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22 results for "food"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 77.25, 78.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
78.25. "לֶחֶם אַבִּירִים אָכַל אִישׁ צֵידָה שָׁלַח לָהֶם לָשֹׂבַע׃", 78.25. "Man did eat the bread of the mighty; He sent them provisions to the full.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 35.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
35.17. "וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃", 35.17. "And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’",
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
6.22. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 6.22. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:",
4. Anon., 1 Enoch, 104.1-104.6, 108.7, 108.13-108.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven, 104.3. ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the 104.4. rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them, 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed 108.13. have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. And they shall be resplendent for times without number; for righteousness is the judgement of God; for to the faithful 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were ,
5. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste.
6. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 7.149 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
7. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
8. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.12-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
5.12. καὶ γὰρ ὀφείλοντες εἶναι διδάσκαλοι διὰ τὸν χρόνον, πάλιν χρείαν ἔχετε τοῦ διδάσκειν ὑμᾶς τινὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς τῶν λογίων τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ γεγόνατε χρείαν ἔχοντες γάλακτος, οὐ στερεᾶς τροφῆς. 5.13. πᾶς γὰρ ὁ μετέχων γάλακτος ἄπειρος λόγου δικαιοσύνης, νήπιος γάρ ἐστιν· 5.14. τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή, τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα ἐχόντων πρὸς διάκρισιν καλοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ. 5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil.
9. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
2.17. Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου, καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ ψῆφον λευκήν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ψῆφονὄνομα καινὸνγεγραμμένον ὃ οὐδεὶς οἶδεν εἰ μὴ ὁ λαμβάνων. 2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it.
10. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
3.2. γάλα ὑμᾶς ἐπότισα, οὐ βρῶμα, οὔπω γὰρ ἐδύνασθε. 3.3. Ἀλλʼ οὐδὲ [ἔτι] νῦν δύνασθε, ἔτι γὰρ σαρκικοί ἐστε. ὅπου γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε; 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready, 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men?
11. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
2.2. ὡς ἀρτιγέννητα βρέφη τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα ἐπιποθήσατε, ἵνα ἐν αὐτῷ αὐξηθῆτε εἰς σωτηρίαν, 2.2. as newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby,
12. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.7, 19.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
13. Anon., 2 Baruch, 29.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
14. Lucian, Hercules, 531, 533-534, 532 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
15. Anon., Genesis Rabba, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
16. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
17. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
75b. לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכלי' אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה,(במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים,וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר (תהלים עח, כז) וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף,ותניא רבי אומר (דברים יב, כא) וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין,כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב (שמות טז, לא) דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש,כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין,א"ר חנן בר רבא ד' מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא ע"י תערובת,רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר (חבקוק ג, טז) שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא,כתיב (שמות טז, יד) ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב (במדבר יא, ט) וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא,דק מחוספס אמר ר"ל דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב,תנו רבנן (תהלים עח, כה) לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי ר"ע וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ט, ט) לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים,אלא מה אני מקיים (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם,ר"א בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות,דכתיב (במדבר לג, מט) ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן,(במדבר יא, ו) ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא,וכשנאמרו דברים לפני ר' ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים,דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש 75b. However, b bread, /b which is essential, b they asked for appropriately. /b Therefore, it b was given to them appropriately, /b in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: b From here, the Torah teaches etiquette, that /b it is proper b to eat meat only at night, /b as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Abaye say /b that b someone who has a meal should eat it only in the day? /b The Gemara answers: b We mean to say: Like day. /b It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. b Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage; /b any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, b until Moses came and set specific times to eat, /b as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.,It was stated with regard to the quail: b “While the meat was yet between their teeth, /b before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for b an entire month /b until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). b How /b can b these /b texts be reconciled? b The average people died immediately, /b but b the wicked continued to suffer /b in pain b for a month /b and then died.,The verse states: b “And they spread them [ i vayishteḥu /i ] /b out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). b Reish Lakish said: Do not read it /b as b i vayishteḥu /i . Rather, /b read it as b i vayishḥatu /i . /b This b teaches that /b the b enemies of the Jewish people, /b a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, b were liable to /b receive the punishment of b slaughter /b due to their demand. The verse states: b “Spread out [ i shato’aḥ /i ]” /b (Numbers 11:32). A i tanna /i b taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read it /b as b i shato’aḥ /i but /b as b i shaḥot /i . /b This b teaches that /b other food b fell for the Jewish people /b along b with the manna. /b The food was something b that requires ritual slaughtering [ i sheḥita /i ], /b referring to birds. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: And do you learn /b this b from here? /b Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? b Isn’t it already stated /b explicitly: b “And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas” /b (Psalms 78:27)?, b And it was taught /b in a related i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: /b The verse states: b “Then you shall slaughter /b of your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, b as I have commanded you” /b (Deuteronomy 12:21). b This teaches that Moses was commanded in /b the laws of ritual slaughter to cut the b gullet and the windpipe /b in the neck. b And with a bird /b one must cut through b the majority /b of b one /b pipe, b and with an animal /b one must cut through b the majority of /b both pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word i shatoaḥ /i does not teach us about ritual slaughter. b Rather, what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: i Shatoaḥ /i ? /b It b teaches that /b the manna b fell in layers [ i mashtiḥin /i ] /b in a straight row.,With regard to the manna, b it is written “bread” /b (Exodus 16:4), b and it is written “oil” /b (Numbers 11:8), b and it is written “honey” /b (Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youth /b it was like b bread, for the elderly /b it was like b oil, /b and b for the children /b it was like b honey. /b Each received what was appropriate.,The Gemara comments further: The word quail b is written i shlav /i , /b with the letter i shin /i , b but we read /b it as b i slav /i , /b with the letter i samekh /i . What does this teach us? b Rabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [ i shalva /i ], /b based on the written form of the word; whereas b the wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [ i silvin /i ], /b based on the way the word is read.,Furthermore, with regard to the quail: b Rav Ḥa bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: i Sikhli /i , and i kivli /i , and i pasyoni /i , and i slav /i . The best /b tasting b of all /b is the b i sikhli /i . The worst of all /b is the b i slav /i . /b The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: b It was /b as small b as a sparrow, and they would place it in the oven /b to roast, b and it expanded until it filled the /b entire b oven. They would place it upon thirteen loaves /b of bread, and even the b last /b loaf on the bottom b could be eaten only /b when b mixed with other food, /b due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.,It is told that b Rav Yehuda found /b quail b among his barrels of wine, /b and b Rav Ḥisda found /b quail b among logs of wood /b in his storeroom. b Every day Rava’s sharecropper brought him /b a quail that he found in his fields. b One day, he did not bring /b him one because he failed to find any. Rava b said /b to himself: b What is this, /b why is today different? b He went up to the roof /b to think about it. b He heard a child say /b the verse: b “When I heard, my innards trembled, /b my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava b said: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died. /b I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on b account of the teacher /b that b the student eats. /b When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.,§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna b it is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted, /b behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. b And it is written: /b “ b And when the dew fell /b upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: /b There was b dew above and dew below, /b with the manna in between, b and /b the manna b appeared as if /b it were b placed in a box [ i kufsa /i ] /b of dew.,The verse describes the manna as b “a fine flaky [ i meḥuspas /i ] /b substance” (Exodus 16:14). b Reish Lakish said: /b i Meḥuspas /i means it was b a substance that dissolved [ /b i maḥ /i b ] on the palm [ /b i pas /i b ] of the hand. /b Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: It was a substance that was absorbed in /b all b 248 limbs, /b the numerical equivalent of the word i meḥuspas /i . The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word b i meḥuspas /i , /b it b is more, /b totaling 254. b Rabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: i Meḥuspas /i is written /b in the Torah without the letter i vav /i . Therefore, the total is exactly 248., b The Sages taught: /b The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. b Man did eat the bread of the mighty [ i abirim /i ]” /b (Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is b bread that the ministering angels eat; /b this is the b statement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them /b to b go and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already stated /b about Moses, when he ascended on high: b “Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink” /b (Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. b Rather, how do I establish /b the meaning of the word b i abirim /i ? /b It can be explained as b bread that was absorbed into /b all b 248 limbs [ i eivarim /i ], /b so that there was no waste.,The Gemara asks: b But /b if so, b how do I establish /b the verses: b “And you shall have a spade among your weapons, /b and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp b where you can relieve yourself /b ” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food b items that the gentile merchants sold them. /b , b Rabbi Elazar ben Perata /b disagrees and b says: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to be /b completely b digested, /b so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. b But /b then b how do I establish /b the verse: b “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned, /b the manna was not as effective. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I /b initially b said /b that b they would be like ministering angels /b who do not produce waste; b now I will trouble them to walk three parasangs /b to leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.,How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? b As it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim” /b (Numbers 33:49), b and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangs /b in length. b And /b a i baraita /i b taught: When /b the Jews b relieved themselves /b in the desert, b they did not relieve /b themselves b ahead of themselves, /b i.e., in the direction of their travel, b nor to the side /b of the camp, b but behind /b the camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.,Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: b “But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all; /b we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). b They said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachs /b and kill us; b is there /b anyone b born of a woman who ingests /b food b but does not expel /b waste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste., b When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not read /b it as b i abirim /i . Rather, /b read it as b i eivarim /i , /b limbs. The manna was b something that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From the /b food b items that came to them from overseas lands. /b Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods., b Alternatively, “Man [ i ish /i ] did eat the bread of the mighty” /b (Psalms 78:25);
18. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. b Why do I /b need b “and the earth” [ i et ha’aretz /i ]? To /b teach that b heaven preceded earth /b in the order of Creation. The next verse states: b “And the earth was unformed and void” /b (Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: b After all, /b the Bible b began with heaven first; what is different /b about the second verse? Why does the Bible b recount the creation of earth /b first in the second verse? b The Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b This can be explained by b a parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise early /b and come b to my entrance. He arose and found women and men /b waiting for him. b Whom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early but /b yet b rose early, /b the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see; /b who b stand and know not upon what they stand. /b He clarifies: b Upon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble” /b (Job 9:6). These b pillars /b are positioned b upon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters” /b (Psalms 136:6). These b waters /b stand b upon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains” /b (Psalms 104:6). The b mountains /b are upon the b wind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind” /b (Amos 4:13). The b wind /b is b upon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word” /b (Psalms 148:8). The b storm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms” /b (Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth b stands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. b And some say: /b There are b seven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars” /b (Proverbs 9:1). b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua says: /b The earth rests b on one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world” /b (Proverbs 10:25).,§ b Rabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens” /b (Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., b Reish Lakish said: /b There are b seven /b firmaments, b and they are as follows: i Vilon /i , i Rakia /i , i Sheḥakim /i , i Zevul /i , i Ma’on /i , i Makhon /i , /b and b i Aravot /i . /b The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: b i Vilon /i , /b curtain, is the firmament that b does not contain anything, but enters at morning and departs /b in the b evening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ i Vilon /i ], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in” /b (Isaiah 40:22). b i Rakia /i , /b firmament, is the one b in which /b the b sun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ i Rakia /i ] of the heaven” /b (Genesis 1:17). b i Sheḥakim /i , /b heights, is the one b in which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ i Shehakim /i ] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food, /b and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24)., b i Zevul /i , /b abode, b is /b the location b of /b the heavenly b Jerusalem and /b the heavenly b Temple, and /b there the heavenly b altar is built, and /b the angel b Michael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of i Zevul /i for You, a place for You to dwell forever” /b (I Kings 8:13). b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Zevul /i b is called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ i Zevul /i ]” /b (Isaiah 63:15)., b i Ma’on /i , /b habitation, b is where /b there are b groups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel, /b in order not to compete with their songs, b as it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me” /b (Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, b Reish Lakish said: Whoever occupies /b himself b with Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reason /b that b “by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,” /b i.e., the song of Torah, b “is with me.” And some say /b that b Reish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b ,With regard to the same matter, b Rabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ i maluaḥ /i ] with wormwood [ i alei siaḥ /i ], and the roots of the broom tree [ i retamim /i ] are their food” /b (Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, i luḥot /i , which sounds similar to i maluaḥ /i , for the purpose of i siaḥ /i , idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Ma’on /i b is called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy i Ma’on /i , from heaven” /b (Deuteronomy 26:15)., b i Makhon /i , /b dwelling place, b is where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doors /b of all these are made of b fire. /b How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? b For it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse, /b the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to b these /b things listed above, are they b located in heaven? /b It is obvious that b they /b are b located on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word” /b (Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: David requested mercy with regard to them, /b that they should not remain in heaven, b and He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You” /b (Psalms 5:5). In other words, b You are righteous, O Lord. /b Nothing b evil should sojourn in Your vicinity. /b Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. b And from where do we /b derive b that /b this place b is called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hear /b in b heaven, the i Makhon /i of Your dwelling” /b (I Kings 8:39)., b i Aravot /i , /b skies, is the firmament b that contains righteousness; justice; righteousness, /b i.e., charity; b the treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead. /b The Gemara proves this statement: b Righteousness and justice /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne” /b (Psalms 89:15); b righteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor” /b (Isaiah 59:17); b the treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life” /b (Psalms 36:10). b And the treasuries of peace /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace” /b (Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. b And the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord” /b (Psalms 24:5)., b The souls of the righteous /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God” /b (I Samuel 25:29). b Spirits and souls that are to be created /b are found there, b as it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” /b (Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. b The dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead /b is found in heaven, b as it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it” /b (Psalms 68:10)., b There, /b in the firmaments, are the b i ofanim /i , /b the b seraphim, /b the b holy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God, /b the b living, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in i Aravot /i , as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ i Aravot /i ], Whose name is God” /b (Psalms 68:5). b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Aravot /i b is called “heaven”? /b This is b learned /b by using a verbal analogy between two instances of b “rides” /b and b “rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ i Aravot /i ],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help” /b (Deuteronomy 33:26)., b And darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies” /b (Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: b And is there darkness before Heaven, /b i.e., before God? b But isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him” /b (Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b verse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
19. Anon., Numbers Rabba, None (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
20. Anon., Latin Vision of Ezra, 59  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
21. Ezekiel The Tragedian, 5 Ezra, 1.19  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
22. Anon., History of The Rechabites, 13.2  Tagged with subjects: •food, gentile Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723