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89 results for "graeco-roman"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 6.13, 7.12 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 197
6.13. Then the young man said to the angel, "Brother Azarias, I have heard that the girl has been given to seven husbands and that each died in the bridal chamber. 7.12. So Raguel said, "Take her right now, in accordance with the law. You are her relative, and she is yours. The merciful God will guide you both for the best."
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 15.12, 17.6, 17.12, 17.16, 19.15, 19.19, 21.21, 22.21-22.22, 22.24, 24.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149, 645
15.12. "כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃", 17.6. "עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃", 17.12. "וְהָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה בְזָדוֹן לְבִלְתִּי שְׁמֹעַ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן הָעֹמֵד לְשָׁרֶת שָׁם אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אוֹ אֶל־הַשֹּׁפֵט וּמֵת הָאִישׁ הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.16. "רַק לֹא־יַרְבֶּה־לּוֹ סוּסִים וְלֹא־יָשִׁיב אֶת־הָעָם מִצְרַיְמָה לְמַעַן הַרְבּוֹת סוּס וַיהוָה אָמַר לָכֶם לֹא תֹסִפוּן לָשׁוּב בַּדֶּרֶךְ הַזֶּה עוֹד׃", 19.15. "לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃", 19.19. "וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר זָמַם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְאָחִיו וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 21.21. "וּרְגָמֻהוּ כָּל־אַנְשֵׁי עִירוֹ בָאֲבָנִים וָמֵת וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּ׃", 22.21. "וְהוֹצִיאוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] אֶל־פֶּתַח בֵּית־אָבִיהָ וּסְקָלוּהָ אַנְשֵׁי עִירָהּ בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתָה כִּי־עָשְׂתָה נְבָלָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְנוֹת בֵּית אָבִיהָ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 22.22. "כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ שֹׁכֵב עִם־אִשָּׁה בְעֻלַת־בַּעַל וּמֵתוּ גַּם־שְׁנֵיהֶם הָאִישׁ הַשֹּׁכֵב עִם־הָאִשָּׁה וְהָאִשָּׁה וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃", 22.24. "וְהוֹצֵאתֶם אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֶל־שַׁעַר הָעִיר הַהִוא וּסְקַלְתֶּם אֹתָם בָּאֲבָנִים וָמֵתוּ אֶת־הנער [הַנַּעֲרָה] עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־צָעֲקָה בָעִיר וְאֶת־הָאִישׁ עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר־עִנָּה אֶת־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 24.7. "כִּי־יִמָּצֵא אִישׁ גֹּנֵב נֶפֶשׁ מֵאֶחָיו מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהִתְעַמֶּר־בּוֹ וּמְכָרוֹ וּמֵת הַגַּנָּב הַהוּא וּבִעַרְתָּ הָרָע מִקִּרְבֶּךָ׃", 15.12. "If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.", 17.6. "At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.", 17.12. "And the man that doeth presumptuously, in not hearkening unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die; and thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel.", 17.16. "Only he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses; forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you: ‘Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.’", 19.15. "One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment", 19.19. "then shall ye do unto him, as he had purposed to do unto his brother; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee.", 21.21. "And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee; and all Israel shall hear, and fear.", 22.21. "then they shall bring out the damsel to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her with stones that she die; because she hath wrought a wanton deed in Israel, to play the harlot in her father’s house; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee.", 22.22. "If a man be found lying with a woman married to a husband, then they shall both of them die, the man that lay with the woman, and the woman; so shalt thou put away the evil from Israel.", 22.24. "then ye shall bring them both out unto the gate of that city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die: the damsel, because she cried not, being in the city; and the man, because he hath humbled his neighbour’s wife; so thou shalt put away the evil from the midst of thee.", 24.7. "If a man be found stealing any of his brethren of the children of Israel, and he deal with him as a slave, and sell him; then that thief shall die; so shalt thou put away the evil from the midst of thee.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.2, 30.17-30.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 136, 149
21.2. "כִּי תִקְנֶה עֶבֶד עִבְרִי שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים יַעֲבֹד וּבַשְּׁבִעִת יֵצֵא לַחָפְשִׁי חִנָּם׃", 21.2. "וְכִי־יַכֶּה אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ אוֹ אֶת־אֲמָתוֹ בַּשֵּׁבֶט וּמֵת תַּחַת יָדוֹ נָקֹם יִנָּקֵם׃", 30.17. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 30.18. "וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיּוֹר נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנּוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ בֵּין־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם׃", 30.19. "וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם׃", 30.21. "וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם חָק־עוֹלָם לוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ לְדֹרֹתָם׃", 21.2. "If thou buy a Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve; and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing.", 30.17. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 30.18. "’Thou shalt also make a laver of brass, and the base thereof of brass, whereat to wash; and thou shalt put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put water therein.", 30.19. "And Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet thereat;", 30.20. "when they go into the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, that they die not; or when they come near to the altar to minister, to cause an offering made by fire to smoke unto the LORD;", 30.21. "so they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be a statute for ever to them, even to him and to his seed throughout their generations.’",
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.10, 9.6, 14.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128, 149, 257
9.6. "שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃", 14.13. "וַיָּבֹא הַפָּלִיט וַיַּגֵּד לְאַבְרָם הָעִבְרִי וְהוּא שֹׁכֵן בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא הָאֱמֹרִי אֲחִי אֶשְׁכֹּל וַאֲחִי עָנֵר וְהֵם בַּעֲלֵי בְרִית־אַבְרָם׃", 1.10. "And God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering together of the waters called He Seas; and God saw that it was good.", 9.6. "Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man.", 14.13. "And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew—now he dwelt by the terebinths of Mamre the Amorite, brother of Eshcol, and brother of Aner; and these were confederate with Abram.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 1.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149
1.9. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵיהֶם עִבְרִי אָנֹכִי וְאֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲנִי יָרֵא אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אֶת־הַיָּם וְאֶת־הַיַּבָּשָׁה׃", 1.9. "And he said unto them: ‘I am an Hebrew; and I fear the LORD, the God of heaven, who hath made the sea and the dry land.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 5.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256
5.2. "אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃", 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 257
1.17. "כִּי־חִנָּם מְזֹרָה הָרָשֶׁת בְּעֵינֵי כָל־בַּעַל כָּנָף׃", 1.17. "For in vain the net is spread in the eyes of any bird;",
8. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 15.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 120, 128
15.16. "וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 15.16. "And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even.",
9. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 20.26 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
20.26. "וְלֹא־דִבֶּר שָׁאוּל מְאוּמָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי אָמַר מִקְרֶה הוּא בִּלְתִּי טָהוֹר הוּא כִּי־לֹא טָהוֹר׃", 20.26. "Nevertheless Sha᾽ul spoke not anything that day: for he thought, It is an accidental pollution, he is not clean; yes, indeed, he is not clean.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 34.9, 34.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149
34.9. "לְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדּוֹ וְאִישׁ אֶת־שִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִי וְהָעִבְרִיָּה חָפְשִׁים לְבִלְתִּי עֲבָד־בָּם בִּיהוּדִי אָחִיהוּ אִישׁ׃", 34.14. "מִקֵּץ שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים תְּשַׁלְּחוּ אִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו הָעִבְרִי אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁלַּחְתּוֹ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ וְלֹא־שָׁמְעוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם אֵלַי וְלֹא הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם׃", 34.9. "that every man should let his manservant, and every man his maidservant, being a Hebrew man or a Hebrew woman, go free; that none should make bondmen of them, even of a Jew his brother;", 34.14. "’At the end of seven years ye shall let go every man his brother that is a Hebrew, that hath been sold unto thee, and hath served thee six years, thou shalt let him go free from thee’; but your fathers hearkened not unto Me, neither inclined their ear.",
11. Homer, Odyssey, 2.261, 12.336 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 7.16, 7.21 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256
7.16. "וַיַּחַץ אֶת־שְׁלֹשׁ־מֵאוֹת הָאִישׁ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּתֵּן שׁוֹפָרוֹת בְּיַד־כֻּלָּם וְכַדִּים רֵקִים וְלַפִּדִים בְּתוֹךְ הַכַּדִּים׃", 7.21. "וַיַּעַמְדוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו סָבִיב לַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרָץ כָּל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וַיָּרִיעוּ ויניסו [וַיָּנוּסוּ׃]", 7.16. "And he divided the three hundred men into three companies, and he put a shofar in every man’s hand, with empty jars, and torches within the jars.", 7.21. "And they stood every man in his place round about the camp: and all the camp ran, and cried, and fled.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 408
14. Septuagint, Tobit, 6.13, 7.12 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 197
6.13. Then the young man said to the angel, "Brother Azarias, I have heard that the girl has been given to seven husbands and that each died in the bridal chamber. 7.12. So Raguel said, "Take her right now, in accordance with the law. You are her relative, and she is yours. The merciful God will guide you both for the best."
15. Anon., 1 Enoch, 37-61, 63-71, 62 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 43
62. And thus the Lord commanded the kings and the mighty and the exalted, and those who dwell on the earth, and said:,Open your eyes and lift up your horns if ye are able to recognize the Elect One.'",And the Lord of Spirits seated him on the throne of His glory, And the spirit of righteousness was poured out upon him, And the word of his mouth slays all the sinners, And all the unrighteous are destroyed from before his face.,And there shall stand up in that day all the kings and the mighty, And the exalted and those who hold the earth, And they shall see and recognize How he sits on the throne of his glory, And righteousness is judged before him, And no lying word is spoken before him.,Then shall pain come upon them as on a woman in travail, [And she has pain in bringing forth] When her child enters the mouth of the womb, And she has pain in bringing forth.And one portion of them shall look on the other, And they shall be terrified, And they shall be downcast of countece, And pain shall seize them, When they see that Son of Man Sitting on the throne of his glory.,And the kings and the mighty and all who possess the earth shall bless and glorify and extol him who rules over all, who was hidden.,For from the beginning the Son of Man was hidden, And the Most High preserved him in the presence of His might, And revealed him to the elect.,And the congregation of the elect and holy shall be sown, And all the elect shall stand before him on that day.,And all the kings and the mighty and the exalted and those who rule the earth Shall fall down before him on their faces, And worship and set their hope upon that Son of Man, And petition him and supplicate for mercy at his hands.,Nevertheless that Lord of Spirits will so press them That they shall hastily go forth from His presence, And their faces shall be filled with shame, And the darkness grow deeper on their faces.,And He will deliver them to the angels for punishment, To execute vengeance on them because they have oppressed His children and His elect,And they shall be a spectacle for the righteous and for His elect: They shall rejoice over them, Because the wrath of the Lord of Spirits resteth upon them, And His sword is drunk with their blood.,And the righteous and elect shall be saved on that day, And they shall never thenceforward see the face of the sinners and unrighteous.,And the Lord of Spirits will abide over them, And with that Son of Man shall they eat And lie down and rise up for ever and ever.,And the righteous and elect shall have risen from the earth, And ceased to be of downcast countece. And they shall have been clothed with garments of glory,,And these shall be the garments of life from the Lord of Spirits:And your garments shall not grow old, Nor your glory pass away before the Lord of Spirits.
16. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 10.11, 11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127, 128
17. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q270, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 447
18. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.31, 11.13, 15.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149
7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 11.13. And as he was not without intelligence, he pondered over the defeat which had befallen him, and realized that the Hebrews were invincible because the mighty God fought on their side. So he sent to them' 15.37. This, then, is how matters turned out with Nicanor. And from that time the city has been in the possession of the Hebrews. So I too will here end my story.'
19. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.8-7.27, 8.20-9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 644
20. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 45.7-45.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
21. Anon., Testament of Levi, 2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
2.3. And when I was feeding the flocks in Abel-Maul, the spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, and I saw all men corrupting their way, and that unrighteousness had built for itself walls, and lawlessness sat upon towers.
22. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.4-7.6, 9.13, 13.9-13.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 206
7.4. Do not seek from the Lord the highest office,nor the seat of honor from the king. 7.5. Do not assert your righteousness before the Lord,nor display your wisdom before the king. 7.6. Do not seek to become a judge,lest you be unable to remove iniquity,lest you be partial to a powerful man,and thus put a blot on your integrity. 9.13. Keep far from a man who has the power to kill,and you will not be worried by the fear of death. But if you approach him, make no misstep,lest he rob you of your life. Know that you are walking in the midst of snares,and that you are going about on the city battlements. 13.9. When a powerful man invites you, be reserved;and he will invite you the more often. 13.11. Do not try to treat him as an equal,nor trust his abundance of words;for he will test you through much talk,and while he smiles he will be examining you. 13.12. Cruel is he who does not keep words to himself;he will not hesitate to injure or to imprison. 13.13. Keep words to yourself and be very watchful,for you are walking about with your own downfall.
23. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.4-7.6, 9.13, 13.9-13.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 206
7.4. I was nursed with care in swaddling cloths." 7.5. For no king has had a different beginning of existence;" 7.6. there is for all mankind one entrance into life, and a common departure. 9.13. For what man can learn the counsel of God?Or who can discern what the Lord wills?" 13.9. for if they had the power to know so much that they could investigate the world,how did they fail to find sooner the Lord of these things? 13.10. But miserable, with their hopes set on dead things, are the men who give the name "gods" to the works of mens hands,gold and silver fashioned with skill,and likenesses of animals,or a useless stone, the work of an ancient hand. 13.11. A skilled woodcutter may saw down a tree easy to handle and skilfully strip off all its bark,and then with pleasing workmanship make a useful vessel that serves lifes needs, 13.12. and burn the castoff pieces of his work to prepare his food, and eat his fill. 13.13. But a castoff piece from among them, useful for nothing,a stick crooked and full of knots,he takes and carves with care in his leisure,and shapes it with skill gained in idleness;he forms it like the image of a man,
24. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.44-1.48, 2.45-2.46 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575
1.44. And the king sent letters by messengers to Jerusalem and the cities of Judah; he directed them to follow customs strange to the land, 1.45. to forbid burnt offerings and sacrifices and drink offerings in the sanctuary, to profane sabbaths and feasts, 1.46. to defile the sanctuary and the priests, 1.47. to build altars and sacred precincts and shrines for idols, to sacrifice swine and unclean animals, 1.48. and to leave their sons uncircumcised. They were to make themselves abominable by everything unclean and profane, 2.45. And Mattathias and his friends went about and tore down the altars; 2.46. they forcibly circumcised all the uncircumcised boys that they found within the borders of Israel.
25. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 10.11, 11.21 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127, 128
26. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 158 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
158. I, Flaccus, who was born, and brought up, and educated in Rome, the heaven of the world, and who have been the schoolfellow and companion of the granddaughters of Augustus, and who was afterwards selected by Tiberius Caesar as one of his most intimate friends, and who have had entrusted to me for six years the greatest of all his possessions, namely, Egypt.
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 4.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 20 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149
20. so that such a man is not a subject but a ruler of Egypt, that is to say of the whole region of the body; so that "he boasted of being of the race of the Hebrews," who were accustomed to rise up and leave the objects of the outward senses, and to go over to those of the intellect; for the name Hebrew, being interpreted, means "one who passes over," because he boasted that "here he had done Nothing." For to do nothing of those things which are thought much of among the wicked, but to hate them all and reject them, is praiseworthy in no slight degree;
29. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.138 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
2.138. The maker then thought it well to accept these offerings, and to melt them down, and to make nothing except the laver of them, in order that the priests who were about to enter the temple might be supplied from it, with water of purification for the purpose of performing the sacred ministrations which were appointed for them; washing their feet most especially, and their hands, as a symbol of their irreproachable life, and of a course of conduct which makes itself pure in all kinds of praiseworthy actions, proceeding not along the rough road of wickedness which one may more properly call no road at all, but keeping straight along the level and direct path of virtue.
30. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 129 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 203
129. And the name is, as the Hebrews say, Phanuel, which translated into our language means, "turning away from God." For any strong building which is erected by means of plausible arguments is not built for the sake of any other object except that of averting and alienating the mind from the honour due to God, than which object what can be more iniquitous?
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 45, 158 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
32. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.258, 3.63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111, 136
1.258. And it has appointed a burning purification for both these things; for the soul, by means of the animals which are duly fit for sacrifices; and for the body, by ablutions and sprinklings; concerning which we will speak presently; for it is fit to assign the pre-eminence in honour in every point to the superior and domit part of the qualities existing in us, namely, to the soul. 3.63. And the law takes such exceeding pains to prevent any irregularity taking place with respect to marriages, that even in the case of husbands and wives who have come together for legitimate embraces, in strict accordance with the laws of marriage, after they have arisen from their beds it does not allow them to touch anything before they have had recourse to washings and ablutions; keeping them very far from adultery and from all accusations referring to adultery.XI.
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 54, 63, 92 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
92. What, then, are the portions of his angels, and what is that share which is the inheritance of the ruler and governor of all? The portion of those ministers are the specific virtues; but the portion of the ruler of all its his chosen people Israel. For he who sees God, being led on by his most surpassing beauty, has his inheritance and portion assigned to him in that which he sees.
34. Mishnah, Toharot, 7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 126, 127
7.8. "מִי שֶׁהָיָה טָהוֹר, וְהִסִּיעַ אֶת לִבּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְטַהֵר, שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ טְמֵאִין פּוֹרְשִׁין מִמֶּנוּ. וַחֲכָמִים מְטַמְּאִים. הָיוּ יָדָיו טְהוֹרוֹת וְהִסִּיעַ אֶת לִבּוֹ מִלֶּאֱכֹל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁלֹּא נִטְמְאוּ יָדָי, יָדָיו טְמֵאוֹת, שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת: \n", 7.8. "One who was clean and had given up the thought of eating [pure food]: Rabbi Judah says that it remains clean, since it is usual for unclean persons to keep away from it. But the sages say that it is deemed unclean. If his hands were clean and he had given up the thought of eating [pure food], even though he says, \"I know that my hands have not become unclean,\" his hands are unclean, since the hands are always busy.",
35. Mishnah, Yadayim, 1.1-3.2, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 126
36. Anon., Didache, 7.1-7.3, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 132, 257
37. New Testament, 1 John, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 408
38. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 257
1.13. Διὸ ἀναζωσάμενοι τὰς ὀσφύας τῆς διανοίας ὑμῶν, νήφοντες τελείως, ἐλπίσατε ἐπὶ τὴν φερομένην ὑμῖν χάριν ἐν ἀποκαλύψει Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 1.13. Therefore, prepare your minds for action, be sober and set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ --
39. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 5, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 5.12, 5.13, 7, 7.10, 9.15, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 10.32-11.1, 11, 11.10, 11.16, 11.23, 11.24, 11.25, 12, 12.2, 13, 14, 14.33, 14.34, 14.35, 14.36, 14.37, 14.38, 14.39, 15, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
12.2. Οἴδατε ὅτι ὅτε ἔθνη ἦτε πρὸς τὰ εἴδωλα τὰ ἄφωνα ὡς ἂν ἤγεσθε ἀπαγόμενοι. 12.2. You know that when you were heathen, you were ledaway to those mute idols, however you might be led.
40. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 399
4.1. Λοιπὸν, ἀδελφοί, ἐρωτῶμεν ὑμᾶς καὶ παρακαλοῦ μεν ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ, [ἵνα] καθὼς παρελάβετε παρʼ ἡμῶν τὸ πῶς δεῖ ὑμᾶς περιπατεῖν καὶ ἀρέσκειν θεῷ, καθὼς καὶ περιπατεῖτε,— ἵνα περισσεύητε μᾶλλον. 4.1. Finally then, brothers, we beg and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God, that you abound more and more.
41. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 5.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125
5.10. ἐν ἔργοις καλοῖς μαρτυρουμένη, εἰ ἐτεκνοτρόφησεν, εἰ ἐξενοδόχησεν, εἰ ἁγίων πόδας ἔνιψεν, εἰ θλιβομένοις ἐπήρκεσεν, εἰ παντὶ ἔργῳ ἀγαθῷ ἐπηκολούθησεν. 5.10. being approved by good works, if she has brought up children, if she has been hospitable to strangers, if she has washed the saints' feet, if she has relieved the afflicted, and if she has diligently followed every good work.
42. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 13.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 645
13.1. Τρίτον τοῦτο ἔρχομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς·ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ τριῶν σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα.
43. Mishnah, Sotah, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125
5.2. "בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, (ויקרא יא) וְכָל כְּלִי חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא, אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר טָמֵא אֶלָּא יִטְמָא, לְטַמֵּא אֲחֵרִים, לִמֵּד עַל כִּכָּר שֵׁנִי שֶׁמְּטַמֵּא אֶת הַשְּׁלִישִׁי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, מִי יְגַלֶּה עָפָר מֵעֵינֶיךָ, רַבָּן יוֹחָנָן בֶּן זַכַּאי, שֶׁהָיִיתָ אוֹמֵר, עָתִיד דּוֹר אַחֵר לְטַהֵר כִּכָּר שְׁלִישִׁי, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מִקְרָא מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא. וַהֲלֹא עֲקִיבָא תַּלְמִידְךָ מֵבִיא לוֹ מִקְרָא מִן הַתּוֹרָה שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא: \n", 5.2. "On that day, Rabbi Akiva expounded, “And every earthen vessel, into which any of them falls, everything in it shall be unclean” (Leviticus 11:33), it does not state tame (is unclean) but yitma’, (shall make unclean). This teaches that a loaf which is unclean in the second degree, makes unclean [food and liquids which come into contact with it] in the third degree. Rabbi Joshua said: who will remove the dust from your eyes, Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai, since you used to say that in the future another generation will pronounce clean a loaf which is unclean in the third degree on the grounds that there is no text in the Torah according to which it is unclean! Has not Rabbi Akiva your student brought a text from the Torah according to which it is unclean, as it is said “everything in it shall be unclean.”",
44. New Testament, Acts, 1.13, 6.1, 7.58, 9.1, 9.29, 15.5, 16.12, 20.8, 21.20, 21.28, 22.3, 23.12-23.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256, 322, 447, 575
1.13. Καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθον, εἰς τὸ ὑπερῷον ἀνέβησαν οὗ ἦσαν καταμένοντες, ὅ τε Πέτρος καὶ Ἰωάνης καὶ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἀνδρέας, Φίλιππος καὶ Θωμᾶς, Βαρθολομαῖος καὶ Μαθθαῖος, Ἰάκωβος Ἁλφαίου καὶ Σίμων ὁ ζηλωτὴς καὶ Ἰούδας Ἰακώβου. 6.1. ΕΝ ΔΕ ΤΑΙΣ ΗΜΕΡΑΙΣ ταύταις πληθυνόντων τῶν μαθητῶν ἐγένετο γογγυσμὸς τῶν Ἑλληνιστῶν πρὸς τοὺς Ἐβραίους ὅτι παρεθεωροῦντο ἐν τῇ διακονίᾳ τῇ καθημερινῇ αἱ χῆραι αὐτῶν. 7.58. καὶ ἐκβαλόντες ἔξω τῆς πόλεως ἐλιθοβόλουν. καὶ οἱ μάρτυρες ἀπέθεντο τὰ ἱμάτια αὐτῶν παρὰ τοὺς πόδας νεανίου καλουμένου Σαύλου. 9.1. Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος, ἔτι ἐνπνέων ἀπειλῆς καὶ φόνου εἰς τοὺς μαθητὰς τοῦ κυρίου, 9.29. ἐλάλει τε καὶ συνεζήτει πρὸς τοὺς Ἑλληνιστάς· οἱ δὲ ἐπεχείρουν ἀνελεῖν αὐτόν. 15.5. Ἐξανέστησαν δέ τινες τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς αἱρέσεως τῶν Φαρισαίων πεπιστευκότες, λέγοντες ὅτι δεῖ περιτέμνειν αὐτοὺς παραγγέλλειν τε τηρεῖν τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως. 16.12. κἀκεῖθεν εἰς Φιλίππους, ἥτις ἐστὶν πρώτη τῆς μερίδος Μακεδονίας πόλις, κολωνία. Ἦμεν δὲ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει διατρίβοντες ἡμέρας τινάς. 20.8. ἦσαν δὲ λαμπάδες ἱκαναὶ ἐν τῷ ὑπερῴῳ οὗ ἦμεν συνηγμένοι· 21.20. οἱ δὲ ἀκούσαντες ἐδόξαζον τὸν θεόν, εἶπάν τε αὐτῷ Θεωρεῖς, ἀδελφέ, πόσαι μυριάδες εἰσὶν ἐν τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις τῶν πεπιστευκότων, καὶ πάντες ζηλωταὶ τοῦ νόμου ὑπάρχουσιν· 21.28. κράζοντες Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, βοηθεῖτε· οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὁ κατὰ τοῦ λαοῦ καὶ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τοῦ τόπου τούτου πάντας πανταχῇ διδάσκων, ἔτι τε καὶ Ἕλληνας εἰσήγαγεν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ κεκοίνωκεν τὸν ἅγιον τόπον τοῦτον. 22.3. Ἐγώ εἰμι ἀνὴρ Ἰουδαῖος, γεγεννημένος ἐν Ταρσῷ τῆς Κιλικίας, ἀνατεθραμμένος δὲ ἐν τῇ πόλει ταύτῃ παρὰ τοὺς πόδας Γαμαλιήλ, πεπαιδευμένος κατὰ ἀκρίβειαν τοῦ πατρῴου νόμου, ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τοῦ θεοῦ καθὼς πάντες ὑμεῖς ἐστὲ σήμερον, 23.12. Γενομένης δὲ ἡμέρας ποιήσαντες συστροφὴν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι ἀνεθεμάτισαν ἑαυτοὺς λέγοντες μήτε φαγεῖν μήτε πεῖν ἕως οὗ ἀποκτείνωσιν τὸν Παῦλον. 23.13. ἦσαν δὲ πλείους τεσσεράκοντα οἱ ταύτην τὴν συνωμοσίαν ποιησάμενοι· 23.14. οἵτινες προσελθόντες τοῖς ἀρχιερεῦσιν καὶ τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις εἶπαν Ἀναθέματι ἀνεθεματίσαμεν ἑαυτοὺς μηδενὸς γεύσασθαι ἕως οὗ ἀποκτείνωμεν τὸν Παῦλον. 1.13. When they had come in, they went up into the upper room, where they were staying; that is Peter, John, James, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James. 6.1. Now in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplying, there arose a grumbling of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews because their widows were neglected in the daily service. 7.58. They threw him out of the city, and stoned him. The witnesses placed their garments at the feet of a young man named Saul. 9.1. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest, 9.29. preaching boldly in the name of the Lord. He spoke and disputed against the Grecian Jews, but they were seeking to kill him. 15.5. But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed rose up, saying, "It is necessary to circumcise them, and to charge them to keep the law of Moses." 16.12. and from there to Philippi, which is a city of Macedonia, the first of the district, a Roman colony. We were staying some days in this city. 20.8. There were many lights in the upper chamber where we were gathered together. 21.20. They, when they heard it, glorified God. They said to him, "You see, brother, how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed, and they are all zealous for the law. 21.28. crying out, "Men of Israel, help! This is the man who teaches all men everywhere against the people, and the law, and this place. Moreover, he also brought Greeks into the temple, and has defiled this holy place!" 22.3. "I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, instructed according to the strict manner of the law of our fathers, being zealous for God, even as you all are this day. 23.12. When it was day, some of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink until they had killed Paul. 23.13. There were more than forty people who had made this conspiracy. 23.14. They came to the chief priests and the elders, and said, "We have bound ourselves under a great curse, to taste nothing until we have killed Paul.
45. New Testament, Matthew, 5.47, 6.7, 11.12, 18.15-18.18, 26.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 575, 645
5.47. καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 6.7. Προσευχόμενοι δὲ μὴ βατταλογήσητε ὥσπερ οἱ ἐθνικοί, δοκοῦσιν γὰρ ὅτι ἐν τῇ πολυλογίᾳ αὐτῶν εἰσακουσθήσονται· 11.12. ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ἡμερῶν Ἰωάνου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ ἕως ἄρτι ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν βιάζεται, καὶ βιασταὶ ἁρπάζουσιν αὐτήν. 18.15. Ἐὰν δὲ ἁμαρτήσῃ ὁ ἀδελφός σου, ὕπαγε ἔλεγξον αὐτὸν μεταξὺ σοῦ καὶ αὐτοῦ μόνου. ἐάν σου ἀκούσῃ, ἐκέρδησας τὸν ἀδελφόν σου· 18.16. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ ἀκούσῃ, παράλαβε μετὰ σοῦ ἔτι ἕνα ἢ δύο, ἵνα ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων ἢ τριῶν σταθῇ πᾶν ῥῆμα· 18.17. ἐὰν δὲ παρακούσῃ αὐτῶν, εἰπὸν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας παρακούσῃ, ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ ὁ ἐθνικὸς καὶ ὁ τελώνης. 18.18. Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὅσα ἐὰν δήσητε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἔσται δεδεμένα ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ὅσα ἐὰν λύσητε ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἔσται λελυμένα ἐν οὐρανῷ. 26.52. τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀπόστρεψον τὴν μάχαιράν σου εἰς τὸν τόπον αὐτῆς, πάντες γὰρ οἱ λαβόντες μάχαιραν ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀπολοῦνται· 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 11.12. From the days of John the Baptizer until now, the Kingdom of Heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force. 18.15. "If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. 18.16. But if he doesn't listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 18.18. Most assuredly I tell you, whatever things you will bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever things you will loose on earth will be loosed in heaven. 26.52. Then Jesus said to him, "Put your sword back into its place, for all those who take the sword will die by the sword.
46. New Testament, Mark, 1.4, 7.5-7.15, 9.5, 12.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 126, 132, 408, 575
1.4. ἐγένετο Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ κηρύσσων βάπτισμα μετανοίας εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. 7.5. —καὶ ἐπερωτῶσιν αὐτὸν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς Διὰ τί οὐ περιπατοῦσιν οἱ μαθηταί σου κατὰ τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν πρεσβυτέρων, ἀλλὰ κοιναῖς χερσὶν ἐσθίουσιν τὸν ἄρτον; 7.6. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἐπροφήτευσεν Ἠσαίας περὶ ὑμῶν τῶν ὑποκριτῶν, ὡς γέγραπται ὅτι Οὗτος ὁ λαὸς τοῖς χείλεσίν με τιμᾷ, ἡ δὲ καρδία αὐτῶν πόρρω ἀπέχει ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ· 7.7. μάτην δὲ σέβονταί με, διδάσκοντες διδασκαλίας ἐντάλματα ἀνθρώπων· 7.8. ἀφέντες τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ κρατεῖτε τὴν παράδοσιν τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 7.9. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Καλῶς ἀθετεῖτε τὴν ἐντολὴν τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα τὴν παράδοσιν ὑμῶν τηρήσητε· 7.10. Μωυσῆς γὰρ εἶπεν Τίμα τὸν πατέρα σου καὶ τὴν μητέρα σου, καί Ὁ κακολογῶν πατέρα ἢ μητερα θανάτῳ τελευτάτω· 7.11. ὑμεῖς δὲ λέγετε Ἐὰν εἴπῃ ἄνθρωπος τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί Κορβάν, ὅ ἐστιν Δῶρον, ὃ ἐὰν ἐξ ἐμοῦ ὠφεληθῇς, 7.12. οὐκέτι ἀφίετε αὐτὸν οὐδὲν ποιῆσαι τῷ πατρὶ ἢ τῇ μητρί, 7.13. ἀκυροῦντες τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ παραδόσει ὑμῶν ᾗ παρεδώκατε· καὶ παρόμοια τοιαῦτα πολλὰ ποιεῖτε. 7.14. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος πάλιν τὸν ὄχλον ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ἀκούσατέ μου πάντες καὶ σύνετε. 7.15. οὐδὲν ἔστιν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς αὐτὸν ὃ δύναται κοινῶσαι αὐτόν· ἀλλὰ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 9.5. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Πέτρος λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ Ῥαββεί, καλόν ἐστιν ἡμᾶς ὧδε εἶναι, καὶ ποιήσωμεν τρεῖς σκηνάς, σοὶ μίαν καὶ Μωυσεῖ μίαν καὶ Ἠλείᾳ μίαν. 12.36. αὐτὸς Δαυεὶδ εἶπεν ἐν τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἁγίῳ Εἶπεν Κύριος τῷ κυρίῳ μου Κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου ἕως ἂν θῶ τοὺς ἐχθρούς σου ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν σου· 1.4. John came baptizing in the wilderness and preaching the baptism of repentance for forgiveness of sins. 7.5. The Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why don't your disciples walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat their bread with unwashed hands?" 7.6. He answered them, "Well did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, 'This people honors me with their lips, But their heart is far from me. 7.7. But in vain do they worship me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.' 7.8. "For you set aside the commandment of God, and hold tightly to the tradition of men -- the washing of pitchers and cups, and you do many other such things." 7.9. He said to them, "Full well do you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. 7.10. For Moses said, 'Honor your father and your mother;' and, 'He who speaks evil of father or mother, let him be put to death.' 7.11. But you say, 'If a man tells his father or his mother, "Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban, that is to say, given to God;"' 7.12. then you no longer allow him to do anything for his father or his mother, 7.13. making void the word of God by your tradition, which you have handed down. You do many things like this." 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 9.5. Peter answered Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here. Let's make three tents: one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 12.36. For David himself said in the Holy Spirit, 'The Lord said to my Lord, Sit at my right hand, Until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet.'
47. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20, 4.5, 8.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256, 408
3.20. Ἰδοὺ ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω· ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν, εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ δειπνήσω μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς μετʼ ἐμοῦ. 4.5. καὶ ἐκ τοῦ θρόνουἐκπορεύονται ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶκαὶβρονταί·καὶ ἑπτὰ λαμπάδες πυρὸς καιόμεναι ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, ἅ εἰσιν τὰ ἑπτὰ πνεύματα τοῦ θεοῦ, 8.10. Καὶ ὁ τρίτος ἄγγελος ἐσάλπισεν· καὶἔπεσεν ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἀστὴρμέγας καιόμενος ὡς λαμπάς, καὶ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὸ τρίτον τῶν ποταμῶν καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς πηγὰς τῶν ὑδάτων. 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 8.10. The third angel sounded, and a great star fell from the sky, burning like a torch, and it fell on one third of the rivers, and on the springs of the waters.
48. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.4, 3.10-3.14, 6.15, 7.44, 12.35-12.38, 16.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 43, 125, 132, 256, 257, 575
1.1. ΕΠΕΙΔΗΠΕΡ ΠΟΛΛΟΙ ἐπεχείρησαν ἀνατάξασθαι διήγησιν περὶ τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων, 1.2. καθὼς παρέδοσαν ἡμῖν οἱ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς αὐτόπται καὶ ὑπηρέται γενόμενοι τοῦ λόγου, 1.3. ἔδοξε κἀμοὶ παρηκολουθηκότι ἄνωθεν πᾶσιν ἀκριβῶς καθεξῆς σοι γράψαι, κράτιστε Θεόφιλε, 1.4. ἵνα ἐπιγνῷς περὶ ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων τὴν ἀσφάλειαν. 3.10. καὶ ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ ὄχλοι λέγοντες Τί οὖν ποιήσωμεν; 3.11. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ὁ ἔχων δύο χιτῶνας μεταδότω τῷ μὴ ἔχοντι, καὶ ὁ ἔχων βρώματα ὁμοίως ποιείτω. 3.12. ἦλθον δὲ καὶ τελῶναι βαπτισθῆναι καὶ εἶπαν πρὸς αὐτόν Διδάσκαλε, τί ποιήσωμεν; 3.13. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μηδὲν πλέον παρὰ τὸ διατεταγμένον ὑμῖν πράσσετε. 3.14. ἐπηρώτων δὲ αὐτὸν καὶ στρατευόμενοι λέγοντες Τί ποιήσωμεν καὶ ἡμεῖς; καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Μηδένα διασείσητε μηδὲ συκοφαντήσητε, καὶ ἀρκεῖσθε τοῖς ὀψωνίοις ὑμῶν. 6.15. καὶ Μαθθαῖον καὶ Θωμᾶν [καὶ] Ἰάκωβον Ἁλφαίου καὶ Σίμωνα τὸν καλούμενον Ζηλωτὴν 7.44. καὶ στραφεὶς πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα τῷ Σίμωνι ἔφη Βλέπεις ταύτην τὴν γυναῖκα; εἰσῆλθόν σου εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν, ὕδωρ μοι ἐπὶ πόδας οὐκ ἔδωκας· αὕτη δὲ τοῖς δάκρυσιν ἔβρεξέν μου τοὺς πόδας καὶ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς ἐξέμαξεν. 12.35. Ἔστωσαν ὑμῶν αἱ ὀσφύες περιεζωσμέναι καὶ οἱ λύχνοι καιόμενοι, 12.36. καὶ ὑμεῖς ὅμοιοι ἀνθρώποις προσδεχομένοις τὸν κύριον ἑαυτῶν πότε ἀναλύσῃ ἐκ τῶν γάμων, ἵνα ἐλθόντος καὶ κρούσαντος εὐθέως ἀνοίξωσιν αὐτῷ. 12.37. μακάριοι οἱ δοῦλοι ἐκεῖνοι, οὓς ἐλθὼν ὁ κύριος εὑρήσει γρηγοροῦντας· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι περιζώσεται καὶ ἀνακλινεῖ αὐτοὺς καὶ παρελθὼν διακονήσει αὐτοῖς. 12.38. κἂν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ κἂν ἐν τῇ τρίτῃ φυλακῇ ἔλθῃ καὶ εὕρῃ οὕτως, μακάριοί εἰσιν ἐκεῖνοι. 16.16. Ὁ νόμος καὶ οἱ προφῆται μέχρι Ἰωάνου· ἀπὸ τότε ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ εὐαγγελίζεται καὶ πᾶς εἰς αὐτὴν βιάζεται. 1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us, 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us, 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 3.10. The multitudes asked him, "What then must we do?" 3.11. He answered them, "He who has two coats, let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise." 3.12. Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do?" 3.13. He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you." 3.14. Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?"He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages." 6.15. Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot; 7.44. Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 12.35. "Let your loins be girded and your lamps burning. 12.36. Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the marriage feast; that, when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him. 12.37. Blessed are those servants, whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most assuredly I tell you, that he will dress himself, and make them recline, and will come and serve them. 12.38. They will be blessed if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. 16.16. The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the gospel of the Kingdom of God is preached, and everyone is forcing his way into it.
49. New Testament, John, 3.22, 4.1, 13.5, 18.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 125, 132, 256
3.22. Μετὰ ταῦτα ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν γῆν, καὶ ἐκεῖ διέτριβεν μετʼ αὐτῶν καὶ ἐβάπτιζεν. 4.1. ?̔Ως οὖν ἔγνω ὁ κύριος ὅτι ἤκουσαν οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ὅτι Ἰησοῦς πλείονας μαθητὰς ποιεῖ καὶ βαπτίζει [ἢ] Ἰωάνης, 13.5. εἶτα βάλλει ὕδωρ εἰς τὸν νιπτῆρα, καὶ ἤρξατο νίπτειν τοὺς πόδας τῶν μαθητῶν καὶ ἐκμάσσειν τῷ λεντίῳ ᾧ ἦν διεζωσμένος. 18.5. ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον. λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἐγώ εἰμι. ἱστήκει δὲ καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν μετʼ αὐτῶν. 3.22. After these things, Jesus came with his disciples into the land of Judea. He stayed there with them, and baptized. 4.1. Therefore when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus was making and baptizing more disciples than John 13.5. Then he poured water into the basin, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him. 18.5. They answered him, "Jesus of Nazareth."Jesus said to them, "I AM."Judas also, who betrayed him, was standing with them.
50. New Testament, Romans, 11.13, 16.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 132, 645
11.13. Ὑμῖν δὲ λέγω τοῖς ἔθνεσιν. ἐφʼ ὅσον μὲν οὖν εἰμὶ ἐγὼ ἐθνῶν ἀπόστολος, τὴν διακονίαν μου δοξάζω, 16.4. οἵτινες ὑπὲρ τῆς ψυχῆς μου τὸν ἑαυτῶν τράχηλον ὑπέθηκαν, οἷς οὐκ ἐγὼ μόνος εὐχαριστῶ ἀλλὰ καὶ πᾶσαι αἱ ἐκκλησίαι τῶν ἐθνῶν, 11.13. For I speak to you who are Gentiles. Since then as I am an apostle to Gentiles, I glorify my ministry; 16.4. who for my life, laid down their own necks; to whom not only I give thanks, but also all the assemblies of the Gentiles.
51. New Testament, Philippians, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 322
3.6. κατὰ ζῆλος διώκων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, κατὰ δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν νόμῳ γενόμενος ἄμεμπτος. 3.6. concerning zeal, persecuting the assembly; concerning the righteousness which is in the law, found blameless.
52. New Testament, Hebrews, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 408
53. New Testament, Galatians, 1.13-1.14, 1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 322, 575, 645
1.13. Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν, 1.14. καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων. 1.16. ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἵνα εὐαγγελίζωμαι αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εὐθέως οὐ προσανεθέμην σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι, 1.13. For you have heard of my way ofliving in time past in the Jews' religion, how that beyond measure Ipersecuted the assembly of God, and ravaged it. 1.14. I advanced inthe Jews' religion beyond many of my own age among my countrymen, beingmore exceedingly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 1.16. to reveal his Son in me,that I might preach him among the Gentiles, I didn't immediately conferwith flesh and blood,
54. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 257
6.14. στῆτε οὖν περιζωσάμενοι τὴν ὀσφὺν ὑμῶν ἐν ἀληθεία, καὶ ἐνδυσάμενοι τὸν θώρακα τῆς δικαιοσύνης, 6.14. Stand therefore, having the utility belt of truth buckled around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness,
55. Mishnah, Peah, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 393
2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.",
56. Tosefta, Berachot, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
57. Mishnah, Kelim, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256
2.8. "הַלַּפִּיד, טָמֵא. וּבֵית שִׁקְעוֹ שֶׁל נֵר, מִטַּמֵּא בַאֲוִיר. הַמַּסְרֵק שֶׁל צַרְצוּר, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר מְטַהֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְטַמְּאִין: \n", 2.8. "A torch is susceptible to impurity. And the reservoir of a lamp contracts impurity through its air- space. The comb of a tzartzur: Rabbi Eliezer says: it is not susceptible to impurity, But the sages say that it is susceptible.",
58. Tosefta, Miqvaot, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 123
6.1. "ארץ הכותים טהורה מקוותיה ומדוריה ושביליה טהורות. ארץ העמים טמאה מקוותיה ומדוריה ושביליה טמאין. מקוואות העמים שבחוצה לארץ כשרים לבעלי קריין ופסולין לכל הטמאין ושבארץ ישראל שחוץ מן המפתח לכל הטמאין וא\"צ לומר לבעלי קריין ושלפנים מן המפתח פסולין לבעלי קריין וא\"צ לומר לכל הטמאין דברי ר\"מ ר' יהודה אומר כשרין לבעלי קריין מפני שבעל קרי טובל במ' סאה בכל מקום. ושחוץ מן המפתח כשרין אף לנדות. אמר רשב\"ג הלכה אין לי. אלא מעשה במערה שהיתה בגינתו של מוסק אחד בדמיו שהיו כהנים כובשין את הגדר ויורדין וטובלין לתוכה. <א\"ר יהודה> מעשה במקוה שבין אושא לשפרעם <ושל שפרעם היה> והיה ר' דוסא מושיב בו <עליו> ב' תלמידי חכמים כדי שיקוו בו המים מ' סאה. שוב מעשה ברום בתענת שקוות יתר מאלפים כור ובאו ושאלו את ר' חנניא בן תרדיון ופסל שאני אומר נכנסו עובדי כוכבים וזלפוה בלילה וחזרו ומילאו אותו בקילון. ומעשה בר\"ג ואונקלוס הגר שהיו באשקלון וטבל ר\"ג במרחץ ואונקלוס בים. אמר ר' יהושע בן קופסאי עמהן הייתי ולא טבל ר\"ג אלא בים.",
59. Tosefta, Niddah, 6.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 126
60. Tosefta, Shabbat, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 126
61. Tosefta, Zevahim, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
62. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 1.5, 4.1, 4.5, 5.4, 5.6, 10.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128
1.5. "מֵאֵימָתַי טָהֳרָתָן. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּרְבּוּ וְיִשְׁטֹפוּ. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, רַבּוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁטְפוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שָׁטְפוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא רַבּוּ. כְּשֵׁרִין לַחַלָּה וְלִטֹּל מֵהֶן לַיָּדָיִם: \n", 4.1. "הַמַּנִּיחַ כֵּלִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר, אֶחָד כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים וְאֶחָד כֵּלִים קְטַנִּים, אֲפִלּוּ כְלֵי גְלָלִים, כְּלֵי אֲבָנִים, כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה, פּוֹסְלִין אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. אֶחָד הַמַּנִּיחַ וְאֶחָד הַשּׁוֹכֵחַ, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְטַהֲרִין בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ. אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר, נִמְנוּ וְרַבּוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי עַל בֵּית הִלֵּל. וּמוֹדִים בְּשׁוֹכֵחַ בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא טָהוֹר. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, עֲדַיִין מַחֲלֹקֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ עוֹמָדֶת: \n", 4.5. "הַשֹּׁקֶת שֶׁבַּסֶּלַע, אֵין מְמַלְּאִין מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ, וְאֵין מַזִּין מִמֶּנָּה, וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וְאֵינָהּ פּוֹסֶלֶת אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. הָיְתָה כְלִי וְחִבְּרָהּ בְּסִיד, מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ, וּמְקַדְּשִׁין בָּהּ, וּמַזִּין מִמֶּנָּה, וּצְרִיכָה צָמִיד פָּתִיל, וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה. נִקְּבָה מִלְּמַטָּה אוֹ מִן הַצַּד וְאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְקַבֵּל מַיִם כָּל שֶׁהֵם, כְּשֵׁרָה. וְכַמָּה יִהְיֶה בַנֶּקֶב. כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן בְּתֵירָא, מַעֲשֶׂה בְשֹׁקֶת יֵהוּא שֶׁהָיְתָה בִירוּשָׁלַיִם, וְהָיְתָה נְקוּבָה כִשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד, וְהָיוּ כָל הַטָּהֳרוֹת שֶׁבִּירוּשָׁלַיִם נַעֲשׂוֹת עַל גַּבָּהּ, וְשָׁלְחוּ בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּפְחָתוּהָ, שֶׁבֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, עַד שֶׁיִּפְחֲתוּ רֻבָּהּ: \n", 5.4. "כָּל הַיַּמִּים כְּמִקְוֶה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית א), וּלְמִקְוֵה הַמַּיִם קָרָא יַמִּים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַיָּם הַגָּדוֹל כְּמִקְוֶה. לֹא נֶאֱמַר יַמִּים, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ מִינֵי יַמִּים הַרְבֵּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַיַּמִּים מְטַהֲרִים בְּזוֹחֲלִין, וּפְסוּלִין לַזָּבִין וְלַמְצֹרָעִים, וּלְקַדֵּשׁ מֵהֶם מֵי חַטָּאת: \n", 5.6. "גַּל שֶׁנִּתְלַשׁ וּבוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, וְנָפַל עַל הָאָדָם וְעַל הַכֵּלִים, טְהוֹרִים. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ אַרְבָּעִים סְאָה, טוֹבְלִין וּמַטְבִּילִין. מַטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרִיצִין וּבִנְעָצִים וּבְפַרְסַת הַחֲמוֹר הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בַּבִּקְעָה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין בְּחַרְדָּלִית. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין. וּמוֹדִים שֶׁהוּא גוֹדֵר כֵּלִים וְטוֹבֵל בָּהֶם. וְכֵלִים שֶׁגָּדַר בָּהֶם, לֹא הֻטְבְּלוּ: \n", 10.6. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין חַמִּין בְּצוֹנֵן וְלֹא צוֹנֵן בְּחַמִּין, לֹא יָפִים בְּרָעִים וְלֹא רָעִים בְּיָפִים. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מַטְבִּילִין. כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא מָלֵא מַשְׁקִין וְהִטְבִּילוֹ, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבָל. מָלֵא מֵי רַגְלַיִם, רוֹאִים אוֹתָם כְּאִלּוּ הֵם מָיִם. מָלֵא מֵי חַטָּאת, עַד שֶׁיִּרְבּוּ הַמַּיִם עַל מֵי חַטָּאת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ כְלִי מַחֲזִיק כּוֹר וְאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא רְבִיעִית, כְּאִלּוּ לֹא טָבָל: \n" 1.5. "When do they become clean?Bet Shammai say: when their contents have been increased [by more than the original quantity] and they overflow. Bet Hillel say: when their contents have been increased [by more than their original quantity] even if they do not overflow. Rabbi Shimon says: when they overflow although their contents have not been so increased. [These] are valid [for preparing dough] for hallah and for the washing of the hands.", 4.1. "If one put vessels under a water-spout, whether they be large vessels or small vessels or even vessels of dung, vessels of stone or earthen vessels, they make the mikveh invalid. It is all alike whether they were put there [purposely] or were [merely] forgotten, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel declare it clean in the case of one who forgets. Rabbi Meir said: they voted and Bet Shammai had a majority over Bet Hillel. Yet they agree in the case of one who forgets [and leaves vessels] in a courtyard that the mikveh remains clean. Rabbi Yose said: the controversy still remains as it was.", 4.5. "In the case of a trough in a rock: One may not fill up [the hatat waters] from it, nor may the [hatat waters] be consecrated in it, nor may one sprinkle from it. And it does not require a tightly stopped-up covering, And it does not invalidate the mikveh. If it was a vessel and had been joined to the ground with lime: One may fill up the hatat waters from it and the hatat waters may be consecrated in it, and one may sprinkle from it, And it requires a tightly stopped-up covering; And it invalidates the mikveh invalid. If a hole was made in it below or at the side so that it could not contain water in however small a quantity, it is valid. And how large must the hole be? Like the tube of a water-skin. Rabbi Yehudah ben Batera said: it happened in the case of the trough of Yehu in Jerusalem that there was a hole in it like the tube of a water-skin, all the pure things in Jerusalem were made using it. But Bet Shammai sent and broke it down, for Bet Shammai say: [it remains a vessel] unless the greater part of it is broken down.", 5.4. "All seas are equivalent to a mikveh, for it is said, \"And the gathering (ulemikveh) of the waters He called the seas\" (Genesis 1:10), the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: only the Great Sea is equivalent to a mikveh, for it says \"seas\" only because there are in it many kinds of seas. Rabbi Yose says: all seas afford cleanness when running, and yet they are unfit for zavim and metzoraim and for the preparation of the hatat waters.", 5.6. "If a wave was separated [from the sea] and was forty seahs, and it fell on a man or on vessels, they become clean. Any place containing forty seahs is valid for immersing oneself and for immersing other things. One may immerse in trenches or in ditches or even in a donkey-track whose water is connected in a valley. Bet Shammai say: one may immerse in a rain torrent. But Bet Hillel say: one may not immerse. They agree that one may block its flow with vessels and immerse oneself in it, but the vessels with which the flow is blocked are not thereby [validly] immersed.", 10.6. "Bet Shammai say: hot water may not be immersed in cold, or cold in hot, foul in fresh or fresh in foul. But Bet Hillel say: it may be immersed. A vessel full of liquids which one immersed, it is as if it has not been immersed. If it was full of urine, this is reckoned as water. If it contained hatat waters, [it is unclean] unless the water [of the mikveh which enters the vessel] exceeds the hatat waters. Rabbi Yose says: even if a vessel with the capacity of a kor contains but a quarter-log, it is as if it had not been immersed."
63. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.1-1.4, 1.146, 1.203, 1.333, 3.223-3.286, 4.180, 4.196-4.301, 11.6, 11.146, 11.168-11.169, 11.173, 11.312, 12.8, 14.255, 15.259, 18.259 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 43, 149, 167, 202, 203, 208
1.1. 1. Those who undertake to write histories, do not, I perceive, take that trouble on one and the same account, but for many reasons, and those such as are very different one from another. 1.2. For some of them apply themselves to this part of learning to show their skill in composition, and that they may therein acquire a reputation for speaking finely. Others of them there are who write histories in order to gratify those that happen to be concerned in them, and on that account have spared no pains, but rather gone beyond their own abilities in the performance. 1.3. But others there are, who, of necessity and by force, are driven to write history, because they are concerned in the facts, and so cannot excuse themselves from committing them to writing, for the advantage of posterity; nay, there are not a few who are induced to draw their historical facts out of darkness into light, and to produce them for the benefit of the public, on account of the great importance of the facts themselves with which they have been concerned. 1.4. Now of these several reasons for writing history, I must profess the two last were my own reasons also; for since I was myself interested in that war which we Jews had with the Romans, and knew myself its particular actions, and what conclusion it had, I was forced to give the history of it, because I saw that others perverted the truth of those actions in their writings. 1.146. Sala was the son of Arphaxad; and his son was Heber, from whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews. Heber begat Joetan and Phaleg: he was called Phaleg, because he was born at the dispersion of the nations to their several countries; for Phaleg among the Hebrews signifies division. 1.203. God then cast a thunderbolt upon the city, and set it on fire, with its inhabitants; and laid waste the country with the like burning, as I formerly said when I wrote the Jewish War. But Lot’s wife continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, and being too nicely inquisitive what would become of it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains at this day. 1.333. He also commanded him to be called Israel, which in the Hebrew tongue signifies one that struggled with the divine angel. These promises were made at the prayer of Jacob; for when he perceived him to be the angel of God, he desired he would signify to him what should befall him hereafter. And when the angel had said what is before related, he disappeared; 3.223. which laws were preferable to what have been devised by human understanding, and proved to be firmly observed for all time to come, as being believed to be the gift of God, insomuch that the Hebrews did not transgress any of those laws, either as tempted in times of peace by luxury, or in times of war by distress of affairs. But I say no more here concerning them, because I have resolved to compose another work concerning our laws. 3.224. 1. I will now, however, make mention of a few of our laws which belong to purifications, and the like sacred offices, since I am accidentally come to this matter of sacrifices. These sacrifices were of two sorts; of those sorts one was offered for private persons, and the other for the people in general; and they are done in two different ways. 3.225. In the one case, what is slain is burnt, as a whole burnt-offering, whence that name is given to it; but the other is a thank-offering, and is designed for feasting those that sacrifice. I will speak of the former. 3.226. Suppose a private man offer a burnt-offering, he must slay either a bull, a lamb, or a kid of the goats, and the two latter of the first year, though of bulls he is permitted to sacrifice those of a greater age; but all burnt-offerings are to be of males. When they are slain, the priests sprinkle the blood round about the altar; 3.227. they then cleanse the bodies, and divide them into parts, and salt them with salt, and lay them upon the altar, while the pieces of wood are piled one upon another, and the fire is burning; they next cleanse the feet of the sacrifices, and the inwards, in an accurate manner and so lay them to the rest to be purged by the fire, while the priests receive the hides. This is the way of offering a burnt-offering. 3.228. 2. But those that offer thank-offerings do indeed sacrifice the same creatures, but such as are unblemished, and above a year old; however, they may take either males or females. They also sprinkle the altar with their blood; but they lay upon the altar the kidneys and the caul, and all the fat, and the lobe of the liver, together with the rump of the lamb; 3.229. then, giving the breast and the right shoulder to the priests, the offerers feast upon the remainder of the flesh for two days; and what remains they burn. 3.230. 3. The sacrifices for sins are offered in the same manner as is the thank-offering. But those who are unable to purchase complete sacrifices, offer two pigeons, or turtle doves; the one of which is made a burnt-offering to God, the other they give as food to the priests. But we shall treat more accurately about the oblation of these creatures in our discourse concerning sacrifices. 3.231. But if a person fall into sin by ignorance, he offers an ewe lamb, or a female kid of the goats, of the same age; and the priests sprinkle the blood at the altar, not after the former manner, but at the corners of it. They also bring the kidneys and the rest of the fat, together with the lobe of the liver, to the altar, while the priests bear away the hides and the flesh, and spend it in the holy place, on the same day; for the law does not permit them to leave of it until the morning. 3.232. But if any one sin, and is conscious of it himself, but hath nobody that can prove it upon him, he offers a ram, the law enjoining him so to do; the flesh of which the priests eat, as before, in the holy place, on the same day. And if the rulers offer sacrifices for their sins, they bring the same oblations that private men do; only they so far differ, that they are to bring for sacrifices a bull or a kid of the goats, both males. 3.233. 4. Now the law requires, both in private and public sacrifices, that the finest flour be also brought; for a lamb the measure of one tenth deal,—for a ram two,—and for a bull three. This they consecrate upon the altar, when it is mingled with oil; 3.234. for oil is also brought by those that sacrifice; for a bull the half of an hin, and for a ram the third part of the same measure, and one quarter of it for a lamb. This hin is an ancient Hebrew measure, and is equivalent to two Athenian choas (or congiuses). They bring the same quantity of oil which they do of wine, and they pour the wine about the altar; 3.235. but if any one does not offer a complete sacrifice of animals, but brings fine flour only for a vow, he throws a handful upon the altar as its first-fruits, while the priests take the rest for their food, either boiled or mingled with oil, but made into cakes of bread. But whatsoever it be that a priest himself offers, it must of necessity be all burnt. 3.236. Now the law forbids us to sacrifice any animal at the same time with its dam; and, in other cases, not till the eighth day after its birth. Other sacrifices there are also appointed for escaping distempers, or for other occasions, in which meat-offerings are consumed, together with the animals that are sacrificed; of which it is not lawful to leave any part till the next day, only the priests are to take their own share. 3.237. 1. The law requires, that out of the public expenses a lamb of the first year be killed every day, at the beginning and at the ending of the day; but on the seventh day, which is called the Sabbath, they kill two, and sacrifice them in the same manner. 3.238. At the new moon, they both perform the daily sacrifices, and slay two bulls, with seven lambs of the first year, and a kid of the goats also, for the expiation of sins; that is, if they have sinned through ignorance. 3.239. 2. But on the seventh month, which the Macedonians call Hyperberetaeus, they make an addition to those already mentioned, and sacrifice a bull, a ram, and seven lambs, and a kid of the goats, for sins. 3.240. 3. On the tenth day of the same lunar month, they fast till the evening; and this day they sacrifice a bull, and two rams, and seven lambs, and a kid of the goats, for sins. 3.241. And, besides these, they bring two kids of the goats; the one of which is sent alive out of the limits of the camp into the wilderness for the scapegoat, and to be an expiation for the sins of the whole multitude; but the other is brought into a place of great cleanness, within the limits of the camp, and is there burnt, with its skin, without any sort of cleansing. 3.242. With this goat was burnt a bull, not brought by the people, but by the high priest, at his own charges; which, when it was slain, he brought of the blood into the holy place, together with the blood of the kid of the goats, and sprinkled the ceiling with his finger seven times, 3.243. as also its pavement, and again as often toward the most holy place, and about the golden altar: he also at last brings it into the open court, and sprinkles it about the great altar. Besides this, they set the extremities, and the kidneys, and the fat, with the lobe of the liver, upon the altar. The high priest likewise presents a ram to God as a burnt-offering. 3.244. 4. Upon the fifteenth day of the same month, when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year; 3.245. as also that when we should arrive at our own country, and come to that city which we should have then for our metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built, and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings, that we should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of the pome citron: 3.246. That the burnt-offering on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of thirteen bulls, and fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation for sins; and on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the goats; but abating one of the bulls every day till they amounted to seven only. 3.247. On the eighth day all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins. And this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews, when they pitch their tabernacles. 3.248. 5. In the month of Xanthicus, which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries, (for in this month it was that we were delivered from bondage under the Egyptians,) the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice which I before told you we slew when we came out of Egypt, and which was called the Passover; and so we do celebrate this passover in companies, leaving nothing of what we sacrifice till the day following. 3.249. The feast of unleavened bread succeeds that of the passover, and falls on the fifteenth day of the month, and continues seven days, wherein they feed on unleavened bread; on every one of which days two bulls are killed, and one ram, and seven lambs. Now these lambs are entirely burnt, besides the kid of the goats which is added to all the rest, for sins; for it is intended as a feast for the priest on every one of those days. 3.250. But on the second day of unleavened bread, which is the sixteenth day of the month, they first partake of the fruits of the earth, for before that day they do not touch them. And while they suppose it proper to honor God, from whom they obtain this plentiful provision, in the first place, they offer the first-fruits of their barley, and that in the manner following: 3.251. They take a handful of the ears, and dry them, then beat them small, and purge the barley from the bran; they then bring one tenth deal to the altar, to God; and, casting one handful of it upon the fire, they leave the rest for the use of the priest. And after this it is that they may publicly or privately reap their harvest. They also at this participation of the first-fruits of the earth, sacrifice a lamb, as a burnt-offering to God. 3.252. 6. When a week of weeks has passed over after this sacrifice, (which weeks contain forty and nine days,) on the fiftieth day, which is Pentecost, but is called by the Hebrews Asartha, which signifies Pentecost, they bring to God a loaf, made of wheat flour, of two tenth deals, with leaven; and for sacrifices they bring two lambs; 3.253. and when they have only presented them to God, they are made ready for supper for the priests; nor is it permitted to leave any thing of them till the day following. They also slay three bullocks for a burnt-offering, and two rams; and fourteen lambs, with two kids of the goats, for sins; 3.254. nor is there anyone of the festivals but in it they offer burnt-offerings; they also allow themselves to rest on every one of them. Accordingly, the law prescribes in them all what kinds they are to sacrifice, and how they are to rest entirely, and must slay sacrifices, in order to feast upon them. 3.255. 7. However, out of the common charges, baked bread (was set on the table of shew-bread), without leaven, of twenty-four tenth deals of flour, for so much is spent upon this bread; two heaps of these were baked, they were baked the day before the Sabbath, but were brought into the holy place on the morning of the Sabbath, and set upon the holy table, six on a heap, one loaf still standing over against another; 3.256. where two golden cups full of frankincense were also set upon them, and there they remained till another Sabbath, and then other loaves were brought in their stead, while the loaves were given to the priests for their food, and the frankincense was burnt in that sacred fire wherein all their offerings were burnt also; and so other frankincense was set upon the loaves instead of what was there before. 3.257. The high priest also, of his own charges, offered a sacrifice, and that twice every day. It was made of flour mingled with oil, and gently baked by the fire; the quantity was one tenth deal of flour; he brought the half of it to the fire in the morning, and the other half at night. The account of these sacrifices I shall give more accurately hereafter; but I think I have premised what for the present may be sufficient concerning them. 3.258. 1. Moses took out the tribe of Levi from communicating with the rest of the people, and set them apart to be a holy tribe; and purified them by water taken from perpetual springs, and with such sacrifices as were usually offered to God on the like occasions. He delivered to them also the tabernacle, and the sacred vessels, and the other curtains, which were made for covering the tabernacle, that they might minister under the conduct of the priests, who had been already consecrated to God. 3.259. 2. He also determined concerning animals; which of them might be used for food, and which they were obliged to abstain from; which matters, when this work shall give me occasion, shall be further explained; and the causes shall be added by which he was moved to allot some of them to be our food, and enjoined us to abstain from others. 3.260. However, he entirely forbade us the use of blood for food, and esteemed it to contain the soul and spirit. He also forbade us to eat the flesh of an animal that died of itself, as also the caul, and the fat of goats, and sheep, and bulls. 3.261. 3. He also ordered that those whose bodies were afflicted with leprosy, and that had a gonorrhea, should not come into the city; nay, he removed the women, when they had their natural purgations, till the seventh day; after which he looked on them as pure, and permitted them to come in again. 3.262. The law permits those also who have taken care of funerals to come in after the same manner, when this number of days is over; but if any continued longer than that number of days in a state of pollution, the law appointed the offering two lambs for a sacrifice; the one of which they are to purge by fire, and for the other, the priests take it for themselves. 3.263. In the same manner do those sacrifice who have had the gonorrhea. But he that sheds his seed in his sleep, if he go down into cold water, has the same privilege with those that have lawfully accompanied with their wives. 3.264. And for the lepers, he suffered them not to come into the city at all, nor to live with any others, as if they were in effect dead persons; but if any one had obtained by prayer to God, the recovery from that distemper, and had gained a healthful complexion again, such a one returned thanks to God, with several sorts of sacrifices; concerning which we will speak hereafter. 3.265. 4. Whence one cannot but smile at those who say that Moses was himself afflicted with the leprosy when he fled out of Egypt, and that he became the conductor of those who on that account left that country, and led them into the land of Canaan; 3.266. for had this been true, Moses would not have made these laws to his own dishonor, which indeed it was more likely he would have opposed, if others had endeavored to introduce them; and this the rather, because there are lepers in many nations, who yet are in honor, and not only free from reproach and avoidance, but who have been great captains of armies, and been intrusted with high offices in the commonwealth, and have had the privilege of entering into holy places and temples; 3.267. o that nothing hindered, but if either Moses himself, or the multitude that was with him, had been liable to such a misfortune in the color of his skin, he might have made laws about them for their credit and advantage, and have laid no manner of difficulty upon them. 3.268. Accordingly, it is a plain case, that it is out of violent prejudice only that they report these things about us. But Moses was pure from any such distemper, and lived with countrymen who were pure of it also, and thence made the laws which concerned others that had the distemper. He did this for the honor of God. But as to these matters, let every one consider them after what manner he pleases. 3.269. 5. As to the women, when they have born a child, Moses forbade them to come into the temple, or touch the sacrifices, before forty days were over, supposing it to be a boy; but if she hath born a girl, the law is that she cannot be admitted before twice that number of days be over. And when after the before-mentioned time appointed for them, they perform their sacrifices, the priests distribute them before God. 3.270. 6. But if any one suspect that his wife has been guilty of adultery, he was to bring a tenth deal of barley flour; they then cast one handful to God and gave the rest of it to the priests for food. One of the priests set the woman at the gates that are turned towards the temple, and took the veil from her head, and wrote the name of God on parchment, 3.271. and enjoined her to swear that she had not at all injured her husband; and to wish that, if she had violated her chastity, her right thigh might be put out of joint; that her belly might swell; and that she might die thus: but that if her husband, by the violence of his affection, and of the jealousy which arose from it, had been rashly moved to this suspicion, that she might bear a male child in the tenth month. 3.272. Now when these oaths were over, the priest wiped the name of God out of the parchment, and wrung the water into a vial. He also took some dust out of the temple, if any happened to be there, and put a little of it into the vial, and gave it her to drink; whereupon the woman, if she were unjustly accused, conceived with child, and brought it to perfection in her womb: 3.273. but if she had broken her faith of wedlock to her husband, and had sworn falsely before God, she died in a reproachful manner; her thigh fell off from her, and her belly swelled with a dropsy. And these are the ceremonies about sacrifices, and about the purifications thereto belonging, which Moses provided for his countrymen. He also prescribed the following laws to them:— 3.274. 1. As for adultery, Moses forbade it entirely, as esteeming it a happy thing that men should be wise in the affairs of wedlock; and that it was profitable both to cities and families that children should be known to be genuine. He also abhorred men’s lying with their mothers, as one of the greatest crimes; and the like for lying with the father’s wife, and with aunts, and sisters, and sons’ wives, as all instances of abominable wickedness. 3.275. He also forbade a man to lie with his wife when she was defiled by her natural purgation: and not to come near brute beasts; nor to approve of the lying with a male, which was to hunt after unlawful pleasures on account of beauty. To those who were guilty of such insolent behavior, he ordained death for their punishment. 3.276. 2. As for the priests, he prescribed to them a double degree of purity for he restrained them in the instances above, and moreover forbade them to marry harlots. He also forbade them to marry a slave, or a captive, and such as got their living by cheating trades, and by keeping inns; as also a woman parted from her husband, on any account whatsoever. 3.277. Nay, he did not think it proper for the high priest to marry even the widow of one that was dead, though he allowed that to the priests; but he permitted him only to marry a virgin, and to retain her. Whence it is that the high priest is not to come near to one that is dead, although the rest are not prohibited from coming near to their brethren, or parents, or children, when they are dead; 3.278. but they are to be unblemished in all respects. He ordered that the priest who had any blemish, should have his portion indeed among the priests, but he forbade him to ascend the altar, or to enter into the holy house. He also enjoined them, not only to observe purity in their sacred ministrations, but in their daily conversation, that it might be unblamable also. 3.279. And on this account it is that those who wear the sacerdotal garments are without spot, and eminent for their purity and sobriety: nor are they permitted to drink wine so long as they wear those garments. Moreover, they offer sacrifices that are entire, and have no defect whatsoever. 3.280. 3. And truly Moses gave them all these precepts, being such as were observed during his own lifetime; but though he lived now in the wilderness, yet did he make provision how they might observe the same laws when they should have taken the land of Canaan. 3.281. He gave them rest to the land from ploughing and planting every seventh year, as he had prescribed to them to rest from working every seventh day; and ordered, that then what grew of its own accord out of the earth should in common belong to all that pleased to use it, making no distinction in that respect between their own countrymen and foreigners: and he ordained, that they should do the same after seven times seven years, 3.282. which in all are fifty years; and that fiftieth year is called by the Hebrews The Jubilee, wherein debtors are freed from their debts, and slaves are set at liberty; which slaves became such, though they were of the same stock, by transgressing some of those laws the punishment of which was not capital, but they were punished by this method of slavery. 3.283. This year also restores the land to its former possessors in the manner following:—When the Jubilee is come, which name denotes liberty, he that sold the land, and he that bought it, meet together, and make an estimate, on one hand, of the fruits gathered; and, on the other hand, of the expenses laid out upon it. If the fruits gathered come to more than the expenses laid out, he that sold it takes the land again; 3.284. but if the expenses prove more than the fruits, the present possessor receives of the former owner the difference that was wanting, and leaves the land to him; and if the fruits received, and the expenses laid out, prove equal to one another, the present possessor relinquishes it to the former owners. 3.285. Moses would have the same law obtain as to those houses also which were sold in villages; but he made a different law for such as were sold in a city; for if he that sold it tendered the purchaser his money again within a year, he was forced to restore it; but in case a whole year had intervened, the purchaser was to enjoy what he had bought. 3.286. This was the constitution of the laws which Moses learned of God when the camp lay under Mount Sinai, and this he delivered in writing to the Hebrews. 4.180. O children of Israel! there is but one source of happiness for all mankind, the favor of God for he alone is able to give good things to those that deserve them, and to deprive those of them that sin against him; towards whom, if you behave yourselves according to his will, and according to what I, who well understand his mind, do exhort you to, you will both be esteemed blessed, and will be admired by all men; and will never come into misfortunes, nor cease to be happy: you will then preserve the possession of the good things you already have, and will quickly obtain those that you are at present in want of,— 4.196. 4. Accordingly, I shall now first describe this form of government which was agreeable to the dignity and virtue of Moses; and shall thereby inform those that read these Antiquities, what our original settlements were, and shall then proceed to the remaining histories. Now those settlements are all still in writing, as he left them; and we shall add nothing by way of ornament, nor any thing besides what Moses left us; 4.197. only we shall so far innovate, as to digest the several kinds of laws into a regular system; for they were by him left in writing as they were accidentally scattered in their delivery, and as he upon inquiry had learned them of God. On which account I have thought it necessary to premise this observation beforehand, lest any of my own countrymen should blame me, as having been guilty of an offense herein. 4.198. Now part of our constitution will include the laws that belong to our political state. As for those laws which Moses left concerning our common conversation and intercourse one with another, I have reserved that for a discourse concerning our manner of life, and the occasions of those laws; which I propose to myself, with God’s assistance, to write, after I have finished the work I am now upon. 4.199. 5. When you have possessed yourselves of the land of Canaan, and have leisure to enjoy the good things of it, and when you have afterward determined to build cities, if you will do what is pleasing to God, you will have a secure state of happiness. 4.200. Let there be then one city of the land of Canaan, and this situate in the most agreeable place for its goodness, and very eminent in itself, and let it be that which God shall choose for himself by prophetic revelation. Let there also be one temple therein, and one altar, not reared of hewn stones, but of such as you gather together at random; which stones, when they are whited over with mortar, will have a handsome appearance, and be beautiful to the sight. 4.201. Let the ascent to it be not by steps but by an acclivity of raised earth. And let there be neither an altar nor a temple in any other city; for God is but one, and the nation of the Hebrews is but one. 4.202. 6. He that blasphemeth God, let him be stoned; and let him hang upon a tree all that day, and then let him be buried in an ignominious and obscure manner. 4.203. 7. Let those that live as remote as the bounds of the land which the Hebrews shall possess, come to that city where the temple shall be, and this three times in a year, that they may give thanks to God for his former benefits, and may entreat him for those they shall want hereafter; and let them, by this means, maintain a friendly correspondence with one another by such meetings and feastings together, 4.204. for it is a good thing for those that are of the same stock, and under the same institution of laws, not to be unacquainted with each other; which acquaintance will be maintained by thus conversing together, and by seeing and talking with one another, and so renewing the memorials of this union; for if they do not thus converse together continually, they will appear like mere strangers to one another. 4.205. 8. Let there be taken out of your fruits a tenth, besides that which you have allotted to give to the priests and Levites. This you may indeed sell in the country, but it is to be used in those feasts and sacrifices that are to be celebrated in the holy city; for it is fit that you should enjoy those fruits of the earth which God gives you to possess, so as may be to the honor of the donor. 4.206. 9. You are not to offer sacrifices out of the hire of a woman who is a harlot for the Deity is not pleased with any thing that arises from such abuses of nature; of which sort none can be worse than this prostitution of the body. In like manner no one may take the price of the covering of a bitch, either of one that is used in hunting, or in keeping of sheep, and thence sacrifice to God. 4.207. 10. Let no one blaspheme those gods which other cities esteem such; nor may any one steal what belongs to strange temples, nor take away the gifts that are dedicated to any god. 4.208. 11. Let not any one of you wear a garment made of woolen and linen, for that is appointed to be for the priests alone. 4.209. 12. When the multitude are assembled together unto the holy city for sacrificing every seventh year, at the feast of tabernacles, let the high priest stand upon a high desk, whence he may be heard, and let him read the laws to all the people; and let neither the women nor the children be hindered from hearing, no, nor the servants neither; 4.210. for it is a good thing that those laws should be engraven in their souls, and preserved in their memories, that so it may not be possible to blot them out; for by this means they will not be guilty of sin, when they cannot plead ignorance of what the laws have enjoined them. The laws also will have a greater authority among them, as foretelling what they will suffer if they break them; and imprinting in their souls by this hearing what they command them to do, 4.211. that so there may always be within their minds that intention of the laws which they have despised and broken, and have thereby been the causes of their own mischief. Let the children also learn the laws, as the first thing they are taught, which will be the best thing they can be taught, and will be the cause of their future felicity. 4.212. 13. Let every one commemorate before God the benefits which he bestowed upon them at their deliverance out of the land of Egypt, and this twice every day, both when the day begins and when the hour of sleep comes on, gratitude being in its own nature a just thing, and serving not only by way of return for past, but also by way of invitation of future favors. 4.213. They are also to inscribe the principal blessings they have received from God upon their doors, and show the same remembrance of them upon their arms; as also they are to bear on their forehead and their arm those wonders which declare the power of God, and his good-will towards them, that God’s readiness to bless them may appear every where conspicuous about them. 4.214. 14. Let there be seven men to judge in every city, and these such as have been before most zealous in the exercise of virtue and righteousness. Let every judge have two officers allotted him out of the tribe of Levi. 4.215. Let those that are chosen to judge in the several cities be had in great honor; and let none be permitted to revile any others when these are present, nor to carry themselves in an insolent manner to them; it being natural that reverence towards those in high offices among men should procure men’s fear and reverence towards God. 4.216. Let those that judge be permitted to determine according as they think to be right, unless any one can show that they have taken bribes, to the perversion of justice, or can allege any other accusation against them, whereby it may appear that they have passed an unjust sentence; for it is not fit that causes should be openly determined out of regard to gain, or to the dignity of the suitors, but that the judges should esteem what is right before all other things, 4.217. otherwise God will by that means be despised, and esteemed inferior to those, the dread of whose power has occasioned the unjust sentence; for justice is the power of God. He therefore that gratifies those in great dignity, supposes them more potent than God himself. 4.218. But if these judges be unable to give a just sentence about the causes that come before them, (which case is not unfrequent in human affairs,) let them send the cause undetermined to the holy city, and there let the high priest, the prophet, and the sanhedrim, determine as it shall seem good to them. 4.219. 15. But let not a single witness be credited, but three, or two at the least, and those such whose testimony is confirmed by their good lives. But let not the testimony of women be admitted, on account of the levity and boldness of their sex Nor let servants be admitted to give testimony, on account of the ignobility of their soul; since it is probable that they may not speak truth, either out of hope of gain, or fear of punishment. But if any one be believed to have borne false witness, let him, when he is convicted, suffer all the very same punishments which he against whom he bore witness was to have suffered. 4.220. 16. If a murder be committed in any place, and he that did it be not found, nor is there any suspicion upon one as if he had hated the man, and so had killed him, let there be a very diligent inquiry made after the man, and rewards proposed to any one who will discover him; but if still no information can be procured, let the magistrates and senate of those cities that lie near the place in which the murder was committed, assemble together, and measure the distance from the place where the dead body lies; 4.221. then let the magistrates of the nearest city thereto purchase a heifer, and bring it to a valley, and to a place therein where there is no land ploughed or trees planted, and let them cut the sinews of the heifer; 4.222. then the priests and Levites, and the senate of that city, shall take water and wash their hands over the head of the heifer; and they shall openly declare that their hands are innocent of this murder, and that they have neither done it themselves, nor been assisting to any that did it. They shall also beseech God to be merciful to them, that no such horrid act may any more be done in that land. 4.223. 17. Aristocracy, and the way of living under it, is the best constitution: and may you never have any inclination to any other form of government; and may you always love that form, and have the laws for your governors, and govern all your actions according to them; for you need no supreme governor but God. But if you shall desire a king, let him be one of your own nation; let him be always careful of justice and other virtues perpetually; 4.224. let him submit to the laws, and esteem God’s commands to be his highest wisdom; but let him do nothing without the high priest and the votes of the senators: let him not have a great number of wives, nor pursue after abundance of riches, nor a multitude of horses, whereby he may grow too proud to submit to the laws. And if he affect any such things, let him be restrained, lest he become so potent that his state be inconsistent with your welfare. 4.225. 18. Let it not be esteemed lawful to remove boundaries, neither our own, nor of those with whom we are at peace. Have a care you do not take those landmarks away which are, as it were, a divine and unshaken limitation of rights made by God himself, to last for ever; since this going beyond limits, and gaining ground upon others, is the occasion of wars and seditions; for those that remove boundaries are not far off an attempt to subvert the laws. 4.226. 19. He that plants a piece of land, the trees of which produce fruits before the fourth year, is not to bring thence any first-fruits to God, nor is he to make use of that fruit himself, for it is not produced in its proper season; for when nature has a force put upon her at an unseasonable time, the fruit is not proper for God, nor for the master’s use; 4.227. but let the owner gather all that is grown on the fourth year, for then it is in its proper season. And let him that has gathered it carry it to the holy city, and spend that, together with the tithe of his other fruits, in feasting with his friends, with the orphans, and the widows. But on the fifth year the fruit is his own, and he may use it as he pleases. 4.228. 20. You are not to sow with seed a piece of land which is planted with vines, for it is enough that it supply nourishment to that plant, and be not harassed by ploughing also. You are to plough your land with oxen, and not to oblige other animals to come under the same yoke with them; but to till your land with those beasts that are of the same kind with each other. The seeds are also to be pure, and without mixture, and not to be compounded of two or three sorts, since nature does not rejoice in the union of things that are not in their own nature alike; 4.229. nor are you to permit beasts of different kinds to gender together, for there is reason to fear that this unnatural abuse may extend from beasts of different kinds to men, though it takes its first rise from evil practices about such smaller things. 4.230. Nor is any thing to be allowed, by imitation whereof any degree of subversion may creep into the constitution. Nor do the laws neglect small matters, but provide that even those may be managed after an unblamable manner. 4.231. 21. Let not those that reap, and gather in the corn that is reaped, gather in the gleanings also; but let them rather leave some handfuls for those that are in want of the necessaries of life, that it may be a support and a supply to them, in order to their subsistence. In like manner when they gather their grapes, let them leave some smaller bunches for the poor, and let them pass over some of the fruits of the olive-trees, when they gather them, and leave them to be partaken of by those that have none of their own; 4.232. for the advantage arising from the exact collection of all, will not be so considerable to the owners as will arise from the gratitude of the poor. And God will provide that the land shall more willingly produce what shall be for the nourishment of its fruits, in case you do not merely take care of your own advantage, but have regard to the support of others also. 4.233. Nor are you to muzzle the mouths of the oxen when they tread the ears of corn in the thrashing-floor; for it is not just to restrain our fellow-laboring animals, and those that work in order to its production, of this fruit of their labors. 4.234. Nor are you to prohibit those that pass by at the time when your fruits are ripe to touch them, but to give them leave to fill themselves full of what you have; and this whether they be of your own country or strangers,—as being glad of the opportunity of giving them some part of your fruits when they are ripe; but let it not be esteemed lawful for them to carry any away. 4.235. Nor let those that gather the grapes, and carry them to the wine-presses, restrain those whom they meet from eating of them; for it is unjust, out of envy, to hinder those that desire it, to partake of the good things that come into the world according to God’s will, and this while the season is at the height, and is hastening away as it pleases God. 4.236. Nay, if some, out of bashfulness, are unwilling to touch these fruits, let them be encouraged to take of them (I mean, those that are Israelites) as if they were themselves the owners and lords, on account of the kindred there is between them. Nay, let them desire men that come from other countries, to partake of these tokens of friendship which God has given in their proper season; 4.237. for that is not to be deemed as idly spent, which any one out of kindness communicates to another, since God bestows plenty of good things on men, not only for themselves to reap the advantage, but also to give to others in a way of generosity; and he is desirous, by this means, to make known to others his peculiar kindness to the people of Israel, and how freely he communicates happiness to them, while they abundantly communicate out of their great superfluities to even these foreigners also. 4.238. But for him that acts contrary to this law, let him be beaten with forty stripes save one by the public executioner; let him undergo this punishment, which is a most ignominious one for a free-man, and this because he was such a slave to gain as to lay a blot upon his dignity; 4.239. for it is proper for you who have had the experience of the afflictions in Egypt, and of those in the wilderness, to make provision for those that are in the like circumstances; and while you have now obtained plenty yourselves, through the mercy and providence of God, to distribute of the same plenty, by the like sympathy, to such as stand in need of it. 4.240. 22. Besides those two tithes, which I have already said you are to pay every year, the one for the Levites, the other for the festivals, you are to bring every third year a third tithe to be distributed to those that want; to women also that are widows, and to children that are orphans. 4.241. But as to the ripe fruits, let them carry that which is ripe first of all into the temple; and when they have blessed God for that land which bare them, and which he had given them for a possession, when they have also offered those sacrifices which the law has commanded them to bring, let them give the first-fruits to the priests. 4.242. But when any one hath done this, and hath brought the tithe of all that he hath, together with those first-fruits that are for the Levites, and for the festivals, and when he is about to go home, let him stand before the holy house, and return thanks to God, that he hath delivered them from the injurious treatment they had in Egypt, and hath given them a good land, and a large, and lets them enjoy the fruits thereof; and when he hath openly testified that he hath fully paid the tithes [and other dues] according to the laws of Moses, 4.243. let him entreat God that he will be ever merciful and gracious to him, and continue so to be to all the Hebrews, both by preserving the good things which he hath already given them, and by adding what it is still in his power to bestow upon them. 4.244. 23. Let the Hebrews marry, at the age fit for it, virgins that are free, and born of good parents. And he that does not marry a virgin, let him not corrupt another man’s wife, and marry her, nor grieve her former husband. Nor let free men marry slaves, although their affections should strongly bias any of them so to do; for it is decent, and for the dignity of the persons themselves, to govern those their affections. 4.245. And further, no one ought to marry a harlot, whose matrimonial oblations, arising from the prostitution of her body, God will not receive; for by these means the dispositions of the children will be liberal and virtuous; I mean, when they are not born of base parents, and of the lustful conjunction of such as marry women that are not free. 4.246. If any one has been espoused to a woman as to a virgin, and does not afterward find her so to be, let him bring his action, and accuse her, and let him make use of such indications to prove his accusation as he is furnished withal; and let the father or the brother of the damsel, or some one that is after them nearest of kin to her, defend her. 4.247. If the damsel obtain a sentence in her favor, that she had not been guilty, let her live with her husband that accused her; and let him not have any further power at all to put her away, unless she give him very great occasions of suspicion, and such as can be no way contradicted. 4.248. But for him that brings an accusation and calumny against his wife in an impudent and rash manner, let him be punished by receiving forty stripes save one, and let him pay fifty shekels to her father: but if the damsel be convicted, as having been corrupted, and is one of the common people, let her be stoned, because she did not preserve her virginity till she were lawfully married; but if she were the daughter of a priest, let her be burnt alive. 4.249. If any one has two wives, and if he greatly respect and be kind to one of them, either out of his affection to her, or for her beauty, or for some other reason, while the other is of less esteem with him; and if the son of her that is beloved be the younger by birth than another born of the other wife, but endeavors to obtain the right of primogeniture from his father’s kindness to his mother, and would thereby obtain a double portion of his father’s substance, for that double portion is what I have allotted him in the laws,—let not this be permitted; 4.250. for it is unjust that he who is the elder by birth should be deprived of what is due to him, on the father’s disposition of his estate, because his mother was not equally regarded by him. 4.251. He that hath corrupted a damsel espoused to another man, in case he had her consent, let both him and her be put to death, for they are both equally guilty; the man, because he persuaded the woman willingly to submit to a most impure action, and to prefer it to lawful wedlock; the woman, because she was persuaded to yield herself to be corrupted, either for pleasure or for gain. 4.252. However, if a man light on a woman when she is alone, and forces her, where nobody was present to come to her assistance, let him only be put to death. Let him that hath corrupted a virgin not yet espoused marry her; but if the father of the damsel be not willing that she should be his wife, let him pay fifty shekels as the price of her prostitution. 4.253. He that desires to be divorced from his wife for any cause whatsoever, (and many such causes happen among men,) let him in writing give assurance that he will never use her as his wife any more; for by this means she may be at liberty to marry another husband, although before this bill of divorce be given, she is not to be permitted so to do: but if she be misused by him also, or if, when he is dead, her first husband would marry her again, it shall not be lawful for her to return to him. 4.254. If a woman’s husband die, and leave her without children, let his brother marry her, and let him call the son that is born to him by his brother’s name, and educate him as the heir of his inheritance, for this procedure will be for the benefit of the public, because thereby families will not fail, and the estate will continue among the kindred; and this will be for the solace of wives under their affliction, that they are to be married to the next relation of their former husbands. 4.255. But if the brother will not marry her, let the woman come before the senate, and protest openly that this brother will not admit her for his wife, but will injure the memory of his deceased brother, while she is willing to continue in the family, and to hear him children. And when the senate have inquired of him for what reason it is that he is averse to this marriage, whether he gives a bad or a good reason, the matter must come to this issue, 4.256. That the woman shall loose the sandals of the brother, and shall spit in his face, and say, He deserves this reproachful treatment from her, as having injured the memory of the deceased. And then let him go away out of the senate, and bear this reproach upon him all his life long; and let her marry to whom she pleases, of such as seek her in marriage. 4.257. But now, if any man take captive, either a virgin, or one that hath been married, and has a mind to marry her, let him not be allowed to bring her to bed to him, or to live with her as his wife, before she hath her head shaven, and hath put on her mourning habit, and lamented her relations and friends that were slain in the battle, 4.258. that by this means she may give vent to her sorrow for them, and after that may betake herself to feasting and matrimony; for it is good for him that takes a woman, in order to have children by her, to be complaisant to her inclinations, and not merely to pursue his own pleasure, while he hath no regard to what is agreeable to her. 4.259. But when thirty days are past, as the time of mourning, for so many are sufficient to prudent persons for lamenting the dearest friends, then let them proceed to the marriage; but in case when he hath satisfied his lust, he be too proud to retain her for his wife, let him not have it in his power to make her a slave, but let her go away whither she pleases, and have that privilege of a free woman. 4.260. 24. As to those young men that despise their parents, and do not pay them honor, but offer them affronts, either because they are ashamed of them or think themselves wiser than they,—in the first place, let their parents admonish them in words, (for they are by nature of authority sufficient for becoming their judges,) 4.261. and let them say thus to them:—That they cohabited together, not for the sake of pleasure, nor for the augmentation of their riches, by joining both their stocks together, but that they might have children to take care of them in their old age, and might by them have what they then should want. And say further to him, “That when thou wast born, we took thee up with gladness, and gave God the greatest thanks for thee, and brought time up with great care, and spared for nothing that appeared useful for thy preservation, and for thy instruction in what was most excellent. 4.262. And now, since it is reasonable to forgive the sins of those that are young, let it suffice thee to have given so many indications of thy contempt of us; reform thyself, and act more wisely for the time to come; considering that God is displeased with those that are insolent towards their parents, because he is himself the Father of the whole race of mankind, and seems to bear part of that dishonor which falls upon those that have the same name, when they do not meet with dire returns from their children. And on such the law inflicts inexorable punishment; of which punishment mayst thou never have the experience.” 4.263. Now if the insolence of young men be thus cured, let them escape the reproach which their former errors deserved; for by this means the lawgiver will appear to be good, and parents happy, while they never behold either a son or a daughter brought to punishment. 4.264. But if it happen that these words and instructions, conveyed by them in order to reclaim the man, appear to be useless, then the offender renders the laws implacable enemies to the insolence he has offered his parents; let him therefore be brought forth by these very parents out of the city, with a multitude following him, and there let him be stoned; and when he has continued there for one whole day, that all the people may see him, let him be buried in the night. 4.265. And thus it is that we bury all whom the laws condemn to die, upon any account whatsoever. Let our enemies that fall in battle be also buried; nor let any one dead body lie above the ground, or suffer a punishment beyond what justice requires. 4.266. 25. Let no one lend to any one of the Hebrews upon usury, neither usury of what is eaten or what is drunken, for it is not just to make advantage of the misfortunes of one of thy own countrymen; but when thou hast been assistant to his necessities, think it thy gain if thou obtainest their gratitude to thee; and withal that reward which will come to thee from God, for thy humanity towards him. 4.267. 26. Those who have borrowed either silver or any sort of fruits, whether dry or wet, (I mean this, when the Jewish affairs shall, by the blessing of God, be to their own mind,) let the borrowers bring them again, and restore them with pleasure to those who lent them, laying them up, as it were, in their own treasuries, and justly expecting to receive them thence, if they shall want them again. 4.268. But if they be without shame, and do not restore it, let not the lender go to the borrower’s house, and take a pledge himself, before judgment be given concerning it; but let him require the pledge, and let the debtor bring it of himself, without the least opposition to him that comes upon him under the protection of the law. 4.269. And if he that gave the pledge be rich, let the creditor retain it till what he lent be paid him again; but if he be poor, let him that takes it return it before the going down of the sun, especially if the pledge be a garment, that the debtor may have it for a covering in his sleep, God himself naturally showing mercy to the poor. 4.270. It is also not lawful to take a millstone, nor any utensil thereto belonging, for a pledge, that the debtor, may not be deprived of instruments to get their food withal, and lest they be undone by their necessity. 4.271. 27. Let death be the punishment for stealing a man; but he that hath purloined gold or silver, let him pay double. If any one kill a man that is stealing something out of his house, let him be esteemed guiltless, although the man were only breaking in at the wall. 4.272. Let him that hath stolen cattle pay fourfold what is lost, excepting the case of an ox, for which let the thief pay fivefold. Let him that is so poor that he cannot pay what mulct is laid upon him, be his servant to whom he was adjudged to pay it. 4.273. 28. If any one be sold to one of his own nation, let him serve him six years, and on the seventh let him go free. But if he have a son by a womanservant in his purchaser’s house, and if, on account of his good-will to his master, and his natural affection to his wife and children, he will be his servant still, let him be set free only at the coming of the year of jubilee, which is the fiftieth year, and let him then take away with him his children and wife, and let them be free also. 4.274. 29. If any one find gold or silver on the road, let him inquire after him that lost it, and make proclamation of the place where he found it, and then restore it to him again, as not thinking it right to make his own profit by the loss of another. And the same rule is to be observed in cattle found to have wandered away into a lonely place. If the owner be not presently discovered, let him that is the finder keep it with himself, and appeal to God that he has not purloined what belongs to another. 4.275. 30. It is not lawful to pass by any beast that is in distress, when in a storm it is fallen down in the mire, but to endeavor to preserve it, as having a sympathy with it in its pain. 4.276. 31. It is also a duty to show the roads to those who do not know them, and not to esteem it a matter for sport, when we hinder others’ advantages, by setting them in a wrong way. /p 32. In like manner, let no one revile a person blind or dumb. 4.277. 33. If men strive together, and there be no instrument of iron, let him that is smitten be avenged immediately, by inflicting the same punishment on him that smote him: but if when he is carried home he lie sick many days, and then die, let him that smote him escape punishment; but if he that is smitten escape death, and yet be at great expense for his cure, the smiter shall pay for all that has been expended during the time of his sickness, and for all that he has paid the physician. 4.278. He that kicks a woman with child, so that the woman miscarry, let him pay a fine in money, as the judges shall determine, as having diminished the multitude by the destruction of what was in her womb; and let money also be given the woman’s husband by him that kicked her; but if she die of the stroke, let him also be put to death, the law judging it equitable that life should go for life. 4.279. 34. Let no one of the Israelites keep any poison that may cause death, or any other harm; but if he be caught with it, let him be put to death, and suffer the very same mischief that he would have brought upon them for whom the poison was prepared. 4.280. 35. He that maimeth any one, let him undergo the like himself, and be deprived of the same member of which he hath deprived the other, unless he that is maimed will accept of money instead of it for the law makes the sufferer the judge of the value of what he hath suffered, and permits him to estimate it, unless he will be more severe. 4.281. 36. Let him that is the owner of an ox which pusheth with his horn, kill him: but if he pushes and gores any one in the thrashing-floor, let him be put to death by stoning, and let him not be thought fit for food: but if his owner be convicted as having known what his nature was, and hath not kept him up, let him also be put to death, as being the occasion of the ox’s having killed a man. 4.282. But if the ox have killed a man-servant, or a maid-servant, let him be stoned; and let the owner of the ox pay thirty shekels to the master of him that was slain; but if it be an ox that is thus smitten and killed, let both the oxen, that which smote the other and that which was killed, be sold, and let the owners of them divide their price between them. 4.283. 37. Let those that dig a well or a pit be careful to lay planks over them, and so keep them shut up, not in order to hinder any persons from drawing water, but that there may be no danger of falling into them. 4.284. But if any one’s beast fall into such a well or pit thus digged, and not shut up, and perish, let the owner pay its price to the owner of the beast. Let there be a battlement round the tops of your houses instead of a wall, that may prevent any persons from rolling down and perishing. 4.285. 38. Let him that has received any thing in trust for another, take care to keep it as a sacred and divine thing; and let no one invent any contrivance whereby to deprive him that hath intrusted it with him of the same, and this whether he be a man or a woman; no, not although he or she were to gain an immense sum of gold, and this where he cannot be convicted of it by any body; 4.286. for it is fit that a man’s own conscience, which knows what he hath, should in all cases oblige him to do well. Let this conscience be his witness, and make him always act so as may procure him commendation from others; but let him chiefly have regard to God, from whom no wicked man can lie concealed: 4.287. but if he in whom the trust was reposed, without any deceit of his own, lose what he was intrusted withal, let him come before the seven judges, and swear by God that nothing hath been lost willingly, or with a wicked intention, and that he hath not made use of any part thereof, and so let him depart without blame; but if he hath made use of the least part of what was committed to him, and it be lost, let him be condemned to repay all that he had received. 4.288. After the same manner as in these trusts it is to be, if any one defraud those that undergo bodily labor for him. And let it be always remembered, that we are not to defraud a poor man of his wages, as being sensible that God has allotted these wages to him instead of land and other possessions; nay, this payment is not at all to be delayed, but to be made that very day, since God is not willing to deprive the laborer of the immediate use of what he hath labored for. 4.289. 39. You are not to punish children for the faults of their parents, but on account of their own virtue rather to vouchsafe them commiseration, because they were born of wicked parents, than hatred, because they were born of bad ones. Nor indeed ought we to impute the sin of children to their fathers, while young persons indulge themselves in many practices different from what they have been instructed in, and this by their proud refusal of such instruction. 4.290. 40. Let those that have made themselves eunuchs be had in detestation; and do you avoid any conversation with them who have deprived themselves of their manhood, and of that fruit of generation which God has given to men for the increase of their kind: let such be driven away, as if they had killed their children, since they beforehand have lost what should procure them; 4.291. for evident it is, that while their soul is become effeminate, they have withal transfused that effeminacy to their body also. In like manner do you treat all that is of a monstrous nature when it is looked on; nor is it lawful to geld men or any other animals. 4.292. 41. Let this be the constitution of your political laws in time of peace, and God will be so merciful as to preserve this excellent settlement free from disturbance: and may that time never come which may innovate any thing, and change it for the contrary. 4.293. But since it must needs happen that mankind fall into troubles and dangers, either undesignedly or intentionally, come let us make a few constitutions concerning them, that so being apprised beforehand what ought to be done, you may have salutary counsels ready when you want them, and may not then be obliged to go to seek what is to be done, and so be unprovided, and fall into dangerous circumstances. 4.294. May you be a laborious people, and exercise your souls in virtuous actions, and thereby possess and inherit the land without wars; while neither any foreigners make war upon it, and so afflict you, nor any internal sedition seize upon it, 4.295. whereby you may do things that are contrary to your fathers, and so lose the laws which they have established. And may you continue in the observation of those laws which God hath approved of, and hath delivered to you. Let all sort of warlike operations, whether they befall you now in your own time, or hereafter in the times of your posterity, be done out of your own borders: 4.296. but when you are about to go to war, send embassages and heralds to those who are your voluntary enemies, for it is a right thing to make use of words to them before you come to your weapons of war; and assure them thereby, that although you have a numerous army, with horses and weapons, and, above these, a God merciful to you, and ready to assist you, you do however desire them not to compel you to fight against them, nor to take from them what they have, which will indeed be our gain, but what they will have no reason to wish we should take to ourselves. 4.297. And if they hearken to you, it will be proper for you to keep peace with them; but if they trust in their own strength, as superior to yours, and will not do you justice, lead your army against them, making use of God as your supreme Commander, but ordaining for a lieutet under him one that is of the greatest courage among you; for these different commanders, besides their being an obstacle to actions that are to be done on the sudden, are a disadvantage to those that make use of them. 4.298. Lead an army pure, and of chosen men, composed of all such as have extraordinary strength of body and hardiness of soul; but do you send away the timorous part, lest they run away in the time of action, and so afford an advantage to your enemies. Do you also give leave to those that have lately built them houses, and have not yet lived in them a year’s time; and to those that have planted them vineyards, and have not yet been partakers of their fruits,—to continue in their own country; as well as those also who have betrothed, or lately married them wives, lest they have such an affection for these things that they be too sparing of their lives, and, by reserving themselves for these enjoyments, they become voluntary cowards, on account of their wives. 4.299. 42. When you have pitched your camp, take care that you do nothing that is cruel. And when you are engaged in a siege; and want timber for the making of warlike engines, do not you render the land naked by cutting down trees that bear fruit, but spare them, as considering that they were made for the benefit of men; and that if they could speak, they would have a just plea against you, because, though they are not occasions of the war, they are unjustly treated, and suffer in it, and would, if they were able, remove themselves into another land. 4.300. When you have beaten your enemies in battle, slay those that have fought against you; but preserve the others alive, that they may pay you tribute, excepting the nation of the Canaanites; for as to that people, you must entirely destroy them. 4.301. 43, Take care, especially in your battles, that no woman use the habit of a man, nor man the garment of a woman. 11.6. This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly, when Cyrus read this, and admired the divine power, an earnest desire and ambition seized upon him to fulfill what was so written; so he called for the most eminent Jews that were in Babylon, and said to them, that he gave them leave to go back to their own country, and to rebuild their city Jerusalem, and the temple of God, 11.146. So Esdras hearkened to this advice, and made the heads of the priests, and of the Levites, and of the Israelites, swear that they would put away those wives and children, according to the advice of Jechonias. 11.168. 7. Now when he was come to Babylon, and had taken with him many of his countrymen, who voluntarily followed him, he came to Jerusalem in the twenty and fifth year of the reign of Xerxes. And when he had shown the epistles to God he gave them to Adeus, and to the other governors. He also called together all the people to Jerusalem, and stood in the midst of the temple, and made the following speech to them: 11.169. “You know, O Jews, that God hath kept our fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in mind continually, and for the sake of their righteousness hath not left off the care of you. Indeed he hath assisted me in gaining this authority of the king to raise up our wall, and finish what is wanting of the temple. 11.173. So the Jews prepared for the work: that is the name they are called by from the day that they came up from Babylon, which is taken from the tribe of Judah, which came first to these places, and thence both they and the country gained that appellation. 11.312. But there was now a great disturbance among the people of Jerusalem, because many of those priests and Levites were entangled in such matches; for they all revolted to Manasseh, and Sanballat afforded them money, and divided among them land for tillage, and habitations also, and all this in order every way to gratify his son-in-law. 12.8. And as he knew that the people of Jerusalem were most faithful in the observation of oaths and covets; and this from the answer they made to Alexander, when he sent an embassage to them, after he had beaten Darius in battle; so he distributed many of them into garrisons, and at Alexandria gave them equal privileges of citizens with the Macedonians themselves; and required of them to take their oaths, that they would keep their fidelity to the posterity of those who committed these places to their care. 14.255. as justly expecting to receive proper requitals from us; and desiring them to remember that our ancestors were friendly to the Jews even in the days of Abraham, who was the father of all the Hebrews, as we have [also] found it set down in our public records.” 15.259. 10. But some time afterward, when Salome happened to quarrel with Costobarus, she sent him a bill of divorce and dissolved her marriage with him, though this was not according to the Jewish laws; for with us it is lawful for a husband to do so; but a wife; if she departs from her husband, cannot of herself be married to another, unless her former husband put her away. 18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations;
64. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.4, 1.212, 2.190-2.217 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 43, 202
1.4. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary. 1.212. Now this our procedure seems a ridiculous thing to Agatharchides, but will appear to such as consider it without prejudice a great thing, and what deserved a great many encomiums; I mean, when certain men constantly prefer the observation of their laws, and their religion towards God, before the preservation of themselves and their country. /p 2.190. What are the things then that we are commanded or forbidden?—They are simply and easily known. The first command is concerning God, and affirms that God contains all things, and is a being every way perfect and happy, self-sufficient, and supplying all other beings; the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things. He is manifest in his works and benefits, and more conspicuous than any other being whatsoever, but as to his form and magnitude, he is most obscure. 2.191. All materials, let them be ever so costly, are unworthy to compose an image for him; and all arts are unartful to express the notion we ought to have of him. We can neither see nor think of any thing like him, nor is it agreeable to piety to form a resemblance of him. 2.192. We see his works, the light, the heaven, the earth, the sun and the moon, the waters, the generations of animals, the productions of fruits. These things hath God made, not with hands, nor with labor, nor as wanting the assistance of any to cooperate with him; but as his will resolved they should be made and be good also, they were made, and became good immediately. All men ought to follow this Being, and to worship him in the exercise of virtue; for this way of worship of God is the most holy of all others. /p 2.193. 24. There ought also to be but one temple for one God; for likeness is the constant foundation of agreement. This temple ought to be common to all men, because he is the common God of all men. His priests are to be continually about his worship, over whom he that is the first by his birth is to be their ruler perpetually. 2.194. His business must be to offer sacrifices to God, together with those priests that are joined with him, to see that the laws be observed, to determine controversies, and to punish those that are convicted of injustice; while he that does not submit to him shall be subject to the same punishment, as if he had been guilty of impiety towards God himself. 2.195. When we offer sacrifices to him we do it not in order to surfeit ourselves, or to be drunken; for such excesses are against the will of God, and would be an occasion of injuries and of luxury: but by keeping ourselves sober, orderly, and ready for our other occupations, and being more temperate than others. 2.196. And for our duty at the sacrifices themselves, we ought in the first place to pray for the common welfare of all, and after that our own; for we are made for fellowship one with another; and he who prefers the common good before what is peculiar to himself, is above all acceptable to God. 2.197. And let our prayers and supplications be made humbly to God, not [so much] that he would give us what is good (for he hath already given that of his own accord, and hath proposed the same publicly to all), as that we may duly receive it, and when we have received it, may preserve it. 2.198. Now the law has appointed several purifications at our sacrifices, whereby we are cleansed after a funeral after what sometimes happens to us in bed, and after accompanying with our wives, and upon many other occasions, which it would be too long now to set down. And this is our doctrine concerning God and his worship, and is the same that the law appoints for our practice. /p 2.199. 25. But then, what are our laws about marriage? That law owns no other mixture of sexes but that which nature hath appointed, of a man with his wife, and that this be used only for the procreation of children. But it abhors the mixture of a male with a male; and if any one do that, death is his punishment. 2.200. It commands us also, when we marry, not to have regard to portion, nor to take a woman by violence, nor to persuade her deceitfully and knavishly; but to demand her in marriage of him who hath power to dispose of her, and is fit to give her away by the nearness of his kindred; 2.201. for (says the scripture) “A woman is inferior to her husband in all things.” Let her, therefore, be obedient to him; not so, that he should abuse her, but that she may acknowledge her duty to her husband; for God hath given the authority to the husband. A husband, therefore, is to lie only with his wife whom he hath married; but to have to do with another man’s wife is a wicked thing; which, if any one ventures upon, death is inevitably his punishment: no more can he avoid the same who forces a virgin betrothed to another man, or entices another man’s wife. 2.202. The law, moreover enjoins us to bring up all our offspring, and forbids women to cause abortion of what is begotten, or to destroy it afterward; and if any woman appears to have so done, she will be a murderer of her child, by destroying a living creature, and diminishing human kind: if any one, therefore, proceeds to such fornication or murder, he cannot be clean. 2.203. Moreover, the law enjoins, that after the man and wife have lain together in a regular way, they shall bathe themselves; for there is a defilement contracted thereby, both in soul and body, as if they had gone into another country; for indeed the soul, by being united to the body, is subject to miseries, and is not freed therefrom again but by death; on which account the law requires this purification to be entirely performed. 26. 2.204. Nay, indeed, the law does not permit us to make festivals at the births of our children, and thereby afford occasion of drinking to excess; but it ordains that the very beginning of our education should be immediately directed to sobriety. It also commands us to bring those children up in learning and to exercise them in the laws, and make them acquainted with the acts of their predecessors, in order to their imitation of them, and that they might be nourished up in the laws from their infancy, and might neither transgress them, nor have any pretense for their ignorance of them. /p 2.205. 27. Our law hath also taken care of the decent burial of the dead, but without any extravagant expenses for their funerals, and without the erection of any illustrious monuments for them; but hath ordered that their nearest relations should perform their obsequies; and hath shown it to be regular, that all who pass by when any one is buried, should accompany the funeral, and join in the lamentation. It also ordains, that the house and its inhabitants should be purified after the funeral is over, that every one may thence learn to keep at a great distance from the thoughts of being pure, if he hath been once guilty of murder. /p 2.206. 28. The law ordains also, that parents should be honored immediately after God himself, and delivers that son who does not requite them for the benefits he hath received from them, but is deficient on any such occasion, to be stoned. It also says, that the young men should pay due respect to every elder, since God is the eldest of all beings. 2.207. It does not give leave to conceal any thing from our friends, because that is not true friendship which will not commit all things to their fidelity: it also forbids the revelation of secrets even though an enmity arise between them. If any judge takes bribes, his punishment is death: he that overlooks one that offers him a petition, and this when he is able to relieve him, he is a guilty person. 2.208. What is not by any one intrusted to another, ought not to be required back again. No one is to touch another’s goods. He that lends money must not demand usury for its loan. These, and many more of the like sort, are the rules that unite us in the bands of society one with another. /p 2.209. 29. It will be also worth our while to see what equity our legislator would have us exercise in our intercourse with strangers; for it will thence appear that he made the best provision he possibly could, both that we should not dissolve our own constitution, nor show any envious mind towards those that would cultivate a friendship with us. 2.210. Accordingly our legislator admits all those that have a mind to observe our laws, so to do; and this after a friendly manner, as esteeming that a true union, which not only extends to our own stock, but to those that would live after the same manner with us; yet does he not allow those that come to us by accident only to be admitted into communion with us. /p 2.211. 30. However, there are other things which our legislator ordained for us beforehand, which of necessity we ought to do in common to all men; as to afford fire, and water, and food to such as want it; to show them the roads; nor to let any one lie unburied. He also would have us treat those that are esteemed our enemies with moderation: 2.212. for he doth not allow us to set their country on fire, nor permit us to cut down those trees that bear fruit: nay, farther, he forbids us to spoil those that have been slain in war. He hath also provided for such as are taken captive, that they may not be injured, and especially that the women may not be abused. 2.213. Indeed he hath taught us gentleness and humanity so effectually, that he hath not despised the care of brute beasts, by permitting no other than a regular use of them, and forbidding any other; and if any of them come to our houses, like supplicants, we are forbidden to slay them: nor may we kill the dams, together with their young ones; but we are obliged, even in an enemy’s country, to spare and not kill those creatures that labor for mankind. 2.214. Thus hath our lawgiver contrived to teach us an equitable conduct every way, by using us to such laws as instruct us therein; while at the same time he hath ordained, that such as break these laws should be punished, without the allowance of any excuse whatsoever. /p 2.215. 31. Now the greatest part of offenses with us are capital, as if any one be guilty of adultery; if any one force a virgin; if any one be so impudent as to attempt sodomy with a male; or if, upon another’s making an attempt upon him, he submits to be so used. There is also a law for slaves of the like nature that can never be avoided. 2.216. Moreover, if any one cheats another in measures or weights, or makes a knavish bargain and sale, in order to cheat another; if any one steals what belongs to another, and takes what he never deposited; all these have punishments allotted them, not such as are met with among other nations, but more severe ones. 2.217. And as for attempts of unjust behavior towards parents, or for impiety against God, though they be not actually accomplished, the offenders are destroyed immediately. However, the reward for such as live exactly according to the laws, is not silver or gold; it is not a garland of olive branches or of small age, nor any such public sign of commendation;
65. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.1, 2.128, 2.142 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 128, 202, 408
1.1. 1. Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels [or messengers]. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves.
66. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
3.4. "שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:", 3.4. "Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.",
67. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.56 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 197
68. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 408
2.1. "אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם: \n", 2.1. "They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.",
69. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.7, 9.2-9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 126, 167
5.7. "בִּשְׁעַת מִיתָתוֹ אָמַר לִבְנוֹ, בְּנִי, חֲזֹר בְּךָ בְאַרְבָּעָה דְבָרִים שֶׁהָיִיתִי אוֹמֵר. אָמַר לוֹ, וְלָמָּה לֹא חָזַרְתָּ בָּךְ. אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי שָׁמַעְתִּי מִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּים, וְהֵם שָׁמְעוּ מִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּים. אֲנִי עָמַדְתִּי בִשְׁמוּעָתִי, וְהֵם עָמְדוּ בִשְׁמוּעָתָן. אֲבָל אַתָּה שָׁמַעְתָּ מִפִּי הַיָּחִיד, וּמִפִּי הַמְרֻבִּין. מוּטָב לְהַנִּיחַ דִּבְרֵי הַיָּחִיד, וְלֶאֱחֹז בְּדִבְרֵי הַמְרֻבִּין. אָמַר לוֹ, אַבָּא, פְּקֹד עָלַי לַחֲבֵרֶיךָ. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵינִי מַפְקִיד. אָמַר לוֹ, שֶׁמָּא עִילָה מָצָאתָ בִי. אָמַר לוֹ, לָאו. מַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְקָרְבוּךָ וּמַעֲשֶׂיךָ יְרַחֲקוּךָ: \n", 5.7. "At the time of his death he said to his son, “Retract the four opinions which I used to declare.” He (the said to him, “Why did not you retract them?” He said to him, “I heard them from the mouth of the many, and they heard [the contrary] from the mouth of the many. I stood fast by the tradition which I heard, and they stood fast by the tradition which they heard. But you have heard [my tradition] from the mouth of a single individual and [their tradition] from the mouth of the many. It is better to leave the opinion of the single individual and to hold by the opinion of the many.” He said to him, “Father commend me to your colleagues.” He said to him, “I will not commend you.” He said to him, “Have you found in me any wrong?” He said, “No; your own deeds will cause you to be near, and your own deeds will cause you to be far.”",
70. Mishnah, Avot, 1.3-1.12, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 206, 257, 393
1.3. "אַנְטִיגְנוֹס אִישׁ סוֹכוֹ קִבֵּל מִשִּׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, אַל תִּהְיוּ כַעֲבָדִים הַמְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָרַב עַל מְנָת לְקַבֵּל פְּרָס, אֶלָּא הֱווּ כַעֲבָדִים הַמְשַׁמְּשִׁין אֶת הָרַב שֶׁלֹּא עַל מְנָת לְקַבֵּל פְּרָס, וִיהִי מוֹרָא שָׁמַיִם עֲלֵיכֶם: \n", 1.4. "יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה וְיוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ בֵית וַעַד לַחֲכָמִים, וֶהֱוֵי מִתְאַבֵּק בַּעֲפַר רַגְלֵיהֶם, וֶהֱוֵי שׁוֹתֶה בְצָמָא אֶת דִּבְרֵיהֶם: \n", 1.5. "יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ פָתוּחַ לִרְוָחָה, וְיִהְיוּ עֲנִיִּים בְּנֵי בֵיתֶךָ, וְאַל תַּרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה. בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאָדָם מַרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה, גּוֹרֵם רָעָה לְעַצְמוֹ, וּבוֹטֵל מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְסוֹפוֹ יוֹרֵשׁ גֵּיהִנֹּם: \n", 1.6. "יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה וְנִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וּקְנֵה לְךָ חָבֵר, וֶהֱוֵי דָן אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לְכַף זְכוּת: \n", 1.7. "נִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי אוֹמֵר, הַרְחֵק מִשָּׁכֵן רָע, וְאַל תִּתְחַבֵּר לָרָשָׁע, וְאַל תִּתְיָאֵשׁ מִן הַפֻּרְעָנוּת: \n", 1.8. "יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי וְשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי אוֹמֵר, אַל תַּעַשׂ עַצְמְךָ כְעוֹרְכֵי הַדַּיָּנִין. וּכְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ בַעֲלֵי דִינִין עוֹמְדִים לְפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כִרְשָׁעִים. וּכְשֶׁנִּפְטָרִים מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כְזַכָּאִין, כְּשֶׁקִּבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת הַדִּין: \n", 1.9. "שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מַרְבֶּה לַחְקֹר אֶת הָעֵדִים, וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בִּדְבָרֶיךָ, שֶׁמָּא מִתּוֹכָם יִלְמְדוּ לְשַׁקֵּר: \n", 1.10. "שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֱהֹב אֶת הַמְּלָאכָה, וּשְׂנָא אֶת הָרַבָּנוּת, וְאַל תִּתְוַדַּע לָרָשׁוּת: \n", 1.11. "אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, חֲכָמִים, הִזָּהֲרוּ בְדִבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא תָחוּבוּ חוֹבַת גָּלוּת וְתִגְלוּ לִמְקוֹם מַיִם הָרָעִים, וְיִשְׁתּוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיכֶם וְיָמוּתוּ, וְנִמְצָא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם מִתְחַלֵּל: \n", 1.12. "הִלֵּל וְשַׁמַּאי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן, אוֹהֵב שָׁלוֹם וְרוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת וּמְקָרְבָן לַתּוֹרָה: \n", 2.3. "הֱווּ זְהִירִין בָּרָשׁוּת, שֶׁאֵין מְקָרְבִין לוֹ לָאָדָם אֶלָּא לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמָן. נִרְאִין כְּאוֹהֲבִין בִּשְׁעַת הֲנָאָתָן, וְאֵין עוֹמְדִין לוֹ לָאָדָם בִּשְׁעַת דָּחְקוֹ:", 1.3. "Antigonus a man of Socho received [the oral tradition] from Shimon the Righteous. He used to say: do not be like servants who serve the master in the expectation of receiving a reward, but be like servants who serve the master without the expectation of receiving a reward, and let the fear of Heaven be upon you.", 1.4. "Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst.", 1.5. "Yose ben Yocha (a of Jerusalem used to say:Let thy house be wide open, and let the poor be members of thy household. Engage not in too much conversation with women. They said this with regard to one’s own wife, how much more [does the rule apply] with regard to another man’s wife. From here the Sages said: as long as a man engages in too much conversation with women, he causes evil to himself, he neglects the study of the Torah, and in the end he will inherit gehinnom.", 1.6. "Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai the Arbelite received [the oral tradition] from them. Joshua ben Perahiah used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, and acquire for thyself a companion and judge all men with the scale weighted in his favor.", 1.7. "Nittai the Arbelite used to say: keep a distance from an evil neighbor, do not become attached to the wicked, and do not abandon faith in [divine] retribution.", 1.8. "Judah ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shetach received [the oral tradition] from them. Judah ben Tabbai said: do not [as a judge] play the part of an advocate; and when the litigants are standing before you, look upon them as if they were [both] guilty; and when they leave your presence, look upon them as if they were [both] innocent, when they have accepted the judgement.", 1.9. "Shimon ben Shetach used to say: be thorough in the interrogation of witnesses, and be careful with your words, lest from them they learn to lie.", 1.10. "Shemaiah and Abtalion received [the oral tradition] from them. Shemaiah used to say: love work, hate acting the superior, and do not attempt to draw near to the ruling authority.", 1.11. "Abtalion used to say: Sages be careful with your words, lest you incur the penalty of exile, and be carried off to a place of evil waters, and the disciples who follow you drink and die, and thus the name of heaven becomes profaned.", 1.12. "Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah.", 2.3. "Be careful [in your dealings] with the ruling authorities for they do not befriend a person except for their own needs; they seem like friends when it is to their own interest, but they do not stand by a man in the hour of his distress.",
71. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4-3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 123, 127, 128, 136
3.4. "בַּעַל קֶרִי מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם: \n", 3.5. "הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת: \n", 3.6. "זָב שֶׁרָאָה קְרִי, וְנִדָּה שֶׁפָּלְטָה שִׁכְבַת זֶרַע, וְהַמְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת שֶׁרָאֲתָה נִדָּה, צְרִיכִין טְבִילָה, וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה פּוֹטֵר: \n", 3.4. "One who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them.", 3.5. "If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits.", 3.6. "A zav who has had a seminal emission and a niddah from whom semen escapes and a woman who becomes niddah during intercourse require a mikveh. Rabbi Judah exempts them.",
72. Josephus Flavius, Life, 1, 10-12, 2, 27, 4-9, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
73. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 39, 269 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 167
74. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 132, 137
75. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 25.5, 34.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127, 257
25.5. מִי שָׁת בַּטֻּחוֹת חָכְמָה (איוב לח, לו), מַהוּ בַּטֻחוֹת, בַּטָּוָיָא, (איוב לח, לו): אוֹ מִי נָתַן לַשֶּׂכְוִי בִינָה, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא אָמַר רַבִּי לֵוִי בַּעֲרָבְיָא צָוְחִין לְתַרְנְגוֹלְתָּא שֶׂכְוִיא, הֲדָא תַּרְנְגוֹלְתָּא כַּד אֶפְרוֹחֶיהָ דַּקִּיקִין הִיא מְכַנְשָׁא לְהוֹן וְיַהֲבַת לְהוֹן תְּחוֹת אֲגַפַּיָּא וּמְשַׁחֲנָה לְהוֹן וּמַעֲדַרְנָה קֳדָמֵיהוֹן, וְכַד אִינוּן רַבְיָה חַד מִנְהוֹן בָּעֵי לְמִקְרַב לְוָתֵיהּ וְהִיא נָקְרָה לֵיהּ בְּגוֹ רֵישֵׁיהּ, וַאֲמָרַת לֵיהּ זִיל עֲדוֹר בְּקוּקַלְתָּךְ, כָּךְ כְּשֶׁהָיוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָיָה הַמָּן יוֹרֵד וְהַבְּאֵר עוֹלֶה לָהֶן וְהַשְּׂלָיו מָצוּי לָהֶן, וְעַנְנֵי כָבוֹד מַקִּיפוֹת אוֹתָן, וְעַמּוּד עָנָן מַסִּיעַ לִפְנֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנְסוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל לָאָרֶץ אָמַר לָהֶם משֶׁה כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד מִכֶּם יִטְעוֹן מַכּוּשֵׁיהּ וְיִפּוֹק וְיִנְצוֹב לֵיהּ נְצִיבִין, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם. אַדְרִיָּנוּס שְׁחִיק טְמַיָּא הֲוָה עָבַר בְּאִלֵּין שְׁבִילַיָיא דִּטְבֶרְיָא וְחָמָא חַד גְּבַר סַב קָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבָן לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ סָבָא סָבָא אִי קָרַצְתְּ לָא חֲשַׁכְתְּ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ קְרִיצַת וַחֲשִׁיכַת, וּמַה דְּהַנֵּי לְמָרֵי שְׁמַיָא עֲבֵיד, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיֶּיךָ סָבָא בַּר כַּמָּה שְׁנִין אַתְּ יוֹמָא דֵין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין, אֲמַר לֵיהּ וְאַתְּ בַּר מְאָה שְׁנִין וְקָאֵים וְחָצֵיב חֲצוּבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, סָבַר דְּאַתְּ אָכֵיל מִנְּהוֹן, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אִין זָכִית אֲכָלִית, וְאִם לָאו כְּשֵׁם שֶׁיָּגְעוּ לִי אֲבָהָתִי, כָּךְ אֲנִי יָגֵעַ לְבָנַי. אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּחַיָּיךְ, אִם זָכִית אָכוֹל מִנְהוֹן תֶּהֱוֵה מוֹדַע לִי. לְסוֹף יוֹמִין עָבְדִין תְּאֵנַיָא, אֲמַר הָא עָנָתָה נוֹדַע לְמַלְכָּא, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא קַרְטְלָא תְּאֵינִין וְסָלַק וְקָם לֵיהּ עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן עֲלוֹן קֳדָם מַלְכָּא, כֵּיוָן דְּעָל אֲמַר לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לֵיהּ אֲנָא סָבָא דַּעֲבַרְתְּ עָלַי וַאֲנָא חָצֵיב חֲצִיבִין לְמִנְצַב נְצִיבִין, וַאֲמַרְתְּ לִי אִין זָכִית תֵּיכוֹל מִנְּהוֹן תְּהֵא מוֹדַע לִי, הָא זָכִיתִי וַאֲכֵילִית מִנְּהוֹן וְהֵילֵין תְּאֵינַיָא מִן פֵּרֵיהוֹן. אֲמַר אַדְרִיָּנוּס בְּהַהִיא שַׁעְתָּא קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא תִּתְּנוּן סֵילוֹן דְּדַהֲבָא וִיתֵיב לֵיהּ, אֲמַר קְלַווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְפַנּוּן הָדֵין קַרְטַל דִּידֵיהּ וּתְמַלּוּן יָתֵיהּ דִּינָרִין. אָמְרִין לֵיהּ עַבְדוֹהִי כָּל הָדֵין מוֹקְרָא תְּיַקְרִינֵיהּ לְהָדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אֲמַר לְהוֹן בָּרְיֵה אוֹקְרֵיא וַאֲנָא לָא אֲנָא מוֹקַר לֵיהּ. אִנְתְּתֵיהּ דִּמְגֵירָא הֲוַת בְּרַת פַּחִין, אָמְרָה לְבַעְלָהּ בַּר קַבָּלוּי חָמֵי דַּהֲדָא מַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, מָה עֲבַד מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין וַאֲזַל וְקָם קֳדָם פָּלָטִין, אֲמָרוּן לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ, אֲמַר לוֹן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, עָלוֹן וְאָמְרִין לְמַלְכָּא חַד סָבָא קָאֵים עַל תְּרַע פָּלָטִין טָעֵין מְלָא מַרְעֲלֵיהּ תֵּינִין, וַאֲמַרְנָא לֵיהּ מָה עִסְקָךְ אֲמַר לָן שְׁמָעֵית דְּמַלְכָּא רַחֲמָא תֵּינִין וּמְפַרְגָּא בְּדִינָרִין, אֲמַר קְלָווֹנִין אֲנָא דִּתְקִימוּן יָתֵיהּ קֳדָם תְּרַע פָּלָטִין וְכָל מַאן דְּעָיֵיל וְנָפֵיק יְהֵי טָרֵי עַל אַפֵּיהּ. בְּאַפְתֵּי רַמְשָׁא פַּנּוּן יָתֵיהּ וַאֲזַל לְבֵיתֵיהּ, אֲמַר לְאִנְתְּתֵיהּ כְּכָל הָדֵין יְקָרָא אֲנָא שְׁלִים לָךְ, אֲמַרָה אָזֵיל גְּלוֹג לְאִמָּךְ דַּהֲווֹן אִינוּן תֵּינִין וְלָא הֲווֹן אֶתְרוֹגִין, דַּהֲווֹן בְּשִׁילָן וְלָא פְגִינָן. 34.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְכִי יָמוּךְ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ אָמַר לָהֶם לַעֲשׂוֹת מִצְוָה, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי מַה מִּצְוָה זוֹ, אָמַר לָהֶן לִרְחֹץ בְּבֵית הַמֶּרְחָץ, אָמְרוּ לוֹ וְכִי זוֹ מִצְוָה הִיא, אָמַר לָהֶם, הֵן. מָה אִם אִיקוֹנִין שֶׁל מְלָכִים שֶׁמַּעֲמִידִים אוֹתָן בְּבָתֵּי טַרְטִיאוֹת וּבְבָתֵּי קִרְקָסִיאוֹת, מִי שֶׁנִּתְמַנֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם הוּא מוֹרְקָן וְשׁוֹטְפָן וְהֵן מַעֲלִין לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת, וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא מִתְגַּדֵּל עִם גְּדוֹלֵי מַלְכוּת, אֲנִי שֶׁנִּבְרֵאתִי בְּצֶלֶם וּבִדְמוּת, דִּכְתִיב (בראשית ט, ו): כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם, עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד, זֶה הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה נִפְטַר מִתַּלְמִידָיו הָיָה מְהַלֵּךְ וְהוֹלֵךְ עִמָּם, אָמְרוּ לוֹ תַּלְמִידָיו רַבֵּנוּ לְהֵיכָן אַתָּה הוֹלֵךְ, אָמַר לָהֶם לִגְמֹל חֶסֶד עִם הָדֵין אַכְסַנְיָא בְּגוֹ בֵּיתָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, כָּל יוֹם אִית לָךְ אַכְסַנְיָא, אָמַר לָהֶם, וְהָדֵין נַפְשָׁא עֲלוּבְתָּא לָאו אַכְסַנְיָא הוּא בְּגוֹ גוּפָא, יוֹמָא דֵין הִיא הָכָא לְמָחָר לֵית הִיא הָכָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר (משלי יא, יז): גֹּמֵל נַפְשׁוֹ אִישׁ חָסֶד וְעֹכֵר שְׁאֵרוֹ אַכְזָרִי, אָמַר רַבִּי אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִי זֶה שֶׁמַּגַעַת לוֹ שִׂמְחָה וְאֵינוֹ מַדְבִּיק אֶת קְרוֹבָיו עִמּוֹ מִשּׁוּם עֲנִיּוּת. אָמַר רַבִּי נַחְמָן כְּתִיב (דברים טו, י): כִּי בִּגְלַל הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה, גַּלְגַּל הוּא שֶׁחוֹזֵר בָּעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ משֶׁה מַזְהִיר אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ. 34.3. "Another Thing: 'But if he is impoverished', here it is written, \"The merciful man does good to his own soul (Proverbs 11:17),\" this [refers to] Hillel the Elder, who, at the time that he was departing from his students, would walk with them. They said to him, \"Rabbi, where are you walking to?\" He said to them, \"To fulfill a commandment!\" They said to him, \"And what commandment is this?\" He said to them, \"To bathe in the bathhouse.\" They said to him: \"But is this really a commandment?\" He said to them: \"Yes. Just like regarding the statues (lit. icons) of kings, that are set up in the theaters and the circuses, the one who is appointed over them bathes them and scrubs them, and they give him sustece, and furthermore, he attains status with the leaders of the kingdom; I, who was created in the [Divine] Image and Form, as it is written, \"For in the Image of G-d He made Man (Genesis 9:6),\" even more so!...",
76. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 4.22.142 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
77. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Metsia, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
5.1. "כלי גללים וכלי אבנים וכלי אדמה הבאין במדה ר' מאיר אומר הרי הן ככלים וחכמים אומרין הרי הן כאהלין רבי נחמיה אומר קופות גדולות וסוגין הגדולים שיש להן שוליים והן מחזיקין מ' סאין בלח שהם כוריים ביבש אע\"פ שאין מטלטלין במשתייר בהן וכמה הן אמה על אמה על רום שליש ישנן שש מאות ארבעים ושמונה טפח ראיה לדבר ממדת השלחן. ר' יוסי אומר בים שעשה שלמה הוא אומר (דברי הימים ב ד׳:ה׳) מחזיק בתים שלשת אלפים יכיל במקום אחר הוא אומר (מלכים א ז׳:כ״ו) אלפים בת יכיל א\"א לומר אלפים שכבר נאמר שלשת אלפים ואי אפשר לומר שלשת אלפים שכבר נאמר אלפים אמור מעתה אלפים בלח שלשת אלפים ביבש. החזיונות שבטרקלין בעלי בתים האוכלים עליהם שאע\"פ שחולקים כצפורן טמאין מפני שהן כטבלא ומעשה בבעל הבית אחד שהיו לו נצרים בתוך והיו שואלין אותן לבית האבל ולבית המשתה ובא מעשה לפני חכמים וטמאום.", 5.1. "חומר בכלי פפיר מכלי נצרין שאין מקבלין טומאה אלא משתגמר מלאכתן וכלי פפיר כיון שעשה חור אחד על גבי הרחב שלהן טמאין. ",
78. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
22a. משמשת וראתה נדה אינה צריכה טבילה אבל בעל קרי גרידא מחייב לא תימא מברך אלא מהרהר,ומי אית ליה לרבי יהודה הרהור והתניא בעל קרי שאין לו מים לטבול קורא קריאת שמע ואינו מברך לא לפניה ולא לאחריה ואוכל פתו ומברך לאחריה ואינו מברך לפניה אבל מהרהר בלבו ואינו מוציא בשפתיו דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה אומר בין כך ובין כך מוציא בשפתיו,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק עשאן ר' יהודה כהלכות דרך ארץ,דתניא (דברים ד, ט) והודעתם לבניך ולבני בניך וכתיב בתריה יום אשר עמדת לפני ה' אלהיך בחורב מה להלן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע אף כאן באימה וביראה וברתת ובזיע,מכאן אמרו הזבים והמצורעים ובאין על נדות מותרים לקרות בתורה ובנביאים ובכתובים לשנות במשנה וגמרא ובהלכות ובאגדות אבל בעלי קריין אסורים,רבי יוסי אומר שונה הוא ברגיליות ובלבד שלא יציע את המשנה רבי יונתן בן יוסף אומר מציע הוא את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא רבי נתן בן אבישלום אומר אף מציע את הגמרא ובלבד שלא יאמר אזכרות שבו רבי יוחנן הסנדלר תלמידו של רבי עקיבא משום ר"ע אומר לא יכנס למדרש כל עיקר ואמרי לה לא יכנס לבית המדרש כל עיקר ר' יהודה אומר שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ,מעשה ברבי יהודה שראה קרי והיה מהלך על גב הנהר אמרו לו תלמידיו רבינו שנה לנו פרק אחד בהלכות דרך ארץ ירד וטבל ושנה להם אמרו לו לא כך למדתנו רבינו שונה הוא בהלכות דרך ארץ אמר להם אע"פ שמיקל אני על אחרים מחמיר אני על עצמי:,תניא ר' יהודה בן בתירא היה אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה מעשה בתלמיד אחד שהיה מגמגם למעלה מרבי יהודה בן בתירא אמר ליה בני פתח פיך ויאירו דבריך שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה שנאמר (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' מה אש אינו מקבל טומאה אף דברי תורה אינן מקבלין טומאה,אמר מר מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא מסייע ליה לרבי אלעאי דאמר רבי אלעאי אמר ר' אחא בר יעקב משום רבינו הלכה מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא כתנאי מציע את המשנה ואינו מציע את הגמרא דברי רבי מאיר רבי יהודה בן גמליאל אומר משום רבי חנינא בן גמליאל זה וזה אסור ואמרי לה זה וזה מותר,מ"ד זה וזה אסור כרבי יוחנן הסנדלר מ"ד זה וזה מותר כרבי יהודה בן בתירא,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק נהוג עלמא כהני תלת סבי כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בד"ת,כרבי אלעאי בראשית הגז דתניא רבי אלעאי אומר ראשית הגז אינו נוהג אלא בארץ,כרבי יאשיה בכלאים כדכתיב (דברים כב, ט) (כרמך) לא תזרע [כרמך] כלאים רבי יאשיה אומר לעולם אינו חייב עד שיזרע חטה ושעורה וחרצן במפולת יד,כרבי יהודה בן בתירא בדברי תורה דתניא רבי יהודה בן בתירא אומר אין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה,כי אתא זעירי אמר בטלוה לטבילותא ואמרי לה בטלוה לנטילותא מאן דאמר בטלוה לטבילותא כרבי יהודה בן בתירא מאן דאמר בטלוה לנטילותא כי הא דרב חסדא לייט אמאן דמהדר אמיא בעידן צלותא:,תנו רבנן בעל קרי שנתנו עליו תשעה קבין מים טהור נחום איש גם זו לחשה לרבי עקיבא ורבי עקיבא לחשה לבן עזאי ובן עזאי יצא ושנאה לתלמידיו בשוק פליגי בה תרי אמוראי במערבא רבי יוסי בר אבין ורבי יוסי בר זבידא חד תני שנאה וחד תני לחשה,מאן דתני שנאה משום בטול תורה ומשום בטול פריה ורביה ומאן דתני לחשה שלא יהו תלמידי חכמים מצויים אצל נשותיהם כתרנגולים,אמר רבי ינאי שמעתי שמקילין בה ושמעתי שמחמירין בה וכל המחמיר בה על עצמו מאריכין לו ימיו ושנותיו,אמר ריב"ל מה טיבן של טובלי שחרין מה טיבן הא איהו דאמר בעל קרי אסור בדברי תורה הכי קאמר מה טיבן בארבעים סאה אפשר בתשעה קבין מה טיבן בטבילה אפשר בנתינה,אמר רבי חנינא גדר גדול גדרו בה דתניא מעשה באחד שתבע אשה לדבר עבירה אמרה לו ריקא יש לך ארבעים סאה שאתה טובל בהן מיד פירש,אמר להו רב הונא לרבנן רבותי מפני מה אתם מזלזלין בטבילה זו אי משום צינה אפשר במרחצאות,אמר ליה רב חסדא וכי יש טבילה בחמין אמר ליה רב אדא בר אהבה קאי כוותך,רבי זירא הוה יתיב באגנא דמיא בי מסותא אמר ליה לשמעיה זיל ואייתי לי תשעה קבין ושדי עלואי אמר ליה רבי חייא בר אבא למה ליה למר כולי האי והא יתיב בגווייהו אמר ליה כארבעים סאה מה ארבעים סאה בטבילה ולא בנתינה אף תשעה קבין בנתינה ולא בטבילה,רב נחמן תקן חצבא בת תשעה קבין כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי עקיבא ורבי יהודה גלוסטרא אמרו לא שנו אלא לחולה לאונסו אבל לחולה המרגיל ארבעים סאה,אמר רב יוסף אתבר חצביה דרב נחמן כי אתא רבין אמר באושא הוה עובדא 22a. that b a woman who engaged in intercourse and saw menstrual /b blood b is not required to immerse herself, but one who experienced a seminal emission alone, /b with no concurrent impurity, b is required to do so? /b If so, we must interpret Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna that one recites a blessing both beforehand and thereafter as follows: b Do not say /b that one b recites a blessing /b orally, but rather he means that b one contemplates /b those blessings in his heart.,The Gemara challenges this explanation: b And does Rabbi Yehuda maintain that /b there is validity to b contemplating /b in his heart? b Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who experienced a seminal emission and who has no water to immerse /b and purify himself b recites i Shema /i and neither recites the blessings /b of i Shema /i b beforehand nor thereafter? And /b when b he eats his bread, he recites the blessing thereafter, /b Grace after Meals, b but does not recite the blessing: /b Who brings forth bread from the earth, b beforehand. However, /b in the instances where he may not recite the blessing, b he contemplates /b it b in his heart rather than utter /b it b with his lips, /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b However b Rabbi Yehuda says: In either case, he utters /b all of the blessings b with his lips. /b Rabbi Yehuda does not consider contemplating the blessings in his heart a solution and permits them to be recited., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b Rabbi Yehuda’s statement in the mishna should be interpreted in another way. b Rabbi Yehuda rendered /b the blessings b like i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , /b which according to some Sages were not considered to be in the same category as all other matters of Torah and therefore, one is permitted to engage in their study even after having experienced a seminal emission., b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : It is written: b “And you shall impart them to your children and your children’s children” /b (Deuteronomy 4:9), b and it is written thereafter: “The day that you stood before the Lord your God at Horeb” /b (Deuteronomy 4:10). b Just as below, /b the Revelation at Sinai was b in reverence, fear, quaking, and trembling, so too here, /b in every generation, Torah must be studied with a sense of b reverence, fear, quaking, and trembling. /b , b From here /b the Sages b stated: i Zavim /i , lepers, and those who engaged in intercourse with menstruating women, /b despite their severe impurity, b are permitted to read the Torah, Prophets, and Writings, and to study Mishna and Gemara and i halakhot /i and i aggada /i . However, those who experienced a seminal emission are prohibited /b from doing so. The reason for this distinction is that the cases of severe impurity are caused by ailment or other circumstances beyond his control and, as a result, they do not necessarily preclude a sense of reverence and awe as he studies Torah. This, however, is not the case with regard to impurity resulting from a seminal emission, which usually comes about due to frivolity and a lack of reverence and awe. Therefore, it is inappropriate for one who experiences a seminal emission to engage in matters of in Torah.,However, there are many opinions concerning the precise parameters of the Torah matters prohibited by this decree. b Rabbi Yosei says: /b One who experiences a seminal emission b studies /b i mishnayot /i that he is b accustomed /b to study, b as long as he does not expound upon a /b new b mishna /b to study it in depth. b Rabbi Yonatan ben Yosef says: He expounds upon the mishna but he does not expound upon the Gemara, /b which is the in-depth analysis of the Torah. b Rabbi Natan ben Avishalom says: He may even expound upon the Gemara, as long as he does not utter /b the b mentions /b of God’s name b therein. Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler, Rabbi Akiva’s student, says in the name of Rabbi Akiva: /b One who experiences a seminal emission b may not enter into homiletic interpretation [ i midrash /i ] /b of verses b at all. Some say /b that he says: b He may not enter the study hall [ i beit hamidrash /i ] at all. Rabbi Yehuda says: He may study /b only b i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i . /b In terms of the problem raised above, apparently Rabbi Yehuda considers the legal status of the blessings to be parallel to the legal status of i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , and therefore one may utter them orally.,The Gemara relates b an incident involving Rabbi Yehuda /b himself, who b experienced a seminal emission and was walking along the riverbank /b with his disciples. b His disciples said to him: Rabbi, teach us a chapter from i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i , /b as he maintained that even in a state of impurity, it is permitted. b He descended and immersed himself /b in the river b and taught them /b i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i . b They said to him: Did you not teach us, our teacher, that he may study i Hilkhot Derekh Eretz /i ? He said to them: Although I am lenient with others, /b and allow them to study it without immersion, b I am stringent with myself. /b ,Further elaborating on the issue of Torah study while in a state of impurity, b it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira would say: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure /b and therefore one who is impure is permitted to engage in Torah study. He implemented this i halakha /i in practice. The Gemara relates b an incident involving a student who was /b reciting i mishnayot /i and i baraitot /i b hesitantly before /b the study hall of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b The student experienced a seminal emission, and when he was asked to recite he did so in a rushed, uneven manner, as he did not want to utter the words of Torah explicitly. Rabbi Yehuda b said to him: My son, open your mouth and let your words illuminate, as matters of Torah do not become ritually impure, as it is stated: “Is not my word like fire, says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:29). b Just as fire does not become ritually impure, so too matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b ,In this i baraita /i b the Master said /b that one who is impure because of a seminal emission b expounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara. /b The Gemara notes: This statement b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai, /b as b Rabbi El’ai said /b that b Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said in the name of Rabbeinu, /b Rav b : The /b i halakha /i is that one who experienced a seminal emission b may expound upon the mishna but may not expound upon the Gemara. /b This dispute b is parallel a tannaitic /b dispute, as it was taught: One who experienced a seminal emission b expounds upon the mishna but does not expound upon the Gemara; /b that is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda ben Gamliel says in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel: /b Both b this and that are prohibited. And some say /b that he said: Both b this and that are permitted. /b ,Comparing these opinions: b The one who said /b that both b this and that are prohibited /b holds b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa the Cobbler; the one who said /b that both b this and that are permitted /b holds b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b ,Summarizing the i halakha /i , b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The universally /b accepted b practice is in accordance with /b the opinions of b these three elders: In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai with regard to /b the i halakhot /i of b the first shearing, in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoshiya with regard to /b the laws of prohibited b diverse kinds, /b and b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard to matters of Torah. /b ,The Gemara elaborates: b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi El’ai with regard to the first shearing, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi El’ai says: /b The obligation to set aside b the first shearing /b from the sheep for the priest b is only practiced in Eretz /b Yisrael and not in the Diaspora, and that is the accepted practice., b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoshiya with regard to diverse kinds, as it is written: “You shall not sow your vineyard with diverse kinds” /b (Deuteronomy 22:9). b Rabbi Yoshiya says: /b This means that b one /b who sows diverse kinds b is not liable /b by Torah law b until he sows wheat and barley and a /b grape b pit with a single hand motion, /b meaning that while sowing in the vineyard he violates the prohibition of diverse kinds that applies to seeds and to the vineyard simultaneously., b In accordance with Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira with regard to /b one who experiences a seminal emission is permitted to engage in b matters of Torah, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: Matters of Torah do not become ritually impure. /b ,And the Gemara relates: b When Ze’iri came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he /b succinctly capsulated this i halakha /i and b said: They abolished ritual immersion, and some say that /b he said: b They abolished ritual washing of the hands. /b The Gemara explains: b The one who says /b that b they abolished immersion /b holds in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira /b that one who experienced a seminal emission is not required to immerse. b And the one who says /b that b they abolished washing of the hands /b holds b in accordance with that which Rav Ḥisda cursed one who /b goes out of his way b to seek water at the time of prayer. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who experienced a seminal emission who had nine i kav /i of /b drawn b water poured over him, /b that is sufficient to render him b ritually pure /b and he need not immerse himself in a ritual bath. The Gemara relates: b Naḥum of Gam Zo whispered /b this i halakha /i to b Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Akiva whispered it to /b his student b ben Azzai, and ben Azzai went out and taught it to his students /b publicly b in the marketplace. Two i amora’im /i in Eretz Yisrael, Rabbi Yosei bar Avin and Rabbi Yosei bar Zevida, disagreed /b as to the correct version of the conclusion of the incident. b One taught: /b Ben Azzai b taught it /b to his students in the market. b And the other taught: Ben Azzai /b also b whispered it /b to his students.,The Gemara explains the rationale behind the two versions of this incident. b The /b Sage b who taught /b that ben Azzai b taught /b the law openly in the market held that the leniency was b due to /b concern that the i halakhot /i requiring ritual immersion would promote b dereliction /b in the study b of Torah. /b The ruling of Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira eases the way for an individual who experienced a seminal emission to study Torah. This was b also due to /b concern that the i halakhot /i requiring ritual immersion would promote b the suspension of procreation, /b as one might abstain from marital relations to avoid the immersion required thereafter. b And the /b Sage, b who taught /b that ben Azzai only b whispered /b this i halakha /i to his students, held that he did so b in order that Torah scholars would not be with their wives like roosters. /b If the purification process was that simple, Torah scholars would engage in sexual activity constantly, which would distract them from their studies.,With regard to this ritual immersion, b Rabbi Yannai said: I heard that there are those who are lenient with regard to it and I have heard that there are those who are stringent with regard to it. /b The i halakha /i in this matter was never conclusively established b and anyone who /b accepts b upon himself to be stringent with regard to it, they prolong for him his days and years. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: What is the essence of those who immerse themselves in the morning? /b The Gemara retorts: How can one ask b what is their essence? Isn’t he /b the one b who said /b that b one who experiences a seminal emission is prohibited from /b engaging in b matters of Torah /b and is required to immerse himself in the morning? Rather, b this is /b what b he /b meant to b say: What is the essence of /b immersion in a ritual bath of b forty i se’a /i /b of water when b it is possible /b to purify oneself b with nine i kav /i ? /b Furthermore, b what is the essence of immersion /b when b it is /b also b possible /b to purify oneself by b pouring /b water?,Regarding this, b Rabbi Ḥanina said: They established a massive fence /b protecting one from sinning with their decree that one must immerse himself in forty i se’a /i of water. b As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : There was b an incident involving one who solicited a woman to /b commit b a sinful act. She said to him: Good-for-nothing. Do you have forty i se’a /i in which to immerse /b and purify b yourself /b afterwards? He b immediately desisted. /b The obligation to immerse oneself caused individuals to refrain from transgression., b Rav Huna said to the Sages: Gentlemen, why do you disdain this immersion? If it is because /b it is difficult for you to immerse in the b cold /b waters of the ritual bath, b it is possible /b to purify oneself by immersing oneself in the heated b bathhouses, /b which are unfit for immersion for other forms of ritual impurity but are fit for immersion in this case., b Rabbi Ḥisda said to him: Is there ritual immersion in hot water? /b Rav Huna b said to him: /b Indeed, doubts with regard to the fitness of baths have been raised, and b Rav Adda bar Ahava holds in accordance with your /b opinion. Nevertheless, I remain convinced that it is permitted.,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Zeira was sitting in a tub of water in the bathhouse. He said to his attendant: Go and get nine i kav /i /b of water b and pour /b it b over me /b so that I may purify myself from the impurity caused by a seminal emission. b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said to him: Why does my master /b require b all of this? Aren’t you seated in /b at least nine i kav /i of water in the tub. b He said to him: /b The law of nine i kav /i b parallels /b the law of b forty i se’a /i , /b in that their i halakhot /i are exclusive. b Just as forty i se’a /i /b can only purify an individual through b immersion and not through pouring, so too nine i kav /i /b can only purify one who experienced a seminal emission b through pouring and not through immersion. /b ,The Gemara relates that b Rav Naḥman prepared a jug /b with a capacity b of nine i kav /i /b so that his students could pour water over themselves and become pure. b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, b he said: Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Yehuda Gelostera said: /b The i halakha /i that one who experienced a seminal emission can be purified by pouring nine i kav /i b was only taught for a sick person /b who experienced the emission b involuntarily. However, a sick person /b who experienced a b normal /b seminal emission in the course of marital relations, is required to immerse himself in b forty i se’a /i . /b , b Rav Yosef said: /b In that case, b Rav Naḥman’s jug is broken, /b meaning it is no longer of any use, as few people fall into the category of sick people who experienced seminal emissions. Nevertheless, b when Ravin came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia b he said: In Usha there was an incident /b
79. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
105a. אילימא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ולא בעי מדיח ובית הלל אומרים מדיח ולא בעי מקנח אלא הא דאמר רבי זירא אין קינוח פה אלא בפת כמאן כב"ש,אלא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח ולא בעי מדיח ובית הלל אומרים אף מדיח הוי ליה מקולי בית שמאי ומחומרי בית הלל ולתנייה גבי קולי בית שמאי וחומרי בית הלל,אלא בית שמאי אומרים מקנח והוא הדין למדיח וב"ה אומרים מדיח והוא הדין למקנח מר אמר חדא ומר אמר חדא ולא פליגי,גופא אמר רבי זירא אין קינוח הפה אלא בפת והני מילי בדחיטי אבל בדשערי לא,ודחיטי נמי לא אמרן אלא בקרירא אבל בחמימא משטר שטרי והני מילי ברכיכא אבל באקושא לא והלכתא בכל מילי הוי קינוח לבר מקמחא תמרי וירקא,בעא מיניה רב אסי מרבי יוחנן כמה ישהה בין בשר לגבינה א"ל ולא כלום איני והא אמר רב חסדא אכל בשר אסור לאכול גבינה גבינה מותר לאכול בשר אלא כמה ישהה בין גבינה לבשר א"ל ולא כלום,גופא אמר רב חסדא אכל בשר אסור לאכול גבינה גבינה מותר לאכול בשר אמר ליה רב אחא בר יוסף לרב חסדא בשר שבין השינים מהו,קרי עליה (במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם,אמר מר עוקבא אנא להא מלתא חלא בר חמרא לגבי אבא דאילו אבא כי הוה אכיל בשרא האידנא לא הוה אכל גבינה עד למחר עד השתא ואילו אנא בהא סעודתא הוא דלא אכילנא לסעודתא אחריתא אכילנא,אמר שמואל אנא להא מלתא חלא בר חמרא לגבי אבא דאילו אבא הוה סייר נכסיה תרי זמני ביומא ואנא לא סיירנא אלא חדא זימנא שמואל לטעמיה דאמר שמואל מאן דסייר נכסיה כל יומא משכח אסתירא,אביי הוה סייר נכסיה כל יומא ויומא יומא חד פגע באריסיה דדרי פתכא דאופי אמר ליה הני להיכא אמר ליה לבי מר אמר ליה כבר קדמוך רבנן,רב אסי הוה סייר נכסיה כל יומא אמר היכא נינהו כל הני אסתירי דמר שמואל יומא חד חזא צינורא דבדקא בארעיה שקליה לגלימיה כרכיה אותביה בגוה רמא קלא אתו אינשי סכרוה אשכחתינהו לכולהו איסתרי דמר שמואל:,אמר רב אידי בר אבין אמר רב יצחק בר אשיין מים ראשונים מצוה ואחרונים חובה,מיתיבי מים ראשונים ואחרונים חובה אמצעיים רשות מצוה לגבי רשות חובה קרי לה,גופא מים ראשונים ואחרונים חובה אמצעיים רשות ראשונים נוטלין בין בכלי בין על גבי קרקע אחרונים אין נוטלין אלא בכלי ואמרי לה אין נוטלין על גבי קרקע,מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו קינסא,מים ראשונים נוטלין בין בחמין בין בצונן אחרונים אין נוטלין אלא בצונן מפני שחמין מפעפעין את הידים ואין מעבירין את הזוהמא: מים ראשונים נוטלין בין בחמין בין בצונן: אמר רב יצחק בר יוסף אמר רבי ינאי לא שנו אלא שאין היד 105a. b If we say /b that b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b out his mouth with solid food b and does not need /b to b rinse /b his mouth with water, since they maintain that wiping is more effective than rinsing, b and Beit Hillel say /b that he b rinses /b his mouth in water b and does not need /b to b wipe /b his mouth, as rinsing is more effective, one can respond: b But /b as for b that which Rabbi Zeira said: Wiping of /b the b mouth /b can be performed b only with bread, in accordance with whose /b opinion is it? It is apparently b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Beit Shammai, /b since Beit Hillel do not require wiping. Yet, it is unlikely that Rabbi Zeira would rule in accordance with the opinion of Beit Shammai rather than Beit Hillel., b Rather, /b one must explain the dispute as follows: b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b his mouth after eating meat b and does not need /b to b rinse /b his mouth as well, b and Beit Hillel say /b that in addition to wiping one must b also rinse. /b This interpretation is difficult as well, since if so, this b constitutes /b one b of the /b disputes between them that involve b leniencies of Beit Shammai and stringencies of Beit Hillel, and /b consequently, b let /b the i tanna /i of tractate i Eduyyot /i b teach it alongside /b the other disputes listed there that involve b leniencies of Beit Shammai and stringencies of Beit Hillel. /b , b Rather, /b one must interpret their statements as follows: b Beit Shammai say /b that one b wipes /b his mouth after eating meat, b and the same is true of rinsing, /b i.e., one must rinse his mouth as well. b And Beit Hillel say /b that one b rinses /b his mouth, b and the same is true of wiping. /b And b one Sage said one /b statement b and one Sage said another /b statement, b and they do not disagree. /b ,§ After citing Rabbi Zeira’s statement tangentially, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rabbi Zeira says: Wiping of the mouth /b can be performed b only with bread. /b The Gemara explains: b And this statement /b applies only b to /b bread prepared b from wheat /b flour. b But with regard to /b bread prepared b from barley /b flour, one may b not /b use it for wiping, as barley bread crumbles in the mouth and does not wipe thoroughly.,The Gemara adds: b And even /b in the case of bread prepared b from wheat /b flour, b we said /b the i halakha /i b only with regard to cold /b bread, b but /b as b for warm /b bread, it is ineffective for wiping even if made of wheat, as it softens and b sticks /b to the palate, and it does not wipe the mouth properly. b And /b furthermore, even if the bread is cold, b this statement /b applies only b with regard to soft /b bread, b but /b one may b not /b wipe b with hard /b bread, as it also does not clean effectively. The Gemara concludes: b And the i halakha /i is /b that the use b of all items constitutes /b effective b wiping, except for flour, dates, and vegetables. /b ,§ b Rav Asi posed a dilemma to Rabbi Yoḥa: How much /b time b should one wait between /b eating b meat and /b eating b cheese? /b Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: No /b time b at all. /b The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But doesn’t Rav Ḥisda say: /b If one b ate meat, /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to eat cheese /b immediately, but if he ate b cheese /b it is b permitted /b for him b to eat meat /b without delay? b Rather, /b Rav Asi actually asked Rabbi Yoḥa the following question: b How much /b time b should one wait between /b eating b cheese and /b eating b meat? /b In response to this question, Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: No /b time b at all. /b ,After tangentially citing a statement of Rav Ḥisda, the Gemara discusses b the /b matter b itself. Rav Ḥisda says: /b If one b ate meat, /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to eat cheese /b immediately, as the meat contains fatty substances that stick to one’s mouth and preserve the flavor of meat. But if he ate b cheese /b it is b permitted /b for him b to eat meat /b without delay. b Rav Aḥa bar Yosef said to Rav Ḥisda: /b In the case of b meat that is between the teeth, what is /b the i halakha /i ? Are these remts considered meat to the extent that one may not eat cheese as long as they are in his mouth?,In response, Rav Ḥisda b read about him /b the following verse: b “While the meat was yet between their teeth” /b (Numbers 11:33). This verse indicates that even when the meat is between one’s teeth it is still considered meat, and therefore one may not partake of cheese until that meat has been removed., b Mar Ukva said: I am, with regard to this matter, /b like b vinegar, son of wine, with respect to Father, /b i.e., my practice is inferior to that of my father. b As Father, if he were to eat meat at this time, would not eat cheese until tomorrow at this time. But as for me, /b only b at this meal, /b during which I ate meat, b do I not eat /b cheese; b at a different meal /b on the same day b I /b will b eat /b cheese.,Similarly, b Shmuel said: I am, with regard to this /b other b matter, /b like b vinegar, son of wine, with respect to Father. As Father would patrol his property /b to examine it b twice daily, but I patrol /b it b only once /b a day. The Gemara notes: In this regard b Shmuel /b conforms b to his /b line of b reasoning, as Shmuel said: One who patrols his property every day will find an i asteira /i /b coin.,The Gemara relates that b Abaye would patrol his property each and every day. One day he encountered his sharecropper carrying a load of wood /b that the sharecropper intended to take for himself. Abaye b said to him: To where /b are you taking b these /b logs of wood? The sharecropper b said to him: To the Master’s house. /b Abaye, who knew that the sharecropper had intended to take the wood for himself, b said to him: The Sages already preempted you /b when they said that one should patrol his property regularly, and they thereby prevented you from stealing the wood.,The Gemara likewise relates that b Rav Asi would patrol his property every day. He said: Where are all these i asteira /i /b coins mentioned b by Mar Shmuel? /b This patrol is not reaping me any benefit. b One day he saw /b a water b channel that overflowed, /b causing water to flood b onto his land. He took off his cloak, wrapped it, and placed it inside /b the pipe to block the flow of water. b He /b then b raised /b his b voice, /b and b people came /b and b sealed /b the hole. He said: b I have /b just b found all the i asteira /i /b coins mentioned b by Mar Shmuel, /b as I would have suffered a great loss had I not patrolled my fields.,§ Having mentioned the manner of washing hands during a meal, the Gemara discusses another matter concerning washing hands. b Rav Idi bar Avin says /b that b Rav Yitzḥak bar Ashyan says: /b The b first waters, /b i.e., washing of the hands before eating bread, are b a mitzva /b by rabbinic law, b but /b the b final /b waters, washing of the hands upon conclusion of the meal and before reciting Grace after Meals, are b an obligation, /b a more stringent requirement.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to this ruling from a i baraita /i : The b first waters and /b the b final /b waters are b an obligation, /b whereas the b middle /b waters, between courses during the meal, are b optional. /b Apparently, the first waters are also an obligation, not a mitzva. The Gemara responds: Although the first waters are in fact a mitzva, the i tanna /i b calls a mitzva an obligation /b when b compared to an optional /b requirement.,The Gemara analyzes b the /b matter b itself. /b The full text of the i baraita /i is as follows: b First waters and final /b waters are b an obligation, /b whereas b middle /b waters are b optional. /b For b first /b waters, b one may wash either /b by spilling the water b into a vessel or onto the ground. /b But for b final /b waters, b one washes only /b by pouring the water b into a vessel. And some say /b a slightly different version of the i baraita /i : For final waters, b one may not wash /b by pouring the water b onto the ground. /b ,The Gemara interjects: b What is /b the difference b between /b these two versions? The Gemara answers: b There is /b a practical difference b between them /b with regard to pouring the water on thin wood b slivers /b on the ground. According to the first version, which requires that the water be poured into a vessel, one may not use such slivers for this purpose, whereas according to the second version, which merely prohibits pouring the water onto the ground, one may use wood slivers.,The i baraita /i continues: With regard to b first waters, one may wash either with hot /b water b or with cold /b water. But for b final /b waters, b one may wash only with cold /b water, b because hot /b water b softens the hands and does not remove the dirt /b from them. The Gemara analyzes the statement that for b first waters one may wash either with hot /b water b or with cold /b water: b Rav Yitzḥak bar Yosef says /b that b Rabbi Yannai says: They taught /b this i halakha /i b only /b in a case b where the hand does not /b
80. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256
8a. מלמדין את הקטנה שתמאן בו ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כר' אליעזר כי אמר שמואל הלכה כר' אליעזר בד' בסדר טהרות אבל בשאר סדרים איכא טובא,וה"נ מסתברא דתנן ר' אליעזר אומר אף הרודה ונותן לסל הסל מצרפן לחלה ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל הלכה כר"א ש"מ,ומאי אולמיה דהאי מהאי משום דקאי רבי אלעזר כותיה,דתנן רבי אלעזר אומר מלמדין את הקטנה שתמאן בו,ומי קאי והא אצרכו מצרכינן להו ולא דמיין להדדי אלא משום דקאי רבי יהודה בן בבא כותיה,דתניא רבי יהודה בן בבא העיד ה' דברים שממאנים את הקטנות,ושמשיאין את האשה ע"פ עד אחד ושנסקל תרנגול בירושלים על שהרג את הנפש ועל יין בן מ' יום שנתנסך ע"ג המזבח ועל תמיד של שחר שקרב בד' שעות,מאי קטנות לאו חדא דר' אלעזר וחד דר' אליעזר לא מאי קטנות קטנות דעלמא,אי הכי גבי אשה נמי נתני נשים ונימא נשים דעלמא אלא מדהכא קתני אשה והכא קתני קטנות ש"מ דוקא קתני ש"מ,וכן א"ר אלעזר הלכה כר"א בד' ותו ליכא והתנן רבי אליעזר אומר מלמדין את הקטנה שתמאן בו וא"ר אלעזר הלכה כר"א וכי תימא כי א"ר אלעזר הלכה כר"א בד' בסדר טהרות אבל בשאר סדרי איכא ומי איכא,והתנן הורד והכופר והלטום והקטף יש להן שביעית ולדמיהן שביעית יש להן ביעור ולדמיהן ביעור וא"ר פדת מאן תנא קטפא פירא ר"א,וא"ר זירא חזי דמינך ומאבוך קשריתו קטפא לעלמא את אמרת מאן תנא קטפא פירא ר"א ואבוך אמר הלכה כר"א בד',ואם איתא לימא ליה כי אמר אבא הלכה כר"א בד' בסדר טהרות אבל בשאר סדרי איכא,אלא קשיא ההיא משום דקאי רבי אלעזר כותיה דתנן רבי אלעזר אומר מלמדים את הקטנה שתמאן בו,ומי קאי והא אצרוכי מצרכינן להו ולא דמיין להדדי אלא משום דקאי רבי יהודה בן בבא כוותיה,ותו ליכא והתנן ר"ע אומר אומרה ברכה רביעית בפני עצמה ר' אליעזר אומר אומרה בהודאה וא"ר אלעזר הלכה כר"א,א"ר אבא ההוא דאמר משום רבי חנינא בן גמליאל דתניא רבי עקיבא אומר אומרה ברכה רביעית בפני עצמה רבי חנינא בן גמליאל אומר אומרה בהודאה 8a. b We instruct the minor, /b i.e., the surviving brother’s wife, b to refuse /b to continue to stay married to b him /b so that her marriage is dissolved, and he may then enter into levirate marriage with her adult sister, the widow of his childless brother. b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer. /b The Gemara explains: b When Shmuel says /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer in four /b cases, what he meant was four cases b within i Seder Teharot /i /b in the Mishna, the order that deals with ritual purity. b But in the other orders, there are many /b instances where the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.,The Gemara adds: b This too stands to reason, as we learned /b in a mishna in the order of i Zera’im /i ( i Ḥalla /i 2:4) that b Rabbi Eliezer says: Even /b with regard to b one who removes /b loaves of bread from an oven b and places them in a basket, the basket /b serves to b combine them to /b reach the quantity from which one is required to separate b i ḥalla /i , /b despite the fact that each of the loaves does not contain the necessary measure for i ḥalla /i on its own. b And Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer. Conclude from this /b that Shmuel’s general statement applies only to i Seder Teharot /i .,The Gemara raises a difficulty: The case of i ḥalla /i was cited as proof that there is an exception to Shmuel’s principle that there are only four cases where the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, after a difficulty was raised from the case of levirate marriage with the sister of one’s minor wife. b But /b in b what /b way is b this /b case of i ḥalla /i b greater /b proof b than that /b case of the levirate marriage? Neither case appears in i Seder Teharot /i . The Gemara answers: The case of the levirate marriage is different, b as /b there b Rabbi Elazar holds in accordance with /b the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer., b As we learned /b in the mishna ( i Yevamot /i 111b): A i yavam /i may perform levirate marriage with only one of his deceased brother’s wives. Once he does so, the other wives are forbidden to him, because they had been married to his brother. If a deceased brother had two wives, an adult and a minor, and the i yavam /i engaged in sexual intercourse with the minor and then engaged in intercourse with the adult, the Rabbis maintain that he disqualifies the minor from staying married to him, as her levirate bond is uncertain, and the adult wife is also prohibited to him, because the levirate marriage with the minor is considered effective by rabbinic law. b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The court b instructs the minor to refuse him, /b thereby annulling her marriage retroactively, and he may then perform levirate marriage with the adult. Accordingly, the case of i ḥalla /i is a stronger example, as there the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer exclusively, as his opinion is not supported by another i tanna /i .,The Gemara asks: b And does /b Rabbi Elazar in fact b hold /b in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer? b But doesn’t /b the Gemara ( i Yevamot /i 111b) explain that both the opinions of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Elazar b are necessary, /b as they apply to different cases, b and /b therefore b they are not comparable to each other? /b The Gemara suggests a new answer: b Rather, /b the ruling with regard to levirate marriage is a weaker example of a case where the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer b because Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava holds in accordance with his opinion. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava testified /b about b five matters of /b i halakha /i : Normally, marriage refusals of girls married off by their mother or brothers are discouraged. Yet, in specific instances where it is clear that if the marriage were to remain in effect it would engender problems related to levirate marriage and i ḥalitza /i , the court b persuades minor girls to refuse /b to continue living with their husbands, thereby resolving the complications involved in the case., b And /b he also testified b that one may /b allow b a woman /b who seeks to remarry after hearing of her husband’s death b to marry based on /b the testimony of b one witness, /b as opposed to the two witnesses required for other matters of testimony. b And /b he further testified b that a rooster was stoned /b to death b in Jerusalem for killing a person, /b in order to teach that the Torah law requiring the stoning of an ox that killed a person (see Exodus 21:28) applies to other animals as well. b And /b he testified b about forty-day-old wine that was /b used for b libation on the altar. And /b finally, he testified b about /b the b daily morning offering that was sacrificed at four hours /b of the day.,The Gemara concludes its proof: When the i baraita /i teaches that Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava testified that the court persuades minor girls to refuse to continue living with their husbands, b what /b is the significance of the reference to b minor girls /b in the plural? Is this b not /b referring to the b one /b minor girl who is the subject of the ruling b of Rabbi Elazar and /b the other b one /b that is the subject of the ruling b of Rabbi Eliezer? /b Apparently, Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer in the case of the minor’s refusal. If so, this ruling is a weaker proof that the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer in cases outside of i Seder Teharot /i . The Gemara answers: b No, what /b is meant by the plural: b Minor girls? /b It means b minor girls in general, /b i.e., all minor girls in such cases where the ruling of Rabbi Elazar applies.,The Gemara challenges: b If so, with regard to /b the i halakha /i listed in the i baraita /i that one may allow b a woman /b to marry based on the testimony of one witness, b let it also teach: Women, /b in the plural, b and we will say /b that it is referring to b women in general. Rather, from /b the fact that b here /b it b teaches: A woman, and /b yet b here /b it b teaches: Minor girls, conclude from /b this discrepancy that Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava b is teaching /b his ruling b specifically /b about two minor girls: The one who is the subject of Rabbi Elazar’s ruling and the one who is the subject of Rabbi Eliezer’s ruling. The Gemara comments: Indeed, b conclude from it /b that Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.,§ b And similarly, Rabbi Elazar says: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer in four /b cases. The Gemara asks: b And /b are there b no more? But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna that b Rabbi Eliezer says: /b The court b instructs the minor to refuse /b to stay married to b him, and Rabbi Elazar said: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer? /b The Gemara adds: b And if you would say /b that b when Rabbi Elazar said /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer in four /b cases, he meant four cases b within i Seder Teharot /i , but in the other orders /b of the Mishna b there are many /b cases, b are there /b really other such cases?, b But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna ( i Shevi’it /i 7:6) that the i halakha /i of the following fragrant plants: b The rose, the henna, the rockrose, and the balsam, /b is that b they have /b the sanctity of the b Sabbatical /b Year, b and money /b exchanged for b them has /b the sanctity of the b Sabbatical /b Year. Additionally, b they have /b the i halakha /i of b eradication and money /b exchanged for b them has /b the i halakha /i of b eradication. And /b with regard to this mishna, b Rabbi Pedat said: Who /b is the i tanna /i who b taught that balsam /b has the status of b a fruit, /b and is not merely sap, and therefore it has the sanctity of the Sabbatical Year? It is b Rabbi Eliezer. /b ,The Gemara continues: b And Rabbi Zeira said to /b Rabbi Pedat: One can b see that from you and from your father, /b i.e., between the two of you, b you have permitted balsam to the world, /b since the ruling of Rabbi Eliezer is certainly not accepted. As b you said: Who /b is the i tanna /i who b taught that balsam /b has the status of b a fruit? /b It is b Rabbi Eliezer. And your father, /b Rabbi Elazar, b said /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer in /b only b four /b cases.,The Gemara explains the difficulty: b And if it is so, /b that Rabbi Elazar was referring only to i Seder Teharot /i , then b let /b Rabbi Pedat b say to /b Rabbi Zeira: b When /b my b father said /b that the b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer in four /b cases, he meant only four cases b within i Seder Teharot /i , but in the other orders there are /b other such cases. From the fact that Rabbi Pedat did not reply in this manner, evidently there are no cases in the other orders of the Mishna where, according to Rabbi Elazar, the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer.,The Gemara asks: b But that /b case, where the i amora /i Rabbi Elazar said that the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer with regard to persuading a minor to refuse to stay married to her husband, is b difficult. /b This apparently conflicts with the statement that there are only four cases in which Rabbi Elazar rules in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer. The Gemara answers: There the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer only b because /b the i tanna /i b Rabbi Elazar holds in accordance with his /b opinion. b As we learned /b in a mishna that b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The court b instructs the minor to refuse /b to stay married to b him, /b thereby annulling her marriage retroactively.,The Gemara asks: b And does /b Rabbi Elazar b hold /b in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer in that case of the minor? b But doesn’t /b the Gemara in i Yevamot /i explain that both the opinions of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Elazar b are necessary, and /b therefore b they are not comparable to each other? Rather, /b the i halakha /i is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer in that case b because Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava holds in accordance with his opinion, /b as explained earlier.,The Gemara asks: b And /b are there b no more /b cases in which Rabbi Elazar maintains that the i halakha /i is in accordance with Rabbi Eliezer? b But didn’t we learn /b in a mishna ( i Berakhot /i 33a): One recites the prayer of distinction between the holy and the profane [ i havdala /i ], said in the evening prayer following Shabbat and festivals, in the fourth blessing of the i Amida /i prayer: Who graciously grants knowledge. b Rabbi Akiva says: One recites /b i havdala /i as b a fourth blessing by itself. Rabbi Eliezer says /b that b one recites it in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving. /b And with regard to this dispute, b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The b i halakha /i /b is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Eliezer. /b , b Rabbi Abba said, /b in explanation: b That /b case is different, b as /b that is not the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer himself. Rather, he b stated /b that ruling b in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Akiva says: One recites /b i havdala /i as b a fourth blessing by itself; Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel says: One recites it in /b the blessing of b thanksgiving. /b
81. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 127
18a. b And Rabbi Yehuda holds /b that the Rabbis and Rabbi Eliezer b disagree /b only b in those /b cases, where one’s intention is to drink the blood or burn the meat of the offering. In those cases, the Rabbis deem the offering fit, since the improper intention involves making use of the item in an unusual manner. But if one’s intention is b to leave /b of its blood until the next day, b everyone agrees /b that the offering is b unfit. What is the reason /b for this? It is a rabbinic b decree /b disqualifying the offering when b some of its blood /b is left over until the next day b due to /b the concern that a priest may intend to leave over b all of its blood, and /b if one’s intention is to leave b all of its blood /b until the next day, the offering is rendered b unfit by Torah law. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda said to /b the Rabbis: b Do you not concede to me that if he left /b the blood b until the next day /b without presenting it, b that /b the offering is b unfit? /b Therefore, if b he intended to leave /b the blood b until the next day, /b it is b also unfit. /b , b And Rabbi Elazar comes to say /b that b even in this /b case b Rabbi Eliezer deems /b the offering b unfit and the Rabbis deem /b it b fit, /b as there is no distinction between a case where one intended to drink of the blood on the next day and where one intended to merely leave the blood until the next day.,The Gemara asks: b And /b does b Rabbi Yehuda /b in fact b hold /b that if one’s intention is b to leave /b some b of the blood until the next day, everyone agrees /b that the offering is b unfit? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: When I went to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua to clarify my knowledge, and some say /b that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: When I went b to clarify the knowledge of, /b i.e., study under, b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua, I found Yosef the Babylonian sitting before /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. b And /b every ruling that Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua taught b was especially dear to him, until /b they began discussing b one /b i halakha /i , when Yosef the Babylonian b said to him: My teacher, /b with regard to b one who slaughters the offering /b with the intention b to leave /b some b of its blood for the next day, what is /b the i halakha /i ?,Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: /b The offering is b fit. /b Yosef the Babylonian repeated this question that b evening, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b He asked again the following b morning, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b Once again, he asked this question at b noon, /b and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him /b that the offering is b fit. /b When he asked the question a further time that late b afternoon, /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: /b I hold that the offering is b fit, but Rabbi Eliezer deems /b it b unfit. Yosef the Babylonian’s face lit up [ i tzahavu panav /i ] /b with joy.,Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b said to him: Yosef, it seems to me that our, /b i.e., my, b i halakhot /i were not accurate until now, /b when I said that the offering is fit. Yosef the Babylonian b said to him: My teacher, yes, /b I agree that the offering is fit, as you said. b But /b my reluctance to accept your statement was due to the fact b that Rabbi Yehuda taught me /b that the offering is b unfit, and I went around to all of /b Rabbi Yehuda’s b disciples, seeking another /b disciple who had also heard this from him, b but I could not find /b one, and thought that I must have been mistaken. b Now that you have taught me /b that Rabbi Eliezer deems it b unfit, you have returned to me that which I had lost. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: Upon hearing this, b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua’s eyes streamed with tears, /b and b he said: Happy are you, Torah scholars, for whom matters of Torah are exceedingly dear. /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b recited this verse about /b Yosef the Babylonian: b “O how I love Your Torah; it is my meditation all the day” /b (Psalms 119:97). He continued: b Because Rabbi Yehuda /b is b the son of Rabbi Elai, and Rabbi Elai /b is b the student of Rabbi Eliezer, therefore /b Rabbi Yehuda b taught you the mishna of Rabbi Eliezer /b that the offering is unfit.,The Gemara explains its objection: b And if it enters your mind /b that Rabbi Yehuda b taught /b Yosef the Babylonian that b all agree /b that the offering is b unfit, what /b did Yosef the Babylonian mean when he said to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua: b You have returned to me that which I had lost? /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b had said to him /b only that whether the offering is rendered unfit is subject to b a dispute, /b and Yosef the Babylonian would have been taught that all agree that it is unfit., b Rather, what /b is it that Rabbi Yehuda taught Yosef the Babylonian? Did he b teach him /b that the Rabbis deem the offering b fit and Rabbi Eliezer deems /b it b unfit? If that is so, what /b did Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua mean when he said b that /b it was only b because /b Rabbi Yehuda was the son of Rabbi Elai, who was the student of Rabbi Eliezer, that Rabbi Yehuda taught this b dispute? /b According to Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua, b we too teach /b this b dispute. /b The fact that Rabbi Yehuda taught both opinions in a dispute does not require justification., b Rather, /b it must be that b actually, /b Rabbi Yehuda b taught /b Yosef the Babylonian that b all agree /b that the offering is b unfit; and what /b did Yosef the Babylonian mean when he said: b You have returned to me that which I had lost? /b He meant b that /b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua b had in any event returned to him /b that there is b some /b opinion b in the world /b concerning the b unfitness /b of the offering if one’s intention was to leave over the blood until the next day. His answer reassured Yosef the Babylonian that there is in fact such an opinion., strong MISHNA: /strong If one b did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, or b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, b or did not break /b the loaves into pieces, b or did not /b add b salt, or did not wave /b the i omer /i meal offering or the meal offering of a i sota /i , or b did not bring /b the meal offering to the altar, b or /b if it happened b that /b the priest b broke /b the meal offerings that require breaking into b greater pieces /b than appropriate, b or did not smear /b oil on the wafers requiring this (see Leviticus 2:4), in all these cases the meal offering is b fit. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b What /b does the mishna mean when it states that if one b did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, the meal offering is fit? b If we say /b that it means that b he did not pour /b oil b at all, /b that is difficult: Doesn’t the verse b write with regard to /b the pouring of the oil that doing so is b indispensable? Rather, /b the mishna must be referring to a case where b a priest did not pour /b the oil onto the meal offering, b but a non-priest /b did pour it. The Gemara notes: b If so, /b that the first clause of the mishna is understood in this manner, then the next i halakha /i in the mishna: If one b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, should b also /b be understood as referring to a case where b a priest did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering, b but a non-priest /b did mix it, so it is fit. b This /b would indicate that if one b did not mix /b the oil into the meal offering b at all, /b the meal offering is b unfit. /b
82. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 136
3b. משום בניו אורחא הוא,והכתיב (שמואל א כה, כ) והיא רוכבת על החמור התם משום ביעתותא דליליא אורחא הוא ואיבעית אימא משום ביעתותא דליליא ליכא משום ביעתותא דדוד איכא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דדוד נמי ליכא משום ביעתותא דהר איכא,ובאורייתא מי לא כתיב טמא אלא כל היכא דכי הדדי נינהו משתעי בלשון נקיה כל היכא דנפישין מילי משתעי בלשון קצרה כדאמר רב הונא אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא אמר רב משום ר"מ לעולם ישנה אדם לתלמידו דרך קצרה,וכל היכא דכי הדדי נינהו משתעי בלשון כבוד והא רוכבת ויושבת דכי הדדי נינהו וקאמר רוכבת רכבת כתיב,הנהו תרי תלמידי דהוו יתבי קמיה דרב חד אמר שויתינן האי שמעתא כדבר אחר מסנקן וחד אמר שויתינן האי שמעתא כגדי מסנקן ולא אישתעי רב בהדי דהאיך,הנהו תרי תלמידי דהוו יתבי קמיה דהלל וחד מינייהו רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואמרי לה קמיה דרבי וחד מינייהו רבי יוחנן חד אמר מפני מה בוצרין בטהרה ואין מוסקין בטהרה וחד אמר מפני מה בוצרין בטהרה ומוסקין בטומאה אמר מובטח אני בזה שמורה הוראה בישראל ולא היה ימים מועטים עד שהורה הוראה בישראל,הנהו תלתא כהני חד אמר להו הגיעני כפול וחד אמר הגיעני כזית וחד אמר הגיעני כזנב הלטאה בדקו אחריו ומצאו בו שמץ פסול,והא (תניא) אין בודקין מן המזבח ולמעלה,לא תימא שמץ פסול אלא אימא שחץ פסול ואי בעית אימא שאני התם דאיהו דארע נפשיה,ההוא ארמאה דהוה סליק ואכיל פסחים בירושלים אמר כתיב (שמות יב, מג) כל בן נכר לא יאכל בו (שמות יב, מח) כל ערל לא יאכל בו ואנא הא קאכילנא משופרי שופרי,אמר ליה רבי יהודה בן בתירא מי קא ספו לך מאליה אמר ליה לא כי סלקת להתם אימא להו ספו לי מאליה כי סליק אמר להו מאליה ספו לי אמרו ליה אליה לגבוה סלקא,אמרו ליה מאן אמר לך הכי אמר להו רבי יהודה בן בתירא אמרו מאי האי דקמן בדקו בתריה ואשכחוהו דארמאה הוא וקטלוהו שלחו ליה לרבי יהודה בן בתירא שלם לך ר' יהודה בן בתירא דאת בנציבין ומצודתך פרוסה בירושלים,רב כהנא חלש שדרוה רבנן לר' יהושע בריה דרב אידי אמרו ליה זיל בדוק מאי דיניה אתא אשכחיה דנח נפשיה קרעיה ללבושיה ואהדריה לקרעיה לאחוריה ובכי ואתי אמרו ליה נח נפשיה אמר להו אנא לא קאמינא (משלי י, יח) ומוציא דבה הוא כסיל,יוחנן חקוקאה נפק לקרייתא כי אתא אמרו ליה חיטין נעשו יפות אמר להם שעורים נעשו יפות אמרו ליה צא ובשר לסוסים ולחמורים דכתיב (מלכים א ה, ח) השעורים והתבן לסוסים ולרכש מאי הוי ליה למימר אשתקד נעשו חיטין יפות אי נמי עדשים נעשו יפות: 3b. b due to his children, /b as b it is standard practice /b for children to ride.,The Gemara raises another difficulty. b But isn’t it written /b with regard to Abigail: “And it was so, b as she rode on her donkey /b and came down by the covert of the mountain” (I Samuel 25:20). This verse employs the language of riding in reference to a woman on a donkey. The Gemara answers: b There, due to the fear of the night, it is standard practice /b for a woman to ride and not merely sit on the donkey. b And if you wish, say /b instead: b There is no /b consideration b due to the fear of the night /b that would explain why she was permitted to ride in the regular manner; rather, b there is /b a consideration b due to fear of David. And if you wish, say /b instead: b There is no /b consideration b due to fear of David either; /b however, b there is /b a consideration b due to the fear of /b the incline when riding down b the mountain. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t /b the word b impure written in the Torah? /b Apparently, the Torah does not consistently employ euphemisms, and indeed the word impure appears regularly. b Rather, anywhere that /b two phrases b are equal /b in length, the verse b speaks /b employing b a euphemism. Anywhere that the words /b of the euphemism b are /b more b numerous, /b requiring a lengthier description, the Torah b speaks /b employing b concise language, in accordance with /b that b which Rav Huna said /b that b Rav said, and some say it /b was b Rav Huna /b who b said /b that b Rav said in the name of Rabbi Meir: A person should always teach his student in a concise manner. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And anywhere that /b the phrases b are equal in /b length, does the verse always b speak /b employing b dignified language? Aren’t /b the Hebrew words for b rides [ i rokhevet /i ], /b spelled: i Reish /i , i vav /i , i kaf /i , i beit /i , i tav /i ; b and sits [ i yoshevet /i ], /b spelled: i Yod /i , i vav /i , i shin /i , i beit /i , i tav /i , b of equal /b length, and yet the verse b states: Rides /b (I Samuel 25:20). The Gemara answers: The Hebrew word for b rides is written /b without a i vav /i in the defective form, rendering it shorter than the term for sits. Brevity takes precedence over dignified language.,The Gemara relates an incident involving the use of appropriate language: There were b these two students who were sitting before Rav /b and were weary from studying a complex issue. b One /b of them b said: This i halakha /i /b we are studying b is rendering us /b as tired b as a tired [ i mesankan /i ] something else, /b a euphemism for a pig. b And /b the other b one said: This i halakha /i is rendering us /b as tired b as a tired kid. Rav /b would b not speak with that /b student who made reference to a pig, as one who speaks inappropriately is undoubtedly flawed in character.,The Gemara additionally relates that there were b these two students who were sitting before Hillel, and one of them /b was b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. And some say /b they were sitting b before Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and one of them was /b the i amora /i b Rabbi Yoḥa. One /b of them b said: Due to what /b reason need b one /b be careful to b harvest grapes in /b a state of b ritual purity, /b by insisting on the use of pure vessels, b and one need not harvest olives in /b a state of b ritual purity? And /b the other b one said /b the same point, only he worded it differently: b Due to what /b reason need b one harvest grapes in /b a state of b ritual purity, but one /b may b harvest olives in /b a state of b ritual impurity? /b Their teacher b said: I am certain that this /b first student, who spoke in a clean manner, will b issue /b halakhic b rulings in Israel. /b The Gemara adds: b And /b it was b not /b even b a few days later that he issued /b halakhic b rulings in Israel. /b ,The Gemara relates an incident involving the use of appropriate language. There were b these three priests /b in the Temple, each of whom received a portion of the showbread divided among the priests. Since there were many priests, each one received only a small amount. b One said to them: I received a bean-sized /b portion. b And one said: I received an olive-bulk. And one said: I received /b a portion the size b of a lizard’s tail. They investigated the background /b of the latter priest, who used the imagery of an impure creeping animal, b and they found a trace [ i shemetz /i ] of disqualification in his /b background. The Gemara assumes that they found a problem in his lineage that disqualified him from the priesthood. ,The Gemara asks: b But wasn’t /b it b taught /b in a i baraita /i that b one does not investigate /b a priest’s lineage b beyond the altar? /b When the court investigated the lineage of a priest, they would investigate his ancestry only until they discovered a priest who sacrificed offerings on the altar. At that point, they would halt the investigation. A priest of questionable lineage would certainly not have been permitted to serve on the altar. However, in this incident the lineage of a priest who had brought offerings was indeed called into question.,The Gemara rejects this contention: b Do not say /b that they found b a trace [ i shemetz /i ] of disqualification, /b referring to his lineage. b Rather, say /b that they found b arrogance [ i shaḥatz /i ] of disqualification, /b and for that reason he was disqualified from the priesthood. b And if you wish, say /b instead: b There it is different, as he cast aspersions upon himself. /b Although it is generally assumed that any priest who participates in the Temple service is qualified to do so, this priest discredited his own lineage through his conduct.,With regard to the investigation of the priestly lineage, the Gemara relates: b A certain gentile would ascend /b on the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, claiming he was Jewish, b and eat Paschal /b lambs b in Jerusalem. /b He would then return home and boast about how he had tricked the Jews. b He said: It is written: /b “This is the statute of the Paschal lamb; b no foreigner may eat of it” /b (Exodus 12:43), and another verse says: b “Any uncircumcised man shall not eat of it” /b (Exodus 12:48). b And /b yet, b I ate from the finest of the fine /b portions of the Paschal lamb., b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira said to him, /b in an attempt to thwart any repetition of this action: b Did they feed you from the fat tail /b of the lamb? Do you really think they gave you the finest portion? The gentile was ignorant of the fact that the fat tail is sacrificed on the altar, not eaten. The gentile b said to him: No. /b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira replied: If so, b when you ascend there /b next time, b say to them: Feed me the fat tail. /b The next year b when he ascended, he said to /b the other members of the group he joined: b Feed me from the fat tail. They said to him: The fat tail is /b offered b up to God. /b , b They said to him: Who said that to you, /b to ask for that portion? b He said to them /b testily: It was b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. They said: What is this /b incident that has come b before us? /b Could Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira have told him to eat the fat tail? This matter must be investigated further. b They investigated his background and found that he was a gentile, and /b they b killed him. They sent /b a message b to Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira: Peace unto you, Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira, as you /b are b in Netzivin and your net is spread in Jerusalem. /b Despite your distance from Jerusalem, you enabled us to apprehend a person who deceived us.,The Gemara relates another incident in praise of one who is careful to refrain from improper or negative language. b Rav Kahana fell ill, and the Sages sent Rabbi Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, /b as their emissary to him. b They said to him: Go /b and b assess what is /b Rav Kahana’s b condition /b at present. Rabbi Yehoshua, son b of /b Rav Idi, b went and found that /b Rav Kahana b had passed away. He rent his garment and turned /b his garment around so b the tear /b would be b behind him /b and would not be immediately apparent, b and he was crying /b as he b was coming. They said to him: Did /b Rav Kahana b pass away? He said to them: I did not say /b that, as the verse states: b “And he who utters slander is a fool” /b (Proverbs 10:18). This verse indicates that it is undesirable to be a bearer of bad tidings, and if one must inform others of the unfortunate news, he should do so in an indirect manner.,The Gemara continues to cite examples of clean language: b Yoḥa from Ḥakuk went to the villages. When he came, they said to him: /b Did the b wheat /b crop b develop nicely? /b Reluctant to say that the wheat crop did not develop nicely, b he said to them: /b The b barley /b crop b developed nicely, /b leaving them to draw their own conclusion. b They said to him, /b mockingly: b Go out and inform the horses and donkeys /b about the barley, b as it is written: “Barley and hay for the horses and swift steeds” /b (I Kings 5:8). The Gemara asks: b What could he have said /b to better express the bad news euphemistically? The Gemara answers: He could have said: b Last year’s wheat /b crop b developed nicely. Alternatively, /b he could have said that this year’s crop of b lentils, /b which is also food for people, b has developed nicely. /b
83. Epiphanius, Panarion, 1.211 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 256
84. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 29-30 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 257
87. Anon., Baebi Italici Ilias, 16.227-16.229, 24.302-24.306  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 111
88. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 5.2, 5.4, 8.2, 9.6, 9.18  Tagged with subjects: •graeco-roman (law/custom) Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 149
5.2. ordered the guards to seize each and every Hebrew and to compel them to eat pork and food sacrificed to idols. 5.4. And when many persons had been rounded up, one man, Eleazar by name, leader of the flock, was brought before the king. He was a man of priestly family, learned in the law, advanced in age, and known to many in the tyrant's court because of his philosophy. 8.2. For when the tyrant was conspicuously defeated in his first attempt, being unable to compel an aged man to eat defiling foods, then in violent rage he commanded that others of the Hebrew captives be brought, and that any who ate defiling food should be freed after eating, but if any were to refuse, these should be tortured even more cruelly. 9.6. And if the aged men of the Hebrews because of their religion lived piously while enduring torture, it would be even more fitting that we young men should die despising your coercive tortures, which our aged instructor also overcame. 9.18. Through all these tortures I will convince you that sons of the Hebrews alone are invincible where virtue is concerned."