Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       

Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
form/function, congruence, body Brule (2003) 76, 77, 79
function King (2006) 6, 121, 124, 127, 131, 133, 134, 135, 137, 167, 220, 241, 246
function, acclamation Stavrianopoulou (2006) 302, 303, 304, 305, 311
function, and women, hierarchy, of social Jouanna (2018) 354, 355
function, apotropaic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 368
Laes Goodey and Rose (2013) 291
function, as, aedituus, freedmen Rutledge (2012) 305, 306
function, bes and dionysos cult, apotropaic Renberg (2017) 496, 545
function, child-nurturing, as divine Parker (2005) 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439
function, curse tablets, katadesmoi, adversarial Eidinow (2007) 294
function, dedicatory formulas, greek and latin evidence for oracular Renberg (2017) 391, 392
function, east-west trajectories, of prophetic Pillinger (2019) 138, 139, 141
function, epistolary Malherbe et al (2014) 253
function, gymnasion, role and Stavrianopoulou (2013) 317, 319
function, herm Gaifman (2012) 305, 306, 309
function, hierarchy, of social Jouanna (2018) 315, 316, 317
function, human Huffman (2019) 132
function, ideology, constructive Barbato (2020) 8, 15, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66
function, in de architectura, caryatids Oksanish (2019) 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79
function, in education, wisdom literature, distinctive Carr (2004) 126, 132, 133, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 222, 223, 224, 225, 280, 281
function, in essenes, rhetorical Taylor (2012) 19, 210
function, in purity system, stone Balberg (2014) 79, 119, 211
function, in seneca, comets, symbolic Williams (2012) 289, 290, 291, 292, 293
function, independently of superior magistrates, magistrates Konrad (2022) 96, 112, 113, 114, 200, 201
function, lat. munus = gr. ergon Tsouni (2019) 130
function, narrative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 216
function, narrative, structuralist, analysis Toloni (2022) 9, 32, 56, 59, 73, 76, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 139, 146, 161, 195, 201
function, oath Stavrianopoulou (2006) 28, 182, 193
function, oath-rituals, communicative Stavrianopoulou (2006) 188
function, of acts legitimating Matthews (2010) 34, 57
function, of amulet, apotropaic Ernst (2009) 150
function, of angels Scopello (2008) 132
function, of audience, authorising Bexley (2022) 55
function, of beards Dürr (2022) 158, 159, 160
function, of characters, social Jouanna (2018) 315, 316, 317
function, of chorus, the Jouanna (2018) 712
function, of death Mcglothlin (2018) 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 148, 149, 150, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 237, 238, 239
function, of exempla, social Langlands (2018) 71, 72, 74
function, of figure of judas Scopello (2008) 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186
function, of foundation documents, democratic Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 127
function, of hair growth Dürr (2022) 158, 159, 160
function, of hecate, prophetic Simmons(1995) 24
function, of honorific inscriptions, exhortative Gygax (2016) 221
function, of language exhortation see protreptic faculties, ascending scales of Dürr (2022) 70, 72
function, of life, living Trott (2019) 234
function, of ludi, class Richlin (2018) 40, 41
function, of minim stories, in the babylonian talmud Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 176
function, of mishna or midrash form, mnemonic Hayes (2022) 108, 109
function, of myth in ancient novel Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 24
function, of noble death Moss (2012) 94
function, of odysseus, social Jouanna (2018) 315, 316
function, of piyyutim, poetic Stern (2004) 118
function, of prayer Jonquière (2007) 17, 49, 127, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242
function, of prayer, hortatory Malherbe et al (2014) 273
function, of priests, collective Balberg (2017) 200, 201, 202, 203, 207
function, of religion, traditional, religion Segev (2017) 6, 50, 51, 52, 57, 61, 66, 78, 81, 82, 127, 139
function, of resurrection, jesus christ, identity of as Dawson (2001) 192
function, of resurrection, polemical Mcglothlin (2018) 72, 73
function, of resurrection, theological Mcglothlin (2018) 73, 74, 75, 76
function, of ritual Trudinger (2004) 239, 240
function, of romans Dürr (2022) 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277
function, of servants, social Jouanna (2018) 315, 316, 317
function, of similitudes of enoch Collins (2016) 236, 237
function, of speeches in thucydides, generally, rhetorical Joho (2022) 85
function, of statue, “eiconic” Steiner (2001) 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
function, of statues, “eiconic” Steiner (2001) 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44
function, of tragedy, aristotle, and the political Liapis and Petrides (2019) 272
function, of uitiosi, natural questions Williams (2012) 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 291, 292
function, of virgil, vision of universe Gee (2020) 157, 158
function, of work of blood, avodat ha-dam Balberg (2017) 89
function, of world soul d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 124, 125
function, pasiphae, sanctuary at thalamai, terminology associated with oracular Renberg (2017) 10, 13, 316, 317, 670
function, perfumes, apotropaic of Luck (2006) 218, 219, 438
function, phantasia, cognitive Manolaraki (2012) 293, 302, 303, 305, 306, 307
function, philophronetic Tite (2009) 65
function, pneuma, spirit, in paul, as having a cognitive Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 62, 63, 64, 65, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 156, 157, 227
function, prayer Hickson (1993) 95, 107, 113
function, proper, stoic Roller (2018) 267
function, prophets and priests at rome, prophecy as a priestly Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 83, 84, 85, 86, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, 125, 127, 166, 167, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182
function, ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 212
function, social Tite (2009) 22, 29, 77, 80, 84, 176, 199, 201, 216, 224, 226, 257, 265, 296, 304, 305
function, status Mackey (2022) 180, 182, 184, 186, 190, 191, 192, 338, 366, 391
function, synagogues Neusner Green and Avery-Peck (2022) 193, 194
function, ἔργον, of human beings Dürr (2022) 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
functional, account of soul, psyche King (2006) 239
functional, domain coptic texts Huebner and Laes (2019) 322
functional, epithets, described as soteres, as divine specialists bearing Jim (2022) 154, 156
functional, epithets, epithets, cultic Jim (2022) 5, 151
functional, literacy Johnson and Parker (2009) 23, 36
functional, material, matter, ὑλή Trott (2019) 72, 112, 239
functional, of importation motif, role Honigman (2003) 82, 83, 138
functional, of king, role Honigman (2003) 49, 82, 83
functional, of library, role Honigman (2003) 49, 83
functional, proportion and proportionality Oksanish (2019) 62, 63, 91
functional, role Honigman (2003) 82, 85
functional, role of importation motif Honigman (2003) 45, 83, 85, 138
functional, types, narratio Martin and Whitlark (2018) 144, 145, 146
functional, unity and the “master skill”, dissoi logoi Wolfsdorf (2020) 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305
functional, vs. stored, memory Shannon-Henderson (2019) 110, 159, 320, 321
functionalism Kowalzig (2007) 20, 23
Tite (2009) 25, 29, 275
functionalism, fused sense of communication, tambiah Kowalzig (2007) 67
functionally, divided ownership Verhagen (2022) 120, 123, 124, 219
functioning, as, milestones, herms Simon (2021) 335
functions Binder (2012) 79, 123, 125, 144, 147, 162, 186, 188, 224
functions, as a yoke between knowledge and opinion, cleanthes Brouwer (2013) 72
functions, at oracles, relationship of cultic and prophetic Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 83, 84, 85, 86, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123
functions, body/bodily Fertik (2019) 37, 129
functions, by, agrippina the younger, usurping of government Shannon-Henderson (2019) 267, 292
functions, city-gate, forerunner of synagogue Levine (2005) 4, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 43
functions, claudius, and bodily Fertik (2019) 129
functions, court, the, judicial Cohn (2013) 40
functions, demarch Humphreys (2018) 776, 790
functions, desire related to reason, will, distinct Sorabji (2000) 321, 335
functions, disciplina militaris, political Phang (2001) 349, 355, 356, 381
functions, disturbance, of vital van der EIjk (2005) 266
functions, gods, diverse Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022) 91, 92, 337, 338, 357, 358
functions, in Fertik (2019) 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 148, 154
functions, in attica, heroes and heroines Parker (2005) 450
functions, in augustine, will, clustering of Sorabji (2000) 335, 336
functions, in common humanity in Fertik (2019) 141, 142, 143, 144
functions, in freedmen in Fertik (2019) 133, 136, 137, 140
functions, in guests in Fertik (2019) 133, 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142
functions, in oracles, specialisation of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 117, 118, 119, 120
functions, in slaves in Fertik (2019) 133, 134, 135, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 198
functions, licence to sell Verhagen (2022) 196, 197, 198, 199
functions, multiplicity of gods, divine Jim (2022) 7, 8
functions, of artemis soteira, multiple Jim (2022) 7, 10, 145, 147
functions, of books, social Jaffee (2001) 18, 19
functions, of epithets, cultic Jim (2022) 5, 8, 150, 151, 152, 236, 237
functions, of forums Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 92
functions, of imperial cult Kalinowski (2021) 203
functions, of pastophoria, pastophoroi, egyptian cult officials Renberg (2017) 722, 723
functions, of patriarch Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 145
functions, of pirka Kalmin (1998) 47
functions, of praise, elative Versnel (2011) 297, 299, 302
functions, of priests adolescent, cultic vs. prophetic Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 83, 84, 85, 86, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, 125, 127
functions, of provincial governor, judicial Humfress (2007) 41, 46, 49
functions, of raphael Toloni (2022) 91
functions, of real security, economic analyses of law Verhagen (2022) 34, 35, 36
functions, of receptacle, platonic Hoenig (2018) 35, 36
functions, of scribes Jaffee (2001) 7, 20, 65, 167
functions, of secrecy, social Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 69, 70, 74, 75, 76, 79
functions, of soul, kinetic, cognitive, ontological Inwood and Warren (2020) 173, 193, 198
functions, of soul, lat. animus = gr. psychē Tsouni (2019) 199
functions, of tradition, hermeneutical Jaffee (2001) 5, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92
functions, of writing Jaffee (2001) 23, 24, 100, 101, 102, 126, 127, 128
functions, of zeus soter, multiple Jim (2022) 7, 10, 145
functions, other than healing, imhotep Renberg (2017) 367, 423
functions, overlaps in gods, divine Jim (2022) 8, 11, 142
functions, peroratio Martin and Whitlark (2018) 248
functions, plutarch, didactic König (2012) 66, 75
functions, priests, hiereis, /priestesses, hiereiai, /priesthood, duties and Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 295, 296, 297
functions, real security, economic Verhagen (2022) 34, 35, 36
functions, religion, greek, stoas at sanctuaries, non-incubatory Renberg (2017) 148, 149, 541, 686, 687
functions, rulers and ruled, and bodily Fertik (2019) 129
functions, see also appropriate actions", proper Jedan (2009) 182
functions, temples Jenkyns (2013) 226, 227
occupations/functions/titles, archisynagogisa, women Marek (2019) 465
occupations/functions/titles, artists, women Marek (2019) 464, 465
occupations/functions/titles, headmisttress in gymnasium, women Marek (2019) 464
occupations/functions/titles, oikonomissa, women Marek (2019) 464
occupations/functions/titles, priestess, women Marek (2019) 465
occupations/functions/titles, satrap, women Marek (2019) 156
‘function, argument’, aristotle Tsouni (2019) 101

List of validated texts:
19 validated results for "function"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.9, 11.20, 31.9, 31.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Wisdom literature, distinctive function in education • city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, functions • writing, functions of

 Found in books: Carr (2004) 132, 133, 135, 136, 138, 139, 152; Jaffee (2001) 24; Levine (2005) 30

6.9. וּכְתַבְתָּם עַל־מְזוּזֹת בֵּיתֶךָ וּבִשְׁעָרֶיךָ׃' '
31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
31.22. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
6.9. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates.
11.20. And thou shalt write them upon the door-posts of thy house, and upon thy gates;
31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
31.22. So Moses wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.13, 11.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Interpreter of the Torah, as messianic function, Jesus as • Wisdom literature, distinctive function in education • city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, functions

 Found in books: Carr (2004) 145; Levine (2005) 24; Ruzer (2020) 20

1.13. לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃
11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃''. None
1.13. Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly.
11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 24.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Interpreter of the Torah, as messianic function, Jesus as • Wisdom literature, distinctive function in education

 Found in books: Carr (2004) 140; Ruzer (2020) 21

24.2. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־כָּל־הָעָם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּעֵבֶר הַנָּהָר יָשְׁבוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵעוֹלָם תֶּרַח אֲבִי אַבְרָהָם וַאֲבִי נָחוֹר וַיַּעַבְדוּ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃
24.2. כִּי תַעַזְבוּ אֶת־יְהוָה וַעֲבַדְתֶּם אֱלֹהֵי נֵכָר וְשָׁב וְהֵרַע לָכֶם וְכִלָּה אֶתְכֶם אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵיטִיב לָכֶם׃''. None
24.2. And Joshua said unto all the people: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods.''. None
4. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath, function • memory, social function of

 Found in books: Mawford and Ntanou (2021) 126; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 28

5. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • functionalism, fused sense of communication (Tambiah) • memory, social function of • structuralist, analysis, function, narrative

 Found in books: Kowalzig (2007) 67; Mawford and Ntanou (2021) 5; Toloni (2022) 59

6. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, functions • structuralist, analysis, function, narrative • writing, functions of

 Found in books: Jaffee (2001) 24; Levine (2005) 23, 32; Toloni (2022) 73

8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃'
8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ '. None
8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.' '. None
7. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • child-nurturing, as divine function • religion, function of (traditional) religion

 Found in books: Parker (2005) 439; Segev (2017) 81

8. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • caryatids, function in De architectura • design, imparted through the function of disease as fabricator leti

 Found in books: Kazantzidis (2021) 13; Oksanish (2019) 70, 71

1.1.1. 1. Architecture is a science arising out of many other sciences, and adorned with much and varied learning; by the help of which a judgment is formed of those works which are the result of other arts. Practice and theory are its parents. Practice is the frequent and continued contemplation of the mode of executing any given work, or of the mere operation of the hands, for the conversion of the material in the best and readiest way. Theory is the result of that reasoning which demonstrates and explains that the material wrought has been so converted as to answer the end proposed.''. None
9. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • disciplina militaris, political functions • exempla, social function of

 Found in books: Langlands (2018) 71; Phang (2001) 349

10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 2.7, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judas, function of figure of • Secrecy, Social functions of • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, as having a cognitive function • work of blood (avodat ha-dam), function of

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 89; Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 70; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 62, 79; Scopello (2008) 177

2.7. ἀλλὰ λαλοῦμεν θεοῦ σοφίαν ἐν μυστηρίῳ, τὴν ἀποκεκρυμμένην, ἣν προώρισεν ὁ θεὸς πρὸ τῶν αἰώνων εἰς δόξαν ἡμῶν·
5.7. ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. καὶ γὰρτὸ πάσχαἡμῶνἐτύθηΧριστός·''. None
2.7. But we speak God's wisdom in amystery, the wisdom that has been hidden, which God foreordained beforethe worlds to our glory," '
5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place.'". None
11. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 1.4-1.5, 4.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Interpreter of the Torah, as messianic function, Jesus as • hortatory, function of prayer • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, as having a cognitive function

 Found in books: Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 79, 80; Malherbe et al (2014) 273; Ruzer (2020) 64

1.4. εἰδότες, ἀδελφοὶ ἠγαπημένοι ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ, τὴν ἐκλογὴν ὑμῶν, 1.5. ὅτι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐγενήθη εἰς ὑμᾶς ἐν λόγῳ μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν δυνάμει καὶ ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πληροφορίᾳ πολλῇ, καθὼς οἴδατε οἷοι ἐγενήθημεν ὑμῖν διʼ ὑμᾶς·
4.17. ἔπειτα ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι ἅμα σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα· καὶ οὕτως πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα.''. None
1.4. We know, brothers loved by God, that you are chosen, 1.5. and that our gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Spirit, and with much assurance. You know what kind of men we showed ourselves to be among you for your sake.
4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. ''. None
12. New Testament, Philippians, 3.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seer of Revelation,, Christ’s voice/witness of Jesus, functioning as • Social function • pneuma (spirit) in Paul, as having a cognitive function

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 22; Engberg-Pedersen (2010) 156; Tite (2009) 296

3.17. Συνμιμηταί μου γίνεσθε, ἀδελφοί, καὶ σκοπεῖτε τοὺς οὕτω περιπατοῦντας καθὼς ἔχετε τύπον ἡμᾶς·''. None
3.17. Brothers, be imitators together of me, and note those who walk this way, even as you have us for an example. ''. None
13. New Testament, Luke, 24.25-24.27, 24.44-24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Acts legitimating function of • Interpreter of the Torah, as messianic function, Jesus as • Secrecy, Social functions of

 Found in books: Bull Lied and Turner (2011) 70; Matthews (2010) 34; Ruzer (2020) 108, 141

24.25. καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Ὦ ἀνόητοι καὶ βραδεῖς τῇ καρδίᾳ τοῦ πιστεύειν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται· 24.26. οὐχὶ ταῦτα ἔδει παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ; 24.27. καὶ ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ Μωυσέως καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν προφητῶν διερμήνευσεν αὐτοῖς ἐν πάσαις ταῖς γραφαῖς τὰ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ.
24.44. Εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Οὗτοι οἱ λόγοι μου οὓς ἐλάλησα πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔτι ὢν σὺν ὑμῖν, ὅτι δεῖ πληρωθῆναι πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Μωυσέως καὶ τοῖς προφήταις καὶ Ψαλμοῖς περὶ ἐμοῦ. 24.45. τότε διήνοιξεν αὐτῶν τὸν νοῦν τοῦ συνιέναι τὰς γραφάς, 24.46. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὅτι οὕτως γέγραπται παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ ἀναστῆναι ἐκ νεκρῶν τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ, 24.47. καὶ κηρυχθῆναι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνὴ, — ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ·''. None
24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn\'t the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory?" 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.
24.44. He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me must be fulfilled." 24.45. Then he opened their minds, that they might understand the Scriptures. 24.46. He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day, 24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. ''. None
14. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judas, function of figure of • death, function of

 Found in books: Mcglothlin (2018) 61; Scopello (2008) 177

4.18. Those born in Cancer are of the following description: size not large, hair like a dog, of a reddish color, small mouth, round head, pointed forehead, grey eyes, sufficiently beautiful, limbs somewhat varying. The same by nature are wicked, crafty, proficients in plans, insatiable, stingy, ungracious, illiberal, useless, forgetful; they neither restore what is another's, nor do they ask back what is their own; as regards friendship, useful. "". None
15. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, functions • pirka, functions of

 Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 47; Levine (2005) 26

3a. בנס היו עומדין,אין מהוה הוו ולא הוו ידעי הי באמצע תיבה והי בסוף תיבה ואתו צופים ותקינו פתוחין באמצע תיבה וסתומין בסוף תיבה,סוף סוף אלה המצות שאין נביא עתיד לחדש דבר מעתה אלא שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,וא"ר ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא תרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו מפי ר\' אליעזר ור\' יהושע תרגום של נביאים יונתן בן עוזיאל אמרו מפי חגי זכריה ומלאכי ונזדעזעה ארץ ישראל ארבע מאות פרסה על ארבע מאות פרסה יצתה בת קול ואמרה מי הוא זה שגילה סתריי לבני אדם,עמד יונתן בן עוזיאל על רגליו ואמר אני הוא שגליתי סתריך לבני אדם גלוי וידוע לפניך שלא לכבודי עשיתי ולא לכבוד בית אבא אלא לכבודך עשיתי שלא ירבו מחלוקת בישראל,ועוד ביקש לגלות תרגום של כתובים יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו דייך מ"ט משום דאית ביה קץ משיח,ותרגום של תורה אונקלוס הגר אמרו והא אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב מאי דכתיב (נחמיה ח, ח) ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים מפורש ושום שכל ויבינו במקרא ויקראו בספר תורת האלהים זה מקרא מפורש זה תרגום,ושום שכל אלו הפסוקין ויבינו במקרא אלו פיסקי טעמים ואמרי לה אלו המסורת שכחום וחזרו ויסדום,מאי שנא דאורייתא דלא אזדעזעה ואדנביאי אזדעזעה דאורייתא מיפרשא מלתא דנביאי איכא מילי דמיפרשן ואיכא מילי דמסתמן דכתיב (זכריה יב, יא) ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון בבקעת מגידון,ואמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומא דהאי קרא לא ידענא מאי קאמר ביומא ההוא יסגי מספדא בירושלים כמספדא דאחאב בר עמרי דקטל יתיה הדדרימון בן טברימון ברמות גלעד וכמספדא דיאשיה בר אמון דקטל יתיה פרעה חגירא בבקעת מגידו,(דניאל י, ז) וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה אבל חרדה גדולה נפלה עליהם ויברחו בהחבא מאן נינהו אנשים אמר ר\' ירמיה ואיתימא רבי חייא בר אבא זה חגי זכריה ומלאכי,אינהו עדיפי מיניה ואיהו עדיף מינייהו אינהו עדיפי מיניה דאינהו נביאי ואיהו לאו נביא איהו עדיף מינייהו דאיהו חזא ואינהו לא חזו,וכי מאחר דלא חזו מ"ט איבעיתו אע"ג דאינהו לא חזו מזלייהו חזו,אמר רבינא שמע מינה האי מאן דמיבעית אע"ג דאיהו לא חזי מזליה חזי מאי תקנתיה ליקרי ק"ש ואי קאים במקום הטנופת לינשוף מדוכתיה ארבע גרמידי ואי לא לימא הכי עיזא דבי טבחי שמינא מינאי:,והשתא דאמרת מדינה ומדינה ועיר ועיר לדרשה משפחה ומשפחה למאי אתא אמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא להביא משפחות כהונה ולויה שמבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה,תניא נמי הכי כהנים בעבודתן ולוים בדוכנן וישראל במעמדן כולן מבטלין עבודתן ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה מכאן סמכו של בית רבי שמבטלין תלמוד תורה ובאין לשמוע מקרא מגילה קל וחומר מעבודה ומה עבודה שהיא חמורה מבטלינן תלמוד תורה לא כל שכן,ועבודה חמורה מתלמוד תורה והכתיב (יהושע ה, יג) ויהי בהיות יהושע ביריחו וישא עיניו וירא והנה איש עומד לנגדו וגו\' וישתחו (לאפיו),והיכי עביד הכי והאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי אסור לאדם שיתן שלום לחבירו בלילה חיישינן שמא שד הוא שאני התם דאמר ליה כי אני שר צבא ה\',ודלמא משקרי גמירי דלא מפקי שם שמים לבטלה,אמר לו אמש בטלתם תמיד של בין הערבים ועכשיו בטלתם תלמוד תורה אמר לו על איזה מהן באת אמר לו עתה באתי מיד (יהושע ח, ט) וילן יהושע בלילה ההוא בתוך העמק אמר רבי יוחנן''. None
3a. stood by way of a miracle?,The Gemara answers: Yes, two forms of these letters did exist at that time, but the people did not know which one of them was to be used in the middle of the word and which at the end of the word, and the Seers came and established that the open forms are to used be in the middle of the word and the closed forms at the end of the word.,The Gemara asks: Ultimately, however, doesn’t the phrase “these are the commandments” (Leviticus 27:34) indicate that a prophet is not permitted to initiate any matter of halakha from now on? Rather, it may be suggested that the final letters already existed at the time of the giving of the Torah, but over the course of time the people forgot them, and the prophets then came and reestablished them.,§ The Gemara cites another ruling of Rabbi Yirmeya or Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba. Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: The Aramaic translation of the Torah used in the synagogues was composed by Onkelos the convert based on the teachings of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua. The Aramaic translation of the Prophets was composed by Yonatan ben Uzziel based on a tradition going back to the last prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The Gemara relates that when Yonatan ben Uzziel wrote his translation, Eretz Yisrael quaked over an area of four hundred parasangs parsa by four hundred parasangs, and a Divine Voice emerged and said: Who is this who has revealed My secrets to mankind?,Yonatan ben Uzziel stood up on his feet and said: I am the one who has revealed Your secrets to mankind through my translation. However, it is revealed and known to You that I did this not for my own honor, and not for the honor of the house of my father, but rather it was for Your honor that I did this, so that discord not increase among the Jewish people. In the absence of an accepted translation, people will disagree about the meaning of obscure verses, but with a translation, the meaning will be clear.,And Yonatan ben Uzziel also sought to reveal a translation of the Writings, but a Divine Voice emerged and said to him: It is enough for you that you translated the Prophets. The Gemara explains: What is the reason that he was denied permission to translate the Writings? Because it has in it a revelation of the end, when the Messiah will arrive. The end is foretold in a cryptic manner in the book of Daniel, and were the book of Daniel translated, the end would become manifestly revealed to all.,The Gemara asks: Was the translation of the Torah really composed by Onkelos the convert? Didn’t Rav Ika bar Avin say that Rav Ḥael said that Rav said: What is the meaning of that which is written with respect to the days of Ezra: “And they read in the book, the Torah of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and they caused them to understand the reading” (Nehemiah\xa08:8)? The verse should be understood as follows: “And they read in the book, the Torah of God,” this is the scriptural text; “distinctly,” this is the translation, indicating that they immediately translated the text into Aramaic, as was customary during public Torah readings.,“And they gave the sense,” these are the divisions of the text into separate verses. “And they caused them to understand the reading,” these are the cantillation notes, through which the meaning of the text is further clarified. And some say that these are the Masoretic traditions with regard to the manner in which each word is to be written. This indicates that the Aramaic translation already existed at the beginning of the Second Temple period, well before the time of Onkelos. The Gemara answers: The ancient Aramaic translation was forgotten and then Onkelos came and reestablished it.,The Gemara asks: What is different about the translation of Prophets? Why is it that when Onkelos revealed the translation of the Torah, Eretz Yisrael did not quake, and when he revealed the translation of the Prophets, it quaked? The Gemara explains: The meaning of matters discussed in the Torah is clear, and therefore its Aramaic translation did not reveal the meaning of passages that had not been understood previously. Conversely, in the Prophets, there are matters that are clear and there are matters that are obscure, and the Aramaic translation revealed the meaning of obscure passages. The Gemara cites an example of an obscure verse that is clarified by the Aramaic translation: As it is written: “On that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon” (Zechariah 12:11).,And with regard to that verse, Rav Yosef said: Were it not for the Aramaic translation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying, as the Bible does not mention any incident involving Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. The Aramaic translation reads as follows: On that day, the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning for Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tavrimon, in Ramoth-Gilead, and like the mourning for Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon. The translation clarifies that the verse is referring to two separate incidents of mourning, and thereby clarifies the meaning of this verse.,§ The Gemara introduces another statement from the same line of tradition. The verse states: “And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves” (Daniel 10:7). Who were these men? The term “men” in the Bible indicates important people; who were they? Rabbi Yirmeya said, and some say that it was Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba who said: These are the prophets Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.,The Gemara comments: In certain ways they, the prophets, were greater than him, Daniel, and in certain ways he, Daniel, was greater than them. They were greater than him, as they were prophets and he was not a prophet. Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi were sent to convey the word of God to the Jewish people, while Daniel was not sent to reveal his visions to others. In another way, however, he was greater than them, as he saw this vision, and they did not see this vision, indicating that his ability to perceive obscure and cryptic visions was greater than theirs.,The Gemara asks: Since they did not see the vision, what is the reason that they were frightened? The Gemara answers: Even though they did not see the vision, their guardian angels saw it, and therefore they sensed that there was something fearful there and they fled.,Ravina said: Learn from this incident that with regard to one who is frightened for no apparent reason, although he does not see anything menacing, his guardian angel sees it, and therefore he should take steps in order to escape the danger. The Gemara asks: What is his remedy? He should recite Shema, which will afford him protection. And if he is standing in a place of filth, where it is prohibited to recite verses from the Torah, he should distance himself four cubits from his current location in order to escape the danger. And if he is not able to do so, let him say the following incantation: The goat of the slaughterhouse is fatter than I am, and if a calamity must fall upon something, it should fall upon it.,§ After this digression, the Gemara returns to the exposition of a verse cited above. Now that you have said that the phrases “every province” and “every city” appear for the purposes of midrashic exposition, for what exposition do the words “every family” appear in that same verse (Esther 9:28)? Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina said: These words come to include the priestly and Levitical families, and indicate that they cancel their service in the Temple and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.,As Rav Yehuda said that Rav said: The priests at their Temple service, the Levites on their platform in the Temple, where they sung the daily psalm, and the Israelites at their watches, i.e., the group of Israelites, corresponding to the priestly watches, who would come to Jerusalem and gather in other locations as representatives of the entire nation to observe or pray for the success of the Temple service, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla.,This is also taught in a baraita: The priests at their service, the Levites on the platform, and the Israelites at their watches, all cancel their service and come to hear the reading of the Megilla. The Sages of the house of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi relied upon the halakha stated here and determined that one cancels his Torah study and comes to hear the reading of the Megilla. They derived this principle by means of an a fortiori inference from the Temple service: Just as one who is engaged in performing service in the Temple, which is very important, cancels his service in order to hear the Megilla, is it not all the more so obvious that one who is engaged in Torah study cancels his study to hear the Megilla?,The Gemara asks: Is the Temple service more important than Torah study? Isn’t it written: “And it came to pass when Joshua was by Jericho that he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood over against him with his sword drawn in his hand. And Joshua went over to him and said to him: Are you for us, or for our adversaries? And he said, No, but I am captain of the host of the Lord, I have come now. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and bowed down” (Joshua 5:13–14).,The Gemara first seeks to clarify the incident described in the verse. How did Joshua do this, i.e., how could he bow to a figure he did not recognize? Didn’t Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: It is prohibited for a person to greet his fellow at night if he does not recognize him, as we are concerned that perhaps it is a demon? How did Joshua know that it was not a demon? The Gemara answers: There it was different, as the visitor said to him: But I am captain of the host of the Lord.,The Gemara asks: Perhaps this was a demon and he lied? The Gemara answers: It is learned as a tradition that demons do not utter the name of Heaven for naught, and therefore since the visitor had mentioned the name of God, Joshua was certain that this was indeed an angel.,As for the angel’s mission, the Gemara explains that the angel said to Joshua: Yesterday, i.e., during the afternoon, you neglected the afternoon daily offering due to the impending battle, and now, at night, you have neglected Torah study, and I have come to rebuke you. Joshua said to him: For which of these sins have you come? He said to him: I have come now, indicating that neglecting Torah study is more severe than neglecting to sacrifice the daily offering. Joshua immediately determined to rectify the matter, as the verses states: “And Joshua lodged that night” (Joshua 8:9) “in the midst of the valley ha’emek” (Joshua 8:13), and Rabbi Yoḥa said:''. None
16. Babylonian Talmud, Temurah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tradition, hermeneutical functions of • mnemonic function of mishna or midrash form

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 109; Jaffee (2001) 5

15b. והתניא כיוצא בו א"ר יוסי (עזרא ח, לה) והבאים מהשבי בני הגולה הקריבו עולות פרים (בני בקר) שנים עשר אילים תשעים ותשעה כבשים שבעים ושבעה שעירי חטאת שנים עשר הכל עולה לה\',וחטאת מי קרבה עולה אמר רבא כי עולה מה עולה אינה נאכלת אף חטאת אינה נאכלת שהיה רבי יוסי אומר על עבודה זרה הביאום ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל על עבודה זרה שעשו בימי צדקיהו,קא סלקא דעתין למאן דאית ליה חטאת צבור שנתכפרו בעליה מתה אית ליה נמי חטאת צבור שמתו בעליה מתה והא הכא דאיכא דמתו בעליה וקא קרבה,אמר רב פפא אפילו למאן דאמר חטאת צבור שכפרו בעליה מתה חטאת צבור שמתו בעליה אינה מתה לפי שאין הצבור מתים,מנא ליה לרב פפא הא אי נימא משום דכתיב (תהלים מה, יז) תחת אבותיך יהיו בניך אי הכי אפי\' יחיד נמי,אלא היינו טעמא שאין הציבור מתים משעירי רגלים וראשי חדשים דאמר רחמנא אייתינהו מתרומת הלשכה ודלמא מתו מרייהו דהני זוזי אלא לאו ש"מ אין הצבור מתים,ואיבעית אימא כי אקרובינהו להני חטאות אחיי אקרבינהו דכתיב (עזרא ג, יב) ורבים מהכהנים הלוים וראשי האבות הזקנים אשר ראו את הבית הראשון ביסדו זה הבית בוכים בקול גדול ורבים בתרועה,ודילמא הנך מיעוטא לא מצית אמרת דכתיב (עזרא ג, יג) (ולא הכירו העם בתרועה ושמחה) לקול בכי העם,והיכי מקרבי להו והרי מזידין הוו אמר רבי יוחנן הוראת שעה היתה,הכי נמי מסתברא דאי לא תימא הכי בשלמא פרים ושעירי\' כנגד שנים עשר שבטים אלא כבשים כנגד מי אלא הוראת שעה היתה,תנן התם משמת יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה ויוסף בן יוחנן איש ירושלים בטלו האשכולות איש שהכל בו,ואמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל אשכולות שעמדו להן לישראל מימות משה עד שמת יוסף בן יועזר היו למדין תורה כמשה רבינו מכאן ואילך לא היו למדין תורה כמשה רבינו,והאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל שלשת אלפים הלכות נשתכחו בימי אבלו של משה דאישתכח להו אישתכח ודגמירן להו הוו גמירי כמשה רבינו,והא תניא משמת משה אם רבו מטמאין טמאו אם רבו טהורין טיהרו,ליבא דאימעיט מיגמר הוו גמירי להו כמשה רבינו,במתניתא תנא כל אשכולות שעמדו לישראל מימות משה עד שמת יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה לא היה בהם שום דופי מכאן ואילך היה בהן שום דופי,והתניא מעשה בחסיד אחד שהיה גונח מלבו ושאלו לרופאים ואמרו אין לו תקנה עד שיינק חלב רותח שחרית והביאו עז וקשרו לו בכרעי מיטתו והיה יונק ממנה חלב,למחר נכנסו חביריו לבקרו כיון שראו העז אמרו ליסטים מזויין בתוך ביתו ואנו נכנסים לבקרו ישבו ובדקו ולא מצאו בו עון אלא של אותה העז בלבד,ואף הוא בשעת מיתתו אמר יודע אני בעצמי שאין בי עון אלא של אותה העז בלבד שעברתי על דברי חבירי שהרי אמרו חכמים אין מגדלין בהמה דקה בארץ ישראל,וקי"ל כל היכא דאמר מעשה בחסיד אחד או ר\' יהודה בן בבא או ר\' יהודה בר אילעאי ורבנן בתר יוסף בן יועזר איש צרידה דרי דרי הוו''. None
15b. But isn’t it taught in a baraita: Similarly, Rabbi Yosei said: It is stated with regard to those who returned from Babylonia in the days of Ezra: “The children of the captivity that came out of exile sacrificed burnt offerings to the God of Israel, twelve bulls for all Israel, ninety-six rams, seventy-seven lambs, twelve goats for a sin offering; all this was a burnt offering unto the Lord” (Ezra 8:35).,The Gemara first analyzes this verse: But is it possible for a sin offering to be sacrificed as a burnt offering? Rava said: The verse means that it was all performed in the manner of a burnt offering: Just as a burnt offering may not be eaten, so too, that sin offering was not eaten. As Rabbi Yosei would say: They brought these twelve sin offerings for the sin of idol worship; and Rav Yehuda said that Shmuel said: They were brought for the sin of idol worship they committed in the days of King Zedekiah.,The Gemara explains the difficulty concerning which it cited this verse: It might enter our mind to think that according to the one who holds that a communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonement with another sin offering is left to die, he also holds that a communal sin offering whose owners died is left to die. But here, with regard to the offerings brought by the returning exiles, this is a case of a communal sin offering whose owners died, as the sin was committed in the time of Zedekiah, in the First Temple period, whereas the offerings were brought several generations later by those returning to rebuild the Second Temple. And yet they were sacrificed. This proves that a communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonement with another sin offering is not left to die.,Rav Pappa said in response: Even according to the one who said that a communal sin offering whose owners achieved atonement with another sin offering is left to die, he agrees that a communal sin offering whose owners died is not left to die. This is because a community does not die.,The Gemara asks: From where does Rav Pappa derive this statement? If we say it is because it is written: “Your sons shall be instead of your fathers” (Psalms 45:17), i.e., it is considered as though the fathers are alive, if so, then this should apply even to an individual as well. In other words, sons should be able to sacrifice the sin offerings of their late fathers.,Rather, this is Rav Pappa’s reasoning for his statement that a community does not die. It is derived from the halakha of the goats sacrificed on pilgrimage Festivals and on New Moons, as the Merciful One states: Bring them from the funds of the collection of the Temple treasury chamber, where they kept the half-shekels donated every year in the month of Adar, with which communal offerings were purchased. The Gemara explains: But perhaps the owners of these coins that were used to purchase these offerings have died in the meantime between the month of Adar and when the offerings are sacrificed throughout the year. If so, how can a sin offering be brought on behalf of some of its owners who have already died? Rather, isn’t it correct to conclude from this halakha that a community does not die?,And if you wish, say instead a different answer in response to the earlier difficulty: The sin offerings for idolatry brought by the returning exiles were not in fact sacrificed for people who had died. Rather, when they sacrificed these sin offerings for the idolatry committed in the time of Zedekiah, they sacrificed them for the living, i.e., for those survivors who had worshipped idols in the time of Zedekiah and were still alive many decades later and had returned to rebuild the Second Temple. As it is written: “But many of the priests, Levites, and heads of fathers’ houses, the old men that had seen the first house standing on its foundation, wept with a loud voice when this house was before their eyes; and many shouted aloud for joy” (Ezra 3:12).,The Gemara objects: But perhaps those who remained and remembered the First Temple were the minority, in which case they should have each brought individual sin offerings, rather than a communal sin offering. The fact that they brought communal sacrifices indicates that the sin offering was not brought only on behalf of those few who remained. The Gemara explains: You cannot say that they were the minority, as it is written in the following verse: “So that the people could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the noise of the weeping of the people; for the people shouted with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off” (Ezra 3:13). This verse shows that the people who cried because they remembered the First Temple were not a small minority.,The Gemara asks: But how could they sacrifice sin offerings for the sin of idolatry? After all, they were intentional idol worshippers, and a sin offering is brought only by one who sins unwittingly. Rabbi Yoḥa says in response: It was a provisional edict issued in exigent circumstances, according to which they were permitted to bring sin offerings even for intentional sins.,The Gemara adds that this also stands to reason, as, if you do not say so, one can object as follows: Granted, they sacrificed twelve bulls and goats, since each tribe must bring a communal sin offering, as stated in the Torah (Numbers, chapter 15), and these offerings correspond to the twelve tribes. But to what do the ninety-six sheep correspond? Rather, it must be that it was a provisional edict.,§ Earlier the Gemara mentioned the halakha of a sin offering whose owner died, which was one of the halakhot forgotten during the mourning period for Moses (see 16a). On this topic the Gemara says that we learned in a mishna there (Sota 47a): From the time when Yosef ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida and Yosef ben Yoḥa of Jerusalem died, the clusters eshkolot ceased, i.e., they were the last of the clusters. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of eshkolot? It means a man who contains all ish shehakol bo, i.e., both Torah and mitzvot.,And Rav Yehuda says that Shmuel says: All the clusters who stood at the head of the Jewish people, from the days of Moses until Yosef ben Yo’ezer died, would study Torah in the manner of Moses, our teacher. From that point forward they would not study Torah in the manner of Moses, our teacher.,The Gemara objects: But doesn’t Rav Yehuda say that Shmuel said: Three thousand halakhot were forgotten during the days of mourning for Moses. This suggests that the Sages who came immediately after Moses did not study Torah in the same manner as Moses. The Gemara answers: Those halakhot that they forgot, were forgotten, but with regard to those halakhot that they studied, they would continue to study in the manner of Moses, our teacher.,The Gemara objects: But isn’t it taught in a baraita with regard to the resolution of questions of halakha: From the time when Moses died, if the majority deem an item impure, they have established it as impure, and if the majority deem an item pure, they have established it as pure. If this is the case, then the manner of studying Torah after the death of Moses is based on a majority, whereas when Moses was alive there was no dispute in matters of halakha.,The Gemara explains that this baraita is referring specifically to those halakhot that were forgotten during the mourning period after the death of Moses. Since the understanding of the heart was limited libba de’ime’it, the Sages were unable to reach a clear ruling on these matters. Consequently, they had to follow the majority. But with regard to all other halakhot they studied, they would study them in the manner of Moses, our teacher.,It was taught in a baraita: All the clusters who stood at the head of the Jewish people from the days of Moses until Yosef ben Yo’ezer died had no flaw in them. From this point forward the clusters, i.e., the leadership of the Jewish people, had flaws in them.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: There was an incident involving a certain pious man who was groaning, i.e., suffering, due to a pain in his heart. And they asked the physicians what to do for him, and they said: There is no other remedy for him but that he should suckle warm milk every morning. And they brought him a goat and tied it to the leg of the bed for him, and he would suckle milk from it.,On the following day, his friends entered to visit him. When they saw the goat tied to the leg of the bed they said: There is an armed bandit in this man’s house, and we are entering to visit him? They referred to the goat in this manner because small animals habitually graze on the vegetation of neighbors, stealing their crops. The Sages sat and examined this pious man’s behavior, and they could not find any transgression attributable to him other than the sin of keeping that goat in his house alone.,And that man himself also said at the time of his death: I know for a fact with regard to myself that I have no transgression attributable to me but the sin of keeping that goat in my house alone, as I transgressed the statement of my colleagues, the Sages. As the Sages said in a mishna (Bava Kamma 79b): One may not raise small domesticated animals, i.e., sheep and goats, in inhabited areas of Eretz Yisrael, because they graze on people’s crops.,And we maintain that anywhere that it says: There was an incident involving a certain pious man, the man in question is either Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava or Rabbi Yehuda bar Ilai. And these Sages lived many generations after Yosef ben Yo’ezer of Tzereida. If this is the case, then even in later generations there were Sages without a flaw.''. None
17. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.87 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • function (ἔργον), of human beings • prophets and priests at Rome, prophecy as a priestly function

 Found in books: Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 174; Dürr (2022) 84

7.87. This is why Zeno was the first (in his treatise On the Nature of Man) to designate as the end life in agreement with nature (or living agreeably to nature), which is the same as a virtuous life, virtue being the goal towards which nature guides us. So too Cleanthes in his treatise On Pleasure, as also Posidonius, and Hecato in his work On Ends. Again, living virtuously is equivalent to living in accordance with experience of the actual course of nature, as Chrysippus says in the first book of his De finibus; for our individual natures are parts of the nature of the whole universe.''. None
18. Epigraphy, Ig I , 3
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath, function • demarch, functions

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 790; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 182

3. The games-masters (athlothetas) shall put on the competitions (agona) in Marathon at the Herakleia. Thirty men shall oversee the competitions, (selected) from (5) those present (epidemom), three from each tribe. They shall undertake in the sanctuary jointly to arrange the contest in the best possible manner. They shall be not less than thirty years (10) old. These men shall swear in the sanctuary on the victims. Their chairman (epistates) shall be . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG I

3 - Regulations concerning the Herakleia at Marathon
''. None
19. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath, function • demarch, functions

 Found in books: Humphreys (2018) 790; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 182

Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.