Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       

Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.

8 results for "hasmonean"
1. Septuagint, Ezekiel, 47.1-47.12 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 342
2. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.48.6-2.48.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 221
2.48.6.  There is also in the land of the Nabataeans a rock, which is exceedingly strong since it has but one approach, and using this ascent they mount it a few at a time and thus store their possessions in safety. And a large lake is also there which produces asphalt in abundance, and from it they derive not a little revenue. 2.48.7.  It has a length of about five hundred stades and a width of about sixty, and its water is so ill-smelling and so very bitter that it cannot support fish or any of the other animals which commonly live in water. And although great rivers of remarkable sweetness empty into it, the lake gets the better of them by reason of its evil smell, and from its centre it spouts forth once a year a great mass of asphalt, which sometimes extends for more than three plethra, and sometimes for only two; and when this occurs the barbarians who live about the lake usually call the larger flow a "bull" and to the smaller one they give the name "calf." 2.48.8.  Since the asphalt floats on the surface of the lake, to those who view it from a distance it takes the appearance of an island. And the fact is that the emission of the asphalt is made known to the natives twenty days before it takes place; for to a distance of many stades around the lake the odour, borne on the wind, assails them, and every piece of silver and gold and brass in the locality loses it characteristic lustre. But this returns again as soon as all the asphalt has been spouted forth; and the region round about, by reason of its being exposed to fire and to the evil odours, renders the bodies of the inhabitants susceptible to disease and makes the people very short-lived. 2.48.9.  Yet the land is good for the growing of palms, wherever it happens to be traversed by rivers with usable water or to be supplied with springs which can irrigate it. And there is also found in these regions in a certain valley the balsam tree, as it is called, from which they receive a substantial revenue, since this tree is found nowhere else in the inhabited world and the use of it for medicinal purposes is most highly valued by physicians. •  That part of Arabia which borders upon the waterless and desert country is so different from it that, because both of the multitude of fruits which grow therein and of its other good things, it has been called Arabia Felix.
3. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 11.6-11.9 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 255
4. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 76 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 255
76. These men, in the first place, live in villages, avoiding all cities on account of the habitual lawlessness of those who inhabit them, well knowing that such a moral disease is contracted from associations with wicked men, just as a real disease might be from an impure atmosphere, and that this would stamp an incurable evil on their souls. of these men, some cultivating the earth, and others devoting themselves to those arts which are the result of peace, benefit both themselves and all those who come in contact with them, not storing up treasures of silver and of gold, nor acquiring vast sections of the earth out of a desire for ample revenues, but providing all things which are requisite for the natural purposes of life;
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.121-15.122, 15.185, 15.187-15.201, 17.289, 18.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 219, 240, 255, 270
15.121. 2. At this time it was that the fight happened at Actium, between Octavius Caesar and Antony, in the seventh year of the reign of Herod and then it was also that there was an earthquake in Judea, such a one as had not happened at any other time, and which earthquake brought a great destruction upon the cattle in that country. 15.122. About ten thousand men also perished by the fall of houses; but the army, which lodged in the field, received no damage by this sad accident. 15.185. But as to Mariamne his wife, because of the misunderstanding between her and his sister, and his sister’s mother, which made it impossible for them to live together, he placed her at Alexandrium, with Alexandra her mother, and left his treasurer Joseph and Sohemus of Iturea to take care of that fortress. These two had been very faithful to him from the beginning, and were now left as a guard to the women. 15.187. 6. When he had given them this charge, he made haste to Rhodes, to meet Caesar; and when he had sailed to that city, he took off his diadem, but remitted nothing else of his usual dignity. And when, upon his meeting him, he desired that he would let him speak to him, he therein exhibited a much more noble specimen of a great soul; 15.188. for he did not betake himself to supplications, as men usually do upon such occasions, nor offered him any petition, as if he were an offender; but, after an undaunted manner, gave an account of what he had done; 15.189. for he spake thus to Caesar: That he had the greatest friendship for Antony, and did every thing he could that he might attain the government; that he was not indeed in the army with him, because the Arabians had diverted him; but that he had sent him both money and corn, 15.190. which was but too little in comparison of what he ought to have done for him; “for if a man owns himself to be another’s friend, and knows him to be a benefactor, he is obliged to hazard every thing, to use every faculty of his soul, every member of his body, and all the wealth he hath, for him, in which I confess I have been too deficient. However, I am conscious to myself, that so far I have done right, that I have not deserted him upon his defeat at Actium; 15.191. nor upon the evident change of his fortune have I transferred my hopes from him to another, but have preserved myself, though not as a valuable fellowsoldier, yet certainly as a faithful counselor, to Antony, when I demonstrated to him that the only way that he had to save himself, and not to lose all his authority, was to slay Cleopatra; 15.192. for when she was once dead, there would be room for him to retain his authority, and rather to bring thee to make a composition with him, than to continue at enmity any longer. None of which advises would he attend to, but preferred his own rash resolution before them, which have happened unprofitably for him, but profitably for thee. 15.193. Now, therefore, in case thou determinest about me, and my alacrity in serving Antony, according to thy anger at him, I own there is no room for me to deny what I have done, nor will I be ashamed to own, and that publicly too, that I had a great kindness for him. But if thou wilt put him out of the case, and only examine how I behave myself to my benefactors in general, and what sort of friend I am, thou wilt find by experience that we shall do and be the same to thyself, for it is but changing the names, and the firmness of friendship that we shall bear to thee will not be disapproved by thee.” 15.194. 7. By this speech, and by his behavior, which showed Caesar the frankness of his mind, he greatly gained upon him, who was himself of a generous and magnificent temper, insomuch that those very actions, which were the foundation of the accusation against him, procured him Caesar’s good-will. 15.195. Accordingly, he restored him his diadem again; and encouraged him to exhibit himself as great a friend to himself as he had been to Antony, and then had him in great esteem. Moreover, he added this, that Quintus Didius had written to him that Herod had very readily assisted him in the affair of the gladiators. 15.196. So when he had obtained such a kind reception, and had, beyond all his hopes, procured his crown to be more entirely and firmly settled upon him than ever by Caesar’s donation, as well as by that decree of the Romans, which Caesar took care to procure for his greater security, he conducted Caesar on his way to Egypt, and made presents, even beyond his ability, to both him and his friends, and in general behaved himself with great magimity. 15.197. He also desired that Caesar would not put to death one Alexander, who had been a companion of Antony; but Caesar had sworn to put him to death, and so he could not obtain that his petition. 15.198. And now he returned to Judea again with greater honor and assurance than ever, and affrighted those that had expectations to the contrary, as still acquiring from his very dangers greater splendor than before, by the favor of God to him. So he prepared for the reception of Caesar, as he was going out of Syria to invade Egypt; 15.199. and when he came, he entertained him at Ptolemais with all royal magnificence. He also bestowed presents on the army, and brought them provisions in abundance. He also proved to be one of Caesar’s most cordial friends, and put the army in array, and rode along with Caesar, and had a hundred and fifty men, well appointed in all respects, after a rich and sumptuous manner, for the better reception of him and his friends. 15.200. He also provided them with what they should want, as they passed over the dry desert, insomuch that they lacked neither wine nor water, which last the soldiers stood in the greatest need of; and besides, he presented Caesar with eight hundred talents, and procured to himself the good-will of them all, because he was assisting to them in a much greater and more splendid degree than the kingdom he had obtained could afford; 15.201. by which means he more and more demonstrated to Caesar the firmness of his friendship, and his readiness to assist him; and what was of the greatest advantage to him was this, that his liberality came at a seasonable time also. And when they returned again out of Egypt, his assistances were no way inferior to the good offices he had formerly done them. 17.289. who made an attack upon the enemy, and put them to flight, and took Sepphoris, and made its inhabitants slaves, and burnt the city. But Varus himself pursued his march for Samaria with his whole army; yet did not he meddle with the city of that name, because it had not at all joined with the seditious; but pitched his camp at a certain village that belonged to Ptolemy, whose name was Arus, 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for;
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.386-1.396, 2.69, 2.129, 4.7, 4.439, 4.475-4.481, 7.171, 7.285 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 219, 220, 240, 255, 270
1.386. 1. But now Herod was under immediate concern about a most important affair, on account of his friendship with Antony, who was already overcome at Actium by Caesar; yet he was more afraid than hurt; for Caesar did not think he had quite undone Antony, while Herod continued his assistance to him. 1.387. However, the king resolved to expose himself to dangers: accordingly he sailed to Rhodes, where Caesar then abode, and came to him without his diadem, and in the habit and appearance of a private person, but in his behavior as a king. So he concealed nothing of the truth, but spoke thus before his face:— 1.388. “O Caesar, as I was made king of the Jews by Antony, so do I profess that I have used my royal authority in the best manner, and entirely for his advantage; nor will I conceal this further, that thou hadst certainly found me in arms, and an inseparable companion of his, had not the Arabians hindered me. However, I sent him as many auxiliaries as I was able, and many ten thousand [cori] of corn. Nay, indeed, I did not desert my benefactor after the blow that was given him at Actium; but I gave him the best advice I was able, 1.389. when I was no longer able to assist him in the war; and I told him that there was but one way of recovering his affairs, and that was to kill Cleopatra; and I promised him, that if she were once dead, I would afford him money and walls for his security, with an army and myself to assist him in his war against thee: 1.390. but his affections for Cleopatra stopped his ears, as did God himself also, who hath bestowed the government on thee. I own myself also to be overcome together with him; and with his last fortune I have laid aside my diadem, and am come hither to thee, having my hopes of safety in thy virtue; and I desire that thou wilt first consider how faithful a friend, and not whose friend, I have been.” 1.391. 2. Caesar replied to him thus:—“Nay, thou shalt not only be in safety, but thou shalt be a king; and that more firmly than thou wast before; for thou art worthy to reign over a great many subjects, by reason of the fastness of thy friendship; and do thou endeavor to be equally constant in thy friendship to me, upon my good success, which is what I depend upon from the generosity of thy disposition. However, Antony hath done well in preferring Cleopatra to thee; for by this means we have gained thee by her madness, 1.392. and thus thou hast begun to be my friend before I began to be thine; on which account Quintus Didius hath written to me that thou sentest him assistance against the gladiators. I do therefore assure thee that I will confirm the kingdom to thee by decree: I shall also endeavor to do thee some further kindness hereafter, that thou mayst find no loss in the want of Antony.” 1.393. 3. When Caesar had spoken such obliging things to the king, and had put the diadem again about his head, he proclaimed what he had bestowed on him by a decree, in which he enlarged in the commendation of the man after a magnificent manner. Whereupon Herod obliged him to be kind to him by the presents he gave him, and he desired him to forgive Alexander, one of Antony’s friends, who was become a supplicant to him. But Caesar’s anger against him prevailed, and he complained of the many and very great offenses the man whom he petitioned for had been guilty of; and by that means he rejected his petition. 1.394. After this, Caesar went for Egypt through Syria, when Herod received him with royal and rich entertainments; and then did he first of all ride along with Caesar, as he was reviewing his army about Ptolemais, and feasted him with all his friends, and then distributed among the rest of the army what was necessary to feast them withal. 1.395. He also made a plentiful provision of water for them, when they were to march as far as Pelusium, through a dry country, which he did also in like manner at their return thence; nor were there any necessaries wanting to that army. It was therefore the opinion, both of Caesar and of his soldiers, that Herod’s kingdom was too small for those generous presents he made them; 1.396. for which reason, when Caesar was come into Egypt, and Cleopatra and Antony were dead, he did not only bestow other marks of honor upon him, but made an addition to his kingdom, by giving him not only the country which had been taken from him by Cleopatra, but besides that, Gadara, and Hippos, and Samaria; and moreover, of the maritime cities, Gaza and Anthedon, and Joppa, and Strato’s Tower. 2.69. but as for Varus himself, he marched to Samaria with his whole army, where he did not meddle with the city itself, because he found that it had made no commotion during these troubles, but pitched his camp about a certain village which was called Arus. It belonged to Ptolemy, and on that account was plundered by the Arabians, who were very angry even at Herod’s friends also. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 4.7. On its acclivity, which is straight, houses are built, and those very thick and close to one another. The city also hangs so strangely, that it looks as if it would fall down upon itself, so sharp is it at the top. 4.439. He then put his soldiers on board the ships, and slew such as had fled to the lake, insomuch that all Perea had either surrendered themselves, or were taken by the Romans, as far as Macherus. 4.475. But so much shall suffice to have been said about Jericho, and of the great happiness of its situation. 4.476. 4. The nature of the lake Asphaltitis is also worth describing. It is, as I have said already, bitter and unfruitful. It is so light [or thick] that it bears up the heaviest things that are thrown into it; nor is it easy for anyone to make things sink therein to the bottom, if he had a mind so to do. 4.477. Accordingly, when Vespasian went to see it, he commanded that some who could not swim should have their hands tied behind them, and be thrown into the deep, when it so happened that they all swam as if a wind had forced them upwards. 4.478. Moreover, the change of the color of this lake is wonderful, for it changes its appearance thrice every day; and as the rays of the sun fall differently upon it, the light is variously reflected. 4.479. However, it casts up black clods of bitumen in many parts of it; these swim at the top of the water, and resemble both in shape and bigness headless bulls; 4.480. and when the laborers that belong to the lake come to it, and catch hold of it as it hangs together, they draw it into their ships; but when the ship is full, it is not easy to cut off the rest, for it is so tenacious as to make the ship hang upon its clods till they set it loose with the menstrual blood of women, and with urine, to which alone it yields. 4.481. This bitumen is not only useful for the caulking of ships, but for the cure of men’s bodies; accordingly, it is mixed in a great many medicines. 7.171. 2. Now when Alexander [Janneus], the king of the Jews, observed the nature of this place, he was the first who built a citadel here, which afterwards was demolished by Gabinius, when he made war against Aristobulus. 7.285. Upon this top of the hill, Jonathan the high priest first of all built a fortress, and called it Masada: after which the rebuilding of this place employed the care of king Herod to a great degree;
7. Babylonian Talmud, Keritot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 219
5b. וכי נס אחד נעשה בשמן המשחה והלא נסים הרבה נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוג ובו נמשח המשכן וכליו ואהרן ובניו כל שבעת ימי המלואים ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים וכולו קיים לעתיד לבא,שנאמר (שמות ל, לא) שמן משחת קדש יהיה זה לי לדורותיכם זה בגימטריא י"ב לוגין הויין,ת"ר (ויקרא ח, י) ויקח משה את שמן המשחה וימשח את המשכן וגו' רבי יהודה אומר שמן המשחה שעשה משה במדבר הרבה נסים נעשו בו מתחלתו ועד סופו תחלתו לא היה אלא י"ב לוגין כמה יורה בולעת כמה עיקרין בולעין כמה האור שורף ובו נמשח משכן וכליו אהרן ובניו כל ז' ימי המלואים,ובו נמשחו כהנים גדולים ומלכים ואפי' כהן גדול בן כ"ג טעון משיחה ואין מושחין מלך בן מלך ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה ואת יהואש מפני עתליה ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים אחיו שהיה גדול מאחיו שתי שנים,אמר מר ואפי' כ"ג בן כ"ג טעון משיחה מנלן דכתיב (ויקרא ו, טו) והכהן המשיח תחתיו מבניו נימא קרא והכהן שתחתיו מבניו מאי המשיח הא קמ"ל דאפי' מבניו ההוא דמשח הוי כ"ג ואי לא משח לא הוי כ"ג,אמר מר אין מושחין מלך בן מלך מנלן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב דכתיב (דברים יז, כ) למען יאריך ימים על ממלכתו הוא ובניו כל הימים ירושה היא,ומפני מה משחו את שלמה מפני מחלוקת אדוניה מנלן דכי אתי מחלוקת בעי משיחה ולא כל דבעי מלכא מורית ליה מלכותא אמר רב פפא אמר קרא (דברים יז, כ) בקרב ישראל בזמן ששלום בישראל,תנא אף יהוא בן נמשי לא נמשח אלא מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב אמאי תיפוק ליה דמלך ראשון הוא חסורי מיחסרא והכי קתני מלכי בית דוד מושחין מלכי ישראל אין מושחין ואם תאמר מפני מה משחו יהוא בן נמשי מפני מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב,אמר מר מלכי בית דוד מושחין ואין מלכי ישראל מושחין מנלן דכתיב (שמואל א טז, יב) קום משחהו כי זה הוא זה טעון משיחה ואין אחר טעון משיחה,אמר מר מפני מחלוקת יורם ומשום מחלוקת יורם בן אחאב נמעל בשמן המשחה כדאמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא ה"נ באפרסמא דכיא,ואת יהואחז מפני יהויקים שהיה גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומי קשיש והכתיב (דברי הימים א ג, טו) ובני יאשיה הבכור יוחנן והשני יהויקים והשלישי צדקיהו והרביעי שלום וא"ר יוחנן הוא יהואחז הוא צדקיהו הוא שלום,אלא לעולם יהויקים קשיש ואמאי קרי ליה בכור שהוא בכור למלכות ומי מוקמינן זוטא קמי קשישא והכתיב (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,אמר מר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה והא בדרי קחשיב ומאי קרי ליה שלישי שהוא שלישי לבנים ומאי קרי ליה רביעי שהוא רביעי למלכות משום דמלך יכניה קמיה בתחלה מלך יהואחז וסוף מלך יהויקים וסוף מלך יכניה וסוף מלך צדקיה,ת"ר הוא שלום הוא צדקיה ולמה נקרא שמו שלום שהיה שלם במעשיו דבר אחר שלום ששלם מלכות בית דוד בימיו ומה שמו מתניה שמו שנאמר (מלכים ב כד, יז) וימלך את מתניה דודו תחתיו ויסב שמו צדקיה,דאמר לו יה יצדיק עליך את הדין אם תמרוד בי שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לו, י) ויביאהו בבלה וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לו, יג) וגם במלך נבוכדנאצר מלך בבל מרד אשר השביעו באלהים,ומי הוה שמן המשחה והתניא משנגנז ארון נגנז צנצנת המן וצלוחית שמן המשחה ומקלו של אהרן שקדים ופרחים,וארגז ששגרו פלשתים דורון לאלהי ישראל שנאמר (שמואל א ו, ח) ואת כלי הזהב אשר השיבותם לו אשם תשימו בארגז מצדו ומי גנזו יאשיה מלך יהודה גנזו שנאמר (דברי הימים ב לה, ג) ויאמר המלך אל הכהנים תנו את ארון הקדש,ואמר רבי אלעזר אתיא שם שם,אתיא דורות דורות,אתיא משמרת משמרת אמר רב פפא באפרסמא דכיא,ת"ר מושחין את המלכים כמין נזר ואת הכהנים כמין כי אמר רב מנשיה כמין כי יוני תני חדא בתחלה מציק שמן על ראשו ואחר כך נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ותני אחריתי בתחלה נותן לו שמן בין ריסי עיניו ואחר כך מציק לו שמן על ראשו,תנאי היא איכא למאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא ואיכא למאן דאמר יציקה עדיפא מאי טעמא דמ"ד יציקה עדיפא שנאמר (ויקרא ח, יב) ויצק משמן המשחה על ראש אהרן ומאן דאמר משיחה עדיפא קסבר שכן נתרבה אצל כלי שרת,והכתיב ויצק ולבסוף וימשח ה"ק מה טעם ויצק משום וימשח אותו לקדשו,ת"ר (תהילים קלג, ב) כשמן הטוב היורד על הראש וגו' כמין שתי טיפין מרגליות היו תלויות לאהרן בזקנו אמר רב כהנא תנא כשהוא מספר עולות ויושבות בעיקרי זקנו ועל דבר זה היה משה רבינו דואג שמא חס ושלום מעלתי בשמן המשחה,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (תהילים קלג, ג) כטל חרמון שיורד על הררי ציון מה טל אין בו מעילה אף שמן שיורד על זקן אהרן אין בו מעילה,ועדיין אהרן היה דואג שמא משה לא מעל ואני מעלתי יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו (תהילים קלג, א) הנה מה טוב ומה נעים שבת אחים גם יחד מה משה לא מעל אף אתה לא מעלת,ת"ר אין מושחין את המלכים אלא על המעיין כדי שתימשך מלכותן שנאמ' (מלכים א א, לג-לד) ויאמר המלך (אל בניהו) וגו' והורדתם אותו על גיחון (וגו') ומשח אותו שם,אמר רב אמי האי מאן דבעי לידע אי משכא שתא אי לא מייתי שרגא בהלין עשרה יומין דבין ריש שתא ליומא דכיפורי וניתלי בביתא דלא נשיב זיקא אי משיך נהוריה נידע דמסיק שתיה,ומאן דבעי נעביד עיסקי ובעי דנידע אי מצלח עיסקי אי לא נירבי תרנגולא אי שמין ושפר נידע דמצלח,האי מאן דבעי ניפוק באורחא ובעי דנידע אי הדר לביתיה ניעול ניקום בביתא דבהתא אם חזי 5b. b And was /b just b one miracle performed with the anointing oil? But many miracles were performed with it, from its initial /b preparation b to its end. /b He explains: b Its initial /b preparation b was only /b the measure of b twelve i log /i , and /b even so b the Tabernacle and its vessels were anointed with it, and /b likewise b Aaron and his sons /b were anointed with it b all the seven days of inauguration, and High Priests and kings were anointed with it /b throughout the generations, b and /b yet despite the reduction in the amount of oil during its preparation process, as well as its multiple uses throughout history, b it all /b remains b intact for /b its use in b the future. /b ,Rabbi Yehuda adds that this is b as it is stated: “This [ i zeh /i ] shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations” /b (Exodus 30:31). The word b i zeh /i has a numerical value [ i bigimatriya /i ] /b of b twelve, /b which teaches that the original twelve b i log /i /b of oil that existed at the outset b are /b extant throughout all the generations. If so, i.e., if such miracles were performed in connection with the oil, it is no wonder that its initial preparation was miraculous., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “And Moses took the anointing oil, and anointed the Tabernacle /b and all that was in it and sanctified them” (Leviticus 8:10). b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b With regard to b the anointing oil that Moses prepared in the wilderness, many miracles were performed with it, from its initial /b preparation b to its end. Its initial /b preparation b was only twelve i log /i ; /b consider b how much /b of it b a cauldron absorbs /b from what is cooked inside it, b and how much /b of it the b roots /b of the plants b absorb, how much /b of it b the fire burns, and /b yet b the Tabernacle, and its vessels, /b and b Aaron, and his sons were /b all b anointed with it all seven days of the inauguration. /b ,The i baraita /i adds: b And High Priests and kings were anointed with it, and even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointing /b with the oil. b But one does not anoint a king, the son of a king. And if you say: /b If so, b for what /b reason b did they anoint King Solomon, /b who was the son of King David? It was b due to the dispute /b over the throne instigated by his older brother b Adonijah, /b who attempted to usurp the monarchy. b And /b similarly b Joash, /b son of Ahaziah, was anointed king (see II Kings 11:12) b due to /b the threat of b Athaliah, /b his paternal grandmother, who attempted to seize the monarchy for herself (II Kings 11:1–3). b And Jehoahaz, /b son of Josiah, was anointed as king (II Kings 23:30) b due to /b the competition from b Jehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than his brother, /b i.e., Jehoahaz. Ordinarily the older brother succeeds the father, but Jehoahaz was more worthy of the throne.,The Gemara clarifies several aspects of this i baraita /i . b The Master said /b earlier: b And even a High Priest, the son of a High Priest, requires anointing. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? It is derived from a verse, b as it is written: “And the anointed priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons” /b (Leviticus 6:15). b Let the verse say /b merely: b The priest that shall be in his stead from among his sons. What /b is taught by the addition of the term b “anointed”? This teaches us that even /b when the new High Priest is b from among /b the b sons /b of the previous High Priest, only b that /b priest b who is anointed /b with oil b is /b the b High Priest, but if /b he is b not anointed /b with oil he b is not /b the b High Priest. /b , b The Master said /b earlier: b But one does not anoint a king, the son of a king. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said /b that this is b as it is written: In order that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he and his sons, all the days /b in the midst of Israel (see Deuteronomy 17:20). The mention of a king’s sons teaches that the kingdom b is an inheritance, /b which does not need to be confirmed by anointing.,The i baraita /i further taught: b And for what /b reason b did they anoint King Solomon? Due to the dispute /b over the throne instigated by his older brother b Adonijah. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive b that /b in a situation b where there is a dispute /b the new king b requires anointing, and the /b current b king cannot /b simply b grant the kingship as an inheritance to whomever he desires? Rav Pappa said /b that b the verse states: /b “He and his children b in the midst of Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 17:20). b At a time when there is peace in Israel /b the monarchy transfers smoothly to the king’s son, but not when there is a dispute.,It was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Also Jehu, /b son of Jehoshaphat, b son of Nimshi, was anointed /b by Elisha the prophet b only due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab, /b who was the incumbent king, against whose reign Jehu rebelled (see II Kings 9:1–6). The Gemara asks: b Why /b is it necessary to state this reason? b Let /b the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b derive /b that Jehu required anointing due to the fact b that he /b was b the first king /b of his lineage, as Jehu was not the son of a king. The Gemara answers: The i baraita /i b is incomplete, and this /b is what b it is teaching: One anoints the kings of the house of David /b with the anointing oil, but b one does not anoint the kings /b from the kingdom b of Israel. And if you say: For what /b reason b did /b Elisha b anoint Jehu, /b son of Jehoshaphat, b son of Nimshi? /b This was b due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab. /b , b The Master said /b earlier: b One anoints the kings of the house of David /b with the anointing oil, but b one does not anoint the kings of Israel. /b The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive this i halakha /i ? It is derived from a verse, b as it is written /b with regard to the anointing of David: b “Arise, anoint him; for this is he” /b (I Samuel 16:12). b This /b king, i.e., any king from the house of David, b requires anointing, but another /b king, i.e., from the kingdom of Israel, whose kings were not descendants of the house of David, b does not require anointing. /b , b The Master said /b earlier that Jehu was anointed b due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram. /b The Gemara asks: b And due to /b the b dispute /b with b Joram, son of Ahab, will we misuse /b consecrated property by anointing someone unnecessarily b with the anointing oil, /b which is called “a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30:31)? After all, kings of the kingdom of Israel do not require anointing. The Gemara answers: This is b as Rav Pappa said /b with regard to Jehoahaz: They anointed him b with pure balsam /b oil, rather than with the anointing oil. b Here too, /b Elisha anointed Jehu b with pure balsam /b oil, not the anointing oil.,It was further stated in the i baraita /i : b And Jehoahaz, /b son of Josiah, was anointed b due to /b the competition from b Jehoiakim, his brother, who was two years older than him. /b The Gemara asks: b And was /b Jehoiakim in fact b older /b than Jehoahaz? b But isn’t it written: “And the sons of Josiah: The firstborn Joha, the second Jehoiakim, the third Zedekiah, the fourth Shallum” /b (I Chronicles 3:15); b and Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b The one who is called Joha in that verse b is /b also called b Jehoahaz, /b and the one who b is /b called b Zedekiah is /b the same as the one called b Shallum. /b If so, Jehoahaz is the eldest son, not Jehoiakim. Why, then, was it necessary to anoint Jehoahaz?,The Gemara answers: b Rather, Jehoiakim /b was b actually older /b than Jehoahaz. b And why /b does the verse b call /b Jehoahaz the b firstborn? /b This is referring to the fact b that /b Jehoahaz was the b firstborn with regard to the monarchy, /b i.e., he became king first. The Gemara asks: b And do we establish the younger /b son as king b before the older /b son? b But isn’t it written /b with regard to Jehoshaphat: b “And he gave the kingdom to Jehoram, because he was the firstborn” /b (II Chronicles 21:3)? The Gemara answers: Jehoram b was /b one b who filled the place of his fathers, /b i.e., he was fit to serve as king, and therefore as he was firstborn he received the kingship, whereas Jehoiakim was deemed unworthy of the honor, despite being the oldest among his brothers., b The Master said /b earlier: The one who b is /b called b Shallum is /b also called b Zedekiah. /b The Gemara objects: b But the Torah counts /b these individuals b in a row, /b i.e., one after the other, as I Chronicles 3:15 mentions the first, second, third, and fourth sons. This indicates that they are different people. The Gemara answers: Shallum and Zedekiah are in fact one and the same, b and what /b is the reason the verse b calls /b Zedekiah the b third? /b The reason is b that he is third of the sons, /b i.e., the third in order of birth. b And what /b is the reason the verse b calls /b Shallum the b fourth? /b The reason is b that he is fourth to the kingship, because Jeconiah reigned before him. /b How so? b Initially Jehoahaz reigned, and afterward Jehoiakim /b reigned, b and afterward Jeconiah /b reigned, b and afterward Zedekiah /b reigned. Accordingly, Zedekiah, called Shallum, was fourth to the kingship., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The one who b is /b called b Shallum is /b also called b Zedekiah, and why was he called Shallum? Because he was perfect [ i shalem /i ] in his /b good b deeds. Alternatively, /b he was called b Shallum because in his days the kingdom of the house of David was completed [ i shalam /i ], /b as he was the last king in the Davidic dynasty. b And what /b was b his /b true b name? Mattaniah /b was b his name, as it is stated: “And the king of Babylonia made Mattaniah, his father’s brother, king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah” /b (II Kings 24:17).,The i baraita /i explains: Why did the king of Babylonia, Nebuchadnezzar, call him by the name Zedekiah? The reason is b that /b Nebuchadnezzar b said to him: God will justify [ i yatzdik /i ] the judgment over you if you rebel against me, as it is stated /b with regard to Nebuchadnezzar and Jehoiachin: b “And brought him to Babylon” /b (II Chronicles 36:10), and with regard to Zedekiah it is stated: b “And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, who had made him swear by God” /b (II Chronicles 36:13).,§ The Gemara raises a difficulty with regard to the statement that Jehoahaz was anointed: b And was there anointing oil /b in the days of Jehoahaz? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Yoma /i 2:15) that b from when /b the b Ark was sequestered, /b along with it b was sequestered the jar of manna /b that was next to it (see Exodus 16:33), b and the flask of the anointing oil, and Aaron’s staff /b with its b almonds and blossoms /b (see Numbers 17:23).,The i baraita /i continues: b And /b also sequestered with the Ark was the b chest that the Philistines sent as a gift to the God of Israel /b after they captured the Ark and were stricken by several plagues, b as it is stated: “And put the jewels of gold that you return to Him for a guilt offering, in a coffer by its side, /b and send it away that it may go” (I Samuel 6:8). b And who sequestered /b the Ark? b Josiah, king of Judah, sequestered it, as it is stated: And the king said to the priests: Put the sacred Ark /b in the house that Solomon, the son of David, king of Israel, built (see II Chronicles 35:3)., b And Rabbi Elazar says: /b How do we know that all these items needed to be sequestered together with the Ark? The i halakha /i that the jar of manna was to be kept with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the words b “there” /b and b “there.” /b The word “there” is stated with regard to the Ark: “Where I will meet with you there” (Exodus 30:6), and it is also stated with regard to the manna: “And put there” (Exodus 16:33).,The i halakha /i that the anointing oil was to be kept together with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the words b “generations” /b and b “generations.” /b This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna: “To be kept throughout your generations” (Exodus 16:33), and also with regard to the anointing oil: “This shall be a sacred anointing oil to Me throughout your generations” (Exodus 30:31).,Finally, the i halakha /i that Aaron’s staff was to be kept together with the Ark is b derived /b through a verbal analogy between the terms b “to be kept” /b and b “to be kept.” /b This term is stated with regard to the jar of manna, and also with regard to Aaron’s staff: “To be kept there, for a token against the rebellious children” (Numbers 17:25). All these items, which are connected through these verbal analogies, including the anointing oil, were kept by the side of the Ark, and therefore they were sequestered together with the Ark. If so, how was Jehoahaz anointed with the anointing oil? b Rav Pappa said: /b They did not anoint Jehoahaz with the anointing oil, but b with pure balsam. /b ,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One anoints the kings /b by placing the oil around the head in a shape b similar /b to b a crown, and one anoints the /b High b Priests /b by placing the oil upon the head in the shape b similar /b to b chi. /b In explanation of this statement, b Rav Menashya says: /b It is placed in a shape b similar /b to the b Greek /b letter b chi, /b which looks like the letter Χ. It b is taught /b in b one /b i baraita /i : b First, one pours oil on /b the b head of /b the High Priest, b and afterward one places oil between his eyelashes. And it is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : b First, one places oil between his eyelashes, and afterward one pours oil on his head. /b The i baraitot /i contradict each other.,The Gemara explains: This b is /b a matter of dispute between b i tanna’im /i , /b as b there is /b a i tanna /i b who says: Anointing /b between his eyelashes is b preferable /b to pouring on the head and therefore comes first, b and there is /b a i tanna /i b who says /b that b pouring /b on the head is b preferable /b to anointing between his eyelashes, and therefore comes first. b What is the reasoning of the one who says /b that b pouring /b on the head is b preferable? As it is stated: “And he poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron’s head /b and anointed him to sanctify him” (Leviticus 8:12), which indicates that pouring is first, followed by anointing. b And /b as for b the one who says /b that b anointing /b between his eyelashes is b preferable /b to pouring on the head and precedes it, b he holds /b that anointing is preferable b in that /b its use b is increased, /b i.e., it is performed b on the service vessels, /b whereas pouring is not mentioned with regard to the service vessels.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b according to the opinion that anointing is preferable, b isn’t it written: “He poured,” and ultimately: “He anointed” /b (Leviticus 8:12)? The Gemara explains that b this /b is what the verse b is saying: What is the reason /b for b “he poured”? /b This action was made possible b due to /b the fact that he had already: b “Anointed him to sanctify him.” /b In other words, the pouring came after the anointing, which is the primary act., b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “It is like the precious oil upon the head /b descending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments” (Psalms 133:2). b Two drops /b of anointing oil shaped b like pearls hung from Aaron’s beard. Rav Kahana says /b it is b taught: When /b Aaron b would speak /b his beard would move, and these drops b would /b miraculously b rise and sit on the roots of his beard, /b so that they would not fall to the ground. b And with regard to this matter Moses, our teacher, was concerned, /b thinking: b Perhaps, God forbid, I misused the anointing oil /b by pouring too much, which resulted in these two additional drops., b A Divine Voice emerged and said: /b “It is like the precious oil upon the head, descending upon the beard; the beard of Aaron, that descends upon the collar of his garments, b like the dew of the Hermon that comes down upon the mountains of Zion” /b (Psalms 133:2–3). This comparison serves to teach: b Just as the Hermon’s dew is not subject to misuse /b of consecrated property, as it is not consecrated but can be used by all, b so too, /b the anointing b oil that descends upon Aaron’s beard is not subject to misuse /b of consecrated property., b And still Aaron himself was concerned, /b thinking: b Perhaps Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property b but I misused /b the oil, as the additional oil is on my body and I derive benefit from it. b A Divine Voice emerged and said to him: “Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brothers to dwell together in unity” /b (Psalms 133:1). b Just as /b your brother b Moses did not misuse /b consecrated property, b so too, you did not misuse /b consecrated property.,§ The Gemara cites a i baraita /i which discusses the anointing of kings. b The Sages taught: One may anoint kings only next to a spring. /b This is done as a fortuitous sign, b so that their kingdom should continue /b uninterrupted just as the waters of the spring flow uninterrupted throughout the year. b As it is stated /b with regard to the coronation of Solomon in the days of King David: b And the king said to Benaiah: /b Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon my own mule, b and bring him down to Gihon. And /b let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet b anoint him there /b king over Israel (see I Kings 1:33–34). The Sages derived from here that all kings should be anointed near a spring.,Parenthetical to this matter of performing an act as a fortuitous sign, the Gemara cites that which b Rav Ami says: One who desires to know if he will /b live b through /b this current b year or not should bring /b a lit b candle during those ten days between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur and hang it in a house /b through b which wind does not blow, /b and he should watch it carefully: b If its light continues he shall know that he will live out his year. /b , b And one who desires to conduct business and wants to know if /b his b business will succeed or not should raise a rooster. If /b the rooster b gets fat and beautiful he shall know that /b the venture b will succeed. /b , b This one who wishes to leave on a journey and wants to know whether he will return to his home should enter a dark house. If he sees /b
8. Strabo, Geography, 3.5.7-3.5.8, 11.1, 16.2.41  Tagged with subjects: •hasmonean dynasty, fortresses and settlements of Found in books: Taylor (2012) 217
3.5.7. Polybius relates that there is a spring within the sanctuary of Hercules at Gades, having a descent of a few steps to fresh water, which is affected in a manner the reverse of the sea tides, subsiding at the flow of the tide, and springing at the ebb. He assigns as the cause of this phenomenon, that air rises from the interior to the surface of the earth; when this surface is covered by the waves, at the rising of the sea, the air is deprived of its ordinary vents, and returns to the interior, stopping up the passages of the spring, and causing a want of water, but when the surface is again laid bare, the air having a direct exit liberates the channels which feed the spring, so that it gushes freely. Artemidorus rejects this explanation, and substitutes one of his own, recording at the same time the opinion of the historian Silanus; but neither one or other of their views seems to me worth relating, since both he and Silanus were ignorant in regard to these matters. Posidonius asserts that the entire account is false, and adds that there are two wells in the sanctuary of Hercules, and a third in the city. That the smaller of the two in the sanctuary of Hercules, if drawn from frequently, will become for a time exhausted, but that on ceasing to draw from it, it fills again: while in regard to the larger, it may be drawn from during the whole day; that it is true it becomes lower, like all other wells, but that it fills again during the night when drawing ceases. [He adds] that the ebb tide frequently happening to occur during the period of its re-filling, gave rise to the groundless belief of the inhabitants as to its being affected in an opposite manner [to the tides of the ocean]. However it is not only related by him that it is a commonly believed fact, but we have received it from tradition as much referred to amongst paradoxes. We have likewise heard that there are wells both within the city and also in the gardens without, but that on account of the inferiority of this water, tanks are generally constructed throughout the city for the supply of water: whether likewise any of these reservoirs give any signs of being affected in an opposite manner to the tides, we know not. If such be the case, the causes thereof should be received as amongst phenomena hard to be explained. It is likely that Polybius may have assigned the proper reason; but it is also likely that certain of the channels of the springs being damped outside become relaxed, and so let the water run out into the surrounding land, instead of forcing it along its ancient passage to the spring; and there will of course be moisture when the tide overflows. But if, as Athenodorus asserts, the ebb and flow resemble the inspiration and expiration of the breath, it is possible that some of the currents of water which naturally have an efflux on to the surface of the earth, through various channels, the mouths of which we denominate springs and fountains, are by other channels drawn towards the depths of the sea, and raise it, so as to produce a flood-tide; when the expiration is sufficient, they leave off the course in which they are then flowing, and again revert to their former direction, when that again takes a change. 3.5.8. I cannot tell how it is that Posidonius, who describes the Phoenicians as sagacious in other things, should here attribute to them folly rather than shrewdness. The sun completes his revolution in the space of a day and night, being a portion of the time beneath the earth, and a portion of the time shining upon it. Now he asserts that the motion of the sea corresponds with the revolution of the heavenly bodies, and experiences a diurnal, monthly, and annual change, in strict accordance with the changes of the moon. For [he continues] when the moon is elevated one sign of the zodiac above the horizon, the sea begins sensibly to swell and cover the shores, until she has attained her meridian; but when that satellite begins to decline, the sea again retires by degrees, until the moon wants merely one sign of the zodiac from setting; it then remains stationary until the moon has set, and also descended one sign of the zodiac below the horizon, when it again rises until she has attained her meridian below the earth; it then retires again until the moon is within one sign of the zodiac of her rising above the horizon, when it remains stationary until the moon has risen one sign of the zodiac above the earth, and then begins to rise as before. Such he describes to be the diurnal revolution. In respect to the monthly revolution, [he says] that the spring-tides occur at the time of the new moon, when they decrease until the first quarter; they then increase until full moon, when they again decrease until the last quarter, after which they increase till the new moon; [he adds] that these increases ought to be understood both of their duration and speed. In regard to the annual revolution, he says that he learned from the statements of the Gaditanians, that both the ebb and flow tides were at their extremes at the summer solstice: and that hence he conjectured that they decreased until the [autumnal] equinox; then increased till the winter solstice; then decreased again until the vernal equinox; and [finally] increased until the summer solstice. But since these revolutions occur twice in the four-and-twenty hours, the sea rising twice and receding twice, and that regularly every day and night, how is it that the filling and failing of the well do not frequently occur during the ebb and flow of the tide? or if it be allowed that this does often occur, why does it not do so in the same proportion? and if it does so in the same proportion, how comes it that the Gaditanians are not competent to observe what is of daily occurrence, while they are nevertheless competent to the observing of revolutions which occur but once in the year. That Posidonius himself credited these reports is evident from his own conjecture respecting the decrease and increase [of the sea] from solstice to solstice. However, it is not likely, being an observant people, that they should be ignorant of what actually occurred, whilst giving credit to imaginary phenomena. 11.1. 1. Overview of AsiaAsia is adjacent to Europe, bordering thereon along the Tanais River. I must therefore describe this country next, first dividing it, for the sake of clearness, by means of certain natural boundaries. That is, I must do for Asia precisely what Eratosthenes did for the inhabited world as a whole.,2. The Taurus forms a partition approximately through the middle of this continent, extending from the west towards the east, leaving one portion of it on the north and the other on the south. of these portions, the Greeks call the one the Cis-Tauran Asia and the other Trans-Tauran. I have said this before, but let me repeat it by way of reminder.,3. Now the mountain has in many places as great a breadth as three thousand stadia, and a length as great as that of Asia itself, that is, about forty-five thousand stadia, reckoning from the coast opposite Rhodes to the eastern extremities of India and Scythia.,4. It has been divided into many parts with many names, determined by boundaries that circumscribe areas both large and small. But since certain tribes are comprised within the vast width of the mountain, some rather insignificant, but others extremely well known (as, for instance, the Parthians, the Medes, the Armenians, a part of the Cappadocians, the Cilicians, and the Pisidians), those which lie for the most part in its northerly parts must be assigned there, and those in its southern parts to the southern, while those which are situated in the middle of the mountains should, because of the likeness of their climate, be assigned to the north, for the climate in the middle is cold, whereas that in the south is hot. Further, almost all the rivers that rise in the Taurus flow in contrary directions, that is, some into the northern region and others into the southern (they do so at first, at least, although later some of them bend towards the east or west), and they therefore are naturally helpful in our use of these mountains as boundaries in the two-fold division of Asia — just as the sea inside the Pillars, which for the most part is approximately in a straight line with these mountains, has proved convenient in the forming of two continents, Europe and Libya, it being the noteworthy boundary between the two.,5. As we pass from Europe to Asia in our geography, the northern division is the first of the two divisions to which we come; and therefore we must begin with this. of this division the first portion is that in the region of the Tanais River, which I have taken as the boundary between Europe and Asia. This portion forms, in a way, a peninsula, for it is surrounded on the west by the Tanais River and Lake Maeotis as far as the Bosporus and that part of the coast of the Euxine Sea which terminates at Colchis; and then on the north by the Ocean as far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea; and then on the east by this same sea as far as the boundary between Albania and Armenia, where empty the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, the Araxes flowing through Armenia and the Cyrus through Iberia and Albania; and lastly, on the south by the tract of country which extends from the outlet of the Cyrus River to Colchis, which is about three thousand stadia from sea to sea, across the territory of the Albanians and the Iberians, and therefore is described as an isthmus. But those writers who have reduced the width of the isthmus as much as Cleitarchus has, who says that it is subject to inundation from either sea, should not be considered even worthy of mention. Poseidonius states that the isthmus is fifteen hundred stadia across, as wide as the isthmus from Pelusium to the Red Sea. And in my opinion, he says, the isthmus from Lake Maeotis to the Ocean does not differ much therefrom.,6. But I do not know how anyone can trust him concerning things that are uncertain if he has nothing plausible to say about them, when he reasons so illogically about things that are obvious; and this too, although he was a friend of Pompey, who made an expedition against the Iberians and the Albanians, from sea to sea on either side, both the Caspian and the Colchian Seas. At any rate, it is said that Pompey, upon arriving at Rhodes on his expedition against the pirates (immediately thereafter he was to set out against both Mithridates and the tribes which extended as far as the Caspian Sea), happened to attend one of the lectures of Poseidonius, and that when he went out he asked Poseidonius whether he had any orders to give, and that Poseidonius replied: Ever bravest be, and preeminent o'er others. 12Add to this that among other works he wrote also the history of Pompey. So for this reason he should have been more regardful of the truth.,7. The second portion would be that beyond the Hyrcanian Sea, which we call the Caspian Sea, as far as the Scythians near India. The third portion would consist of the part which is adjacent to the isthmus above mentioned and of those parts of the region inside Taurus and nearest Europe which come next after this isthmus and the Caspian Gates, I mean Media and Armenia and Cappadocia and the intervening regions. The fourth portion is the land inside the Halys River, and all the region in the Taurus itself and outside thereof which falls within the limits of the peninsula which is formed by the isthmus that separates the Pontic and the Cilician Seas. As for the other countries, I mean the Trans-Tauran, I place among them not only India, but also Ariana as far as the tribes that extend to the Persian Sea and the Arabian Gulf and the Nile and the Egyptian and Issic Seas. 16.2.41. Jericho is a plain encompassed by a mountainous district, which slopes towards it somewhat in the manner of a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon (or palm plantation), which contains various other trees of the cultivated kind, and producing excellent fruit; but its chief production is the palm tree. It is 100 stadia in length; the whole is watered with streams, and filled with dwellings. Here also is a palace and the garden of the balsamum. The latter is a shrub with an aromatic smell, resembling the cytisus and the terminthus. Incisions are made in the bark, and vessels are placed beneath to receive the sap, which is like oily milk. After it is collected in vessels, it becomes solid. It is an excellent remedy for headache, incipient suffusion of the eyes, and dimness of sight. It bears therefore a high price, especially as it is produced in no other place. This is the case also with the Phoenicon, which alone contains the caryotes palm, if we except the Babylonian plain, and the country above it towards the east: a large revenue is derived from the palms and balsamum; xylobalsamum is also used as a perfume.