceptions of, is assimilated to divinity himself. For such a man being consecrated by an intellectual sacrifice, approaches to God in a white garment, and with a truly pure impassivity of soul, and levity of body, and is not burdened with foreign and external juices, and the passions of the soul. SPAN 2.46. 46.For, indeed, it must not be admitted as necessary in temples, which are consecrated by men to the Gods, that those who enter into them should have their feet pure, and their shoes free from every stain, but that in the temple of the father [of all], which is this world, it is not proper to preserve our ultimate and cutaneous vestment pure, and to dwell in this temple with an undefiled garment. For if the danger consisted only in the defilement of the body, it might, perhaps, be lawful to neglect it. But now, since every sensible body is attended with an efflux of material daemons, hence, together with the impurity produced from flesh and blood, the power which is friendly to, and familiar with, this impurity, is at the same time present through similitude and alliance. SPAN 2.47. 47.Hence theologists have rightly paid attention to abstinence. And these things were indicated to us by a certain Egyptian 19, who also assigned a most natural cause of them, which was verified by experience. For, since a depraved and irrational soul, when it leaves the body, is still compelled to adhere to it, since the souls also of those men who die by violence, are detained about the body; this circumstance should prevent a man from forcibly expelling his soul from the body. The violent slaughter, therefore, of animals, compels souls to be delighted with the bodies which they have left, but the soul is by no means prevented from being there, where it is attracted by a kindred nature; whence many souls are seen to lament, and some remain about the bodies that are |73 unburied; which souls are improperly used by enchanters, as subservient to their designs, being compelled by them to occupy the body, or a part of the body, which they have left. Since, therefore, these things were well known to theologists, and they also perceived the nature of a depraved soul, and its alliance to the bodies from which it was divulsed, and the pleasure which it received from a union with them, they very properly avoided animal food, in order that they might not be disturbed by alien souls, violently separated from the body and impure, and which are attracted to things of a kindred nature, and likewise that they might not be impeded by the presence of evil daemons, in approaching alone [or without being burdened with things of a foreign nature] to the highest God 20. SPAN 4.20. 20.For holy men were of opinion that purity consisted in a thing not being mingled with its contrary, and that mixture is defilement. Hence, they thought that nutriment should be assumed from fruits, and not from dead bodies, and that we should not, by introducing that which is animated to our nature, defile what is administered by nature. But they conceived, that the slaughter of animals, as they are sensitive, and the depriving them of their souls, is a defilement to the living; and that the pollution is much greater, to mingle a body which was once sensitive, but is now deprived of sense, with a sensitive and living being. Hence, universally, the purity pertaining to piety consists in rejecting and abstaining from many things, and in an abandonment of such as are of a contrary nature, and the assumption of such as are appropriate and concordant. On this account, venereal connexions are attended with defilement. For in these, a conjunction takes place of the female with the male; and the seed, when retained by the woman, and causing her to be pregt, defiles the soul, through its association with the body; but when it does not produce conception, it pollutes, in consequence of becoming a lifeless mass. The connexion also of males with males defiles, because it is an emission of seed as it were into a dead body, and because it is contrary to nature. And, in short, all venery, and emissions of the seed in sleep, pollute, because the soul becomes mingled with the body, and is drawn down to pleasure. The passions of the soul likewise defile, through the complication of the irrational and effeminate part with reason, the internal masculine part. For, in a certain respect, defilement and pollution manifest the mixture of things of an heterogeneous nature, and especially when the abstersion of this mixture is attended with difficulty. Whence, also, in tinctures which are produced through mixture, one species being complicated with another, this mixture is denominated a defilement. As when some woman with a lively red Stains the pure iv'ry --- says Homer 22. And again painters call the mixtures of colours, |134 corruptions. It is usual, likewise to denominate that which is unmingled and pure, incorruptible, and to call that which is genuine, unpolluted. For water, when mingled with earth, is corrupted, and is not genuine. But water, which is diffluent, and runs with tumultuous rapidity, leaves behind in its course the earth which it carries in its stream. When from a limpid and perennial fount It defluous runs --- as Hesiod says 23. For such water is salubrious, because it is uncorrupted and unmixed. The female, likewise, that does not receive into herself the exhalation of seed, is said to be uncorrupted. So that the mixture of contraries is corruption and defilement. For the mixture of dead with living bodies, and the insertion of beings that were once living and sentient into animals, and of dead into living flesh, may be reasonably supposed to introduce defilement and stains to our nature; just, again, as the soul is polluted when it is invested with the body. Hence, he who is born, is polluted by the mixture of his soul with body; and he who dies, defiles his body, through leaving it a corpse, different and foreign from that which possesses life. The soul, likewise, is polluted by anger and desire, and the multitude of passions of which in a certain respect diet is a co-operating cause. But as water which flows through a rock is more uncorrupted than that which runs through marshes, because it does not bring with it much mud; thus, also, the soul which administers its own affairs in a body that is dry, and is not moistened by the juices of foreign flesh, is in a more excellent condition, is more uncorrupted, and is more prompt for intellectual energy. Thus too, it is said, that the thyme which is the driest and the sharpest to the taste, affords the best honey to bees. The dianoetic, therefore, or discursive power of the soul, is polluted; or rather, he who energizes dianoetically, when this energy is mingled with the energies of either the imaginative or doxastic power. But purification consists in a separation from all these, and the wisdom which is adapted to divine concerns, is a desertion of every thing of this kind. The proper nutriment likewise, of each thing, is that which essentially preserves it. Thus you may say, that the nutriment of a stone is the cause of its continuing to be a stone, and of firmly remaining in a lapideous form; but the nutriment of a plant is that which preserves it in increase and fructification; and of an animated body, that which preserves its composition. It is one thing, however, |135 to nourish, and another to fatten; and one thing to impart what is necessary, and another to procure what is luxurious. Various, therefore, are the kinds of nutriment, and various also is the nature of the things that are nourished. And it is necessary, indeed, that all things should be nourished, but we should earnestly endeavour to fatten our most principal parts. Hence, the nutriment of the rational soul is that which preserves it in a rational state. But this is intellect; so that it is to be nourished by intellect; and we should earnestly endeavour that it may be fattened through this, rather than that the flesh may become pinguid through esculent substances. For intellect preserves for us eternal life, but the body when fattened causes the soul to be famished, through its hunger after a blessed life not being satisfied, increases our mortal part, since it is of itself insane, and impedes our attainment of an immortal condition of being. It likewise defiles by corporifying the soul, and drawing her down to that which is foreign to her nature. And the magnet, indeed, imparts, as it were, a soul to the iron which is placed near it; and the iron, though most heavy, is elevated, and runs to the spirit of the stone. Should he, therefore, who is suspended from incorporeal and intellectual deity, be anxiously busied in procuring food which fattens the body, that is an impediment to intellectual perception? Ought he not rather, by contracting hat is necessary to the flesh into that which is little and easily procured, he himself nourished, by adhering to God more closely than the iron to the magnet? I wish, indeed, that our nature was not so corruptible, and that it were possible we could live free from molestation, even without the nutriment derived from fruits. O that, as Homer 24 says, we were not in want either of meat or drink, that we might be truly immortal! --- the poet in thus speaking beautifully signifying, that food is the auxiliary not only of life, but also of death. If therefore, we were not in want even of vegetable aliment, we should be by so much the more blessed, in proportion as we should be more immortal. But now, being in a mortal condition, we render ourselves, if it be proper so to speak, still more mortal, through becoming ignorant that, by the addition of this mortality, the soul, as Theophrastus says, does not only confer a great benefit on the body by being its inhabitant, but gives herself wholly to it. 25 Hence, it is much |136 to be wished that we could easily obtain the life celebrated in fables, in which hunger and thirst are unknown; so that, by stopping the everyway-flowing river of the body, we might in a very little time be present with the most excellent natures, to which he who accedes, since deity is there, is himself a God. But how is it possible not to lament the condition of the generality of mankind, who are so involved in darkness as to cherish their own evil, and who, in the first place, hate themselves, and him who truly begot them, and afterwards, those who admonish them, and call on them to return from ebriety to a sober condition of being? Hence, dismissing things of this kind, will it not be requisite to pass on to what remains to be discussed? SPAN
83. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 3.41, 3.43 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 290
3.41. He was buried in the Academy, where he spent the greatest part of his life in philosophical study. And hence the school which he founded was called the Academic school. And all the students there joined in the funeral procession. The terms of his will were as follows:These things have been left and devised by Plato: the estate in Iphistiadae, bounded on the north by the road from the sanctuary at Cephisia, on the south by the Heracleum in Iphistiadae, on the east by the property of Archestratus of Phrearrhi, on the west by that of Philippus of Chollidae: this it shall be unlawful for anyone to sell or alienate, but it shall be the property of the boy Adeimantus to all intents and purposes: 3.43. Household furniture, as set down in the inventory of which Demetrius has the duplicate. I owe no one anything. My executors are Leosthenes, Speusippus, Demetrius, Hegias, Eurymedon, Callimachus and Thrasippus.Such were the terms of his will. The following epitaphs were inscribed upon his tomb:Here lies the god-like man Aristocles, eminent among men for temperance and the justice of his character. And he, if ever anyone, had the fullest meed of praise for wisdom, and was too great for envy.Next:
84. Porphyry, Life of Pythagoras, 10 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 36
10. Diogenes, in his treatise about the Incredible Things Beyond Thule, has treated Pythagoras's affairs so carefully, that I think his account should not be omitted. He says that the Tyrrhenian Mnesarchus was of the race of the inhabitants of Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros and that he departed thence to visit many cities and various lands. During his journeys he found an infant lying under a large, tall poplar tree. On approaching, he observed it lay on its back, looking steadily without winking at the sun. In its mouth was a little slender reed, like a pipe; through which the child was being nourished by the dew-drops that distilled from the tree. This great wonder prevailed upon him to take the child, believing it to be of a divine origin. The child was fostered by a native of that country, named Androcles, who later on adopted him, and entrusted to him the management of affairs. On becoming wealthy, Mnesarchus educated the boy, naming him Astrasus, and rearing him with his own three sons, Eunestus, Tyrrhenus, and Pythagoras; which boy, as I have said, Androcles adopted. SPAN
85. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 10.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 281
86. Nag Hammadi, The Testimony of Truth, 9.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ashmedai (asmodeus), portrayal of, as a holy man, in the babylonian talmud Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 116
87. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 76
116a. ולא תהא תורה שלמה שלנו כשיחה בטלה שלכם מה לבת בנו שכן יפה כחה במקום האחין תאמר בבתו שהורע כחה במקום אחין ונצחום ואותו היום עשאוהו יום טוב,(שופטים כא, יז) ויאמרו ירושת פלטה לבנימן ולא ימחה שבט מישראל,אמר רבי יצחק דבי רבי אמי מלמד שהתנו על שבט בנימין שלא תירש בת הבן עם האחין,אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחאי כל שאינו מניח בן ליורשו הקדוש ברוך הוא מלא עליו עברה כתיב הכא (במדבר כז, ח) והעברתם את נחלתו וכתיב התם (צפניה א, טו) יום עברה היום ההוא,(תהלים נה, כ) אשר אין חליפות למו ולא יראו אלהים רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי חד אמר כל שאינו מניח בן וחד אמר כל שאינו מניח תלמיד,תסתיים רבי יוחנן דאמר תלמיד דאמר רבי יוחנן דין גרמיה דעשיראה ביר תסתיים דרבי יוחנן דאמר תלמיד,ומדרבי יוחנן אמר תלמיד רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר בן,והא רבי יהושע בן לוי לא אזיל לבי טמיא אלא לבי מאן דשכיב בלא בני דכתיב (ירמיהו כב, י) בכו בכה להולך ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב להולך בלא בן זכר אלא רבי יהושע בן לוי הוא דאמר תלמיד,ומדר' יהושע בן לוי הוא דאמר תלמיד רבי יוחנן אמר בן,קשיא דרבי יוחנן אדרבי יוחנן לא קשיא הא דידיה הא דרביה:,סימן הדד עני וחכם:,דרש רבי פנחס בן חמא מאי דכתיב (מלכים א יא, כא) והדד שמע במצרים כי שכב דוד עם אבותיו וכי מת יואב שר הצבא מפני מה בדוד נאמרה בו שכיבה וביואב נאמרה בו מיתה דוד שהניח בן נאמרה בו שכיבה יואב שלא הניח בן נאמרה בו מיתה,ויואב לא הניח בן והכתיב (עזרא ח, ט) מבני יואב עובדיה בן יחיאל אלא דוד שהניח בן כמותו נאמרה בו שכיבה יואב שלא הניח בן כמותו נאמרה בו מיתה,דרש ר' פנחס בן חמא קשה עניות בתוך ביתו של אדם יותר מחמשים מכות שנאמר (איוב יט, כא) חנוני חנוני אתם רעי כי יד אלוה נגעה בי וקא אמרי ליה חבריה (איוב לו, כא) השמר אל תפן אל און כי על זה בחרת מעוני,דרש ר' פנחס בר חמא כל שיש לו חולה בתוך ביתו ילך אצל חכם ויבקש עליו רחמים שנא' (משלי טז, יד) חמת מלך מלאכי מות ואיש חכם יכפרנה:,זה הכלל כל הקודם בנחלה יוצאי ירכו קודמין והאב קודם לכל יוצאי ירכו: בעי רמי בר חמא אבי האב ואחי האב כגון אברהם וישמעאל בנכסי עשו איזה מהן קודם אמר רבא תא שמע האב קודם לכל יוצאי ירכו ורמי בר חמא 116a. b but will our perfect Torah not be /b as worthy b as your frivolous speech, /b as your inference is fallacious: b What /b is notable b about /b the inheritance of b a daughter of /b the deceased’s b son? /b It is notable b in that her right is enhanced /b in that she inherits from her paternal grandfather together b with the brothers /b of her father. Would you b say /b that the same applies b with regard to /b the deceased’s b daughter, whose right /b to inherit b is diminished /b in that she does not inherit from her father together b with /b her b brothers? /b The Sadducee’s i a fortiori /i inference is thereby disproved. The Gemara concludes: b And /b since the Sadducees had no counterargument, the Sages b were victorious over them, and they established that day, /b the twenty-fourth of Tevet, as a minor b festival /b to celebrate the establishment of the i halakha /i in accordance with the opinion of the Sages.,Having discussed the i halakha /i of a son’s daughter’s right to inheritance, the Gemara cites a verse that relates to the matter. After the incident known as: The concubine in Gibeah, the men of the tribe of Benjamin numbered only six hundred, and each of these men had inherited large plots of land from their deceased relatives. The verse states: b “And they said: They that are escaped must be as an inheritance for Benjamin, that a tribe be not blotted out from Israel” /b (Judges 21:17)., b Rabbi Yitzḥak of the house of Rabbi Ami says: /b This b teaches that /b the elders of that generation b stipulated with regard to the tribe of Benjamin that a daughter of a son shall not inherit with the brothers /b of her father. Since the daughter of a son who inherits her grandfather’s property may later bequeath it to her husband, who may be from another tribe, the elders instituted this temporary ordice in order to ensure that other tribes would not inherit large quantities of land belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, lest the tribe of Benjamin be left with little land of its own.,§ The Gemara presents a related statement. b Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: /b Concerning b anyone who does not leave /b behind b a son to inherit /b from b him, the Holy One, Blessed be He, is filled with wrath [ i evra /i ] toward him, /b as b it is written here: /b “If a man die, and he has no son, b then you shall pass his inheritance [ i veha’avartem /i ] /b to his daughter” (Numbers 27:8), b and it is written there: “That day is a day of wrath [ i evra /i ]” /b (Zephaniah 1:15). The words “ i veha’avartem /i ” and “ i evra /i ” share common root letters, whereby Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai interprets that God’s wrath may be the result of the inheritance passing to a daughter rather than a son.,The Gemara presents a related statement. Concerning the verse: “God shall hear, and humble them, even He that is enthroned of old, Selah; b those that have no exchange, and fear not God” /b (Psalms 55:20), b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi /b each interpret the verse in a different manner. b One says /b that this is a reference to b anyone who does not leave /b behind b a son /b to inherit from him, as he does not leave anyone to serve in exchange, i.e., as a replacement, for him; b and one says /b that this is a reference to b anyone who does not leave /b behind b a student /b to serve in exchange for him.,The Gemara suggests: b It may be concluded /b that it was b Rabbi Yoḥa who says /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a student, for Rabbi Yoḥa, /b whose ten sons died in his lifetime, b said /b to those he would console: b This is the bone of my tenth son, /b to encourage them not to succumb to their sorrow. Since Rabbi Yoḥa knew that he would not leave any sons to inherit his property, it is reasonable to assume that he interpreted the verse as meaning that God is full of wrath toward one who does not leave behind a student. The Gemara comments that b it may be concluded that /b it was b Rabbi Yoḥa who says /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a student. /b ,The Gemara notes: b And from /b this, b that Rabbi Yoḥa /b is the one who b says /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a student, /b it follows that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says /b the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a son. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b this cannot be, as b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would not go to a house of mourning [ i bei tamya /i ] /b to console the bereaved so as not to interrupt his studies, b except to the house of one who died without any sons, as it is written: /b “Weep not for the dead, neither bemoan him; but b weep sore for him that goes away” /b (Jeremiah 22:10), b and Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b Rav says /b that the verse is referring b to /b one who b departs /b from this world b without /b leaving behind b a male child. /b From the fact that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi would console specifically one who died without leaving a son, it is apparent that he does not hold that God is full of wrath toward such an individual. b Rather, /b it must be that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is /b the Sage b who says /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a student. /b ,The Gemara notes: b And from /b this b that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is /b the one b who says /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind b a student, /b it follows that b Rabbi Yoḥa says /b it is referring to one who does not leave behind b a son. /b ,The Gemara asks: This poses b a difficulty /b from one statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa, /b that the verse is referring to one who does not leave behind a son, b to /b another statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa, /b as he would say: This is the bone of my tenth son. The Gemara answers: It is b not difficult: This /b statement, with regard to the bone of his son, b is his, /b while b that /b statement, with regard to the verse, b is his teacher’s. /b ,§ The Gemara continues with three homiletic interpretations by Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama, and provides b a mnemonic /b to facilitate the memorization of these expositions: b Hadad, poverty, and sage. /b ,The Gemara presents the first homiletic interpretation: b Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “And when Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers, and that Joab the captain of the host was dead” /b (I Kings 11:21)? b For what /b reason is it that b in /b the case of King b David, sleeping was stated with regard to his /b demise, b and in /b the case of b Joab, death was stated with regard to his /b demise? He answers: Concerning King b David, who left a son /b behind, b sleeping was stated with regard to his /b demise, as it was not a complete death, while concerning b Joab, who did not leave a son /b behind, b death was stated with regard to his /b demise, as he left no son to succeed him.,The Gemara asks: b And /b is it so that b Joab did not leave a son /b behind; b but isn’t it written: “of the sons of Joab: Obadiah, son of Jehiel” /b (Ezra 8:9)? b Rather, /b concerning King b David, who left a son as /b great as b himself, sleeping was stated with regard to his /b demise, but concerning b Joab, who did not leave a son as /b great as b himself, death was stated with regard to his /b demise.,The Gemara presents the second homiletic interpretation: b Rabbi Pineḥas ben Ḥama interpreted /b a verse b homiletically, /b and derived that b poverty in a person’s household is more difficult than fifty plagues, as it is stated: “Have pity upon me, have pity upon me, O you my friends; for the hand of God has touched me” /b (Job 19:21), b and his friends were saying to him: “Take heed, regard not iniquity; for this have you chosen rather than poverty” /b (Job 36:21). Job, who suffered many plagues, was told by his friends that his suffering was preferable to poverty.,The Gemara presents the third homiletic interpretation: b Rabbi Pineḥas bar Ḥama interpreted /b a verse b homiletically: Anyone who has a sick person in his home should go to a sage, and /b the sage will b ask /b for b mercy on /b the sick person’s behalf, b as it is stated: “The wrath of a king is as messengers of death; but a wise man will pacify it” /b (Proverbs 16:14).,§ The mishna teaches that b this is the principle: /b Concerning b anyone who precedes /b another b with regard to inheritance, his descendants precede /b the other as well, b and a father precedes all of his descendants. Rami bar Ḥama raises a dilemma: /b With regard to the claim of b a father of the /b deceased’s b father and /b the claim of b the brother of the /b deceased’s b father, such as /b the claims of b Abraham and Ishmael to the property of Esau, /b who was Abraham’s grandson and Ishmael’s nephew, b which of them precedes /b the other and inherits the property? b Rava said: Come /b and b hear /b a proof from the mishna: b A father precedes all of his descendants, /b therefore, Abraham would inherit, as Ishmael was his descendant. The Gemara asks: b And /b why did b Rami bar Ḥama /b have a dilemma; was he not aware of the statement of the mishna?
88. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 238
87a. (בראשית יט, ג) ויפצר בם מאד א"ר אלעזר מכאן שמסרבין לקטן ואין מסרבין לגדול,כתיב (בראשית יח, ה) ואקחה פת לחם וכתיב (בראשית יח, ז) ואל הבקר רץ אברהם אמר רבי אלעזר מכאן שצדיקים אומרים מעט ועושים הרבה רשעים אומרים הרבה ואפילו מעט אינם עושים,מנלן מעפרון מעיקרא כתיב (בראשית כג, טו) ארץ ארבע מאות שקל כסף ולבסוף כתיב (בראשית כג, טז) וישמע אברהם אל עפרון וישקל אברהם לעפרון את הכסף אשר דבר באזני בני חת ארבע מאות שקל כסף עובר לסוחר דלא שקל מיניה אלא קנטרי דאיכא דוכתא דקרי ליה לתיקלא קנטירא,כתיב (בראשית יח, ו) קמח וכתיב סלת א"ר יצחק מכאן שהאשה צרה עיניה באורחים יותר מן האיש,כתיב (בראשית יח, ו) לושי ועשי עוגות וכתיב (בראשית יח, ח) ויקח חמאה וחלב ובן הבקר ואילו לחם לא אייתי לקמייהו,אמר אפרים מקשאה תלמידו של רבי מאיר משמיה דרבי מאיר אברהם אבינו אוכל חולין בטהרה היה ושרה אמנו אותו היום פירסה נדה,(בראשית יח, ט) ויאמרו אליו איה שרה אשתך ויאמר הנה באהל להודיע ששרה אמנו צנועה היתה אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא רבי יצחק יודעים היו מלאכי השרת ששרה אמנו באהל היתה אלא מאי באהל כדי לחבבה על בעלה,רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר כדי לשגר לה כוס של ברכה תני משום רבי יוסי למה נקוד על איו שבאליו לימדה תורה דרך ארץ שישאל אדם באכסניא שלו והאמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל על ידי בעלה שאני,(בראשית יח, יב) אחרי בלותי היתה לי עדנה אמר רב חסדא אחר שנתבלה הבשר ורבו הקמטין נתעדן הבשר ונתפשטו הקמטין וחזר היופי למקומו,כתיב (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן וכתיב (בראשית יח, יג) ואני זקנתי דלא מותיב הקב"ה כדקאמרה איהי,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל גדול שלום שאפי' הקב"ה שינה בו שנאמר (בראשית יח, יב) ותצחק שרה בקרבה וגו' (בראשית יח, יב) ואדוני זקן וכתיב (בראשית יח, יג) ויאמר ה' אל אברהם וגו' ואני זקנתי,(בראשית כא, ז) ותאמר מי מלל לאברהם הניקה בנים שרה כמה בנים הניקה שרה אמר רבי לוי אותו היום שגמל אברהם את יצחק בנו עשה סעודה גדולה היו כל אומות העולם מרננים ואומרים ראיתם זקן וזקנה שהביאו אסופי מן השוק ואומרים בנינו הוא ולא עוד אלא שעושין משתה גדול להעמיד דבריהם,מה עשה אברהם אבינו הלך וזימן כל גדולי הדור ושרה אמנו זימנה את נשותיהם וכל אחת ואחת הביאה בנה עמה ומניקתה לא הביאה ונעשה נס בשרה אמנו ונפתחו דדיה כשני מעיינות והניקה את כולן ועדיין היו מרננים ואומרים אם שרה הבת תשעים שנה תלד אברהם בן מאה שנה יוליד מיד נהפך קלסתר פנים של יצחק ונדמה לאברהם פתחו כולם ואמרו (בראשית כה, יט) אברהם הוליד את יצחק,עד אברהם לא היה זקנה מאן דהוה בעי למשתעי בהדי אברהם משתעי בהדי יצחק בהדי יצחק משתעי בהדי אברהם אתא אברהם בעא רחמי והוה זקנה שנאמר (בראשית כד, א) ואברהם זקן בא בימים,עד יעקב לא הוה חולשא אתא יעקב בעא רחמי והוה חולשא שנאמר (בראשית מח, א) ויאמר ליוסף הנה אביך חולה עד דאתא אלישע לא הוה דחליש ואתפח אתא אלישע בעא רחמי ואתפח שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו מכלל דחלה חלי אחריתי,תנו רבנן שלשה חלאין חלה אלישע אחד שדחפו לגיחזי בשתי ידיו ואחד שגירה דובין בתינוקות ואחד שמת בו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו:,אלא עד שלא יתחילו במלאכה צא ואמור להם על מנת שאין לכם עלי אלא פת וקטנית כו': אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרב יוסף לרב חסדא פת קטנית תנן או פת וקטנית תנן אמר ליה האלהים צריכה וי"ו כי מורדיא דלברות:,רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר אינו צריך הכל כמנהג המדינה: הכל לאתויי מאי לאתויי הא דתנן השוכר את הפועל ואמר לו כאחד וכשנים מבני העיר נותן לו כפחות שבשכירות דברי רבי יהושע וחכמים אומרים משמנין ביניהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו אוכלין מן התורה העושה במחובר לקרקע בשעת גמר מלאכה ובתלוש מן הקרקע עד שלא נגמרה מלאכתו ובדבר שגידולו מן הארץ ואלו שאין אוכלים העושה במחובר לקרקע 87a. b “And he urged them greatly” /b (Genesis 19:3), only after which they acquiesced? b Rabbi Elazar says: From here /b we learn b that one may decline /b the request of b a lesser man, but one may not decline /b the request of b a great man. /b ,The Gemara continues analyzing the same passage. b It is written: “And I will fetch a morsel of bread, /b and satisfy your heart” (Genesis 18:5), b and it is written: “And Abraham ran to the herd, /b and fetched a calf tender and good” (Genesis 18:7). b Rabbi Elazar said: From here /b we learn b that /b the b righteous say little and do much, /b whereas the b wicked say much and do not do even a little. /b , b From where do we /b derive this principle that the wicked say much and do not do even a little? We derive it b from Ephron. Initially, it is written /b that Ephron said to Abraham: b “A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, /b what is that between me and you?” (Genesis 23:15). And b ultimately it is written: “And Abraham listened to Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver, which he had named in the hearing of the children of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant” /b (Genesis 23:16), i.e., shekels that could be used in any location. This teaches b that /b not only did Ephron take shekels from Abraham, b he took from him only centenaria [ i kantarei /i ], /b i.e., superior coins, b as there is a place where they call a shekel a centenarius. /b ,The verse states: “Make ready quickly three measures of flour, fine flour” (Genesis 18:6). The Gemara questions the apparent redundancy. b It is written: “Flour,” and it is /b also b written: “Fine flour.” Rabbi Yitzḥak says: From here /b we learn b that a woman is more stingy with guests than a man. /b Sarah wanted to use merely flour, and Abraham persuaded her to use fine flour.,The Gemara continues its analysis of the verses. b It is written: “Knead it, and make cakes” /b (Genesis 18:6), and two verses later b it is written: “And he took curd, and milk, and the calf /b which he prepared” (Genesis 18:8). Abraham served these items to the guests, b and yet he did not bring bread before them /b despite having instructed Sarah to prepare baked goods., b Efrayim Miksha’a, disciple of Rabbi Meir, says in the name of Rabbi Meir: Abraham, our forefather, would eat non-sacred food /b only when he was b in /b a state of b ritual purity, /b i.e., he treated his food as though it were consecrated to God. b And Sarah, our foremother, menstruated that day, /b which rendered the baked goods ritually impure, preventing Abraham from handling them. Therefore, they could not serve bread to their guests.,The next verse states: b “And they said to him: Where is Sarah your wife? And he said: Behold, in the tent” /b (Genesis 18:9). The Gemara explains that this verse serves b to inform /b us b that Sarah, our foremother, was a modest woman, /b as she remained inside while the guests were present. b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says, and some say /b it is b Rabbi Yitzḥak /b who says: b The ministering angels, /b who visited Abraham in the guise of travelers, b knew that Sarah, our foremother, was inside the tent. Rather, what /b was the purpose of their eliciting Abraham’s response: b In the tent? /b It was b in order to endear her to her husband, /b by accentuating Sarah’s modesty., b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: /b They inquired about her b in order to send her /b the b cup of blessing. /b It is customary to recite Grace after Meals over a cup of wine, which is then distributed to those present. b It is taught in the name of Rabbi Yosei: Why are there dots /b in the Torah scroll b upon the letters i alef /i , i yod /i , /b and b i vav /i in /b the word b “to him [ i eilav /i ]”? /b These letters spell i ayo /i , which means: Where is he? b The Torah is teaching the proper etiquette, /b which is b that a person should inquire of his hostess /b about his host, just as he should inquire about the welfare of his hostess from the host. The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t Shmuel say: One may not inquire about the welfare of a woman at all, /b as this is immodest? The Gemara answers: A greeting b by means of her husband is different. /b Asking a husband about his wife is not considered immodest.,The Gemara analyzes the verses that describe Sarah at the time: “And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: b After I am waxed old [ i veloti /i ] shall I have pleasure [ i edna /i ]” /b (Genesis 18:12). b Rav Ḥisda says: After the skin had worn out [ i nitballa /i ] and become full of wrinkles, the skin once again became soft [ i nitadden /i ] and her wrinkles smoothed out, and /b Sarah’s b beauty returned to its place. /b , b It is written /b that Sarah said: b “And my lord is old” /b (Genesis 18:12), b and it is written: /b “And the Lord said to Abraham: Why did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I certainly bear a child, b and I am old?” /b (Genesis 18:13). This verse indicates that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, did not repeat /b to Abraham b that /b which Sarah actually b said, /b that her husband is old. Why did God change the wording of her statement so that she was referring to herself?, b The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Peace is /b of such b great /b importance b that even the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered /b the truth for the sake of preserving peace, b as it is stated: “And Sarah laughed within herself, /b saying: After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, b and my lord is old,” and it is written: “And the Lord said to Abraham: /b Why did Sarah laugh, saying: Shall I certainly bear a child, b and I am old?” /b ,In reference to Sarah having given birth to Isaac, the verse states: b “And she said: Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah should nurse children?” /b (Genesis 21:7). The Gemara asks: b How many children did Sarah nurse? /b Why does the verse use the plural form when she had only one child? b Rabbi Levi says: That day when Abraham weaned his son Isaac, he prepared a great /b celebratory b feast. All of the nations of the world were gossiping and saying /b to each other: b See /b this b old man and old woman who brought a foundling from the market and are saying: He is our son, and moreover they are making a great feast to bolster their claim. /b , b What did Abraham, our forefather, do? He went and invited all of the great /b men b of /b that b generation, and Sarah, our foremother, invited their wives. Each and every one /b of the wives b brought her child with her but did not bring her wet nurse. And a miracle occurred to Sarah, our foremother, and her breasts were opened like two springs, and she nursed all /b of these children. b And still /b those people b were gossiping and saying /b to each other: Even b if Sarah, /b at b ninety years of age, can give birth, can Abraham, /b at b one hundred years of age, father /b a child? b Immediately, the countece of Isaac’s face transformed and appeared /b exactly like that b of Abraham. Everyone exclaimed and said: “Abraham fathered Isaac” /b (Genesis 25:19).,§ The Gemara continues discussing Abraham: b Until Abraham, there was no aging, /b i.e., old age was not physically recognizable. Consequently, b one who wanted to speak to Abraham /b would mistakenly b speak to Isaac, /b and vice versa: An individual who wanted to speak b to Isaac /b would b speak to Abraham, /b as they were indistinguishable. b Abraham came and prayed for mercy, and aging was /b at last noticeable, b as it is stated: “And Abraham was old, well stricken in age” /b (Genesis 24:1), which is the first time that aging is mentioned in the Bible., b Until Jacob, there was no illness /b leading up to death; rather, one would die suddenly. b Jacob came and prayed for mercy, and illness was /b brought to the world, allowing one to prepare for his death, b as it is stated: “And one said to Joseph: Behold, your father is sick” /b (Genesis 48:1), which is the first time that sickness preceding death is mentioned in the Bible. b Until Elisha, one did not fall ill and /b then b heal, /b as everyone who fell ill would die. b Elisha came and prayed for mercy and he was healed, as it is written: “Now Elisha fell ill with his illness from which he was to die” /b (II Kings 13:14). b By inference, /b one can derive that b he /b had previously b fallen ill /b with b other illnesses /b from which he did not die., b The Sages taught: Elisha fell ill with three illnesses: One /b was due to the fact b that he pushed Gehazi away with both hands, /b i.e., he banished Gehazi without granting him a chance to repent (see II Kings, chapter 5). b One /b was due to the fact b that he incited bears against young children /b (see II Kings 2:23–25). b And one /b was the illness b from which he died, as it is stated: “Now Elisha fell ill of his illness from which he was to die” /b (II Kings 13:14).,§ The mishna (83a) teaches that Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya said to his son: b Rather, before they begin /b engaging b in /b their b labor, go out and say to them: /b The stipulation that food will be provided is b on the condition that you have /b the right to claim b from me only /b a meal of b bread and legumes, /b which is the typical meal given to laborers. b Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Yosef, said to Rav Ḥisda: /b Did b we learn: Bread of legumes [ i pat kitnit /i ], /b i.e., inferior-quality bread made of legumes, b or /b did b we learn: Bread and legumes [ i pat vekitnit /i ]? /b Rav Ḥisda b said to him: By God! /b That word i vekitnit /i b requires /b at its beginning the letter b i vav /i /b as large b as an oar [ i mordeya /i ] /b made b of cypress /b wood [ i deliberot /i ], i.e., i pat vekitnit /i is undoubtedly the correct version.,§ The mishna teaches that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b The son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Matya b did not need to state /b this, as the principle is: b Everything is in accordance with the regional custom. /b The Gemara asks: This term: b Everything, /b serves b to add what? /b What is the i tanna /i including by this term? The Gemara answers: It serves b to add that which we learned /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who hires a laborer and said to him: /b I will pay you b as one or two of the residents of the city /b are paid, b he gives him /b wages in accordance b with the lowest wage /b paid in that region. This is b the statement of Rabbi Yehoshua. The Rabbis say: One divides /b the difference b between /b the highest and lowest paid wages, thereby giving the wages to this laborer according to the average of the regional custom. This i halakha /i is alluded to in the statement of Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel., strong MISHNA: /strong This mishna details the i halakha /i that a laborer is permitted to eat from the produce with which he is working. b And these /b laborers b may eat by Torah law: /b A laborer b who works with /b produce b attached to the ground at the time of the completion of /b its b work, /b e.g., harvesting produce; b and /b a laborer who works b with /b produce b detached from the ground before the completion of its work, /b i.e., before it is sufficiently processed and thereby subject to tithes. b And /b this is the i halakha /i provided that they are working b with an item whose growth is from the land. And these /b are laborers who b may not eat: /b A laborer who b works with /b produce b attached to the ground /b
89. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 72
14a. בההיא הנאה דקא משתניא ליה בין מלוה ישנה למלוה חדשה גמר ומשעביד נפשיה,א"ל הונא מר בריה דרב נחמיה לרב אשי אלא מעתה כגון הני דבי בר אלישיב דכפתי ושקלי לאלתר ה"נ דלא קנו,וכי תימא ה"נ א"כ נתת דבריך לשיעורין,אלא אמר מר זוטרא הני תלת מילי שוינהו רבנן כהלכתא בלא טעמא חדא הא ואידך דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הכותב כל נכסיו לאשתו לא עשאה אלא אפיטרופיא ואידך דאמר רב חנניא המשיא אשה לבנו גדול בבית קנאו,א"ל רב לרב אחא ברדלא קבא דמוריקא אית לי גבך יהביה לפלוני באפיה קאמינא לך דלא הדרנא בי,מכלל דאי בעי הדר ביה מצי הדר ביה ה"ק דברים הללו לא ניתנו לחזרה,הא אמר רב חדא זימנא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב מנה לי בידך תנהו לו לפלוני במעמד שלשתן קנה,אי מההיא הוה אמינא הני מילי מתנה מרובה אבל מתנה מועטת לא ליבעי בפניו קמ"ל:,הנהו גינאי דעביד חושבנא בהדי הדדי פש חמש איסתרי זוזי גבי חד מנייהו אמרי ליה יהבינהו ניהליה למרי ארעא באפי מרי ארעא וקנה מיניה,לסוף אזל עבד חושבנא בין דיליה לנפשיה לא פש גביה ולא מידי אתא לקמיה דרב נחמן א"ל מאי איעביד לך חדא דאמר רב הונא אמר רב ועוד הא קנו מינך,א"ל רבא אטו האי מי קאמר לא יהבינא דליכא גבאי קאמר א"ל א"כ קנין בטעות הוא וכל קנין בטעות חוזר,איתמר הולך מנה לפלוני שאני חייב לו אמר רב חייב באחריותו ואם בא לחזור אינו חוזר ושמואל אמר מתוך שחייב באחריותו אם בא לחזור חוזר,לימא בהא קמיפלגי דמר סבר הולך כזכי דמי ומר סבר הולך לאו כזכי דמי,לא דכ"ע הולך כזכי דמי והכא בהא קמיפלגי מ"ס לא אמרינן מיגו ומ"ס אמרינן מיגו,תניא כוותיה דרב הולך מנה לפלוני שאני חייב לו תן מנה לפלוני שאני חייב לו הולך מנה לפלוני פקדון שיש לו בידי תן מנה לפלוני פקדון שיש לו בידי חייב באחריותו ואם בא לחזור אינו חוזר,פקדון לימא ליה אין רצונו שיהא פקדונו ביד אחר א"ר זירא כשהוחזק כפרן,רב ששת הוה ליה אשרתא דסרבלי במחוזא א"ל לרב יוסף בר חמא בהדי דאתית אייתינהו ניהלי אזל יהבינהו ליה אמרי ליה ניקני מינך אמר להו אין,לסוף אישתמיט להו כי אתא לגביה אמר ליה שפיר עבדת דלא שוית נפשך (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה לישנא אחרינא שפיר עבדת עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ר' אחי בר' יאשיה הוה ליה איספקא דכספא בנהרדעא 14a. b With that benefit /b that the borrower receives when b his /b debt b changes from an old debt to a new debt, he fully pledges himself /b to the new lender. The borrower prefers to have a new lender from whom he can ask for an extension of the deadline for the repayment of his debt., b Huna Mar, son of Rav Neḥemya, said to Rav Ashi: If that is so, /b what about a case b where /b the debt is transferred to b these /b members b of the house of bar Elyashiv? As, /b those implacable people b bind /b debtors with handcuffs b and take /b their money b immediately /b when the time for repayment arrives. They certainly would not add to the time that the borrower has to repay the first loan, and he would not willingly pledge himself to them. b So too, /b will you say b that they do not acquire /b the money in the presence of all three parties, as the borrower would not agree to this arrangement?, b And if you would say /b that b indeed /b this method is not effective in a case of this kind, b if so you have rendered your statement subject to circumstances. /b In other words, the application of the acquisition in the presence of all three parties is not absolute, and instead depends on whether in this particular case the borrower agrees to transfer his debt from one person to another., b Rather, /b the Gemara retracts the previous explanation in favor of that which b Mar Zutra said: These three matters were instituted by the Sages as a i halakha /i without a reason, /b i.e., they instituted these ordices despite the fact that the logical mechanism by which they function is unclear: b One /b is b this /b case of an acquisition in the presence of all three parties. b And another /b is b that /b which b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: One who writes /b over b all of his property to his wife /b as a gift has b rendered her only a steward [ i eppitrofeya /i ], /b but she does not become the owner. b And another /b is b that /b which b Rav Ḥaya says: /b With regard to b one who marries a woman to his eldest son, /b and the wedding takes place b in /b his b house, /b the son has b acquired that /b house.,With regard to acquisition in the presence of all three parties, the Gemara relates: b Rav said to Rav Aḥa Bardela: I have a i kav /i of saffron [ i morika /i ] with you /b that you owe me; b give it to so-and-so. /b Rav added: b I say /b this b to you in his presence /b so b that I will not retract /b from this statement.,The Gemara asks: Can one learn b by inference that if he /b had not stipulated in this manner and b wished to retract /b his statement b he could /b in fact b retract /b it? This would mean that a standard acquisition in the presence of all three parties is not fully effective. The Gemara answers that b this is what /b Rav b said: /b I am saying this to you in his presence because b these /b types of b statements /b issued in the presence of all three parties b cannot be retracted, /b i.e., Rav was not adding a condition but explaining the i halakha /i .,The Gemara asks: b But /b why is this statement of Rav recorded at all? b Rav /b already b said /b this i halakha /i b once. As Rav Huna says /b that b Rav says: /b With regard to one who says to another: b I /b have b one hundred dinars in your possession, give it to so-and-so, /b if this occurred b in the presence of /b all b three /b parties that third person has b acquired /b it.,The Gemara explains: b If /b the method of acquisition in the presence of all three parties was derived b from that /b i halakha /i alone, b I would say /b that b this matter, /b i.e., the need for the presence of the third party, applies only for the transfer of b a large gift. However, /b in the case of b a small gift /b one does b not need /b to do this b in the presence /b of the recipient. Instead, the giver can simply provide instructions and thereby transfer the gift to the other person, as there is no reason to think that he would retract. Therefore, Rav b teaches us /b that this is not the case, as in all cases the transfer takes effect only in the presence of all three parties.,The Gemara relates: There were b certain gardeners who made a calculation /b of money owed b to each other, /b and there b remained with one of them five i isterei zuzei /i /b more than he should have received. The others b said to him: Give /b the money b to the owner of the land, /b and they said this b in the presence of the owner of the land, and /b the owner of the land b acquired /b the money b from him. /b In other words, the owner of the land performed a proper act of acquisition obligating the gardener to pay that amount., b Ultimately, /b that gardener b went and performed a calculation on his own /b and concluded that b nothing /b extra b had been left /b over b with him. He came before Rav Naḥman /b to ask what to do. Rav Naḥman b said to him: What can I do for you? /b The b first /b issue is b that Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said /b that an acquisition in the presence of all three parties takes effect immediately, and therefore the owner of the land has already acquired the money. b And additionally, he /b performed an actual act of acquisition and thereby b acquired /b the money b from you. /b , b Rava said to /b Rav Naḥman: b Is that to say /b that the gardener b said: I will not give? /b In other words, he did not refuse to give a sum in which he was obligated. b He /b actually b said: Which is not in my possession, /b as his colleagues told him to give five i isterei zuzei /i that remained in his possession, and he now claims that this money actually belongs to him. Rav Naḥman b said to him: If so, it is an acquisition /b performed b in error, and any acquisition /b performed b in error reverts /b back to the previous owner.,§ b It was stated /b that i amora’im /i disagreed with regard to the following dilemma: If someone instructs an agent: b Deliver one hundred dinars to so-and-so, as I owe him /b that sum, b Rav says: /b The person who sends him the money b bears /b ficial b responsibility for their /b loss. If the one hundred dinars are lost by the agent, the sender must give another one hundred dinars to repay his debt. b But if /b the sender b seeks to retract /b this repayment after he has given it to the agent, b he cannot retract /b it. b And Shmuel says: Since /b the sender b bears /b ficial b responsibility for their /b loss, this indicates that the one hundred dinars are considered to be in his domain, which means that b if he seeks to retract he can retract /b it.,The Gemara suggests: b Let us say that they disagree about this /b issue, b as /b one b Sage, /b Rav, b holds /b that saying: b Deliver, is like /b saying: b Acquire, /b and therefore the agent immediately acquires the money on behalf of the recipient. For this reason the sender cannot retract. b And /b one b Sage, /b Shmuel, b holds /b that saying: b Deliver, is not like /b saying: b Acquire, /b and as the recipient has not yet acquired the money the sender can retract.,The Gemara rejects this: b No; everyone agrees that /b saying: b Deliver, is like /b saying: b Acquire, and here, /b in this case, b they disagree about this: /b One b Sage, /b Rav, b holds /b that b we do not say /b that b since /b the sender bears ficial responsibility for the loss of the money he can retract. Therefore, he cannot retract. b And /b one b Sage, /b Shmuel, b holds /b that b we do say /b that b since /b the sender bears ficial responsibility for the loss of the money he can retract.,The Gemara comments: It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rav /b ( i Tosefta /i 1:6): If one said to another: b Deliver one hundred dinars to so-and-so, as I owe him /b that sum, or if he said: b Give one hundred dinars to so-and-so, as I owe him /b that sum, or if he said: b Deliver one hundred dinars to so-and-so, /b as they are b a deposit he has in my possession, /b or: b Give one hundred dinars to so-and-so, /b as they are b a deposit he has in my possession, /b in all these cases the sender b bears /b ficial b responsibility for their /b loss, b but if he seeks to retract he cannot retract. /b ,The Gemara asks with regard to this i baraita /i : In a case where the agent accepts upon himself to bring b a deposit /b to its owners, b let /b the sender, who is the bailee of the deposit, b say to /b the agent: b It is not the will /b of the owner of the deposit b that his deposit will be in the possession of another. /b Since this transfer is not in the interests of the owner of the deposit, the money should remain fully in the possession of the sender, and therefore he should be able to retract. b Rabbi Zeira says: /b This is referring to a case b where /b the sender, the bailee of the deposit, b is established /b as b a denier /b of ficial obligations. For this reason, the owner of the deposit prefers the money to be transferred to someone else, and the sender cannot claim that it is not the will of the owner of the deposit that his deposit will be in the possession of another.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Sheshet had a credit [ i asharta /i ] of cloaks [ i sarbelei /i ] in /b the city of b Meḥoza, /b i.e., he had a set agreement with merchants that he would give them cloaks to sell in the city of Meḥoza and they would later reimburse him. Rav Sheshet b said to Rav Yosef bar Ḥama: When you come /b here from Meḥoza, b bring me /b the money. Rav Yosef b went /b and b brought /b the money b to him. /b Those who gave him the money b said to him: Let us make an acquisition /b for what you have received, so that if something happens to the money, you will be responsible. b He said to them: Yes. /b , b Ultimately, he escaped them /b and did not perform the act of acquisition. b When /b Rav Yosef b came before /b Rav Sheshet and told him what had occurred, Rav Sheshet b said to him: You did well, as you did not render yourself /b the subject of the verse: b “The borrower is a slave to the lender” /b (Proverbs 22:7), by obligating yourself for no reason. In b another version /b of this incident Rav Sheshet said to Rav Yosef: b You did well, /b as the verse states: b “The borrower is a slave to the lender,” /b i.e., the merchants who borrowed from me must bear responsibility to ensure that the money will reach me.,The Gemara further relates: b Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, had a silver vessel [ i ispeka /i ] in /b the city of b Neharde’a. /b
90. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 193
62a. אורחא דמילתא כמה אמר רב חדש כאן וחדש בבית שנאמר (דברי הימים א כז, א) לכל דבר המחלקות הבאה והיוצאת חדש בחדש לכל חדשי השנה ור' יוחנן אמר חדש כאן ושנים בביתו שנאמר (מלכים א ה, כח) חדש יהיו בלבנון שנים חדשים בביתו,ורב נמי מ"ט לא אמר מההיא שאני בנין בית המקדש דאפשר ע"י אחרים ור' יוחנן מ"ט לא אמר מההיא שאני התם דאית ליה הרווחה,אמר רב אנחה שוברת חצי גופו של אדם שנאמר (יחזקאל כא, יא) ואתה בן אדם האנח בשברון מתנים ובמרירות תאנח ורבי יוחנן אמר אף כל גופו של אדם שנאמר (יחזקאל כא, יב) והיה כי יאמרו אליך על מה אתה נאנח ואמרת אל שמועה כי באה ונמס כל לב ורפו כל ידים וכהתה כל רוח וכל ברכים תלכנה מים,ורבי יוחנן נמי הכתיב בשברון מתנים ההיא דכי מתחלא ממתנים מתחלא ורב נמי הכתי' ונמס כל לב ורפו כל ידים וכהתה כל רוח שאני שמועה דבית המקדש דתקיפא טובא,ההוא ישראל ועובד כוכבים דהוו קאזלי באורחא בהדי הדדי לא אימצי עובד כוכבים לסגויי בהדי ישראל אדכריה חורבן בית המקדש נגיד ואיתנח ואפ"ה לא אימצי עובד כוכבים לסגויי בהדיה א"ל לאו אמריתו אנחה שוברת חצי גופו של אדם א"ל ה"מ מילתא חדתי אבל הא דשנן בה לא דאמרי אינשי דמלפי תכלי לא בהתה:,הטיילין בכל יום: מאי טיילין אמר רבא בני פירקי א"ל אביי מאן דכתיב בהו (תהלים קכז, ב) שוא לכם משכימי קום מאחרי שבת אוכלי לחם העצבים כן יתן לידידו שנא ואמר רב יצחק אלו נשותיהן של ת"ח שמנדדות שינה מעיניהם בעוה"ז ובאות לחיי העוה"ב ואת אמרת בני פירקי,אלא אמר אביי כדרב דאמר רב כגון רב שמואל בר שילת דאכיל מדידיה ושתי מדידיה וגני בטולא דאפדניה ולא חליף פריסתקא דמלכא אבביה כי אתא רבין אמר כגון מפנקי דמערבא,ר' אבהו הוה קאי בי באני הוו סמכי ליה תרי עבדי איפחית בי באני מתותיה איתרמי לי' עמודא סליק ואסקינהו ר' יוחנן הוה קסליק בדרגא הוו סמכי ליה רב אמי ורב אסי איפחתא דרגא תותיה סליק ואסקינהו אמרי ליה רבנן וכי מאחר דהכי למה ליה למיסמכיה אמר להו א"כ מה אניח לעת זקנה:,והפועלים שתים בשבת: והתניא הפועלים אחת בשבת א"ר יוסי ברבי חנינא לא קשיא כאן בעושין מלאכה בעירן כאן בעושין מלאכה בעיר אחרת תניא נמי הכי הפועלים שתים בשבת במה דברים אמורים בעושין מלאכה בעירן אבל בעושין מלאכה בעיר אחרת אחת בשבת:,החמרים אחת בשבת: אמר ליה רבה בר רב חנן לאביי איכפל תנא לאשמועינן טייל ופועל אמר ליה לא 62a. The Gemara explains its query: Although a man can legally make any agreement with his wife to limit her conjugal rights, b how much /b is an acceptable b manner for this matter? Rav said: /b The husband may spend b a month here, /b in the study hall, b and /b then must spend b a month at home. /b The allusion to this is b as it is stated /b with regard to reserve units serving in King David’s army: b “In any matter of the courses, which came in and went out month by month throughout all the months of the year” /b (I Chronicles 27:1). b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b He may spend b one month here, /b in the study hall, b and /b then b two /b months b in his home, as it is stated /b with regard to workers who worked in the construction of the Temple: b “A month they were in Lebanon, and two months at home” /b (I Kings 5:28).,The Gemara asks: b And what is the reason /b that b Rav did not also say /b a proof b from that /b source that Rabbi Yoḥa quoted? The Gemara answers: b The construction of the Temple is different, since it is possible /b for this work to be performed b by others, /b as there were many people involved in it, but with regard to Torah study, which cannot be performed by others, he is given permission to spend a month here and a month there. The Gemara further questions: b And what is the reason /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa did not say /b a proof b from that /b source that Rav quoted? The Gemara answers: b There, /b with regard to King David, b it is different, since he gains profit /b from working for the king; since there is profit involved, his wife might be willing to forgo his staying with her. However, in general a woman wants her husband to spend most of his time at home, so with regard to Torah study, where there is no monetary profit, she will not waive her right for as long.,§ Apropos a dispute between Rav and Rabbi Yoḥa with regard to the construction of the Temple, the Gemara cites another dispute between them. b Rav said: Groaning breaks half of a person’s body, as it is stated: “Groan, therefore, you son of man, with the breaking of your loins, groan so bitterly” /b (Ezekiel 21:11), which indicates that groaning breaks half of a one’s body, down to his loins. b And Rabbi Yoḥa said /b that groaning breaks b even a person’s entire body, as it is stated: “And it shall be, when they say to you: Why are you groaning? That you shall say: Due to the tiding, for it comes, and every heart shall melt, and all hands shall be slack, and every spirit shall be faint, and all knees shall drip with water” /b (Ezekiel 21:12).,The Gemara asks: b And /b why doesn’t b Rabbi Yoḥa also /b say that it breaks half of one’s body? b Isn’t it written: “With the breaking of your loins,” /b implying that it does not break the entire body? The Gemara answers: b This /b does not mean that the breakage only reaches the loins, but rather b that when /b the sigh b begins /b to affect a person, b it begins from his loins. /b The Gemara asks: b And /b why doesn’t b Rav also /b say that it breaks the entire body? b Isn’t it written: “And every heart shall melt, and all hands shall be slack, and every spirit shall be faint,” /b which indicates that groaning causes the entire body to break? The Gemara answers: b The news with regard to /b the destruction of b the Temple is different, as it is extremely crushing /b and causes great anguish, but in general a sigh causes only half of the body to break.,It is related that b a certain Jew and a gentile were walking along the road together. The gentile could not keep up with the Jew, /b who was walking faster, and b he /b therefore b reminded him of the destruction of the Temple /b in order to make the Jew feel sorrowful and slow down. b The Jew sighed and groaned, but even so the gentile could not keep up with him, /b as the Jew was still walking faster. The gentile b said to him: Don’t you say that groaning breaks half of a person’s body? /b Why didn’t it affect you? b He said to him: This applies only /b with regard to b a new /b sorrowful b affair, but this, /b from b which we have /b suffered b repeatedly /b and to which we have become accustomed, does b not /b affect us as much, b as people say: One who is used to being bereaved /b of her children b does not panic [ i bahata /i ] /b when one of them dies, and similarly, one who is used to a tragedy is not as devastated when being reminded of it.,§ The mishna said that b men of leisure /b must engage in marital relations with their wives b every day. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b is meant by the term b men of leisure? Rava said: /b These are b students /b of Torah who go daily to review b their lectures /b at a local study hall and return home each evening. b Abaye said to him: /b Wives of Torah scholars are b those about whom it is written: “It is vain for you to rise early and sit up late, you that eat the bread of toil, so He gives to His beloved in sleep” /b (Psalms 127:2), b and Rabbi Yitzḥak said /b in explanation of this verse: b These are the wives of Torah scholars who deprive their eyes of sleep in this world and reach the life of the World-to-Come. /b This indicates that Torah scholars exert themselves greatly in their studies and are not home in the evenings, b and you say /b that the b students /b reviewing b their lectures /b are men of leisure, whose wives have conjugal rights for every night?, b Rather, Abaye said: /b The mishna should be explained b in accordance with the opinion of Rav, as Rav said: /b This is referring to a man b such as Rabbi Shmuel bar Sheilat, who ate his own /b food, b drank his own /b drinks, b slept in the shade of his own house, and the king’s tax collector [ i peristaka /i ] did not pass by his door, /b as they did not know that he was a man of means. A man like this, who has a steady income and no worries, is called a man of leisure. b When Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael b he said: For example, the /b wealthy, b pampered /b men b in the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, are called men of leisure. Due to the time they have available and the richness of their diet, they have the ability to satisfy their wives every night.,To illustrate this point, the Gemara relates two incidents demonstrating the health and strength of the inhabitants of Eretz Yisrael: b Rabbi Abbahu was /b once b standing in the bathhouse and two slaves were supporting /b his walking. b The bathhouse collapsed under him /b and was destroyed. b He found a pillar, /b stood on it and b got out, and pulled them /b both b up /b with him. Similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa was /b once b going up stairs, /b and b Rav Ami and Rav Asi were supporting /b him. b The stair collapsed under him, but he went up and pulled them /b both b up /b with him. b The Sages said to him: Since /b it is clear that you are b so /b strong, b why do you need /b people b to support you? He said to them: If so, /b if I were to expend all my strength now, b what will I leave for /b myself in my b old age? /b ,§ The mishna said: The set interval for b laborers /b to fulfill their conjugal obligations to their wives is b twice a week. /b The Gemara asks: b Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : For b laborers, once a week? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: /b This is b not difficult: Here, /b the case is b where they work in their own city. There, /b the case is b where they work in another city. This is also taught /b in the i Tosefta /i (5:6): For b laborers, twice a week. In what /b case b is this statement said? /b It is b when they work in their own city, but when they work in another city, /b the set interval for their conjugal obligations is b once a week. /b ,§ The mishna said: The set interval for b donkey drivers /b is b once a week, /b and for other professions it is even less frequent. b Rabba bar Rav Ḥa said to Abaye: Did the i tanna /i go to all that trouble just to teach us /b the i halakha /i for b a man of leisure and /b for b a laborer? /b According to the set intervals given for conjugal obligations, it seems that the i halakha /i that one who vowed to prohibit his wife from conjugal relations for longer than a week must divorce her is referring only to a man of leisure or a laborer, whose set interval for conjugal relations is less than that period. However, for other people, whose set interval is once a month or even less frequent, there should be no need to divorce the wife, since the vow does not deprive her of conjugal rights for longer than she would have been deprived anyway. b He said to him: No, /b
91. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Rubenstein (2003), The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud. 193
50a. דלי ציפתא ואמר ליה לשלוחא חזי מאי איכא מיהו לא ניחא לי דאיתהני בהדין עלמא,ר' עקיבא איתקדשת ליה ברתיה (דבר) דכלבא שבוע שמע (בר) כלבא שבוע אדרה הנאה מכל נכסיה אזלא ואיתנסיבה ליה,בסיתוא הוה גנו בי תיבנא הוה קא מנקיט ליה תיבנא מן מזייה אמר לה אי הואי לי רמינא ליך ירושלים דדהבא אתא אליהו אידמי להון כאנשא וקא קרי אבבא אמר להו הבו לי פורתא דתיבנא דילדת אתתי ולית לי מידעם לאגונה אמר לה ר' עקיבא לאנתתיה חזי גברא דאפילו תיבנא לא אית ליה,אמרה ליה זיל הוי בי רב אזל תרתי סרי שנין קמי דר' אליעזר ור' יהושע למישלם תרתי סרי שנין קא אתא לביתיה שמע מן אחורי ביתיה דקאמר לה חד רשע לדביתהו שפיר עביד ליך אבוך חדא דלא דמי ליך ועוד [שבקך] ארמלות חיות כולהון שנין אמרה ליה אי צאית לדילי ליהוי תרתי סרי שנין אחרנייתא אמר הואיל ויהבת לי רשותא איהדר לאחורי הדר אזל הוה תרתי סרי שני אחרנייתא,אתא בעשרין וארבעה אלפין זוגי תלמידי נפוק כולי עלמא לאפיה ואף היא קמת למיפק לאפיה אמר לה ההוא רשיעא ואת להיכא אמרה ליה (משלי יב, י) יודע צדיק נפש בהמתו אתת לאיתחזויי ליה קא מדחן לה רבנן אמר להון הניחו לה שלי ושלכם שלה הוא שמע (בר) כלבא שבוע אתא ואיתשיל על נידריה ואשתריי ואשתרי,מן שית מילי איעתר רבי עקיבא מן כלבא שבוע מן אילא דספינתא דכל ספינתא עבדין ליה מין עינא זימנא חדא אנשיוה על כיף ימא אתא הוא אשכחיה,ומן גווזא דזימנא חדא יהיב ארבעה זוזי לספונאי אמר להו אייתי לי מדעם ולא אשכחו אלא גווזא על כיף ימא אתיוה ליה אמרו ליה עביד מרנא עליה אישתכח דהוה מלי דינרי דזימנא חדא טבעת ספינתא וכולי עיסקא הוה מחית בההוא גווזא ואישתכח בההוא זימנא,דמן דסרוקיתא ומן מטרוניתא 50a. b He lifted the mat [ i tzifeta /i ] /b upon which he was sitting b and said to the messenger: See what there is /b here. The place was miraculously filled with gold dinars. This demonstrated that Rabbi Yehuda could have had plenty of money if he had so desired. He explained: b However, it is not amenable to me to derive benefit in this world. /b ,§ In connection to the above incident concerning the poverty of scholars and their potential to become wealthy through remarkable circumstances, the Gemara relates an incident: b Rabbi Akiva became betrothed to the daughter of bar Kalba Savua. /b When b bar Kalba Savua heard /b about their betrothal, he took a vow b prohibiting her from /b eating b all of his property. /b Despite this, b she went /b ahead b and married /b Rabbi Akiva., b In the winter they would sleep in a storehouse of straw, /b and Rabbi Akiva b would gather /b strands of b straw from her hair. He said to her: If I had /b the means b I would place on your /b head b a Jerusalem of Gold, /b a type of crown. b Elijah /b the prophet b came /b and b appeared to them as /b a regular b person and /b started b calling /b and knocking b on the door. He said to them: Give me a bit of straw, as my wife gave birth and I do not have anything on which to lay her. Rabbi Akiva said to his wife: See /b this b man, who does not even have straw. /b We should be happy with our lot, as we at least have straw to sleep on., b She said to him: Go /b and b be a student /b of Torah. b He went /b and studied Torah for b twelve years before Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. At the completion of /b the b twelve years, he was coming home /b when b he heard from behind his house that one wicked person was saying to his wife: Your father behaved well toward you. /b He was right to disinherit you. b One /b reason is b that /b your husband b is not similar to you, /b i.e., he is not suitable for you. b And furthermore, he has left you in widowhood in his lifetime all these years. She said to him: If he listens to me, he should be /b there for b another twelve years. /b Rabbi Akiva b said: Since she has given me permission /b through this statement, b I will go back /b and study more. b He turned back /b and b went /b to the study hall, and he b was /b there for b another twelve years. /b ,Eventually b he came /b back accompanied b by 24,000 pairs of students. Everyone went out to /b greet b him, /b as he was by then a renowned teacher, b and she too arose to go out to /b greet b him. That wicked person said to her: And to where are you /b going? As she was excessively poor, she was not dressed in a grand manner, as fit for the wife of one so esteemed. b She said to him: “A righteous man regards the life of his beast” /b (Proverbs 12:10); he knows that I am in this state as a result of my dedication to him. b She came to present herself before /b Rabbi Akiva, but b the Sages /b tried to b fend her off, /b as they were unaware of her identity. b He said to them: Leave her. /b Both b my /b Torah knowledge b and yours are hers. /b When b bar Kalba Savua heard /b that the famous man was his son-in-law, b he came /b before halakhic authorities b and requested the dissolution of his vow, and it was dissolved. /b ,The Gemara adds: b Rabbi Akiva became wealthy from six things. /b First, b from /b the money he received from b Kalba Savua /b after his vow was dissolved. Second, he gained money b from the ram of a ship [ i eila disfineta /i ], as /b craftsmen would b fashion /b a sculpture of b a type of sheep for every ship, /b which would be placed on its bow, and which would be used to conceal money. On b one occasion, /b the sailors b forgot /b this ram b on the seashore, /b and Rabbi Akiva b came /b and b found it /b with the money stored inside., b And /b third, he became wealthy b from a log [ i gavza /i ] /b of wood, b as /b on b one occasion he gave four dinars to sailors /b and b said to them: Bring me something /b worthwhile. b And they found only a log /b of wood b on the seashore. They brought it to him /b and b said to him: May our master wait with this /b until we bring a more worthy item. b He found that /b the log b was full of dinars, as /b on b one occasion a ship sunk and all the merchandise, /b i.e., the money, owned by the people on the ship b was placed in that log, and it was found on that occasion /b by the sailors.,Rabbi Akiva became wealthy b from /b a convoy of b Ishmaelites [ i Serukita /i ]. And /b he became wealthy b from /b a certain b lady. /b Rabbi Akiva borrowed money from a lady and said that God would be his guarantor. When it came time to return the loan, the king’s daughter became insane and threw a purse of jewelry into the sea, which was found by that lady. She told Rabbi Akiva that his guarantor had paid his debt and she allowed him to keep the loan.
92. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Janowitz (2002b), Icons of Power: Ritual Practices in Late Antiquity, 103
17a. עמך עמך ואת בהדייהו ורבי יהודה עמך משום שכינה,ורבנן אמר קרא (במדבר יא, יז) ונשאו אתך במשא העם אתך ואת בהדייהו ורבי יהודה אתך בדומין לך,ורבנן (שמות יח, כב) מוהקל מעליך ונשאו אתך נפקא וילפא סנהדרי גדולה מסנהדרי קטנה,ת"ר (במדבר יא, כו) וישארו שני אנשים במחנה יש אומרים בקלפי נשתיירו,שבשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה למשה אספה לי שבעים איש מזקני ישראל אמר משה כיצד אעשה אברור ששה מכל שבט ושבט נמצאו שנים יתירים אברור חמשה חמשה מכל שבט ושבט נמצאו עשרה חסרים אברור ששה משבט זה וחמשה משבט זה הריני מטיל קנאה בין השבטים,מה עשה בירר ששה ששה והביא שבעים ושנים פיתקין על שבעים כתב זקן ושנים הניח חלק בללן ונתנן בקלפי אמר להם בואו וטלו פיתקיכם כל מי שעלה בידו זקן אמר כבר קידשך שמים מי שעלה בידו חלק אמר המקום לא חפץ בך אני מה אעשה לך,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר ג, מז) ולקחת חמשת חמשת שקלים לגולגולת אמר משה כיצד אעשה להן לישראל אם אומר לו תן לי פדיונך וצא יאמר לי כבר פדאני בן לוי,מה עשה הביא עשרים ושנים אלפים פיתקין וכתב עליהן בן לוי ועל שלשה ושבעים ומאתים כתב עליהן חמשה שקלים בללן ונתנן בקלפי אמר להן טלו פיתקיכם מי שעלה בידו בן לוי אמר לו כבר פדאך בן לוי מי שעלה בידו חמשת שקלים אמר לו תן פדיונך וצא,רבי שמעון אומר במחנה נשתיירו בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה למשה אספה לי שבעים איש אמרו אלדד ומידד אין אנו ראויין לאותה גדולה אמר הקב"ה הואיל ומיעטתם עצמכם הריני מוסיף גדולה על גדולתכם ומה גדולה הוסיף להם שהנביאים כולן נתנבאו ופסקו והם נתנבאו ולא פסקו,ומה נבואה נתנבאו אמרו משה מת יהושע מכניס את ישראל לארץ אבא חנין אומר משום רבי אליעזר על עסקי שליו הן מתנבאים עלי שליו עלי שליו,רב נחמן אמר על עסקי גוג ומגוג היו מתנבאין שנאמר (יחזקאל לח, ג) כה אמר ה' אלהים האתה הוא אשר דברתי בימים קדמונים ביד עבדי נביאי ישראל הנבאים בימים ההם שנים להביא אותך עליהם וגו' אל תיקרי שנים אלא שנים ואיזו הן שנים נביאים שנתנבאו בפרק אחד נבואה אחת הוי אומר אלדד ומידד,אמר מר כל הנביאים כולן נתנבאו ופסקו והן נתנבאו ולא פסקו מנא לן דפסקו אילימא מדכתיב (במדבר יא, כה) ויתנבאו ולא יספו אלא מעתה (דברים ה, יח) קול גדול ולא יסף ה"נ דלא אוסיף הוא אלא דלא פסק הוא,אלא הכא כתיב ויתנבאו התם כתיב (במדבר יא, כז) מתנבאים עדיין מתנבאים והולכים,בשלמא למ"ד משה מת היינו דכתיב (במדבר יא, כח) אדוני משה כלאם אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי אדני משה כלאם דלאו אורח ארעא דהוה ליה כתלמיד המורה הלכה לפני רבו,בשלמא למ"ד הנך תרתי היינו דכתיב מי יתן אלא למ"ד משה מת מינח הוה ניחא ליה לא סיימוה קמיה,מאי כלאם א"ל הטל עליהן צרכי ציבור והן כלין מאיליהן:,מניין להביא עוד שלשה:,סוף סוף לרעה ע"פ שנים לא משכחת לה אי אחד עשר מזכין ושנים עשר מחייבין אכתי חד הוא אי עשרה מזכין ושלשה עשר מחייבין תלתא הוו א"ר אבהו אי אתה מוצא אלא במוסיפין ודברי הכל ובסנהדרי גדולה ואליבא דרבי יהודה דאמר שבעים,וא"ר אבהו במוסיפין עושין ב"ד שקול לכתחילה פשיטא מהו דתימא האי דקאמר איני יודע כמאן דאיתיה דמי ואי אמר מילתא שמעינן ליה קמ"ל דהאי דקאמר איני יודע כמאן דליתיה דמי ואי אמר טעמא לא שמעינן ליה,אמר רב כהנא סנהדרי שראו כולן לחובה פוטרין אותו מ"ט כיון דגמירי הלנת דין למעבד ליה זכותא והני תו לא חזו ליה,א"ר יוחנן אין מושיבין בסנהדרי אלא בעלי קומה ובעלי חכמה ובעלי מראה ובעלי זקנה ובעלי כשפים ויודעים בע' לשון שלא תהא סנהדרי שומעת מפי המתורגמן,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אין מושיבין בסנהדרין אלא מי שיודע לטהר את השרץ מה"ת אמר רב אני אדון ואטהרנו 17a. b with you” /b (Numbers 11:16), i.e., they will stand b “with you,” and you /b are to be counted b with them, /b leading to a total number of seventy-one. b And Rabbi Yehuda /b holds that the term b “with you” /b is mentioned b due to the Divine Presence /b that rested on Moses. According to Rabbi Yehuda, Moses was instructed to remain with the seventy Elders in order for the Divine Presence to rest upon them as well. He was not formally part of their court and therefore the number of Sages on the Great Sanhedrin is seventy.,The Gemara asks: b And /b how would b the Rabbis /b respond to this line of reasoning? The Gemara answers: b The verse states: “And they shall bear the burden of the people with you” /b (Numbers 11:17), which indicates: b “With you,” and you /b are to be counted b with them. And /b how would b Rabbi Yehuda /b respond to that? He would explain that the term b “with you” /b means b similar to you, /b meaning, that the Elders appointed to the court had to be of fit lineage and free of blemish, like Moses., b And /b from where do b the Rabbis /b derive that i halakha /i ? They b derive it from /b what was stated with regard to the appointment of the ministers of thousands and the ministers of hundreds: b “And they shall make it easier for you, and bear the burden with you” /b (Exodus 18:22), understanding the term “with you” to mean: Similar to you. b And /b the i halakha /i of the judges of b the Great Sanhedrin /b of seventy b is derived from /b the i halakha /i of the judges of b the lesser Sanhedrin, /b i.e., those ministers, that Moses appointed.,§ Apropos the appointment of the Elders by Moses, the Gemara discusses additional aspects of that event. There were seventy-two candidates for Elder but only seventy were needed. They were chosen by lots with their names put into a box. b The Sages taught: /b The verse states: b “And there remained two men in the camp; /b the name of one was Eldad and the name of the other Medad, and the spirit rested upon them, and they were among those who were written but who did not go out to the tent, and they prophesied in the camp” (Numbers 11:26). Where did they remain? b Some say /b this means b they, /b i.e., their names, b remained /b excluded from those selected from the lots b in the box. /b ,The i baraita /i explains: b At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: “Gather for Me seventy men of the Elders of Israel” /b (Numbers 11:16), b Moses said: How shall I do /b it? If b I select six from each and every tribe, there will be /b a total of seventy-two, which will be b two extra. /b But if b I select five from each and every tribe, there will be /b a total of sixty, b lacking ten. /b And if b I select six from this tribe and five from that tribe, I will bring about envy between the tribes, /b as those with fewer representatives will resent the others., b What did he do? He selected six /b from every tribe b and he brought seventy-two slips [ i pitakin /i ]. On seventy /b of them b he wrote: Elder, and he left two /b of them b blank. He mixed them and placed them in the box. He /b then b said to /b the seventy-two chosen candidates: b Come and draw your slips. Everyone whose hand drew up /b a slip that said: b Elder, he said /b to him: b Heaven has already sanctified you. /b And b everyone whose hand drew up /b a b blank /b slip, b he said /b to him: b The Omnipresent does not desire you; what can I do for you? /b ,The Gemara comments: b You /b can b say /b something b similar to this /b to explain the verse about the redemption of the firstborn by the Levites: “Take the Levites in place of all of the firstborn of the children of Israel…and as for the redemption of the 273 of the firstborn of the children of Israel who are in excess over the number of the Levites… b you shall take five shekels per head” /b (Numbers 3:45–47). It can be explained that b Moses said: How shall I do /b this b for the Jews? If I say to /b one of the firstborns: b Give me /b money for b your redemption and /b you may b leave, /b as you are among the 273 extra firstborns, b he will say to me: A Levite already redeemed me; /b what is the reason you think that I am among those who were not redeemed?, b What did he do? He brought 22,000 slips ( /b see Numbers 3:39), b and he wrote on them: Levite, and on 273 /b additional ones b he wrote: Five shekels. He mixed them up and placed them in a box. He said to them: Draw your slips. Everyone whose hand drew up /b a slip that said: b Levite, he said to him: A Levite already redeemed you. Everyone whose hand drew up /b a slip that said: b Five shekels, he said to him: Pay your redemption /b money and you may b leave. /b , b Rabbi Shimon says: /b Eldad and Medad b remained in the camp, /b as they did not want to come to the lottery for the Elders. b At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Gather for me seventy Elders, Eldad and Medad said: We are not fitting for that /b level of b greatness; /b we are not worthy of being appointed among the Elders. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Since you have made yourselves humble, I will add greatness to your greatness. And what is /b the b greatness /b that b he added to them? /b It was b that all of the prophets, /b meaning the other Elders, who were given prophecy, b prophesied /b for a time b and /b then b stopped /b prophesying, b but they prophesied and did not stop. /b ,Apropos Eldad and Medad being prophets, the Gemara asks: b And what prophecy did they prophesy? They said: Moses will die, /b and b Joshua will bring the Jewish people into Eretz /b Yisrael. b Abba Ḥanin says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: They prophesied about the matter of the quail /b that came afterward (Numbers 11:31–33), saying: b Arise quail, arise quail, /b and then the quail came., b Rav Naḥman says: They were prophesying about the matter of Gog and Magog, as it is stated /b with regard to Gog and Magog: b “So says the Lord God: Are you the one of whom I spoke in ancient days, through my servants, the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days for many years [ i shanim /i ] that I would bring you against them?” /b (Ezekiel 38:17). b Do not read /b it as: b “Years [ i shanim /i ]”; rather, /b read it as: b Two [ i shenayim /i ]. And who are the two prophets who prophesied the same prophecy at the same time? You must say: Eldad and Medad. /b , b The Master says: /b The i baraita /i said: b All of the prophets prophesied and /b then b stopped, but /b Eldad and Medad b prophesied and did not stop. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive b that /b the other prophets b stopped /b prophesying? b If we say /b it is b from that which is written /b about them: b “And they prophesied but they did so no more [ i velo yasafu /i ]” /b (Numbers 11:25), that is difficult: b But if that is so, /b then concerning that which is stated in relation to the giving of the Torah: “These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly…with b a great voice, and it went on no more [ i velo yasaf /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 5:19), b so too /b shall it be understood b that /b the great voice b did not continue? Rather, /b the intention there is b that it did not stop, /b interpreting the word i yasafu /i as related to i sof /i , meaning: End. Consequently, with regard to the seventy Elders as well, the word can be interpreted to mean that they did not stop prophesying., b Rather, /b the proof is as follows: b It is written here /b with regard to the seventy Elders: b “They prophesied” /b (Numbers 11:25), and b it is written there: /b “Eldad and Medad b are prophesying /b in the camp” (Numbers 11:27), from which it can be derived that b they were continuously prophesying. /b ,With regard to the content of Eldad and Medad’s prophecy, the Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says /b their prophecy was that b Moses will die, this is /b the reason for that b which is written /b there: “And Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of Moses from his youth, answered and said: b My master Moses, imprison them” /b (Numbers 11:28), as their prophecy appeared to be a rebellion against Moses. b But according to the one who says those /b other b two /b opinions with regard to the content of the prophecy, according to which their prophecy had no connection to Moses, b what /b is the reason that Joshua said: b “My master Moses, imprison them”? /b The Gemara answers: He said this b because /b it is b not proper conduct /b for them to prophesy publicly in close proximity to Moses, b as /b by doing so b they are like a student who teaches a i halakha /i in his teacher’s presence, /b which is inappropriate.,The Gemara asks: b Granted, according to the one who says those /b other b two /b opinions, b this is /b the reason for that b which is written: /b “And Moses said to him: Are you jealous for my sake? b Would /b that all of the Lord’s people were prophets” (Numbers 11:29). b But according to the one who says /b that Eldad and Medad prophesied that b Moses will die /b and Joshua will bring Israel into the land, b would it have been satisfactory to Moses /b that all of the people of God would utter similar prophecies? The Gemara answers: b They did not conclude it before him. /b Moses was not aware of what they had said, but only that they were prophesying.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of: b “Imprison them [ i kela’em /i ]”? /b The Gemara answers: Joshua b said to him: Place /b responsibility for the b needs of the public upon them, /b so that they will be occupied like the other Elders of Israel b and they will cease [ i kalin /i ] /b prophesying, b on their own. /b Due to the burden of public responsibility they would not be able to be prophets.,§ The mishna derives the i halakha /i that there are twenty-three judges on a lesser Sanhedrin from the verses: “And the congregation shall judge,” and: “And the congregation shall save” (Numbers 35:24–25). The mishna understands that the term “congregation” is referring to ten judges, so that the two congregations, one in each verse, total twenty judges. The mishna then asks: b From where /b is it derived b to bring three more /b judges to the court? The mishna answers: The implication of the verse: “You shall not follow a multitude to convict” (Exodus 23:2), is that your inclination after a majority to exonerate is not like your inclination after a majority to convict, and a conviction must be by a majority of two.,The Gemara objects: b Ultimately, you do not find /b an occurrence of the inclination b for evil according to /b a majority of b two /b judges. b If eleven /b judges vote to b acquit /b the defendant b and twelve /b vote to b convict, this is still /b only a majority of b one, /b and b if ten /b vote to b acquit and thirteen /b vote to b convict, they are /b a majority of b three. /b With a court of twenty-three judges, there is no possible way to convict with a majority of two. b Rabbi Abbahu says: You do not find /b such a scenario b except /b in a case b where they add /b two additional judges because one of the judges abstained from the deliberation, the other judges are split in their decisions, and the two added judges both vote to convict. b And /b this is a possibility b according to /b all i tanna’im /i , b and in /b a case tried by b the Great Sanhedrin according to /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yehuda, who says /b there are b seventy /b judges on the Great Sanhedrin. With an even number, it is possible to have a majority of two., b And Rabbi Abbahu says: When they add /b additional judges, they b create a court /b consisting of b an even /b number of judges b i ab initio /i . /b The Gemara asks: Isn’t that b obvious? /b What is the novelty in Rabbi Abbahu’s statement? The Gemara answers: b Lest you say: This /b judge b who says: I do not know, is /b viewed b as one who is /b still b there, and if he says something /b afterward, b we listen to him /b and include him in the count, so there are actually an odd number of judges on the court; therefore, Rabbi Abbahu b teaches us that this /b judge b who says: I do not know, is /b viewed b as one who is not /b still b there, and if he says a reason /b to rule in a certain manner afterward, b we do not listen to him. /b Consequently, the court consists of an even number of judges.,§ b Rav Kahana says: /b In b a Sanhedrin where all /b the judges b saw /b fit b to convict /b the defendant in a case of capital law, they b acquit him. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reasoning /b for this i halakha /i ? It is b since /b it b is learned /b as a tradition that b suspension of the trial /b overnight is necessary in order b to create /b a possibility of b acquittal. /b The i halakha /i is that they may not issue the guilty verdict on the same day the evidence was heard, as perhaps over the course of the night one of the judges will think of a reason to acquit the defendant. b And /b as b those /b judges all saw fit to convict him they b will not see /b any b further /b possibility to acquit b him, /b because there will not be anyone arguing for such a verdict. Consequently, he cannot be convicted.,§ b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b They b place on the /b Great b Sanhedrin only /b men b of /b high b stature, and of wisdom, and of /b pleasant b appearance, and of /b suitable b age /b so that they will be respected. b And /b they must also be b masters of sorcery, /b i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, b and /b they must b know /b all b seventy languages /b in order b that the Sanhedrin will not /b need to b hear /b testimony b from the mouth of a translator /b in a case where a witness speaks a different language., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b They b place on the Sanhedrin only one who knows /b how b to render /b a carcass of b a creeping animal pure by Torah law. /b The judges on the Sanhedrin must be so skilled at logical reasoning that they could even produce a convincing argument that creeping animals, which the Torah states explicitly are ritually impure, are actually pure. b Rav said: I will discuss /b the i halakha /i of the creeping animal b and render it pure, /b i.e., I am able to demonstrate how it is possible to construct such a proof:
93. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 238
47a. רב ושמואל חד אמר נס וחד אמר נס בתוך נס מאן דאמר נס יער הוה דובים לא הוו מ"ד נס בתוך נס לא יער הוה ולא דובים הוו וליהוי דובים ולא ליהוי יער דבעיתי,אמר רבי חנינא בשביל ארבעים ושנים קרבנות שהקריב בלק מלך מואב הובקעו מישראל ארבעים ושנים ילדים איני,והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם יעסוק אדם בתורה ובמצות ואע"פ שלא לשמה שמתוך שלא לשמה בא לשמה שבשכר ארבעים ושנים קרבנות שהקריב בלק מלך מואב זכה ויצתה ממנו רות שיצא ממנו שלמה שכתוב ביה (מלכים א ג, ד) אלף עולות יעלה שלמה ואמר רבי יוסי בן חוני רות בתו של עגלון בנו של בלק היתה תאותו מיהא לקללה הוי,(מלכים ב ב, יט) ויאמרו אנשי העיר אל אלישע הנה נא מושב העיר טוב כאשר אדוני רואה וגו' וכי מאחר דמים רעים וארץ משכלת אלא מה טובתה אמר רבי חנין חן מקום על יושביו אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה חינות הן חן מקום על יושביו חן אשה על בעלה חן מקח על מקחו,תנו רבנן שלשה חלאין חלה אלישע אחד שגירה דובים בתינוקות ואחד שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידים ואחד שמת בו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, יד) ואלישע חלה את חליו אשר ימות בו,תנו רבנן לעולם תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת לא כאלישע שדחפו לגחזי בשתי ידיו ולא כיהושע בן פרחיה שדחפו [להנוצרי] (לאחד מתלמידיו) בשתי ידיו,אלישע מאי היא דכתיב (מלכים ב ה, כג) ויאמר נעמן הואל קח ככרים וכתיב ויאמר אליו לא לבי הלך כאשר הפך איש מעל מרכבתו לקראתך העת לקחת את הכסף ולקחת בגדים וזיתים וכרמים וצאן ובקר ועבדים ושפחות,ומי שקיל כולי האי כסף ובגדים הוא דשקיל אמר ר' יצחק באותה שעה היה אלישע עוסק בשמנה שרצים אמר לו רשע הגיע עת ליטול שכר שמנה שרצים וצרעת נעמן תדבק בך ובזרעך לעולם (מלכים ב ז, ג) וארבעה אנשים היו מצורעים אמר רבי יוחנן זה גחזי ושלשת בניו,(מלכים ב ח, ז) וילך אלישע דמשק למה הלך אמר ר' יוחנן שהלך להחזירו לגחזי בתשובה ולא חזר אמר לו חזור בך אמר לו כך מקובלני ממך כל מי שחטא והחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה,מאי עבד איכא דאמרי אבן שואבת תלה לו לחטאת ירבעם והעמידו בין שמים לארץ ואיכא דאמרי שם חקק לה אפומה והיתה אומרת אנכי ולא יהיה לך,ואיכא דאמרי רבנן דחה מקמיה דכתיב (מלכים ב ו, א) ויאמרו בני הנביאים אל אלישע הנה נא המקום אשר אנחנו יושבים שם לפניך צר ממנו מכלל דעד האידנא לא הוה דחיק,יהושע בן פרחיה מאי היא כדהוה קא קטיל ינאי מלכא לרבנן שמעון בן שטח אטמינהו אחתיה ר' יהושע בן פרחיה אזל ערק לאלכסנדריא של מצרים כי הוה שלמא שלח ליה שמעון בן שטח מני ירושלים עיר הקודש לך אלכסנדריא של מצרים אחותי בעלי שרוי בתוכך ואני יושבת שוממה אמר ש"מ הוה ליה שלמא,כי אתא אקלע לההוא אושפיזא קם קמייהו ביקרא שפיר עבדי ליה יקרא טובא יתיב וקא משתבח כמה נאה אכסניא זו א"ל (אחד מתלמידיו) רבי עיניה טרוטות א"ל רשע בכך אתה עוסק אפיק ארבע מאה שפורי ושמתיה כל יומא אתא לקמיה ולא קבליה,יומא חד הוה קרי קרית שמע אתא לקמיה הוה בדעתיה לקבוליה אחוי ליה בידיה סבר מדחא דחי ליה אזל זקף לבינתא פלחא אמר ליה חזור בך א"ל כך מקובלני ממך כל החוטא ומחטיא את הרבים אין מספיקין בידו לעשות תשובה דאמר מר [יש"ו] כישף והסית והדיח והחטיא את ישראל,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר יצר תינוק ואשה תהא שמאל דוחה וימין מקרבת, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big נמצא ההורג עד שלא נערפה העגלה תצא ותרעה בעדר משנערפה העגלה תקבר במקומה שעל ספק באתה מתחילתה כיפרה ספיקה והלכה לה נערפה העגלה ואחר כך נמצא ההורג הרי זה יהרג,עד אחד אומר ראיתי את ההורג ועד אחד אומר לא ראית אשה אומרת ראיתי ואשה אומרת לא ראית היו עורפין עד אחד אומר ראיתי ושנים אומרים לא ראית היו עורפין שנים אומרים ראינו ואחד אומר להן לא ראיתם לא היו עורפין,משרבו הרוצחנין בטלה עגלה ערופה משבא אליעזר בן דינאי ותחינה בן פרישה היה נקרא חזרו לקרותו בן הרצחן,משרבו המנאפים פסקו המים המרים ורבי יוחנן בן זכאי הפסיקן שנאמר (הושע ד, יד) לא אפקוד על בנותיכם כי תזנינה ועל כלותיכם כי תנאפנה כי הם וגו',משמת יוסי בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסי בן יהודה איש ירושלים בטלו האשכלות שנאמר (מיכה ז, א) אין אשכול לאכול בכורה אותה נפשי יוחנן כהן גדול העביר הודיית המעשר אף הוא בטל את המעוררין ואת הנוקפין 47a. b Rav and Shmuel /b had a dispute with regard to this episode. b One says /b there was b a miracle, and one says /b there b was a miracle within a miracle. /b The Gemara explains: b The one who says /b there was b a miracle /b claims that b there was /b already b a forest /b in that place but b there were no bears, /b and the miracle was the appearance of bears. b The one who says /b it was b a miracle within a miracle /b claims b that neither was there a forest nor were there bears /b in that area. The Gemara asks with regard to the second opinion: Why was a double miracle required? b And let there be bears and no forest; /b the forest served no role in the story, so why was it created? The Gemara explains: The forest was necessary, b as /b bears b are frightened /b to venture into open areas but will attack people in their natural habitat, a forest., b Rabbi Ḥanina says: Due to forty-two offerings that Balak, king of Moab, brought /b when he tried to have Balaam curse the Jewish people, b forty-two children were broken off from Israel, /b in that incident involving Elisha. The Gemara asks: b Is that so? /b Was that the reward for his offerings?, b But didn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Rav says: A person should always engage in Torah /b study b and /b in performance of b mitzvot, even /b if he does so b not for their own sake, as through /b such acts performed b not for their own sake, /b one will b come /b to perform them b for their own sake. /b He proves the value of a mitzva done not for its own sake: b As in reward for the forty-two offerings that Balak, king of Moab, brought, he merited that Ruth descended from him, from whom /b King b Solomon descended, about whom it is written /b that he brought many offerings: b “A thousand burnt-offerings did Solomon offer up” /b (I Kings 3:4). b And Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥoni /b similarly b says: Ruth was the daughter of Eglon, son of Balak. /b These Sages state that Balak’s reward was to have Ruth descend from him, not that a number of Jewish people perish. The Gemara answers: b His desire, in any event, was to curse /b the Jewish people, and his reward for sacrificing his offerings was that the curse was fulfilled in the incident involving Elisha, as well.,The Gemara returns to discussing the incident involving Elisha: b “And the men of the city said to Elisha: Behold, please, the situation of this city is pleasant, as my lord sees, /b but the water is bad and the land miscarries” (II Kings 2:19). The Gemara asks: b But if the water is bad and the land causes women to miscarry, what is pleasant /b about b it? Rabbi Ḥanin says: The grace of a place is upon its inhabitants, /b i.e., people are fond of their hometown despite its shortcomings. b Rabbi Yoḥa says: There are three graces /b that have a similar impact: b The grace of a place upon its inhabitants; the grace of a woman upon her husband, /b despite her faults; and b the grace of a purchased /b item b upon its buyer, /b as one who has bought something views it in a positive light.,§ b The Sages taught: Elisha fell ill three times. One /b was a punishment b for inciting /b the b bears to /b attack b the children; and one /b was a punishment b for pushing Gehazi /b away b with both hands, /b without leaving him the option to return; b and one /b was the sickness b from which he died, as /b an expression of illness b is stated /b three times in the verse about Elisha: b “And Elisha became sick [ i ḥala /i ] with his illness [ i ḥolyo /i ] from which he would die” /b (II Kings 13:14). The root i ḥet /i , i lamed /i , i heh /i , which indicates illness, is used twice in this verse, and it is stated once that Elisha will die., b The Sages taught: It should always be /b the b left, /b weaker, hand that b pushes /b another away b and /b the b right, /b stronger, hand that b draws /b him b near. /b In other words, even when a student is rebuffed, he should be given the opportunity to return. This is b not like Elisha, who pushed Gehazi /b away b with both hands, and not like Yehoshua ben Peraḥya, who pushed Jesus the Nazarene, /b one b of his students, /b away b with both hands. /b ,The Gemara specifies: b What was /b that incident with b Elisha? As it is written: “And Naaman said: Pray, take talents” /b (II Kings 5:23). Naaman offered Gehazi payment for the help Elisha had given him, b and /b when the verse recounts Elisha’s words to Gehazi, it b is written: “And he said to him: Did not my heart go, when the man turned back from his chariot to meet you? Is it a time to take money, and to take garments, and olives, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and servants, and maidservants?” /b (II Kings 5:26). Here Elisha criticizes Gehazi for taking the payment.,The Gemara clarifies the criticism: b And did he take all that? /b But b it was /b only b money and garments that he took. Rabbi Yitzḥak says: At that time, Elisha was engaged in /b the study of the topic of the b eight /b impure b creeping animals. He said /b to Gehazi: b Wicked one, it is time /b for you b to receive /b now, in this temporal world, b the reward /b for studying the topic of the b eight /b impure b creeping animals. /b This is why the verse lists eight items. The Gemara adds parenthetically that Elisha also said to Gehazi: b “And the leprosy of Naaman shall cleave to you and to your descendants forever” /b (II Kings 5:27), and that the verse later states: b “Now there were four leprous men” /b (II Kings 7:3), about whom b Rabbi Yoḥa says: This is /b referring to b Gehazi and his three sons. /b ,The verse states: b “And Elisha came to Damascus” /b (II Kings 8:7). The Gemara asks: b For what /b purpose did b he go /b there? b Rabbi Yoḥa says: He went to help Gehazi in repentance, but /b Gehazi b would not /b agree to b repent /b from his evil ways. Elisha b said to him: Return from your /b sins. Gehazi b said to him: This is /b the tradition that b I received from you: Whoever sins and caused the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What did /b Gehazi b do /b that caused the masses to sin? b There are /b those b who say /b that b he hung a magnetic rock on Jeroboam’s calf, /b the golden calf that Jeroboam established as an idol, and used a magnet to pull the calf off the ground so that b he suspended it between heaven and earth, /b i.e., caused it to hover above the ground. This seemingly miraculous occurrence caused the people to worship it even more devoutly. b And there are /b those b who say: He engraved /b the sacred b name on its mouth, and it would say: “I am /b the Lord your God” b and: “You shall not have /b other gods” (Exodus 20:2). The idol would quote the two prohibitions from the Ten Commandments against idol worship, causing people to worship it even more devoutly., b And there are /b those b who say: /b Gehazi b pushed the Sages /b away b from /b coming b before him, /b preventing them learning from Elisha, b as it is written, /b after the aforementioned incident: b “And the sons of the prophets said to Elisha, behold this place where we are staying before you is too cramped for us” /b (II Kings 6:1). This proves b by inference that until that time /b the place b was not cramped, /b as Gehazi would turn people away.,The Gemara returns to the incident in which b Yehoshua ben Peraḥya /b turned away Jesus the Nazarene: b What is /b this incident? b When King Yannai was killing the Sages, Shimon ben Shataḥ was hidden by his sister, /b Yannai’s wife, while b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya went /b and b fled to Alexandria of Egypt. When peace was made /b between Yannai and the Sages, b Shimon ben Shataḥ sent him /b the following letter: b From myself, Jerusalem the holy city, to you, Alexandria of Egypt. My sister, my husband dwells within you, and I am sitting desolate. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya b said: /b I can b learn from it that there is peace, /b and I can return., b When he came /b back to Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yehoshua b arrived at a certain inn. /b The innkeeper b stood before him, honoring him considerably, /b and overall b they accorded him great honor. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya then b sat and was praising /b them by saying: b How beautiful is this inn. Jesus the Nazarene, /b one of his students, b said to him: My teacher, /b but the b eyes /b of the innkeeper’s wife b are narrow [ i terutot /i ]. /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya b said to him: Wicked one, is this what you are engaged in, /b gazing at women? b He brought out four hundred i shofarot /i and excommunicated him. Every day /b Jesus b would come before him, but he would not accept his /b wish to return., b One day, /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya b was reciting i Shema /i /b when Jesus b came before him. He intended to accept him /b on this occasion, so b he signaled to him with his hand /b to wait. Jesus b thought he was rejecting him /b entirely. He therefore b went and stood up a brick /b and b worshipped it /b as an idol. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Peraḥya b said to him: Return from your /b sins. Jesus b said to him: This is /b the tradition that b I received from you: Anyone who sins and causes the masses to sin is not given the opportunity to repent. /b The Gemara explains how he caused the masses to sin: b For the Master said: Jesus the Nazarene performed sorcery, and he incited /b the masses, b and subverted /b the masses, b and caused the Jewish people to sin. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: /b With regard to the evil b inclination, /b to b a child, and /b to b a woman, the left /b hand b should reject and the right /b hand should b welcome. /b If one pushes too forcefully, the damage might be irreversible., strong MISHNA: /strong b If the killer is found before the heifer’s neck was broken, /b the heifer b shall go out and graze among the herd. /b It is not considered sacred at all, and it may rejoin the other animals. If the killer is found b from /b the time b when the heifer’s neck was broken, /b even if the rest of the ritual has not yet been performed, it is prohibited to benefit from the animal, despite the killer having been found; it b should be buried in its place. /b This is b because /b the heifer b initially came for uncertainty, /b as the killer was unknown, and b it atoned /b for b its uncertainty and left, /b i.e., it fulfilled its purpose of bringing atonement and is considered a heifer whose neck is broken in all regards. If b the heifer’s neck was broken and afterward the killer was found, he is killed. /b The ritual does not atone for him.,If b one witness says: I saw the killer, and one /b other b witness says: You did not see /b him; or if b a woman says: I saw, and /b another b woman says: You did not see, they would break the neck /b of the heifer, as without clear testimony about the identity of the killer the ritual is performed. Similarly, if b one witness says: I saw /b the killer, b and two /b witnesses b say: You did not see, they would break the neck /b of the heifer, as the pair is relied upon. If b two /b witnesses b say: We saw /b the killer, b and one /b witness b says to them: You did not see, they would not break the neck /b of the heifer, as there are two witnesses to the identity of the killer.,The mishna further states: b From /b the time b when murderers proliferated, the /b ritual of the b heifer whose neck is broken was nullified. /b The ritual was performed only when the identity of the murderer was completely unknown. Once there were many known murderers, the conditions for the performance of the ritual were no longer present, as the probable identity of the murderer was known. b From /b the time b when Eliezer ben Dinai, who was /b also b called Teḥina ben Perisha, came, they renamed him: Son of a murderer. /b This is an example of a publicly known murderer.,The mishna teaches a similar occurrence: b From /b the time b when adulterers proliferated, /b the performance of the ritual of b the bitter waters was nullified; /b they would not administer the bitter waters to the i sota /i . b And /b it was b Rabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai /b who b nullified it, as /b it b is stated: “I will not punish your daughters when they commit harlotry, nor your daughters-in-law when they commit adultery; for they /b consort with lewd women” (Hosea 4:14), meaning that when the husbands are adulterers, the wives are not punished for their own adultery., b From /b the time b when Yosei ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosei ben Yehuda of Jerusalem died, the clusters ceased, /b i.e., they were the last of the clusters, as explained in the Gemara, b as /b it b is stated: “There is no cluster to eat; nor first-ripe fig that my soul desires” /b (Micah 7:1). The mishna continues in the same vein: b Yoḥa the High Priest took away the declaration of the tithe. /b After his time, no one recited the passage about the elimination of tithes that had previously been said at the end of a three-year tithing cycle. b He also nullified /b the actions of b the awakeners and the strikers /b at the Temple.
94. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lorberbaum (2015), In God's Image: Myth, Theology, and Law in Classical Judaism, 264
55a. ואמר ר' יוחנן לידע שהוקבע ר"ח בזמנו תרי היכירא עבדינן דחזי האי חזי וחזי בהאי חזי,מיתיבי דתני רבא בר שמואל יכול כשם שתוקעין על שבת בפני עצמו ועל ראש חדש בפני עצמו כך יהיו תוקעין על כל מוסף ומוסף ת"ל (במדבר י, י) ובראשי חדשיכם תיובתא דרבי אחא תיובתא,מאי תלמודא אמר אביי אמר קרא ובראשי חדשיכם הוקשו כל חדשים כולם זה לזה רב אשי אמר כתיב חדשכם וכתיב ובראשי ואיזה חדש שיש לו שני ראשים הוי אומר זה ר"ה ואמר רחמנא חדשכם חד היא,ועוד תניא בחולו של מועד בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' בני אלים בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים נ, טז) ולרשע אמר אלהים בשלישי מה היו אומרים (תהלים צד, טז) מי יקום לי עם מרעים,ברביעי מה היו אומרים (תהלים צד, ח) בינו בוערים בעם בחמישי מה היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ז) הסירותי מסבל שכמו בששי מה היו אומרים (תהלים פב, ה) ימוטו כל מוסדי ארץ ואם חל שבת באחד מהם ימוטו ידחה,רב ספרא מנח בהו סימנא הומבה"י רב פפא מנח בהו סמנא הומהב"י וסימנך אמבוהא דספרי,תיובתא דר' אחא בר חנינא תיובתא והא ר' אחא בר חנינא קרא ומתניתא קאמר,אמר רבינא לומר שמאריכין בתקיעות רבנן דקיסרי משמיה דר' אחא אמרי לומר שמרבה בתוקעין,ואנן דאית לן תרי יומי היכי עבדינן אביי אמר שני ידחה,רבא אמר שביעי ידחה תניא כותיה דרבא אם חל שבת להיות באחד מהן ימוטו ידחה,אתקין אמימר בנהרדעא דמדלגי דלוגי: 55a. b And Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b Why was it placed in this manner? It was as an indicator for the people b to know that the New Moon was established at its /b proper b time, /b after the twenty-ninth day of the previous month. The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as b they implemented two indicators: /b One b who saw this /b one, i.e., the sequence of the songs, b saw /b it; b and /b one who b saw that /b one, i.e., where the fats were placed, b saw /b it, and there is no contradiction.,The Gemara b raises /b another b objection /b to the opinion of Rabbi Aḥa, b as Rava bar Shmuel taught /b this i baraita /i : I b might /b have thought b that just as /b when Shabbat and the New Moon do not coincide b they sound /b the trumpets b for /b the additional b Shabbat /b offering b in and of itself, and for the /b additional b New Moon /b offering b in and of itself, so too would they sound /b the trumpets b for each and every additional offering /b when the days coincide. Therefore, b the verse states: /b “And on the day of your rejoicing, and at your appointed times, b and on your New Moons, /b and you shall sound the trumpets for your burnt-offerings and your peace-offerings, and they will be a memorial for you before your God. I am the Lord your God” (Numbers 10:10), indicating that one blast is sounded for all. The Gemara suggests: This is b a conclusive refutation /b of the opinion b of Rabbi Aḥa. /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is b a conclusive refutation. /b ,Since the i baraita /i was cited, the Gemara asks: b What is the derivation /b cited in this i baraita /i ? How does the phrase: And on your New Moons, prove that the trumpets are sounded once for all the additional offerings? b Abaye said: The verse states: “And on your New Moons,” /b in plural, indicating that b all the months are equated to each other, /b and just as on a typical New Moon the trumpets are sounded once for the additional offering, so too when Shabbat and the New Moon coincide the trumpets are sounded once and no more. b Rav Ashi said /b that in this verse b it is written: Your moon [ i ḥodshekhem /i ], /b without a i yod /i , in the singular, b and /b in the same verse b it is written: “And on /b your b new [ i uverashei /i ],” /b in the plural. b And which /b is the b month that has two new /b beginnings? b You must say it is Rosh HaShana, /b which is the beginning of both the new year and the new month. b And /b yet b the Merciful One says: Your moon, /b in the singular, indicating b it is one /b and the trumpets are sounded once., b And furthermore, /b contrary to the statement of Rabbi Aḥa, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On the intermediate days of the Festival, on the first /b day, b what would they say /b as the song accompanying the offering on that day? b “Ascribe [ i havu /i ] unto the Lord, O you sons of might” /b (Psalms 29:1). b On the second /b day, b what would they say? /b The psalm that contains the verse: b “But unto the wicked [ i velarasha /i ] God says: /b What have you to do to declare My statutes?” (Psalms 50:16). b On the third /b day, b what would they say? /b The psalm containing the verse: b “Who [ i mi /i ] will rise up for me against the evildoers?” /b (Psalms 94:16)., b On the fourth /b day, b what would they say? “Consider [ i binu /i ], you brutish among the people” /b (Psalms 94:8). b On the fifth /b day, b what would they say? “I removed [ i hasiroti /i ] his shoulder from the burden” /b (Psalms 81:7). b On the sixth /b day, b what would they say? “All the foundations of the earth are moved [ i yimotu /i ]” /b (Psalms 82:5). b And if Shabbat occurred on any /b of the intermediate days of the Festival, since Shabbat has its own song (Psalms 92), the last of the songs of the intermediate days, i.e., “All the foundations of the earth b are moved,” is superseded, /b and all the other songs are recited in their proper sequence., b Rav Safra established a mnemonic for /b the sequence of the psalms recited during the intermediate days of the Festival: b i Heh /i , i vav /i , i mem /i , i beit /i , i heh /i , i yod /i , /b the first letters of the transliterated word in the verses cited. b Rav Pappa established a /b different b mnemonic for /b a different sequence of the Psalms: b i Heh /i , i vav /i , i mem /i , i heh /i , i beit /i , i yod /i , /b as in his opinion, the psalm containing: “I removed” is recited before the psalm containing: “Consider.” The Gemara notes: b A mnemonic /b to identify which i amora /i established which mnemonic is the expression: b Convoy [ i ambuha /i ] of scribes [ i desafrei /i ], /b as the spelling of i ambuha /i is like the mnemonic of Rav Safra.,The Gemara concludes: This i baraita /i is b a conclusive refutation /b of the opinion b of Rabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina, /b as on Shabbat the song for Shabbat was recited alone without the song for the Festival, and similarly, separate trumpet blasts are not sounded for the various additional offerings. Rabbi Aḥa’s opinion was rejected based on several sources. The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Rabbi Aḥa say a verse and a i baraita /i /b in support of his opinion? How can those citations be rejected?, b Ravina said: /b The verse and the i baraita /i that he cited do not teach that trumpet blasts were sounded for each additional offering. Rather, they come b to say that one extends /b the duration b of the blasts /b to honor the added additional offerings, but does not sound even one additional blast. b The Sages of Caesarea, in the name of Rabbi Aḥa, said: /b The verse and the i baraita /i cited by Rabbi Aḥa come b to say that one increases /b the number of b trumpeters /b to honor the added additional offerings, but not the number of blasts sounded.,Apropos the psalms recited during the Festival, the Gemara asks: b And we, /b outside Eretz Yisrael, b who have two days /b of Festival due to the uncertainty, as well as uncertainty with regard to each of the intermediate days, b how do we conduct /b ourselves with regard to the mention of the additional offerings in the additional prayer of the Festival during the intermediate days, and with regard to Torah reading on those days? b Abaye said: /b Mention of b the second /b day b will be superseded. /b Since the first of the intermediate days outside Eretz Yisrael is the third day of the Festival in Eretz Yisrael, the additional offering for the third day alone is mentioned, and the offerings for the fourth day on the fourth day, etc. No mention is made of the second day outside Eretz Yisrael., b Rava said: /b Mention of the b seventh /b day b will be superseded. /b On the first of the intermediate days outside Eretz Yisrael, the third day of the Festival, the passage beginning “And on the second day” (Numbers 29:17) is mentioned in the additional i Amida /i prayer and read in the Torah, and on each succeeding day the succeeding passage is mentioned and read. There is no mention of the seventh day on the eighth day, as that is no longer i Sukkot /i but rather the Eighth Day of Assembly. The Gemara notes: A i baraita /i b was taught in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rava: And if Shabbat occurs on any /b of the intermediate days of the Festival, the song of the seventh day of i Sukkot /i : “All the foundations of the earth b are moved,” is superseded. /b ,The Gemara cites a third opinion: b Ameimar instituted in /b his city of b Neharde’a that /b during the intermediate days, b one repeats /b the second of the additional offerings that he mentioned the day before and adds the additional offerings of the subsequent day. On the first of the intermediate days in the Diaspora, one mentions the additional offerings of both the second and third days of i Sukkot /i . On the second of the intermediate days, one repeats the verses of the third day of i Sukkot /i and adds the verses of the fourth day.
95. Babylonian Talmud, Tamid, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ashmedai (asmodeus), portrayal of, as a holy man, in the babylonian talmud Found in books: Kalmin (2014), Migrating tales: the Talmud's narratives and their historical context, 210
96. Porphyry, Fragments, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 35
97. Porphyry, Fragments, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 35
98. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 14.4 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 69
14.4. בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וגו', הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (קהלת יב, יא): דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, תָּנֵי מַעֲשֶׂה בְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן בְּרוֹקָא וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר חִסְמָא שֶׁהָלְכוּ לְהַקְבִּיל אֶת פְּנֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּפְקִיעִים, אָמַר לָהֶם מָה חִדּוּשׁ הָיָה בְּבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ הַיּוֹם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידֶיךָ אָנוּ וּמֵימֶיךָ אָנוּ שׁוֹתִים. אָמַר לָהֶם אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבֵית הַמִּדְרָשׁ בְּלֹא חִדּוּשׁ, שַׁבָּת שֶׁל מִי הָיְתָה, שַׁבָּת שֶׁל רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה הָיְתָה, וּבַמֶּה הָיְתָה הַגָּדָה הַיּוֹם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ בְּפָרָשַׁת הַקְהֵל, וּמַה דָּרַשׁ בָּהּ (דברים לא, יב): הַקְהֵל אֶת הָעָם הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַטַּף, אִם אֲנָשִׁים בָּאִים לִלְמֹד וְנָשִׁים בָּאוֹת לִשְׁמֹעַ, טַף לָמָּה, כְּדֵי לְקַבֵּל שָׂכָר לִמְבִיאֵיהֶם. אָמַר לָהֶם מַרְגָּלִית טוֹבָה הָיְתָה בְּיֶדְכֶם וּבִקַּשְׁתֶּם לְאַבְּדָהּ מִמֶּנִּי. וְעוֹד דָּרַשׁ בָּהּ (דברים כו, יז יח): אֶת ה' הֶאֱמַרְתָּ הַיּוֹם וגו' וַה' הֶאֱמִירְךָ הַיּוֹם וגו', אָמַר לָהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם עֲשִׂיתוּנִי חֲטִיבָה בָּעוֹלָם, דִּכְתִיב (דברים ו, ד): שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ ה' אֶחָד, וַאֲנִי אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶתְכֶם חֲטִיבָה בָּעוֹלָם, (שמואל ב ז, כג): וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ. וְאַף הוּא פָּתַח וְדָרַשׁ: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה כַּדָּרְבָן, לוֹמַר לָךְ מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לִתְלָמֶיהָ לְהָבִיא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מְכַוְּנִין לֵב לוֹמְדֵיהֶן מִדַּרְכֵי מִיתָה לְדַרְכֵי חַיִּים. אִי מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מִטַּלְטֵל אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מִטַּלְטְלִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים. אִי מַה מַּסְמֵר זֶה חָסֵר וְלֹא יָתֵר, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה חֲסֵרִים וְלֹא יְתֵרִים, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: נְטוּעִים, מַה נְּטִיעָה זוֹ פָּרָה וְרָבָה, אַף דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה פָּרִים וְרָבִים. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵלּוּ תַּלְמִידֵי חֲכָמִים שֶׁיּוֹשְׁבִין אֲסֻפּוֹת אֲסֻפּוֹת וְעוֹסְקִין בַּתּוֹרָה, הַלָּלוּ מְטַמְאִין וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַהֲרִין, הַלָּלוּ אוֹסְרִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַתִּירִין, הַלָּלוּ פּוֹסְלִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַכְשִׁירִין, שֶׁמָּא יֹאמַר אָדָם הוֹאִיל וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַמְאִין וְהַלָּלוּ מְטַהֲרִין, הַלָּלוּ אוֹסְרִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַתִּירִין, הַלָּלוּ פּוֹסְלִין וְהַלָּלוּ מַכְשִׁירִין, הֵיאַךְ אֲנִי לוֹמֵד תּוֹרָה מֵעַתָּה, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, אֵל אֶחָד נְתָנָן, פַּרְנָס אֶחָד אֲמָרָן, מִפִּי אֲדוֹן כָּל הַמַּעֲשִׂים בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, א): וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת כָּל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה, אַף אַתָּה עֲשֵׂה אָזְנְךָ כַּאֲפַרְכֶּסֶת וּקְנֵה לְךָ לֵב שׁוֹמֵעַ אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמְטַמְּאִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמְטַהֲרִין, אֶת דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין, אֶת דִּבְרֵי הַפּוֹסְלִין וְאֶת דִּבְרֵי הַמַּכְשִׁירִין, בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה אָמַר לָהֶם אֵין דּוֹר יָתוֹם שֶׁרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה שָׁרוּי בְּתוֹכוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא בַּר אַבָּא מַה הַדָּרְבָן הַזֶּה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לַחֲרשׁ בַּתֶּלֶם שֶׁלָּהּ, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים מְכַוְּנִים אֶת הָאָדָם הַזֶּה לִדְרָכָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא הַמִּשְׁנָה קָרְאָה אוֹתוֹ מַרְדֵּעַ, וְהַמִּקְרָא קָרָא אוֹתוֹ דָּרְבָן וּמַלְמָד, דִּכְתִיב (שופטים ג, לא): בְּמַלְמַד הַבָּקָר, וְכֵן (שמואל א יג, כא): וּלְהַצִּיב הַדָּרְבָן. אָמַר רַבִּי נָתָן לָמָּה נִקְרָא מַרְדֵּעַ, שֶׁמּוֹרֶה דֵעָה בַּפָּרָה, לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ דָּרְבָן, שֶׁדָּר בִּינָה בַּפָּרָה, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא מַלְמַד, שֶׁמְלַמֵּד אֶת הַפָּרָה לַחֲרשׁ בַּתֶּלֶם שֶׁלָּהּ, כָּךְ הֵם דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, דָּרִים בִּינָה בִּבְנֵי אָדָם וּמוֹרִים דֵּעָה בָּהֶם וּמְלַמְּדִים אוֹתָם דְּרָכָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, נְטוּעִים הֵם בָּאָדָם כְּשֶׁהוּא מְשַׁמְּרָם, וְלָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ בַּנְּטִיעָה, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁשָּׁרָשָׁיו שֶׁל אִילָן מִשְׁתָּרְשִׁים לְכָל מָקוֹם, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים נִכְנָסִים וּמִשְׁתָּרְשִׁים בְּכָל הַגּוּף. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵימָתַי הֵם כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים בָּאָדָם, בִּזְמַן שֶׁבַּעַל תּוֹרָה נִכְנַס לְתַלְמוּד וְהֵם נֶאֱסָפִים לִשְׁמֹעַ. נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן מְבָרֵךְ יוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל חַג בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה ה' אֱלֹהֵינוּ מֶלֶךְ הָעוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת לוּלָב, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים עַל מִצְוַת הַזְּקֵנִים. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מְבָרֵךְ כָּל יוֹם עַל נְטִילַת לוּלָב, וְאֵין רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ מוֹדֶה לְרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן שֶׁיּוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן דְּבַר תּוֹרָה הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כג, מ): וּלְקַחְתֶּם לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן וגו', וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַיָּמִים מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם הֵם, אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן חֲלַפְתָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא סָבַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן, וּמַה טַּעַם עֲבַד כֵּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּתוּב: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וגו' נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה וְדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים מֵרוֹעֶה אֶחָד נִתְּנוּ. (קהלת יב, יב): וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהָר, יוֹתֵר מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה הֱוֵי זָהִיר בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים א, ב): כִּי טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן, טוֹבִים דִּבְרֵי דּוֹדִים מִיֵּינָהּ שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, לָמָּה, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מוֹרֶה כָּרָאוּי מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא סְתוּמָה, וְכֻלָּהּ סִימָנִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לא, יט): וְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימָה בְּפִיהֶם, סִימָנִין בְּפִיהֶם, אֲבָל מִתּוֹךְ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים אָדָם מוֹרֶה כָּרָאוּי מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם פּוֹרְשִׁים אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וּלְכָךְ נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן מְדַיְּרִין בִּינָה בִּבְנֵי אָדָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, אָמַר רַבִּי אַבָּא סַדְרוֹנַנְיָא אִם יֹאמַר לְךָ אָדָם לָמָּה לֹא נִתְּנוּ בִּכְתַב דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּשֵׁם שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, אֱמֹר לוֹ לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִכְתֹּב כָּל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, מַהוּ מֵהֵמָּה, מַה נִּכְנְסָה בָּךָ אִם בָּאתָ לִכְתֹּב דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, לָמָּה, שֶׁאִלּוּ בָּאתָ לִכְתֹּב דִּבְרֵיהֶם אֵין קֵץ וְסוֹף לַדְּבָרִים לַעֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ, אֲבָל מַה יֵּשׁ לוֹ לָאָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת, שֶׁיְהֵא מְיַגֵּעַ בְּשָׂרוֹ הַרְבֵּה לַהְגּוֹת דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה, אִם יָגַעְתָּ הַרְבֵּה בְּדִבְרֵיהֶם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מֵסִיר יֵצֶר הָרָע מִמְּךָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: בָּשָׂר, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (יחזקאל לו, כו): וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, אִם יָגַעְתָּ הַרְבֵּה בְּלַהַג דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְבַשֶֹּׂרְךָ בְּשׂוֹרוֹת טוֹבוֹת, הֱוֵי: בָּשָׂר. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם יָגַעְתָּ בְּדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים אַתָּה נַעֲשָׂה בָּשָׂר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב בָּשָׂר, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (משלי ח, טז): בִּי שָׂרִים יָשׂרוּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַכֹּהֵן כַּדּוּר שֶׁל בָּנוֹת, כַּהֲדָא סְפַיְרָה שֶׁל תִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁהֵן מְלַקְטוֹת וְזוֹרְקוֹת לְכָאן וּלְכָאן, כָּךְ הֵם דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים, זֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ, יָכוֹל מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה אוֹמֵר טַעַם אֶחָד וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעַם שֵׁנִי, שֶׁמָּא דִבְרֵיהֶם פּוֹרְחִים הֵם, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (קהלת יב, יא): וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, לֹא אָמַר וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת קְבוּעִים, אֶלָּא נְטוּעִים, לָמָּה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָשָׂה אוֹתָם כְּמַסְמְרוֹת, וְהַמַּסְמֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שׁוֹשַׁנָּה נוֹחַ לִשְׁלוֹף, לְכָךְ אָמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, שָׁרָשִׁין שֶׁל אִילָן הַנְּטוּעִים קָשִׁים לֵעָקֵר, וְלָמָּה נִמְשְׁלוּ דִּבְרֵיהֶם כַּמַּסְמֵר, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּסְמֵר שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שׁוֹשַׁנָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשֶׁה, נוֹחַ הוּא לֵעָקֵר, וְשָׁרָשִׁים שֶׁל אִילָן הַנְּטוּעִים אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּשִׁים לֵעָקֵר, אֲבָל אֵין בָּהֶם כֹּחַ כְּכֹחוֹ שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, נִתַּן לְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה כֹּחַ שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל וּכְמַטָּעֵי שָׁרָשָׁיו שֶׁל אִילָן. אָמַר רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הַכֹּהֵן בְּרַבִּי אָנוּ קוֹרְאִין מַסְמֵרוֹת, וְאֵין כְּתִיב אֶלָּא מַשְׂמְרוֹת, מַה מִּשְׁמָרוֹת כְּהֻנָּה וּלְוִיָּה עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, אַף סְפָרִים עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, הֵקִישׁ דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְדִבְרֵי תוֹרָה שֶׁהֵן אֲמִתִּים כְּמוֹתָם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת, מַשְׂמְרוֹת כְּתִיב, מַה מִּשְׁמָרוֹת עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה, אַף הַמַּשְׂמֵרִין עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה. בָּעֵי כַּמָּה מַסְמֵרִין יִהְיוּ בּוֹ בַּסַּנְדָּל, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר חֲמִשָּׁה כְּנֶגֶד חֲמִשָּׁה סִפְרֵי תוֹרָה. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר שִׁבְעָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים לג, כה): בַּרְזֶל וּנְחשֶׁת מִנְעָלֶךָ וּכְיָמֶיךָ דָּבְאֶךָ. דָּרַשׁ רַב אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֲנִינָא תִּשְׁעָה. רַבִּי הָיָה נוֹתֵן אַחַד עָשָׂר עַל זֶה וּשְׁלשָׁה עָשָׂר עַל זֶה, מִנְיַן מִשְׁמָרוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, הַמַּסְמֵר הַזֶּה אַתְּ קוֹבְעוֹ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתַּחְזֹר וְתִטְלֶנּוּ מְקוֹמוֹ נִכָּר, כָּךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁפָּשְׁטוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים יָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָזְרוּ וְקִבְּלוּהוּ, סוֹפוֹ לִטֹּל שֶׁלּוֹ מִתַּחַת יְדֵיהֶם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה יוֹצְאִין מִפִּי בַּעֲלֵיהֶם כְּתִקֻּנָּן הֵם עֲרֵבִים לְשׁוֹמְעֵיהֶם. כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֵם יוֹצְאִים מְמֻסְמָסִים הֵם מָרוֹת לְשׁוֹמְעֵיהֶן, כְּמַשְׂמְרוֹת, כְּמַסְמָרוֹת. בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, אֵימָתַי הֵם נְטוּעִים דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה בָּאָדָם הַזֶּה, בִּזְּמַן שֶׁבַּעֲלֵיהֶן נֶאֱסָפִים מֵהֶן, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁרַבּוֹ קַיָּם הוּא הָיָה מַפְלִיג לוֹמַר כָּל זְמַן שֶׁנִּצְרַךְ הֲרֵי רַבִּי לְפָנַי וַאֲנִי שׁוֹאֲלוֹ, מֵת רַבּוֹ, הֲרֵי יָגֵעַ בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה לְקַיֵּם תַּלְמוּדוֹ, יוֹדֵעַ הוּא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ לְמִי לִשְׁאֹל, הֱוֵי אֵימָתַי הֵן נְטוּעִין בָּאָדָם הַזֶּה, בִּזְּמַן שֶׁבַּעֲלֵיהֶן נֶאֱסָפִים מֵהֶן. נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ וְזֶה אוֹמֵר טַעְמוֹ, דִּבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁל אֵלֶּה וְשֶׁל אֵלֶּה כֻּלָּם נִתְּנוּ מִן משֶׁה הָרוֹעֶה מַה שֶּׁקִּבֵּל מִיחִידוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם. דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, תָּנֵי מִנַּיִן אַתָּה אוֹמֵר שֶׁאִם שָׁמַע אָדָם דָּבָר מִפִּי קָטָן שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל יְהֵא בְּעֵינָיו כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חָכָם שֶׁבְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר (דברים יא, יג): וְהָיָה אִם שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל מִצְוֹתַי אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם הַיּוֹם, וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חָכָם אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חֲכָמִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, מַה דָּרְבָן זֶה מְכַוֵּן אֶת הַפָּרָה לִתְלָמֶיהָ לְהָבִיא חַיִּים לָעוֹלָם, כָּךְ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה מְכַוְּנִים דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם לָדַעַת אֶת הַמָּקוֹם, וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי חֲכָמִים אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי סַנְהֶדְּרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: בַּעֲלֵי אֲסֻפּוֹת, וְאֵין אֲסֻפּוֹת אֶלָּא סַנְהֶדְרִין, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר יא, טז): אֶסְפָה לִי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְלֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי סַנְהֶדְרִין אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי משֶׁה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, יא): וַיִּזְכֹּר יְמֵי עוֹלָם משֶׁה עַמּוֹ. וְאוֹמֵר (שמות ג, א): וּמשֶׁה הָיָה רֹעֶה, לֹא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי משֶׁה אֶלָּא כְּשׁוֹמֵעַ מִפִּי הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: נִתְּנוּ מֵרֹעֶה אֶחָד, (תהלים פ, ב): רֹעֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל הַאֲזִינָה. אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים ו, ד): ה' אֶחָד, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹמֵר (שיר השירים ז, ה): עֵינַיִךְ בְּרֵכוֹת בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַל שַׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק, עֵינַיִךְ, אֵלּוּ זְקֵנִים הַמִּתְמַנִּים עַל הַצִּבּוּר, וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר (ישעיה כט, י): כִּי נָסַךְ עֲלֵיכֶם ה' רוּחַ תַּרְדֵּמָה וַיְעַצֵּם אֶת עֵינֵיכֶם. בְּרֵכוֹת, מַה בְּרֵכָה זוֹ אֵין אָדָם יוֹדֵעַ מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, כָּךְ אֵין אָדָם עוֹמֵד עַל דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן, שֶׁנִּגְמָרִים בְּעֵצָה וּמַחְשָׁבָה, וְהֵיכָן נִגְמָרִים בְּבָתֵּי מִדְרָשׁוֹת עַל שַׁעַר בַּת רַבִּים, אַפֵּךְ כְּמִגְדַּל הַלְּבָנוֹן צוֹפֶה פְּנֵי דַמָּשֶׂק, עֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת הַתּוֹרָה קַוּוּ לְאֵלִיָּהוּ, שֶׁאָמַרְתִּי לוֹ (מלכים א יט, טו): שׁוּב לְדַרְכְּךָ מִדְבַּרָה דַמָּשֶׂק, וְאוֹמֵר (מלאכי ג, כב כג): זִכְרוּ תּוֹרַת משֶׁה עַבְדִּי וגו' הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחַ לָכֶם אֶת אֵלִיָּה הַנָּבִיא וגו'. וְיֹתֵר מֵהֵמָּה בְּנִי הִזָּהֵר, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה סְפָרִים כָּתַבְתִּי לְךָ הִזָּהֵר וְאַל תּוֹסֶף עֲלֵיהֶם, לָמָּה, עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה אֵין קֵץ, כָּל מִי שֶׁקּוֹרֵא פָּסוּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה סְפָרִים כְּאִלּוּ קוֹרֵא בַּסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים, הֱוֵי: הִזָּהֵר עֲשׂוֹת סְפָרִים הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אֵין קֵץ, כְּמָה דְתֵימָא (דניאל יב, יג): וְאַתָּה לֵךְ לַקֵּץ, הֲרֵי לְךָ הַמּוֹסִיף סֵפֶר מַהוּ עָנְשׁוֹ, וּמִנַּיִן שֶׁאַף הַהוֹגֶה מִתְיַגֵּעַ בָּהֶן, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר וְלַהַג הַרְבֵּה יְגִעַת בָּשָׂר, שֶׁאֵין בְּשָׂרוֹ נִנְעֶרֶת מִן עֲפָרָהּ, כְּהַהִיא דִתְנֵינַן וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא וְהַקּוֹרֵא בַּסְּפָרִים הַחִיצוֹנִים. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת וּכְמַשְׂמְרוֹת נְטוּעִים, מַה הַמַּסְמֵר הַזֶּה הַנָּטוּעַ בַּדֶּלֶת הוּא מְקַיֵּם הַדַּפִּין, כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהַצַּדִּיקִים גּוֹזְרִים הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵיהֶם, תֵּדַע לְךָ מִיַּעֲקֹב, בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם עָשָׂה אֶת הַקָּטָן קֹדֶם לַגָּדוֹל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מח, כ): וַיָּשֶׂם אֶת אֶפְרַיִם לִפְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה, וְקִיֵּם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא גְּזֵרָתוֹ, וְעָלָיו נֶאֱמַר: דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת, אַל תִּקְרֵי כַּדָּרְבֹנוֹת אֶלָּא כִּדְרַבָּנוּת, כְּשֶׁיַּעֲקֹב גָּזַר שֶׁתְּהֵא הָרַבָּנוּת לְאֶפְרַיִם קִיֵּם הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא דְּבָרוֹ כְּמַסְמֵר הַנָּטוּעַ, וְאָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הוֹאִיל וְגָזַר יַעֲקֹב עַל אֶפְרַיִם שֶׁיְהֵא רִאשׁוֹן אַף אֲנִי אֲשִׂימֶנּוּ רִאשׁוֹן לְכָל דָּבָר, בַּשּׁוֹפְטִים וּבַדְּגָלִים וּבַמְּלָכִים וּבַקָּרְבָּנוֹת. בַּשּׁוֹפְטִים, יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, שֶׁהָיָה שׁוֹפֵט, (במדבר יג, ח): לְמַטֵּה אֶפְרָיִם הוֹשֵׁעַ בִּן נוּן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ גִּדְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹאָשׁ, שֶׁהוּא מִשֵּׁבֶט מְנַשֶּׁה. בַּדְּגָלִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (במדבר ב, יח): דֶּגֶל מַחֲנֵה אֶפְרַיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (במדבר ב, כ): וְעָלָיו מַטֵּה מְנַשֶּׁה. בַּמְּלָכִים, יָרָבְעָם בֶּן נְבָט הָיָה מִשֶּׁל אֶפְרָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֵהוּא בֶּן נִמְשִׁי מִשֶּׁל מְנַשֶּׁה, אַף קָרְבָּנוֹת הַנְּשִׂיאִים כְּשֶׁבָּאוּ לְהַקְרִיב, אֶפְרַיִם מַקְרִיב רִאשׁוֹן, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, וּמְנַשֶּׁה אַחֲרוֹן, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי. וְכֵן הוּא אוֹמֵר: בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי נָשִׂיא לִבְנֵי אֶפְרָיִם, וְאַחַר כָּךְ (במדבר ז, נד): בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי נָשִׂיא לִבְנֵי מְנַשֶּׁה, וְעָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר (איוב כב, כח): וְתִגְזַר אֹמֶר וְיָקָם לָךְ:
99. Marinus, Vita Proclus, 37 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 292
100. Libanius, Orations, 18.306 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 290
101. Didymus, In Genesim, 4.5-4.23 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy spirit, resting on man Found in books: Pomeroy (2021), Chrysostom as Exegete: Scholarly Traditions and Rhetorical Aims in the Homilies on Genesis, 128
102. Ambrose, Hexameron, 5.21.69 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 221
103. Proclus, Hymni, 7.1 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 409
104. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 7.8.2 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •manumission, havurot, holy havurah Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 238
105. Suidas Thessalius, Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 241
106. Strabo, Geography, 16.2.41-16.2.44  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 221
16.2.41. Jericho is a plain encompassed by a mountainous district, which slopes towards it somewhat in the manner of a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon (or palm plantation), which contains various other trees of the cultivated kind, and producing excellent fruit; but its chief production is the palm tree. It is 100 stadia in length; the whole is watered with streams, and filled with dwellings. Here also is a palace and the garden of the balsamum. The latter is a shrub with an aromatic smell, resembling the cytisus and the terminthus. Incisions are made in the bark, and vessels are placed beneath to receive the sap, which is like oily milk. After it is collected in vessels, it becomes solid. It is an excellent remedy for headache, incipient suffusion of the eyes, and dimness of sight. It bears therefore a high price, especially as it is produced in no other place. This is the case also with the Phoenicon, which alone contains the caryotes palm, if we except the Babylonian plain, and the country above it towards the east: a large revenue is derived from the palms and balsamum; xylobalsamum is also used as a perfume. 16.2.42. The Lake Sirbonis is of great extent. Some say that it is 1000 stadia in circumference. It stretches along the coast, to the distance of a little more than 200 stadia. It is deep, and the water is exceedingly heavy, so that no person can dive into it; if any one wades into it up to the waist, and attempts to move forward, he is immediately lifted out of the water It abounds with asphaltus, which rises, not however at any regular seasons, in bubbles, like boiling water, from the middle of the deepest part. The surface is convex, and presents the appearance of a hillock. Together with the asphaltus, there ascends a great quantity of sooty vapour, not perceptible to the eye, which tarnishes copper, silver, and everything bright — even gold. The neighbouring people know by the tarnishing of their vessels that the asphaltus is beginning to rise, and they prepare to collect it by means of rafts composed of reeds. The asphaltus is a clod of earth, liquefied by heat; the air forces it to the surface, where it spreads itself. It is again changed into so firm and solid a mass by cold water, such as the water of the lake, that it requires cutting or chopping (for use). It floats upon the water, which, as I have described, does not admit of diving or immersion, but lifts up the person who goes into it. Those who go on rafts for the asphaltus cut it in pieces, and take away as much as they are able to carry. 16.2.43. Such are the phenomena. But Posidonius says, that the people being addicted to magic, and practising incantations, (by these means) consolidate the asphaltus, pouring upon it urine and other fetid fluids, and then cut it into pieces. (Incantations cannot be the cause), but perhaps urine may have some peculiar power (in effecting the consolidation) in the same manner that chrysocolla is formed in the bladders of persons who labour under the disease of the stone, and in the urine of children.It is natural for these phenomena to take place in the middle of the lake, because the source of the fire is in the centre, and the greater part of the asphaltus comes from thence. The bubbling up, however, of the asphaltus is irregular, because the motion of fire, like that of many other vapours, has no order perceptible to observers. There are also phenomena of this kind at Apollonia in Epirus. 16.2.44. Many other proofs are produced to show that this country is full of fire. Near Moasada are to be seen rugged rocks, bearing the marks of fire; fissures in many places; a soil like ashes; pitch falling in drops from the rocks; rivers boiling up, and emitting a fetid odour to a great distance; dwellings in every direction overthrown; whence we are inclined to believe the common tradition of the natives, that thirteen cities once existed there, the capital of which was Sodom, but that a circuit of about 60 stadia around it escaped uninjured; shocks of earthquakes, however, eruptions of flames and hot springs, containing asphaltus and sulphur, caused the lake to burst its bounds, and the rocks took fire; some of the cities were swallowed up, others were abandoned by such of the inhabitants as were able to make their escape.But Eratosthenes asserts, on the contrary, that the country was once a lake, and that the greater part of it was uncovered by the water discharging itself through a breach, as was the case in Thessaly.
107. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Janowitz (2002), Magic in the Roman World: Pagans, Jews and Christians, 70
110. Vergil, Georgics, 2.118-2.119, 3.323-3.338, 4.109  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, •charles iv, holy roman emperor Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 221; Rohland (2022), Carpe Diem: The Poetics of Presence in Greek and Latin Literature, 187
2.118. Quid tibi odorato referam sudantia ligno 2.119. balsamaque et bacas semper frondentis acanthi? 3.323. in saltus utrumque gregem atque in pascua mittet, 3.324. Luciferi primo cum sidere frigida rura 3.325. carpamus, dum mane novum, dum gramina canent, 3.326. et ros in tenera pecori gratissimus herba. 3.327. Inde ubi quarta sitim caeli collegerit hora 3.328. et cantu querulae rumpent arbusta cicadae, 3.329. ad puteos aut alta greges ad stagna iubebo 3.330. currentem ilignis potare canalibus undam; 3.331. aestibus at mediis umbrosam exquirere vallem, 3.332. sicubi magna Iovis antiquo robore quercus 3.333. ingentis tendat ramos, aut sicubi nigrum 3.334. ilicibus crebris sacra nemus accubet umbra; 3.335. tum tenuis dare rursus aquas et pascere rursus 3.336. solis ad occasum, cum frigidus aera vesper 3.337. temperat et saltus reficit iam roscida luna 3.338. litoraque alcyonem resot, acalanthida dumi. 4.109. Invitent croceis halantes floribus horti
111. Anon., Kallah Rabbati Higge, 6.4  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 71
112. Anon., Ruthrabbah, 1.4  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 238
1.4. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ, עֲשָׂרָה רְעָבוֹן בָּאוּ לָעוֹלָם, אֶחָד בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יִצְחָק, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יַעֲקֹב, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי דָּוִד, וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, וְאֶחָד שֶׁמִּתְגַּלְגֵּל וּבָא לָעוֹלָם. אֶחָד בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ג, יז): אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית ה, כט): מִן הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרַרָה ה'. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית יב, י): וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יִצְחָק, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית כו, א): וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ מִלְּבַד הָרָעָב הָרִאשׁוֹן. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי יַעֲקֹב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית מה, ו): כִּי זֶה שְׁנָתַיִם הָרָעָב בְּקֶרֶב הָאָרֶץ. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים א יז, א): אִם יִהְיֶה הַשָּׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה טַל וּמָטָר. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב ו, כה): וַיְהִי רָעָב גָּדוֹל בְּשֹׁמְרוֹן. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי דָוִד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב כא, א): וַיְהִי רָעָב בִּימֵי דָוִד שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר: וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ. וְאֶחָד שֶׁמִּתְגַּלְגֵּל וּבָא לָעוֹלָם, דִּכְתִיב (עמוס ח, יא): וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ לֹא רָעָב לַלֶּחֶם וְלֹא צָמָא לַמַּיִם. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל עִקַּר אַוְותֶנְטִיָּיה שֶׁלָּהֶם הָיָה רָאוּי לָבוֹא בִּימֵי שָׁאוּל וְלֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לָבוֹא בִּימֵי דָוִד, וְעַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיָה שָׁאוּל גְּרוֹפִית שֶׁל שִׁקְמָה וְלֹא יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ, גִּלְגְלוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא וֶהֱבִיאוֹ אֵצֶל דָּוִד, שֶׁהוּא גְּרוֹפִית שֶׁל זַיִת וְהָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בּוֹ, מַתְלָא אָמַר שִׁילָה חֲטָא וְיוֹחָנָא מִשְׁתַּלְּמָא, כָּךְ כֻּלָּם לֹא בָאוּ בִּבְנֵי אָדָם שְׁפוּפִין אֶלָּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם גִּבּוֹרִים שֶׁהָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמֹד בָּהֶן. רַבִּי חִיָּא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן אֶלְעָזָר, לְזַגָּג שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּיָדוֹ קֻפָּה מְלֵאָה כּוֹסוֹת דְּיוֹטְרִיטוֹן, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָיָה מְבַקֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת קֻפָּתוֹ הָיָה מֵבִיא יָתֵד וְתוֹקְעָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ תּוֹלֶה קֻפָּתוֹ. כָּךְ כֻּלָּם לֹא בָאוּ בִּבְנֵי אָדָם שְׁפוּפִין אֶלָּא בִּבְנֵי אָדָם גִּבּוֹרִים. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה הֲוָה קָרֵי עֲלֵיהוֹן (ישעיה מ, כט): נֹתֵן לַיָּעֵף כֹּחַ. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ שְׁנַיִם בָּאוּ בִּימֵי אָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן. רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַב אַחָא אֶחָד בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם וְאֶחָד בִּימֵי לֶמֶךְ. רָעָב שֶׁהָיָה בִּימֵי אֵלִיָּהוּ שֶׁל בַּצֹרֶת הָיָה, שָׁנָה עָבְדַת שָׁנָה לָא עָבְדַת, אֲבָל רָעָב שֶׁבָּא בִּימֵי אֱלִישָׁע, שֶׁל מְהוּמָה הָיָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (מלכים ב ו, כה): עַד הֱיוֹת רֹאשׁ חֲמוֹר בִּשְׁמֹנִים כֶּסֶף. רָעָב שֶׁבָּא בִּימֵי שְׁפֹט הַשֹּׁפְטִים, רַבִּי הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי דוֹסָא אַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁתַּיִם סְאוֹת הָיוּ וְנַעֲשׂוּ אַרְבָּעִים וְאַחַת, וְהָא תָּנֵי לֹא יֵצֵא אָדָם לְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ סָאתַיִם לְקוּחוֹת בְּשֶׁקֶל, אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אֵימָתַי בִּזְּמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מוֹצֵא לִקַּח, אֲבָל מוֹצֵא לִקַּח אֲפִלּוּ סְאָה בְּשֶׁקֶל לֹא יֵצֵא יִשְׂרָאֵל חוּצָה לָאָרֶץ. וְהָא תַנְיָא בִּשְׁעַת הַדֶּבֶר בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה כְּנֹס הָרֶגֶל, וּבִשְׁעַת רְעָבוֹן פַּזֵּר הָרֶגֶל, לָמָּה נֶעֱנַשׁ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ, עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהִפִּיל לִבָּן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲלֵיהֶם, לְבוּלְיָטִין שֶׁהָיָה שָׁרוּי בִּמְדִינָה, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְדִינָה סְבוּרִין עָלָיו וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאִם יָבוֹאוּ שְׁנֵי בַּצֹּרֶת הוּא יָכוֹל לְסַפֵּק אֶת הַמְּדִינָה עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים מָזוֹן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּאת שְׁנַת בַּצֹּרֶת יָצְתָה לָהּ שִׁפְחָתוֹ מְעַיְּלַת בְּסִידְקִי וְקֻפָּתָהּ בְּיָדָהּ, וְהָיוּ בְּנֵי הַמְּדִינָה אוֹמְרִים, זֶהוּ שֶׁהָיִינוּ בְּטוּחִים עָלָיו שֶׁאִם תָּבוֹא בַּצֹּרֶת הוּא יָכוֹל לְפַרְנֵס אוֹתָנוּ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים, וַהֲרֵי שִׁפְחָתוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת בְּסִידְקִי וְקֻפָּתָהּ בְּיָדָהּ. כָּךְ אֱלִימֶלֶךְ הָיָה מִגְּדוֹלֵי הַמְּדִינָה וּמִפַּרְנָסֵי הַדּוֹר, וּכְשֶׁבָּאוּ שְׁנֵי רְעָבוֹן אָמַר עַכְשָׁיו כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל מְסַבְּבִין פִּתְחִי, זֶה בְּקֻפָּתוֹ וְזֶה בְּקֻפָּתוֹ, עָמַד וּבָרַח לוֹ מִפְּנֵיהֶם, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וַיֵּלֶךְ אִישׁ מִבֵּית לֶחֶם יְהוּדָה. 1.4. "Rabbi Yehuda the son of Rabbi Simon opened his sermon and said: \"\"And God said I will hide my face from them (Deuteronomy 32:20)\". This is analogous to a son of a king that went out into the market place and hit people, but he himself wasn't being hit, disgraced people, but himself wasn't being disgraced, and before anything would be done to him he went quickly to his father. His father said to him: \"Did you think that it was because if your own honor that you were being honored? You are only being honored because of me\". What did his father do to make him realize this? He turned his attention away from him, and no one cared about him anymore. In the same manner when Israel came out of Egypt all of the nations feared them, as it says: \"The nations heard they shook fear over took the dwellers of Philistia, the mighty ones of Edom were shocked. The mighty ones of Moab were overtaken with fright fear, and fright will fall upon them (Exodus 15:14-16)\". Since they sinned, the Holy One, blessed be He, said to them: \"What did you think that it was due to you that you were honored? You were only honored because of me\". What did the Holy One, blessed be He do? He stopped paying attention to them just a little bit and the Amalekites came and started fighting with them as it says: \"And the Amalekites came and fought with Israel in Rephidim (Exodus 17:8)\". And further the Canaanites came and fought with Israel, as it says : \"And the Canaanites heard (Numbers 21:1)\". The Holy One, blessed be He said: \"You do not have any real reliability, you do not believe your own words, you are switchers, as it says: \"For they are a treacherous breed, children with no loyalty (Deuteronomy 32:20)\". The verse actually says i 'amun /i (\"reliability) [with a missing vav, which has an identical spelling to i amen /i ] which hints to the fact that at the time that the prophets blessed them no one opened to say \"amen\" until Jeremiah said it: \"And I answered and said \"amen Hahsem\" (Jeremiah 11:5)\". At that time the Holy One, blessed be He, said: \"Your traders, they are burdensome, they are stubborn, I cannot obliterate them, I cannot bring them back to Egypt, I cannot exchange them for a different nation. [Rather what can I do with them? I will give them punishments and purify them with the famine, \" b in the days the judges judged /b \". See! This is what it says: \" b And it was in the times that the judges judged and there was a famine in the land /b \".]",
113. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 18  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 77
116. Barsanuphius And John, Questions Monastiques, 418, 492-498, 68, 499  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014), Saints and role models in Judaism and Christianity, 267
117. Marcellus, Quaestiones Convivales, 9.1  Tagged with subjects: •holy man Found in books: Blidstein (2017), Purity Community and Ritual in Early Christian Literature, 56
118. Papyri, P.Oxy., 11.11-11.12, 11.18, 11.34, 11.86, 11.89, 11.109-11.110  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Griffiths (1975), The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses, Book XI), 321
119. Pseudo-Hegesippus, Historiae, 1.1.8, 2.25.1, 4.17.1, 5.2.1, 5.9.1, 5.44.2  Tagged with subjects: •holy man, Found in books: Bay (2022), Biblical Heroes and Classical Culture in Christian Late Antiquity: The Historiography, Exemplarity, and Anti-Judaism of Pseudo-Hegesippus, 66, 221, 238