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54 results for "heavens"
1. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9
2. Eudemus Naxius, Fragments, 121 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 21
3. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 15
4. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heaven, spheres of Found in books: Schibli (2002) 180
5. Aristotle, Metaphysics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 13, 16
6. Aristotle, Physics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 4
7. Aristotle, Meteorology, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9
8. Aristotle, Great Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 13
9. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9
10. Aristotle, On The Universe, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 15
11. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 27
12. Aristotle, Heavens, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 20
13. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 27
14. Theophrastus, Metaphysics, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 13
15. Theophrastus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 13, 21
16. Aristotle, Generation And Corruption, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9
17. Eudemus of Rhodes, Fragments, 121 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 21
18. Cicero, On Divination, 1.125 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 98
1.125. Quin etiam hoc non dubitans dixerim, si unum aliquid ita sit praedictum praesensumque, ut, cum evenerit, ita cadat, ut praedictum sit, neque in eo quicquam casu et fortuito factum esse appareat, esse certe divinationem, idque esse omnibus confitendum. Quocirca primum mihi videtur, ut Posidonius facit, a deo, de quo satis dictum est, deinde a fato, deinde a natura vis omnis dividi ratioque repetenda. Fieri igitur omnia fato ratio cogit fateri. Fatum autem id appello, quod Graeci ei(marme/nhn, id est ordinem seriemque causarum, cum causae causa nexa rem ex se gignat. Ea est ex omni aeternitate fluens veritas sempiterna. Quod cum ita sit, nihil est factum, quod non futurum fuerit, eodemque modo nihil est futurum, cuius non causas id ipsum efficientes natura contineat. 1.125. Nay, if even one such instance is found and the agreement between the prediction and the thing predicted is so close as to exclude every semblance of chance or of accident, I should not hesitate to say in such a case, that divination undoubtedly exists and that everybody should admit its existence.Wherefore, it seems to me that we must do as Posidonius does and trace the vital principle of divination in its entirety to three sources: first, to God, whose connexion with the subject has been sufficiently discussed; secondly to Fate; and lastly, to Nature. Reason compels us to admit that all things happen by Fate. Now by Fate I mean the same that the Greeks call εἱμαρμένη, that is, an orderly succession of causes wherein cause is linked to cause and each cause of itself produces an effect. That is an immortal truth having its source in all eternity. Therefore nothing has happened which was not bound to happen, and, likewise, nothing is going to happen which will not find in nature every efficient cause of its happening.
19. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.33, 1.35, 2.6, 2.56, 3.11, 3.20, 3.39-3.60 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 1, 13, 98, 111
1.33. And Aristotle in the Third Book of his Philosophy has a great many confused notions, not disagreeing with the doctrines of his master Plato; at one moment he assigns divinity exclusively to the intellect, at another he says that the world is itself a god, then again he puts some other being over the world, and assigns to this being the rôle of regulating and sustaining the world-motion by means of a sort of inverse rotation; then he says that the celestial heat is god — not realizing that the heavens are a part of that world which elsewhere he himself has entitled god. But how could the divine consciousness which he assigns to the heavens persist in a state of such rapid motion? Where moreover are all the gods of accepted belief, if we count the heavens also as a god? Again, in maintaining that god is incorporeal, he robs him entirely of sensation, and also of wisdom. Moreover, how is motion possible for an incorporeal being, and how, if he is always in motion, can he enjoy tranquillity and bliss? 1.35. Theophrastus also is intolerably inconsistent; at one moment he assigns divine pre‑eminence to mind, at another to the heavens, and then again to the constellations and stars in the heavens. Nor is his pupil, Strato, surnamed the Natural Philosopher, worthy of attention; in his view the sole repository of divine power is nature, which contains in itself the causes of birth, growth and decay, but is entirely devoid of sensation and of form. 2.6. Nor is this unaccountable or accidental; it is the result, firstly, of the fact that the gods often manifest their power in bodily presence. For instance in the Latin War, at the critical battle of Lake Regillus between the dictator Aulus Postumius and Octavius Mamilius of Tusculum, Castor and Pollux were seen fighting on horseback in our ranks. And in more modern history likewise these sons of Tyndareus brought the news of the defeat of Perses. What happened was that Publius Vatinius, the grandfather of our young contemporary, was returning to Rome by night from Reate, of which he was governor, when he was informed by two young warriors on white horses that King Perses had that very day been taken prisoner. When Vatinius carried the news to the Senate, at first he was flung into gaol on the charge of spreading an unfounded report on a matter of national concern; but afterwards a dispatch arrived from Paulus, and the date was found to tally, so the Senate bestowed upon Vatinius both a grant of land and exemption from military service. It is also recorded in history that when the Locrians won their great victory over the people of Crotona at the important battle of the River Sagra, news of the engagement was reported at the Olympic Games on the very same day. often has the sound of the voices of the Fauns, often has the apparition of a divine form compelled anyone that is not either feeble-minded or impious to admit the real presence of the gods. 2.56. "In the heavens therefore there is nothing of chance or hazard, no error, no frustration, but absolute order, accuracy, calculation and regularity. whatever lacks these qualities, whatever is false and spurious and full of error, belongs to the region between the earth and the moon (the last of the heavenly bodies), and to the surface of the earth. Anyone therefore who thinks that the marvellous order and incredible regularity of the heavenly bodies, which is the sole source of preservation and safety for all things, is not rational, himself cannot be deemed a rational thing. 3.11. just as if anyone among us really gave the name of Jove to your heaven throne to Jove of the Capitol, or as if it were self-evident and universal agreed that those beings are divine whom Velleius and many others beside will not even grant you to be alive at all! Also you thought it a weighty argument that the belief in the immortal gods is universal held and is spreading every day. Then is anybody content that wilderness of such moment should be decided by the beliefs of the foolish? and particularly yourselves, who say that all the foolish are mad? "But you say that the gods appear to us in bodily presence — for instance, they did to Postumius at Lake Regillus and to Vatinius on the Via Salaria; and also some story or other about the battle of the Locrians on the Sagra. Then do you really think that the beings whom you call the sons of Tyndareus, that is mortal men of mortal parentage, and whom Homer, who lived not long after their period, states to have been buried at Sparta, came riding on white hacks with no retainers, and met Vatinius, and selected a rough countryman like him to whom to bring the news of a great national victory, instead of Marcus Cato, who was the chief senator at the time? Well then, do you also believe that the mark in the rock resembling a hoof-print, to be seen at the present day on the shore of Lake Regillus, was made by Castor's horse? 3.20. "By all means," said Cotta; "and accordingly, as you divided the whole subject into four parts, and we have spoken about the first part, let us consider the second. It seems to me to have amounted to this: you intended to show what the gods are like, but you actually showed them to be non‑existent. For you said that it is very difficult to divert the mind from its association with the eyes; yet you did not hesitate to argue that, since nothing is more excellent than god, the world must be god, because there is nothing in the universe superior to the world. Yes, if we could but imagine the world to be alive, or rather, if we could but discern this truth with our minds exactly as we see external objects with our eyes! 3.39. God then is neither rational nor possessed of any of the virtues: but such a god is inconceivable! "In fact, when I reflect upon the utterances of the Stoics, I cannot despise the stupidity of the vulgar and the ignorant. With the ignorant you get superstitions like the Syrians' worship of a fish, and the Egyptian's deification of almost every species of animal; nay, even in Greece they worship a number of deified human beings, Alabandus at Alabanda, Tennes at Tenedos, Leucothea, formerly Ino, and her son Palaemon throughout the whole of Greece, as also Hercules, Aesculapius, the sons of Tyndareus; and with our own people Romulus and many others, who are believed to have been admitted to celestial citizenship in recent times, by a sort of extension of the franchise! 3.40. Well, those are the superstitions of the unlearned; but what of you philosophers? how are your dogmas any better? I pass over the rest of them, for they are remarkable indeed! but take it as true that the world is itself god — for this, I suppose, is the meaning of the line Yon dazzling vault of heaven, which all mankind As Jove invoke. Why then are we to add a number of other gods as well? And what a crowd of them there is! At least there seems to me to be a great lot of them; for you reckon each of the stars a god, and either call them by the names of animals such as She‑goat, Scorpion, Bull, Lion, or of iimate things such as the Argo, the Altar, the Crown. 3.41. But allowing these, how pray can one possibly, I do not say allow, but make head or tail of the remainder? when we speak of cornº as Ceres and wine as Liber, we employ a familiar figure of speech, but do you suppose that anybody can be so insane as to believe that the food he eats is a god? As for the cases you allege of men who have risen to the status of divinity, you shall explain, and I shall be glad to learn, how this apotheosis was possible, or why it has ceased to take place now. As at present informed, I do not see how the hero to whose body On Oeta's mount the torches were applied, as Accius has it, can have passed from that burning pyre to The everlasting mansions of his Sire —, in spite of the fact that Homer represents Ulysses as meeting him, among the rest of those who had departed this life, in the world below! 3.42. Nevertheless I should like to know what particular Hercules it is that we worship; for we are told of several by the students of esoteric and recondite writings, the most ancient being the son of Jupiter, that is of the most ancient Jupiter likewise, for we find several Jupiters also in the early writings of the Greeks. That Jupiter then and Lysithoë were the parents of the Hercules who is recorded to have had a tussle with Apollo about a tripod! We hear of another in Egypt, a son of the Nile, who is said to have compiled the sacred books of Phrygia. A third comes from the Digiti of Mount Ida, who offer sacrifices at his tomb. A fourth is the son of Jupiter and Asteria, the sister of Latona; he is chiefly worshipped at Tyre, and is said to have been the father of the nymph Carthago. There is a fifth in India, named Belus. The sixth is our friend the son of Alcmena, whose male progenitor was Jupiter, that is Jupiter number three, since, as I will now explain, tradition tells us of several Jupiters also. 3.43. "For as my discourse has led me to this topic, I will show that I have learnt more about the proper way of worshipping the gods, according to pontifical law and the customs of our ancestors, from the poor little pots bequeathed to us by Numa, which Laelius discusses in that dear little golden speech of his, than from the theories of the Stoics. For if I adopt your doctrines, tell me what answer I am to make to one who questions me thus: 'If gods exist, are the nymphs also goddesses? if the nymphs are, the Pans and Satyrs also are gods; but they are not gods; therefore the nymphs also are not. Yet they possess temples viewed and dedicated to them by the nation; are the other gods also therefore who have hadded temples dedicated to them not gods either? Come tell me further: you reckon Jupiter and Neptune gods, therefore their brother orcus is also a god; and the fabled streams of the lower world, Acheron, Cocytus and Pyriphlegethon, and also Charon and also Cerberus are to be deemed gods. 3.44. No, you say, we must draw the line at that; well then, orcus is not a god either; what are you to say about his brothers then?' These arguments were advanced by Carneades, not with the object of establishing atheism (for what could less befit a philosopher?) but in order to prove the Stoic theology worthless; accordingly he used to pursue his inquiry thus: 'Well now,' he would say, 'if these brothers are included among the gods, can we deny the divinity of their father Saturation, who is held in the highest reverence by the common people in the west? And if he is a god, we must also admit that his father Caelus is a god. And if so, the parents of Caelus, the Aether and the Day, must be held to be gods, and their brothers and sisters, whom the ancient genealogists name Love, Guile, Dear, Toil, Envy, Fate, Old Age, Death, Darkness, Misery, Lamentation, Favour, Fraud, Obstinacy, the Parcae, the Daughters of Hesperus, the Dreams: all of these are fabled to be the children of erebus and Night.' Either therefore you must accept these monstrosities or you must discard the first claimants also. 3.45. Again, if you call Apollo, Vulcan, Mercury and the rest gods, will you have doubts about Hercules, Aesculapius, Liber, Castor and Pollux? But these are worshipped just as much as those, and indeed in some places very much more than they. Are we then to deem these gods, the sons of mortal mothers? Well then, will not Aristaeus, the reputed discoverer of the olive, who was the son of Apollo, Theseus the son of Neptune, and all the other sons of gods, also be reckoned as gods? What about the sons of goddesses? I think they have an even better claim; for just as by the civil law one whose mother is a freewoman is a Freeman, so by the law of nature one whose mother is a goddess must be a god. And in the island of Astypalaea Achilles is most devoutly worshipped by the inhabitants on these grounds; but if Achilles is a god, so are Orpheus and Rhesus, whose mother was a Muse, unless perhaps a marriage at the bottom of the sea counts higher than a marriage on dry land! If these are not gods, because they are nowhere worshipped, how can the others be gods? 3.46. Is not the explanation this, that divine honours are paid to men's virtues, not to their immortality? as you too, Balbus, appeared to indicate. Then, if you think Latona a goddess, how can you not think that Hecate is one, who is the daughter of Latona's sister Asteria? Is Hecate a goddess too? we have seen altars and shrines belonging to her in Greece. But if Hecate is a goddess, why are not the Eumenides? and if they are goddesses, — and they have a temple at Athens, and the Grove ofurina at Rome, if I interpret that name aright, also belongs to them, — then the Furies are goddesses, presumably in their capacity of detectors and avengerss of crime and wickedness. 3.47. And if it is the nature of the gods to intervene in man's affairs, the Birth-Spirit also must be deemed divine, to whom it is our custom to offer sacrifice when we make the round of the shrines in the Territory of Ardea: she is named Natio from the word for being born (nasci), because she is believed to watch over married women in travail. If she is divine, so are all those abstractions that you mentioned, Honour, Faith, Intellect, Concord, and therefore also Hope, the Spirit of Money and all the possible creations of our own imagination. If this supposition is unlikely, so also is the former one, from which all these instances flow. Then, if the traditional gods whom we worship are really divine, what reason can you give why we should not include Isis and Osiris in the same category? And if we do so, why should we repudiate the gods of the barbarians? We shall therefore have to admit to the list of gods oxen and horses, ibises, hawks, asps, crocodiles, fishes, dogs, wolves, cats and many beasts besides. Or if we reject these, we shall also reject those others from whom their claim springs. 3.48. What next? If Ino is to be deemed divine, under the title of Leucothea in Greece and Matuta at Rome, because she is the daughter of Cadmus, are Circe and Pasiphaë and Aeetes, the children of Perseis the daughter of Oceanus by the Sun, to be not counted in the list of gods? in spite of the fact that Circe too is devoutly worshipped at the Roman colony of Circei. If you therefore deem her divine, what answer will you give to Medea, who, as her father was Aeetes and her mother Idyia, had as her two grandfathers the Sun and Oceanus? or to her brother Absyrtus (who appears in Pacuvius as Aegialeus, though the former name is commoner in ancient literature)? if these are not divine, I have my fears as to what will become of Ino, for the claims of all of them derive from the same source. 3.49. Or if we allow Ino, are we going to make Amphiaraus and Trophonius divine? The Roman tax‑farmers, finding that lands in Boeotia belonging to the immortal gods were exempted by the censor's regulations, used to maintain that nobody was immortal who had once upon a time been a human being. But if these are divine, so undoubtedly is Erechtheus, whose shrine and whose priest also we saw when at Athens. And if we make him out to be divine, what doubts can we feel about Codrus or any other persons who fell fighting for their country's freedom? if we stick at this, we must reject the earlier cases too, from which these follow. 3.50. Also it is easy to see that in most states the memory of brave men has been sanctified with divine honours for the purpose of promoting valour, to make the best men more willing to encounter danger for their country's sake. This is the reason why Erechtheus and his daughters have been deified at Athens, and likewise there is the Leonatic shrine at Athens, which is named Leōcorion. The people of Alabanda indeed worship Alabandus, the founder of that city, more devoutly than any of the famous deities. And it was there that Stratonicus uttered one of his many witty sayings; some person obnoxious to him swore that Alabandus was divine and Hercules was not: 'Well and good,' said Stratonicus; let the wrath of Alabandus fall on me and that of Hercules on you.' 3.51. As for your deriving religion from the sky and stars, do you not see what a long way this takes you? You say that the sun and moon are deities, and the Greeks identify the former with Apollo and the latter with Diana. But if the Moon is a goddess, then Lucifer also and the rest of the planets will have to be counted gods; and if so, then the fixed stars as well. But why should not the glorious Rainbow be included among the gods? it is beautiful enough, and its marvellous loveliness has given rise the time of legend that Iris is the daughter of Thaumas. And if the rainbow is a divinity, what will you do about the clouds? The rainbow itself is caused by some colroation of the clouds; and also a cloud is fabled to have given birth to the Centaurs. But if you enroll the clouds among the gods, you will undoubtedly have to enroll the seasons, which have been deified in the national ritual of Rome. If so, then rain and tempest, storm and whirlwind must be deemed divine. At any rate it has been the custom of our generals when embarking on a sea‑voyage to sacrifice a victim to the waves. 3.52. Again, if the name of Ceres is derived from her bearing fruit, as you said, the earth itself is a goddess (and so she is believed to be, for she is the same as the deity Tellus). But if the earth is divine, so also is the sea, which you identified with Neptune; and therefore the rivers and springs too. This is borne out by the facts that Maso dedicated a Temple of Fons out of his Corsican spoils, and that the Augur's litany includes as we may see the names of Tiberinus, Spino, almo, Nodinus, and other rivers in the neighbourhood of Rome. Either therefore this process will go on indefinitely, or we shall admit none of these; nts unlimited claim of superstition will not be accepted; therefore none of these is to be accepted. 3.53. "Accordingly, Balbus, we also ought to refute the theory that these gods, who are deified human beings, and who are the objects of our most devout and universal veneration, exist not in reality but in imagination . . . In the first place, the so‑called theologians enumerate three Jupiters, of whom the first and second were born, they say, in Arcadia, the father of one being Aether, who is also fabled to be the progenitor of Proserpine and Liber, and of the other Caelus, and this one is said to have begotten Minerva, the fabled patroness and originator of warfare; the third is the Cretan Jove, son of Saturn; his tomb is shown in that island. The Dioscuri also have a number of titles in Greece. The first set, called Anaces at Athens, the sons of the very ancient King Jupiter and Proserpine, are Tritopatreus, Eubuleus and Dionysus. The second set, the sons of the third Jove and Leda, are Castor and Pollux. The third are named by some people Alco, Melampus and Tmolus, and are the sons of Atreus the son of Pelops. 3.54. Again, the first set of Muses are four, the daughters of the second Jupiter, Thelxinoë, Aoede, Arche and Melete; the second set are the offspring of the third Jupiter and Mnemosyne, nine in number; the third set are the daughters of Pierus and Antiope, and are usually called by the poets the Pierides or Pierian Maidens; they are the same in number and have the same names as the next preceding set. The sun's name Sol you derive from his being sole of his kind, but the theologians produce a number even of Suns! One is the son of Jove and grandson of Aether; another is the son of Hyperion; the third of Vulcan the son of Nile — this is the one who the Egyptians say is lord of the city named Heliopolis; the fourth is the one to whom Acanthe is said to have given birth at Rhodes in the heroic age, the father of Ialysus, Camirus, Lindus and Rhodus; the fifth is the one said to have begotten Aeetes and Circe at Colchi. 3.55. There are also several Vulcans; the first, the son of the Sky, was reputed the father by Minerva of the Apollo said by the ancient historians to be the tutelary deity of Athens; the second, the son of Nile, is named by the Egyptians Phthas, and is deemed the guardian of Egypt; the third is the son of the third Jupiter and of Juno, and is fabled to have been taskmaster of a smithy at Lemnos; the fourth is the son of Memalius, and lord of the islands near Sicily which used to be named the Isles of Vulcan. 3.56. One Mercury has the Sky for father and the Day for mother; he is represented in a state of sexual excitation traditionally said to be due to passion inspired by the sight of Proserpine. Another is the son of Valens and Phoronis; this is the subterranean Mercury identified with Trophonius. The third, the son of the third Jove and of Maia, the legends make the father of Pan by Penelope. The fourth has Nile for father; the Egyptians deem it sinful to pronounce his name. The fifth, worshipped by the people of Pheneus, is said to have killed argus and consequently to have fled in exile to Egypt, where he gave the Egyptians their laws and letters. His Egyptian name is Theuth, which is also the name in the Egyptian calendar for the first month of year. 3.57. of the various Aesculapii the first is the son of Apollo, and is worshipped by the Arcadians; he is reputed to have invented the probe and to have been the first surgeon to employ splints. The second is the brother of the second Mercury; he is said to have been struck by lightning and buried at Cynosura. The third is the son of Arsippus and Arsinoë, and is said to have first invented the use of purges and the extraction of teeth; his tomb and grove are shown in Arcadia, not far from the river Lusius. The most ancient of the Apollos is the one whom I stated just before to be the son of Vulcan and the guardian of Athens. The second is the son of Corybas, and was born in Crete; tradition says that he fought with Jupiter himself for the possession of that island. The third is the son of the third Jupiter and of Latona, and is reputed to have come to Delphi from the Hyperboreans. The fourth belongs to Arcadia, and is called by the Arcadians Nomios, as being their traditional lawgiver. 3.58. Likewise there are several Dianas. The first, daughter of Jupiter and Proserpine, is said to have given birth to the winged Cupid. The second is more celebrated; tradition makes her the daughter of the third Jupiter and of Latona. The father of the third is recorded to have been Upis, and her mother Glauce; the Greeks often call her by her father's name of Upis. We have a number of Dionysi. The first is the son of Jupiter and Proserpine; the second of Nile — he is the fabled slayer of Nysa. The father of the third is Cabirus; it is stated that he was king over Asia, and the Sabazia were instituted in his honour. The fourth is the son of Jupiter and Luna; the Orphic rites are believed to be celebrated in his honour. The fifth is the son of Nisus and Thyone, and is believed to have established the Trieterid festival. 3.59. The first Venus is the daughter of the Sky and the Day; I have seen her temple at Elis. The second was engendered from the sea‑foam, and as we are told became the mother by Mercury of the second Cupid. The third is the daughter of Jupiter and Dione, who wedded Vulcan, but who is said to have been the mother of Anteros by Mars. The fourth was conceived of Syria and Cyprus, and is called Astarte; it is recorded that she married Adonis. The first Minerva is the one whom we mentioned above as the mother of Apollo. The second sprang from the Nile, and is worshipped by the Egyptians of Sais. The third is she whom we mentioned above as begotten by Jupiter. The fourth is the daughter of Jupiter and Coryphe the daughter of Oceanus, and is called Koria by the Arcadians, who say that she was the inventor of the four-horse chariot. The fifth is Pallas, who is said to have slain her father when he attempted to violate her maidenhood; she is represented with wings attached to her ankles. 3.60. The first Cupid is said to be the son of Mercury and the first Diana, the second of Mercury and the second Venus, and the third, who is the same as Anteros, of Mars and the third Venus. "These and other similar fables have been culled from the ancient traditions of Greece; you are aware that we ought to combat them, so that religion may not be undermined. Your school however not merely do not refute them, but actually confirm them by interpreting their respective meanings. But let us now return to the point from which we digressed to this topic.
20. Nicolaus of Damascus, Fragments, 18 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
21. Epictetus, Enchiridion, 53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9
22. Plutarch, Placita Philosophorum (874D-911C), None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 15, 98
23. Epictetus, Discourses, 1.12.1-1.12.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 23, 36
24. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
25. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 1.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
26. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 7.19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 16
27. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Problems And Solutions, a b c d\n0 1.25/41.17 1.25/41.17 1 25/41\n1 1.25/40.25 1.25/40.25 1 25/40\n2 1.25/40.26 1.25/40.26 1 25/40\n3 1.25/40.27 1.25/40.27 1 25/40\n4 1.25/40.28 1.25/40.28 1 25/40\n5 1.25/40.29 1.25/40.29 1 25/40\n6 1.25/40.30 1.25/40.30 1 25/40\n7 2.21/70.9 2.21/70.9 2 21/70\n8 2.21/68.19 2.21/68.19 2 21/68\n9 2.21/65.25 2.21/65.25 2 21/65\n10 2.19/63.15 2.19/63.15 2 19/63\n11 1.25/41.18 1.25/41.18 1 25/41\n12 2.17/62.1 2.17/62.1 2 17/62\n13 1.25/41.15 1.25/41.15 1 25/41\n14 1.25/41.14 1.25/41.14 1 25/41\n15 1.25/41.13 1.25/41.13 1 25/41\n16 1.25/41.12 1.25/41.12 1 25/41\n17 1.25/41.11 1.25/41.11 1 25/41\n18 1.25/41.10 1.25/41.10 1 25/41\n19 1.25/41.9 1.25/41.9 1 25/41\n20 1.25/41.8 1.25/41.8 1 25/41\n21 1.25/41.7 1.25/41.7 1 25/41\n22 1.25/41.6 1.25/41.6 1 25/41\n23 1.25/41.5 1.25/41.5 1 25/41\n24 1.25/41.4 1.25/41.4 1 25/41\n25 1.25/41.16 1.25/41.16 1 25/41\n26 1.1/4.1 1.1/4.1 1 1/4 \n27 1.25/40.8 1.25/40.8 1 25/40\n28 1.25/40.9 1.25/40.9 1 25/40\n29 1.25/40.10 1.25/40.10 1 25/40 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 30
28. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 5.66.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 13
29. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
30. Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Mixture, 226.24 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 27
31. Alexander of Aphrodisias, On Fate, 172.9, 181.10, 182.22, 183.17, 203.10-203.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
32. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Supplement To On The Soul (Mantissa), 112.5-113.24 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 27
33. Alexander of Aphrodisias, On The Soul, 21.24, 22.13 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 4
34. Alcinous, Handbook of Platonism, 10 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 36
35. Athenagoras, Apology Or Embassy For The Christians, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 16
6. Philolaus, too, when he says that all things are included in God as in a stronghold, teaches that He is one, and that He is superior to matter. Lysis and Opsimus thus define God: the one says that He is an ineffable number, the other that He is the excess of the greatest number beyond that which comes nearest to it. So that since ten is the greatest number according to the Pythagoreans, being the Tetractys, and containing all the arithmetic and harmonic principles, and the Nine stands next to it, God is a unit - that is, one. For the greatest number exceeds the next least by one. Then there are Plato and Aristotle - not that I am about to go through all that the philosophers have said about God, as if I wished to exhibit a complete summary of their opinions; for I know that, as you excel all men in intelligence and in the power of your rule, in the same proportion do you surpass them all in an accurate acquaintance with all learning, cultivating as you do each several branch with more success than even those who have devoted themselves exclusively to any one. But, inasmuch as it is impossible to demonstrate without the citation of names that we are not alone in confining the notion of God to unity, I have ventured on an enumeration of opinions. Plato, then, says, To find out the Maker and Father of this universe is difficult; and, when found, it is impossible to declare Him to all, conceiving of one uncreated and eternal God. And if he recognises others as well, such as the sun, moon, and stars, yet he recognises them as created: gods, offspring of gods, of whom I am the Maker, and the Father of works which are indissoluble apart from my will; but whatever is compounded can be dissolved. If, therefore, Plato is not an atheist for conceiving of one uncreated God, the Framer of the universe, neither are we atheists who acknowledge and firmly hold that He is God who has framed all things by the Logos, and holds them in being by His Spirit. Aristotle, again, and his followers, recognising the existence of one whom they regard as a sort of compound living creature (ζῶον), speak of God as consisting of soul and body, thinking His body to be the etherial space and the planetary stars and the sphere of the fixed stars, moving in circles; but His soul, the reason which presides over the motion of the body, itself not subject to motion, but becoming the cause of motion to the other. The Stoics also, although by the appellations they employ to suit the changes of matter, which they say is permeated by the Spirit of God, they multiply the Deity in name, yet in reality they consider God to be one. For, if God is an artistic fire advancing methodically to the production of the several things in the world, embracing in Himself all the seminal principles by which each thing is produced in accordance with fate, and if His Spirit pervades the whole world, then God is one according to them, being named Zeus in respect of the fervid part (τὄ ζέον) of matter, and Hera in respect of the air (ὁ ἀήρ), and called by other names in respect of that particular part of matter which He pervades.
36. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries On Metaphysics, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 20
37. Plotinus, Enneads, 2.3, 3.2.1, 3.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 9, 27, 30; Schibli (2002) 180
38. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 15.18.1-15.18.3 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 98
39. Themistius, In Aristotelis Metaphysica, 26.4  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 8
41. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ap. Simplicium In Aristotelis Physica, 116.31-117.2, 1261.30  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 18, 20
42. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis De Caelo Libros Commentaria, 25.24, 270.9, 271.21, 380.29 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 8, 16, 18
43. Alexander of Aphrodisias, De Principiis, 123.18, 130.44-131.18, 132.14, 132.15, 132.16, 132.17, 132.18  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 21
44. Aristotle, De Philosophia, 1  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 4
45. Pyrrh., Hypotyposeis, 3.218  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 16
46. Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ap. Simplicium In Aristotelis De Caelo, 116.31-117.2, 270.9  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 8
47. Atticus (Des Places), Fr., 3  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 1, 16, 27
49. Critolaus Historicus, Fragments, 37  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 23
50. Alexander of Aphrodisias, De Providentia, 7.21, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 31.11, 31.12, 31.13, 31.14, 31.15, 31.16, 31.17, 31.18, 31.19, 31.20, 31.21, 33.1, 59.6-63.2, 59.6, 59.7, 59.8, 59.9, 59.10, 59.11, 59.12, 61.5, 63.2, 89.1, 89.2, 89.3, 89.4, 89.5, 89.6, 89.7, 89.8, 89.9, 89.10, 89.11, 89.12, 89.13  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 30
51. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 1.171.2  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 98
52. Simplicius of Cilicia, In Aristotelis Physicorum Libros Commentaria, 1219.1, 1261.30, 1261.35, 1262.5-1262.13 (missingth cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 8, 18, 20
53. Ps.-Alexander of Aphrodisias, In Aristotelis Metaphysica, 701.1-701.4, 706.31, 707.1-707.2, 707.7, 709.28, 721.32  Tagged with subjects: •soul, of heavens, spheres •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 18, 20, 21
54. Critolaus Phaselinus Ca. V2. Jh., Fragments, 37  Tagged with subjects: •heavens, spheres Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 23