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17 results for "heretic"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292
4.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר לֶמֶךְ לְנָשָׁיו עָדָה וְצִלָּה שְׁמַעַן קוֹלִי נְשֵׁי לֶמֶךְ הַאְזֵנָּה אִמְרָתִי כִּי אִישׁ הָרַגְתִּי לְפִצְעִי וְיֶלֶד לְחַבֻּרָתִי׃", 4.23. "And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech; For I have slain a man for wounding me, And a young man for bruising me;",
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 27.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, hermeneutic of Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 228
27.26. "אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה־הַזֹּאת לַעֲשׂוֹת אוֹתָם וְאָמַר כָּל־הָעָם אָמֵן׃", 27.26. "Cursed be he that confirmeth not the words of this law to do them. And all the people shall say: Amen.’",
3. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.23 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292
7.23. "וּמִי כְעַמְּךָ כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל גּוֹי אֶחָד בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ־אֱלֹהִים לִפְדּוֹת־לוֹ לְעָם וְלָשׂוּם לוֹ שֵׁם וְלַעֲשׂוֹת לָכֶם הַגְּדוּלָּה וְנֹרָאוֹת לְאַרְצֶךָ מִפְּנֵי עַמְּךָ אֲשֶׁר פָּדִיתָ לְּךָ מִמִּצְרַיִם גּוֹיִם וֵאלֹהָיו׃", 7.23. "And what one nation in the earth is like Thy people, like Yisra᾽el, whom God went to redeem for a people to himself, and to make himself a name, and to do like the great things and terrible which Thou didst for Thy land, by driving out from before Thy people, whom Thou didst redeem to Thee from Miżrayim, the nations and their gods?",
4. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292
7.9. "חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי כָרְסָוָן רְמִיו וְעַתִּיק יוֹמִין יְתִב לְבוּשֵׁהּ כִּתְלַג חִוָּר וּשְׂעַר רֵאשֵׁהּ כַּעֲמַר נְקֵא כָּרְסְיֵהּ שְׁבִיבִין דִּי־נוּר גַּלְגִּלּוֹהִי נוּר דָּלִק׃", 7.9. "I beheld Till thrones were placed, And one that was ancient of days did sit: His raiment was as white snow, And the hair of his head like pure wool; His throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire.",
5. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 326
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.",
6. Tosefta, Yevamot, 8.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 326
7. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 326
1.8. "איזו היא אצבע צרדה זו אצבע גדולה של ימין בפה [ולא] בנבל ולא בכנור מה היו אומרים (תהילים קכ״ז:א׳) שיר המעלות לשלמה אם ה' לא יבנה בית וגו' לא היו ישנים כל הלילה אלא שקורין כנגד כהן גדול [כדי] לעסקו בתורה כך היו נוהגין בגבולין אחר חורבן הבית זכר למקדש אבל חוטאין [היו].",
8. New Testament, Galatians, 3.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, hermeneutic of Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 228
3.10. Ὅσοι γὰρ ἐξ ἔργων νόμου εἰσὶν ὑπὸ κατάραν εἰσίν, γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἐπικατάρατος πᾶς ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά. 3.10. For as many as are of the works of the law areunder a curse. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who doesn'tcontinue in all things that are written in the book of the law, to dothem."
9. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 25.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, hermeneutic of Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 228
25.1. וְכִי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל עֵץ מַאֲכָל (ויקרא יט, כג), הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי ג, יח): עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אַחָא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ דִבְרֵי תוֹרָה בְּעֵינֶיךָ כְּאָדָם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בַּת בּוֹגֶרֶת וְהוּא רוֹצֶה לְהַשִּׂיאָהּ לְאֶחָד, אֶלָּא (משלי ב, א): בְּנִי אִם תִּקַּח אֲמָרָי וּמִצְוֹתַי תִּצְפֹּן אִתָּךְ, אִם יֵשׁ לְךָ זְכוּת קַח אֲמָרָי. רַב הוּנָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי בִּנְיָמִין בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר, מָשָׁל לְמֶלֶךְ שֶׁאָמַר לִבְנוֹ צֵא לִפְרַקְמַטְיָא, אָמַר לוֹ אַבָּא מִתְיָרֵא אֲנִי בַּדֶּרֶךְ מֵהַלִּסְטִים וּבַיָּם מִפְּנֵי אַפִּירָטִין, מֶה עָשָׂה אָבִיו נָטַל מַקֵּל וַחֲקָקוֹ וְנָתַן בּוֹ קָמֵיעַ וּנְתָנָהּ לִבְנוֹ וְאָמַר לוֹ יְהִי הַמַּקֵּל הַזֶּה בְּיָדֶךָ וְאִי אַתָּה מִתְיָרֵא מִשּׁוּם בְּרִיָּה, אַף כָּךְ אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמשֶׁה, אֱמֹר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בָּנַי עִסְקוּ בַּתּוֹרָה וְאֵין אַתֶּם מִתְיָרְאִים מִשּׁוּם אֻמָּה, אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לָעֲמֵלִים בָּהּ, לֹא הָיְתָה תְּקוּמָה לְשׂוֹנְאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים. אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִלְמַד, לֹא הָיְתָה תְּקוּמָה לְשׂוֹנְאֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא (דברים כז, כו): אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָקִים אֶת [כל] דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת, לְכָךְ נֶאֱמַר: עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ. רַב הוּנָא אָמַר אִם נִכְשַׁל אָדָם בַּעֲבֵרָה חַיָּב מִיתָה בִּידֵי שָׁמַיִם, מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה וְיִחְיֶה, אִם הָיָה לָמוּד לִקְרוֹת דַּף אֶחָד קוֹרֵא שְׁנֵי דַפִּים, וְאִם הָיָה לָמוּד לִשְׁנוֹת פֶּרֶק אֶחָד יִשְׁנֶה שְׁנַיִם, וְאִם אֵינוֹ לָמוּד לִקְרוֹת וְלִשְׁנוֹת, מַה יַּעֲשֶׂה וְיִחְיֶה, יֵלֵךְ וְיֵעָשֶׂה פַּרְנָס עַל הַצִּבּוּר וְגַבַּאי שֶׁל צְדָקָה וְהוּא חַי, שֶׁאִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִלְמַד, לֹא הָיְתָה תְּקוּמָה, אֶלָּא אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָקִים. אִלּוּ נֶאֱמַר עֵץ חַיִּים לָעֲמֵלִים בָּהּ, לֹא הָיְתָה תְּקוּמָה, אֶלָּא עֵץ חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ. (קהלת ז, יב): כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף, אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בֶּן רַבִּי חִיָּא לָמַד אָדָם וְלִמֵּד וְשָׁמַר וְעָשָׂה וְהָיְתָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדוֹ לְמַחוֹת וְלֹא מִחָה, לְהַחֲזִיק וְלֹא הֶחֱזִיק, הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל אָרוּר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: אָרוּר אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָקִים. רַבִּי יִרְמְיָה אָמַר בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חִיָּא לֹא לָמַד אָדָם וְלֹא עָשָׂה וְלֹא שָׁמַר וְלֹא לִמֵּד לַאֲחֵרִים וְלֹא הָיְתָה סִפֵּק בְּיָדוֹ לְהַחֲזִיק וְהֶחֱזִיק, וְלֹא לְמַחוֹת וּמִחָה, הֲרֵי זֶה בִּכְלַל בָּרוּךְ.
10. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan
11. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 66
29b. had the b leg of /b the letter b i heh /i in /b the term: b “The nation [ i ha’am /i ]” /b (Exodus 13:3), written in his phylacteries, b severed by a perforation. He came before /b his son-in-law b Rabbi Abba /b to clarify the i halakha /i . Rabbi Abba b said to him: If there remains in /b the leg that is attached to the roof of the letter b the equivalent of the measure of a small letter, /b i.e., the letter i yod /i , it is b fit. But if not, /b it is b unfit. /b ,The Gemara relates: b Rami bar Tamrei, who /b was b the father-in-law of Rami bar Dikkulei, /b had the b leg of /b the letter b i vav /i in /b the term: b “And /b the Lord b slew [ i vayaharog /i ] /b all the firstborn” (Exodus 13:15), written in his phylacteries, b severed by a perforation. He came before Rabbi Zeira /b to clarify the i halakha /i . Rabbi Zeira b said to him: Go bring a child who is neither wise nor stupid, /b but of average intelligence; b if he reads /b the term as b “And /b the Lord b slew [ i vayaharog /i ]” /b then it is b fit, /b as despite the perforation the letter is still seen as a i vav /i . But b if not, /b then it is as though the term b were: Will be slain [ i yehareg /i ], /b written without the letter i vav /i , b and /b it is b unfit. /b ,§ b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: When Moses ascended on High, he found the Holy One, Blessed be He, sitting and tying crowns on the letters /b of the Torah. Moses b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, who is preventing You /b from giving the Torah without these additions? God b said to him: There is a man who is destined to be /b born b after several generations, and Akiva ben Yosef /b is b his name; he is destined to derive from each and every thorn /b of these crowns b mounds /b upon b mounds of i halakhot /i . /b It is for his sake that the crowns must be added to the letters of the Torah.,Moses b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, show him to me. /b God b said to him: Return behind you. /b Moses b went and sat at the end of the eighth row /b in Rabbi Akiva’s study hall b and did not understand what they were saying. /b Moses’ b strength waned, /b as he thought his Torah knowledge was deficient. b When /b Rabbi Akiva b arrived at /b the discussion of b one matter, his students said to him: My teacher, from where do you /b derive this? Rabbi Akiva b said to them: /b It is b a i halakha /i /b transmitted b to Moses from Sinai. /b When Moses heard this, b his mind was put at ease, /b as this too was part of the Torah that he was to receive.,Moses b returned and came before the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b and b said before Him: Master of the Universe, You have a man /b as great b as this and /b yet b You /b still choose to b give the Torah through me. /b Why? God b said to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me. /b Moses b said before /b God: b Master of the Universe, You have shown me /b Rabbi Akiva’s b Torah, /b now b show me his reward. /b God b said to him: Return /b to where you were. Moses b went back /b and b saw that they were weighing /b Rabbi Akiva’s b flesh in a butcher shop [ i bemakkulin /i ], /b as Rabbi Akiva was tortured to death by the Romans. Moses b said before Him: Master of the Universe, this is Torah and this is its reward? /b God b said to him: Be silent; this intention arose before Me. /b ,§ The Gemara continues its discussion of the crowns on letters of the Torah: b Rava says: Seven letters require three crowns [ i ziyyunin /i ], and they are /b the letters b i shin /i , i ayin /i , i tet /i , i nun /i , i zayin /i ; i gimmel /i /b and b i tzadi /i . Rav Ashi says: I have seen that the exacting scribes of the study hall of Rav would put a hump-like stroke on the roof of /b the letter b i ḥet /i and they would suspend the /b left b leg of /b the letter b i heh /i , /b i.e., they would ensure that it is not joined to the roof of the letter.,Rava explains: b They would put a hump-like stroke on the roof of /b the letter b i ḥet /i as if to /b thereby b say: /b The Holy One, Blessed be b He, lives [ i ḥai /i ] in the heights of the universe. And they would suspend the /b left b leg of /b the letter b i heh /i , as Rabbi Yehuda Nesia asked Rabbi Ami: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “Trust in the Lord forever, for in the Lord [ i beYah /i ] is God, an everlasting [ i olamim /i ] Rock” /b (Isaiah 26:4)? Rabbi Ami b said to him: Anyone who puts their trust in the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b will have Him as b his refuge in this world and in the World-to-Come. /b This is alluded to in the word “ i olamim /i ,” which can also mean: Worlds.,Rabbi Yehuda Nesia b said to /b Rabbi Ami: I was not asking about the literal meaning of the verse; b this is /b what poses b a difficulty for me: What is different /b about that b which is written: /b “For b in the Lord [ i beYah /i ],” and it is not written: /b For b the Lord [ i Yah /i ]? /b ,Rav Ashi responded: It is b as Rabbi Yehuda bar Rabbi Elai taught: /b The verse “For in the Lord [ i beYah /i ] is God, an everlasting Rock [ i Tzur olamim /i ]” is understood as follows: The term “ i Tzur olamim /i ” can also mean Creator of worlds. b These /b letters i yod /i and i heh /i that constitute the word i yah /i are referring to the b two worlds that the Holy One, Blessed be He, created; one with [ i be /i ] /b the letter b i heh /i and one with [ i be /i ] /b the letter b i yod /i . And I do not know whether the World-to-Come /b was created b with /b the letter b i yod /i and this world /b was created b with /b the letter b i heh /i , /b or b whether this world /b was created b with /b the letter b i yod /i and the World-to-Come /b was created b with /b the letter b i heh /i . /b , b When /b the verse b states: “These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created [ i behibare’am /i ]” /b (Genesis 2:4), b do not read /b it as b i behibare’am /i , /b meaning: When they were created; b rather, /b read it as b i beheh bera’am /i , /b meaning: He created them with the letter i heh /i . This verse demonstrates that the heaven and the earth, i.e., this world, were created with the letter i heh /i , and therefore the World-to-Come must have been created with the letter i yod /i ., b And for what /b reason b was this world created /b specifically b with /b the letter b i heh /i ? /b It is b because /b the letter i heh /i , b which /b is open on its bottom, has b a similar /b appearance b to a portico, /b which is open on one side. And it alludes to this world, b where anyone who wishes to leave may leave, /b i.e., every person has the ability to choose to do evil. b And what is the reason /b that the left b leg of /b the letter i heh /i b is suspended, /b i.e., is not joined to the roof of the letter? It is b because if one repents, he is brought /b back b in /b through the opening at the top.,The Gemara asks: b But /b why not b let him enter through that /b same way that he left? The Gemara answers: That would b not be effective, /b since one requires assistance from Heaven in order to repent, b in accordance with /b the statement b of Reish Lakish. As Reish Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, but to the humble He gives grace” /b (Proverbs 3:34)? Concerning one who b comes /b in order b to become pure, he is assisted /b from Heaven, as it is written: “But to the humble He gives grace.” Concerning one who b comes to become impure, he is provided with an opening /b to do so. The Gemara asks: b And what is the reason /b that the letter i heh /i b has a crown /b on its roof? The Gemara answers: b The Holy One, Blessed be He, says: If /b a sinner b returns, /b repenting for his sin, b I tie /b a crown b for him /b from above.,The Gemara asks: b For what /b reason b was the World-to-Come created /b specifically b with /b the letter b i yod /i , /b the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet? The Gemara answers: It is b because the righteous of /b the world b are /b so b few. And for what /b reason is the left side of b the top of /b the letter i yod /i b bent /b downward? It is b because the righteous who are in /b the World-to-Come b hang their heads /b in shame, b since the actions of one are not similar to those of another. /b In the World-to-Come some of the righteous will be shown to be of greater stature than others.,§ b Rav Yosef says: Rav states these two matters with regard to scrolls, and /b in each case a statement b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that constitutes b a refutation of his /b ruling. b One /b is b that which Rav says: A Torah scroll that contains two errors on each and every column may be corrected, /b but if there are b three /b errors on each and every column then it b shall be interred. /b , b And /b a statement b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that constitutes b a refutation of his /b ruling: A Torah scroll that contains b three /b errors on every column b may be corrected, /b but if there are b four /b errors on every column then it b shall be interred. /b A i tanna /i b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b If /b the Torah scroll b contains one complete column /b with no errors, b it saves the entire /b Torah scroll, and it is permitted to correct the scroll rather than interring it. b Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta says in the name of Rav: And this /b is the i halakha /i only b when the majority of the scroll is written properly /b and is not full of errors., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: If that column contained three errors, what /b is the i halakha /i ? Rav Yosef b said to him: Since /b the column itself b may be corrected, /b it b enables the correction /b of the entire scroll. The Gemara adds: b And /b with regard to the i halakha /i that a Torah scroll may not be fixed if it is full of errors, b this statement /b applies when letters b are missing /b and must be added in the space between the lines. b But /b if there were b extraneous /b letters, b we have no /b problem b with it, /b since they can easily be erased. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that a scroll with letters b missing /b may b not /b be corrected? b Rav Kahana said: Because it would look speckled /b if one adds all of the missing letters in the spaces between the lines.,The Gemara relates: b Agra, the father-in-law of Rabbi Abba, had /b many b extraneous /b letters b in his scroll. He came before Rabbi Abba /b to clarify the i halakha /i . Rabbi Abba b said to him: We said /b that one may not correct the scroll b only in /b a case where the letters are b missing. /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292
14a. קודם שנברא העולם ולא נבראו עמד הקב"ה ושתלן בכל דור ודור והן הן עזי פנים שבדור,ורב נחמן בר יצחק אמר אשר קומטו לברכה הוא דכתיב אלו תלמידי חכמים שמקמטין עצמן על דברי תורה בעולם הזה הקב"ה מגלה להם סוד לעולם הבא שנאמר (איוב כב, טז) נהר יוצק יסודם,אמר ליה שמואל לחייא בר רב בר אריא תא אימא לך מילתא מהני מילי מעליותא דהוה אמר אבוך כל יומא ויומא נבראין מלאכי השרת מנהר דינור ואמרי שירה ובטלי שנאמר (איכה ג, כג) חדשים לבקרים רבה אמונתך ופליגא דר' שמואל בר נחמני דאמר ר' שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל דיבור ודיבור שיוצא מפי הקב"ה נברא ממנו מלאך אחד שנאמר (תהלים לג, ו) בדבר ה' שמים נעשו וברוח פיו כל צבאם,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) לבושיה כתלג חיור ושער (רישיה) כעמר נקא וכתיב (שיר השירים ה, יא) קוצותיו תלתלים שחורות כעורב לא קשיא כאן בישיבה כאן במלחמה דאמר מר אין לך נאה בישיבה אלא זקן ואין לך נאה במלחמה אלא בחור,כתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) כרסיה שביבין דינור וכתוב אחד אומר (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב לא קשיא אחד לו ואחד לדוד כדתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר' עקיבא אמר לו ר' יוסי הגלילי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קיבלה מיניה או לא קיבלה מיניה ת"ש אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי רבי עקיבא אמר לו ר"א בן עזריה עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך מדברותיך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, א) השמים כסאי והארץ הדום רגלי,כי אתא רב דימי אמר שמונה עשרה קללות קילל ישעיה את ישראל ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם המקרא הזה (ישעיהו ג, ה) ירהבו הנער בזקן והנקלה בנכבד,שמונה עשרה קללות מאי נינהו דכתיב (ישעיהו ג, א) כי הנה האדון ה' צבאות מסיר מירושלם ומיהודה משען ומשענה כל משען לחם וכל משען מים גבור ואיש מלחמה שופט ונביא וקוסם וזקן שר חמשים ונשוא פנים ויועץ וחכם חרשים ונבון לחש ונתתי נערים שריהם ותעלולים ימשלו בם וגו',משען אלו בעלי מקרא משענה אלו בעלי משנה כגון ר"י בן תימא וחביריו פליגו בה רב פפא ורבנן חד אמר שש מאות סדרי משנה וחד אמר שבע מאות סדרי משנה,כל משען לחם אלו בעלי תלמוד שנאמר (משלי ט, ה) לכו לחמו בלחמי ושתו ביין מסכתי וכל משען מים אלו בעלי אגדה שמושכין לבו של אדם כמים באגדה גבור זה בעל שמועות ואיש מלחמה זה שיודע לישא וליתן במלחמתה של תורה שופט זה דיין שדן דין אמת לאמיתו נביא כמשמעו קוסם זה מלך שנאמר (משלי טז, י) קסם על שפתי מלך זקן זה שראוי לישיבה,שר חמשים אל תקרי שר חמשים אלא שר חומשין זה שיודע לישא וליתן בחמשה חומשי תורה דבר אחר שר חמשים כדרבי אבהו דאמר רבי אבהו מכאן שאין מעמידין מתורגמן על הצבור פחות מחמשים שנה ונשוא פנים זה שנושאין פנים לדורו בעבורו למעלה כגון רבי חנינא בן דוסא למטה כגון רבי אבהו בי קיסר,יועץ שיודע לעבר שנים ולקבוע חדשים וחכם זה תלמיד המחכים את רבותיו חרשים בשעה שפותח בדברי תורה הכל נעשין כחרשין ונבון זה המבין דבר מתוך דבר לחש זה שראוי למסור לו דברי תורה שניתנה בלחש,ונתתי נערים שריהם מאי ונתתי נערים שריהם א"ר אלעזר אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות,ותעלולים ימשלו בם אמר רב (פפא) בר יעקב תעלי בני תעלי ולא נתקררה דעתו עד שאמר להם ירהבו הנער בזקן (והנקלה בנכבד) אלו בני אדם שמנוערין מן המצות ירהבו במי שממולא במצות כרמון והנקלה בנכבד יבא מי שחמורות דומות עליו כקלות וירהבו במי שקלות דומות עליו כחמורות,אמר רב קטינא אפי' בשעת כשלונה של ירושלים לא פסקו מהם בעלי אמנה שנא' (ישעיהו ג, ו) כי יתפש איש באחיו בית אביו (לאמר) שמלה לך קצין תהיה לנו דברים שבני אדם מתכסין כשמלה ישנן תחת ידך,(ישעיהו ג, ו) והמכשלה הזאת מאי והמכשלה הזאת דברים שאין בני אדם עומדין עליהן אא"כ נכשל בהן ישנן תחת ידך (ישעיהו ג, ז) ישא ביום ההוא לאמר לא אהיה חובש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה לא תשימוני קצין עם ישא אין ישא אלא לשון שבועה שנאמר (שמות כ, ו) לא תשא את שם ה' אלהיך לא אהיה חובש לא הייתי מחובשי בית המדרש ובביתי אין לחם ואין שמלה שאין בידי לא מקרא ולא משנה ולא גמרא,ודלמא שאני התם דאי אמר להו גמירנא אמרי ליה אימא לן הוה ליה למימר גמר ושכח מאי לא אהיה חובש לא אהיה חובש כלל,איני והאמר רבא לא חרבה ירושלים עד שפסקו ממנה בעלי אמנה שנאמר (ירמיהו ה, א) שוטטו בחוצות ירושלם וראו נא ודעו ובקשו ברחובותיה אם תמצאו איש אם יש עושה משפט מבקש אמונה ואסלח לה לא קשיא 14a. b before the creation of the world, but they were not created. /b The Torah was supposed to have been given a thousand generations after the world was created, as it is written: “He commanded His word for a thousand generations” (Psalms 105:8), but God gave it earlier, after only twenty-six generations, so that nine-hundred and seventy-four generations should have been created but were not. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, acted by planting /b a few of b them in each and every generation, and they are the insolent ones of the generation, /b as they belonged to generations that should not have been created at all., b And Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said /b that the verse: b “Who were snatched [ i kumtu /i ]” /b (Job 22:16), b is written for a blessing, /b as the verse is not referring to lowly, cursed people, but to the blessed. b These are Torah scholars, who shrivel [ i mekamtin /i ], /b i.e., humble, b themselves over the words of Torah in this world. The Holy One, Blessed be He, reveals a secret to them in the World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Whose foundation [ i yesodam /i ] was poured out as a stream” /b (Job 22:16), implying that He will provide them with an abundant knowledge of secret matters [ i sod /i ]., b Shmuel said to Ḥiyya bar Rav: Son of great ones, come and I will tell you something of the great things that your father would say: Each and every day, ministering angels are created from the River Dinur, and they recite song /b to God b and /b then immediately b cease /b to exist, b as it is stated: “They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness” /b (Lamentations 3:23), indicating that new angels praise God each morning. The Gemara comments: b And /b this opinion b disagrees with /b that b of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, as Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: /b With b each and every word that emerges from the mouth of the Holy One, Blessed be He, an angel is created, as it is stated: “By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of His mouth all their hosts” /b (Psalms 33:6). The hosts of heaven are the angels, who, he claims, are created from the mouth of God, rather than from the River Dinur.,§ The Gemara continues to reconcile verses that seem to contradict each other: b One verse states: “His raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like pure /b white b wool” /b (Daniel 7:9), b and it is written: “His locks are curled, black as a raven” /b (Song of Songs 5:11). The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. Here /b the verse in Daniel is referring to when He is b in the /b heavenly b academy, /b while b there /b the verse in Song of Songs speaks of when He is b at war, for the Master said: There is no finer /b individual to study Torah b in an academy than an old man, and there is no finer /b individual to wage war b than a youth. /b A different metaphor is therefore used to describe God on each occasion.,The Gemara poses another question: b One verse states: “His throne was fiery flames” /b (Daniel 7:9), b and /b another phrase in the same b verse states: “Till thrones were placed, and one who was ancient of days sat,” /b implying the existence of two thrones. The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. One /b throne is b for Him and one /b is b for David, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to this issue: b One /b throne b for Him and one for David; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei HaGelili said to him: Akiva, how long shall you make the Divine Presence profane, /b by presenting it as though one could sit next to Him? b Rather, /b the two thrones are designated for different purposes: b One for judgment and one for righteousness. /b ,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva b accept /b this rebuff b from him, or did he not accept /b it b from him? /b The Gemara offers a proof: b Come /b and b hear /b the following teaching of a different i baraita /i : b One /b throne is b for judgment and one /b is b for righteousness; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva, what are you doing /b occupying yourself b with /b the study of b i aggada /i ? /b This is not your field of expertise. b Take [ i kelakh /i ] your words to /b the topics of b plagues and tents. /b Meaning, it is preferable that you teach the i halakhot /i of the impurity of leprosy and the impurity of the dead, which are within your field of expertise. b Rather, /b with regard to the two thrones: b One /b throne is b for a seat and one /b is b for a small seat. /b The b seat /b is b to sit on, /b and the b small seat /b is b for His footstool, as it is stated: “The heavens are My seat, and the earth My footstool” /b (Isaiah 66:1).,§ The Gemara stated earlier that one who studies the secrets of Torah must be “a captain of fifty and a man of favor” (Isaiah 3:3), but it did not explain the meaning of these requirements. It now returns to analyze that verse in detail. b When Rav Dimi came /b from Israel to Babylonia, b he said: Isaiah cursed Israel with eighteen curses, and his mind was not calmed, /b i.e., he was not satisfied, b until he said to them the /b great curse of the b following verse: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” /b (Isaiah 3:5).,The Gemara asks: b What are these eighteen curses? /b The Gemara answers: b As it is written: “For behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts, shall take away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and staff, every support of bread, and every support of water; the mighty man, and the man of war; the judge, and the prophet, and the diviner, and the elder; the captain of fifty, and the man of favor, and the counselor, and the cunning charmer, and the skillful enchanter. And I will make children their princes, and babes shall rule over them” /b (Isaiah 3:1–4). The eighteen items listed in these verses shall be removed from Israel.,The Gemara proceeds to clarify the homiletical meaning of these terms: b “Support”; these are masters of the Bible. “Staff”; these are masters of Mishna, such as Rabbi Yehuda ben Teima and his colleagues. /b The Gemara interjects: b Rav Pappa and the Rabbis disagreed with regard to this. One /b of them b said: /b They were proficient in b six hundred orders of Mishna, and /b the other b one said: /b In b seven hundred orders of Mishna, /b only six of which remain today., b “Every support of bread”; these are masters of Talmud, as it is stated: “Come, eat of my bread, and drink of the wine that I have mingled” /b (Proverbs 9:5). b “And every support of water”; these are the masters of i aggada /i , who draw people’s hearts like water by /b means of b i aggada /i . “The mighty man”; this is the master of halakhic tradition, /b one who masters the i halakhot /i transmitted to him from his rabbis. b “And the man of war”; this is one who knows how to engage in the discourse of Torah, /b generating novel teachings b in the war of Torah. “A judge”; this is a judge who judges a true judgment truthfully. “A prophet”; as it literally indicates. “A diviner”; this is a king. /b Why is he called a diviner? b For it is stated: “A divine sentence is on the lips of the king” /b (Proverbs 16:10). b “An elder”; this is one fit for /b the position of head of b an academy. /b , b “A captain of fifty,” do not read /b it as b “ i sar ḥamishim /i ,” rather /b read it as b “ i sar ḥumashin /i ”; this is one who knows how to engage in discourse /b with regard to b the five books of [ i ḥamisha ḥumshei /i ] the Torah. Alternatively, “a captain of fifty” /b should be understood b in /b accordance with b Rabbi Abbahu, for Rabbi Abbahu said: From here /b we learn b that one may not appoint a disseminator over the public /b to transmit words of Torah or teachings of the Sages if he is b less than fifty years /b of age. b “And the man of favor”; this is /b one b for whose sake favor is shown to his generation. /b The Gemara provides different examples of this: Some garner favor b above, such as Rabbi Ḥanina ben Dosa, /b whose prayers for his generation would invariably be answered. Others gain favor b below, for example: Rabbi Abbahu, /b who would plead Israel’s case b in the house of /b the b emperor. /b , b “The counselor”; /b this is referring to one b who knows how to intercalate years and determine months, /b due to his expertise in the phases of the moon and the calculation of the yearly cycle. b “The cunning”; this is a student who makes his rabbis wise /b through his questions. b “Charmer [ i ḥarashim /i ]”; /b this is referring to one so wise b that when he begins speaking matters of Torah, all /b those listening b are as though deaf [ i ḥershin /i ], /b as they are unable to comprehend the profundity of his comments. b “The skillful”; this is one who understands something /b new b from something else /b he has learned. b “Enchanter [ i laḥash /i ]”; this /b is referring to one b who is worthy of having words of the Torah that were given in whispers [ i laḥash /i ], /b i.e., the secrets of the Torah, b transmitted to him. /b ,The Gemara continues to interpret this verse: b “And I will make children their princes” /b (Isaiah 3:4). The Gemara asks: b What is /b the meaning of b “And I will make children [ i ne’arim /i ] their princes”? Rabbi Elazar said: These are people who are devoid [ i menu’arin /i ] of mitzvot; /b such people will become the leaders of the nation., b “And babes [ i ta’alulim /i ] shall rule over them”; Rav Pappa bar Ya’akov said: /b i Ta’alulim /i means b foxes [ i ta’alei /i ], sons of foxes. /b In other words, inferior people both in terms of deeds and in terms of lineage. b And /b the prophet Isaiah’s b mind was not calmed until he said to them: “The child shall behave insolently against the aged, and the base against the honorable” /b (Isaiah 3:5). “The child” [ i na’ar /i ]; b these are people who are devoid of mitzvot, /b who b will behave insolently toward one who is as filled with mitzvot as a pomegranate. “And the base [ i nikleh /i ] against the honorable [ i nikhbad /i ]”; /b this means that b one for whom major [ i kaved /i ] /b transgressions b are like minor ones [ i kalot /i ] in his mind will come and behave insolently with one for whom /b even b minor /b transgressions b are like major ones in his mind. /b ,§ The Gemara continues its explanation of the chapter in Isaiah. b Rav Ketina said: Even at the time of Jerusalem’s downfall, trustworthy men did not cease to exist /b among its people, b as it is stated: “For a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, /b and say: b You have a cloak, be our ruler” /b (Isaiah 3:6). The Gemara explains that they would approach someone and say to him: b Things that people /b are careful to keep b covered as with a cloak, /b i.e., words of Torah that are covered and concealed, b are under your hand, /b as you are an expert with regard to them., b What is /b the meaning of the end of that verse: b “And this stumbling block” /b (Isaiah 3:6)? b Things that people cannot grasp unless they have stumbled over them, /b as they can be understood only with much effort, b are under your hand. Although /b they will approach an individual with these statements, he b “shall swear that day, saying: I will not be a healer, for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak; you shall not make me ruler of a people” /b (Isaiah 3:7). When the verse states: b “Shall swear [ i yissa /i ],” i yissa /i is none /b other b than an expression of an oath, as it is stated: “You shall not take [ i tissa /i ] the name of the Lord your God /b in vain” (Exodus 20:6). Therefore, the inhabitant of Jerusalem swears: b “I will not be a healer [ i ḥovesh /i ]” /b (Isaiah 3:7), which means: b I was never /b one b of those who sit [ i meḥovshei /i ] in the study hall; “for in my house there is neither bread nor a cloak,” as I possess /b knowledge of b neither /b the b Bible, nor Mishna, nor Gemara. /b This shows that even at Jerusalem’s lowest spiritual ebb, its inhabitants would admit the truth and own up to their complete ignorance.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But perhaps it is different there, for if he had said: I have learned, they would have said to him: Tell us, /b and people do not lie about things that can be easily verified. The Gemara rejects this claim: If he were a liar, b he would have said /b that b he learned and forgot, /b thereby avoiding shame. b What is /b the meaning of b “I will not be a healer,” /b which seems to imply that he had learned in the past? It means: b I will not be a healer at all, /b as I have never learned. Consequently, there were trustworthy men in Jerusalem after all.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b Is that so? But didn’t Rava say: Jerusalem was not destroyed until trustworthy men ceased to exist in it, as it is stated: “Run to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see now and know, and seek in its broad places, if you can find a man, if there is any that acts justly, that seeks truth, and I will pardon her” /b (Jeremiah 5:1), implying there were no trustworthy people at that time? The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult: /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 66
63a. רב המנונא אורי בחרתא דארגז בשני דרב חסדא,רבינא סר סכינא בבבל א"ל רב אשי מאי טעמא עבד מר הכי,א"ל והא רב המנונא אורי בחרתא דארגז בשני דרב חסדא אמר ליה לאו אורי אתמר,אמר ליה אתמר אורי ואתמר לא אורי בשני דרב הונא רביה הוא דלא אורי ואורי בשני דרב חסדא דתלמיד חבר דיליה הוה ואנא נמי תלמיד חבר דמר אנא,אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן חזי לנפשיה רבינא איקלע למחוזא אייתי אושפיזכניה סכינא וקא מחוי ליה אמר ליה זיל אמטייה לרבא,אמר ליה לא סבר מר הא דאמר רבא צורבא מרבנן חזי לנפשיה אמר ליה אנא מיזבן זבינא,(סימן זיל"א להני"א מחלי"ף איק"א ויעק"ב),רבי אלעזר מהגרוניא ורב אבא בר תחליפא איקלעו לבי רב אחא בריה דרב איקא באתריה דרב אחא בר יעקב בעי רב אחא בריה דרב איקא למיעבד להו עיגלא תילתא אייתי סכינא וקא מחוי להו,אמר להו רב אחא בר תחליפא לא ליחוש ליה לסבא אמר להו ר"א מהגרוניא הכי אמר רבא צורבא מרבנן חזי לנפשיה חזי ואיעניש רבי אלעזר מהגרוניא,והאמר רבא צורבא מרבנן חזי לנפשיה שאני התם דאתחילו בכבודו,ואי בעית אימא שאני רב אחא בר יעקב דמופלג,אמר רבא ולאפרושי מאיסורא אפילו בפניו שפיר דמי רבינא הוה יתיב קמיה דרב אשי חזייה לההוא גברא דקא אסר ליה לחמריה בצינתא בשבתא רמא ביה קלא ולא אשגח ביה א"ל ליהוי האי גברא בשמתא,א"ל כי האי גוונא מי מתחזא כאפקרותא אמר ליה (משלי כא, ל) אין חכמה ואין תבונה ואין עצה לנגד ה' כל מקום שיש בו חילול השם אין חולקין כבוד לרב,אמר רבא בפניו אסור וחייב מיתה שלא בפניו אסור ואין חייב מיתה,ושלא בפניו לא והא תניא ר"א אומר לא מתו בני אהרן עד שהורו הלכה בפני משה רבן מאי דרוש (ויקרא א, ז) ונתנו בני אהרן הכהן אש על המזבח אמרו אף על פי שהאש יורדת מן השמים מצוה להביא מן ההדיוט,ותלמיד אחד היה לו לרבי אליעזר שהורה הלכה בפניו אמר רבי אליעזר לאימא שלום אשתו תמיה אני אם יוציא זה שנתו ולא הוציא שנתו,אמרה לו נביא אתה אמר לה לא נביא אנכי ולא בן נביא אנכי אלא כך מקובלני כל המורה הלכה בפני רבו חייב מיתה,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן אותו תלמיד יהודה בן גוריא שמו והיה רחוק ממנו שלש פרסאות,בפניו הוה והא רחוק ממנו שלש פרסאות קאמר וליטעמיך שמו ושם אביו למה אלא שלא תאמר משל היה,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן כל המורה הלכה בפני רבו ראוי להכישו נחש שנאמר (איוב לב, ו) ויען אליהוא בן ברכאל הבוזי ויאמר צעיר אני לימים וגו' על כן זחלתי וכתיב (דברים לב, כד) עם חמת זוחלי עפר,זעירי אמר רבי חנינא נקרא חוטא שנאמר (תהלים קיט, יא) בלבי צפנתי אמרתך למען לא אחטא לך,רב המנונא רמי כתיב בלבי צפנתי אמרתך וכתיב (תהלים מ, י) בשרתי צדק בקהל רב לא קשיא כאן בזמן שעירא היאירי קיים כאן בזמן שאין עירא היאירי קיים,אמר רבי אבא בר זבדא כל הנותן מתנותיו לכהן אחד מביא רעב לעולם שנאמר (שמואל ב כ, כו) עירא היאירי היה כהן לדוד לדוד הוא דהוה כהן לכו"ע לא אלא שהיה משגר לו מתנותיו וכתיב בתריה ויהי רעב בימי דוד,ר' אליעזר אומר מורידין אותו מגדולתו שנאמר (במדבר לא, כא) ויאמר אלעזר הכהן אל אנשי הצבא וגו' אע"ג דאמר להו לאחי אבא צוה ואותי לא צוה אפ"ה איענש,דכתיב (במדבר כז, כא) ולפני אלעזר הכהן יעמד ולא אשכחן דאיצטריך ליה יהושע,א"ר לוי כל דמותיב מלה קמיה רביה אזיל לשאול בלא ולד שנאמר (במדבר יא, כח) ויען יהושע בן נון משרת משה מבחוריו ויאמר אדוני משה כלאם 63a. b Rav Hamnuna issued /b halakhic b rulings in /b the town of b Ḥarta De’argez during the years of Rav Ḥisda’s /b life, even though Rav Ḥisda was his teacher.,The Gemara relates that b Ravina /b once b examined /b a slaughterer’s b knife in Babylonia /b to check if it was fit for slaughtering, during the lifetime of his teacher, Rav Ashi, who also lived in Babylonia. b Rav Ashi said to him: What is the reason /b that the b Master acted in this manner? /b Isn’t it prohibited for a disciple to issue rulings while his teacher is still alive?,Ravina b said to him: Didn’t Rav Hamnuna issue /b halakhic b rulings in Ḥarta De’argez during the years of Rav Ḥisda’s /b life, as they were not in the same town, even though they were both located in Babylonia? Since I do not live in the same town as you, it stands to reason that I would be permitted to issue rulings as well. Rav Ashi b said to /b Ravina: b It was /b actually b stated /b that Rav Hamnuna b did not issue /b halakhic b rulings /b during Rav Ḥisda’s lifetime, and that is the correct tradition.,Ravina b said to /b Rav Ashi: In fact, b it was stated /b that Rav Hamnuna b issued rulings, and it was /b also stated that he b did not issue rulings, /b and both traditions are correct. b During the years of /b the life of b Rav Huna, /b Rav Hamnuna’s principal b teacher, /b Rav Hamnuna b did not issue rulings /b at all, b but he did issue rulings during the years of Rav Ḥisda’s /b life, b for /b Rav Hamnuna b was /b Rav Ḥisda’s b disciple /b - b colleague. And /b since b I, too, am the Master’s disciple and colleague, /b I should also be permitted to examine a slaughterer’s knife when I am not in the same town., b Rava said: A Torah scholar may examine /b a knife b for himself /b and use it for slaughtering, without having to show it to the local Sage. The Gemara relates that b Ravina happened /b to come b to Meḥoza, /b the home town of Rava. b His host brought /b out b a knife /b for slaughtering b and showed /b it b to him. He said to him: Go, bring it to Rava, /b the town Sage, for examination.,The host b said to him: Doesn’t the Master hold /b in accordance with b that /b which b Rava said: A Torah scholar may examine /b a slaughtering knife b for himself? /b In this case I am using the knife to slaughter on your behalf. Ravina b said to him: /b Since b I /b am only b buying /b the meat b from you, /b it is not considered as though I am slaughtering for myself. Rava’s principle does not apply to such a case.,The Gemara cites a mnemonic for the names of the Sages mentioned in the following discussion: b i Zila Lehanya /i : /b Rabbi Elazar from Hagronya; b i Maḥlif /i : /b Rav Abba bar Taḥalifa; b i Ika /i : /b Rav Aḥa bar Ika; b and i Ya’akov /i : /b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov.,The Gemara now relates that b Rabbi Elazar from Hagronya and Rav Abba bar Taḥalifa happened /b to come b to the house /b of b Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika, in the place /b of jurisdiction b of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov. Rav Aḥa, son of Rav Ika, wanted to prepare for them a third-born calf, /b whose meat was considered a delicacy. b He brought /b out a slaughtering b knife and showed /b it b to them. /b , b Rav Aḥa bar Taḥalifa said to them: Should we not be concerned with /b the respect of b the Elder, /b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov, and present the knife to him for inspection, as this is his town? b Rabbi Elazar from Hagronya said to them: /b That is unnecessary, since b Rava said as follows: A Torah scholar may examine /b a knife b for himself. Rabbi Elazar from Hagronya /b then b inspected /b the knife, b but he was /b later b punished /b at the hand of Heaven for disregarding the honor of the senior rabbi.,The Gemara expresses surprise: What was Rabbi Elazar from Hagronya’s mistake? b Didn’t Rava say: A Torah scholar may examine /b a slaughtering knife b for himself? /b The Gemara answers: b It was different there, as they had /b already b begun /b to discuss the issue b of the honor /b of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov. Had the name of Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov never arisen, they would have been permitted to examine the knife themselves. Once his name had been mentioned, however, they should have approached him with the knife. Their failure to do so is considered a display of disrespect., b And if you wish, say /b instead: b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov is different, as he was illustrious /b in age and wisdom, and thus deserved more honor than a regular Sage., b Rava said: /b Even though it is ordinarily prohibited for a disciple to issue a halakhic ruling in his teacher’s place, if he does so b in order to separate /b another person b from a prohibition /b he is committing, b even in /b his teacher’s b presence it seems well, /b i.e., it is permitted. The Gemara relates that b Ravina was /b once b sitting before Rav Ashi /b when b he saw a certain man tying his donkey to a palm tree on Shabbat, /b in violation of the decree of the Sages against utilizing trees on Shabbat. b He raised his voice to him /b in protest, b but /b the man b paid him no attention. /b Ravina then b said to /b Rav Ashi: b Let this man be in excommunication /b for transgressing the words of the Sages and ignoring a scholar’s rebuke.,Afterward, Ravina b said to /b Rav Ashi: Behavior b such as this, /b the way I acted in your presence just now, b does /b it b appear like irreverent /b behavior? Rav Ashi b said to him: /b With regard to this it is stated: b “There is no wisdom or understanding or council against the Lord” /b (Proverbs 21:30). The Sages expounded this verse as follows: b Wherever a desecration of /b God’s b name is involved, no respect is paid /b even b to a teacher, /b i.e., in such a situation one should disregard the respect due to his teacher’s wisdom and understanding and object to the inappropriate behavior., b Rava said: /b With regard to one who issues a halakhic ruling in his teacher’s location without the intention of preventing someone from violating a prohibition, the following distinction applies: b In /b the teacher’s actual b presence, /b the disciple b is prohibited /b to issue such a ruling, b and /b if he does so, he b is liable /b to receive the b death /b penalty at the hand of Heaven. However, when he is b not in his /b actual b presence, /b the disciple b is /b still b prohibited /b to issue the ruling, b but he is not liable /b to receive the b death /b penalty.,The Gemara asks: Is the disciple b not /b liable to receive the death penalty if he issues his ruling b not in /b the teacher’s b presence? But wasn’t /b it b taught /b otherwise in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Eliezer says: The sons of Aaron died only because they issued a halakhic ruling before Moses, their teacher? What did they expound /b in support of their conclusion that they must bring fire inside as opposed to waiting for fire to come down from the heavens? It is stated in the Torah: b “And the sons of Aaron the priest shall put fire on the altar, /b and lay the wood in order on the fire” (Leviticus 1:7), which led b them /b to b say: Although fire descends from Heaven, /b it is nonetheless b a mitzva to bring ordinary /b fire. Although they derived this from the verses, they were punished for ruling in the presence of their teacher.,It was further related that b Rabbi Eliezer had a certain disciple who issued a /b halakhic b ruling in his presence. Rabbi Eliezer said to his wife, Imma Shalom: I will be surprised if this one completes his year, /b i.e., if he lives until the end of the year. b And /b so it was, b he did not complete his year. /b ,His wife b said to him: Are you a prophet? /b He b said to her: I am not a prophet, nor the son of a prophet, but I have received the following /b tradition: b Anyone who issues a halakhic ruling in his teacher’s presence is liable /b to receive the b death /b penalty., b And Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That disciple was named Yehuda ben Gurya, and he was three parasangs away from /b Rabbi Eliezer. Apparently, one is liable for the death penalty even if he did not issue his ruling in his teacher’s presence.,The Gemara answers: In fact, the incident b took place in /b the actual b presence /b of the teacher, which is why the disciple was punished. The distance mentioned refers to the distance between the student’s usual place and the teacher. The Gemara expresses surprise: b But didn’t /b Rabba bar bar Ḥana b say that he was three parasangs away from /b his teacher? That implies that this was his distance from his teacher at the time of the ruling. The Gemara answers: b And, according to your reasoning, /b that the details of the story must relate to the time of the ruling, b why /b mention b his name and his father’s name? Rather, /b the details were given so b that you should not say it was a parable. /b That is also the reason why he provided the details concerning the student’s usual place. This does not contradict the fact that Yehuda ben Gurya issued his ruling in the actual presence of his teacher.,The Gemara continues to discuss the same topic. b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Whoever issues a halakhic ruling in his teacher’s presence is deserving of being bitten by a snake, as it is stated: “And Elihu, son of Barachel the Buzite answered and said, I am young, /b and you are very old; b therefore I held back /b [ b i zaḥalti /i /b ] and I was afraid, and did not declare my opinion to you” (Job 32:6), b and it is written: “With the venom of the crawling things of /b [ b i zoḥalei /i /b ] b the dust” /b (Deuteronomy 32:24), which refers to snakes. Elihu’s statement is understood as follows: I must apologize for speaking in my teacher’s presence, for one who does so is liable to be punished with the bite of a snake., b Ze’eiri /b said that b Rabbi Ḥanina said: /b Whoever issues a halakhic ruling in his teacher’s presence b is called a sinner, as it is stated: “Your word have I hidden in my heart, that I might not sin against You” /b (Psalms 119:11). In what case would speaking one’s word entail a sin? In a case where one rules on a matter of i halakha /i in the presence of his teacher., b Rav Hamnuna raised a contradiction /b between the verse previously mentioned and another verse: b It is written: “Your word have I hidden in my heart,” /b implying that David did not want to reveal the words of Torah, whereas in a second verse b it is written: “I have preached righteousness in the great congregation” /b (Psalms 40:10). He answered: This is b not difficult. Here, /b in the verse in which David remained silent, it is referring b to the period when Ira HaYa’iri, /b David’s teacher, b was alive; there, /b in the verse where he publicized his words, it is referring b to the period when Ira HaYa’iri was no /b longer b alive. /b ,Having mentioned Ira HaYa’iri, the Gemara now cites a related teaching. b Rabbi Abba bar Zavda said: Whoever gives /b all b his /b priestly b gifts to one priest /b has acted improperly and b brings famine into the world /b as punishment. b As it is stated: /b “And also b Ira HaYa’iri was a priest for David” /b (II Samuel 20:26), which invites the question: b Was he a priest for David /b alone, and b not for anyone else? Rather, /b it means b that /b David b would send /b all b his /b priestly b gifts to him /b alone, i.e., he was the only priest to enjoy David’s gifts. b And it is written afterward: “And there was a famine in the days of David, /b three years, year after year” (II Samuel 21:1)., b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b Anyone who rules in his teacher’s presence b is lowered from his /b position of b greatness, as it is stated: “And Elazar the priest said to the men of war /b who went to battle: This is the statute of the Torah which the Lord commanded Moses” (Numbers 31:21). b Although /b Elazar b said to /b the soldiers: God commanded this statute b to /b my b father’s brother, while to me He did not command /b it, b even so he was punished /b for speaking in this manner in the presence of his teacher, Moses.,What was his punishment? b As it is written /b that God had told Moses with regard to Joshua: b “And he shall stand before Elazar the priest, /b who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the Lord: at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation” (Numbers 27:21). Elazar was originally awarded a place of great honor. b But we do not find /b in the Bible b that Joshua /b ever b had need of him. /b It is never stated that Joshua made use of the Urim through Elazar, which shows that Elazar never achieved the greatness promised him.,With regard to this same issue, b Rabbi Levi said: Whoever answers a word in the presence of his teacher will go down to the netherworld childless, as it is stated: “And Joshua bin Nun, the minister of Moses from his youth, answered and said: My lord Moses, shut them in” /b (Numbers 11:28). Since he spoke to his teacher out of turn, he was punished by remaining childless.
14. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 66
55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. b Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it /b to be answered, b will ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick” /b (Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are: /b Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an b inclined wall /b that is about to collapse, b expecting prayer /b to be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, b and passing a case against another to Heaven, /b as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is b not difficult. This, /b where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one b expects /b his prayer to be accepted, b while this, /b where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does b not expect /b his prayer to be accepted. b How does he /b prolong his prayer? By b increasing /b his b supplication. /b ,As for the virtue of b prolonging one’s /b mealtime at the b table, /b which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: b Perhaps a poor person will come /b during the meal and the host will be in a position to b give him /b food immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, b as it is written: “The altar, three cubits high /b and the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), b and it is written /b in the continuation of that verse: b “And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.” /b The language of this verse is difficult, as it b begins with the altar and concludes with the table. /b Rather, b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’s /b transgressions. b Now /b that it is destroyed, b a person’s table atones for his /b transgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of b one who prolongs /b his time b in the bathroom, /b the Gemara asks: b Is that a virtue? Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ten things bring a person to /b suffer from b hemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal, /b as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, b the spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay, /b the materials from which earthenware is made, b and one who wipes himself with a stone with which another /b person b wiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well. /b This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is b not difficult. This /b i baraita /i , which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and suspends /b himself, while b this /b statement of Rav Yehuda refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and does not suspend /b himself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. b Like that /b incident b when a matron [ i matronita /i ] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face is /b fat and full, b like /b the faces of b pig farmers and usurers /b who do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. b He said to her: Honestly, those two /b occupations b are prohibited to me; rather, /b why is it that my face is nice? Because b there are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk I /b stop and b examine myself in all of them. /b , b And Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who is /b invited and b given the Torah scroll to read and he does not read, /b one who is given b a cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority. /b ,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the b Torah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is written /b of the Torah: b “It is your life and the length of your days” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20). b A cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you” /b (Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. b And /b with regard to b one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers, /b as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? b Because he conducted himself with /b an air of b superiority, /b and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., b Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Three /b matters b require /b a plea for b mercy /b to bring them about: b A good king, a good year, and a good dream. /b These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b A good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses: /b He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A b good year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year” /b (Deuteronomy 11:12). And a b good dream, as it is written: /b “O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore b You will recover me [ i vataḥlimeni /i ], and make me to live” /b (Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word i taḥlimeni /i is interpreted as deriving from the word i ḥalom /i , dream.,Similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader. /b The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b Famine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine; /b and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). b Plenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you” /b (Ezekiel 36:29). And b a good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the community /b and they agree to the appointment, b as it is stated: /b “And Moses said unto the children of Israel: b See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). b The Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalel /b a b suitable /b appointment in b your /b eyes? Moses b said to Him: Master of the universe, if he is /b a b suitable /b appointment in b Your /b eyes, b then all the more so /b in b my /b eyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, b said to him: Nevertheless, go and tell /b Israel and ask their opinion. Moses b went and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitable /b in b your /b eyes? b They said to him: If he is suitable /b in the eyes of b the Holy One, Blessed be He, and /b in b your /b eyes, b all the more so /b he is suitable in b our /b eyes., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was called /b by that name b on account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 31:7–11), b Moses went and reversed /b the order b and told /b Bezalel: b “Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle” /b (see Exodus 25–26). b He said to /b Moses: b Moses, our teacher, the /b standard b practice /b throughout the b world /b is that b a person builds a house and /b only b afterward places the vessels /b in the house, b and you say /b to me: b Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle. /b If I do so in the order you have commanded, b the vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 36). Moses b said to /b Bezalel: b Perhaps you were in God’s shadow [ i betzel El /i ], and you knew /b precisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: Bezalel knew /b how b to join /b the b letters with which heaven and earth were created. /b From where do we derive this? b It is written here /b in praise of Bezalel: b “And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, /b and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); b and it is written there /b with regard to creation of heaven and earth: b “The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens” /b (Proverbs 3:19), b and it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew” /b (Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one who /b already b possesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding” /b (Daniel 2:21). b Rav Taḥalifa, from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b heard /b this b and repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu. /b Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: You learned /b proof for this idea b from there; we learn it from here: As it is written /b in praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b “And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom” /b (Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. b Rav Ḥisda said: /b One should see b any dream, and not a fast. /b In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read. /b As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream, /b as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him. /b This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, b Rav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it. /b Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him” /b (Ecclesiastes 3:14), b and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dream /b that causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b “The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: b What do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grain /b to grow b without straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters. /b Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do we /b derive this? b From /b the story of b Joseph’s /b dream, b as it is written: /b “And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: b and, behold, the sun and the moon /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 292
38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. b his torso /b was fashioned from dust taken b from Babylonia, and his head /b was fashioned from dust taken b from Eretz Yisrael, /b the most important land, b and his limbs /b were fashioned from dust taken b from the rest of the lands /b in the world. With regard to b his buttocks, Rav Aḥa says: /b They were fashioned from dust taken b from Akra De’agma, /b on the outskirts of Babylonia., b Rabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hours /b long, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the b first hour /b of the day, b his dust was gathered. /b In the b second, /b an undefined b figure was fashioned. /b In the b third, his limbs were extended. /b In the b fourth, a soul was cast into him. /b In the b fifth, he stood on his legs. /b In the b sixth, he called /b the creatures by the b names /b he gave them. In the b seventh, Eve was paired with him. /b In the b eighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four, /b i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the b ninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Tree /b of Knowledge. In the b tenth, he sinned. /b In the b eleventh, he was judged. /b In the b twelfth, he was expelled and left /b the Garden of Eden, b as it is stated: “But man abides not in honor; /b he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., b Rami bar Ḥama says /b in explanation of the end of that verse: b A wild animal does not have power over a person unless /b that person b seems to /b the wild animal b like an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b ,The Gemara presents b a mnemonic /b for the statements that follow: b At the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them: /b If b you agree, let us fashion a person in our image. /b The angels b said before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions of /b this person You suggest to create? God b said to them: His actions are such and such, /b according to human nature.,The angels b said before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?” /b (Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God b outstretched His small finger among them and burned them /b with fire. b And the same /b occurred with b a second group /b of angels. The b third group /b of angels that He asked b said before Him: Master of the Universe, the first /b two groups b who spoke /b their mind b before You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do. /b God then created the first person., b When /b history b arrived at /b the time of b the people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion, /b i.e., the Tower of Babel, b whose actions were ruinous, /b the angels b said before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t the /b first set of angels b speak appropriately before You, /b that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God b said to them /b concerning humanity: b “Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you; /b I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man spanned b from one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other” /b (Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. b Once /b Adam b sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me” /b (Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The height of b Adam the first /b man b was from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.” /b Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. b Once /b Adam b sinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me /b and laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of b the verses contradict each other. /b The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: b This and that, /b from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, b are one measure, /b i.e., the same distance., b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man b spoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is stated /b in the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God” /b (Psalms 139:17)., b And this, /b i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what b Reish Lakish says: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam” /b (Genesis 5:1)? This verse b teaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showed /b Adam b every generation and its /b Torah b interpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived at /b his vision of b the generation of Rabbi Akiva, /b Adam b was gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by his /b manner of b death. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,” /b i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: Adam the first /b man b was a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”? /b (Genesis 3:9), meaning, to b where has your heart turned, /b indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: He was /b one who b drew his foreskin /b forward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It b is written here: “And they like men [ i adam /i ] have transgressed the covet” /b (Hosea 6:7), b and /b it b is written there: /b “And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; b he has broken My covet” /b (Genesis 17:14)., b Rav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principle /b of belief in God. It b is written here: /b “And they like men [ i adam /i ] b have transgressed the covet,” and /b it b is written there: “He has broken My covet,” /b and it is written in a third verse: b “And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their God /b and worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ b We learned /b in a mishna b there /b (Avot 2:14): b Rabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ i la’apikoros /i ]. Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b This was b taught only /b with regard to b a gentile heretic, but /b not with regard to b a Jewish heretic, /b as one should not respond to him. b All the more so, /b if one does respond b he will become more heretical. /b His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., b Rabbi Yoḥa says: Any place /b in the Bible from b where the heretics /b attempt to b prove their heresy, /b i.e., that there is more than one god, b the response to their /b claim is b alongside them, /b i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b “Let us make man in our image” /b (Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, b but it /b then b states: “And God created man in His image” /b (Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b “Come, let us go down and there confound their language” /b (Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b “And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower” /b (Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b “There God was revealed [ i niglu /i ] to him /b when he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b “To God Who answers [ i haoneh /i ] me in the day of my distress” /b (Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b “For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?” /b (Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, i kerovim /i , but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b “And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?” /b (II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, i halekhu /i , but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld b till thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit” /b (Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, i kharsavan /i , but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: b Why do I /b need b these /b instances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is b in accordance with /b the statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above, /b i.e., the angels, b as it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones” /b (Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This b works out well for /b almost b all /b the verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but b what is there to say /b concerning the verse: “I beheld b till thrones were placed”? /b The Gemara answers: b One /b throne is b for Him and one /b throne is b for David, /b i.e., the messiah, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One /b throne is b for Him and one /b throne is b for David; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presence /b by equating God with a person? b Rather, /b the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as b one /b throne is b for judgment and one /b throne is b for righteousness. /b ,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva b accept /b this explanation b from /b Rabbi Yosei b or /b did he b not accept it from him? /b The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof to the matter from what was taught in another i baraita /i , b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One /b throne is b for judgment and one /b throne is b for righteousness; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near, /b i.e., discussing, matters of b i aggada /i ? Go near /b tractates b i Nega’im /i and i Oholot /i , /b which examine the complex i halakhot /i of ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. b Rather, /b the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, b one /b is b for a throne and one /b is b for a stool. /b There is b a throne for God to sit upon, and a stool /b that serves b as His footstool. /b , b Rav Naḥman says: This one, /b i.e., any person, b who knows /b how b to respond to the heretics /b as effectively b as Rav Idit should respond /b to them, b but if /b he does b not /b know, he b should not respond /b to them. The Gemara relates: b A certain heretic said to Rav Idit: /b It b is written /b in the verse concerning God: b “And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord” /b (Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: b It should have /b stated: b Come up to Me. /b Rav Idit b said to him: This /b term, “the Lord,” in that verse b is /b referring to the angel b Metatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written: /b “Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, b for My name is in him” /b (Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: b If so, /b if this angel is equated with God, b we should worship him /b as we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It b is written: “Do not defy [ i tammer /i ] him,” /b which alludes to: b Do not replace Me [ i temireni /i ] with him. /b The heretic said to him: b If so, why do I /b need the clause b “For he will not pardon your transgression”? /b Rav Idit b said to him: We believe that we did not accept /b the angel b even as a guide [ i befarvanka /i ] /b for the journey, b as it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with me /b raise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: /b It b is written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord /b out of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: b It should have /b stated: b From Him /b out of heaven. b A certain launderer said to /b Rabbi Yishmael: b Leave him be; I will respond to him. /b This is b as it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech, /b hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: b It should have /b been written: b My wives, /b and not: “Wives of Lemech.” b Rather, it is /b the style of b the verse /b to b speak in this /b manner. b Here too, it is /b the style of b the verse /b to b speak in this /b manner. Rabbi Yishmael b said to /b the launderer: b From where did you /b hear b this /b interpretation? The launderer b said to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b ,The Gemara comments: This is b as Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third i halakha /i , one-third i aggada /i , /b and b one-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had, /b i.e., taught, b three hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, minim Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 66
104a. עלויי קא מעלי ליה דאמר רב חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין אלא סתום ועשאו פתוח גרועי קא מגרע ליה דאמר ר' ירמיה ואיתימא ר' חייא בר אבא מנצפך צופים אמרום,ותיסברא והכתיב (ויקרא כז, לד) אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא מיהוה הואי מידע לא הוה ידעין הי באמצע תיבה הי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים תקנינהו ואכתי אלה המצות שאין הנביא רשאי לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,גופא א"ר חסדא מ"ם וסמ"ך שבלוחות בנס היו עומדין ואמר רב חסדא כתב שבלוחות נקרא מבפנים ונקרא מבחוץ כגון נבוב בובן (רהב בהר) סרו ורס:,אמרי ליה רבנן לריב"ל אתו דרדקי האידנא לבי מדרשא ואמרו מילי דאפילו בימי יהושע בן נו"ן לא איתמר כוותייהו אל"ף בי"ת אלף בינה גימ"ל דל"ת גמול דלים מ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דגימ"ל לגבי דל"ת שכן דרכו של גומל חסדים לרוץ אחר דלים ומ"ט פשוטה כרעיה דדל"ת לגבי גימ"ל דלימציה ליה נפשיה ומ"ט מהדר אפיה דדל"ת מגימ"ל דליתן ליה בצינעה כי היכי דלא ליכסיף מיניה,ה"ו זה שמו של הקב"ה ז"ח ט"י כ"ל ואם אתה עושה כן הקב"ה זן אותך וחן אותך ומטיב לך ונותן לך ירושה וקושר לך כתר לעוה"ב מ"ם פתוחה מ"ם סתומה מאמר פתוח מאמר סתום נו"ן כפופה נו"ן פשוטה נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט,ס"ע סמוך עניים ל"א סימנין עשה בתורה וקנה אותה פ' כפופה פ' פשוטה פה פתוח פה סתום צד"י כפופה וצד"י פשוטה צדיק כפוף צדיק פשוט היינו נאמן כפוף נאמן פשוט הוסיף לך הכתוב כפיפה על כפיפתו מכאן שנתנה התורה במנוד ראש,קו"ף קדוש רי"ש רשע מאי טעמא מהדר אפיה דקו"ף מרי"ש אמר הקב"ה אין אני יכול להסתכל ברשע ומאי טעמא מהדרה תגיה דקו"ף לגבי רי"ש אמר הקב"ה אם חוזר בו אני קושר לו כתר כמותי ומ"ט כרעיה דקו"ף תלויה דאי הדר ביה ליעייל,וליעול בהך מסייע ליה לריש לקיש) דאמר ר"ל מ"ד (משלי ג, לד) אם ללצים הוא יליץ ולענוים יתן חן בא ליטמא פותחין לו בא ליטהר מסייעים אותו,שי"ן שקר תי"ו אמת מאי טעמא שקר מקרבן מיליה אמת מרחקא מיליה שיקרא שכיח קושטא לא שכיח ומ"ט שיקרא אחדא כרעיה קאי ואמת מלבן לבוניה קושטא קאי שיקרא לא קאי,א"ת ב"ש אותי תעב אתאוה לו ב"ש בי לא חשק שמי יחול עליו ג"ר גופו טימא ארחם עליו ד"ק דלתותי נעל קרניו לא אגדע עד כאן מדת רשעים,אבל מדת צדיקים א"ת ב"ש אם אתה בוש ג"ר ד"ק אם אתה עושה כן גור בדוק ה"ץ ו"ף חציצה הוי בינך לאף ז"ע ח"ס ט"ן ואין אתה מזדעזע מן השטן י"ם כ"ל אמר [שר של] גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לים כל,אמר הקב"ה אח"ס בט"ע גי"ף אני חס עליהם מפני שבעטו בגי"ף דכ"ץ דכים הם כנים הם צדיקים הם הל"ק אין לך חלק בהן ומרז"ן ש"ת אמר גיהנם לפניו רבונו של עולם מרי זניני מזרעו של שת,א"ל א"ל ב"ם ג"ן ד"ס להיכן אוליכן לגן הדס ה"ע ו"ף אמר גיהנם לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם עיף אנכי ז"ץ ח"ק הללו זרעו של יצחק ט"ר י"ש כ"ת טר יש לי כיתות כיתות של עובדי כוכבים שאני נותן לך: 104a. b he elevates its /b status, as b Rav Ḥisda said: /b The letters b i mem /i and i samekh /i that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. /b Each letter was chiseled all the way through the tablets. In that case, the segment of the tablets at the center of the i samekh /i and final i mem /i , letters that are completely closed, should have fallen. Miraculously, they remained in place. Consequently, rendering an open i mem /i closed elevates its status. b However, /b if b one rendered a closed /b letter b open, he diminishes its /b status, as b Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say /b that it was b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba /b who said: b The prophets instituted /b the difference between the open and closed forms of the letters b i mem /i , i nun /i , i tzadi /i , i peh /i , i kaf /i . /b Since the closed letters date back to the Ten Commandments, apparently the prophets introduced the open versions of the letters, which are therefore less significant.,The Gemara rejects this: b And is that reasonable? Isn’t it written: “These are the commandments /b that the Lord commanded Moses to tell the children of Israel at Mount Sinai” (Leviticus 27:34). The word “these” underscores b that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any /b new b element /b related to the Torah and its mitzvot b from here on. Rather, /b the prophets did not innovate these forms. Both the open and closed versions b existed /b before then. However, people b did not know which /b form appeared b in the middle of a word /b and b which /b form b at the end of a word. And the prophets came /b and b instituted their /b set positions. The Gemara asks: b And still /b the question remains: Didn’t the Sages derive from the verse: b “These are the commandments,” that a prophet is not permitted to introduce any /b new b element from here on? /b How could they institute the position of the letters? b Rather, /b over the course of time, the people b forgot their /b positions in the words b and /b the prophets b then reestablished their /b positions. Apparently, closed letters are no more significant than the open ones.,The Gemara returns to discuss b the matter itself. Rav Ḥisda said: /b The letters b i mem /i and i samekh /i that were in the tablets were standing miraculously. And /b furthermore, b Rav Ḥisda said: /b The b writing on the tablets was read from the inside, /b from one side of the tablets, b and read from the outside, /b the other side of the tablets, in reverse order. The Gemara cites words that appear elsewhere in the Bible: b i Nevuv /i /b was read as b i bet /i , i vav /i , i bet /i , i nun /i ; i rahav /i /b as b i beit /i , i heh /i , i reish /i ; /b and b i saru /i /b as b i vav /i , i reish /i , i samekh /i . /b , b The Sages said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Young students came /b today b to the study hall and said things /b the likes of b which were not said /b even b in the days of Joshua bin Nun. /b These children who only knew the Hebrew alphabet interpreted the letters homiletically. br b i Alef beit /i /b means b learn /b [ b i elaf /i /b ] the b wisdom /b [ b i bina /i /b ] of the Torah. br b i Gimmel dalet /i /b means b give to the poor /b [ b i gemol dalim /i /b ]. b Why is the leg of the i gimmel /i extended toward /b the b i dalet /i ? Because it is the manner of one who bestows loving-kindness to pursue the poor. And why /b is the b leg of /b the b i dalet /i extended toward /b the b i gimmel /i ? /b It is so b that /b a poor person b will make himself available to him /b who wants to give him charity. b And why does the i dalet /i face away from /b the b i gimmel /i ? /b It is to teach b that one should give /b charity b discreetly so that /b the poor person b will not be embarrassed by him. /b ,The children continued to interpret the letters. br b i Heh vav /i : That is /b the principal b name of the Holy One, Blessed be He. /b br b i Zayin ḥet /i , i tet yod /i , i kaf lamed /i : And if you do so, the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds [ i zan /i ] you, and shows you favor [ i ḥan /i ], and bestows goodness [ i meitiv /i ] upon you, and gives you an inheritance [ i yerusha /i ], and ties a crown [ i keter /i ] for you in the World to Come [ i la’olam haba /i ]. /b br The b open i mem /i and closed i mem /i /b indicate that the Torah contains b an open statement, /b understood by all, and b an esoteric statement. /b br The b bent i nun /i /b and the b straight i nun /i /b at the end of a word refer to b a faithful person who is bent [ i ne’eman kafuf /i ] /b and is modest now, who will ultimately become a b well-known faithful person [ i ne’eman pashut /i ]. /b , b i Samekh ayin /i : Support the poor [ i semokh aniyyim /i ] /b to prevent them from falling further. b Another version: Make mnemonic /b signs b [ i simanim aseh /i ] /b to remember b the Torah and acquire it. /b br The b bent i peh /i /b and the b straight i peh /i : /b Sometimes one needs to have b an open mouth [ i peh patuaḥ /i ] /b and speak, and sometimes one needs to have b a closed mouth [ i peh satum /i ]. /b br The b bent i tzadi /i /b and the b straight i tzadi /i /b indicate that b a righteous /b person who is b bent /b and humble b [ i tzaddik kafuf /i ] /b now will ultimately become b a well-known righteous /b person b [ i tzaddik pashut /i ] /b whose righteousness is apparent to all. The Gemara asks: b That is identical /b to the interpretation of the bent and straight i nun /i : b i Ne’eman kafuf /i , i ne’eman pashut /i . /b The Gemara explains: b The verse added /b the b bending /b of the righteous person b to the bending of /b the faithful person. b From here /b it is derived b that the Torah was given in /b an atmosphere of b gravity. /b One must receive the Torah with a sense of awe and extreme humility.,The children continued: br b i Kuf /i : Holy [ i kadosh /i ], /b referring to God. br b i Reish /i : A wicked person [ i rasha /i ]. Why is the i kuf /i facing away from /b the b i reish /i ? /b This question was phrased euphemistically, as it is the i reish /i that is facing away from the i kuf /i . b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I am unable look at a wicked person, /b i.e., the wicked person does not want to look toward God. b And why is the crown of /b the letter b i kuf /i turned toward /b the b i reish /i ? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: If /b the wicked person b repents /b his evil ways b I will tie a crown for him like My own. And why is the leg of /b the b i kuf /i suspended /b and not connected to the roof of the letter? b Because if /b the wicked person b repents he can enter /b through this opening if he so desires.,The Gemara asks: b Let him enter through that /b opening, as the i kuf /i is open on both sides at the bottom. The Gemara answers: This b supports /b the statement of b Reish Lakish, as Reish Lakish said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “If it concerns the scorners, He scorns them, and unto the humble He gives grace” /b (Proverbs 3:34)? One who b comes /b in order b to become impure, /b i.e., to sin, b they, /b in Heaven, b provide him with an opening /b to do so, and he is not prevented from sinning. However, if he b comes /b in order b to become purified, /b not only is he allowed to do so, but b they, /b in Heaven, b assist him. /b ,They further taught: br b i Shin /i : Falsehood [ i sheker /i ]. i Tav /i : Truth [ i emet /i ]. /b br b Why are the letters of /b the word b i sheker /i adjacent /b to one another in the alphabet, while b the letters of i emet /i are distant /b from one another? That is because while b falsehood is /b easily b found, truth is found /b only with great difficulty. b And why do /b the letters that comprise the word b i sheker /i /b all b stand on one foot, and /b the letters that comprise the word b i emet /i /b stand on bases that are wide like b bricks? /b Because the b truth stands /b eternal and b falsehood does not stand /b eternal.,The Gemara cites another midrash that also deals with the letters of the alphabet. This one uses a code in which the first letter is paired with the last letter, the second letter with the penultimate one, and so on b [ i alef tav /i , i beit shin /i ]. /b i Alef tav /i , God said: If b he despised Me [ i oti ti’ev /i ] /b would b I desire [ i etaveh /i ] him? i Beit shin /i : /b If b he does not desire /b to worship b Me [ i bi /i ], /b shall b My name [ i shemi /i ] rest upon him? i Gimmel reish /i : /b He b defiled his body [ i gufo /i ]; /b shall b I have mercy [ i araḥem /i ] on him? /b The word comprised of the letters i gimmel /i and i reish /i in Aramaic means licentiousness. b i Dalet kuf /i : /b He b locked My doors [ i daltotai /i ], /b shall b I not cut off his horns [ i karnav /i ]? To this point, /b the Gemara interpreted the letters as referring to b the attribute of the wicked. /b , b However, /b with regard to b the attribute of the righteous /b it is taught differently. b i Alef tav /i , i beit shin /i : If you have shame [ i ata bosh /i ], i gimmel reish /i , i dalet kuf /i : If you do so, /b you will b reside [ i gur /i ] in /b the b heavens [ i bedok /i ], /b as the verse says: “Who stretches out the Heavens like a curtain [ i dok /i ]” (Isaiah 40:22). b i Heh tzadi /i , i vav peh /i : There is a partition [ i ḥatzitza havei /i ] between you and anger [ i af /i ]. i Zayin ayin /i , i ḥet samekh /i , i tet nun /i : And you will not be shaken [ i mizdaze’a /i ] by the Satan. i Yod mem /i , i kaf lamed /i : The minister of Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, /b send the righteous as well into the b sea /b to which b all /b go b [ i yam kol /i ], /b Gehenna.,The interpretation of the alphabet continues with other combinations of letters. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: i Alef ḥet samekh /i , i bet tet ayin /i , i gimmel yod peh /i : I have mercy on them [ i Ani ḥas aleihem /i ] because they spurned [ i ba’atu /i ] adultery [ i gif /i ]. /b The Gemara continues with this combination of the letters: b i Dalet kaf tzadi /i : They are pure [ i dakkim /i ], they are honest [ i kenim /i ], they are righteous [ i tzaddikim /i ]. i Heh lamed kuf /i : You have no portion [ i ḥelek /i ] with them, /b based on the interchange of the letters i ḥet /i and i heh /i . b i Vav mem reish zayin nun /i , i shin tav /i : /b The minister of b Gehenna said [ i amar /i ], /b based on i vav mem reish /i , b before Him: Master of the Universe, my Master [ i Mari /i ], sustain me [ i zaneini /i ] with the seed of Seth [ i Shet /i ], /b which refers to all humankind, including the Jewish people.,The Holy One, Blessed be He, b said to him /b using another configuration of the alphabet: b i Alef lamed /i , i beit mem /i : Not with them [ i al bam /i ], /b i.e., you will have no portion of them. b i Gimmel nun /i , i dalet samekh /i : To where will I lead them? /b I will lead them b to the garden of myrtle [ i gan hadas /i ], /b i.e., the Garden of Eden. b i Heh ayin /i , i vav peh /i : /b The minister of b Gehenna said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I am tired [ i ayef anokhi /i ] /b and thirsty and need people to care for me. The Holy One, Blessed be He, responded: b i Zayin tzadi /i , i ḥet kuf /i : These are the descendants [ i zaro /i ] of Isaac [ i Yitzḥak /i ]. i Tet reish /i , i yod shin /i , i kaf tav /i : Wait [ i tar /i ], I have groups /b upon b groups [ i yesh li kittot kittot /i ] of /b other b nations that I will give you /b instead.
17. Anon., Lexicon Artis Grammaticae (E Cod. Coislin. 345), 25.1  Tagged with subjects: •heretic arguments, answered by, hermeneutic of Found in books: Nikolsky and Ilan (2014), Rabbinic Traditions Between Palestine and Babylonia, 228