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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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103 results for "herodian"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 374
14.22. "עַשֵּׂר תְּעַשֵּׂר אֵת כָּל־תְּבוּאַת זַרְעֶךָ הַיֹּצֵא הַשָּׂדֶה שָׁנָה שָׁנָה׃", 14.22. "Thou shalt surely tithe all the increase of thy seed, that which is brought forth in the field year by year.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.43, 19.6, 25.10-27.9, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486
19.6. "וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 19.6. "and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’",
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 598
7.20. "But the soul that eateth of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, that pertain unto the LORD, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from his people.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 1.51, 3.38, 6.14, 15.38, 18.20, 19.13, 19.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 374, 487, 493, 598
1.51. "וּבִנְסֹעַ הַמִּשְׁכָּן יוֹרִידוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וּבַחֲנֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן יָקִימוּ אֹתוֹ הַלְוִיִּם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃", 3.38. "וְהַחֹנִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן קֵדְמָה לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִזְרָחָה מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו שֹׁמְרִים מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃", 6.14. "וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־קָרְבָּנוֹ לַיהוָה כֶּבֶשׂ בֶּן־שְׁנָתוֹ תָמִים אֶחָד לְעֹלָה וְכַבְשָׂה אַחַת בַּת־שְׁנָתָהּ תְּמִימָה לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל־אֶחָד תָּמִים לִשְׁלָמִים׃", 15.38. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם וְעָשׂוּ לָהֶם צִיצִת עַל־כַּנְפֵי בִגְדֵיהֶם לְדֹרֹתָם וְנָתְנוּ עַל־צִיצִת הַכָּנָף פְּתִיל תְּכֵלֶת׃", 19.13. "כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּמֵת בְּנֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר־יָמוּת וְלֹא יִתְחַטָּא אֶת־מִשְׁכַּן יְהוָה טִמֵּא וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּי מֵי נִדָּה לֹא־זֹרַק עָלָיו טָמֵא יִהְיֶה עוֹד טֻמְאָתוֹ בוֹ׃", 1.51. "And when the tabernacle setteth forward, the Levites shall take it down; and when the tabernacle is to be pitched, the Levites shall set it up; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.", 3.38. "And those that were to pitch before the tabernacle eastward, before the tent of meeting toward the sunrising, were Moses, and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary, even the charge for the children of Israel; and the common man that drew nigh was to be put to death.", 6.14. "and he shall present his offering unto the LORD, one he-lamb of the first year without blemish for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb of the first year without blemish for a sin-offering, and one ram without blemish for peace-offerings,", 15.38. "’Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them throughout their generations fringes in the corners of their garments, and that they put with the fringe of each corner a thread of blue.", 18.20. "And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.", 19.13. "Whosoever toucheth the dead, even the body of any man that is dead, and purifieth not himself—he hath defiled the tabernacle of the LORD—that soul shall be cut off from Israel; because the water of sprinkling was not dashed against him, he shall be unclean; his uncleanness is yet upon him.", 19.20. "But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean.",
5. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 7.13-7.51 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 492; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 141
7.13. "וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה וַיִּקַּח אֶת־חִירָם מִצֹּר׃", 7.14. "בֶּן־אִשָּׁה אַלְמָנָה הוּא מִמַּטֵּה נַפְתָּלִי וְאָבִיו אִישׁ־צֹרִי חֹרֵשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיִּמָּלֵא אֶת־הַחָכְמָה וְאֶת־הַתְּבוּנָה וְאֶת־הַדַּעַת לַעֲשׂוֹת כָּל־מְלָאכָה בַּנְּחֹשֶׁת וַיָּבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־כָּל־מְלַאכְתּוֹ׃", 7.15. "וַיָּצַר אֶת־שְׁנֵי הָעַמּוּדִים נְחֹשֶׁת שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה קוֹמַת הָעַמּוּד הָאֶחָד וְחוּט שְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה יָסֹב אֶת־הָעַמּוּד הַשֵּׁנִי׃", 7.16. "וּשְׁתֵּי כֹתָרֹת עָשָׂה לָתֵת עַל־רָאשֵׁי הָעַמּוּדִים מֻצַק נְחֹשֶׁת חָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת הָאֶחָת וְחָמֵשׁ אַמּוֹת קוֹמַת הַכֹּתֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃", 7.17. "שְׂבָכִים מַעֲשֵׂה שְׂבָכָה גְּדִלִים מַעֲשֵׂה שַׁרְשְׁרוֹת לַכֹּתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּדִים שִׁבְעָה לַכֹּתֶרֶת הָאֶחָת וְשִׁבְעָה לַכֹּתֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃", 7.18. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הָעַמּוּדִים וּשְׁנֵי טוּרִים סָבִיב עַל־הַשְּׂבָכָה הָאֶחָת לְכַסּוֹת אֶת־הַכֹּתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הָרִמֹּנִים וְכֵן עָשָׂה לַכֹּתֶרֶת הַשֵּׁנִית׃", 7.19. "וְכֹתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּדִים מַעֲשֵׂה שׁוּשַׁן בָּאוּלָם אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת׃", 7.21. "וַיָּקֶם אֶת־הָעַמֻּדִים לְאֻלָם הַהֵיכָל וַיָּקֶם אֶת־הָעַמּוּד הַיְמָנִי וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יָכִין וַיָּקֶם אֶת־הָעַמּוּד הַשְּׂמָאלִי וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמוֹ בֹּעַז׃", 7.22. "וְעַל רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּדִים מַעֲשֵׂה שׁוֹשָׁן וַתִּתֹּם מְלֶאכֶת הָעַמּוּדִים׃", 7.23. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַיָּם מוּצָק עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה מִשְּׂפָתוֹ עַד־שְׂפָתוֹ עָגֹל סָבִיב וְחָמֵשׁ בָּאַמָּה קוֹמָתוֹ וקוה [וְקָו] שְׁלֹשִׁים בָּאַמָּה יָסֹב אֹתוֹ סָבִיב׃", 7.24. "וּפְקָעִים מִתַּחַת לִשְׂפָתוֹ סָבִיב סֹבְבִים אֹתוֹ עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה מַקִּפִים אֶת־הַיָּם סָבִיב שְׁנֵי טוּרִים הַפְּקָעִים יְצֻקִים בִּיצֻקָתוֹ׃", 7.25. "עֹמֵד עַל־שְׁנֵי עָשָׂר בָּקָר שְׁלֹשָׁה פֹנִים צָפוֹנָה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פֹנִים יָמָּה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פֹּנִים נֶגְבָּה וּשְׁלֹשָׁה פֹּנִים מִזְרָחָה וְהַיָּם עֲלֵיהֶם מִלְמָעְלָה וְכָל־אֲחֹרֵיהֶם בָּיְתָה׃", 7.26. "וְעָבְיוֹ טֶפַח וּשְׂפָתוֹ כְּמַעֲשֵׂה שְׂפַת־כּוֹס פֶּרַח שׁוֹשָׁן אַלְפַּיִם בַּת יָכִיל׃", 7.27. "וַיַּעַשׂ אֶת־הַמְּכֹנוֹת עֶשֶׂר נְחֹשֶׁת אַרְבַּע בָּאַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַמְּכוֹנָה הָאֶחָת וְאַרְבַּע בָּאַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ וְשָׁלֹשׁ בָּאַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃", 7.28. "וְזֶה מַעֲשֵׂה הַמְּכוֹנָה מִסְגְּרֹת לָהֶם וּמִסְגְּרֹת בֵּין הַשְׁלַבִּים׃", 7.29. "וְעַל־הַמִּסְגְּרוֹת אֲשֶׁר בֵּין הַשְׁלַבִּים אֲרָיוֹת בָּקָר וּכְרוּבִים וְעַל־הַשְׁלַבִּים כֵּן מִמָּעַל וּמִתַּחַת לַאֲרָיוֹת וְלַבָּקָר לֹיוֹת מַעֲשֵׂה מוֹרָד׃", 7.31. "וּפִיהוּ מִבֵּית לַכֹּתֶרֶת וָמַעְלָה בָּאַמָּה וּפִיהָ עָגֹל מַעֲשֵׂה־כֵן אַמָּה וַחֲצִי הָאַמָּה וְגַם־עַל־פִּיהָ מִקְלָעוֹת וּמִסְגְּרֹתֵיהֶם מְרֻבָּעוֹת לֹא עֲגֻלּוֹת׃", 7.32. "וְאַרְבַּעַת הָאוֹפַנִּים לְמִתַּחַת לַמִּסְגְּרוֹת וִידוֹת הָאוֹפַנִּים בַּמְּכוֹנָה וְקוֹמַת הָאוֹפַן הָאֶחָד אַמָּה וַחֲצִי הָאַמָּה׃", 7.33. "וּמַעֲשֵׂה הָאוֹפַנִּים כְּמַעֲשֵׂה אוֹפַן הַמֶּרְכָּבָה יְדוֹתָם וְגַבֵּיהֶם וְחִשֻּׁקֵיהֶם וְחִשֻּׁרֵיהֶם הַכֹּל מוּצָק׃", 7.34. "וְאַרְבַּע כְּתֵפוֹת אֶל אַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַמְּכֹנָה הָאֶחָת מִן־הַמְּכֹנָה כְּתֵפֶיהָ׃", 7.35. "וּבְרֹאשׁ הַמְּכוֹנָה חֲצִי הָאַמָּה קוֹמָה עָגֹל סָבִיב וְעַל רֹאשׁ הַמְּכֹנָה יְדֹתֶיהָ וּמִסְגְּרֹתֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה׃", 7.36. "וַיְפַתַּח עַל־הַלֻּחֹת יְדֹתֶיהָ וְעַל ומסגרתיה [מִסְגְּרֹתֶיהָ] כְּרוּבִים אֲרָיוֹת וְתִמֹרֹת כְּמַעַר־אִישׁ וְלֹיוֹת סָבִיב׃", 7.37. "כָּזֹאת עָשָׂה אֵת עֶשֶׂר הַמְּכֹנוֹת מוּצָק אֶחָד מִדָּה אַחַת קֶצֶב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּהְנָה׃", 7.38. "וַיַּעַשׂ עֲשָׂרָה כִיֹּרוֹת נְחֹשֶׁת אַרְבָּעִים בַּת יָכִיל הַכִּיּוֹר הָאֶחָד אַרְבַּע בָּאַמָּה הַכִּיּוֹר הָאֶחָד כִּיּוֹר אֶחָד עַל־הַמְּכוֹנָה הָאַחַת לְעֶשֶׂר הַמְּכֹנוֹת׃", 7.39. "וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַמְּכֹנוֹת חָמֵשׁ עַל־כֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת מִיָּמִין וְחָמֵשׁ עַל־כֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ וְאֶת־הַיָּם נָתַן מִכֶּתֶף הַבַּיִת הַיְמָנִית קֵדְמָה מִמּוּל נֶגֶב׃", 7.41. "עַמֻּדִים שְׁנַיִם וְגֻלֹּת הַכֹּתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר־עַל־רֹאשׁ הָעַמֻּדִים שְׁתָּיִם וְהַשְּׂבָכוֹת שְׁתַּיִם לְכַסּוֹת אֶת־שְׁתֵּי גֻּלֹּת הַכֹּתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־רֹאשׁ הָעַמּוּדִים׃", 7.42. "וְאֶת־הָרִמֹּנִים אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת לִשְׁתֵּי הַשְּׂבָכוֹת שְׁנֵי־טוּרִים רִמֹּנִים לַשְּׂבָכָה הָאֶחָת לְכַסּוֹת אֶת־שְׁתֵּי גֻּלֹּת הַכֹּתָרֹת אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָעַמּוּדִים׃", 7.43. "וְאֶת־הַמְּכֹנוֹת עָשֶׂר וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּרֹת עֲשָׂרָה עַל־הַמְּכֹנוֹת׃", 7.44. "וְאֶת־הַיָּם הָאֶחָד וְאֶת־הַבָּקָר שְׁנֵים־עָשָׂר תַּחַת הַיָּם׃", 7.45. "וְאֶת־הַסִּירוֹת וְאֶת־הַיָּעִים וְאֶת־הַמִּזְרָקוֹת וְאֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים האהל [הָאֵלֶּה] אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה חִירָם לַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בֵּית יְהוָה נְחֹשֶׁת מְמֹרָט׃", 7.46. "בְּכִכַּר הַיַּרְדֵּן יְצָקָם הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּמַעֲבֵה הָאֲדָמָה בֵּין סֻכּוֹת וּבֵין צָרְתָן׃", 7.47. "וַיַּנַּח שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־כָּל־הַכֵּלִים מֵרֹב מְאֹד מְאֹד לֹא נֶחְקַר מִשְׁקַל הַנְּחֹשֶׁת׃", 7.48. "וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁלֹמֹה אֵת כָּל־הַכֵּלִים אֲשֶׁר בֵּית יְהוָה אֵת מִזְבַּח הַזָּהָב וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים זָהָב׃", 7.49. "וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרוֹת חָמֵשׁ מִיָּמִין וְחָמֵשׁ מִשְּׂמֹאול לִפְנֵי הַדְּבִיר זָהָב סָגוּר וְהַפֶּרַח וְהַנֵּרֹת וְהַמֶּלְקַחַיִם זָהָב׃", 7.51. "וַתִּשְׁלַם כָּל־הַמְּלָאכָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הַמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בֵּית יְהוָה וַיָּבֵא שְׁלֹמֹה אֶת־קָדְשֵׁי דָּוִד אָבִיו אֶת־הַכֶּסֶף וְאֶת־הַזָּהָב וְאֶת־הַכֵּלִים נָתַן בְּאֹצְרוֹת בֵּית יְהוָה׃", 7.13. "And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre.", 7.14. "He was the son of a widow of the tribe of Naphtali, and his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass; and he was filled with wisdom and understanding and skill, to work all works in brass. And he came to king Solomon, and wrought all his work.", 7.15. "Thus he fashioned the two pillars of brass, of eighteen cubits high each; and a line of twelve cubits did compass it about; [and so] the other pillar.", 7.16. "And he made two capitals of molten brass, to set upon the tops of the pillars; the height of the one capital was five cubits, and the height of the other capital was five cubits.", 7.17. "He also made nets of checker-work, and wreaths of chain-work, for the capitals which were upon the top of the pillars: seven for the one capital, and seven for the other capital.", 7.18. "And he made the pillars; and there were two rows round about upon the one network, to cover the capitals that were upon the top of the pomegranates; and so did he for the other capital.", 7.19. "And the capitals that were upon the top of the pillars in the porch were of lily-work, four cubits.", 7.20. "And there were capitals above also upon the two pillars, close by the belly which was beside the network; and the pomegranates were two hundred, in rows round about upon each capital.", 7.21. "And he set up the pillars at the porch of the temple; and he set up the right pillar, and called the name thereof Jachin; and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz.", 7.22. "And upon the top of the pillars was lily-work; so was the work of the pillars finished.", 7.23. "And he made the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass, and the height thereof was five cubits; and a line of thirty cubits did compass it round about.", 7.24. "And under the brim of it round about there were knops which did compass it, for ten cubits, compassing the sea round about; the knops were in two rows, cast when it was cast.", 7.25. "It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east; and the sea was set upon them above, and all their hinder parts were inward.", 7.26. "And it was a hand-breadth thick; and the brim thereof was wrought like the brim of a cup, like the flower of a lily; it held two thousand baths.", 7.27. "And he made the ten bases of brass; four cubits was the length of one base, and four cubits the breadth thereof, and three cubits the height of it.", 7.28. "And the work of the bases was on this manner: they had borders; and there were borders between the stays;", 7.29. "and on the borders that were between the stays were lions, oxen, and cherubim; and upon the stays it was in like manner above; and beneath the lions and oxen were wreaths of hanging work.", 7.30. "And every base had four brazen wheels, and axles of brass; and the four feet thereof had undersetters; beneath the laver were the undersetters molten, with wreaths at the side of each.", 7.31. "And the mouth of it within the crown and above was a cubit high; and the mouth thereof was round after the work of a pedestal, a cubit and a half; and also upon the mouth of it were gravings; and their borders were foursquare, not round.", 7.32. "And the four wheels were underneath the borders; and the axletrees of the wheels were in the base; and the height of a wheel was a cubit and half a cubit.", 7.33. "And the work of the wheels was like the work of a chariot wheel; their axletrees, and their felloes, and their spokes, and their naves, were all molten.", 7.34. "And there were four undersetters at the four corners of each base; the undersetters thereof were of one piece with the base itself.", 7.35. "And in the top of the base was there a round compass of half a cubit high; and on the top of the base the stays thereof and the borders thereof were of one piece therewith.", 7.36. "And on the plates of the stays thereof, and on the borders thereof, he graved cherubim, lions, and palm-trees, according to the space of each, with wreaths round about.", 7.37. "After this manner he made the ten bases; all of them had one casting, one measure, and one form.", 7.38. "And he made ten lavers of brass: one laver contained forty baths; and every laver was four cubits; and upon every one of the ten bases one laver.", 7.39. "And he set the bases, five on the right side of the house, and five on the left side of the house; and he set the sea on the right side of the house eastward, toward the south.", 7.40. "And Hiram made the pots, and the shovels, and the basins. So Hiram made an end of doing all the work that he wrought for king Solomon in the house of the LORD:", 7.41. "the two pillars, and the two bowls of the capitals that were on the top of the pillars; and the two networks to cover the two bowls of the capitals that were on the top of the pillars;", 7.42. "and the four hundred pomegranates for the two networks, two rows of pomegranates for each network, to cover the two bowls of the capitals that were upon the top of the pillars;", 7.43. "and the ten bases, and the ten lavers on the bases;", 7.44. "and the one sea, and the twelve oxen under the sea;", 7.45. "and the pots, and the shovels, and the basins; even all these vessels, which Hiram made for king Solomon, in the house of the LORD, were of burnished brass.", 7.46. "In the plain of the Jordan did the king cast them, in the clay ground between Succoth and Zarethan.", 7.47. "And Solomon left all the vessels unweighed, because they were exceeding many; the weight of the brass could not be found out.", 7.48. "And Solomon made all the vessels that were in the house of the LORD: the golden altar, and the table whereupon the showbread was, of gold;", 7.49. "and the candlesticks, five on the right side, and five on the left, before the Sanctuary, of pure gold; and the flowers, and the lamps, and the tongs, of gold;", 7.50. "and the cups, and the snuffers, and the basins, and the pans, and the fire-pans, of pure gold; and the hinges, both for the doors of the inner house, the most holy place, and for the doors of the house, that is, of the temple, of gold.", 7.51. "Thus all the work that king Solomon wrought in the house of the LORD was finished. And Solomon brought in the things which David his father had dedicated, the silver, and the gold, and the vessels, and put them in the treasuries of the house of the LORD.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 492
7. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 44.9 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
44.9. "כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה כָּל־בֶּן־נֵכָר עֶרֶל לֵב וְעֶרֶל בָּשָׂר לֹא יָבוֹא אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי לְכָל־בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 44.9. "Thus saith the Lord GOD: No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary, even any alien that is among the children of Israel.",
8. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 3.10-4.10 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 141
9. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
10.1. "וַיָּקָם עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אַתֶּם מְעַלְתֶּם וַתֹּשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת לְהוֹסִיף עַל־אַשְׁמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 10.1. "וּכְהִתְפַּלֵּל עֶזְרָא וּכְהִתְוַדֹּתוֹ בֹּכֶה וּמִתְנַפֵּל לִפְנֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלָיו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קָהָל רַב־מְאֹד אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וִילָדִים כִּי־בָכוּ הָעָם הַרְבֵּה־בֶכֶה׃", 10.1. "Now while Ezra prayed, and made confession, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there was gathered together unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children; for the people wept very sore.",
10. Aristophanes, Frogs, 628 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489
628. ἐνταῦθα μηδὲν ψεῦδος. ἀγορεύω τινὶ
11. Aristophanes, Clouds, 1433 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489
1433. πρὸς ταῦτα μὴ τύπτ': εἰ δὲ μή, σαυτόν ποτ' αἰτιάσει.
12. Diphilus Iambographus 5. Jh. V. Chr, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
13. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 485
67b. αὐτῶν πᾶν τὸ εἰλικρινές, τοῦτο δ’ ἐστὶν ἴσως τὸ ἀληθές: μὴ καθαρῷ γὰρ καθαροῦ ἐφάπτεσθαι μὴ οὐ θεμιτὸν ᾖ. τοιαῦτα οἶμαι, ὦ Σιμμία , ἀναγκαῖον εἶναι πρὸς ἀλλήλους λέγειν τε καὶ δοξάζειν πάντας τοὺς ὀρθῶς φιλομαθεῖς. ἢ οὐ δοκεῖ σοι οὕτως; 67b. and that is, perhaps, the truth. For it cannot be that the impure attain the pure. Such words as these, I think, Simmias, all who are rightly lovers of knowledge must say to each other and such must be their thoughts. Do you not agree? Most assuredly, Socrates. Then, said Socrates, if this is true, my friend, I have great hopes that when I reach the place to which I am going, I shall there, if anywhere, attain fully to that which has been my chief object in my past life, so that the journey which is now
14. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489
15. Herodotus, Histories, 2.65, 5.106 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489, 495
2.65. but the Egyptians in this and in all other matters are exceedingly strict against desecration of their temples. ,Although Egypt has Libya on its borders, it is not a country of many animals. All of them are held sacred; some of these are part of men's households and some not; but if I were to say why they are left alone as sacred, I should end up talking of matters of divinity, which I am especially averse to treating; I have never touched upon such except where necessity has compelled me. ,But I will indicate how it is customary to deal with the animals. Men and women are appointed guardians to provide nourishment for each kind respectively; a son inherits this office from his father. ,Townsfolk in each place, when they pay their vows, pray to the god to whom the animal is dedicated, shaving all or one half or one third of their children's heads, and weighing the hair in a balance against a sum of silver; then the weight in silver of the hair is given to the female guardian of the creatures, who buys fish with it and feeds them. ,Thus, food is provided for them. Whoever kills one of these creatures intentionally is punished with death; if he kills accidentally, he pays whatever penalty the priests appoint. Whoever kills an ibis or a hawk, intentionally or not, must die for it. 5.106. After giving this order, he called before him Histiaeus the Milesian, whom Darius had kept with him for a long time now, and said, “I hear, Histiaeus, that the viceregent whom you put in charge of Miletus has done me wrong. He has brought men from the mainland overseas, and persuaded certain Ionians—who shall yet pay me the penalty for their deeds—to follow them and has robbed me of Sardis. ,Now then, I ask you, do you think that this state of affairs is good? How did such things come to pass without any advice from your side? See to it that you do not have cause to blame yourself hereafter.” ,To this Histiaeus answered: “My lord, what is this you say—that I and none other should devise a plan as a result of which any harm, great or small, was likely to come to you? What desire or feeling of deprivation would prompt me to do such a thing? All that you have is mine, and I am regarded worthy of hearing all your deliberations. ,If my vicegerent is indeed doing what you say, be assured that he has acted of his own accord. For myself, I cannot even go so far as to believe the report that the Milesians and my vicegerent are doing you some dreadful wrong. If, however,it is true that they are engaged in such activities and what you, O king, have heard has a basis in fact, then you can see how unwisely you acted when you forced me to leave the coast. ,It would seem, then, that as soon as I was out of sight, the Ionians did exactly what their hearts had long been set on. If I had been in Ionia no city would have stirred. Now send me off to Ionia right away, so that I may restore that country to peace and deliver into your hands that vicegerent of Miletus who has devised all this. ,Then, when I have done this to your satisfaction, I swear by the gods of your royal house that I will not take off the tunic I am wearing on my arrival in Ionia until I have made Sardo, the largest of the islands, tributary to you.”
16. Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease, 2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361
17. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 5.3.13, 5.5.5, 7.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486, 488, 489
5.3.13. καὶ στήλη ἕστηκε παρὰ τὸν ναὸν γράμματα ἔχουσα· ἱερὸς ὁ χῶρος τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος. τὸν ἔχοντα καὶ καρπούμενον τὴν μὲν δεκάτην καταθύειν ἑκάστου ἔτους. ἐκ δὲ τοῦ περιττοῦ τὸν ναὸν ἐπισκευάζειν. ἂν δὲ τις μὴ ποιῇ ταῦτα τῇ θεῷ μελήσει. 5.5.5. ἐνταῦθα ἔμειναν ἡμέρας τετταράκοντα πέντε. ἐν δὲ ταύταις πρῶτον μὲν τοῖς θεοῖς ἔθυσαν, καὶ πομπὰς ἐποίησαν κατὰ ἔθνος ἕκαστοι τῶν Ἑλλήνων καὶ ἀγῶνας γυμνικούς. 5.3.13. Thereupon various speakers arose, some of their own accord to express the opinions they held, but others at the instigation of Clearchus to make clear the difficulty of either remaining or departing without the consent of Cyrus . 5.3.13. Beside the temple stands a tablet with this inscription: The place is sacred to Artemis. He who holds it and enjoys its fruits must offer the tithe every year in sacrifice, and from the remainder must keep the temple in repair. If any one leaves these things undone, the goddess will look to it. 5.5.5. There they remained forty-five days. During this time they first of all sacrificed to the gods, and all the several groups of the Greeks, nation by nation, instituted festal processions and athletic contests.
18. Diphilus of Sinope, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
19. Aeschines, Letters, 1.183 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 490
20. Hecataeus Abderita, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
21. Diphilus of Sinope, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
22. Dinarchus, Or., 1940.83, 1964.379, 1969.265, 1970.553, 1974.632 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 359, 374, 485
23. Hecataeus Abderita, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
24. Aristotle, Respiration, 52 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 490
25. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489
26. Diphilus Siphnius, Fragments, None (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
27. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.2, 6.4, 12.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360, 361, 484
3.2. it came about that the kings themselves honored the place and glorified the temple with the finest presents,' 6.4. For the temple was filled with debauchery and reveling by the Gentiles, who dallied with harlots and had intercourse with women within the sacred precincts, and besides brought in things for sacrifice that were unfit.' 12.8. But learning that the men in Jamnia meant in the same way to wipe out the Jews who were living among them,'
28. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 4.38, 4.48, 7.33, 9.54 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
4.38. And they saw the sanctuary desolate, the altar profaned, and the gates burned. In the courts they saw bushes sprung up as in a thicket, or as on one of the mountains. They saw also the chambers of the priests in ruins. 4.48. They also rebuilt the sanctuary and the interior of the temple, and consecrated the courts. 7.33. After these events Nicanor went up to Mount Zion. Some of the priests came out of the sanctuary, and some of the elders of the people, to greet him peaceably and to show him the burnt offering that was being offered for the king. 9.54. In the one hundred and fifty-third year, in the second month, Alcimus gave orders to tear down the wall of the inner court of the sanctuary. He tore down the work of the prophets!
29. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 598
1.8. "וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃", 1.8. "But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself.",
30. Polybius, Histories, 5.56.15, 15.32.7, 16.39.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 374, 491
5.56.15. ἐν ᾧ καιρῷ καὶ κατὰ τὴν Ἀπάμειαν αἱ μὲν γυναῖκες τὴν γυναῖκα τὴν Ἑρμείου κατέλευσαν, οἱ δὲ παῖδες τοὺς υἱεῖς. 15.32.7. θεωρῶν τήν τε τοῦ πλήθους ὁρμὴν ἀμετάθετον οὖσαν καὶ τὸ παιδίον δυσχρηστούμενον διά τε τὴν τῶν παρεστώτων ἀσυνήθειαν καὶ διὰ τὴν περὶ τὸν ὄχλον ταραχήν, ἐπύθετο τοῦ βασιλέως εἰ παραδώσει τοῖς πολλοῖς τοὺς εἰς αὐτὸν ἢ τὴν μητέρα τι πεπλημμεληκότας. 16.39.4. μετʼ ὀλίγον δὲ προσεχώρησαν αὐτῷ καὶ τῶν Ἰουδαίων οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ προσαγορευόμενον Ἱεροσόλυμα κατοικοῦντες. 5.56.15.  The women in Apamea at this time stoned the wife of Hermeias to death and the boys did the like to his sons. 15.32.7.  seeing that there was no hope of appeasing the fury of the populace and that the boy was ill at ease, finding himself among strangers and amidst all the commotion of the mob, asked the king if he would give up to the people those who were in any way guilty of offences to himself or his mother. 16.39.4.  and after a short time those Jews who inhabited the holy place called Jerusalem, surrendered to him.
31. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 5.78 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
5.78. mulieres vero in India, cum est cuius cuiuis V 3 communis Geel ( sed tum plures...nuptae post mortuus legeretur; cf.etiam Se., Jb.d.ph.V.26 p.301 ) earum vir mortuus, in certamen iudiciumque veniunt, quam plurumum ille dilexerit— plures enim singulis solent esse nuptae—; quae est victrix, ea laeta prosequentibus suis una unam V 1 cum viro in rogum imponitur, ponitur G 1 illa ilia cf.Quint.inst.1,3,2 victa quae Se. non male,cf.Claud.de nupt.Hon.64 (superatae cum...maerore in vita remanent Val.M. ) maesta discedit. numquam naturam mos vinceret; vinceret vincit H est enim ea semper invicta; sed nos umbris deliciis delitiis X (deliciis V, sed ci in r scr.,alt. i ss. V 2 ) otio languore langore G desidia animum infecimus, opinionibus maloque more delenitum delinitum V 1 H mollivimus. mollium KR 1 ( corr. 1 aut c )H Aegyptiorum morem quis ignorat? ignoret K quorum inbutae mentes pravitatis erroribus quamvis carnificinam carnifici. nam X prius subierint quam ibim aut aspidem aut faelem felem GV cf.nat.deor.1, 82 aut canem aut corcodillum corcodillum GRV corcodrillum KH cf.Th.l.l. violent, volent V 1 quorum etiamsi inprudentes quippiam fecerint, poenam nullam recusent.
32. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
7.10. Upon receiving this letter the Jews did not immediately hurry to make their departure, but they requested of the king that at their own hands those of the Jewish nation who had willfully transgressed against the holy God and the law of God should receive the punishment they deserved.
33. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.702 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 374
34. Philo of Alexandria, On Rewards And Punishments, 74, 152 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
152. And the proselyte who has come over being lifted up on high by good fortune, will be a conspicuous object, being admired and pronounced happy in two most important particulars, in the first place because he has come over to God of his own accord, and also because he has received as a most appropriate reward a firm and sure habitation in heaven, such as one cannot describe. But the man of noble descent, who has adulterated the coinage of his noble birth, will be dragged down to the lowest depths, being hurled down to Tartarus and profound darkness, in order that all men who behold this example may be corrected by it, learning that God receives gladly virtue which grows out of hostility to him, utterly disregarding its original roots, but looking favourably on the whole trunk from its lowest foundation, because it has become useful and has changed its nature so as to become fruitful. XXVII.
35. Philo of Alexandria, De Providentia, 64 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
36. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.161 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
1.161. for having forsaken the language of those who indulge in sublime conversations about astronomy, a language imitating that of the Chaldaeans, foreign and barbarous, he was brought over to that which was suited to a rational being, namely, to the service of the great Cause of all things.
37. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.52, 1.71, 1.79, 1.124, 1.156, 1.261, 1.274, 3.89, 4.16 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361, 484, 488, 492, 493
1.52. Accordingly, having given equal rank and honour to all those who come over, and having granted to them the same favours that were bestowed on the native Jews, he recommends those who are ennobled by truth not only to treat them with respect, but even with especial friendship and excessive benevolence. And is not this a reasonable recommendation? What he says is this. "Those men, who have left their country, and their friends, and their relations for the sake of virtue and holiness, ought not to be left destitute of some other cities, and houses, and friends, but there ought to be places of refuge always ready for those who come over to religion; for the most effectual allurement and the most indissoluble bond of affectionate good will is the mutual honouring of the one God." 1.71. of this temple the outer circuit, being the most extensive both in length and width, was fortified by fortifications adorned in a most costly manner. And each of them is a double portico, built and adorned with the finest materials of wood and stone, and with abundant supplies of all kinds, and with the greatest skill of the workmen, and the most diligent care on the part of the superintendants. But the inner circuits were less extensive, and the fashion of their building and adorning was more simple. 1.79. Now there are twelve tribes of the nation, and one of them having been selected from the others for its excellence has received the priesthood, receiving this honour as a reward for its virtue, and fidelity, and its devout soul, which it displayed when the multitude appeared to be running into sin, following the foolish choices of some persons who persuaded their countrymen to imitate the vanity of the Egyptians, and the pride of the nations of the land, who had invented fables about irrational animals, and especially about bulls, making gods of them. For this tribe did of its own accord go forth and slay all the leaders of this apostacy from the youth upwards, in which they appeared to have done a holy action, encountering thus a contest and a labour for the sake of piety.XVI. 1.124. on which account the law altogether forbids any foreigner to partake in any degree of the holy things, even if he be a man of the noblest birth among the natives of the land, and irreproachable as respects both men and women, in order that the sacred honours may not be adulterated, but may remain carefully guarded in the family of the priests; 1.156. Having given all these supplies and revenues to the priests, he did not neglect those either who were in the second rank of the priesthood; and these are the keepers of the temple, of whom some are placed at the doors, at the very entrance of the temple, as door-keepers; and others are within, in the vestibule of the temple, in order that no one who ought not to do so might enter it, either deliberately or by accident. Others, again, stand all around, having had the times of their watches assigned to them by lot, so as to watch by turns night and day, some being day watchmen and others night watchmen. Others, again, had charge of the porticoes and of the courts in the open air, and carried out all the rubbish, taking care of the cleanliness of the temple, and the tenths were assigned as the wages of all these men; for these tenths are the share of the keepers of the temple. 1.261. The body then, as I have already said, he purifies with ablutions and bespringklings, and does not allow a person after he has once washed and sprinkled himself, at once to enter within the sacred precincts, but bids him wait outside for seven days, and to be besprinkled twice, on the third day and on the seventh day; and after this it commands him to wash himself once more, and then it admits him to enter the sacred precincts and to share in the sacred ministrations.XLIX. 1.274. for one is made of stones, carefully selected so to fit one another, and unhewn, and it is erected in the open air, near the steps of the temple, and it is for the purpose of sacrificing victims which contain blood in them. And the other is made of gold, and is erected in the inner part of the temple, within the first veil, and may not be seen by any other human being except those of the priests who keep themselves pure, and it is for the purpose of offering incense upon; 3.89. Or shall we say that to those who have done no wrong the temple is still inaccessible until they have washed themselves, and sprinkled themselves, and purified themselves with the accustomed purifications; but that those who are guilty of indelible crimes, the pollution of which no length of time will ever efface, may approach and dwell among those holy seats; though no decent person, who has any regard for holy things would even receive them in his house?XVI. 4.16. And before now, some men, increasing their own innate wickedness, and directing the natural treachery of their characters to a violation of all rights, have studied to bring slavery not only upon strangers and foreigners, but even upon those of the same nation as themselves; and sometimes, even upon men of the same borough and of the same tribe, disregarding the community of laws and customs, in which they have been bred up with them from their earliest infancy, which nature stamps upon their souls as the firmest bond of good will in the case of all those who are not very intractable and greatly addicted to cruelty;
38. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 147, 103 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
103. Accordingly, he commands the men of his nation to love the strangers, not only as they love their friends and relations, but even as they love themselves, doing them all the good possible both in body and soul; and, as to their feelings, sympathising with them both in sorrow and in joy, so as to appear all one creature, though the parts are divided; mutual fellowship uniting the whole and rendering it compact and coherent.
39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 31 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493
31. but when they did not dare to do so, he himself taking the sword inquired in his ignorance and want of experience what was the most mortal place, in order that by a well-directed blow he might cut short his miserable life; and they, like instructors in misery, led him on his way, and pointed out to him the part into which he was to thrust his sword; and he, having thus learnt his first and last lesson, became himself, miserable that he was, his own murderer under compulsion. VI.
40. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.83.1, 1.83.8, 5.46.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491, 495
1.83.1.  As regards the consecration of animals in Egypt, the practice naturally appears to many to be extraordinary and worthy of investigation. For the Egyptian venerate certain animals exceedingly, not only during their lifetime but even after their death, such as cats, ichneumons and dogs, and, again, hawks and the birds which they call "ibis," as well as wolves and crocodiles and a number of other animals of that kind, and the reasons for such worship we shall undertake to set forth, after we have first spoken briefly about the animals themselves. 1.83.8.  So deeply implanted also in the hearts of the common people is their superstitious regard for these animals and so unalterable are the emotions cherished by every man regarding the honour due to them that once, at the time when Ptolemy their king had not as yet been given by the Romans the appellation of "friend" and the people were exercising all zeal in courting the favour of the embassy from Italy which was then visiting Egypt and, in their fear, were intent upon giving no cause for complaint or war, when one of the Romans killed a cat and the multitude rushed in a crowd to his house, neither the officials sent by the king to beg the man off nor the fear of Rome which all the people felt were enough to save the man from punishment, even though his act had been an accident. 5.46.4.  The land possesses rich mines of gold, silver, copper, tin, and iron, but none of these metals is allowed to be taken from the island; nor may the priests for any reason whatsoever set foot outside of the hallowed land, and if one of them does so, whoever meets him is authorized to slay him.
41. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 5.1, 9.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493, 494
5.1. "הָיוּ בוֹדְקִין אוֹתָן בְּשֶׁבַע חֲקִירוֹת, בְּאֵיזֶה שָׁבוּעַ, בְּאֵיזוֹ שָׁנָה, בְּאֵיזֶה חֹדֶשׁ, בְּכַמָּה בַחֹדֶשׁ, בְּאֵיזֶה יוֹם, בְּאֵיזוֹ שָׁעָה, בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר בְּאֵיזֶה יוֹם, בְּאֵיזוֹ שָׁעָה, בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם. מַכִּירִין אַתֶּם אוֹתוֹ. הִתְרֵיתֶם בּוֹ. הָעוֹבֵד עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, אֶת מִי עָבַד, וּבַמֶּה עָבָד: \n", 9.6. "הַגּוֹנֵב אֶת הַקַּסְוָה וְהַמְקַלֵּל בַּקּוֹסֵם וְהַבּוֹעֵל אֲרַמִּית, קַנָּאִין פּוֹגְעִין בּוֹ. כֹּהֵן שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בְּטֻמְאָה, אֵין אֶחָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים מְבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית דִּין, אֶלָּא פִרְחֵי כְהֻנָּה מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ חוּץ לָעֲזָרָה וּמַפְצִיעִין אֶת מֹחוֹ בִּגְזִירִין. זָר שֶׁשִּׁמֵּשׁ בַּמִּקְדָּשׁ, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, בְּחֶנֶק. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בִּידֵי שָׁמָיִם: \n", 5.1. "They used to examine witnesses with seven inquiries: In what week of years? In what year? In what month? On what date in the month? On what day? In what hour? In what place? Rabbi Yose says: [They only asked:] On what day? In what hour? In what place? [Moreover they asked:] Do you recognize him? Did you warn him? If one had committed idolatry [they asked the witnesses:] What did he worship and how did he worship it?", 9.6. "If one steals the sacred vessel called a “kasvah” (Numbers 4:7), or cursed by the name of an idol, or has sexual relations with an Aramean (non-Jewish) woman, he is punished by zealots. If a priest performed the temple service while impure, his fellow priests do not bring him to the court, but rather the young priests take him out into the courtyard and split his skull with clubs. A layman who performed the service in the Temple: Rabbi Akiva says: “He is strangled.” But the Sages say: “[His death is] at the hands of heaven.”",
42. Suetonius, Claudius, 25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
43. New Testament, Acts, 21.26 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361
21.26. τότε ὁ Παῦλος παραλαβὼν τοὺς ἄνδρας τῇ ἐχομένῃ ἡμέρᾳ σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁγνισθεὶς εἰσῄει εἰς τὸ ἱερόν, διαγγέλλων τὴν ἐκπλήρωσιν τῶν ἡμερῶν τοῦ ἁγνισμοῦ ἕως οὗ προσηνέχθη ὑπὲρ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου αὐτῶν ἡ προσφορά. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them.
44. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.125, 3.224, 3.318, 4.264, 8.61-8.98, 12.145-12.146, 12.413, 14.22, 14.163, 14.167, 14.285, 15.391-15.402, 15.417, 16.320, 16.365, 16.393, 17.160, 17.209, 18.30, 18.55, 18.94 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 359, 360, 361, 374, 483, 484, 487, 488, 492, 493, 494, 496; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 141, 150
3.125. The first veil was ten cubits every way, and this they spread over the pillars which parted the temple, and kept the most holy place concealed within; and this veil was that which made this part not visible to any. Now the whole temple was called The Holy Place: but that part which was within the four pillars, and to which none were admitted, was called The Holy of Holies. 3.224. 1. I will now, however, make mention of a few of our laws which belong to purifications, and the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter of sacrifices. These sacrifices were of two sorts; of those sorts one was offered for private persons, and the other for the people in general; and they are done in two different ways. 3.318. There are also many other demonstrations that his power was more than human, for still some there have been, who have come from the parts beyond Euphrates, a journey of four months, through many dangers, and at great expenses, in honor of our temple; and yet, when they had offered their oblations, could not partake of their own sacrifices, because Moses had forbidden it, by somewhat in the law that did not permit them, or somewhat that had befallen them, which our ancient customs made inconsistent therewith; 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 8.61. 1. Solomon began to build the temple in the fourth year of his reign, on the second month, which the Macedonians call Artemisius, and the Hebrews Jur, five hundred and ninety-two years after the Exodus out of Egypt; but one thousand and twenty years from Abraham’s coming out of Mesopotamia into Canaan, and after the deluge one thousand four hundred and forty years; 8.62. and from Adam, the first man who was created, until Solomon built the temple, there had passed in all three thousand one hundred and two years. Now that year on which the temple began to be built was already the eleventh year of the reign of Hiram; but from the building of Tyre to the building of the temple, there had passed two hundred and forty years. 8.63. 2. Now, therefore, the king laid the foundations of the temple very deep in the ground, and the materials were strong stones, and such as would resist the force of time; these were to unite themselves with the earth, and become a basis and a sure foundation for that superstructure which was to be erected over it; they were to be so strong, in order to sustain with ease those vast superstructures and precious ornaments, whose own weight was to be not less than the weight of those other high and heavy buildings which the king designed to be very ornamental and magnificent. 8.64. They erected its entire body, quite up to the roof, of white stone; its height was sixty cubits, and its length was the same, and its breadth twenty. There was another building erected over it, equal to it in its measures; so that the entire altitude of the temple was a hundred and twenty cubits. Its front was to the east. 8.65. As to the porch, they built it before the temple; its length was twenty cubits, and it was so ordered that it might agree with the breadth of the house; and it had twelve cubits in latitude, and its height was raised as high as a hundred and twenty cubits. He also built round about the temple thirty small rooms, which might include the whole temple, by their closeness one to another, and by their number and outward position round it. He also made passages through them, that they might come into on through another. 8.66. Every one of these rooms had five cubits in breadth, and the same in length, but in height twenty. Above these there were other rooms, and others above them, equal, both in their measures and number; so that these reached to a height equal to the lower part of the house; for the upper part had no buildings about it. 8.67. The roof that was over the house was of cedar; and truly every one of these rooms had a roof of their own, that was not connected with the other rooms; but for the other parts, there was a covered roof common to them all, and built with very long beams, that passed through the rest, and rough the whole building, that so the middle walls, being strengthened by the same beams of timber, might be thereby made firmer: 8.68. but as for that part of the roof that was under the beams, it was made of the same materials, and was all made smooth, and had ornaments proper for roofs, and plates of gold nailed upon them. And as he enclosed the walls with boards of cedar, so he fixed on them plates of gold, which had sculptures upon them; so that the whole temple shined, and dazzled the eyes of such as entered, by the splendor of the gold that was on every side of them, 8.69. Now the whole structure of the temple was made with great skill of polished stones, and those laid together so very harmoniously and smoothly, that there appeared to the spectators no sign of any hammer, or other instrument of architecture; but as if, without any use of them, the entire materials had naturally united themselves together, that the agreement of one part with another seemed rather to have been natural, than to have arisen from the force of tools upon them. 8.70. The king also had a fine contrivance for an ascent to the upper room over the temple, and that was by steps in the thickness of its wall; for it had no large door on the east end, as the lower house had, but the entrances were by the sides, through very small doors. He also overlaid the temple, both within and without, with boards of cedar, that were kept close together by thick chains, so that this contrivance was in the nature of a support and a strength to the building. 8.71. 3. Now when the king had divided the temple into two parts, he made the inner house of twenty cubits [every way], to be the most secret chamber, but he appointed that of forty cubits to be the sanctuary; and when he had cut a door-place out of the wall, he put therein doors of Cedar, and overlaid them with a great deal of gold, that had sculptures upon it. 8.72. He also had veils of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and the brightest and softest linen, with the most curious flowers wrought upon them, which were to be drawn before those doors. He also dedicated for the most secret place, whose breadth was twenty cubits, and length the same, two cherubims of solid gold; the height of each of them was five cubits they had each of them two wings stretched out as far as five cubits; 8.73. wherefore Solomon set them up not far from each other, that with one wing they might touch the southern wall of the secret place, and with another the northern: their other wings, which joined to each other, were a covering to the ark, which was set between them; but nobody can tell, or even conjecture, what was the shape of these cherubims. 8.74. He also laid the floor of the temple with plates of gold; and he added doors to the gate of the temple, agreeable to the measure of the height of the wall, but in breadth twenty cubits, and on them he glued gold plates. 8.75. And, to say all in one word, he left no part of the temple, neither internal nor external, but what was covered with gold. He also had curtains drawn over these doors in like manner as they were drawn over the inner doors of the most holy place; but the porch of the temple had nothing of that sort. 8.76. 4. Now Solomon sent for an artificer out of Tyre, whose name was Hiram; he was by birth of the tribe of Naphtali, on the mother’s side, (for she was of that tribe,) but his father was Ur, of the stock of the Israelites. This man was skillful in all sorts of work; but his chief skill lay in working in gold, and silver, and brass; by whom were made all the mechanical works about the temple, according to the will of Solomon. 8.77. Moreover, this Hiram made two [hollow] pillars, whose outsides were of brass, and the thickness of the brass was four fingers’ breadth, and the height of the pillars was eighteen cubits and their circumference twelve cubits; but there was cast with each of their chapiters lily-work that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated five cubits, round about which there was net-work interwoven with small palms, made of brass, and covered the lily-work. 8.78. To this also were hung two hundred pomegranates, in two rows. The one of these pillars he set at the entrance of the porch on the right hand, and called it Jachin and the other at the left hand, and called it Booz. 8.79. 5. Solomon also cast a brazen sea, whose figure was that of a hemisphere. This brazen vessel was called a sea for its largeness, for the laver was ten feet in diameter, and cast of the thickness of a palm. Its middle part rested on a short pillar that had ten spirals round it, and that pillar was ten cubits in diameter. 8.80. There stood round about it twelve oxen, that looked to the four winds of heaven, three to each wind, having their hinder parts depressed, that so the hemispherical vessel might rest upon them, which itself was also depressed round about inwardly. Now this sea contained three thousand baths. 8.81. 6. He also made ten brazen bases for so many quadrangular lavers; the length of every one of these bases was five cubits, and the breadth four cubits, and the height six cubits. This vessel was partly turned, and was thus contrived: There were four small quadrangular pillars that stood one at each corner; these had the sides of the base fitted to them on each quarter; they were parted into three parts; 8.82. every interval had a border fitted to support [the laver]; upon which was engraven, in one place a lion, and in another place a bull, and an eagle. The small pillars had the same animals engraven that were engraven on the sides. 8.83. The whole work was elevated, and stood upon four wheels, which were also cast, which had also naves and felloes, and were a foot and a half in diameter. Any one who saw the spokes of the wheels, how exactly they were turned, and united to the sides of the bases, and with what harmony they agreed to the felloes, would wonder at them. However, their structure was this: 8.84. Certain shoulders of hands stretched out held the corners above, upon which rested a short spiral pillar, that lay under the hollow part of the laver, resting upon the fore part of the eagle and the lion, which were adapted to them, insomuch that those who viewed them would think they were of one piece: between these were engravings of palm trees. This was the construction of the ten bases. 8.85. He also made ten large round brass vessels, which were the lavers themselves, each of which contained forty baths; for it had its height four cubits, and its edges were as much distant from each other. He also placed these lavers upon the ten bases that were called Mechonoth; 8.86. and he set five of the lavers on the left side of the temple which was that side towards the north wind, and as many on the right side, towards the south, but looking towards the east; the same [eastern] way he also set the sea. 8.87. Now he appointed the sea to be for washing the hands and the feet of the priests, when they entered into the temple and were to ascend the altar, but the lavers to cleanse the entrails of the beasts that were to be burnt-offerings, with their feet also. 8.88. 7. He also made a brazen altar, whose length was twenty cubits, and its breadth the same, and its height ten, for the burnt-offerings. He also made all its vessels of brass, the pots, and the shovels, and the basons; and besides these, the snuffers and the tongs, and all its other vessels, he made of brass, and such brass as was in splendor and beauty like gold. 8.89. The king also dedicated a great number of tables, but one that was large and made of gold, upon which they set the loaves of God; and he made ten thousand more that resembled them, but were done after another manner, upon which lay the vials and the cups; those of gold were twenty thousand, those of silver were forty thousand. 8.90. He also made ten thousand candlesticks, according to the command of Moses, one of which he dedicated for the temple, that it might burn in the day time, according to the law; and one table with loaves upon it, on the north side of the temple, over against the candlestick; for this he set on the south side, but the golden altar stood between them. All these vessels were contained in that part of the holy house, which was forty cubits long, and were before the veil of that most secret place wherein the ark was to be set. 8.91. 8. The king also made pouring vessels, in number eighty thousand, and a hundred thousand golden vials, and twice as many silver vials: of golden dishes, in order therein to offer kneaded fine flour at the altar, there were eighty thousand, and twice as many of silver. of large basons also, wherein they mixed fine flour with oil, sixty thousand of gold, and twice as many of silver. 8.92. of the measures like those which Moses called the Hin and the Assaron, [a tenth deal,] there were twenty thousand of gold, and twice as many of silver. The golden censers, in which they carried the incense to the altar, were twenty thousand; the other censers, in which they carried fire from the great altar to the little altar, within the temple, were fifty thousand. 8.93. The sacerdotal garments which belonged to the high priest, with the long robes, and the oracle, and the precious stones, were a thousand. But the crown upon which Moses wrote [the name of God], was only one, and hath remained to this very day. He also made ten thousand sacerdotal garments of fine linen, with purple girdles for every priest; 8.94. and two hundred thousand trumpets, according to the command of Moses; also two hundred thousand garments of fine linen for the singers, that were Levites. And he made musical instruments, and such as were invented for singing of hymns, called Nablee and Cindree, [psalteries and harps,] which were made of electrum, [the finest brass,] forty thousand. 8.95. 9. Solomon made all these things for the honor of God, with great variety and magnificence, sparing no cost, but using all possible liberality in adorning the temple; and these things he dedicated to the treasures of God. He also placed a partition round about the temple, which in our tongue we call Gison, but it is called Thrigcos by the Greeks, and he raised it up to the height of three cubits; and it was for the exclusion of the multitude from coming into the temple, and showing that it was a place that was free and open only for the priests. 8.96. He also built beyond this court a temple, whose figure was that of a quadrangle, and erected for it great and broad cloisters; this was entered into by very high gates, each of which had its front exposed to one of the [four] winds, and were shut by golden doors. Into this temple all the people entered that were distinguished from the rest by being pure and observant of the laws. 8.97. But he made that temple which was beyond this a wonderful one indeed, and such as exceeds all description in words; nay, if I may so say, is hardly believed upon sight; for when he had filled up great valleys with earth, which, on account of their immense depth, could not be looked on, when you bended down to see them, without pain, and had elevated the ground four hundred cubits, he made it to be on a level with the top of the mountain, on which the temple was built, and by this means the outmost temple, which was exposed to the air, was even with the temple itself. 8.98. He encompassed this also with a building of a double row of cloisters, which stood on high upon pillars of native stone, while the roofs were of cedar, and were polished in a manner proper for such high roofs; but he made all the doors of this temple of silver. 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 12.413. 6. But now as the high priest Alcimus, was resolving to pull down the wall of the sanctuary, which had been there of old time, and had been built by the holy prophets, he was smitten suddenly by God, and fell down. This stroke made him fall down speechless upon the ground; and undergoing torments for many days, he at length died, when he had been high priest four years. 14.22. Now there was one, whose name was Onias, a righteous man he was, and beloved of God, who, in a certain drought, had prayed to God to put an end to the intense heat, and whose prayers God had heard, and had sent them rain. This man had hid himself, because he saw that this sedition would last a great while. However, they brought him to the Jewish camp, and desired, that as by his prayers he had once put an end to the drought, so he would in like manner make imprecations on Aristobulus and those of his faction. 14.163. 3. But now the principal men among the Jews, when they saw Antipater and his sons to grow so much in the good-will the nation bare to them, and in the revenues which they received out of Judea, and out of Hyrcanus’s own wealth, they became ill-disposed to him; 14.167. for Herod, Antipater’s son, hath slain Hezekiah, and those that were with him, and hath thereby transgressed our law, which hath forbidden to slay any man, even though he were a wicked man, unless he had been first condemned to suffer death by the Sanhedrim yet hath he been so insolent as to do this, and that without any authority from thee.” 14.285. 5. However, a little after this, Herod, upon the approach of a festival, came with his soldiers into the city; whereupon Malichus was affrighted, and persuaded Hyrcanus not to permit him to come into the city. Hyrcanus complied; and, for a pretense of excluding him, alleged, that a rout of strangers ought not to be admitted when the multitude were purifying themselves. 15.391. 3. So Herod took away the old foundations, and laid others, and erected the temple upon them, being in length a hundred cubits, and in height twenty additional cubits, which [twenty], upon the sinking of their foundations fell down; and this part it was that we resolved to raise again in the days of Nero. 15.392. Now the temple was built of stones that were white and strong, and each of their length was twenty-five cubits, their height was eight, and their breadth about twelve; 15.393. and the whole structure, as also the structure of the royal cloister, was on each side much lower, but the middle was much higher, till they were visible to those that dwelt in the country for a great many furlongs, but chiefly to such as lived over against them, and those that approached to them. 15.394. The temple had doors also at the entrance, and lintels over them, of the same height with the temple itself. They were adorned with embroidered veils, with their flowers of purple, and pillars interwoven; 15.395. and over these, but under the crown-work, was spread out a golden vine, with its branches hanging down from a great height, the largeness and fine workmanship of which was a surprising sight to the spectators, to see what vast materials there were, and with what great skill the workmanship was done. 15.396. He also encompassed the entire temple with very large cloisters, contriving them to be in a due proportion thereto; and he laid out larger sums of money upon them than had been done before him, till it seemed that no one else had so greatly adorned the temple as he had done. There was a large wall to both the cloisters, which wall was itself the most prodigious work that was ever heard of by man. 15.397. The hill was a rocky ascent, that declined by degrees towards the east parts of the city, till it came to an elevated level. 15.398. This hill it was which Solomon, who was the first of our kings, by divine revelation, encompassed with a wall; it was of excellent workmanship upwards, and round the top of it. He also built a wall below, beginning at the bottom, which was encompassed by a deep valley; and at the south side he laid rocks together, and bound them one to another with lead, and included some of the inner parts, till it proceeded to a great height, 15.399. and till both the largeness of the square edifice and its altitude were immense, and till the vastness of the stones in the front were plainly visible on the outside, yet so that the inward parts were fastened together with iron, and preserved the joints immovable for all future times. 15.400. When this work [for the foundation] was done in this manner, and joined together as part of the hill itself to the very top of it, he wrought it all into one outward surface, and filled up the hollow places which were about the wall, and made it a level on the external upper surface, and a smooth level also. This hill was walled all round, and in compass four furlongs, [the distance of] each angle containing in length a furlong: 15.401. but within this wall, and on the very top of all, there ran another wall of stone also, having, on the east quarter, a double cloister, of the same length with the wall; in the midst of which was the temple itself. This cloister looked to the gates of the temple; and it had been adorned by many kings in former times; 15.402. and round about the entire temple were fixed the spoils taken from barbarous nations; all these had been dedicated to the temple by Herod, with the addition of those he had taken from the Arabians. 15.417. Thus was the first enclosure. In the midst of which, and not far from it, was the second, to be gone up to by a few steps: this was encompassed by a stone wall for a partition, with an inscription, which forbade any foreigner to go in under pain of death. 16.320. 5. So the king produced those that had been tortured before the multitude at Jericho, in order to have them accuse the young men, which accusers many of the people stoned to death; 16.365. At last he said that he had sufficient authority, both by nature and by Caesar’s grant to him, [to do what he thought fit]. He also added an allegation of a law of their country, which enjoined this: That if parents laid their hands on the head of him that was accused, the standersby were obliged to cast stones at him, and thereby to slay him; 16.393. He also brought out three hundred of the officers that were under an accusation, as also Tero and his son, and the barber that accused them before an assembly, and brought an accusation against them all; 17.160. And thus they all said, and their courage was still equal to their profession, and equal to that with which they readily set about this undertaking. And when the king had ordered them to be bound, he sent them to Jericho, and called together the principal men among the Jews; 17.209. However, he sent the general of his forces to use persuasions, and to tell them that the death which was inflicted on their friends was according to the law; and to represent to them that their petitions about these things were carried to a great height of injury to him; that the time was not now proper for such petitions, but required their uimity until such time as he should be established in the government by the consent of Caesar, and should then be come back to them; for that he would then consult with them in common concerning the purport of their petitions; but that they ought at present to be quiet, lest they should seem seditious persons. 18.30. When, therefore, those gates were first opened, some of the Samaritans came privately into Jerusalem, and threw about dead men’s bodies, in the cloisters; on which account the Jews afterward excluded them out of the temple, which they had not used to do at such festivals; and on other accounts also they watched the temple more carefully than they had formerly done. 18.55. 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar’s effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images; 18.94. and seven days before a festival they were delivered to them by the captain of the guard, when the high priest having purified them, and made use of them, laid them up again in the same chamber where they had been laid up before, and this the very next day after the feast was over. This was the practice at the three yearly festivals, and on the fast day;
45. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.207, 1.229, 1.354, 1.401, 1.550, 1.654, 2.169, 4.201, 4.205, 4.215, 4.218, 5.184-5.226, 6.124, 6.126, 6.425, 7.48 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 483, 484, 489, 492, 493, 496; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 141, 150, 151
1.207. whence it came to pass that the nation paid Antipater the respects that were due only to a king, and the honors they all yielded him were equal to the honors due to an absolute lord; yet did he not abate any part of that goodwill or fidelity which he owed to Hyrcanus. 1.229. 6. So Herod went to Samaria, which was then in a tumult, and settled the city in peace; after which at the [Pentecost] festival, he returned to Jerusalem, having his armed men with him: hereupon Hyrcanus, at the request of Malichus, who feared his approach, forbade them to introduce foreigners to mix themselves with the people of the country while they were purifying themselves; but Herod despised the pretense, and him that gave that command, and came in by night. 1.354. 3. But Herod’s concern at present, now he had gotten his enemies under his power, was to restrain the zeal of his foreign auxiliaries; for the multitude of the strange people were very eager to see the temple, and what was sacred in the holy house itself; but the king endeavored to restrain them, partly by his exhortations, partly by his threatenings, nay, partly by force, as thinking the victory worse than a defeat to him, if anything that ought not to be seen were seen by them. 1.401. 1. Accordingly, in the fifteenth year of his reign, Herod rebuilt the temple, and encompassed a piece of land about it with a wall, which land was twice as large as that before enclosed. The expenses he laid out upon it were vastly large also, and the riches about it were unspeakable. A sign of which you have in the great cloisters that were erected about the temple, and the citadel which was on its north side. The cloisters he built from the foundation, but the citadel he repaired at a vast expense; nor was it other than a royal palace, which he called Antonia, in honor of Antony. 1.550. 6. And now Herod accused the captains and Tero in an assembly of the people, and brought the people together in a body against them; and accordingly there were they put to death, together with [Trypho] the barber; they were killed by the pieces of wood and the stones that were thrown at them. 1.654. 4. At this the king was in such an extravagant passion, that he overcame his disease [for the time], and went out and spake to the people; wherein he made a terrible accusation against those men, as being guilty of sacrilege, and as making greater attempts under pretense of their law, and he thought they deserved to be punished as impious persons. 2.169. 2. Now Pilate, who was sent as procurator into Judea by Tiberius, sent by night those images of Caesar that are called ensigns into Jerusalem. 4.201. As for the dead bodies of the people, their relations carried them out to their own houses; but when any of the zealots were wounded, he went up into the temple, and defiled that sacred floor with his blood, insomuch that one may say it was their blood alone that polluted our sanctuary. 4.205. Now Aus did not think fit to make any attack against the holy gates, although the other threw their stones and darts at them from above. He also deemed it unlawful to introduce the multitude into that court before they were purified; 4.215. So Aus and his party believed his oath, and did now receive him to their consultations without further suspicion; nay, so far did they believe him, that they sent him as their ambassador into the temple to the zealots, with proposals of accommodation; for they were very desirous to avoid the pollution of the temple as much as they possibly could, and that no one of their nation should be slain therein. 4.218. for that Aus made no longer delay, but had prevailed with the people to send ambassadors to Vespasian, to invite him to come presently and take the city; and that he had appointed a fast for the next day against them, that they might obtain admission into the temple on a religious account, or gain it by force, and fight with them there; 5.184. 1. Now this temple, as I have already said, was built upon a strong hill. At first the plain at the top was hardly sufficient for the holy house and the altar, for the ground about it was very uneven, and like a precipice; 5.185. but when king Solomon, who was the person that built the temple, had built a wall to it on its east side, there was then added one cloister founded on a bank cast up for it, and on the other parts the holy house stood naked. But in future ages the people added new banks, and the hill became a larger plain. 5.186. They then broke down the wall on the north side, and took in as much as sufficed afterward for the compass of the entire temple. 5.187. And when they had built walls onthree sides of the temple round about, from the bottom of the hill, and had performed a work that was greater than could be hoped for (in which work long ages were spent by them, as well as all their sacred treasures were exhausted, which were still replenished by those tributes which were sent to God from the whole habitable earth), they then encompassed their upper courts with cloisters, as well as they [afterward] did the lowest [court of the] temple. 5.188. The lowest part of this was erected to the height of three hundred cubits, and in some places more; yet did not the entire depth of the foundations appear, for they brought earth, and filled up the valleys, as being desirous to make them on a level with the narrow streets of the city; 5.189. wherein they made use of stones of forty cubits in magnitude; for the great plenty of money they then had, and the liberality of the people, made this attempt of theirs to succeed to an incredible degree; and what could not be so much as hoped for as ever to be accomplished, was, by perseverance and length of time, brought to perfection. 5.190. 2. Now, for the works that were above these foundations, these were not unworthy of such foundations; for all the cloisters were double, and the pillars to them belonging were twenty-five cubits in height, and supported the cloisters. These pillars were of one entire stone each of them, and that stone was white marble; 5.191. and the roofs were adorned with cedar, curiously graven. The natural magnificence, and excellent polish, and the harmony of the joints in these cloisters, afforded a prospect that was very remarkable; nor was it on the outside adorned with any work of the painter or engraver. 5.192. The cloisters [of the outmost court] were in breadth thirty cubits, while the entire compass of it was by measure six furlongs, including the tower of Antonia; those entire courts that were exposed to the air were laid with stones of all sorts. 5.193. When you go through these [first] cloisters, unto the second [court of the] temple, there was a partition made of stone all round, whose height was three cubits: its construction was very elegant; 5.194. upon it stood pillars, at equal distances from one another, declaring the law of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that “no foreigner should go within that sanctuary;” for that second [court of the] temple was called “the Sanctuary;” 5.195. and was ascended to by fourteen steps from the first court. This court was foursquare, and had a wall about it peculiar to itself; 5.196. the height of its buildings, although it were on the outside forty cubits, was hidden by the steps, and on the inside that height was but twenty-five cubits; for it being built over against a higher part of the hill with steps, it was no further to be entirely discerned within, being covered by the hill itself. 5.197. Beyond these fourteen steps there was the distance of ten cubits; this was all plain; 5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally. 5.200. The western part of this court had no gate at all, but the wall was built entire on that side. But then the cloisters which were betwixt the gates extended from the wall inward, before the chambers; for they were supported by very fine and large pillars. These cloisters were single, and, excepting their magnitude, were no way inferior to those of the lower court. 5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without [the inward court of] the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter. 5.207. 4. As to the holy house itself, which was placed in the midst [of the inmost court], that most sacred part of the temple, it was ascended to by twelve steps; and in front its height and its breadth were equal, and each a hundred cubits, though it was behind forty cubits narrower; for on its front it had what may be styled shoulders on each side, that passed twenty cubits further. 5.208. Its first gate was seventy cubits high, and twenty-five cubits broad; but this gate had no doors; for it represented the universal visibility of heaven, and that it cannot be excluded from any place. Its front was covered with gold all over, and through it the first part of the house, that was more inward, did all of it appear; which, as it was very large, so did all the parts about the more inward gate appear to shine to those that saw them; 5.209. but then, as the entire house was divided into two parts within, it was only the first part of it that was open to our view. Its height extended all along to ninety cubits in height, and its length was fifty cubits, and its breadth twenty. 5.210. But that gate which was at this end of the first part of the house was, as we have already observed, all over covered with gold, as was its whole wall about it; it had also golden vines above it, from which clusters of grapes hung as tall as a man’s height. 5.211. But then this house, as it was divided into two parts, the inner part was lower than the appearance of the outer, and had golden doors of fifty-five cubits altitude, and sixteen in breadth; 5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the [twelve] signs, representing living creatures. 5.215. 5. When any persons entered into the temple, its floor received them. This part of the temple therefore was in height sixty cubits, and its length the same; whereas its breadth was but twenty cubits: 5.216. but still that sixty cubits in length was divided again, and the first part of it was cut off at forty cubits, and had in it three things that were very wonderful and famous among all mankind, the candlestick, the table [of shew-bread], and the altar of incense. 5.217. Now, the seven lamps signified the seven planets; for so many there were springing out of the candlestick. Now, the twelve loaves that were upon the table signified the circle of the zodiac and the year; 5.218. but the altar of incense, by its thirteen kinds of sweet-smelling spices with which the sea replenished it, signified that God is the possessor of all things that are both in the uninhabitable and habitable parts of the earth, and that they are all to be dedicated to his use. 5.219. But the inmost part of the temple of all was of twenty cubits. This was also separated from the outer part by a veil. In this there was nothing at all. It was inaccessible and inviolable, and not to be seen by any; and was called the Holy of Holies. 5.220. Now, about the sides of the lower part of the temple, there were little houses, with passages out of one into another; there were a great many of them, and they were of three stories high; there were also entrances on each side into them from the gate of the temple. 5.221. But the superior part of the temple had no such little houses any further, because the temple was there narrower, and forty cubits higher, and of a smaller body than the lower parts of it. Thus we collect that the whole height, including the sixty cubits from the floor, amounted to a hundred cubits. 5.222. 6. Now the outward face of the temple in its front wanted nothing that was likely to surprise either men’s minds or their eyes; for it was covered all over with plates of gold of great weight, and, at the first rising of the sun, reflected back a very fiery splendor, and made those who forced themselves to look upon it to turn their eyes away, just as they would have done at the sun’s own rays. 5.223. But this temple appeared to strangers, when they were coming to it at a distance, like a mountain covered with snow; for as to those parts of it that were not gilt, they were exceeding white. 5.224. On its top it had spikes with sharp points, to prevent any pollution of it by birds sitting upon it. of its stones, some of them were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. 5.225. Before this temple stood the altar, fifteen cubits high, and equal both in length and breadth; each of which dimensions was fifty cubits. The figure it was built in was a square, and it had corners like horns; and the passage up to it was by an insensible acclivity. It was formed without any iron tool, nor did any such iron tool so much as touch it at any time. 5.226. There was also a wall of partition, about a cubit in height, made of fine stones, and so as to be grateful to the sight; this encompassed the holy house and the altar, and kept the people that were on the outside off from the priests. 6.124. 4. Now Titus was deeply affected with this state of things, and reproached John and his party, and said to them, “Have not you, vile wretches that you are, by our permission, put up this partition-wall before your sanctuary? 6.126. Have not we given you leave to kill such as go beyond it, though he were a Roman? And what do you do now, you pernicious villains? Why do you trample upon dead bodies in this temple? and why do you pollute this holy house with the blood of both foreigners and Jews themselves? 6.425. which, upon the allowance of no more than ten that feast together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons that were pure and holy; 7.48. When the people heard this, they could not refrain their passion, but commanded that those who were delivered up to them should have fire brought to burn them, who were accordingly all burnt upon the theater immediately.
46. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.103 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
2.103. for it had four several courts, encompassed with cloisters round about, every one of which had by our law a peculiar degree of separation from the rest. Into the first court every body was allowed to go, even foreigners; and none but women, during their courses, were prohibited to pass through it;
47. Mishnah, Menachot, 5.3-5.4, 9.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 598
5.3. "יֵשׁ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה, לְבוֹנָה וְלֹא שֶׁמֶן, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה. וְאֵלּוּ טְעוּנוֹת שֶׁמֶן וּלְבוֹנָה, מִנְחַת הַסֹּלֶת, וְהַמַּחֲבַת, וְהַמַּרְחֶשֶׁת, וְהַחַלּוֹת, וְהָרְקִיקִין, מִנְחַת כֹּהֲנִים, וּמִנְחַת כֹּהֵן מָשִׁיחַ, וּמִנְחַת גּוֹיִם, וּמִנְחַת נָשִׁים, וּמִנְחַת הָעֹמֶר. מִנְחַת נְסָכִין טְעוּנָה שֶׁמֶן, וְאֵין טְעוּנָה לְבוֹנָה. לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים טָעוּן לְבוֹנָה, וְאֵין טָעוּן שָׁמֶן. שְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם, מִנְחַת חוֹטֵא וּמִנְחַת קְנָאוֹת, לֹא שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא לְבוֹנָה: \n", 5.4. "וְחַיָּב עַל הַשֶּׁמֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְעַל הַלְּבוֹנָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ. נָתַן עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן, פְּסָלָהּ. לְבוֹנָה, יִלְקְטֶנָּה. נָתַן שֶׁמֶן עַל שְׁיָרֶיהָ, אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה. נָתַן כְּלִי עַל גַּבֵּי כְּלִי, לֹא פְסָלָהּ: \n", 9.8. "הַכֹּל סוֹמְכִין, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, סוּמָא, וְנָכְרִי, וְהָעֶבֶד, וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ, וְהָאִשָּׁה. וּסְמִיכָה, שְׁיָרֵי מִצְוָה, עַל הָרֹאשׁ, בִּשְׁתֵּי יָדָיִם. וּבִמְקוֹם שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין שׁוֹחֲטִין, וְתֵכֶף לַסְּמִיכָה שְׁחִיטָה: \n", 5.3. "Some [minhahs] require oil and frankincense, some require oil but not frankincense, some frankincense but not oil, and some neither oil nor frankincense. These require oil and frankincense: the minhah of fine flour, that prepared on a griddle, that prepared in a pan, the cakes and the wafers, the minhah of the priests, the minhah of the anointed high priest, the minhah of a gentile, the minhah of women, and the minhah of the omer. The minhah offered with the drink-offerings requires oil but not frankincense. The showbread requires frankincense but not oil. The two loaves, the sinner's minhah and the minhah of jealousy require neither oil nor frankincense.", 5.4. "One is liable for the oil on its own and for the frankincense on its own. If he put in oil, he has rendered it invalid, but if frankincense, he can remove it. If he put oil on the remainder, he has not transgressed a negative commandment. If he put one vessel above the other vessel, he has not rendered it invalid.", 9.8. "All lay hands on the offering except a deaf-mute, an imbecile, a minor, a blind man, a gentile, a slave, an agent, or a woman. The laying on of hands is outside the commandment. [One must lay] the hands: On the head of the animal, Both hands In the place where one lays on the hands there the animal must be slaughtered; And the slaughtering must immediately follow the laying on of hands.",
48. Mishnah, Tamid, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 141
2.5. "בֵּרְרוּ מִשָּׁם עֲצֵי תְאֵנָה יָפִין, לְסַדֵּר הַמַּעֲרָכָה שְׁנִיָּה לַקְּטֹרֶת, מִכְּנֶגֶד קֶרֶן מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, מָשׁוּךְ מִן הַקֶּרֶן כְּלַפֵּי צָפוֹן אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, בְּעֹמֶד חָמֵשׁ סְאִים גֶּחָלִים, וּבְשַׁבָּת בְּעֹמֶד שְׁמוֹנַת סְאִין גֶּחָלִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין שְׁנֵי בְזִיכֵי לְבוֹנָה שֶׁל לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים. הָאֵבָרִים וְהַפְּדָרִים שֶׁלֹּא נִתְאַכְּלוּ מִבָּעֶרֶב, מַחֲזִירִין אוֹתָן לַמַּעֲרָכָה. הִצִּיתוּ שְׁתֵּי הַמַּעֲרָכוֹת בָּאֵשׁ, וְיָרְדוּ וּבָאוּ לָהֶם לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית: \n", 2.5. "They picked out from there some good fig-tree branches to make a second fire for the incense near the south-western corner some four cubits to the north of it, using as much wood as he judged sufficient to form five seahs of coals, and on the Shabbat as much as he thought would make eight seahs of coals, because from there they used to take fire for the two dishes of frankincense for the showbread. The limbs and the pieces of fat which had not been consumed over night were put back on the wood. They then kindled the two fires and descended and went to the chamber of hewn stone.",
49. Tosefta, Negaim, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361
8.9. "מצורע טובל בלשכת המצורעים ובא ועומד בשער נקנור ר' יהודה אומר לא היה צריך טבילה שכבר טבל מבערב. אמרו לו לא מן השם הוא זה אלא כל הנכנס לעזרה דרך שער נקנור היה טובל באותה לשכת ומביא אשמו ולוגו בידו ומעמידו בשער נקנור והכהן עומד מבפנים ומצורע מבחוץ ומצורע מניח ידו תחת ידו של כבש והכהן מניח ידו על מצורע ומוליך ומביא ומעלה ומוריד וסומך שתי ידיו עליו ונכנס ושוחט בצפון.",
50. Tosefta, Shekalim, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 598
3.12. "בשר קדשי [הקדשים] שנטמא בין באב הטומאה [בין] בולד הטומאה בין מבפנים בין מבחוץ בש\"א הכל ישרף בפנים חוץ משנטמא באב הטומאה בחוץ ובה\"א הכל ישרף בחוץ חוץ משנטמא בולד הטומאה מבפנים ר\"א אומר [מה] שנטמא באב הטומאה בין מבפנים בין מבחוץ ישרף בחוץ ושנטמא בולד הטומאה בין בחוץ בין בפנים ישרף בפנים רבי יהודה אומר כדברי בית שמאי ור\"ע אומר כדברי בית הלל.",
51. Mishnah, Shekalim, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 598
7.6. "אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, שִׁבְעָה דְּבָרִים הִתְקִינוּ בֵּית דִּין, וְזֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶן, נָכְרִי שֶׁשִּׁלַּח עוֹלָתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְשִׁלַּח עִמָּהּ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וְכֵן גֵּר שֶׁמֵּת וְהִנִּיחַ זְבָחִים, אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ נְסָכִים, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. וְאִם לָאו, קְרֵבִין מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. וּתְנַאי בֵּית דִּין הוּא עַל כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל שֶׁמֵּת, שֶׁתְּהֵא מִנְחָתוֹ קְרֵבָה מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. וּשְׁלֵמָה הָיְתָה קְרֵבָה: \n", 7.6. "Rabbi Shimon said: there were seven things that the court decree and that was one of them. [The others were the following:]A non-Jew who sent a burnt-offering from overseas and he sent with it its libation-offerings, they are offered out of his own; But if [he did] not [send its libation-offerings], they should be offered out of public funds. So too [in the case of] a convert who had died and left sacrifices, if he had also left its libation-offerings they are offered out of his own; But if not, they should be offered out of public funds. It was also a condition laid down by the court in the case of a high priest who had died that his minhah should be offered out of public funds. Rabbi Judah says: [it was offered out] of the property of his heirs, And had to be offered of the whole [tenth].",
52. Mishnah, Middot, 2.1, 2.3-2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 484; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 148, 150
2.1. "הַר הַבַּיִת הָיָה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה עַל חֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה, רֻבּוֹ מִן הַדָּרוֹם, שֵׁנִי לוֹ מִן הַמִּזְרָח, שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ מִן הַצָּפוֹן, מִעוּטוֹ מִן הַמַּעֲרָב. מְקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה רֹב מִדָּתוֹ, שָׁם הָיָה רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ: \n", 2.3. "לִפְנִים מִמֶּנּוּ, סוֹרֵג, גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים. וּשְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה פְרָצוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם, שֶׁפְּרָצוּם מַלְכֵי יָוָן. חָזְרוּ וּגְדָרוּם, וְגָזְרוּ כְנֶגְדָּם שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיוֹת. לִפְנִים מִמֶּנּוּ, הַחֵיל, עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת. וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם. רוּם הַמַּעֲלָה חֲצִי אַמָּה, וְשִׁלְחָהּ חֲצִי אַמָּה. כָּל הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, רוּם מַעֲלָה חֲצִי אַמָּה, וְשִׁלְחָהּ חֲצִי אַמָּה, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אוּלָם. כָּל הַפְּתָחִים וְהַשְּׁעָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, גָּבְהָן עֶשְׂרִים אַמָּה, וְרָחְבָּן עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אוּלָם. כָּל הַפְּתָחִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, הָיוּ לָהֶן דְּלָתוֹת, חוּץ מִשֶּׁל אוּלָם. כָּל הַשְּׁעָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, הָיוּ לָהֶן שְׁקוֹפוֹת, חוּץ מִשַּׁעַר טָדִי, שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם שְׁתֵּי אֲבָנִים מֻטּוֹת זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ. כָּל הַשְּׁעָרִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, נִשְׁתַּנּוּ לִהְיוֹת שֶׁל זָהָב, חוּץ מִשַּׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בָהֶן נֵס. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנְּחֻשְׁתָּן מַצְהִיב: \n", 2.4. "כָּל הַכְּתָלִים שֶׁהָיוּ שָׁם, הָיוּ גְבוֹהִים, חוּץ מִכֹּתֶל הַמִּזְרָחִי, שֶׁהַכֹּהֵן הַשּׂוֹרֵף אֶת הַפָּרָה עוֹמֵד בְּרֹאשׁ הַר הַמִּשְׁחָה, וּמִתְכַּוֵּן וְרוֹאֶה בְפִתְחוֹ שֶׁל הֵיכָל בִּשְׁעַת הַזָּיַת הַדָּם: \n" 2.1. "The Temple Mount was five hundred cubits by five hundred cubits. The greater part of it was on the south; next to that on the east; next to that on the north; and the smallest part on the west. The part which was most extensive was the part most used.", 2.3. "Within it was the Soreg, ten handbreadths high. There were thirteen breaches in it, which had been originally made by the kings of Greece, and when they repaired them they enacted that thirteen prostrations should be made facing them. Within this was the Hel, which was ten cubits [broad]. There were twelve steps there. The height of each step was half a cubit and its tread was half a cubit. All the steps in the Temple were half a cubit high with a tread of half a cubit, except those of the Porch. All the doorways in the Temple were twenty cubits high and ten cubits broad except those of the Porch. All the doorways there had doors in them except those of the Porch. All the gates there had lintels except that of Taddi which had two stones inclined to one another. All the original gates were changed for gates of gold except the gates of Nicanor, because a miracle happened with them. Some say: because their copper gleamed like gold.", 2.4. "All the walls that were there [in the Temple] were high except the eastern wall, for the priest who burned the red heifer would stand on the top of the Mount of Olives and direct his gaze carefully see the opening of the Sanctuary at the time of the sprinkling of the blood."
53. New Testament, John, 8.59, 10.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 492
8.59. ἦραν οὖν λίθους ἵνα βάλωσιν ἐπʼ αὐτόν· Ἰησοῦς δὲ ἐκρύβη καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ. 10.31. Ἐβάστασαν πάλιν λίθους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἵνα λιθάσωσιν αὐτόν. 8.59. Therefore they took up stones to throw at him, but Jesus was hidden, and went out of the temple, having gone through the midst of them, and so passed by. 10.31. Therefore Jews took up stones again to stone him.
54. Apollodorus, Epitome, 6.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
6.6. Ἀθηνᾶ δὲ 1 -- ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴαντος ναῦν κεραυνὸν βάλλει, ὁ δὲ τῆς νεὼς διαλυθείσης ἐπί τινα πέτραν διασωθεὶς παρὰ τὴν θεοῦ ἔφη πρόνοιαν σεσῶσθαι. Ποσειδῶν δὲ πλήξας τῇ τριαίνῃ 2 -- τὴν πέτραν ἔσχισεν, ὁ δὲ πεσὼν εἰς τὴν θάλασσαν τελευτᾷ, καὶ ἐκβρασθέντα θάπτει Θέτις ἐν Μυκόνῳ. 6.6. And Athena threw a thunderbolt at the ship of Ajax; and when the ship went to pieces he made his way safe to a rock, and declared that he was saved in spite of the intention of Athena. But Poseidon smote the rock with his trident and split it, and Ajax fell into the sea and perished; and his body, being washed up, was buried by Thetis in Myconos. As to the shipwreck and death of the Locrian Ajax, compare Hom. Od. 4.499-511 ; Hagias, Returns, summarized by Proclus, in Epicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, ed. G. Kinkel, p. 53 ; Scholiast on Hom. Il. xiii.66 ; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.530-589 ; Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 365, 387, 389, 402 ; Verg. A. 1.39-45 ; Hyginus, Fab. 116 ; Seneca, Agamemnon 532-556 ; Dictys Cretensis vi.1 . In his great picture of the underworld, which Polygnotus painted at Delphi , the artist depicted Ajax as a castaway, the brine forming a scurf on his skin ( Paus. 10.31.1 ). According to the Scholiast on Hom. Il. xiii.66 Ajax was cast up on the shore of Delos , where Thetis found and buried him. But as it was unlawful to be buried or even to die in Delos ( Thuc. 3.104 ), the statement of Apollodorus that Ajax was buried in Myconus, a small island to the east of Delos , is more probable. It is said that on hearing of his death the Locrians mourned for him and wore black for a year, and every year they laded a vessel with splendid offerings, hoisted a black sail on it, and, setting the ship on fire, let it drift out to sea, there to burn down to the water's edge as a sacrifice to the drowned hero. See Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 365 . Sophocles wrote a tragedy, The Locrian Ajax , on the crime and punishment of the hero. See The Fragments of Sophocles , ed. A. C. Pearson, vol. i. pp. 8ff.
55. Plutarch, Timoleon, 16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
56. New Testament, Mark, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151
13.1. Καὶ ἐκπορευομένου αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ ἱεροῦ λέγει αὐτῷ εἷς τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ Διδάσκαλε, ἴδε ποταποὶ λίθοι καὶ ποταπαὶ οἰκοδομαί. 13.1. As he went out out of the temple, one of his disciples said to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings!"
57. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
1.8. "לִפְנִים מִן הַחוֹמָה מְקֻדָּשׁ מֵהֶם, שֶׁאוֹכְלִים שָׁם קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי. הַר הַבַּיִת מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין זָבִים וְזָבוֹת, נִדּוֹת וְיוֹלְדוֹת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. הַחֵיל מְקֻדָּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין גּוֹיִם וּטְמֵא מֵת נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם. עֶזְרַת נָשִׁים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאֵין טְבוּל יוֹם נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְאֵין חַיָּבִים עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים נִכְנָס לְשָׁם, וְחַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ חַטָּאת. עֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים מְקֻדֶּשֶׁת מִמֶּנָּה, שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל נִכְנָסִים לְשָׁם אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת צָרְכֵיהֶם, לִסְמִיכָה לִשְׁחִיטָה וְלִתְנוּפָה: \n", 1.8. "The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving.",
58. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 30.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
59. Plutarch, On The Fortune Or Virtue of Alexander The Great, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
60. Plutarch, On Being A Busybody, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 485
61. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 485
62. Plutarch, On The Delays of Divine Vengeance, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
63. Plutarch, Dion, 23.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
64. Plutarch, Greek Questions, 38 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 496
65. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 12.50 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
12.50.  but as for us, we shall maintain that it is for something else that Pheidias must submit to trial. Suppose, then, that someone should actually say to him: "O best and noblest of artists, how charming and pleasing a spectacle you have wrought, and a vision of infinite delight for the benefit of all men, both Greeks and barbarians, who have ever come here, as they have come in great throngs and time after time, no one will gainsay.
66. Plutarch, Table Talk, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
67. New Testament, Luke, 17.18, 21.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151
17.18. οὐχ εὑρέθησαν ὑποστρέψαντες δοῦναι δόξαν τῷ θεῷ εἰ μὴ ὁ ἀλλογενὴς οὗτος; 21.5. Καί τινων λεγόντων περὶ τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ὅτι λίθοις καλοῖς καὶ ἀναθήμασιν κεκόσμηται, 17.18. Were there none found who returned to give glory to God, except this stranger?" 21.5. As some were talking about the temple and how it was decorated with beautiful stones and gifts, he said,
68. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 496
69. Palestinian Talmud, Yoma, 2.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 148
70. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.16.9, 5.6.7 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486, 496
3.16.9. μαρτύρια δέ μοι καὶ τάδε, τὴν ἐν Λακεδαίμονι Ὀρθίαν τὸ ἐκ τῶν βαρβάρων εἶναι ξόανον· τοῦτο μὲν γὰρ Ἀστράβακος καὶ Ἀλώπεκος οἱ Ἴρβου τοῦ Ἀμφισθένους τοῦ Ἀμφικλέους τοῦ Ἄγιδος τὸ ἄγαλμα εὑρόντες αὐτίκα παρεφρόνησαν· τοῦτο δὲ οἱ Λιμνᾶται Σπαρτιατῶν καὶ Κυνοσουρεῖς καὶ οἱ ἐκ Μεσόας τε καὶ Πιτάνης θύοντες τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι ἐς διαφοράν, ἀπὸ δὲ αὐτῆς καὶ ἐς φόνους προήχθησαν, ἀποθανόντων δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ πολλῶν νόσος ἔφθειρε τοὺς λοιπούς. 5.6.7. κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἐς Ὀλυμπίαν ὁδόν, πρὶν ἢ διαβῆναι τὸν Ἀλφειόν, ἔστιν ὄρος ἐκ Σκιλλοῦντος ἐρχομένῳ πέτραις ὑψηλαῖς ἀπότομον· ὀνομάζεται δὲ Τυπαῖον τὸ ὄρος. κατὰ τούτου τὰς γυναῖκας Ἠλείοις ἐστὶν ὠθεῖν νόμος, ἢν φωραθῶσιν ἐς τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐλθοῦσαι τὸν Ὀλυμπικὸν ἢ καὶ ὅλως ἐν ταῖς ἀπειρημέναις σφίσιν ἡμέραις διαβᾶσαι τὸν Ἀλφειόν. οὐ μὴν οὐδὲ ἁλῶναι λέγουσιν οὐδεμίαν, ὅτι μὴ Καλλιπάτειραν μόνην· εἰσὶ δὲ οἳ τὴν αὐτὴν ταύτην Φερενίκην καὶ οὐ Καλλιπάτειραν καλοῦσιν. 3.16.9. I will give other evidence that the Orthia in Lacedaemon is the wooden image from the foreigners. Firstly, Astrabacus and Alopecus, sons of Irbus, son of Amphisthenes, son of Amphicles, son of Agis, when they found the image straightway became insane. Secondly, the Spartan Limnatians, the Cynosurians, and the people of Mesoa and Pitane , while sacrificing to Artemis, fell to quarreling, which led also to bloodshed; many were killed at the altar and the rest died of disease. 5.6.7. As you go from Scillus along the road to Olympia , before you cross the Alpheius,there is a mountain with high, precipitous cliffs. It is called Mount Typaeum. It is a law of Elis to cast down it any women who are caught present at the Olympic games, or even on the other side of the Alpheius, on the days prohibited to women. However, they say that no woman has been caught, except Callipateira only; some, however, give the lady the name of Pherenice and not Callipateira.
71. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 7.13 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 496
72. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 31 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360, 486
73. Anon., Sifre Numbers, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493
74. Tertullian, Apology, 24 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 495
24. This whole confession of these beings, in which they declare that they are not gods, and in which they tell you that there is no God but one, the God whom we adore, is quite sufficient to clear us from the crime of treason, chiefly against the Roman religion. For if it is certain the gods have no existence, there is no religion in the case. If there is no religion, because there are no gods, we are assuredly not guilty of any offense against religion. Instead of that, the charge recoils on your own head: worshipping a lie, you are really guilty of the crime you charge on us, not merely by refusing the true religion of the true God, but by going the further length of persecuting it. But now, granting that these objects of your worship are really gods, is it not generally held that there is one higher and more potent, as it were the world's chief ruler, endowed with absolute power and majesty? For the common way is to apportion deity, giving an imperial and supreme domination to one, while its offices are put into the hands of many, as Plato describes great Jupiter in the heavens, surrounded by an array at once of deities and demons. It behooves us, therefore, to show equal respect to the procurators, prefects, and governors of the divine empire. And yet how great a crime does he commit, who, with the object of gaining higher favour with the C sar, transfers his endeavours and his hopes to another, and does not confess that the appellation of God as of Emperor belongs only to the Supreme Head, when it is held a capital offense among us to call, or hear called, by the highest title any other than C sar himself! Let one man worship God, another Jupiter; let one lift suppliant hands to the heavens, another to the altar of Fides; let one - if you choose to take this view of it - count in prayer the clouds, and another the ceiling panels; let one consecrate his own life to his God, and another that of a goat. For see that you do not give a further ground for the charge of irreligion, by taking away religious liberty, and forbidding free choice of deity, so that I may no longer worship according to my inclination, but am compelled to worship against it. Not even a human being would care to have unwilling homage rendered him; and so the very Egyptians have been permitted the legal use of their ridiculous superstition, liberty to make gods of birds and beasts, nay, to condemn to death any one who kills a god of their sort. Every province even, and every city, has its god. Syria has Astarte, Arabia has Dusares, the Norici have Belenus, Africa has its C lestis, Mauritania has its own princes. I have spoken, I think, of Roman provinces, and yet I have not said their gods are Roman; for they are not worshipped at Rome any more than others who are ranked as deities over Italy itself by municipal consecration, such as Delventinus of Casinum, Visidianus of Narnia, Ancharia of Asculum, Nortia of Volsinii, Valentia of Ocriculum, Hostia of Satrium, Father Curis of Falisci, in honour of whom, too, Juno got her surname. In, fact, we alone are prevented having a religion of our own. We give offense to the Romans, we are excluded from the rights and privileges of Romans, because we do not worship the gods of Rome. It is well that there is a God of all, whose we all are, whether we will or no. But with you liberty is given to worship any god but the true God, as though He were not rather the God all should worship, to whom all belong.
75. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 1.13 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 492
76. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Qamma, 1.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493
1.6. "נכנסין לבין האולם ולמזבח שלא רחוץ ידים ורגלים דברי ר\"מ וחכ\"א אין נכנסין אמר ר\"ש הצנוע לפני רבי אליעזר אני נכנסתי לבין האולם ולמזבח שלא רחוץ ידים ורגלים אמר לו מי חביב אתה או כהן גדול היה שותק אמר לו בוש אתה לומר שכלבו של כהן גדול חביב הימך אמר לו רבי אמרת אמר לו אפילו כהן גדול פוצעין את מוחו בגיזרין מה תעשה שלא מצאך בעל הפול ר' יוסי אומר כשם שהכל פורשין מבין האולם ולמזבח בשעת הקטרה כך פורשין בשעת מתן דמים פר כהן משיח פר העלם דבר של צבור ושעירי עבודת כוכבים ודמים של יום הכפורים הוי מה מעלה בין האולם ולמזבח ולמזבח ולהיכל אלא שלבין האולם ולמזבח נכנסין לעבודה ושלא לעבודה ולהיכל אין נכנסין אלא לעבודה בלבד.",
77. Lucian, Demonax, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486
78. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
79. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 148
16a. דרומית מזרחית היא לשכה שהיו עושין בה לחם הפנים מזרחית צפונית בה גנזו בית חשמונאי אבני מזבח ששקצום מלכי עובדי כוכבים צפונית מערבית בה יורדין לבית הטבילה אמר רב הונא מאן תנא מדות ר"א בן יעקב היא,דתנן עזרת נשים היתה אורך מאה ושלשים וחמש על רוחב מאה ושלשים וחמש וארבע לשכות היו בד' מקצועותיה ומה היו משמשות דרומית מזרחית היא היתה לשכת הנזירים ששם נזירים מבשלים את שלמיהן ומגלחין שערן ומשלחין תחת הדוד מזרחית צפונית היא היתה לשכת דיר העצים ששם כהנים בעלי מומין עומדין ומתליעין בעצים שכל עץ שיש בו תולעת פסול לגבי מזבח,צפונית מערבית היא היתה לשכת המצורעין מערבית דרומית אמר ר"א בן יעקב שכחתי מה היתה משמשת אבא שאול אומר בה היו נותנין יין ושמן והיא היתה נקראת לשכת בית שמניא,ה"נ מסתברא דר"א בן יעקב היא דתנן כל הכתלים שהיו שם היו גבוהין חוץ מכותל מזרחי שהכהן השורף את הפרה עומד בהר המשחה ומכוון ורואה כנגד פתחו של היכל בשעת הזאת הדם,ותנן כל הפתחים שהיו שם גובהן עשרים אמה ורוחבן עשר אמות) ותנן לפנים ממנו סורג ותנן לפנים ממנו החיל עשר אמות ושתים עשרה מעלות היו שם רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה,ט"ו מעלות עולות מתוכה היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה ותנן בין האולם ולמזבח כ"ב אמה ושתים עשרה מעלות היו שם רום מעלה חצי אמה ושילחה חצי אמה,ותנן ר"א בן יעקב אומר מעלה היתה שם וגבוה אמה ודוכן נתון עליה ובו שלש מעלות של חצי חצי אמה,אי אמרת בשלמא ר"א בן יעקב היא היינו דאיכסי ליה פיתחא,אלא אי אמרת רבנן הא איכא פלגא דאמתא דמתחזי ליה פיתחא בגוויה,אלא לאו שמע מינה רבי אליעזר בן יעקב היא רב אדא בר אהבה אמר הא מני רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה אומר המזבח ממוצע ועומד באמצע עזרה ושלשים ושתים אמות היו לו 16a. the b southeast /b chamber in the Hall of the Hearth b was the chamber in which the shewbread was prepared. /b The b northeast /b chamber was the chamber b in which the Hasmoneans sequestered the altar stones that were desecrated by the gentile kings /b when they sacrificed idolatrous offerings. The b northwest /b chamber was the chamber b in which /b the priests b descended /b through tunnels b to the Hall of Immersion. /b There is a contradiction between the sources with regard to the location of the Chamber of the Lambs. b Rav Huna said: Who /b is the i tanna /i who b taught /b the i mishnayot /i in tractate b i Middot /i /b ? It is b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, /b who has a different opinion with regard to this matter., b As we learned /b in a mishna in tractate i Middot /i : The dimensions of the b women’s courtyard were a length of 135 /b cubits b by a width of 135 /b cubits, b and there were four chambers in its four corners. And what /b purpose did these chambers b serve? /b The b southeast /b chamber b was the Chamber of the Nazirites, as there the nazirites cook their peace-offerings and shave their hair and cast /b it in the fire to burn b beneath the pot /b in which the peace-offering was cooked, as the Torah instructs (see Numbers 6:18). The b northeast /b chamber b was the Chamber of the Woodshed, where blemished priests, /b who are disqualified for any other service, b stand and examine the logs /b to determine if they were infested b by worms, as any log in which there are worms is disqualified for /b use b on the altar. /b ,The b northwest /b chamber b was the Chamber of the Lepers, /b where lepers would immerse for purification. With regard to the b southwest /b chamber, b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov said: I forgot what /b purpose it b would serve. Abba Shaul says: They would place wine and oil there /b for the meal-offerings and libations, b and it was called the Chamber of the House of Oils. /b From this mishna it may be inferred that the i tanna /i who taught the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i is Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as that is why the mishna finds it necessary to mention that he forgot the purpose of one of the chambers., b So too, it is reasonable /b to conclude that the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i are in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, as we learned /b in a mishna there: b All the walls that were there /b surrounding the Temple Mount b were high except for the Eastern Wall, as the priest who burns the /b red b heifer stands on the Mount of Olives, /b where the red heifer was slaughtered and burned, b and directs /b his attention b and looks toward the entrance of the Sanctuary when /b he b sprinkles the blood. /b ,The Gemara seeks the opinion according to which this would be feasible. b And we learned /b in a mishna: b All the entrances that were there /b in the Temple were b twenty cubits high and ten cubits wide. And we learned /b in a different mishna describing the layout of the Temple: b Inside /b the eastern wall of the Temple Mount was b a latticed gate. And we learned /b in a different mishna: b Inside /b the latticed gate was b the rampart, /b which was an elevated area b ten cubits /b wide. In that area b there were twelve stairs; /b each b stair /b was b half a cubit high and half a cubit deep, /b for a total ascent of six cubits.,In addition, b fifteen stairs ascend from within /b the women’s courtyard and b descend from the Israelite courtyard to the women’s courtyard. /b Each b stair /b was b half a cubit high and half a cubit deep, /b for an additional ascent of seven and a half cubits. The total height of both staircases together was thirteen and a half cubits. b And we learned /b in that mishna: The area b between the Entrance Hall and the altar /b was b twenty-two cubits /b wide, b and there were twelve stairs /b in that area. Each b stair /b was b half a cubit high and half a cubit deep, /b for an additional ascent of six cubits and a total height of nineteen and a half cubits., b And we learned /b in that mishna that b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says: There was /b an additional b stair there /b between the Israelite courtyard and the priests’ courtyard. That stair was b one cubit high, and the platform /b on which the Levites stood b was placed upon it and on it /b were b three stairs, each /b with a height and depth of b half a cubit, /b for a total of twenty-two cubits., b Granted, if you say /b that the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i are in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, that is /b how it can be understood that b the entrance was concealed. /b The threshold of the entrance to the Sanctuary was more than twenty cubits higher than the threshold of the eastern gate of the Temple Mount. One looking through the Eastern Gate would be unable to see the entrance of the Sanctuary, because the gate was only twenty cubits high. In order to provide the priest performing the red heifer ritual on the Mount of Olives with a view of the entrance to the Sanctuary, the eastern wall had to be lowered., b However, if you say /b that the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i are in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b who do not add the two and a half cubits of the stair and the platform added by Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov, b isn’t there half a cubit through which the entrance can be seen? /b Since the threshold of the Sanctuary is only nineteen and a half cubits higher than the threshold of the gate, the priest on the Mount of Olives could look through the eastern gate of the Temple Mount and see the bottom of the Temple entrance. There would be no need to lower the eastern wall., b Rather, /b must one b not conclude from it /b that that the i mishnayot /i in tractate i Middot /i are taught by b Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov? Rav Adda bar Ahava said: /b This is not a definitive proof, and it is still possible to interpret i halakhot /i of this tractate in a different manner. b Rather, whose is that /b opinion that the Eastern Wall was lowered? b It is /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: The altar is centered and stands in the middle of /b the Temple b courtyard, /b directly aligned with the entrances of the courtyards and the Sanctuary, and b it was thirty-two cubits /b long and thirty-two cubits wide.
80. Babylonian Talmud, Tamid, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 148
26a. במסיבה ההולכת לו תחת הבירה ונרות דולקין מכאן ומכאן עד שהוא מגיע לבית הטבילה ומדורה היתה שם ובית הכסא של כבוד זה היה כבודו מצאו נעול יודע שיש שם אדם פתוח בידוע שאין שם אדם,ירד וטבל עלה ונסתפג ונתחמם כנגד המדורה בא וישב לו אצל אחיו הכהנים עד שהיו שערים נפתחים יוצא והולך לו,מי שהוא רוצה לתרום את המזבח משכים וטובל עד שלא יבא הממונה וכי באיזה שעה בא הממונה לא כל העתים שוות פעמים שהוא בא מקרות הגבר או סמוך לו מלפניו או מאחריו,הממונה בא ודפק עליהן והן פתחו לו אמר להן מי שטבל יבא ויפיס הפיסו מי שזכה זכה בו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא ה"מ אמר אביי דאמר קרא (במדבר ג, לח) והחונים לפני המשכן קדמה לפני אהל מועד מזרחה משה ואהרן ובניו שומרים משמרת המקדש למשמרת בני ישראל,אמרי אין שימור בעלמא אשכחן דבעי כהנים ולוים שימור מיהו מתניתין קתני בשלשה מקומות הכהנים שומרים בבית המקדש והלוים בעשרים וא' מקום ואילו קרא כהנים ולוים בהדי הדדי כתיב,אמרי הכי קאמר והחונים לפני המשכן קדמה לפני אהל מועד מזרחה משה והדר אהרן ובניו שומרי משמרת המקדש אהרן בחד מקום ובניו בשני מקומות,ממאי מדכתיב והחונים וכתיב שומרים חונים לחוד ושומרים לחוד,אימא כולהו בחד מקום לחודיה לא ס"ד מה משה בחד מקום לחודיה אף אהרן ובניו בחד מקום לחודיה,רב אשי אמר מסיפיה דקרא (במדבר ג, לח) שומרים משמרת למשמרת: 26a. b through the circuitous passage that extended beneath the Temple, /b as he could not pass through the Temple courtyard, due to his impurity. b And /b there were b lamps burning on this /b side b and on that /b side of the passage. He would walk through the passage b until he reached the Chamber of Immersion. And there was a fire /b burning b there /b to warm the priests after they had immersed, b and /b also b a bathroom of honor, /b so that the priests could urinate before immersion. b This was /b the manifestation of b its honor: /b If one b found /b the door b closed, /b he would b know that there was a person there, /b and he would wait for him to exit before entering. If one found the door b open, it was known that there was no person there, /b and he could enter. In this manner, the one using it was afforded privacy.,After the priest b descended and immersed /b in the ritual bath, he b ascended and dried himself /b with a towel, b and warmed himself opposite the fire. He /b then b came /b back to the Chamber of the Hearth b and sat with his brethren the priests until /b dawn, when the b gates /b of the Temple courtyard b would be opened. /b He would then b leave /b the Temple b and go on his /b way. Since the purification process of one who immerses is not complete until sunset, by rabbinic law he could not remain in the Temple during the daytime.,The mishna describes the commencement of the daily service in the Temple: Among the members of the priestly family who are to serve in the Temple that day, b whoever wants to remove /b the ashes b from the altar rises early and immerses /b himself in a ritual bath, as required of anyone who enters the Temple courtyard. He must immerse b before the appointed /b priest b arrives, /b as the appointed priest oversees the lottery that determines which priests perform the various rites of the Temple service, and the first of those lotteries determines who will be charged with the removal of the ashes. b And at what time does the appointed /b priest b arrive? The times /b of his arrival b are not all the same. /b There are b times that he comes at the call of the rooster [ i hagever /i ], or /b he might come at b an adjacent /b time, either b before /b the call of the rooster b or after it. /b , b The appointed /b priest b arrived /b at the Chamber of the Hearth, where the priests of the patrilineal family were assembled, b and he knocked /b on the gate b to /b alert b them /b to open the gate for him. b And /b when b they opened /b the gate b for him, he said to them: Whoever immersed /b in the ritual bath b may come and participate in the lottery. They /b then b conducted the lottery, /b and b whoever won /b that lottery b won /b the privilege to perform the rite of the removal of the ashes., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that the priests would keep watch in three locations in the Temple. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? b Abaye said /b that they are derived from a verse, as b the verse states: “And those that were to camp before the Tabernacle eastward, before the Tent of Meeting toward the sunrise, were Moses and Aaron and his sons, keeping the watch of the Sanctuary, for the watch of the children of Israel, /b and the non-priest who came near was to be put to death” (Numbers 3:38).,The Sages b say /b in response: b Yes, we have found /b in this verse b that in general /b the Torah b requires a watch /b to be kept. Furthermore, the verse indicates that it is the b priests and Levites /b who are required to perform the b watch, /b as it states the precedent of Moses, who was a Levite, and Aaron, who was a priest. b But the mishna /b ( i Middot /i 1:1) b teaches: The priests /b would b keep watch in three places in the Temple /b courtyard… b and the Levites in twenty-one places. /b According to the mishna, the priests and Levites kept watch in different locations, b whereas /b in the b verse /b the b priests and /b the b Levites are written together, /b indicating that they kept watch in the same places.,The Sages b say /b that b this /b is what the verse b is saying: “And those that were to camp before the Tabernacle eastward, before the Tent of Meeting toward the sunrise, were Moses,” /b indicating that the Levites keep watch. b And then /b the verse states with regard to the separate watch kept by the priests: b “Aaron and his sons, keeping the watch of the Sanctuary.” /b Furthermore, the verse indicates that b Aaron /b keeps watch b in one place, and his sons /b keep watch b in two /b other b places, /b from which it is derived that the priests keep watch in three different places.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b is it derived that the verse should be interpreted in this manner? This is derived b from /b the fact b that it is written: “And those that were to /b camp…were Moses,” b and it is written /b separately: “Aaron and his sons, b keeping the watch.” /b This indicates that those b who /b were to b camp /b and thereby keep watch b are discrete, and /b those b keeping the watch are discrete, /b i.e., they perform different watches in separate places.,The Gemara objects: One can b say /b that b all of /b the priests keep watch b in one place /b that is b discrete /b from the watches of the Levites, but not in three separate places. The Gemara explains: That possibility should b not enter your mind, /b as the verse juxtaposes the watches of Moses and Aaron. This indicates that b just as Moses /b keeps watch b in one place discretely, so too, Aaron and his sons /b each keep watch b in one place discretely, /b and they do not keep watch together., b Rav Ashi said /b that the i halakha /i that the priests keep watch in three places is derived b from the end of the verse, /b which states: “Moses and Aaron and his sons, b keeping [ i shomerim /i ] the watch [ i mishmeret /i ] /b of the Sanctuary, b for the watch [ i lemishmeret /i ] /b of the children of Israel.” The verse uses three terms from the root i shin /i , i mem /i , i reish /i , which means to watch, indicating that there should be three separate watches.
81. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151
51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. b with flaming torches /b that they would juggle b in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise /b to God. b And the Levites /b would play b on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless /b other b musical instruments. /b The musicians would stand b on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen /b Songs of the b Ascents in Psalms, /b i.e., chapters 120–134, and b upon which /b the b Levites stand with musical instruments and recite /b their b song. /b , b And /b this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: b Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. /b When b the rooster crowed /b at dawn, b they sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b When b they /b who would draw the water b reached the tenth stair /b the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i , /b to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When b they reached the /b Women’s b Courtyard /b with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b ,When b they reached the ground /b of the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . They continued sounding /b the trumpets b until they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, /b from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When b they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, they turned from /b facing b east to /b facing b west, /b toward the Holy of Holies, b and said: Our ancestors who were in this place /b during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” /b (Ezekiel 8:16), b and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water, b never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed /b state, b never saw a magnificent structure. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the Temple building to which the Sages refer? b Abaye said, and some say /b that it was b Rav Ḥisda /b who said: b This /b is referring to the magnificent b building of Herod, /b who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: b With what /b materials b did he construct it? Rava said: /b It was b with stones of /b green-gray b marble and white marble [ i marmara /i ]. Some say: /b It was b with stones of blue marble and white marble. /b The rows of stones were set with b one row /b slightly b protruded and one row /b slightly b indented, so that the plaster would take /b better. b He thought to plate /b the Temple b with gold, /b but b the Sages said to him: Leave it /b as is, and do not plate it, b as it is better this way, as /b with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, b it has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ i deyofloston /i ] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said /b that its structure b was like a large basilica [ i basileki /i ], /b with b a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand /b men b and /b another b six hundred thousand /b men b in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ i katedraot /i ], corresponding to the seventy-one /b members b of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which /b consisted of b no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And /b there was b a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue /b would b stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And /b because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, b when /b the prayer leader b reached /b the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people b to answer amen, /b the sexton b waved the scarf and all the people /b would b answer amen. /b , b And /b the members of the various crafts b would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths /b would sit b among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor /b stranger b entered there, he would recognize people /b who plied b his craft, and he would turn to /b join them b there. And from there /b he would secure b his livelihood /b as well as b the livelihood /b of the b members of his household, /b as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that b Abaye said: All of /b the people who congregated in that synagogue b were killed by Alexander /b the Great b of Macedonia. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that b they were punished /b and killed? It is b due to /b the fact b that they violated /b the prohibition with regard to Egypt in b this verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way” /b (Deuteronomy 17:16), b and they returned. /b Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., b When /b Alexander b arrived, he found them, /b and saw b that they were reading /b the verse b in the /b Torah b scroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far, /b from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). b He said, /b referring to himself: b Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, /b and b a wind carried it and the ship arrived in /b only b five days, /b apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, b he set upon them and slaughtered them. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b At the conclusion of /b the first b Festival /b day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: b What /b is this b significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said /b that b it is like that which we learned: /b The walls of the Women’s Courtyard b were smooth, /b without protrusions, b initially. /b Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and b surrounded /b the courtyard b with a balcony [ i gezuztra /i ]. And they instituted that /b the b women should sit above and /b the b men below. /b , b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b Initially, women would /b stand b on the inside /b of the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, b and the men /b were b on the outside /b in the courtyard and on the rampart. b And they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity /b in each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages b instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity. /b Therefore, b they instituted /b in the interest of complete separation b that the women would sit above and the men below. /b ,The Gemara asks: b How could one do so, /b i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? b But isn’t it written /b with regard to the Temple: b “All this /b I give you b in writing, /b as b the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, /b even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, b Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically /b and acted accordingly:
82. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, 4.6-4.8 (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360, 361, 487
83. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151
4a. אהדר ליה כלילא דיילי נקרינהו לעיניה יומא חד אתא ויתיב קמיה אמר חזי מר האי עבדא בישא מאי קא עביד אמר ליה מאי אעביד ליה אמר ליה נלטייה מר אמר ליה [כתיב] (קהלת י, כ) גם במדעך מלך אל תקלל אמר ליה האי לאו מלך הוא אמר ליה וליהוי עשיר בעלמא וכתיב (קהלת י, כ) ובחדרי משכבך אל תקלל עשיר ולא יהא אלא נשיא וכתיב (שמות כב, כז) ונשיא בעמך לא תאור,אמר ליה בעושה מעשה עמך והאי לאו עושה מעשה עמך אמר ליה מסתפינא מיניה אמר ליה ליכא איניש דאזיל דלימא ליה דאנא ואת יתיבנא אמר ליה כתיב (קהלת י, כ) כי עוף השמים יוליך את הקול ובעל כנפים יגיד דבר,אמר ליה אנא הוא אי הואי ידענא דזהרי רבנן כולי האי לא הוה קטילנא להו השתא מאי תקנתיה דההוא גברא אמר ליה הוא כבה אורו של עולם דכתיב (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ילך ויעסוק באורו של עולם דכתיב (ישעיהו ב, ב) ונהרו אליו כל הגוים איכא דאמרי הכי אמר ליה הוא סימא עינו של עולם דכתיב (במדבר טו, כד) והיה אם מעיני העדה ילך ויתעסק בעינו של עולם דכתיב (יחזקאל כד, כא) הנני מחלל את מקדשי גאון עוזכם מחמד עיניכם,אמר ליה מסתפינא ממלכותא אמר ליה שדר שליחא וליזיל שתא וליעכב שתא ולהדר שתא אדהכי והכי סתרית [ליה] ובניית [ליה] עבד הכי שלחו ליה אם לא סתרתה אל תסתור ואם סתרתה אל תבני ואם סתרתה ובנית עבדי בישא בתר דעבדין מתמלכין אם זיינך עלך ספרך כאן לא רכא ולא בר רכא הורדוס [עבדא] קלניא מתעביד,מאי רכא מלכותא דכתיב (שמואל ב ג, לט) אנכי היום רך ומשוח מלך ואי בעית אימא מהכא (בראשית מא, מג) ויקראו לפניו אברך,אמרי מי שלא ראה בנין הורדוס לא ראה בנין נאה [מימיו] במאי בנייה אמר רבה באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני כוחלא שישא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דנקביל סידא סבר למשעייה בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיחזי כי אידוותא דימא,ובבא בר בוטא היכי עבד הכי והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ואיתימא ר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה נענש דניאל מפני שהשיא עצה לנבוכדנצר שנאמר (דניאל ד, כד) להן מלכא מלכי ישפר עלך וחטאיך בצדקה פרוק ועויתך במיחן עניין הן תהוי ארכא לשלותך וגו' וכתיב (דניאל ד, כה) כולא מטא על נבוכדנצר מלכא וכתיב ולקצת ירחין תרי עשר וגו',איבעית אימא שאני עבדא דאיחייב במצות ואיבעית אימא שאני בית המקדש דאי לא מלכות לא מתבני,ודניאל מנלן דאיענש אילימא משום דכתיב (אסתר ד, ה) ותקרא אסתר להתך ואמר רב התך זה דניאל הניחא למ"ד שחתכוהו מגדולתו אלא למ"ד שכל דברי מלכות נחתכין על פיו מאי איכא למימר דשדיוהו לגובא דארייוותא:,הכל כמנהג המדינה: הכל לאתויי מאי לאתויי אתרא דנהיגי בהוצא ודפנא:,לפיכך אם נפל הכותל המקום והאבנים של שניהם: פשיטא לא צריכא דנפל לרשותא דחד מינייהו אי נמי דפנינהו חד לרשותא דידיה מהו דתימא ניהוי אידך המוציא מחבירו עליו הראיה קמ"ל:,וכן בגינה מקום שנהגו לגדור מחייבין אותו: הא גופא קשיא אמרת וכן בגינה מקום שנהגו לגדור מחייבין אותו הא סתמא אין מחייבין אותו,אימא סיפא אבל בקעה מקום שנהגו שלא לגדור אין מחייבין אותו הא סתמא מחייבין אותו השתא סתם גינה אמרת לא סתם בקעה מיבעיא,אמר אביי הכי קאמר וכן סתם גינה ובמקום שנהגו לגדור בבקעה מחייבין אותו אמר ליה רבא אם כן מאי אבל אלא אמר רבא הכי קתני וכן סתם גינה כמקום שנהגו לגדור דמי ומחייבין אותו אבל סתם בקעה כמקום שלא נהגו דמי ואין מחייבין אותו:,אלא אם רצה כונס לתוך שלו ובונה ועושה חזית: מאי חזית אמר רב הונא אכפיה ליה לקרנא לבר ונעביד מלגיו עביד חבריה נמי מלבר ואמר דידי ודידיה הוא אי הכי השתא נמי גייז ליה חבריה ואמר דידי ודידיה הוא גיזוזא מידע ידיע,איכא דאמרי אמר רב הונא מיכפא לקרנא מלגיו ונעבד מלבר גייז ליה חבריה ואמר דידי ודידיה הוא אי הכי השתא נמי לייף ליה חבריה ואמר דידי ודידיה הוא ליפופא מידע ידיע והא מבחוץ קתני קשיא,רבי יוחנן אמר 4a. Herod b placed a garland /b made b of porcupine /b hide b on /b Bava ben Buta’s head, which b pricked his eyes out. One day /b Herod b came and sat before him /b without identifying himself in order to test him. b He, /b Herod, b said: See, Master, what this evil slave /b Herod b is doing. /b Bava ben Buta b said to him: What should I do to him? /b Herod b said to him: /b The b Master should curse him. /b Bava ben Buta b said to him: /b But b it is written: “Do not curse the king, not even in your thoughts” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:20). Herod b said to him: He is not a king, /b since he rules illegally. Bava ben Buta b said to him: And /b even if b he were merely a rich man /b I would not curse him, as b it is written: “And do not curse a rich person in your bedchamber” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:20). b And /b even b were he only a leader /b I would not curse him, as b it is written: “And you shall not curse a leader among your people” /b (Exodus 22:27).,Herod b said to him: /b That i halakha /i stated b with regard to /b “a leader among your people,” that is, to a fit Jew who b acts as /b a member of b your people, /b i.e., in accordance with Torah law, b and this one does not do the deeds of your people. /b Bava ben Buta b said to him: /b Nevertheless, b I am afraid of him. /b Herod b said to him: There is nobody who will go and tell him, since you and I are sitting /b here alone. Bava ben Buta b said to him: /b Nevertheless, b it is written: “For a bird of the sky shall carry the sound, and that which has wings shall tell the matter” /b (Ecclesiastes 10:20).,Herod b said to him: I am he. Had I known that the Sages were so cautious I would not have killed them. Now, what is that man’s remedy, /b i.e., what can I do to repent for my sinful actions? Bava ben Buta b said to him: He /b who b extinguished the light of the world /b by killing the Torah Sages, b as it is written: “For the mitzva is a lamp, and the Torah is light” /b (Proverbs 6:23), b should go and occupy himself with the light of the world, /b the Temple, b as it is written /b with regard to the Temple: b “And all the nations shall flow [ i venaharu /i ] unto it” /b (Isaiah 2:2), the word i venaharu /i alluding to light [ i nehora /i ]. b There are /b those b who say /b that b this /b is what b he said to him: He /b who b blinded the eye of the world, as it is written /b in reference to the Sages: b “And if /b it be committed through ignorance b by the eyes of the congregation” /b (Numbers 15:24), b should go and occupy himself with the eye of the world, /b the Temple, b as it is written: “I will desecrate my Temple, the pride of your strength, the delight of your eyes” /b (Ezekiel 24:21).,Herod b said to him: I am afraid of the /b Roman b government, /b that they will not permit me to make changes in the Temple. Bava ben Buta b said to him: Send a messenger /b who will b travel /b there for b a year, and remain /b there for another b year, and /b take yet another b year /b to b return. In the meantime, you can demolish /b the Temple b and rebuild it. He did so. /b Eventually, b they sent /b a message b to /b Herod from Rome: b If you have not /b yet b demolished it, do not demolish it; and if you have /b already b demolished it, do not rebuild it; and if you have demolished it and /b already b rebuilt it, /b you shall be counted among b those who act wickedly, seeking counsel /b only b after they have /b already b acted. /b Even b if you are armed /b and in command of a military force, b your book, /b i.e., your genealogical record, b is here. /b You are b neither a king [ i reikha /i ] nor the son of a king, /b but rather b Herod the slave who has made himself a freeman [ i kelonya /i ]. /b ,The Gemara explains: b What /b is the meaning of the word b i reikha /i ? /b It denotes b royalty, as it is written: “I am today a tender [ i rakh /i ] and anointed king” /b (II Samuel 3:39). b And if you wish, say /b that the meaning of the word is learned b from here, /b from the term describing Joseph after he was appointed viceroy to the king: b “And they cried before him, i Avrekh /i ” /b (Genesis 41:43).,The Sages b say: One who has not seen Herod’s building has never seen a beautiful building in his life. /b The Gemara asks: b With what did he build it? Rabba said: With stones of white and green marble [ i umarmara /i ]. There are /b those b who say /b that he built it b with stones of blue, white, and green marble. /b Alternate rows of stones b sent out an edge /b a bit b and drew in an edge /b a bit, b so that they would /b better b receive /b and hold b the plaster. He considered covering it with gold, /b but b the Rabbis said to him: Leave it, /b and do not cover it, b since it is more beautiful this /b way, b as it looks like the waves of the sea. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And how did Bava ben Buta do this, /b i.e., give advice to Herod the wicked? b But doesn’t Rav Yehuda say /b that b Rav says, and some say /b it was b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi /b who says: b For what /b reason b was Daniel punished? Because he offered advice to Nebuchadnezzar, as /b after sharing a harsh prophecy with him, b it is stated: “Therefore, O king, let my counsel be acceptable to you, redeem your sins with charity and your iniquities with graciousness to the poor, that there may be a lengthening of your prosperity” /b (Daniel 4:24). b And it is written: “All this came upon King Nebuchadnezzar” /b (Daniel 4:25). b And it is written: “And at the end of twelve months” /b (Daniel 4:26). Only after a year was the prophecy fulfilled but not before that, apparently because Nebuchadnezzar heeded Daniel’s advice.,The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that b a slave /b like Herod b is different since he is obligated in the mitzvot, /b and therefore Bava ben Buta had to help him repent. b And if you wish, say the Temple is different, as without /b the help of b the government it would not have been built. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And from where do we /b derive b that Daniel was punished? If we say /b we know this b because it is written: “And Esther called for Hatach, /b one of the king’s chamberlains, whom he had appointed to attend upon her” (Esther 4:5), b and Rav said: Hatach is Daniel. This works out well according to the one who says /b Daniel was called Hatach because b they cut him down [ i ḥatakh /i ] from his greatness /b and turned him into a minor attendant. b But according to the one who says /b he was called Hatach b because all governmental matters were determined [ i ḥatakh /i ] according to his word, what is there to say? /b What punishment did he receive? The Gemara answers: His punishment was b that they threw him into the den of lions. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: In a place where it is customary to build a wall of non-chiseled stone, or chiseled stone, or small bricks, or large bricks, they must build the partition with that material. b Everything is in accordance with the regional custom. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b does the word b everything /b serve b to add? /b The Gemara answers: It serves b to add a place where it is customary /b to build a partition b out of palm and laurel branches. /b In such a place, the partition is built from those materials.,The mishna teaches: b Therefore, if the wall /b later b falls, /b the assumption is that b the space /b where the wall stood b and the stones belong to both of them, /b to be divided equally. The Gemara questions the need for this ruling: Isn’t it b obvious /b that this is the case, since both neighbors participated in the construction of the wall? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it is b necessary /b to teach this i halakha /i for a case b where /b the entire wall b fell into the domain of one of them. Alternatively, /b it is necessary in a case b where one of them /b already b cleared /b all the stones b into his /b own b domain. Lest you say /b that b the other /b party b should be /b governed by the principle that b the burden of proof rests upon the claimant, /b that is, if the other party should have to prove that he had been a partner in the construction of the wall, the mishna b teaches us /b that they are presumed to have been partners in the building of the wall, and neither requires further proof.,§ The mishna continues: b And similarly with regard to a garden, /b in b a place where it is customary to build a partition /b in the middle of a garden jointly owned by two people, and one of them wishes to build such a partition, the court b obligates /b his neighbor to join in building the partition. The Gemara comments: b This /b matter b itself /b is b difficult. /b On the one hand, b you said: And similarly with regard to a garden, /b in b a place where it is customary to build a partition /b in the middle of a garden jointly owned by two people, and one of them wishes to build such a partition, the court b obligates /b his neighbor to join in building the partition. One can infer b that ordinarily, /b where there is no custom, the court b does not obligate him /b to build a partition.,But b say the latter clause /b of the mishna: b But /b with regard to an expanse of b fields, /b in b a place where it is customary not to build a partition /b between two people’s fields, and one person wishes to build a partition between his field and that of his neighbor, the court b does not obligate /b his neighbor to build such a partition. One can infer b that ordinarily, /b where there is no custom, the court b obligates him /b to build a partition. The Gemara explains the difficulty: b Now /b that b you said /b by inference that in b an ordinary garden /b the court b does not /b obligate him to build a partition, b is it necessary /b to say that the court does not obligate him to build a partition in b an ordinary field? /b Clearly in a field there is less of a need for a partition, as there is less damage caused by exposure to the gaze of others., b Abaye said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is saying: And similarly /b with regard to b an ordinary garden, and /b also b in a place where it is customary to build a partition in /b an expanse of b fields, /b the court b obligates him /b to build a partition. b Rava said to him: If so, what /b is the point of the word: b But, /b mentioned afterward in connection with an expanse of fields, which seems to indicate that the issue of fields had not yet been addressed? b Rather, Rava said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is teaching: And similarly an ordinary garden is /b treated b like a place where it is customary to build a partition, and /b therefore the court b obligates him /b to build a partition. b But an ordinary /b expanse of b fields is /b treated b like a place where it is customary not /b to build a partition, b and /b therefore the court b does not obligate him /b to build one.,§ The mishna teaches: b Rather, if /b one person b wishes /b to erect a partition, b he must withdraw into his own /b field b and build /b the partition there. b And he makes /b a border b mark on the outer side /b of the barrier facing his neighbor’s property, indicating that he built the entire structure of his own materials and on his own land. The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of a border b mark? Rav Huna said: He bends the edge /b of the wall b toward the outside. /b The Gemara suggests: b Let him make it on the inside. /b The Gemara explains: In that case, b his neighbor might also make /b a mark b on the outside, /b that is, on the side facing his own property, b and say: /b The wall b is /b both b mine and his. /b The Gemara responds: b If so, /b that is, there is a concern about such deception, b now also /b when the person who builds the wall makes a border mark on the outer side of the wall, b his neighbor might cut it off and say: /b The wall b is /b both b mine and his. /b The Gemara answers: Such b a cut is noticeable /b and the deception will not work., b There are /b those b who say /b that in answer to the question: What is the meaning of a border mark, b Rav Huna said: He bends the edge /b of the wall b toward the inside. /b The Gemara suggests: b Let him make it on the outside. /b The Gemara explains: In that case, b his neighbor might cut it off and say: /b The wall b is /b both b mine and his. /b The Gemara asks: b If so, /b that is, there is a concern for such deception, b now also /b when the person who builds the wall makes a border mark toward the inside, b his neighbor might add /b a border mark on his own side b and say: /b The wall b is /b both b mine and his. /b The Gemara answers: b An addition is noticeable /b and the deception will not work. The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t /b the mishna b teach /b that he makes the border mark b on the outside /b and not on the inside? The Gemara comments: This is b a difficulty. /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b
84. Lactantius, Deaths of The Persecutors, 31.14.6, 31.44.7 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 491
85. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 8.72 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486
86. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 16.8.13 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 496
87. Papyri, P.Berenike, 8  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361
88. Demosthenes, Orations, 19.66, 19.71  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489, 490
89. Babylonian Talmud, Zevahim, None  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
22b. יצאו מי כיור שיש להם שם לווי אלא לאו דראויין למי כיור אלמא מים חיים נינהו,תנאי היא דאמר ר' יוחנן מי כיור ר' ישמעאל אומר מי מעין הן וחכמים אומרים שאר מימות הן:,ערל: מנלן אמר רב חסדא דבר זה מתורת משה רבינו לא למדנו מדברי יחזקאל בן בוזי למדנו (יחזקאל מד, ט) כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר לא יבא אל מקדשי (לשרתני),ומנלן דמחלי עבודה דכתיב (יחזקאל מד, ז) בהביאכם (את) בני נכר ערלי לב וערלי בשר להיות במקדשי לחלל את ביתי:,תנו רבנן בן נכר יכול בן נכר ממש תלמוד לומר ערל לב אם כן מה תלמוד לומר בן נכר שנתנכרו מעשיו לאביו שבשמים ואין לי אלא ערל לב ערל בשר מנין תלמוד לומר וערל בשר,וצריכי דאי כתב רחמנא ערל בשר משום דמאיס אבל ערל לב דלא מאיס אימא לא ואי אשמעינן ערל לב משום דאין לבו לשמים אבל ערל בשר דלבו לשמים אימא לא צריכי:,טמא פסול: אמרו זקני דרום לא שנו אלא טמא שרץ אבל טמא מת מתוך שמרצה בציבור מרצה נמי ביחיד,אי הכי טמא שרץ נמי ליתי בקל וחומר מטמא מת מה טמא מת שטעון הזאה שלישי ושביעי מרצה טמא שרץ שאינו טעון הזאה ג' ושביעי אינו דין שמרצה,קסברי זקני דרום מכפרין כמתכפרין מה מתכפרין טמא מת אין טמא שרץ לא אף מכפרין טמא מת אין טמא שרץ לא,מאי קסברי אי קסברי אין שוחטין וזורקין על טמא שרץ אמאי לא עבדי ציבור בטומאה הא כל שביחיד נדחה ציבור עבדי בטומאה,אלא קסברי שוחטין וזורקין על טמא שרץ,אמר עולא תקע להו ר"ל לדרומאי וכי איזה כח מרובה כח מכפרין או כח מתכפרין הוי אומר כח מתכפרין,ומה במקום שנטמאו בעלים בשרץ משלחין קרבנותיהן כהן שנטמא בשרץ אינו מרצה מקום שנטמאו בעלים במת שאין משלחין קרבנותיהן כהן שנטמא במת אינו דין שאינו מרצה,קסברי זקני דרום טמא מת [נמי] משלח קרבנותיו,והכתיב (במדבר ט, י) איש איש כי יהיה טמא ועשה פסח בחדש השני וגו' למצוה,והא כתיב (שמות יב, ד) איש 22b. b excluded is water of /b the b Basin, which has a modifier /b in its name? b Rather, /b since the i baraita /i cannot be referring to the water of the Basin itself, as it is unfit for washing the innards, b is it not /b referring to water b that is fit to /b be b water of /b the b Basin? Apparently, /b the only reason such water could be preferable is because it b is flowing water. /b ,The Gemara responds: The issue b is /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i , as Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b With regard to b the water of /b the b Basin, Rabbi Yishmael says: It /b must be b spring water, /b i.e., flowing water, b and the Rabbis say: It /b may be b another /b type of b water. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that a priest who is b uncircumcised /b disqualifies sacrificial rites he performs. The Gemara elaborates: b From where do we /b derive this? b Rav Ḥisda says: We did not learn this matter from the Torah of Moses, our teacher; /b rather, b we learned /b it b from the words of /b the prophet b Ezekiel, son of Buzi: “No stranger, uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My Sanctuary to serve Me” /b (Ezekiel 44:9)., b And from where do we /b derive b that he desecrates /b the b service /b after the fact? b As it is written: “In that you have brought in strangers, uncircumcised in heart or uncircumcised in flesh, to be in My Sanctuary, to profane My house” /b (Ezekiel 44:7)., b The Sages taught: /b The verse states b “stranger”; /b one b might /b have thought that this is referring to b an actual stranger, /b i.e., a gentile. Therefore, b the verse states: “Uncircumcised in heart,” /b to indicate that it is referring to a priest rather than a gentile. b If so, what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “Stranger”? /b It is referring to one b whose actions are /b considered b estranged from his Father in Heaven, /b i.e., an apostate, who sins regularly. b And I have /b derived b only /b that b one uncircumcised in heart /b is unfit to serve; b from where /b is it derived that b one uncircumcised in flesh /b is unfit as well? b The verse states: “Or uncircumcised in flesh.” /b ,The Gemara notes: b And /b both phrases in the verse b are necessary. As, had the Merciful One written /b only: b “Uncircumcised in flesh,” /b one might think that only he is unfit b because he is disgusting /b in that he possesses a foreskin, b but /b concerning b one uncircumcised in heart, who is not disgusting, I will say /b that he is b not /b unfit. b And had /b the verse b taught us /b only that one b uncircumcised in heart /b is unfit, one might think that only he is unfit, b because his heart is not /b directed b toward Heaven, but one uncircumcised in flesh, whose heart is /b directed b toward Heaven, I will say /b that he is b not /b unfit. Therefore, both phrases b are necessary. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that a ritually b impure /b priest is b unfit /b for Temple service and disqualifies rites he performs. b The Elders of the South said: They taught /b this b only /b with regard to one who became b impure due to /b contact with the carcass of b a creeping animal. But /b with regard to a priest who became b impure due to /b contact with b a corpse, since he can effect acceptance /b of his rites b for communal /b offerings i ab initio /i if the majority of the community has contracted impurity from a corpse, b he can effect acceptance /b of his rites b for individual /b offerings b as well /b after the fact.,The Gemara asks: b If so, let /b it b be derived /b that b one impure due to /b the carcass of b a creeping animal /b can also effect acceptance for communal offerings in cases of communal impurity i ab initio /i , and for individual offerings after the fact, b by i a fortiori /i /b inference b from one impure due to a corpse: Just as /b a priest who is b impure due to a corpse, who requires sprinkling /b of the water containing the ashes of the red heifer on the b third and seventh /b day to be purified, still b effects acceptance, /b then with regard to b one /b who is b impure due to /b the carcass of b a creeping animal, who does not require sprinkling /b on the b third and seventh /b day, b is it not right that he /b should also b effect acceptance? /b ,The Gemara responds: b The Elders of the South hold /b that the i halakha /i with regard to b those who effect atonement /b is b like those who achieve atonement: Just as /b with regard to b those who achieve atonement /b through communal offerings, i.e., the community, only if a majority is b impure due to a corpse may /b the offering be sacrificed in a state of impurity, but if they are b impure due to /b the carcass of b a creeping animal /b it may b not, so too /b with regard to b those who effect atonement, /b i.e., the priests, if they serve when they are b impure due to a corpse, yes, /b their service achieves atonement, but if they serve when they are b impure due to the carcass of a creeping animal, /b it does b not. /b ,The response of the Gemara assumes that communal offerings may not be brought when the majority of the community is impure due to a creeping animal. The Gemara therefore asks: b What do /b the Elders of the South b hold /b with regard to the Paschal offering? b If they hold /b that b one may not slaughter /b it b nor sprinkle /b its blood on the altar b for /b an owner who is b impure due to a creeping animal, /b even though he can immerse and become pure in time to eat the offering that night, then one may ask: b Why can’t /b the b community perform /b communal offerings b in /b such a state of b impurity? Isn’t /b it a principle that for b any /b impurity b for which an individual /b may not sacrifice the Paschal offering and b is deferred /b to the second i Pesaḥ /i , the b community may perform /b its offerings b in /b such a state of b impurity? /b , b Rather, they /b must b hold /b that b one may slaughter /b the Paschal offering b and sprinkle /b its blood b for /b an owner who is b impure due to a creeping animal. /b Accordingly, the community may not offer the Paschal offering in such a state of impurity., b Ulla says: Reish Lakish shouted [ i teka /i ] to /b the Elders b of the South: But which power is greater /b to overcome impurity with respect to offerings, b the power of those who effect atonement, /b i.e., the priests, b or the power of those who achieve atonement, /b the offerings’ owners? Since the Elders of the South hold that the Paschal offering may be sacrificed for an owner who is impure due to a creeping animal, while a priest who is similarly impure may not sacrifice any offering, b you must say /b that b the power of those who achieve atonement /b is greater.,If so, your initial statement that a priest who contracted impurity from a corpse can effect acceptance for individual offerings can be refuted i a fortiori /i : b And just as in a case where /b the b owner became impure due to a creeping animal, /b he b may send his offerings /b for sacrifice, and yet b a priest who became impure due to a creeping animal cannot effect acceptance, /b then in b a case where the owner became impure due to a corpse, where he may not send his offerings /b for sacrifice, b is it not right that a priest who became impure due to a corpse cannot effect acceptance? /b ,The Gemara responds: b The Elders of the South hold /b that an owner who is b impure due to a corpse may also send his offerings, /b even though he will not be able to partake of his Paschal offering. Therefore, the i a fortiori /i inference does not stand.,The Gemara protests: b But isn’t it written: “If any man of you or of your generations shall be impure /b by reason of a dead body, or be in a journey afar off, b he shall perform the Paschal offering /b to the Lord. b In the second month /b on the fourteenth day at dusk they shall perform it” (Numbers 9:10–11)? Apparently, one impure due to a corpse in the first month must defer his Paschal offering to the second month. The Gemara responds: The verse intends this b as a mitzva /b i ab initio /i . But if he sends his offering in the first month, it is accepted, and he is not required to sacrifice a Paschal offering in the second month.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t it written: /b “And if the household be too little for a lamb, then shall he and his neighbor next to his house take one according to the number of the souls; b a man, /b
90. Anon., Sifre Zuta, None  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493
91. Epigraphy, Ig, None  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 485
92. Epigraphy, I. Lindos, 2.487  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
93. Anon., Clarian Oracles (Eds. Merkelbach And Stauber) ##, 7.11  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 361
94. Anon., Megillat Taanit (Lichtenstein), None  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 493
95. Anon., Testament of Abraham, Long Recension, 2.17, 3.98  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 489
96. Strabo, Geography, 15.720  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486
97. Epigraphy, Ed, 434, 997, 730  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 487
98. Epigraphy, Ils, 3520  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 490
99. Pompeius Festus, De Verborum Significatu, 3.26.5  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 488
100. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 84  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 360
84. in the middle of the whole of Judea on the top of a mountain of considerable altitude. On the summit the temple had been built in all its splendour. It was surrounded by three walls more than seventy cubits high and in length and breadth corresponding to the structure of the edifice. All the building
101. Dead Sea Scrolls, '11Q19, 38.12-39.16  Tagged with subjects: •herodian temple •josephus, description of herodian temple Found in books: Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151
102. Hildegarde of Bingen, Sciv., 4.157  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 486
103. Possis of Magnesi, Fgrh 480, 19.85, 59.85-59.86  Tagged with subjects: •temple, herodian warning inscription Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 359, 487, 490