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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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44 results for "herodians"
1. Septuagint, Amos, 1.1.11-1.1.12, 9.11 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 128, 172
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 124, 125, 126, 128, 130, 184
49.10. "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.",
3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.12-7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 128
7.12. "כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃", 7.13. "הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 7.14. "אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃", 7.12. "And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.", 7.13. "He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever.", 7.14. "I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:",
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 24.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 126
24.7. "וַיֹּאמֶר לַאֲנָשָׁיו חָלִילָה לִּי מֵיהוָה אִם־אֶעֱשֶׂה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לַאדֹנִי לִמְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה לִשְׁלֹחַ יָדִי בּוֹ כִּי־מְשִׁיחַ יְהוָה הוּא׃", 24.7. "And he said to his men, The Lord forbid that I should do this thing to my master, the Lord’s anointed, to stretch forth my hand against him, seeing he is the anointed of the Lord.",
5. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 76-77, 82, 85, 88-91, 75 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 188, 196
75. Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes, in number something more than four thousand in my opinion, who derive their name from their piety, though not according to any accurate form of the Grecian dialect, because they are above all men devoted to the service of God, not sacrificing living animals, but studying rather to preserve their own minds in a state of holiness and purity.
6. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.1-11.3, 11.5, 11.7-11.9, 11.14-11.17 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188, 196, 197
7. New Testament, Titus, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 188
1.8. ἀλλὰ φιλόξενον, φιλάγαθον, σώφρονα, δίκαιον, ὅσιον, ἐγκρατῆ, ἀντεχόμενον τοῦ κατὰ τὴν διδαχὴν πιστοῦ λόγου, 1.8. but given to hospitality, as a lover of good, sober-minded, fair, holy, self-controlled;
8. New Testament, Matthew, 2.23, 13.33, 16.6, 16.12, 16.68, 22.15-22.16, 23.7, 23.23, 26.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in •herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 123, 172, 185, 197
2.23. καὶ ἐλθὼν κατῴκησεν εἰς πόλιν λεγομένην Ναζαρέτ, ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται. 13.33. Ἄλλην παραβολὴν [ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς]· Ὁμοία ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν ζύμῃ, ἣν λαβοῦσα γυνὴ ἐνέκρυψεν εἰς ἀλεύρου σάτα τρία ἕως οὗ ἐζυμώθη ὅλον. 16.6. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ὁρᾶτε καὶ προσέχετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων. 16.12. τότε συνῆκαν ὅτι οὐκ εἶπεν προσέχειν ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης [τῶν ἄρτων] ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ τῆς διδαχῆς τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ Σαδδουκαίων. 22.15. Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον ὅπως αὐτὸν παγιδεύσωσιν ἐν λόγῳ. 22.16. καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν λέγοντας Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις, καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός, οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων· 23.7. καὶ τοὺς ἀσπασμοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς καὶ καλεῖσθαι ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων Ῥαββεί. 23.23. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον καὶ τὸ ἄνηθον καὶ τὸ κύμινον, καὶ ἀφήκατε τὰ βαρύτερα τοῦ νόμου, τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὸ ἔλεος καὶ τὴν πίστιν· ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι κἀκεῖνα μὴ ἀφεῖναι. 26.71. ἐξελθόντα δὲ εἰς τὸν πυλῶνα εἶδεν αὐτὸν ἄλλη καὶ λέγει τοῖς ἐκεῖ 2.23. and came and lived in a city called Nazareth; that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophets: "He will be called a Nazarene." 13.33. He spoke another parable to them. "The Kingdom of Heaven is like yeast, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, until it was all leavened." 16.6. Jesus said to them, "Take heed and beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees." 16.12. Then they understood that he didn't tell them to beware of the yeast of bread, but of the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 22.15. Then the Pharisees went and took counsel how they might entrap him in his talk. 22.16. They sent their disciples to him, along with the Herodians, saying, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and teach the way of God in truth, no matter who you teach, for you aren't partial to anyone. 23.7. the salutations in the marketplaces, and to be called 'Rabbi, Rabbi' by men. 23.23. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 26.71. When he had gone out onto the porch, someone else saw him, and said to those who were there, "This man also was with Jesus of Nazareth."
9. New Testament, Mark, 1.21-1.31, 2.15-2.16, 2.18-2.28, 3.1-3.6, 3.19, 6.14-6.29, 7.1, 8.11, 8.15, 12.1, 12.10, 12.13-12.34, 12.43, 13.1-13.2, 14.43-14.47, 14.53-14.65, 15.1, 15.3, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 119, 120, 122, 123, 197
1.21. Καὶ εἰσπορεύονται εἰς Καφαρναούμ. Καὶ εὐθὺς τοῖς σάββασιν εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ἐδίδασκεν. 1.22. καὶ ἐξεπλήσσοντο ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ, ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς. 1.23. καὶ εὐθὺς ἦν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, καὶ ἀνέκραξεν 1.24. λέγων Τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; οἶδά σε τίς εἶ, ὁ ἅγιος τοῦ θεοῦ. 1.25. καὶ ἐπετίμησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς [λέγων] Φιμώθητι καὶ ἔξελθε ἐξ αὐτοῦ. 1.26. καὶ σπαράξαν αὐτὸν τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον καὶ φωνῆσαν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ἐξῆλθεν ἐξ αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἐθαμβήθησαν ἅπαντες, 1.27. ὥστε συνζητεῖν αὐτοὺς λέγοντας Τί ἐστιν τοῦτο; διδαχὴ καινή· κατʼ ἐξουσίαν καὶ τοῖς πνεύμασι τοῖς ἀκαθάρτοις ἐπιτάσσει, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ. 1.28. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἡ ἀκοὴ αὐτοῦ εὐθὺς πανταχοῦ εἰς ὅλην την περίχωρον τῆς Γαλιλαίας. 1.29. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς ἐξελθόντες ἦλθαν εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν Σίμωνος καὶ Ἀνδρέου μετὰ Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωάνου. 1.30. ἡ δὲ πενθερὰ Σίμωνος κατέκειτο πυρέσσουσα, καὶ εὐθὺς λέγουσιν αὐτῷ περὶ αὐτῆς. καὶ προσελθὼν ἤγειρεν αὐτὴν κρατήσας τῆς χειρός· 1.31. καὶ ἀφῆκεν αὐτὴν ὁ πυρετός, καὶ διηκόνει αὐτοῖς. 2.15. Καὶ γίνεται κατακεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ τελῶναι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ συνανέκειντο τῷ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, ἦσαν γὰρ πολλοὶ καὶ ἠκολούθουν αὐτῷ. 2.16. καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τῶν Φαρισαίων ἰδόντες ὅτι ἐσθίει μετὰ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ τελωνῶν ἔλεγον τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ Ὅτι μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίει; 2.18. Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ [μαθηταὶ] οὐ νηστεύουσιν; 2.19. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν νηστεύειν; ὅσον χρόνον ἔχουσιν τὸν νυμφίον μετʼ αὐτῶν οὐ δύνανται νηστεύειν· 2.20. ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. 2.21. οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπιράπτει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν· εἰ δὲ μή, αἴρει τὸ πλήρωμα ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ τὸ καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ, καὶ χεῖρον σχίσμα γίνεται. 2.22. καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μή, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἀπόλλυται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοί· [ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς.] 2.23. Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν διαπορεύεσθαι διὰ τῶν σπορίμων, καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας. 2.24. καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ Ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν; 2.25. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ; 2.26. [πῶς] εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς, καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν; 2.27. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον· 2.28. ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου. 3.1. Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα· 3.2. καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει αὐτόν, ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. 3.3. καὶ λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ τὴν χεῖρα ἔχοντι ξηράν Ἔγειρε εἰς τὸ μέσον. 3.4. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι; οἱ δὲ ἐσιώπων. 3.5. καὶ περιβλεψάμενος αὐτοὺς μετʼ ὀργῆς, συνλυπούμενος ἐπὶ τῇ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου· καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ. 3.6. Καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 3.19. καὶ Ἰούδαν Ἰσκαριώθ, ὃς καὶ παρέδωκεν αὐτόν. 6.14. Καὶ ἤκουσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης, φανερὸν γὰρ ἐγένετο τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἰὼάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐνεργοῦσιν αἱ δυνάμεις ἐν αὐτῷ· 6.15. ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἠλείας ἐστίν· ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι προφήτης ὡς εἷς τῶν προφητῶν. 6.16. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἔλεγεν Ὃν ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα Ἰωάνην, οὗτος ἠγέρθη. 6.17. Αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἀποστείλας ἐκράτησεν τὸν Ἰωάνην καὶ ἔδησεν αὐτὸν ἐν φυλακῇ διὰ Ἡρῳδιάδα τὴν γυναῖκα Φιλίππου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι αὐτὴν ἐγάμησεν· 6.18. ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὁ Ἰωάνης τῷ Ἡρῴδῃ ὅτι Οὐκ ἔξεστίν σοι ἔχειν τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου. 6.19. ἡ δὲ Ἡρῳδιὰς ἐνεῖχεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἤθελεν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνατο· 6.20. ὁ γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ἐφοβεῖτο τὸν Ἰωάνην, εἰδὼς αὐτὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον καὶ ἅγιον, καὶ συνετήρει αὐτόν, καὶ ἀκούσας αὐτοῦ πολλὰ ἠπόρει, καὶ ἡδέως αὐτοῦ ἤκουεν. 6.21. Καὶ γενομένης ἡμέρας εὐκαίρου ὅτε Ἡρῴδης τοῖς γενεσίοις αὐτοῦ δεῖπνον ἐποίησεν τοῖς μεγιστᾶσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῖς χιλιάρχοις καὶ τοῖς πρώτοις τῆς Γαλιλαίας, 6.22. καὶ εἰσελθούσης τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ἡρῳδιάδος καὶ ὀρχησαμένης, ἤρεσεν τῷ Ἡρῴδῃ καὶ τοῖς συνανακειμένοις. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς εἶπεν τῷ κορασίῳ Αἴτησόν με ὃ ἐὰν θέλῃς, καὶ δώσω σοι· 6.23. καὶ ὤμοσεν αὐτῇ Ὅτι ἐάν με αἰτήσῃς δώσω σοι ἕως ἡμίσους τῆς βασιλείας μου. 6.24. καὶ ἐξελθοῦσα εἶπεν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς Τί αἰτήσωμαι; ἡ δὲ εἶπεν Τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἰωάνου τοῦ βαπτίζοντος. 6.25. καὶ εἰσελθοῦσα εὐθὺς μετὰ σπουδῆς πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα ᾐτήσατο λέγουσα Θέλω ἵνα ἐξαυτῆς δῷς μοι ἐπὶ πίνακι τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἰωάνου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ. 6.26. καὶ περίλυπος γενόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς διὰ τοὺς ὅρκους καὶ τοὺς ἀνακειμένους οὐκ ἠθέλησεν ἀθετῆσαι αὐτήν· 6.27. καὶ εὐθὺς ἀποστείλας ὁ βασιλεὺς σπεκουλάτορα ἐπέταξεν ἐνέγκαι τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἀπεκεφάλισεν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ 6.28. καὶ ἤνεγκεν τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ πίνακι καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῷ κορασίῳ, καὶ τὸ κοράσιον ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς. 6.29. καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἦλθαν καὶ ἦραν τὸ πτῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔθηκαν αὐτὸ ἐν μνημείῳ. 7.1. Καὶ συνἄγονται πρὸς αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καί τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐλθόντες ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων 8.11. Καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ ἤρξαντο συνζητεῖν αὐτῷ, ζητοῦντες παρʼ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 8.15. καὶ διεστέλλετο αὐτοῖς λέγων Ὁρᾶτε, βλέπετε ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῆς ζύμης Ἡρῴδου. 12.1. Καὶ ἤρξατο αὐτοῖς ἐν παραβολαῖς λαλεῖν Ἀμπελῶνα ἄνθρωπος ἐφύτευσεν, καὶ περιέθηκεν φραγμὸν καὶ ὤρυξεν ὑπολήνιον καὶ ᾠκοδόμησεν πύργον, καὶ ἐξέδετο αὐτὸν γεωργοῖς, καὶ ἀπεδήμησεν. 12.10. Οὐδὲ τὴν γραφὴν ταύτην ἀνέγνωτε Λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας· 12.13. Καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν πρὸς αὐτόν τινας τῶν Φαρισαίων καὶ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν ἵνα αὐτὸν ἀγρεύσωσιν λόγῳ. 12.14. καὶ ἐλθόντες λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός, οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων, ἀλλʼ ἐπʼ ἀληθείας τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ θεοῦ διδάσκεις· ἔξεστιν δοῦναι κῆνσον Καίσαρι ἢ οὔ; δῶμεν ἢ μὴ δῶμεν; 12.15. ὁ δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὴν ὑπόκρισιν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί με πειράζετε; φέρετέ μοι δηνάριον ἵνα ἴδω. 12.16. οἱ δὲ ἤνεγκαν. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ ἡ ἐπιγραφή; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Καίσαρος. 12.17. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τῷ θεῷ. καὶ ἐξεθαύμαζον ἐπʼ αὐτῷ. 12.18. Καὶ ἔρχονται Σαδδουκαῖοι πρὸς αὐτόν, οἵτινες λέγουσιν ἀνάστασιν μὴ εἶναι, καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν λέγοντες 12.19. Διδάσκαλε, Μωυσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν ὅτι ἐάν τινος ἀδελφὸς ἀποθάνῃ καὶ καταλίπῃ γυναῖκα καὶ μὴ ἀφῇ τέκνον, ἵνα λάβῃ ὁ ἀδελφὸς αὐτοῦ τὴν γυναῖκα καὶ ἐξαναστήσῃ σπέρμα τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ. 12.20. ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοὶ ἦσαν· καὶ ὁ πρῶτος ἔλαβεν γυναῖκα, καὶ ἀποθνήσκων οὐκ ἀφῆκεν σπέρμα· 12.21. καὶ ὁ δεύτερος ἔλαβεν αὐτήν, καὶ ἀπέθανεν μὴ καταλιπὼν σπέρμα, καὶ ὁ τρίτος ὡσαύτως· 12.22. καὶ οἱ ἑπτὰ οὐκ ἀφῆκαν σπέρμα· ἔσχατον πάντων καὶ ἡ γυνὴ ἀπέθανεν. 12.23. ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τίνος αὐτῶν ἔσται γυνή; οἱ γὰρ ἑπτὰ ἔσχον αὐτὴν γυναῖκα. 12.24. ἔφη αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οὐ διὰ τοῦτο πλανᾶσθε μὴ εἰδότες τὰς γραφὰς μηδὲ τὴν δύναμιν τοῦ θεοῦ; 12.25. ὅταν γὰρ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῶσιν, οὔτε γαμοῦσιν οὔτε γαμίζονται, ἀλλʼ εἰσὶν ὡς ἄγγελοι ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· 12.26. περὶ δὲ τῶν νεκρῶν ὅτι ἐγείρονται οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ἐν τῇ βίβλῳ Μωυσέως ἐπὶ τοῦ βάτου πῶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ θεὸς λέγων Ἐγὼ ὁ θεὸς Ἀβραὰμ καὶ θεὸς Ἰσαὰκ καὶ θεὸς Ἰακώβ; 12.27. οὐκ ἔστιν θεὸς νεκρῶν ἀλλὰ ζώντων· πολὺ πλανᾶσθε. 12.28. Καὶ προσελθὼν εἷς τῶν γραμματέων ἀκούσας αὐτῶν συνζητούντων, εἰδὼς ὅτι καλῶς ἀπεκρίθη αὐτοῖς, ἐπηρώτησεν αὐτόν Ποία ἐστὶν ἐντολὴ πρώτη πάντων; 12.29. ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Πρώτη ἐστίν Ἄκουε, Ἰσραήλ, Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν κύριος εἷς ἐστίν, 12.30. καὶ ἀγαπήσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ψυχῆς σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς διανοίας σου καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος σου. 12.31. δευτέρα αὕτη Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. μείζων τούτων ἄλλη ἐντολὴ οὐκ ἔστιν. 12.32. Εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ γραμματεύς Καλῶς, διδάσκαλε, ἐπʼ ἀληθείας εἶπες ὅτι εἷς ἐστὶν καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλος πλὴν αὐτοῦ· 12.33. καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾷν αὐτὸν ἐξ ὅλης καρδίας καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς συνέσεως καὶ ἐξ ὅλης τῆς ἰσχύος καὶ τὸ ἀγαπᾷν τὸν πλησίον ὡς ἑαυτὸν περισσότερόν ἐστιν πάντων τῶν ὁλοκαυτωμάτων καὶ θυσιῶν. 12.34. καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἰδὼν αὐτὸν ὅτι νουνεχῶς ἀπεκρίθη εἶπεν αὐτῷ Οὐ μακρὰν [εἶ] ἀπὸ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ. Καὶ οὐδεὶς οὐκέτι ἐτόλμα αὐτὸν ἐπερωτῆσαι. 12.43. καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον· 13.1. Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ λέγει αὐτῷ εἷς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ Διδάσκαλε, ἴδε ποταποὶ λίθοι καὶ ποταπαὶ οἰκοδομαί. 13.2. καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Βλέπεις ταύτας τὰς μεγάλας οἰκοδομάς; οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ ὧδε λίθος ἐπὶ λίθον ὃς οὐ μὴ καταλυθῇ . 14.43. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος παραγίνεται [ὁ] Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα καὶ μετʼ αὐτοῦ ὄχλος μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων παρὰ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων. 14.44. δεδώκει δὲ ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν σύσσημον αὐτοῖς λέγων Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω αὐτός ἐστιν· κρατήσατε αὐτὸν καὶ ἀπάγετε ἀσφαλῶς. 14.45. καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθὺς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ λέγει Ῥαββεί, καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν. 14.46. οἱ δὲ ἐπέβαλαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν. 14.47. εἷς δέ [τις] τῶν παρεστηκότων σπασάμενος τὴν μάχαιραν ἔπαισεν τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον. 14.53. Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα, καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς. 14.54. καὶ ὁ Πέτρος ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ ἕως ἔσω εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, καὶ ἦν συνκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν καὶ θερμαινόμενος πρὸς τὸ φῶς. 14.55. οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον ἐζήτουν κατὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ μαρτυρίαν εἰς τὸ θανατῶσαι αὐτόν, καὶ οὐχ ηὕρισκον· 14.56. πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν. 14.57. καί τινες ἀναστάντες ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες 14.58. ὅτι Ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ὅτι Ἐγὼ καταλύσω τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον τὸν χειροποίητον καὶ διὰ τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἄλλον ἀχειροποίητον οἰκοδομήσω· 14.59. καὶ οὐδὲ οὕτως ἴση ἦν ἡ μαρτυρία αὐτῶν. 14.60. καὶ ἀναστὰς ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰς μέσον ἐπηρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν λέγων Οὐκ ἀποκρίνῃ οὐδέν, τί οὗτοί σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν; 14.61. ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν. πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Σὺ εἶ ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ εὐλογητοῦ; 14.62. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ὄψεσθε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν καθήμενον τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. 14.63. ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς διαρήξας τοὺς χιτῶνας αὐτοῦ λέγει Τί ἔτι χρείαν ἔχομεν μαρτύρων; 14.64. ἠκούσατε τῆς βλασφημίας; τί ὑμῖν φαίνεται; οἱ δὲ πάντες κατέκριναν αὐτὸν ἔνοχον εἶναι θανάτου. 14.65. Καὶ ἤρξαντό τινες ἐμπτύειν αὐτῷ καὶ περικαλύπτειν αὐτοῦ τὸ πρόσωπον καὶ κολαφίζειν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ Προφήτευσον, καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ῥαπίσμασιν αὐτὸν ἔλαβον. 15.1. Καὶ εὐθὺς πρωὶ συμβούλιον ποιήσαντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς μετὰ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ γραμματέων καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον δήσαντες τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπήνεγκαν καὶ παρέδωκαν Πειλάτῳ. 15.3. καὶ κατηγόρουν αὐτοῦ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς πολλά. 15.31. ὁμοίως καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς ἐμπαίζοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους μετὰ τῶν γραμματέων ἔλεγον Ἄλλους ἔσωσεν, ἑαυτὸν οὐ δύναται σῶσαι· 1.21. They went into Capernaum, and immediately on the Sabbath day he entered into the synagogue and taught. 1.22. They were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them as having authority, and not as the scribes. 1.23. Immediately there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, 1.24. saying, "Ha! What do we have to do with you, Jesus, you Nazarene? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God!" 1.25. Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be quiet, and come out of him!" 1.26. The unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. 1.27. They were all amazed, so that they questioned among themselves, saying, "What is this? A new teaching? For with authority he commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him!" 1.28. The report of him went out immediately everywhere into all the region of Galilee and its surrounding area. 1.29. Immediately, when they had come out of the synagogue, they came into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. 1.30. Now Simon's wife's mother lay sick with a fever, and immediately they told him about her. 1.31. He came and took her by the hand, and raised her up. The fever left her, and she served them. 2.15. It happened, that he was reclining at the table in his house, and many tax collectors and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many, and they followed him. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?" 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast?" 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins." 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day?" 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him?" 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath." 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up." 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.19. and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. He came into a house. 6.14. King Herod heard this, for his name had become known, and he said, "John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him." 6.15. But others said, "It is Elijah." Others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets." 6.16. But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead." 6.17. For Herod himself had sent out and arrested John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, for he had married her. 6.18. For John said to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife." 6.19. Herodias set herself against him, and desired to kill him, but she couldn't, 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you." 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom." 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer." 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter." 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison, 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 7.1. Then the Pharisees, and some of the scribes gathered together to him, having come from Jerusalem. 8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 8.15. He charged them, saying, "Take heed: beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod." 12.1. He began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a hedge around it, dug a pit for the winepress, built a tower, rented it out to a farmer, and went into another country. 12.10. Haven't you even read this Scripture: 'The stone which the builders rejected, The same was made the head of the corner. 12.13. They sent some of the Pharisees and of the Herodians to him, that they might trap him with words. 12.14. When they had come, they asked him, "Teacher, we know that you are honest, and don't defer to anyone; for you aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not? 12.15. Shall we give, or shall we not give?"But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why do you test me? Bring me a denarius, that I may see it." 12.16. They brought it. He said to them, "Whose is this image and inscription?"They said to him, "Caesar's." 12.17. Jesus answered them, "Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's."They marveled greatly at him. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying, 12.19. "Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.20. There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying left no offspring. 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife." 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken." 12.28. One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which commandment is the greatest of all?" 12.29. Jesus answered, "The greatest is, 'Hear, Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: 12.30. you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' This is the first commandment. 12.31. The second is like this, 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these." 12.32. The scribe said to him, "Truly, teacher, you have said well that he is one, and there is none other but he, 12.33. and to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbor as himself, is more important than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices." 12.34. When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the Kingdom of God."No one dared ask him any question after that. 12.43. He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, 13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings!" 13.2. Jesus said to him, "Do you see these great buildings? There will not be left here one stone on another, which will not be thrown down." 14.43. Immediately, while he was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came -- and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. 14.44. Now he who betrayed him had given them a sign, saying, "Whoever I will kiss, that is he. Seize him, and lead him away safely." 14.45. When he had come, immediately he came to him, and said, "Rabbi! Rabbi!" and kissed him. 14.46. They laid their hands on him, and seized him. 14.47. But a certain one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the servant of the high priest, and cut off his ear. 14.53. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders, and the scribes came together with him. 14.54. Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. 14.55. Now the chief priests and the whole council sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. 14.56. For many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony didn't agree with each other. 14.57. Some stood up, and gave false testimony against him, saying, 14.58. "We heard him say, 'I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made without hands.'" 14.59. Even so, their testimony did not agree. 14.60. The high priest stood up in the midst, and asked Jesus, "Have you no answer? What is it which these testify against you?" 14.61. But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, "Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?" 14.62. Jesus said, "I AM. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky." 14.63. The high priest tore his clothes, and said, "What further need have we of witnesses? 14.64. You have heard the blasphemy! What do you think?" They all condemned him to be worthy of death. 14.65. Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, "Prophesy!" The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. 15.1. Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes, and the whole council, held a consultation, and bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. 15.3. The chief priests accused him of many things. 15.31. Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, "He saved others. He can't save himself.
10. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.78-1.80, 1.319, 2.112-2.113, 2.119-2.121, 2.124, 2.137-2.145, 2.151, 2.160-2.161, 5.145 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, and translation •herodians, use of term, linguistic root of •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 126, 129, 171, 193, 196, 197
1.78. 5. And truly anyone would be surprised at Judas upon this occasion. He was of the sect of the Essenes, and had never failed or deceived men in his predictions before. Now, this man saw Antigonus as he was passing along by the temple, and cried out to his acquaintance (they were not a few who attended upon him as his scholars), 1.79. “O strange!” said he, “it is good for me to die now, since truth is dead before me, and somewhat that I have foretold hath proved false; for this Antigonus is this day alive, who ought to have died this day; and the place where he ought to be slain, according to that fatal decree, was Strato’s Tower, which is at the distance of six hundred furlongs from this place; and yet four hours of this day are over already; which point of time renders the prediction impossible to be fulfilled.” 1.80. And when the old man had said this, he was dejected in his mind, and so continued. But, in a little time, news came that Antigonus was slain in a subterraneous place, which was itself also called Strato’s Tower, by the same name with that Caesarea which lay by the seaside; and this ambiguity it was which caused the prophet’s disorder. 1.319. But Antigonus perceived what his intentions were beforehand, and excluded him out of the city, and defended himself against him as against an enemy, from the walls; till Macheras was ashamed of what he had done, and retired to Emmaus to Herod; and, as he was in a rage at his disappointment, he slew all the Jews whom he met with, without sparing those that were for Herod, but using them all as if they were for Antigonus. 2.112. But the report goes, that before he was sent for by Caesar, he seemed to see nine ears of corn, full and large, but devoured by oxen. When, therefore, he had sent for the diviners, and some of the Chaldeans, and inquired of them what they thought it portended; 2.113. and when one of them had one interpretation, and another had another, Simon, one of the sect of Essenes, said that he thought the ears of corn denoted years, and the oxen denoted a mutation of things, because by their ploughing they made an alteration of the country. That therefore he should reign as many years as there were ears of corn; and after he had passed through various alterations of fortune, should die. Now five days after Archelaus had heard this interpretation he was called to his trial. 2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.120. These Essenes reject pleasures as an evil, but esteem continence, and the conquest over our passions, to be virtue. They neglect wedlock, but choose out other persons’ children, while they are pliable, and fit for learning, and esteem them to be of their kindred, and form them according to their own manners. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous; 2.140. that he will ever show fidelity to all men, and especially to those in authority, because no one obtains the government without God’s assistance; and that if he be in authority, he will at no time whatever abuse his authority, nor endeavor to outshine his subjects either in his garments, or any other finery; 2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator [Moses], whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.160. 13. Moreover, there is another order of Essenes, who agree with the rest as to their way of living, and customs, and laws, but differ from them in the point of marriage, as thinking that by not marrying they cut off the principal part of human life, which is the prospect of succession; nay, rather, that if all men should be of the same opinion, the whole race of mankind would fail. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 5.145. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended through a place called “Bethso,” to the gate of the Essenes; and after that it went southward, having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends again towards the east at Solomon’s pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called “Ophlas,” where it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple.
11. Josephus Flavius, Life, 10-12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 196
12. Mishnah, Eruvin, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
6.2. "אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, מַעֲשֶׂה בִצְדוֹקִי אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיָה דָר עִמָּנוּ בְּמָבוֹי בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְאָמַר לָנוּ אַבָּא, מַהֲרוּ וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת כָּל הַכֵּלִים לַמָּבוֹי, עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר בְּלָשׁוֹן אַחֵר, מַהֲרוּ וַעֲשׂוּ צָרְכֵיכֶם בַּמָּבוֹי עַד שֶׁלֹּא יוֹצִיא וְיֶאֱסֹר עֲלֵיכֶם: \n", 6.2. "Rabban Gamaliel said: A Sadducee once lived with us in the same alley in Jerusalem and father told us: “Hurry up and carry out all vessels into the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”. Rabbi Judah said [the instruction was given] in different language: “Hurry up and perform all of your needs in the alley before he carries out his and thereby restricts you”.",
13. New Testament, Luke, 5.30, 12.1, 13.20-13.21, 18.12, 18.37, 24.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, in the gospels •herodians, use of term, as different to herods officials •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in •herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 119, 120, 123, 172, 185
5.30. καὶ ἐγόγγυζον οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς αὐτῶν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ λέγοντες Διὰ τί μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε; 12.1. Ἐν οἷς ἐπισυναχθεισῶν τῶν μυριάδων τοῦ ὄχλου, ὥστε καταπατεῖν ἀλλήλους, ἤρξατο λέγειν πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ πρῶτον Προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς ζύμης, ἥτις ἐστὶν ὑπόκρισις, τῶν Φαρισαίων. 13.20. Καὶ πάλιν εἶπεν Τίνι ὁμοιώσω τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ; 13.21. ὁμοία ἐστὶν ζύμῃ, ἣν λαβοῦσα γυνὴ ἔκρυψεν εἰς ἀλεύρου σάτα τρία ἕως οὗ ἐζυμώθη ὅλον. 18.12. νηστεύω δὶς τοῦ σαββάτου, ἀποδεκατεύω πάντα ὅσα κτῶμαι. 18.37. ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτῷ ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος παρέρχεται. 24.29. καὶ παρεβιάσαντο αὐτὸν λέγοντες Μεῖνον μεθʼ ἡμῶν, ὅτι πρὸς ἑσπέραν ἐστὶν καὶ κέκλικεν ἤδη ἡ ἡμέρα. καὶ εἰσῆλθεν τοῦ μεῖναι σὺν αὐτοῖς. 5.30. Their scribes and the Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, "Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners?" 12.1. Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, "Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. 13.20. Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 13.21. It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three sata of flour, until it was all leavened." 18.12. I fast twice a week. I give tithes of all that I get.' 18.37. They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 24.29. They urged him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over."He went in to stay with them.
14. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.4, 2.6-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 197
2.4. "עֲצֶרֶת שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין יוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁאִם חָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁיּוֹם טְבוֹחַ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת. וְאֵין כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל מִתְלַבֵּשׁ בְּכֵלָיו, וּמֻתָּרִין בְּהֶסְפֵּד וּבְתַעֲנִית, שֶׁלֹּא לְקַיֵּם דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִין עֲצֶרֶת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת: \n" 2.6. "הַטּוֹבֵל לְחֻלִּין וְהֻחְזַק לְחֻלִּין, אָסוּר לְמַעֲשֵׂר. טָבַל לְמַעֲשֵׂר וְהֻחְזַק לְמַעֲשֵׂר, אָסוּר לִתְרוּמָה. טָבַל לִתְרוּמָה, וְהֻחְזַק לִתְרוּמָה, אָסוּר לְקֹדֶשׁ. טָבַל לְקֹדֶשׁ וְהֻחְזַק לְקֹדֶשׁ, אָסוּר לְחַטָּאת. טָבַל לְחָמוּר, מֻתָּר לְקַל. טָבַל וְלֹא הֻחְזַק, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבָל: \n", 2.7. "בִּגְדֵי עַם הָאָרֶץ מִדְרָס לַפְּרוּשִׁין. בִּגְדֵי פְרוּשִׁין מִדְרָס לְאוֹכְלֵי תְרוּמָה. בִּגְדֵי אוֹכְלֵי תְרוּמָה מִדְרָס לַקֹּדֶשׁ. בִּגְדֵי קֹדֶשׁ מִדְרָס לְחַטָּאת. יוֹסֵף בֶּן יוֹעֶזֶר הָיָה חָסִיד שֶׁבַּכְּהֻנָּה, וְהָיְתָה מִטְפַּחְתּוֹ מִדְרָס לַקֹּדֶשׁ. יוֹחָנָן בֶּן גֻּדְגְּדָא הָיָה אוֹכֵל עַל טָהֳרַת הַקֹּדֶשׁ כָּל יָמָיו, וְהָיְתָה מִטְפַּחְתּוֹ מִדְרָס לַחַטָּאת: \n", 2.4. "Atzeret (Shavuot) which fell on a Friday: Bet Shammai say: the day of the slaughter [of the wholly burnt offerings] is after Shabbat. And Bet Hillel say: the day of the slaughter is not after Shabbat. They agree, however, that if it falls on Shabbat, the day of the slaughter is after Shabbat. The high priest does not [in that case] put on his [special] garments, and mourning and fasting are permitted, in order not to confirm the view of those who say that Atzeret is after Shabbat." 2.6. "If he immersed for unconsecrated [food], and was presumed to be fit to eat unconsecrated [food], he is prohibited from [eating second] tithe. If he immersed for [second] tithe, and was presumed to be fit to eat [second] tithe, he is prohibited from [eating] terumah. If he immersed for terumah, and was presumed to be fit to eat terumah, he is prohibited from [eating] holy things. If he immersed for holy things, and was presumed to be fit to eat holy things he is prohibited from [touching the waters of] purification. If one immersed for something possessing a stricter [degree of holiness], one is permitted [to have contact with] something possessing a lighter [degree of holiness]. If he immersed but without special intention, it is as though he had not immersed.", 2.7. "The garments of an am haaretz possess midras-impurity for Pharisees. The garments of Pharisees possess midras-impurity for those who eat terumah. The garments of those who eat terumah possess midras-impurity for [those who eat] sacred things. The garments of [those who eat] sacred things possess midras-impurity for [those who occupy themselves with the waters of] purification. Yose ben Yoezer was the most pious in the priesthood, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who ate] sacred things. Yoha ben Gudgada all his life used to eat [unconsecrated food] in accordance with the purity required for sacred things, yet his apron was [considered to possess] midras-impurity for [those who occupied themselves with the water of] purification.",
15. Mishnah, Niddah, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
4.2. "בְּנוֹת צְדוֹקִין, בִּזְמַן שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּכוּתִיּוֹת. פֵּרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיִשְׂרְאֵלִית. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הֵן כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, עַד שֶׁיִּפְרְשׁוּ לָלֶכֶת בְּדַרְכֵי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן: \n", 4.2. "The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers.",
16. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 13.171-13.172, 13.311-13.313, 14.450, 15.22, 15.31-15.41, 15.368, 15.371-15.379, 17.271-17.276, 17.278-17.284, 17.345-17.348, 18.18-18.21, 20.247-20.249 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 124, 126, 128, 129, 193, 196, 197
13.171. 9. At this time there were three sects among the Jews, who had different opinions concerning human actions; the one was called the sect of the Pharisees, another the sect of the Sadducees, and the other the sect of the Essenes. 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 13.311. But here one may take occasion to wonder at one Judas, who was of the sect of the Essenes, and who never missed the truth in his predictions; for this man, when he saw Antigonus passing by the temple, cried out to his companions and friends, who abode with him as his scholars, in order to learn the art of foretelling things to come? 13.312. “That it was good for him to die now, since he had spoken falsely about Antigonus, who is still alive, and I see him passing by, although he had foretold that he should die at the place called Strato’s Tower that very day, while yet the place is six hundred furlongs off, where he had foretold he should be slain; and still this day is a great part of it already past, so that he was in danger of proving a false prophet.” 13.313. As he was saying this, and that in a melancholy mood, the news came that Antigonus was slain in a place under ground, which itself was called also Strato’s Tower, or of the same name with that Caesarea which is seated at the sea. This event put the prophet into a great disorder. 14.450. So when Antigonus had got possession of the dead bodies, he cut off Joseph’s head, although Pheroras his brother would have redeemed it at the price of fifty talents. After which defeat, the Galileans revolted from their commanders, and took those of Herod’s party, and drowned them in the lake, and a great part of Judea was become seditious; but Macheras fortified the place Gitta [in Samaria]. 15.22. He also did other things, in order to secure his government, which yet occasioned a sedition in his own family; for being cautious how he made any illustrious person the high priest of God, he sent for an obscure priest out of Babylon, whose name was Aelus, and bestowed the high priesthood upon him. 15.31. 7. When Herod had thus excused himself to Antony, he resolved that he would not entirely permit the child or Alexandra to be treated dishonorably; but his wife Mariamne lay vehemently at him to restore the high priesthood to her brother; and he judged it was for his advantage so to do, because if he once had that dignity, he could not go out of the country. So he called his friends together, and told them that Alexandra 15.32. privately conspired against his royal authority, and endeavored, by the means of Cleopatra, so to bring it about, that he might be deprived of the government, and that by Antony’s means this youth might have the management of public affairs in his stead; 15.33. and that this procedure of hers was unjust, since she would at the same time deprive her daughter of the dignity she now had, and would bring disturbances upon the kingdom, for which he had taken a great deal of pains, and had gotten it with extraordinary hazards; 15.34. that yet, while he well remembered her wicked practices, he would not leave off doing what was right himself, but would even now give the youth the high priesthood; and that he formerly set up Aelus, because Aristobulus was then so very young a child. 15.35. Now when he had said this, not at random, but as he thought with the best discretion he had, in order to deceive the women, and those friends whom he had taken to consult withal, Alexandra, out of the great joy she had at this unexpected promise, and out of fear from the suspicions she lay under, fell a weeping; and made the following apology for herself; 15.36. and said, that as to the [high] priesthood, she was very much concerned for the disgrace her son was under, and so did her utmost endeavors to procure it for him; but that as to the kingdom, she had made no attempts, and that if it were offered her [for her son], she would not accept it; and that now she would be satisfied with her son’s dignity, while he himself held the civil government, and she had thereby the security that arose from his peculiar ability in governing to all the remainder of her family; 15.37. that she was now overcome by his benefits, and thankfully accepted of this honor showed by him to her son, and that she would hereafter be entirely obedient. And she desired him to excuse her, if the nobility of her family, and that freedom of acting which she thought that allowed her, had made her act too precipitately and imprudently in this matter. 15.38. So when they had spoken thus to one another, they came to an agreement, and all suspicions, so far as appeared, were vanished away. 15.39. 1. So king Herod immediately took the high priesthood away from Aelus, who, as we said before, was not of this country, but one of those Jews that had been carried captive beyond Euphrates; for there were not a few ten thousands of this people that had been carried captives, and dwelt about Babylonia, 15.40. whence Aelus came. He was one of the stock of the high priests and had been of old a particular friend of Herod; and when he was first made king, he conferred that dignity upon him, and now put him out of it again, in order to quiet the troubles in his family, though what he did was plainly unlawful, for at no other time [of old] was any one that had once been in that dignity deprived of it. 15.41. It was Antiochus Epiphanes who first brake that law, and deprived Jesus, and made his brother Onias high priest in his stead. Aristobulus was the second that did so, and took that dignity from his brother [Hyrcanus]; and this Herod was the third, who took that high office away [from Arianflus], and gave it to this young man, Aristobulus, in his stead. 15.368. and as for those that could no way be reduced to acquiesce under his scheme of government, he prosecuted them all manner of ways; but for the rest of the multitude, he required that they should be obliged to take an oath of fidelity to him, and at the same time compelled them to swear that they would bear him good-will, and continue certainly so to do, in his management of the government; 15.371. The Essenes also, as we call a sect of ours, were excused from this imposition. These men live the same kind of life as do those whom the Greeks call Pythagoreans, concerning whom I shall discourse more fully elsewhere. 15.372. However, it is but fit to set down here the reasons wherefore Herod had these Essenes in such honor, and thought higher of them than their mortal nature required; nor will this account be unsuitable to the nature of this history, as it will show the opinion men had of these Essenes. 15.373. 5. Now there was one of these Essenes, whose name was Manahem, who had this testimony, that he not only conducted his life after an excellent manner, but had the foreknowledge of future events given him by God also. This man once saw Herod when he was a child, and going to school, and saluted him as king of the Jews; 15.374. but he, thinking that either he did not know him, or that he was in jest, put him in mind that he was but a private man; but Manahem smiled to himself, and clapped him on his backside with his hand, and said, “However that be, thou wilt be king, and wilt begin thy reign happily, for God finds thee worthy of it. And do thou remember the blows that Manahem hath given thee, as being a signal of the change of thy fortune. 15.375. And truly this will be the best reasoning for thee, that thou love justice [towards men], and piety towards God, and clemency towards thy citizens; yet do I know how thy whole conduct will be, that thou wilt not be such a one, 15.376. for thou wilt excel all men in happiness, and obtain an everlasting reputation, but wilt forget piety and righteousness; and these crimes will not be concealed from God, at the conclusion of thy life, when thou wilt find that he will be mindful of them, and punish time for them.” 15.377. Now at that time Herod did not at all attend to what Manahem said, as having no hopes of such advancement; but a little afterward, when he was so fortunate as to be advanced to the dignity of king, and was in the height of his dominion, he sent for Manahem, and asked him how long he should reign. 15.378. Manahem did not tell him the full length of his reign; wherefore, upon that silence of his, he asked him further, whether he should reign ten years or not? He replied, “Yes, twenty, nay, thirty years;” but did not assign the just determinate limit of his reign. Herod was satisfied with these replies, and gave Manahem his hand, and dismissed him; and from that time he continued to honor all the Essenes. 15.379. We have thought it proper to relate these facts to our readers, how strange soever they be, and to declare what hath happened among us, because many of these Essenes have, by their excellent virtue, been thought worthy of this knowledge of divine revelations. 17.271. 5. There was also Judas, the son of that Ezekias who had been head of the robbers; which Ezekias was a very strong man, and had with great difficulty been caught by Herod. This Judas, having gotten together a multitude of men of a profligate character about Sepphoris in Galilee, made an assault upon the palace [there,] and seized upon all the weapons that were laid up in it, and with them armed every one of those that were with him, and carried away what money was left there; 17.272. and he became terrible to all men, by tearing and rending those that came near him; and all this in order to raise himself, and out of an ambitious desire of the royal dignity; and he hoped to obtain that as the reward not of his virtuous skill in war, but of his extravagance in doing injuries. 17.273. 6. There was also Simon, who had been a slave of Herod the king, but in other respects a comely person, of a tall and robust body; he was one that was much superior to others of his order, and had had great things committed to his care. This man was elevated at the disorderly state of things, and was so bold as to put a diadem on his head, 17.274. while a certain number of the people stood by him, and by them he was declared to be a king, and thought himself more worthy of that dignity than any one else. He burnt down the royal palace at Jericho, and plundered what was left in it. He also set fire to many other of the king’s houses in several places of the country, and utterly destroyed them, and permitted those that were with him to take what was left in them for a prey; 17.275. and he would have done greater things, unless care had been taken to repress him immediately; for Gratus, when he had joined himself to some Roman soldiers, took the forces he had with him, and met Simon, 17.276. and after a great and a long fight, no small part of those that came from Perea, who were a disordered body of men, and fought rather in a bold than in a skillful manner, were destroyed; and although Simon had saved himself by flying away through a certain valley, yet Gratus overtook him, and cut off his head. 17.278. 7. But because Athronges, a person neither eminent by the dignity of his progenitors, nor for any great wealth he was possessed of, but one that had in all respects been a shepherd only, and was not known by any body; yet because he was a tall man, and excelled others in the strength of his hands, he was so bold as to set up for king. This man thought it so sweet a thing to do more than ordinary injuries to others, that although he should be killed, he did not much care if he lost his life in so great a design. 17.279. He had also four brethren, who were tall men themselves, and were believed to be superior to others in the strength of their hands, and thereby were encouraged to aim at great things, and thought that strength of theirs would support them in retaining the kingdom. Each of these ruled over a band of men of their own; for those that got together to them were very numerous. 17.280. They were every one of them also commanders; but when they came to fight, they were subordinate to him, and fought for him, while he put a diadem about his head, and assembled a council to debate about what things should be done, and all things were done according to his pleasure. 17.281. And this man retained his power a great while; he was also called king, and had nothing to hinder him from doing what he pleased. He also, as well as his brethren, slew a great many both of the Romans and of the king’s forces, an managed matters with the like hatred to each of them. The king’s forces they fell upon, because of the licentious conduct they had been allowed under Herod’s government; and they fell upon the Romans, because of the injuries they had so lately received from them. 17.282. But in process of time they grew more cruel to all sorts of men, nor could any one escape from one or other of these seditions, since they slew some out of the hopes of gain, and others from a mere custom of slaying men. They once attacked a company of Romans at Emmaus, who were bringing corn and weapons to the army, and fell upon Arius, the centurion, who commanded the company, and shot forty of the best of his foot soldiers; 17.283. but the rest of them were affrighted at their slaughter, and left their dead behind them, but saved themselves by the means of Gratus, who came with the king’s troops that were about him to their assistance. Now these four brethren continued the war a long while by such sort of expeditions, and much grieved the Romans; but did their own nation also a great deal of mischief. 17.284. Yet were they afterwards subdued; one of them in a fight with Gratus, another with Ptolemy; Archelaus also took the eldest of them prisoner; while the last of them was so dejected at the other’s misfortune, and saw so plainly that he had no way now left to save himself, his army being worn away with sickness and continual labors, that he also delivered himself up to Archelaus, upon his promise and oath to God [to preserve his life.] But these things came to pass a good while afterward. 17.345. 3. Now, before Archelaus was gone up to Rome upon this message, he related this dream to his friends: That he saw ears of corn, in number ten, full of wheat, perfectly ripe, which ears, as it seemed to him, were devoured by oxen. 17.346. And when he was awake and gotten up, because the vision appeared to be of great importance to him, he sent for the diviners, whose study was employed about dreams. And while some were of one opinion, and some of another, (for all their interpretations did not agree,) Simon, a man of the sect of the Essenes, desired leave to speak his mind freely, and said that the vision denoted a change in the affairs of Archelaus, and that not for the better; 17.347. that oxen, because that animal takes uneasy pains in his labors, denoted afflictions, and indeed denoted, further, a change of affairs, because that land which is ploughed by oxen cannot remain in its former state; and that the ears of corn being ten, determined the like number of years, because an ear of corn grows in one year; and that the time of Archelaus’s government was over. And thus did this man expound the dream. 17.348. Now on the fifth day after this dream came first to Archelaus, the other Archelaus, that was sent to Judea by Caesar to call him away, came hither also. 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.19. and when they send what they have dedicated to God into the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more pure lustrations of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves; yet is their course of life better than that of other men; and they entirely addict themselves to husbandry. 18.20. It also deserves our admiration, how much they exceed all other men that addict themselves to virtue, and this in righteousness; and indeed to such a degree, that as it hath never appeared among any other men, neither Greeks nor barbarians, no, not for a little time, so hath it endured a long while among them. This is demonstrated by that institution of theirs, which will not suffer any thing to hinder them from having all things in common; so that a rich man enjoys no more of his own wealth than he who hath nothing at all. There are about four thousand men that live in this way, 18.21. and neither marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants; as thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust, and the former gives the handle to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. 20.247. Herod was then made king by the Romans, but did no longer appoint high priests out of the family of Asamoneus; but made certain men to be so that were of no eminent families, but barely of those that were priests, excepting that he gave that dignity to Aristobulus; 20.248. for when he had made this Aristobulus, the grandson of that Hyrcanus who was then taken by the Parthians, and had taken his sister Mariarmne to wife, he thereby aimed to win the good-will of the people, who had a kind remembrance of Hyrcanus [his grandfather]. Yet did he afterward, out of his fear lest they should all bend their inclinations to Aristobulus, put him to death, and that by contriving how to have him suffocated as he was swimming at Jericho, as we have already related that matter; 20.249. but after this man he never intrusted the priesthood to the posterity of the sons of Asamoneus. Archelaus also, Herod’s son, did like his father in the appointment of the high priests, as did the Romans also, who took the government over the Jews into their hands afterward.
17. Mishnah, Toharot, 4.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 197
4.12. "סְפֵק הַחֻלִּין, זוֹ טָהֳרַת פְּרִישׁוּת. סְפֵק שְׁרָצִים, כִּשְׁעַת מְצִיאָתָן. סְפֵק נְגָעִים, בַּתְּחִלָּה טָהוֹר, עַד שֶׁלֹּא נִזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה. מִשֶּׁנִּזְקַק לַטֻּמְאָה, סְפֵקוֹ טָמֵא. סְפֵק נְזִירוּת, מֻתָּר. סְפֵק בְּכוֹרוֹת, אֶחָד בְּכוֹרֵי אָדָם וְאֶחָד בְּכוֹרֵי בְהֵמָה, בֵּין טְמֵאָה בֵּין טְהוֹרָה, שֶׁהַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה: \n", 4.12. "\"A condition of doubt concerning non-sacred food\"--this refers to the cleanness practiced by Pharisees. \"A condition of doubt concerning a sheretz\" –according [to their condition at] the time they are found. \"A condition of doubt concerning negaim\" it is deemed clean in the beginning before it had been determined to be unclean, but after it had been determined to be unclean, a condition of doubt is deemed unclean. \"A condition of doubt concerning a nazirite vow\" [in such a condition of doubt he] is permitted [all that is forbidden to a nazirite]. \"A condition of doubt concerning first-borns\" whether they are human firstborn or firstborn of cattle, whether the firstborn of an unclean beast or a clean one, for the one who wishes to extract from his fellow bears the burden of proof.",
18. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.5-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 197
4.5. "תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁבְּעֶזְרָא וְשֶׁבְּדָנִיֵּאל, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. תַּרְגּוּם שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ עִבְרִית וְעִבְרִית שֶׁכְּתָבוֹ תַּרְגּוּם, וּכְתָב עִבְרִי, אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא, עַד שֶׁיִּכְתְּבֶנּוּ אַשּׁוּרִית, עַל הָעוֹר, וּבִדְיוֹ: \n", 4.6. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, וְכִי אֵין לָנוּ עַל הַפְּרוּשִׁים אֶלָּא זוֹ בִלְבָד. הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹמְרִים, עַצְמוֹת חֲמוֹר טְהוֹרִים וְעַצְמוֹת יוֹחָנָן כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל טְמֵאִים. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם עַצְמוֹת אָבִיו וְאִמּוֹ תַּרְוָדוֹת. אָמַר לָהֶם, אַף כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְפִי חִבָּתָן הִיא טֻמְאָתָן, וְסִפְרֵי הוֹמֵרִיס, שֶׁאֵינָן חֲבִיבִין, אֵינָן מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.7. "אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת הַנִּצּוֹק. אוֹמְרִים הַפְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, צְדוֹקִים, שֶׁאַתֶּם מְטַהֲרִים אֶת אַמַּת הַמַּיִם הַבָּאָה מִבֵּית הַקְּבָרוֹת. אוֹמְרִים צְדוֹקִין, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם אוֹמְרִים, שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, חַיָּבִין. וְעַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי שֶׁהִזִּיקוּ, פְּטוּרִין. מָה אִם שׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵינִי חַיָּב בָּהֶם מִצְוֹת, הֲרֵי אֲנִי חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. עַבְדִּי וַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁאֲנִי חַיָּב בָּהֶן מִצְוֹת, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁאֱהֵא חַיָּב בְּנִזְקָן. אָמְרוּ לָהֶם, לֹא. אִם אֲמַרְתֶּם בְּשׁוֹרִי וַחֲמוֹרִי, שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם דַּעַת, תֹּאמְרוּ בְּעַבְדִּי וּבַאֲמָתִי, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דָּעַת. שֶׁאִם אַקְנִיטֵם, יֵלֵךְ וְיַדְלִיק גְּדִישׁוֹ שֶׁל אַחֵר וֶאֱהֵא חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם: \n", 4.8. "אָמַר צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, קוֹבֵל אֲנִי עֲלֵיכֶם, פְּרוּשִׁים, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם משֶׁה בַּגֵּט. אוֹמְרִים פְּרוּשִׁים, קוֹבְלִין אָנוּ עָלֶיךָ, צְדוֹקִי גְלִילִי, שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִים אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל עִם הַשֵּׁם בַּדַּף, וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַתֶּם כּוֹתְבִין אֶת הַמּוֹשֵׁל מִלְמַעְלָן וְאֶת הַשֵּׁם מִלְּמַטָּן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות ה) וַיֹּאמֶר פַּרְעֹה מִי ה' אֲשֶׁר אֶשְׁמַע בְּקֹלוֹ לְשַׁלַּח אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל. וּכְשֶׁלָּקָה מַהוּ אוֹמֵר (שם ט), ה' הַצַּדִּיק: \n", 4.5. "The Aramaic sections in Ezra and Daniel defile the hands. If an Aramaic section was written in Hebrew, or a Hebrew section was written in Aramaic, or [Hebrew which was written with] Hebrew script, it does not defile the hands. It never defiles the hands until it is written in the Assyrian script, on parchment, and in ink.", 4.6. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, because you say that the Holy Scriptures defile the hands, but the books of Homer do not defile the hands. Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai said: Have we nothing against the Pharisees but this? Behold they say that the bones of a donkey are clean, yet the bones of Yoha the high priest are unclean. They said to him: according to the affection for them, so is their impurity, so that nobody should make spoons out of the bones of his father or mother. He said to them: so also are the Holy Scriptures according to the affection for them, so is their uncleanness. The books of Homer which are not precious do not defile the hands.", 4.7. "The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you declare an uninterrupted flow of a liquid to be clean. The Pharisees say: we complain against you, Sadducees, that you declare a stream of water which flows from a burial-ground to be clean? The Sadducees say: we complain against you, Pharisees, that you say, my ox or donkey which has done injury is liable, yet my male or female slave who has done injury is not liable. Now if in the case of my ox or my donkey for which I am not responsible if they do not fulfill religious duties, yet I am responsible for their damages, in the case of my male or female slave for whom I am responsible to see that they fulfill mitzvot, how much more so that I should be responsible for their damages? They said to them: No, if you argue about my ox or my donkey which have no understanding, can you deduce from there anything concerning a male or female slave who do have understanding? So that if I were to anger either of them and they would go and burn another person's stack, should I be liable to make restitution?", 4.8. "A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27).",
19. Anon., Didache, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 185
20. New Testament, Acts, 2.22, 2.27, 3.6, 4.10, 6.14, 11.26, 12.12, 13.5, 13.35, 15.37, 22.8, 24.5, 26.9, 26.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 117, 130, 172, 188
2.22. Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους. Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον, ἄνδρα ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς δυνάμεσι καὶ τέρασι καὶ σημείοις οἷς ἐποίησεν διʼ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν, καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε, 2.27. 3.6. εἶπεν δὲ Πέτρος Ἀργύριον καὶ χρυσίον οὐχ ὑπάρχει μοι, ὃ δὲ ἔχω τοῦτό σοι δίδωμι· ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου περιπάτει. 4.10. γνωστὸν ἔστω πᾶσιν ὑμῖν καὶ παντὶ τῷ λαῷ Ἰσραὴλ ὅτι ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου, ὃν ὑμεῖς ἐσταυρώσατε, ὃν ὁ θεὸς ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἐν τούτῳ οὗτος παρέστηκεν ἐνώπιον ὑμῶν ὑγιής. 6.14. ἀκηκόαμεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος οὗτος καταλύσει τὸν τόπον τοῦτον καὶ ἀλλάξει τὰ ἔθη ἃ παρέδωκεν ἡμῖν Μωυσῆς. 11.26. καὶ εὑρὼν ἤγαγεν εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν. ἐγένετο δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ὅλον συναχθῆναι ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ διδάξαι ὄχλον ἱκανόν, χρηματίσαὶ τε πρώτως ἐν Ἀντιοχείᾳ τοὺς μαθητὰς Χριστιανούς. 12.12. συνιδών τε ἦλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν τῆς Μαρίας τῆς μητρὸς Ἰωάνου τοῦ ἐπικαλουμένου Μάρκου, οὗ ἦσαν ἱκανοὶ συνηθροισμένοι καὶ προσευχόμενοι. 13.5. καὶ γενόμενοι ἐν Σαλαμῖνι κατήγγελλον τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς τῶν Ἰουδαίων· εἶχον δὲ καὶ Ἰωάννην ὑπηρέτην. 13.35. διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν· 15.37. Βαρνάβας δὲ ἐβούλετο συνπαραλαβεῖν καὶ τὸν Ἰωάνην τὸν καλούμενον Μάρκον· 22.8. ἐγὼ δὲ ἀπεκρίθην Τίς εἶ, κύριε; εἶπέν τε πρὸς ἐμέ Ἐγώ εἰμι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος ὃν σὺ διώκεις. 24.5. εὑρόντες γὰρ τὸν ἄνδρα τοῦτον λοιμὸν καὶ κινοῦντα στάσεις πᾶσι τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις τοῖς κατὰ τὴν οἰκουμένην πρωτοστάτην τε τῆς τῶν Ναζωραίων αἱρέσεως, 26.9. Ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν ἔδοξα ἐμαυτῷ πρὸς τὸ ὄνομα Ἰησοῦ τοῦ Ναζωραίου δεῖν πολλὰ ἐναντία πρᾶξαι· 26.28. ὁ δὲ Ἀγρίππας πρὸς τὸν Παῦλον Ἐν ὀλίγῳ με πείθεις Χριστιανὸν ποιῆσαι. 2.22. "You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know, 2.27. Because you will not leave my soul in Hades, Neither will you allow your Holy One to see decay. 3.6. But Peter said, "Silver and gold have I none, but what I have, that I give you. In the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise and walk!" 4.10. be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that in the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God raised from the dead, in him does this man stand here before you whole. 6.14. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will change the customs which Moses delivered to us." 11.26. When he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. It happened, that even for a whole year they were gathered together with the assembly, and taught many people. The disciples were first called Christians in Antioch. 12.12. Thinking about that, he came to the house of Mary, the mother of John whose surname was Mark, where many were gathered together and were praying. 13.5. When they were at Salamis, they proclaimed the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. They had also John as their attendant. 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 15.37. Barnabas planned to take John with them also, who was called Mark. 22.8. I answered, 'Who are you, Lord?' He said to me, 'I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom you persecute.' 24.5. For we have found this man to be a plague, an instigator of insurrections among all the Jews throughout the world, and a ringleader of the sect of the Nazarenes. 26.9. "I myself most assuredly thought that I ought to do many things contrary to the name of Jesus of Nazareth. 26.28. Agrippa said to Paul, "With a little persuasion are you trying to make me a Christian?"
21. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
10.3. "כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 10.3. "How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival.",
22. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171, 197
3.4. "אֵינָהּ מַסְפֶּקֶת לִשְׁתּוֹת עַד שֶׁפָּנֶיהָ מוֹרִיקוֹת וְעֵינֶיהָ בּוֹלְטוֹת וְהִיא מִתְמַלֵּאת גִּידִין, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים הוֹצִיאוּהָ הוֹצִיאוּהָ, שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא הָעֲזָרָה. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ זְכוּת, הָיְתָה תוֹלָה לָהּ. יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁנָה אַחַת, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שְׁתֵּי שָׁנִים, יֵשׁ זְכוּת תּוֹלָה שָׁלשׁ שָׁנִים. מִכָּאן אוֹמֵר בֶּן עַזַּאי, חַיָּב אָדָם לְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, שֶׁאִם תִּשְׁתֶּה, תֵּדַע שֶׁהַזְּכוּת תּוֹלָה לָהּ. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְלַמֵּד אֶת בִּתּוֹ תוֹרָה, כְּאִלּוּ מְלַמְּדָהּ תִּפְלוּת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, רוֹצָה אִשָּׁה בְקַב וְתִפְלוּת מִתִּשְׁעָה קַבִּין וּפְרִישׁוּת. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, חָסִיד שׁוֹטֶה, וְרָשָׁע עָרוּם, וְאִשָּׁה פְרוּשָׁה, וּמַכּוֹת פְּרוּשִׁין, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מְכַלֵּי עוֹלָם: \n", 3.4. "She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world.",
23. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, a b c d\n0 5.15 70-3 5.15 70 5 15 70 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 196, 197
24. Tacitus, Annals, 15.44.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, and translation •herodians, use of term, as marks invention •herodians, use of term, as interpreters of the law •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •herodians, use of term, linguistic root of Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 130
25. Tosefta, Parah, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
3.8. "נתנן עד שלא הוצת האור ברובה או משנעשית אפר פסולה. נטל עצם או שחור וקדש בו הרי זה לא עשה כלום אם יש עליו אבק כל שהוא אם מגופה כותשו ומקדש בו וכשר. וחולקין אותו לשלשה חלקים אחד ניתן בחיל ואחד ניתן בהר המשחה ואחד מתחלק לכל המשמרות זה שמתחלק לכל המשמרות היו ישראל מזין הימנו. זה שניתן בהר המשחה היו כהנים מקדשין בו. זה שניתן בחיל היו משמרין שנאמר (במדבר יט) והיתה לעדת בני ישראל למשמרת. ",
26. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
1.8. "איזו היא אצבע צרדה זו אצבע גדולה של ימין בפה [ולא] בנבל ולא בכנור מה היו אומרים (תהילים קכ״ז:א׳) שיר המעלות לשלמה אם ה' לא יבנה בית וגו' לא היו ישנים כל הלילה אלא שקורין כנגד כהן גדול [כדי] לעסקו בתורה כך היו נוהגין בגבולין אחר חורבן הבית זכר למקדש אבל חוטאין [היו].",
27. Anon., Lamentations Rabbah, 3.4 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, in epiphanius Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 184
3.4. דֹּב אֹרֵב הוּא לִי, זֶה נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר. אֲרִי בְּמִסְתָּרִים, זֶה נְבוּזַרְאֲדָן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, דֹּב אֹרֵב, זֶה אַסְפַּסְיָאנוּס. אֲרִי בְּמִסְתָּרִים, זֶה טְרָכִינוּס. דְּרָכַי סוֹרֵר וַיְפַשְּׁחֵנִי. תִּילְהֵי, כִּדְאַמְרִינַן אִילָן שֶׁנִּפְשַׁח קוֹשְׁרִין אוֹתוֹ בַּשְּׁבִיעִית. דָּרַךְ קַשְׁתּוֹ וַיַּצִּיבֵנִי כְּמַטָּרָה לַחֵץ, תְּרֵין אָמוֹרָאִין, חַד אֲמַר כְּבוּרְמָא לְאַסְפְּרִיסָא, וְחַד אֲמַר כְּקוֹרַת חִצִּים שֶׁהַכֹּל מוֹרִים בָּהּ וְהִיא נִצֶּבֶת. רַבִּי יוּדָן אָמַר וְגִבְּרַנִי לַעֲמֹד בְּכֻלָּן, אַתְּ מוֹצֵא אַחַר מֵאָה חָסֵר שְׁתֵּי תּוֹכָחוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמִשְׁנֵה תוֹרָה, מַה כְּתִיב (דברים כט, ט): אַתֶּם נִצָּבִים הַיּוֹם כֻּלְּכֶם, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן אַתּוּן קַיָּימִין גִּבּוֹרִים לַעֲמֹד בְּכֻלָּן.
28. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 4.8, 4.8.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
4.8. The Christ of the Creator had to be called a Nazarene according to prophecy; whence the Jews also designate us, on that very account, Nazerenes after Him. For we are they of whom it is written, Her Nazarites were whiter than snow; Lamentations 4:7 even they who were once defiled with the stains of sin, and darkened with the clouds of ignorance. But to Christ the title Nazarene was destined to become a suitable one, from the hiding-place of His infancy, for which He went down and dwelt at Nazareth, to escape from Archelaus the son of Herod. This fact I have not refrained from mentioning on this account, because it behooved Marcion's Christ to have forborne all connection whatever with the domestic localities of the Creator's Christ, when he had so many towns in Jud a which had not been by the prophets thus assigned to the Creator's Christ. But Christ will be (the Christ) of the prophets, wheresoever He is found in accordance with the prophets. And yet even at Nazareth He is not remarked as having preached anything new, Luke 4:23 while in another verse He is said to have been rejected Luke 4:29 by reason of a simple proverb. Luke 4:24 Here at once, when I observe that they laid their hands on Him, I cannot help drawing a conclusion respecting His bodily substance, which cannot be believed to have been a phantom, since it was capable of being touched and even violently handled, when He was seized and taken and led to the very brink of a precipice. For although He escaped through the midst of them, He had already experienced their rough treatment, and afterwards went His way, no doubt because the crowd (as usually happens) gave way, or was even broken through; but not because it was eluded as by an impalpable disguise, which, if there had been such, would not at all have submitted to any touch. Tangere enim et tangi, nisi corpus, nulla potest res, is even a sentence worthy of a place in the world's wisdom. In short, He did himself touch others, upon whom He laid His hands, which were capable of being felt, and conferred the blessings of healing, Luke 4:40 which were not less true, not less unimaginary, than were the hands wherewith He bestowed them. He was therefore the very Christ of Isaiah, the healer of our sicknesses. Surely, says he, He has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows. Now the Greeks are accustomed to use for carry a word which also signifies to take away. A general promise is enough for me in passing. Whatever were the cures which Jesus effected, He is mine. We will come, however, to the kinds of cures. To liberate men, then, from evil spirits, is a cure of sickness. Accordingly, wicked spirits (just in the manner of our former example) used to go forth with a testimony, exclaiming, You are the Son of God, Luke 4:41 - of what God, is clear enough from the case itself. But they were rebuked, and ordered not to speak; precisely because Christ willed Himself to be proclaimed by men, not by unclean spirits, as the Son of God- even that Christ alone to whom this was befitting, because He had sent beforehand men through whom He might become known, and who were assuredly worthier preachers. It was natural to Him to refuse the proclamation of an unclean spirit, at whose command there was an abundance of saints. He, however, who had never been foretold (if, indeed, he wished to be acknowledged; for if he did not wish so much, his coming was in vain), would not have spurned the testimony of an alien or any sort of substance, who did not happen to have a substance of his own, but had descended in an alien one. And now, too, as the destroyer also of the Creator, he would have desired nothing better than to be acknowledged by His spirits, and to be divulged for the sake of being feared: only that Marcion says that his god is not feared; maintaining that a good being is not an object of fear, but only a judicial being, in whom reside the grounds of fear- anger, severity, judgments, vengeance, condemnation. But it was from fear, undoubtedly, that the evil spirits were cowed. Therefore they confessed that (Christ) was the Son of a God who was to be feared, because they would have an occasion of not submitting if there were none for fearing. Besides, He showed that He was to be feared, because He drove them out, not by persuasion like a good being, but by command and reproof. Or else did he reprove them, because they were making him an object of fear, when all the while he did not want to be feared? And in what manner did he wish them to go forth, when they could not do so except with fear? So that he fell into the dilemma of having to conduct himself contrary to his nature, whereas he might in his simple goodness have at once treated them with leniency. He fell, too, into another false position - of prevarication, when he permitted himself to be feared by the demons as the Son of the Creator, that he might drive them out, not indeed by his own power, but by the authority of the Creator. He departed, and went into a desert place. Luke 4:42 This was, indeed, the Creator's customary region. It was proper that the Word should there appear in body, where He had aforetime, wrought in a cloud. To the gospel also was suitable that condition of place which had once been determined on for the law. Let the wilderness and the solitary place, therefore, be glad and rejoice; so had Isaiah promised. Isaiah 35:1 When stayed by the crowds, He said, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also. Luke 4:42-43 Had He displayed His God anywhere yet? I suppose as yet nowhere. But was He speaking of those who knew of another god also? I do not believe so. If, therefore, neither He had preached, nor they had known, any other God but the Creator, He was announcing the kingdom of that God whom He knew to be the only God known to those who were listening to Him.
29. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 80.3-80.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172, 197
16. Justin: And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: 'And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regards not persons, and takes not rewards.' And in Leviticus: 'Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned. Leviticus 26:40-41 For the circumcision according to the flesh, which is from Abraham, was given for a sign; that you may be separated from other nations, and from us; and that you alone may suffer that which you now justly suffer; and that your land may be desolate, and your cities burned with fire; and that strangers may eat your fruit in your presence, and not one of you may go up to Jerusalem.' For you are not recognised among the rest of men by any other mark than your fleshly circumcision. For none of you, I suppose, will venture to say that God neither did nor does foresee the events, which are future, nor foreordained his deserts for each one. Accordingly, these things have happened to you in fairness and justice, for you have slain the Just One, and His prophets before Him; and now you reject those who hope in Him, and in Him who sent Him- God the Almighty and Maker of all things- cursing in your synagogues those that believe in Christ. For you have not the power to lay hands upon us, on account of those who now have the mastery. But as often as you could, you did so. Wherefore God, by Isaiah, calls to you, saying, 'Behold how the righteous man perished, and no one regards it. For the righteous man is taken away from before iniquity. His grave shall be in peace, he is taken away from the midst. Draw near hither, you lawless children, seed of the adulterers, and children of the whore. Against whom have you sported yourselves, and against whom have you opened the mouth, and against whom have you loosened the tongue?' Isaiah 57:1-4
30. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
65a. b And this is as we learned /b in a mishna ( i Shekalim /i 13b): b Petaḥya /b was responsible b for the nests /b of birds, i.e., the doves or pigeons brought by a i zav /i , a i zava /i , a woman after childbirth, and a leper. These individuals would place the appropriate sum of money into the horn designated for this purpose, and each day Petaḥya oversaw the purchase of birds from that money and their sacrifice in the proper manner. b This /b Sage b is Mordekhai; /b and b why was he called Petaḥya, /b which resembles the word for opening [ i petaḥ /i ]? The reason is b that he would open, /b i.e., elucidate, difficult b topics and interpret them /b to the people, b and /b because b he knew /b all b seventy languages /b known in that region at the time.,The Gemara asks: What was unique about Petaḥya? b All /b of the members of the b Sanhedrin also know /b all b seventy languages. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b They b place on the /b Great b Sanhedrin only /b men b of wisdom, and of /b pleasant b appearance, and of /b high b stature, and of /b suitable b age /b so that they will be respected. b And /b they must also be b masters of sorcery, /b i.e., they know the nature of sorcery, so that they can judge sorcerers, b and /b they must b know /b all b seventy languages /b in order b that the Sanhedrin will not /b need to b hear /b testimony b from the mouth of a translator /b in a case where a witness speaks a different language.,The Gemara answers: b Rather, /b Petaḥya was unique b as /b he not only knew all seventy languages, but also had the ability to b combine /b various b languages and interpret /b them. b This is /b the meaning of that b which is written with regard to Mordekhai: “Bilshan” /b (Nehemiah 7:7). Bilshan is interpreted as another name for Mordekhai, as he would combine [ i balil /i ] languages [ i lashon /i ]., strong MISHNA: /strong b How would they perform /b the rite of the harvest of the i omer /i ? b Emissaries of the court /b would b emerge on the eve of the festival /b of Passover b and fashion /b the stalks of barley into b sheaves while /b the stalks were still b attached to the ground, so that it would be convenient to reap /b them. The residents of b all the towns adjacent to /b the site of the harvest b would assemble there, so that it would be harvested with great fanfare. /b , b Once it grew dark, /b the court emissary b says to /b those assembled: b Did the sun set? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: b Did the sun set? /b They again b say: Yes. /b The court emissary next says to those assembled: Shall I reap the sheaves with b this sickle? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: With b this sickle? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary then says to those assembled: Shall I place the gathered sheaves in b this basket? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: In b this basket? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b ,If the sixteenth of Nisan occurs b on Shabbat, /b the court emissary b says to /b the assembled: Shall I cut the sheaves on b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says /b in response: b Yes. /b The emissary repeats: On b this Shabbat? /b The assembly b says: Yes. /b The court emissary says to those assembled: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say to him /b in response: b Cut. /b The emissary repeats: b Shall I cut /b the sheaves? b And they say /b to him: b Cut. /b ,The emissary asks b three times with regard to each and every matter, and /b the assembly b says to him: Yes, yes, yes. /b The mishna asks: b Why do I /b need those involved to publicize each stage of the rite b to that extent? /b The mishna answers: It is b due to the Boethusians, as they /b deny the validity of the Oral Law and b would say: There is no harvest of the i omer /i at the conclusion of the /b first b Festival /b day of Passover unless it occurs at the conclusion of Shabbat. The publicity was to underscore that the sixteenth of Nisan was the proper time for the i omer /i harvest., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b These are the days on which fasting is prohibited, and on some of them eulogizing is prohibited /b as well: b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month, the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. b And /b furthermore, b from the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period.,The Gemara discusses the i baraita /i : b From the New Moon of Nisan until the eighth of /b the month the proper sacrifice of b the daily offering was established, /b and therefore it was decreed b not to eulogize /b on these dates. The Gemara explains b that the Sadducees would say: An individual may donate and bring /b the b daily offering, /b in opposition to the accepted tradition that the daily offering must be brought from communal funds. b What /b verse did the Sadducees b expound? “The one lamb shall you offer [ i ta’aseh /i ] in the morning, and the other lamb shall you offer in the afternoon” /b (Numbers 28:4). Since the verse is in the singular form, the Sadducees maintained that even an individual may donate the daily offering.,The Gemara asks: b What /b did the Sages b reply /b to refute the argument of the Sadducees? They cited the verse: “Command the children of Israel, and say to them: b My food that is presented to Me for offerings made by fire, /b of a pleasing aroma unto Me, b you shall observe [ i tishmeru /i ] /b to offer to Me in its due season” (Numbers 28:2). The term: “You shall observe” is in the plural form, which indicates that b all of the /b daily offerings b should come from collection of the /b Temple treasury b chamber. /b Since during that period, between the New Moon of Nisan and the eighth of Nisan, the Sages overruled the Sadducees, it was established as a period of rejoicing, and it was prohibited to eulogize on those dates.,The Gemara discusses the next period listed in the i baraita /i : b From the eighth of /b Nisan b until the end of the festival /b of Passover, the correct date for the b festival of i Shavuot /i was restored, /b and it was similarly decreed b not to eulogize /b during this period. b As the Boethusians would say /b that the festival of b i Shavuot /i /b always occurs b after Shabbat, /b on a Sunday. Their reasoning was that the verse states, with regard to the i omer /i offering and the festival of i Shavuot /i that follows seven weeks later: “And you shall count for you from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ], from the day that you brought the sheaf [ i omer /i ] of the waving; seven weeks shall there be complete” (Leviticus 23:15). Disregarding the oral tradition, the Boethusians interpreted the phrase “from the morrow after the day of rest [ i hashabbat /i ]” literally, as referring to Shabbat, not the Festival day.,At the time, b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined /b the discussion with the Boethusians b and said to them: Fools! From where /b have b you /b derived this? b And there was no man who answered him, except for one elderly man who was prattling [ i mefatpet /i ] at him, and he said: Moses, our teacher, was a lover of the Jewish people and he knew that i Shavuot /i is /b only b one day. /b Therefore, b he arose and established it after Shabbat, in order that the Jewish people would enjoy themselves for two days. /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b recited this verse /b in response b to /b that old man: b “It is eleven days’ journey from Horeb to Kadesh Barnea by the way of Mount Seir” /b (Deuteronomy 1:2).
31. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 1.6.1-2, 1.6, 1.6.4, 1.6.5, 1.6.3, 1.7, 3.39.15, 4-6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 117, 129
3.39.15. This also the presbyter said: Mark, having become the interpreter of Peter, wrote down accurately, though not in order, whatsoever he remembered of the things said or done by Christ. For he neither heard the Lord nor followed him, but afterward, as I said, he followed Peter, who adapted his teaching to the needs of his hearers, but with no intention of giving a connected account of the Lord's discourses, so that Mark committed no error while he thus wrote some things as he remembered them. For he was careful of one thing, not to omit any of the things which he had heard, and not to state any of them falsely. These things are related by Papias concerning Mark.
32. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
27b. וחלקום והעמידום על עשרים וארבעה בללום ונתנום בקלפי בא ידעיה ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש בא [חרים] ונטל חלקו וחלק חבריו שש וכן פשחור וכן אימר,וכן התנו נביאים שביניהם שאפי' (יהוידיב) ראש משמרת עולה לא ידחה ידעיה ממקומו אלא ידעיה עיקר (ויהוידיב) טפל לו:,וישראל שבאותו משמר מתכנסין בעריהן וקורין במעשה בראשית: מנהני מילי א"ר יעקב בר אחא אמר רב אסי אלמלא מעמדות לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר (בראשית טו, ב) ויאמר ה' אלהים במה אדע כי אירשנה,אמר אברהם רבש"ע שמא ישראל חוטאין לפניך אתה עושה להם כדור המבול וכדור הפלגה א"ל לאו אמר לפניו רבש"ע הודיעני במה אירשנה א"ל (בראשית טו, ט) קחה לי עגלה משולשת ועז משולשת וגו',אמר לפניו רבש"ע תינח בזמן שבית המקדש קיים בזמן שאין בית המקדש קיים מה תהא עליהם אמר לו כבר תקנתי להם סדר קרבנות בזמן שקוראין בהן לפני מעלה אני עליהם כאילו הקריבום לפני ואני מוחל להם על כל עונותיהם,ת"ר אנשי משמר היו מתפללין על קרבן אחיהם שיתקבל ברצון ואנשי מעמד מתכנסין לבית הכנסת ויושבין ד' תעניות בשני בשבת בשלישי ברביעי ובחמישי בשני על יורדי הים בשלישי על הולכי מדברות,ברביעי על אסכרא שלא תיפול על התינוקות בחמישי על עוברות ומיניקות עוברות שלא יפילו מיניקות שיניקו את בניהם ובערב שבת לא היו מתענין מפני כבוד השבת ק"ו בשבת עצמה,באחד בשבת מ"ט לא אמר ר' יוחנן מפני הנוצרים ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר מפני שהוא שלישי ליצירה,ריש לקיש אמר מפני נשמה יתירה דאמר ריש לקיש נשמה יתירה ניתנה בו באדם בע"ש במוצאי שבת נוטלין אותה ממנו שנאמר (שמות לא, יז) שבת וינפש כיון ששבת וי אבדה נפש:,ביום הראשון בראשית ויהי רקיע: תנא בראשית בשנים יהי רקיע באחד בשלמא יהי רקיע באחד תלתא פסוקי הוו אלא בראשית בשנים (מ"ט) ה' פסוקי הויין (ותנן) הקורא בתורה אל יפחות מג' פסוקים,רב אמר דולג ושמואל אמר פוסק ורב דאמר דולג מ"ט לא אמר פוסק קסבר כל פסוקא דלא פסקיה משה אנן לא פסקינן ליה,ושמואל אמר פוסק ומי פסקינן והאמר רבי חנינא קרא צער גדול היה לי אצל ר' חנינא הגדול ולא התיר לי לפסוק אלא לתינוקות של בית רבן הואיל ולהתלמד עשוין ושמואל התם טעמא מאי משום דלא אפשר הכא נמי לא אפשר,ושמואל אמר פוסק מ"ט לא אמר דולג גזירה משום הנכנסין וגזירה משום היוצאין,מיתיבי פרשה של ששה פסוקים קורין אותה בשנים ושל חמשה [ביחיד ואם] הראשון קורא ג' השני קורא שנים מפרשה זו ואחד מפרשה אחרת וי"א ג' לפי שאין מתחילין בפרשה פחות משלשה פסוקין,למ"ד דולג לידלוג ולמאן דאמר פוסק ליפסוק שאני התם 27b. b and divided them and established them as twenty-four /b watches. They achieved this by writing the names of these new twenty-four watches on pieces of paper, b mixing them up, and putting them in a receptacle [ i kalfei /i ] /b from which lots were drawn. A representative from the family of b Jedaiah came and drew his portion and the lot of /b five b other /b watches, for a total of b six. Harim came and /b also b drew his portion and the lot of /b five b other /b watches, a total of b six. And likewise Pashhur, and likewise Immer. /b , b And likewise the prophets among them stipulated that even /b if the descendants of b Jehoiarib, who /b originally b headed the priestly watches, ascended /b to Eretz Yisrael, b Jedaiah would not be demoted from its place /b as the first of the watches. Rather, the watch of b Jedaiah /b would retain b precedence, and Jehoiarib /b would be b subordinate to it. /b ,§ The mishna taught: b And the Israelites of that priestly watch assembled in their towns and read the act of Creation. /b The Gemara asks: b From where is this matter, /b that they must read this specific portion, derived? b Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa said /b that b Rav Asi said: Were it not for /b the b non-priestly watches /b and the Temple service, b heaven and earth would not continue to exist, as it is stated: “And he said: Lord God, by what shall I know that I shall inherit it?” /b (Genesis 15:8).,The Gemara explains this verse. b Abraham said: Master of the Universe, perhaps the Jews /b will b sin before You. /b Will b You treat them as /b You did b the generation of the flood and the generation of the dispersion, /b and destroy them? God b said to him: No. /b Abraham b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, tell me, with what shall I inherit it? /b How can my descendants ensure that You will maintain the world? God b said to /b Abraham: b “Take for Me a three-year-old heifer, and a three-year-old goat, /b and a three-year-old ram, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon” (Genesis 15:9). God was alluding to the offerings, in whose merit the Jewish people, and through them the entire world, will be spared divine punishment.,Abraham b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, /b this b works out well when the Temple is standing, /b but b when the Temple is not standing, what will become of them? /b God b said to him: I have already enacted for them the order of offerings. When they read them before Me, I will ascribe them /b credit b as though they had sacrificed them before Me and I will pardon them for all their transgressions. /b Since the offerings ensure the continued existence of the Jewish people and the rest of the world, the act of Creation is read in their honor.,§ b The Sages taught: The members of the priestly watch would pray for the offerings of their brothers, /b the daily offering, b that it should be accepted with favor. And /b meanwhile, b the members of /b the b non-priestly watch /b remained in their towns and would b assemble in the synagogue and observe four fasts: On Monday of /b that b week, on Tuesday, on Wednesday, and on Thursday. On Monday /b they would fast b for seafarers, /b that they should be rescued from danger, as the sea was created on Monday. b On Tuesday /b they would fast b for those who walk in the desert, /b as the dry land was created on Tuesday., b On Wednesday /b they would fast b over croup, that it should not befall the children, /b as on the fourth day the bodies of light [ i me’orot /i ] were created, a textual allusion to curses [ i me’erot /i ]. b On Thursday /b they would fast b for pregt women and nursing women, /b as living beings were first created on this day. For b pregt women /b they would fast b that they should not miscarry, /b while for b nursing women /b they would fast b that they /b should be able to b nurse their children /b properly. b And on Shabbat eve they would not fast, in deference to Shabbat, /b and b i a fortiori /i /b they would not fast b on Shabbat itself. /b ,The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that they would b not /b fast b on Sunday? Rabbi Yoḥa said: Due to the Christians, /b as Sunday is their day of rest, and they would claim that even the Jews ascribe significance to their special day. b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Because it is the third day after the creation /b of man, who was created on Friday, and the third day of recovery from a wound or sickness, in this case one’s very creation, is considered the most painful., b Reish Lakish said: /b They would not fast on Sunday b due to the added soul, as Reish Lakish said: An added soul is given to man on Shabbat eve, /b and b at the conclusion of Shabbat it is removed it from him, as it is stated: “He ceased from work and rested /b [ b i vayinafash /i /b ]” (Exodus 31:17), which he expounds as follows: b Since one has rested /b and Shabbat has passed, b woe for the soul [ i vai nefesh /i ] /b that is b lost, /b the added soul that each individual relinquishes. Consequently, one is still weak from this loss on Sunday.,The mishna taught that b on Sunday /b they would read the portions starting with: b “In the beginning” /b (Genesis 1:1–5) b and “Let there be a firmament” /b (Genesis 1:6–8). It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The section: b “In the beginning” /b is read b by two /b people, while b “Let there be a firmament” /b is read b by one. /b The Gemara asks: b Granted, /b the passage b “Let there be a firmament” /b is read b by one /b individual, as b it is three verses /b long, and one who is called to the Torah reads at least three verses. b However, what is the reason /b that the section b “In the beginning” /b is read b by two /b individuals? It is five verses long, b and it is taught /b in a mishna ( i Megilla /i 22a): b One who reads from the Torah /b may b not /b read b fewer than three verses. /b How, then, are five verses read by two individuals?,The Gemara cites two answers. b Rav said: /b The first reader reads the first three verses, and the second reader b repeats /b the last verse read by the first, and continues with the final two verses. b And Shmuel said: /b They b split /b the middle verse into two, so that each of the pair reads half of it. The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b Rav, who said /b that one b repeats, what is the reason /b that b he did not say /b they should b split /b a verse? The Gemara answers that Rav b maintains /b that with regard to b any verse that was not divided by Moses, we do not divide it. /b , b And Shmuel said /b that one b splits /b the middle verse into two. The Gemara asks: b And may one split /b a single verse? b But didn’t Rabbi Ḥanina Kara, /b the Bible expert, who taught the Bible to schoolchildren, b say: I had great trouble with Rabbi Ḥanina the Great /b when I asked him this question, b and he permitted me to split /b long verses into two b only for /b the benefit of b schoolchildren, since it is performed to /b help them b learn. And Shmuel /b can respond that b what is the reason there, /b in the case of schoolchildren, that it is permitted to split verses? b Because it is not possible /b to proceed in any other way. b Here too, it is not possible /b for two people to read five verses other than by splitting one of them into two.,The Gemara questions this last conclusion. b And Shmuel said /b that one b splits /b the middle verse into two. b What is the reason /b that b he did not say /b that he b repeats /b one of the verses, in accordance with the opinion of Rav? The Gemara explains: It is a rabbinic b decree due to those who enter /b the synagogue in the middle of the reading, and b a decree due to those who leave /b in the middle. If someone entered or exited in the middle of the reading and heard three full verses, he might think that one of the readers had read fewer than three full verses, which might lead him to conclude that it is permitted to read fewer than three verses.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from a i baraita /i : b A chapter /b consisting b of six verses /b may b be read by two /b individuals, b and /b a chapter b of five /b verses must be read b by one. And if the first /b individual b reads three /b verses from the five-verse chapter, b the second /b one reads the last b two /b verses b of that chapter and one /b more from b another chapter. And some say /b that b three /b verses are read from the next chapter, b as one may not begin to read a chapter /b for b fewer than three verses. /b ,The Gemara explains the objection: b According to the one who said /b that they b repeat /b the middle verse, b let /b the second reader b repeat /b a verse here as well. b And according to the one who said /b that they b split /b a verse, here too, b let /b them b split /b it. Apparently, the i baraita /i contradicts the opinions of both Rav and Shmuel. The Gemara answers: b It is different there, /b
33. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
43a. (ויקרא כד, כג) ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה' את משה,אלא מעתה (ויקרא כד, כג) וירגמו אותו אבן מאי עבדי ליה ההוא מבעי ליה לכדתניא וירגמו אותו באבן אותו ולא בכסותו אבן שאם מת באבן אחת יצא,ואצטריך למיכתב אבן ואיצטריך למיכתב אבנים דאי כתב רחמנא אבן הוה אמינא היכא דלא מת בחדא לא ניתי אחריתי ומיקטליה כתב רחמנא אבנים ואי כתב רחמנא אבנים הוה אמינא מעיקרא נייתי תרתי כתב רחמנא אבן,והא האי תנא נאמר קאמר אילו לא נאמר קאמר וה"ק אילו לא נאמר קרא הייתי אומר גזירה שוה עכשיו שנאמר קרא גזירה שוה לא צריך,רב אשי אמר משה היכא הוה יתיב במחנה לוייה ואמר ליה רחמנא הוצא את המקלל חוץ למחנה לוייה אל מחוץ למחנה חוץ למחנה ישראל ויוציאו את המקלל לעשייה,עשייה בהדיא כתיב בהו ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה' את משה ההוא מיבעי ליה חד לסמיכה וחד לדחייה,אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי לדידך כל הני הוציא דכתיבי בפרים הנשרפים מאי דרשת בהו קשיא:,אחד עומד כו': אמר רב הונא פשיטא לי אחד אבן שנסקל בה ואחד עץ שנתלה בו ואחד סייף שנהרג בו ואחד סודר שנחנק בו כולן משל צבור מ"ט דמדידיה לא אמרינן ליה זיל וליתיה וליקטול נפשיה,בעי רב הונא סודר שמניפין בו וסוס שרץ ומעמידן משל מי הוא כיון דהצלה דידיה מדידיה הוא או דילמא כיון דבי דינא מחייבין למעבד בה הצלה מדידהו,ותו הא דאמר ר' חייא בר רב אשי אמר רב חסדא היוצא ליהרג משקין אותו קורט של לבונה בכוס של יין כדי שתטרף דעתו שנאמר (משלי לא, ו) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש ותניא נשים יקרות שבירושלים היו מתנדבות ומביאות אותן לא התנדבו נשים יקרות משל מי הא ודאי מסתברא משל צבור כיון דכתיב תנו מדידהו,בעא מיניה רב אחא בר הונא מרב ששת אמר אחד מן התלמידים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות ונשתתק מהו מנפח רב ששת בידיה נשתתק אפילו אחד בסוף העולם נמי התם לא קאמר הכא קאמר מאי,תא שמע דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו זיכה אין לא זיכה לא,זיכה פשיטא לי אמר תיבעי לך:,אפילו הוא כו': ואפילו פעם ראשונה ושניה והתניא פעם ראשונה ושניה בין שיש ממש בדבריו בין שאין ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו מכאן ואילך אם יש ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו אין ממש בדבריו אין מחזירין אותו,אמר רב פפא תרגומה מפעם שניה ואילך,מנא ידעי אמר אביי דמסרינן ליה זוגא דרבנן אי איכא ממש בדבריו אין אי לא לא,ולימסר ליה מעיקרא אגב דבעית לא מצי אמר כל מאי דאית ליה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מצאו לו זכות פטרוהו ואם לאו יצא ליסקל וכרוז יוצא לפניו איש פלוני בן פלוני יוצא ליסקל על שעבר עבירה פלונית ופלוני ופלוני עדיו כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר אביי וצריך למימר ביום פלוני ובשעה פלונית ובמקום פלוני דילמא איכא דידעי ואתו ומזים להו:,וכרוז יוצא לפניו לפניו אין מעיקרא לא והתניא בערב הפסח תלאוהו לישו והכרוז יוצא לפניו מ' יום ישו יוצא ליסקל על שכישף והסית והדיח את ישראל כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו ולא מצאו לו זכות ותלאוהו בערב הפסח,אמר עולא ותסברא בר הפוכי זכות הוא מסית הוא ורחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו אלא שאני ישו דקרוב למלכות הוה,ת"ר חמשה תלמידים היו לו לישו מתאי נקאי נצר ובוני ותודה אתיוהו למתי אמר להו מתי יהרג הכתיב (תהלים מב, ג) מתי אבוא ואראה פני אלהים אמרו לו אין מתי יהרג דכתיב (שם מא, ו) מתי ימות ואבד שמו,אתיוהו לנקאי אמר להו נקאי יהרג הכתיב (שמות כג, ז) ונקי וצדיק אל תהרוג אמרו לו אין נקאי יהרג דכתיב (תהלים י, ח) במסתרים יהרג נקי,אתיוהו לנצר אמר נצר יהרג הכתיב (ישעיה יא, א) ונצר משרשיו יפרה אמרו לו אין נצר יהרג דכתיב (שם יד, יט) ואתה השלכת מקברך כנצר נתעב,אתיוהו לבוני אמר אמר בוני יהרג הכתיב (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל אמרו לי' אין בוני יהרג דכתיב (שם, כג) הנה אנכי הורג את בנך בכורך,אתיוהו לתודה אמר תודה יהרג הכתיב (תהלים ק, א) מזמור לתודה אמרו לו אין תודה יהרג דכתיב (שם נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני 43a. b “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.” /b ,The Gemara asks: b If that is so, what do they do with /b the words in the verse: b “And they stoned him with a stone”? /b These words appear to be superfluous, as even without them we would know that God’s instructions to stone the blasphemer were implemented. What then do they serve to teach? The Gemara answers: b That /b phrase is b necessary for that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And they stoned him with a stone.” /b The word b “him” /b teaches that they stoned him alone, while he was naked, b but not /b while he was b in his clothing. /b The verse uses the singular term b “stone [ i aven /i ]” /b rather than the plural term stones [ i avanim /i ] to teach b that if /b the condemned man b died /b after being struck b with one stone, /b the court has b fulfilled /b its obligation.,The Gemara notes: b And /b it b was necessary to write /b with regard to the blasphemer that “they stoned him with b a stone,” /b in the singular, b and /b it b was necessary to write /b with regard to the man who gathered sticks on Shabbat that “they stoned him with b stones” /b (Numbers 15:36), in the plural. b As, had the Merciful One written /b only b “stone,” I would say /b that b where /b the condemned man b did not die /b after being struck b with one /b stone, b they do not bring other /b stones b and kill him /b with them. Therefore, b the Merciful One writes “stones.” And had the Merciful One written /b only b “stones,” I would say /b that b from the outset they should bring two /b or more stones. Therefore, b the Merciful One writes “stone.” /b ,The Gemara raises an objection to Rav Pappa’s derivation: b But this i tanna /i /b of the i baraita /i cited above b said: It is stated /b here and it is stated elsewhere, thereby basing his derivation on a verbal analogy between the verse concerning the blasphemer and the verse concerning the bulls brought as sin-offerings that are burned. How, then, can Rav Pappa, an i amora /i , disagree and derive the i halakha /i directly from the verse dealing with the blasphemer? The Gemara answers: According to Rav Pappa, the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b said: Had it not been stated, and this /b is what he b is saying: Had a verse not been stated /b from which it can be directly derived that the condemned man is stoned outside all three camps, b I would have said /b that this can be learned by way of b a verbal analogy. /b But b now that /b such b a verse has been stated, /b the b verbal analogy is not needed. /b , b Rav Ashi said: /b The location of the place of stoning can be directly derived from the verse discussing the blasphemer but in a slightly different manner. b Where was Moses sitting /b when the matter of the blasphemer was brought before him? b In the Levite camp. And the Merciful One said to him: “Take out him who has cursed” /b (Leviticus 24:14), indicating that he should be taken b outside the Levite camp /b into the Israelite camp. And God continued in that verse: b “Outside the camp,” /b which is an additional command that he should be removed even further, to b outside the Israelite camp. /b And the later verse, which says: b “And they brought him that had cursed /b out of the camp…and the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses” (Leviticus 24:23), teaches us b about the implementation /b of God’s instructions, i.e., that the children of Israel did in fact carry out His command.,The Gemara raises an objection: b The implementation /b of God’s instructions is b written explicitly in this /b context, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: b “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.” /b The Gemara answers: b That /b verse b is necessary /b to teach us that not only was the condemned man taken outside the three camps and stoned, but the rest of God’s instructions were also fulfilled. These instructions relate b to the placing /b of the witnesses’ b hands /b upon the head of the condemned man, as it is stated: “And let all that heard him place their hands upon his head” (Leviticus 24:14), b and to the /b witnesses’ b pushing /b of the condemned man from a platform the height of two stories., b The Sages said to Rav Ashi: According to you, /b that the expression “take out” by itself means outside the camp, and “outside the camp” means outside an additional camp, b what do you learn from all those /b instances of b “take out” that are written with regard to the bulls /b brought as sin-offerings b that are burned? /b According to your explanation, there are many superfluous phrases in the verses. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is b difficult /b with regard to the opinion of Rav Ashi.,§ The mishna teaches that b one /b man b stands /b at the entrance to the court, with cloths in his hand, ready to signal to the court agents leading the condemned man to his execution that some doubt has been raised with respect to the latter’s guilt. b Rav Huna says: /b It is b obvious to me /b that b the stone with which /b the condemned man b is stoned and the tree on which /b his corpse b is hung /b after his execution, b or the sword with which he is killed, or the scarf with which he is strangled, all of these /b come b from /b the property of b the community. What is the reason /b for this? b We do not tell /b the condemned man to b go and bring /b these items b from his own /b property b and /b effectively b kill himself. /b , b Rav Huna raised /b a dilemma: With regard to b the cloth that is waved and the horse that races /b off after the court agents b to stop /b the latter from carrying out the execution, b from whose /b property b do they come, /b that of the condemned man or that of the community? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: b Since /b they are needed to b save /b the man being led to his execution, these items should be taken b from his /b property. b Or perhaps, since the court is obligated to /b take all possible measures to b save him /b from death, they should be taken b from them, /b i.e., the community., b And furthermore, /b another question is raised along similar lines: With regard to b that which Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says /b that b Rav Ḥisda says: /b The court b gives one who is being led out to be killed a grain [ i koret /i ] of frankincense in a cup of wine in order to confuse his mind /b and thereby minimize his suffering from the fear of his impending death, b as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter in soul” /b (Proverbs 31:6). b And it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The prominent women of Jerusalem would donate /b this drink b and bring /b it to those being led out to be killed. The question is: If b these prominent women did not donate /b this drink, b from whom /b is it taken? The Gemara answers: With regard to b this /b question, it b is certainly reasonable /b that this drink should be taken b from the community, as it is written: “Give [ i tenu /i ] /b strong drink,” in the plural, indicating that it should come b from them, /b the community.,§ b Rav Aḥa bar Huna asked Rav Sheshet: /b If b one of the students /b sitting before the judges b said: I can teach /b a reason to b acquit him, and he became mute /b and cannot explain himself, b what is /b the i halakha /i in such a case? Does the court take heed of his words, or do they disregard him? b Rav Sheshet waved his hands /b in scorn and said: If the student b became mute, /b the court certainly does not pay attention to him, as were the court to concern themselves with what he said, they would have to be concerned b even /b that perhaps there is b someone at the end of the world /b who can propose an argument in the condemned man’s favor. The Gemara rejects this argument: The cases are not similar. b There, no one said /b that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. b Here, /b the student already b said /b that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. The question, therefore, is appropriate. b What /b is the i halakha /i in such a case?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b an answer: b As Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: /b In a case where there was b one of the students who /b argued to b acquit /b the defendant b and /b then b died, /b the court b views him as if /b he were b alive and standing in his place /b and voting to acquit the defendant. The implication is that if b he /b argued to b acquit /b the defendant and explained his reasoning, b yes, /b the court counts his vote as if he were still alive. But if b he did not /b actually argue to b acquit /b the defendant, but only said that he wished to propose such an argument, his vote is b not /b counted as though he were still alive.,The Gemara rejects this proof: If the student b argued /b to b acquit /b the defendant, it is b obvious to me /b that he should be counted among those favoring acquittal. But if he only b says /b that he wishes to propose such an argument, b let the dilemma be raised /b whether or not he should be regarded as having presented a convincing argument in favor of acquittal. The question is left unresolved.,The mishna teaches: And b even /b if b he, /b the condemned man himself, says: I can teach a reason to acquit myself, he is returned to the courthouse even four or five times, provided that there is substance to his words. The Gemara asks: b And /b is the i halakha /i that there must be substance to his words b even the first and second time /b that the condemned man says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The first and second times /b that he says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself, b they return him /b to the courthouse and consider b whether there is substance to his statement or there is no substance to his statement. From this /b point b forward, if there is substance to his statement they return him /b to the courthouse, but if b there is no substance to his statement, they do not return him. /b This appears to contradict the mishna., b Rav Pappa said: Explain /b that the mishna’s ruling applies only b from /b after b the second time forward, /b that from that point on we examine whether there is substance to his words.,The Gemara asks: b How do we know /b whether or not there is substance to his words? b Abaye said: /b If the condemned man has already been returned twice to the courthouse, b we send a pair of rabbis with him /b to evaluate his claim. b If /b they find that b there is substance to his statement, yes, /b he is returned once again to the courthouse; b if not, /b he is b not /b returned.,The Gemara asks: b But /b why not b send /b a pair of rabbis b with him from the outset, /b even the first time, and have them make an initial assessment of his claim? The Gemara answers: b Since /b a man facing execution b is frightened /b by the thought of his impending death, b he is not able to say all that he has /b to say, and perhaps out of fear he will be confused and not provide a substantial reason to overturn his verdict. Therefore, the first two times he is returned to the courthouse without an initial examination of his arguments. Once he has already been returned on two occasions, the court allows for no further delay, and they send two rabbis to evaluate his claim before returning him a third time., strong MISHNA: /strong If, after the condemned man is returned to the courthouse, the judges b find /b a reason to b acquit him, they /b acquit him and b release him /b immediately. b But if /b they do b not /b find a reason to acquit him, b he goes out to be stoned. And a crier goes out before him /b and publicly proclaims: b So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is going out to be stoned because he committed such and such a transgression. And so-and-so and so-and-so are his witnesses. Anyone who knows /b of a reason to b acquit him should come /b forward b and teach /b it b on his behalf. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Abaye says: And /b the crier b must /b also publicly b proclaim /b that the transgression was committed b on such and such a day, at such and such an hour, and at such and such a place, /b as b perhaps there are those who know /b that the witnesses could not have been in that place at that time, b and they will come /b forward b and render /b the witnesses b conspiring witnesses. /b ,The mishna teaches that b a crier goes out before /b the condemned man. This indicates that it is only b before him, /b i.e., while he is being led to his execution, that b yes, /b the crier goes out, but b from the outset, /b before the accused is convicted, he does b not /b go out. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On Passover Eve they hung /b the corpse of b Jesus the Nazarene /b after they killed him by way of stoning. b And a crier went out before him /b for b forty days, /b publicly proclaiming: b Jesus the Nazarene is going out to be stoned because he practiced sorcery, incited /b people to idol worship, b and led the Jewish people astray. Anyone who knows /b of a reason to b acquit him should come /b forward b and teach /b it b on his behalf. And /b the court b did not find /b a reason to b acquit him, and /b so b they /b stoned him and b hung his /b corpse b on Passover eve. /b , b Ulla said: And /b how can b you understand /b this proof? Was b Jesus the Nazarene worthy of /b conducting b a search /b for a reason to b acquit /b him? b He /b was b an inciter /b to idol worship, b and the Merciful One states /b with regard to an inciter to idol worship: b “Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him” /b (Deuteronomy 13:9). b Rather, Jesus was different, as he /b had b close /b ties b with the government, /b and the gentile authorities were interested in his acquittal. Consequently, the court gave him every opportunity to clear himself, so that it could not be claimed that he was falsely convicted.,Apropos the trial of Jesus, the Gemara cites another i baraita /i , where b the Sages taught: Jesus the Nazarene had five disciples: Mattai, Nakai, Netzer, Buni, and Toda. They brought Mattai in /b to stand trial. Mattai b said to /b the judges: b Shall Mattai be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “When [ i matai /i ] shall I come and appear before God?” /b (Psalms 42:3). Mattai claimed that this verse alludes to the fact he is righteous. b They said to him: Yes, Mattai shall be executed, as it is written: “When [ i matai /i ] shall he die, and his name perish?” /b (Psalms 41:6).,Then b they brought Nakai in /b to stand trial. Nakai b said /b to the judges: b Shall Nakai be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “And the innocent [ i naki /i ] and righteous you shall not slay” /b (Exodus 23:7)? b They said to him: Yes, Nakai shall be executed, as it is written: “In secret places he kills the innocent [ i naki /i ]” /b (Psalms 10:8).,Then b they brought Netzer in /b to stand trial. b He said /b to the judges: b Shall Netzer be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “And a branch [ i netzer /i ] shall grow out of his roots” /b (Isaiah 11:1)? b They said to him: Yes, Netzer shall be executed, as it is written: “But you are cast out of your grave like an abhorred branch [ i netzer /i ]” /b (Isaiah 14:19).,Then b they brought Buni in /b to stand trial. Buni b said /b to the judges: b Shall Buni be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “My firstborn son [ i beni /i ] is Israel” /b (Exodus 4:22)? b They said to him: Yes, Buni shall be executed, as it is written: “Behold, I shall kill your firstborn son [ i binkha /i ]” /b (Exodus 4:23).,Then b they brought Toda in /b to stand trial. Toda b said /b to the judges: b Shall Toda be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “A psalm of thanksgiving [ i toda /i ]” /b (Psalms 100:1)? b They said to him: Yes, Toda shall be executed, as it is written: “Whoever slaughters a thanks-offering [ i toda /i ] honors Me” /b (Psalms 50:23).
34. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 193
16b. הראשונים היו נשיאים ושניים להם אב ב"ד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר שלשה מזוגות הראשונים שאמרו שלא לסמוך ושנים מזוגות האחרונים שאמרו לסמוך (הראשונים) היו נשיאים ושניים להם אבות ב"ד דברי רבי מאיר וחכמים אומרים יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד ושמעון בן שטח נשיא,מאן תנא להא דתנו רבנן אמר רבי יהודה בן טבאי אראה בנחמה אם לא הרגתי עד זומם להוציא מלבן של צדוקין שהיו אומרים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיהרג הנידון,אמר לו שמעון בן שטח אראה בנחמה אם לא שפכת דם נקי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין עדים זוממין נהרגין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין לוקין עד שיזומו שניהם ואין משלמין ממון עד שיזומו שניהם,מיד קבל עליו יהודה בן טבאי שאינו מורה הלכה אלא בפני שמעון בן שטח,כל ימיו של יהודה בן טבאי היה משתטח על קברו של אותו הרוג והיה קולו נשמע כסבורין העם לומר שקולו של הרוג הוא אמר להם קולי הוא תדעו שלמחר הוא מת ואין קולו נשמע,אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי ודלמא פיוסי פייסיה או בדינא תבעי',מני הא אי אמרת בשלמא רבי מאיר דאמר שמעון בן שטח אב ב"ד ר"י בן טבאי נשיא היינו דקא מורי הלכה בפני שמעון בן שטח אלא אי אמרת רבנן דאמרי יהודה בן טבאי אב ב"ד שמעון בן שטח נשיא אב ב"ד בפני נשיא מי מורה הלכה,לא מאי קבל עליו דקאמר לאצטרופי דאפי' אצטרופי נמי לא מצטריפנא:,יצא מנחם ונכנס שמאי כו': להיכן יצא אביי אמר יצא לתרבות רעה רבא אמר יצא לעבודת המלך תניא נמי הכי יצא מנחם לעבודת המלך ויצאו עמו שמונים זוגות תלמידים לבושין סיריקון,אמר רב שמן בר אבא א"ר יוחנן לעולם אל תהא שבות קלה בעיניך שהרי סמיכה אינה אלא משום שבות ונחלקו בה גדולי הדור,פשיטא שבות מצוה אצטריכא ליה,הא נמי פשיטא לאפוקי ממאן דאמר בסמיכה גופה פליגי קא משמע לן בשבות הוא דפליגי,אמר רמי בר חמא שמע מינה סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן דאי ס"ד לא בעינן בכל כחו מאי קא עביד ליסמוך,מיתיבי (ויקרא א, ב) דבר אל בני ישראל וסמך בני ישראל סומכין ואין בנות ישראל סומכות רבי יוסי ור' (ישמעאל) [שמעון] אומרים בנות ישראל סומכות רשות,אמר רבי יוסי סח לי אבא אלעזר פעם אחת היה לנו עגל של זבחי שלמים והביאנוהו לעזרת נשים וסמכו עליו נשים לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים אלא כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים ואי ס"ד סמיכה בכל כחו בעינן משום נחת רוח דנשים עבדינן עבודה בקדשים אלא לאו ש"מ לא בעינן בכל כחו,לעולם אימא לך בעינן בכל כחו דאמר להו אקפו ידייכו אי הכי לא מפני שסמיכה בנשים תיפוק ליה דאינה לסמיכה כלל,א"ר אמי חדא ועוד קאמר חדא דליתא לסמיכה כלל ועוד כדי לעשות נחת רוח לנשים,אמר רב פפא שמע מינה צדדין אסורין דאי ס"ד צדדין מותרין לסמוך לצדדין אלא לאו שמע מינה צדדין אסורין 16b. b The first /b members of each pair b served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i . /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: Three of the first pairs who say not to place hands and two of the last pairs who say to place hands served as i Nasi /i , and their counterparts /b served as b deputy i Nasi /i ; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say /b the opposite: b Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i and Shimon ben Shataḥ /b was the b i Nasi /i . /b ,The Gemara asks: b Who is the i tanna /i /b who taught b that which the Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai said: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if I did not kill a conspiring witness. /b This means that Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai sentenced a conspiring witness to death, in order b to counter the views of the Sadducees, who would say: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless the sentenced one has been executed. /b Their views opposed the traditional view, which maintains that conspiring witnesses are executed only if the one sentenced by their testimony has not yet been executed., b Shimon ben Shataḥ said to him: /b I swear that b I will /b not b see the consolation /b of Israel b if you did not shed innocent blood, as the Sages said: Conspiring witnesses are not executed unless they are both found to be conspirators; /b if only one is found to be a conspirator, he is not executed. b And they are not flogged /b if they are liable to such a penalty, b unless they are both found to be conspirators. And /b if they testified falsely that someone owed money, b they do not pay money unless they are both found to be conspirators. /b ,Hearing this, b Yehuda ben Tabbai immediately accepted upon himself not to rule /b on any matter of b law unless he was in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ, /b as he realized he could not rely on his own judgment.,The i baraita /i further relates: b All of Yehuda ben Tabbai’s days, he would prostrate himself on the grave of that executed /b individual, to request forgiveness, b and his voice was heard /b weeping. b The people thought that it was the voice of that executed /b person, rising from his grave. Yehuda ben Tabbai b said to them: It is my voice, /b and b you /b shall b know /b that it is so, b for tomorrow, /b i.e., sometime in the future, b he will die, and his voice will no /b longer b be heard. /b Yehuda ben Tabbai was referring to himself, but he did not want to mention something negative about himself in direct terms., b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: /b This provides no conclusive proof that the voice was not that of the executed man, as b perhaps /b ben Tabbai b appeased /b the executed individual in the World-to-Come. b Or, /b alternatively, the latter may have b prosecuted him by the law /b of Heaven, and that is why his voice can no longer be heard.,The Gemara returns to its original question: b Whose /b opinion does b this /b i baraita /i follow? b Granted, if you say /b it is in accordance b with /b that of b Rabbi Meir, /b who b said /b that b Shimon ben Shataḥ was deputy i Nasi /i /b while b Rabbi Yehuda ben Tabbai was i Nasi /i , that /b explains why b he /b had previously b issued a halakhic ruling in the presence of Shimon ben Shataḥ /b to execute the conspiring witness, and only after that unfortunate incident did he undertake to issue rulings only in the presence of his colleague. b But if you say /b that the i baraita /i is in accordance with b the Sages, who said: Yehuda ben Tabbai /b was b deputy i Nasi /i /b and b Shimon ben Shataḥ /b the b i Nasi /i , /b why did he need to make such a commitment? b May /b the b deputy i Nasi /i issue a halakhic ruling in the presence of /b the b i Nasi /i ? /b ,The Gemara refutes this: b No; what /b did he mean by b accepting upon himself /b not to rule on his own? b He spoke /b with regard b to joining /b the ruling of others: b Even /b with regard to b joining /b the ruling of others, b I will also not join /b until I have first heard the view of Shimon ben Shataḥ.,§ It is taught in the mishna: b Menaḥem departed and Shammai entered. /b The Gemara asks: b To where did /b Menaḥem b depart? Abaye said: He departed and went astray. /b Therefore, the mishna did not wish to delve into the details of his case. b Rava said: He departed for the king’s service. /b He received a post from the king and had to leave the court. b This is also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Menaḥem departed for the king’s service, and eighty pairs of students dressed in silk robes left with him /b to work for the king, and that they no longer studied Torah.,§ b Rav Shemen bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: A rabbinic decree [ i shevut /i ] should never be taken lightly in your eyes, since placing hands /b on the head of an offering on a Festival b is prohibited only as a rabbinic decree /b because it is considered making use of an animal, which is not considered a prohibited labor but merely resembles one, and yet b the greatest /b scholars b of each generation disputed it. /b ,The Gemara is puzzled by this statement: This b is obvious. /b Since it is an accepted rabbinic decree, why should people take it lightly? The Gemara answers: It was b necessary for him /b to state it because it is b a rabbinic decree related to a mitzva. /b In other words, although this rabbinic decree of placing the hands on an animal is not performed for one’s own sake but for the purpose of a mitzva, it was nevertheless a serious matter in the eyes of the Sages.,The Gemara remains puzzled: b This too is obvious. /b In that case as well, the act is prohibited by the Sages. The Gemara responds: Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement comes b to exclude /b the opinion b of the one who said /b that b they disagree with regard to the actual /b obligation of b placing hands, /b i.e., whether or not obligatory peace-offerings require placing the hands. b He /b therefore b teaches us /b that b it is a rabbinic decree /b that is the subject b of their dispute, /b not the requirement itself., b Rami bar Ḥama said: /b You can b learn from here, /b from this dispute, that the mitzva of b placing hands /b requires not only placing one’s hands on the animal’s head, but b we also require /b that one places his hands b with all his strength. For if it enters your mind /b that b we do not require all his strength, what /b prohibition b does one violate /b by placing his hands? b Let him place /b them on a Festival as well, as this does not resemble a prohibited action at all., b The Gemara raises an objection /b to this from a i baraita /i : b “Speak to the children of [ i benei /i ] Israel” /b (Leviticus 1:2). The word i benei /i literally means: Sons of. And it states nearby: b “And he shall place /b his hand on the head of the burnt-offering” (Leviticus 1:4), from which we learn that b the sons of Israel place /b their hands, b but the daughters of Israel do not place /b them. b Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yishmael say: It is optional for the daughters of Israel to place /b their hands. They may place their hands if they so choose, although they are not obligated to do so., b Rabbi Yosei said: /b The Sage b Abba Elazar related to me /b the following incident: b On one occasion, we had a calf for a peace-offering, and we brought it to the Women’s Courtyard, and women placed /b their hands b on it. /b We did this b not because there /b is an obligation of b placing hands in /b the case of b women, but in order to please the women, /b by allowing them to sacrifice an offering, in all of its particulars, as men do. Now, b if it enters your mind /b that b we require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b would b we perform work with consecrated /b offerings b in order to please /b the b women? /b Placing one’s hands forcefully on an animal is considered performing work with it, and if one does it without being obligated to do so, he has thereby performed work with an offering. b Rather, isn’t it /b correct to b conclude from this /b that b we do not require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength? /b ,The Gemara rejects this: b Actually, I /b could b say to you /b that b we do require /b placing hands b with all one’s strength, /b but here they allowed women to place their hands b by saying to them: Ease your hands /b and do not press forcefully, so that their hand placing should not constitute work. The Gemara retorts: b If so, /b then the reason formulated as: b Not because there /b is an obligation to b place hands in /b the case of b women, /b is irrelevant to this law. b Let him derive /b the permission for women to do so from the reason that b it is not /b considered b placing hands at all. /b If placing hands must be performed with all one’s strength, this action the women are performing does not constitute placing hands., b Rabbi Ami said: He stated one /b reason b and another. One /b reason is b that it is not /b considered b placing hands at all, /b as it is not performed with all of one’s strength; b and another /b reason is that they allowed it b in order to please the women. /b , b Rav Pappa said: Learn from this /b that anything upon which one may not place objects or upon which one may not sit on Shabbat, its b sides are /b likewise b prohibited, for if it enters your mind /b to say that the b sides are permitted, /b they could have told the women b to place /b their hands b on the sides, /b i.e., on the head of the animal rather than on its back, as the head of the animal is considered as if it were one of its sides. b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from this /b that the b sides are prohibited? /b
35. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
57a. במאי דפסיק אנפשיה כל יומא מכנשי ליה לקיטמיה ודייני ליה וקלו ליה ומבדרו אשב ימי,אזל אסקיה לבלעם בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו א"ל (דברים כג, ז) לא תדרוש שלומם וטובתם כל הימים א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בשכבת זרע רותחת,אזל אסקיה [ליש"ו] בנגידא (לפושעי ישראל) א"ל מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא א"ל ישראל מהו לאדבוקי בהו א"ל טובתם דרוש רעתם לא תדרוש כל הנוגע בהן כאילו נוגע בבבת עינו,א"ל דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל בצואה רותחת דאמר מר כל המלעיג על דברי חכמים נידון בצואה רותחת תא חזי מה בין פושעי ישראל לנביאי אומות העולם עובדי ע"ז,תניא אמר רבי אלעזר בא וראה כמה גדולה כחה של בושה שהרי סייע הקב"ה את בר קמצא והחריב את ביתו ושרף את היכלו:,אתרנגולא ואתרנגולתא חריב טור מלכא דהוו נהיגי כי הוו מפקי חתנא וכלתא מפקי קמייהו תרנגולא ותרנגולתא כלומר פרו ורבו כתרנגולים,יומא חד הוה קא חליף גונדא דרומאי שקלינהו מינייהו נפלו עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו הוה בהו ההוא בר דרומא דהוה קפיץ מילא וקטיל בהו שקליה קיסר לתאגיה ואותביה אארעא אמר ריבוניה דעלמא כוליה אי ניחא לך לא תמסריה לההוא גברא לדידיה ולמלכותיה בידיה דחד גברא,אכשליה פומיה לבר דרומא ואמר (תהלים ס, יב) הלא אתה אלהים זנחתנו ולא תצא אלהים בצבאותינו דוד נמי אמר הכי דוד אתמוהי קא מתמה,על לבית הכסא אתא דרקונא שמטיה לכרכשיה ונח נפשיה אמר הואיל ואיתרחיש לי ניסא הא זימנא אישבקינהו שבקינהו ואזל איזדקור ואכלו ושתו ואדליקו שרגי עד דאיתחזי בליונא דגושפנקא ברחוק מילא אמר מיחדא קא חדו בי יהודאי הדר אתא עלייהו,א"ר אסי תלת מאה אלפי שליפי סייפא עיילו לטור. מלכא וקטלו בה תלתא יומי ותלתא לילוותא ובהך גיסא הלולי וחנגי ולא הוו ידעי הני בהני,(איכה ב, ב) בלע ה' ולא חמל את כל נאות יעקב כי אתא רבין אמר רבי יוחנן אלו ששים רבוא עיירות שהיו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב אסי ששים רבוא עיירות היו לו לינאי המלך בהר המלך וכל אחת ואחת היו בה כיוצאי מצרים חוץ משלש שהיו בהן כפלים כיוצאי מצרים,אלו הן כפר ביש כפר שיחליים כפר דכריא כפר ביש דלא יהבי ביתא לאושפיזא כפר שיחליים שהיתה פרנסתן מן שחליים כפר דכריא אמר רבי יוחנן שהיו נשותיהן יולדות זכרים תחלה ויולדות נקבה באחרונה ופוסקות,אמר עולא לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא ואפילו שיתין ריבוותא קני לא מחזיק אמר ליה ההוא צדוקי לרבי חנינא שקורי משקריתו אמר ליה (ירמיהו ג, יט) ארץ צבי כתיב בה מה צבי זה אין עורו מחזיק את בשרו אף ארץ ישראל בזמן שיושבין עליה רווחא ובזמן שאין יושבין עליה גמדא,רב מניומי בר חלקיה ורב חלקיה בר טוביה ורב הונא בר חייא הוו יתבי גבי הדדי אמרי אי איכא דשמיע ליה מילתא מכפר סכניא של מצרים לימא,פתח חד מינייהו ואמר מעשה בארוס וארוסתו שנשבו לבין העובדי כוכבים והשיאום זה לזה אמרה לו בבקשה ממך אל תגע בי שאין לי כתובה ממך ולא נגע בה עד יום מותו,וכשמת אמרה להן סיפדו לזה שפטפט ביצרו יותר מיוסף דאילו ביוסף לא הוה אלא חדא שעתא והאי כל יומא ויומא ואילו יוסף לאו בחדא מטה והאי בחדא מטה ואילו יוסף לאו אשתו והא אשתו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה ועמדו ארבעים מודיות בדינר נחסר השער מודיא אחת ובדקו ומצאו אב ובנו שבאו על נערה מאורסה ביום הכפורים והביאום לבית דין וסקלום וחזר השער למקומו,פתח אידך ואמר מעשה באדם אחד שנתן עיניו באשתו לגרשה והיתה כתובתה מרובה מה עשה הלך וזימן את שושביניו והאכילן והשקן שיכרן והשכיבן על מיטה אחת והביא לובן ביצה והטיל ביניהן והעמיד להן עדים ובא לבית דין,היה שם זקן אחד מתלמידי שמאי הזקן ובבא בן בוטא שמו אמר להן כך מקובלני משמאי הזקן לובן ביצה סולד מן האור ושכבת זרע דוחה מן האור בדקו ומצאו כדבריו והביאוהו לב"ד והלקוהו והגבוהו כתובתה ממנו,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף ומאחר דהוו צדיקים כולי האי מאי טעמא איענוש א"ל משום דלא איאבול על ירושלים דכתיב (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלם וגילו בה כל אוהביה שישו אתה משוש כל המתאבלים עליה:,אשקא דריספק חריב ביתר דהוו נהיגי כי הוה מתיליד ינוקא שתלי ארזא ינוקתא שתלי תורניתא וכי הוו מינסבי קייצי להו ועבדו גננא יומא חד הוה קא חלפא ברתיה דקיסר אתבר שקא דריספק קצו ארזא ועיילו לה אתו נפול עלייהו מחונהו אתו אמרו ליה לקיסר מרדו בך יהודאי אתא עלייהו:,(איכה ב, ג) גדע בחרי אף כל קרן ישראל א"ר זירא א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן אלו שמונים [אלף] קרני מלחמה שנכנסו לכרך ביתר בשעה שלכדוה והרגו בה אנשים ונשים וטף עד שהלך דמן ונפל לים הגדול שמא תאמר קרובה היתה רחוקה היתה מיל,תניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר שני נחלים יש בבקעת ידים אחד מושך אילך ואחד מושך אילך ושיערו חכמים שני חלקים מים ואחד דם במתניתא תנא שבע שנים בצרו עובדי כוכבים את כרמיהן מדמן של ישראל בלא זבל 57a. b That which he decreed against himself, /b as he undergoes the following: b Every day his ashes are gathered, and they judge him, and they burn him, and they scatter him over the seven seas. /b ,Onkelos then b went and raised Balaam /b from the grave b through necromancy. He said to him: Who is /b most b important in that world /b where you are now? Balaam b said to him: The Jewish people. /b Onkelos asked him: b Should I /b then b attach /b myself b to them /b here in this world? Balaam b said to him: You shall not seek their peace or their welfare all the days /b (see Deuteronomy 23:7). Onkelos b said to him: What is the punishment of that man, /b a euphemism for Balaam himself, in the next world? Balaam b said to him: /b He is cooked b in boiling semen, /b as he caused Israel to engage in licentious behavior with the daughters of Moab.,Onkelos then b went /b and b raised Jesus the Nazarene /b from the grave b through necromancy. /b Onkelos b said to him: Who is /b most b important in that world /b where you are now? Jesus b said to him: The Jewish people. /b Onkelos asked him: b Should I /b then b attach /b myself b to them /b in this world? Jesus b said to him: Their welfare you shall seek, their misfortune you shall not seek, /b for b anyone who touches them is /b regarded b as if he were touching the apple of his eye /b (see Zechariah 2:12).,Onkelos b said to him: What is the punishment of that man, /b a euphemism for Jesus himself, in the next world? Jesus b said to him: /b He is punished b with boiling excrement. As the Master said: Anyone who mocks the words of the Sages will be sentenced to boiling excrement. /b And this was his sin, as he mocked the words of the Sages. The Gemara comments: b Come /b and b see the difference between the sinners of Israel and the prophets of the nations of the world. /b As Balaam, who was a prophet, wished Israel harm, whereas Jesus the Nazarene, who was a Jewish sinner, sought their well-being.,To conclude the story of Kamtza and bar Kamtza and the destruction of Jerusalem, the Gemara cites a i baraita /i . It b is taught: Rabbi Elazar says: Come and see how great is the power of shame, for the Holy One, Blessed be He, assisted bar Kamtza, /b who had been humiliated, b and /b due to this humiliation and shame b He destroyed His Temple and burned His Sanctuary. /b ,§ It was previously mentioned (55b) that the place known as b the King’s Mountain [ i Tur Malka /i ] was destroyed on account of a rooster and a hen. /b The details of what happened are as follows: b It was customary /b in that place b that when they would lead a bride and groom /b to their wedding, b they would take out a rooster and a hen before them, /b as if b to say /b in the manner of a good omen: b Be fruitful and multiply like chickens. /b , b One day a troop [ i gunda /i ] of Roman /b soldiers b passed by /b there while a wedding was taking place b and took /b the rooster and hen b from them. /b The residents of the city b fell upon them and beat them. /b The soldiers b came and said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. /b The emperor then b came against them /b in war. Among the residents of the King’s Mountain b there was a certain man /b named b bar Deroma who could jump /b the distance of b a i mil /i , and he killed /b many of the Romans, who were powerless to stand up against him. b The emperor /b then b took his crown and set it on the ground /b as a sign of mourning. b He said: Master of the Universe, if it is pleasing to You, do not give over that man, /b a euphemism for himself, b and his kingdom into the hands of /b only b one man. /b ,In the end it was the words issuing from b his /b own b mouth /b that b caused bar Deroma to stumble, as he uttered /b this verse in complaint against God: b “Have You not rejected us, O God, so that You go not forth, O God, with our hosts?” /b (Psalms 60:12). The Gemara asks: But did not b David also say this? /b The Gemara answers: b David uttered /b these words b as a question, /b wondering whether they were true, whereas bar Deroma pronounced them as a statement of fact.,The Gemara recounts what happened to bar Deroma: b He entered an outhouse, a snake came /b and b eviscerated him, and he died. /b The emperor b said: Since a miracle was performed for me, /b as I had no part in bar Deroma’s death, b I will let /b the rest of the people b be this time /b and take no further action against them. b He let them be and went /b on his way. b They leapt /b about, b ate, drank, and lit /b so many b candles /b in celebration b that the image [ i bilyona /i ] /b imprinted b on a seal [ i gushpanka /i ] was visible from a distance of a i mil /i . /b The emperor then b said: The Jews are rejoicing over me. /b So b he went back /b and b came against them. /b , b Rav Asi says: Three hundred thousand men with drawn swords entered the King’s Mountain and massacred /b its inhabitants b for three days and three nights. And /b at the same time b on /b the other b side /b of the mountain, b weddings and /b other b festivities /b continued to be celebrated, b and they did not know about each other, /b owing to the enormous size of the place.,§ Concerning the verse: b “The Lord has swallowed up without pity all the habitations of Jacob” /b (Lamentations 2:2), it is related that b when Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he /b said that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: This /b is referring to the b six hundred thousand cities /b that b King Yannai had in the King’s Mountain. /b As b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav Asi says: King Yannai had six hundred thousand cities in the King’s Mountain, and each of them /b had a population as great b as /b the number of b those who left Egypt, except for three /b of those cities, the population of which b was double /b the number of b those who left Egypt. /b , b These /b are b those /b three cities: b Kefar Bish, Kefar Shiḥalayim, and Kefar Dikhrayya. /b The Gemara explains the meaning of these place-names. b Kefar Bish, /b Evil Town, was called by that name because its inhabitants b would not open /b their b houses to guests. Kefar Shiḥalayim /b was referred to by that name because b their livelihood was /b derived b from /b the cultivation of b cress [ i shaḥalayim /i ]. /b As for b Kefar Dikhrayya, /b Town of Males, b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Their women would first give birth to boys, and afterward give birth to girls, and /b then b they would stop /b having children., b Ulla said: I myself saw that place, and it could not hold even six hundred thousand reeds, /b all the more so that number of people. b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Ḥanina: You lie /b with your exorbitant exaggerations. Rabbi Ḥanina b said to him: With regard to /b Eretz Yisrael b it is written: Land of the deer /b (see Jeremiah 3:19). b Just as the skin of a deer cannot hold its flesh, /b for after the animal is skinned, its hide shrinks, b so too, /b with regard to b Eretz Yisrael, when it is settled, it expands, but when it is not settled, it contracts. /b This explains how a place that is so small today could have been so highly populated prior to the Temple’s destruction.,§ The Gemara relates that b Rav Minyumi bar Ḥilkiya, Rav Ḥilkiya bar Toviya, and Rav Huna bar Ḥiyya were /b once b sitting together. They said: If there is someone who has heard anything about Kefar Sekhanya of Egypt, /b which was in that region, b let him relate /b it., b One of them began /b the discussion b and said: /b There was b an incident involving a betrothed man and woman /b from there b who were taken captive by gentiles and /b the latter b married them off to each other. /b The woman b said to /b the man: b Please do not touch me, as I do not have a marriage contract from you, /b and it is prohibited for us to live together without one. b And until /b the day of b his death /b the man b did not touch /b the woman., b And when he died /b without having touched her, the woman b said to /b the Sages: b Eulogize this /b man b who conquered [ i shepitpet /i ] his passion [ i beyitzro /i ] more than Joseph. As /b in the case of b Joseph it was only for a short time /b that he had to overpower his inclination and resist Potiphar’s wife (see Genesis, chapter 39), b whereas this /b man struggled with his passion b each and every day. /b Furthermore, b Joseph /b was b not in one bed /b with Potiphar’s wife, b whereas this /b man was b in one bed /b with his wife. In addition, with b Joseph /b the woman was b not his wife, whereas /b with b this /b man she was b his wife, /b as she was already betrothed to him., b Another /b Sage b began /b his remarks b and said: It once happened that /b the market price of b forty i se’a /i /b of grain b stood at one dinar. /b And then b the rate went down one i se’a /i [ i modeya /i ], /b so that only thirty-nine i se’a /i were sold for a dinar. b And they checked /b to see what sin had caused this, b and they found a father and son who had engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed young woman on Yom Kippur. They brought /b the offenders b to court and stoned them, and the rate returned to its /b former b level. /b ,Yet b another /b Sage b began /b his remarks b and said: /b There was b an incident /b there b involving a man who set his eyes upon his wife to divorce her, but her marriage contract was large /b and he wished to avoid having to pay it. b What did he do? He went and invited his friends, gave them food and drink, made them drunk, and lay /b his friends and his wife b in one bed. He /b then b brought the white of an egg, /b which has the appearance of semen, b and placed it /b on the sheet b between them. He /b then b stood witnesses over them /b so that they could offer testimony, b and went to court /b claiming that his wife had committed adultery., b A certain Elder of the disciples of Shammai the Elder was there, and Bava ben Buta /b was b his name. He said to them: This is /b the tradition that b I received from Shammai the Elder: Egg white /b on a bedsheet b contracts /b and hardens when heated b by fire, whereas semen is absorbed /b into the sheet b by the fire. They checked /b the matter b and found in accordance with his statement /b that the substance on the sheet was not semen but egg white. b They /b then b brought /b the husband b to court, administered lashes to him, and made him pay /b his wife’s b marriage contract /b in full., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: But since /b those in the city b were so righteous, what is the reason that they were punished /b and destroyed? Rav Yosef b said to him: /b It is b because they did not mourn for Jerusalem, as it is written: “Rejoice with Jerusalem, and be glad with her, all you that love her, rejoice with joy with her, all you that did mourn for her” /b (Isaiah 66:10). The verse teaches that one who mourns for Jerusalem will rejoice in its rebuilding, and one who fails to mourn for Jerusalem is destroyed.,§ It was stated earlier that the city of b Beitar was destroyed on account of a shaft from a carriage. /b The Gemara explains that b it was customary /b in Beitar that b when a boy was born they would plant a cedar /b tree and when b a girl /b was born they b would plant a cypress [ i tornita /i ]. And when they would /b later b marry /b each other b they would cut /b down these trees b and construct /b a wedding b canopy /b for them with their branches. b One day the emperor’s daughter passed by /b there and b the shaft of the carriage /b in which she was riding b broke. /b Her attendants b chopped down a cedar /b from among those trees b and brought it to her. /b Owing to the importance that they attached to their custom, the residents of Beitar b came /b and b fell upon them and beat them. /b The attendants b came /b and b said to the emperor: The Jews have rebelled against you. /b The emperor then b came against them /b in war.,It was in connection with the war that ensued that the Sages expounded the following verse: b “He has cut off in His fierce anger all the horn of Israel” /b (Lamentations 2:3). b Rabbi Zeira says /b that b Rabbi Abbahu says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: These are the eighty thousand /b officers bearing b battle trumpets /b in their hands, b who entered the city of Beitar when /b the enemy b took it and killed men, women, and children until their blood flowed into the Great Sea. Lest you say /b that the city b was close /b to the sea, know that b it was a i mil /i away. /b , b It is /b similarly b taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: There are two rivers in the Yadayim Valley /b in that region, b one flowing one way and one flowing the other way. And the Sages estimated /b that in the aftermath of this war these rivers were filled with b two parts water to one part blood. /b Likewise, b it was taught in a i baraita /i : For seven years the gentiles harvested their vineyards /b that had been soaked b with the blood of Israel without /b requiring any additional b fertilizer. /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
17b. אין פרץ שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של דוד שיצא ממנו אחיתופל ואין יוצאת שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של שאול שיצא ממנו דואג האדומי ואין צוחה שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של אלישע שיצא ממנו גחזי ברחובותינו שלא יהא לנו בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים: (ישעיהו מו, יב),שמעו אלי אבירי לב הרחוקים מצדקה רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר חד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בצדקה והם נזונין בזרוע וחד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בזכותם והם אפילו בזכות עצמן אין נזונין כדרב יהודה אמר רב,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת מהר חורב ואומרת כל העולם כולו נזונין בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת,ופליגא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מאן אבירי לב גובאי טפשאי אמר רב יוסף תדע דהא לא איגייר גיורא מינייהו,אמר רב אשי בני מתא מחסיא אבירי לב נינהו דקא חזו יקרא דאורייתא תרי זמני בשתא ולא קמגייר גיורא מינייהו:,חתן אם רוצה לקרות וכו':,למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל חייש ליוהרא ורבנן לא חיישי ליוהרא והא איפכא שמעינן להו דתנן מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בתשעה באב עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין וכל מקום תלמידי חכמים בטלים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעולם יעשה כל אדם את עצמו כתלמיד חכם,קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן קשיא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי אמר לעולם לא תחליף דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא ק"ש כיון דכ"ע קא קרו ואיהו נמי קרי לא מיחזי כיוהרא הכא כיון דכולי עלמא עבדי מלאכה ואיהו לא קא עביד מיחזי כיוהרא,דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל לא קשיא התם בכונה תליא מילתא ואנן סהדי דלא מצי לכווני דעתיה אבל הכא הרואה אומר מלאכה הוא דאין לו פוק חזי כמה בטלני איכא בשוקא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך היה קורא /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שמתו מוטל לפניו פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה,נושאי המטה וחלופיהן וחלופי חלופיהן את שלפני המטה ואת שלאחר המטה את שלפני המטה צורך בהם פטורים ואת שלאחר המטה צורך בהם חייבין ואלו ואלו פטורים מן התפלה,קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו,העומדים בשורה הפנימיים פטורים והחיצונים חייבים (נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורים מק"ש ומן התפילין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מוטל לפניו אין ושאינו מוטל לפניו לא,ורמינהי מי שמתו מוטל לפניו אוכל בבית אחר ואם אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו ואם אין לו בית חבירו עושה מחיצה ואוכל ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ואינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ואינו מזמן 17b. b “There is no breach”; that our faction /b of Sages b should not be like the faction of David, from which Ahitophel emerged, /b who caused a breach in the kingdom of David. br b “And no going forth”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Saul, from which Doeg the Edomite emerged, /b who set forth on an evil path. br b “And no outcry”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Elisha, from which Geihazi emerged. /b br b “In our open places”; that we should not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public, /b i.e., who sins in public and causes others to sin, b as /b in the well-known case of b Jesus the Nazarene. /b ,Having cited a dispute with regard to the interpretation of a verse where we are uncertain whether the dispute is between Rav and Shmuel or Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, the Gemara cites another verse with regard to which there is a similar dispute. It is said: b “Hear Me, stubborn-hearted who are far from charity” /b (Isaiah 46:12). While both agree that the verse refers to the righteous, b Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, /b disagreed as to how to interpret the verse. b One said: The entire world is sustained by /b God’s b charity, /b not because it deserves to exist, b while /b the righteous who are far from God’s charity b are sustained by force, /b as due to their own good deeds they have the right to demand their sustece. b And one said: The entire world is sustained by the merit /b of b their /b righteousness, b while they are not sustained /b at all, b not even by their own merit, in accordance with /b the statement that b Rav Yehuda /b said that b Rav said. /b , b As Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: Every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained by /b the merit of b Ḥanina /b ben Dosa, b my son, and /b for b Ḥanina, my son, a i kav /i of carobs is sufficient /b to sustain him for an entire week, b from /b one b Shabbat eve to /b the next b Shabbat eve. /b , b And /b this exegesis b disagrees with /b the opinion of b Rav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said, who are the stubborn-hearted? /b They are the b foolish /b heathens b of Gova’ei. Rav Yosef said: Know /b that this is so, b as no convert has ever converted from their /b ranks.,Similarly, b Rav Ashi said: /b The heathen residents b of /b the city b Mata Meḥasya are the stubborn-hearted, as they witness the glory of the Torah twice a year /b at the i kalla /i gatherings in Adar and Elul, when thousands of people congregate and study Torah i en masse /i , b yet no convert has ever converted from their /b ranks.,We learned in our mishna that b if a groom wishes to recite /b i Shema /i on the first night of his marriage, he may do so, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel prohibited doing so because of the appearance of presumptuousness.,The Gemara asks: b Is that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about presumptuousness and the Rabbis are not concerned about presumptuousness? Didn’t we learn /b that b they /b say b the opposite? As we learned /b in a mishna: b A place where they were accustomed to perform labor on Ninth of Av, one /b may b perform /b labor. b A place where they were accustomed not to perform /b labor on Ninth of Av, b one /b may b not perform /b labor. b And everywhere, Torah scholars are idle /b and do not perform labor. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b With regard to performing labor on the Ninth of Av, b one should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar. /b ,If so, b there is a contradiction between /b the statement of b the Rabbis /b here b and /b the statement of b the Rabbis /b there. And, b there is a contradiction between /b the statement of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel /b here b and /b the statement of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel /b there., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The attribution /b of the opinions b is reversed /b in one of the sources in the interest of avoiding contradiction. b Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Actually, /b you need b not reverse /b the opinions, as the contradiction between the statement of b the Rabbis /b here b and /b the statement of b the Rabbis /b there b is not difficult. /b In the case of b the recitation of i Shema /i /b on his wedding night, b since everyone is reciting /b i Shema /i b and he is also reciting /b i Shema /i , he is not conspicuous and b it does not appear as presumptuousness. Here, /b in the case of the Ninth of Av, however, b since everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor, /b his idleness is conspicuous and b appears as presumptuousness. /b ,So too, the contradiction b between /b the statement of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel /b here b and /b the statement of b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel /b there b is not difficult. There, /b in the case of the recitation of i Shema /i on his wedding night, b the matter is dependent upon his /b capacity to b concentrate, /b and b it is clear to all /b that b he is unable to concentrate. /b Reciting i Shema /i under those circumstances is a display of presumptuousness. b But here, /b in the case of the Ninth of Av, b one who sees /b him idle b says: It is /b because b he has no labor /b to perform. b Go out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace, /b even on days when one is permitted to work. Consequently, his idleness is not conspicuous.,, strong MISHNA: /strong b One whose deceased /b relative b is laid out /b unburied b before him is exempt from the recitation of i Shema /i , from /b the i Amida /i b prayer, and from /b the mitzva to don b phylacteries, as well as all /b positive b mitzvot mentioned in the Torah, /b until the deceased has been buried.,With regard to b the pallbearers and their replacements and the replacements of their replacements, those /b located b before the bier /b who have not yet carried the deceased b and those /b located b after the bier. Those before the bier who are needed /b to carry the bier b are exempt /b from reciting i Shema /i ; b while those after the bier, /b even if b they are /b still b needed /b to carry it, since they have already carried the deceased, they are b obligated /b to recite i Shema /i . However, both b these and those are exempt from /b reciting the i Amida /i b prayer, /b since they are preoccupied and are unable to focus and pray with the appropriate intent.,After b they buried the deceased and returned, if they /b have sufficient time to b begin /b to recite i Shema /i b and conclude before they arrive at the row, /b formed by those who attended the burial, through which the bereaved family will pass in order to receive consolation, b they should begin. If /b they do b not /b have sufficient time to conclude reciting the entire i Shema /i , then b they should not begin. /b ,And b those standing in the row, those /b in the b interior /b row, directly before whom the mourners will pass and who will console them, b are exempt /b from reciting i Shema /i , while b those /b in the b exterior /b row, who stand there only to show their respect, b are obligated /b to recite i Shema /i . b Women, slaves and minors are exempt from the recitation of i Shema /i and from phylacteries, but are obligated in prayer, i mezuza /i and Grace after Meals. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one whose deceased relative is laid out before him is exempt from the recitation of i Shema /i and other positive mitzvot. The Gemara deduces: When the corpse is b laid out before him, yes, /b he is exempt, but when the corpse is b not /b physically b laid out before him, no, /b he is not exempt from these mitzvot.,The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i : b One whose deceased /b relative b is laid out before him eats in another room. If he does not have another room, he eats in the house of a friend. If he does not have a friend’s house /b available, b he makes a partition /b between him and the deceased b and eats. If he does not have material /b with which b to make a partition, he averts his face /b from the dead and b eats. And /b in any case, b he does not recline while he eats, /b as reclining is characteristic of a festive meal. b Furthermore, he neither eats meat nor drinks wine, and does not recite /b a b blessing /b before eating, b and does not /b recite the formula to b invite /b the participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals [ i zimmun /i ], i.e., he is exempt from the obligation of Grace after Meals.
37. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 171
115b. הא כיצד נחלה ממשמשת והולכת עד ראובן ולימא עד יעקב אמר אביי גמירי דלא כלה שבטא,אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל האומר תירש בת עם בת הבן אפילו נשיא שבישראל אין שומעין לו שאינן אלא מעשה צדוקין דתניא בארבעה ועשרים בטבת תבנא לדיננא שהיו צדוקין אומרין תירש הבת עם בת הבן,נטפל להן רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אמר להם שוטים מנין זה לכם ולא היה אדם שהחזירו דבר חוץ מזקן אחד שהיה מפטפט כנגדו ואומר ומה בת בנו הבאה מכח בנו תירשנו בתו הבאה מכחו לא כל שכן,קרא עליו את המקרא הזה (בראשית לו, כ) אלה בני שעיר החורי יושבי הארץ לוטן ושובל וצבעון וענה וכתיב (בראשית לו, כד) אלה בני צבעון ואיה וענה אלא מלמד שבא צבעון על אמו והוליד ענה,ודלמא תרי ענה הוו אמר רבה אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו שמואל איכא דאמרי אמר רב פפא אמינא מלתא דלא אמרה שבור מלכא ומנו רבה אמר קרא (בראשית לו, כד) הוא ענה הוא ענה דמעיקרא,אמר ליה רבי בכך אתה פוטרני אמר לו שוטה 115b. The Gemara asks: b How so, /b i.e., how is the investigation performed when he has no offspring at all? The Gemara answers: The family lineage that determines the b inheritance is successively examined up to Reuben, /b son of Jacob, i.e., the heirs are determined by investigating the family genealogy, and that investigation can extend all the way to Reuben, son of our forefather Jacob. The Gemara asks: b And let /b it b say: Until Jacob /b himself, rather than until Reuben, since if none of Reuven’s descendants survive, one would have to examine Jacob’s descendants. b Abaye said /b in reply: It b is learned /b as a tradition b that a tribe will not be eliminated /b entirely, and some descendants will always remain.,§ b Rav Huna says /b that b Rav says: /b With regard to b anyone who says /b that b a daughter /b of the deceased b should inherit /b the estate of her father along b with the daughter of the son /b of the deceased, b even /b if he is b a prince of the Jewish people, /b one b should not listen to him, as this is nothing other than an act of the Sadducees, /b and runs counter to the ruling of the mishna that the descendants of a son inherit before a daughter. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i in i Megillat Ta’anit /i , which describes various minor holidays on which it is forbidden to fast or eulogize: b On the twenty-fourth of Tevet, we returned to our law, /b i.e., the i halakha /i was reestablished in accordance with the opinion of the Sages after having been dictated by the Sadducees. b As the Sadducees would say: A daughter should inherit /b the estate of her father along b with the daughter of the son /b of the deceased.,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai joined them /b to discuss their ruling, and b said to them: Imbeciles, from where /b do b you /b derive b this /b ruling? b And there was no person that answered him anything, except for one old /b man b who was chattering at him and saying /b that it is an i a fortiori /i inference: b And just as a daughter of /b the deceased’s b son, who comes /b to claim her inheritance from her grandfather b by virtue of his son, inherits /b her grandfather’s property, so too, with regard to the deceased’s own b daughter, who comes /b to inherit b by virtue of /b the deceased, b all the more so /b is it b not /b clear that she should inherit his property?,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b recited this verse about him: “These are the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan and Shobal and Zibeon and Anah” /b (Genesis 36:20), b and it is written: “And these are the children of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah” /b (Genesis 36:24). The first verse portrays Zibeon and Anah as brothers, while the second states that they are father and son. b Rather, /b this b teaches that Zibeon engaged in sexual intercourse with his mother and begot Anah, /b so that he was both Anah’s father and his brother. From the fact that the first verse equates Zibeon and Anah by referring to both of them as Seir’s sons despite Anah being a grandson of Seir, it is clear that grandchildren are equal to children, contrary to the Sadducees’ assertion.,The Gemara interrupts the recounting of the i baraita /i and questions Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’s inference: b But perhaps there were two /b people named b Anah, /b so that one Anah was Zibeon’s son, and the other his brother? b Rabba said: I will state a matter /b that even b King Shapur did not state. And who is /b this King Shapur? This cannot be a reference to Shapur, king of Persia; rather, it must be a moniker for someone else. He is b Shmuel, /b whose legal rulings were accepted by the public like the edicts of a king by his subjects. b Some state /b a different version, that it was b Rav Pappa /b who b said: I will state a matter /b that even b King Shapur did not state. And who is /b this King Shapur? He is b Rabba. The verse /b goes on to b state: “This is Anah” /b (Genesis 36:24), indicating that b he is /b the same b Anah /b mentioned b initially, /b earlier in the verse. Accordingly, there was only one Anah, who was both Zibeon’s brother and Zibeon’s son.,The i baraita /i continues: The Sadducee b said to /b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: b My teacher, you dismiss me with this /b retort? I agree that the son of a son precedes a daughter, as the verse you quoted suggests; I am asserting that a daughter inherits together with the daughter of a son, and the verse you quoted has no bearing on that claim. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai b said to him: Imbecile, /b
38. Epiphanius, Panarion, 1.1.10-1.1.13, 1.14, 1.16, 1.20.1-1.20.2, 1.42-1.43 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, in epiphanius •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition •herodians, use of term, as the predictors of herods rule •herodians, use of term, in john africanus Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 125, 184, 185
39. Jerome, Amos, 1.1.11-1.1.12 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 172
40. Jerome, Altercatio Luciferiani Et Orthodoxi (Dialogus Contra Luciferianos.), 23 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition •herodians, use of term, as the predictors of herods rule •herodians, use of term, in john africanus Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 125
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q252=4Qcommgena, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 126, 128
42. Dead Sea Scrolls, '4Q174=4Qlorilegium, 0  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, and christian messianic supposition Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 128
43. Synesius of Crete, Dio, 3.2  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 196, 197
44. Solinus C. Julius, Collectanea Rerum Memorabilium, 35.9-35.12  Tagged with subjects: •herodians, use of term, identification with the essenes •matthew, gospel of,herodians, use of term in Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 196, 197