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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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40 results for "food"
1. Hebrew Bible, Job, 40.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •popular culture see reception history, and food Found in books: Sneed (2022) 210
40.15. "הִנֵּה־נָא בְהֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־עָשִׂיתִי עִמָּךְ חָצִיר כַּבָּקָר יֹאכֵל׃", 40.15. "Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; He eateth grass as an ox.",
2. Hesiod, Works And Days, 734 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
734. The South Wind’s dreadful blasts – he stirs the sea
3. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 1.16 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, culture Found in books: Penniman (2017) 62
1.16. "עַל־אֵלֶּה אֲנִי בוֹכִיָּה עֵינִי עֵינִי יֹרְדָה מַּיִם כִּי־רָחַק מִמֶּנִּי מְנַחֵם מֵשִׁיב נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ בָנַי שׁוֹמֵמִים כִּי גָבַר אוֹיֵב׃", 1.16. "For these things I weep; my eye, yea my eye, sheds tears, for the comforter to restore my soul is removed from me; my children are desolate, for the enemy has prevailed.",
4. Aristophanes, Frogs, 753 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
753. μὰ Δί' ἀλλ' ὅταν δρῶ τοῦτο, κἀκμιαίνομαι.
5. Aristotle, Generation of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
6. Aristotle, Parts of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
7. Aeschines, Letters, 1.12 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
8. Cicero, On Laws, 2.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
9. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.20, 1.23 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, culture Found in books: Penniman (2017) 70
1.20. Therefore the child being now thought worthy of a royal education and a royal attendance, was not, like a mere child, long delighted with toys and objects of laughter and amusement, even though those who had undertaken the care of him allowed him holidays and times for relaxation, and never behaved in any stern or morose way to him; but he himself exhibited a modest and dignified deportment in all his words and gestures, attending diligently to every lesson of every kind which could tend to the improvement of his mind. 1.23. Accordingly he speedily learnt arithmetic, and geometry, and the whole science of rhythm and harmony and metre, and the whole of music, by means of the use of musical instruments, and by lectures on the different arts, and by explanations of each topic; and lessons on these subjects were given him by Egyptian philosophers, who also taught him the philosophy which is contained in symbols, which they exhibit in those sacred characters of hieroglyphics, as they are called, and also that philosophy which is conversant about that respect which they pay to animals which they invest with the honours due to God. And all the other branches of the encyclical education he learnt from Greeks; and the philosophers from the adjacent countries taught him Assyrian literature and the knowledge of the heavenly bodies so much studied by the Chaldaeans.
10. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 16.26.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
16.26.6.  It is said that in ancient times virgins delivered the oracles because virgins have their natural innocence intact and are in the same case as Artemis; for indeed virgins were alleged to be well suited to guard the secrecy of disclosures made by oracles. In more recent times, however, people say that Echecrates the Thessalian, having arrived at the shrine and beheld the virgin who uttered the oracle, became enamoured of her because of her beauty, carried her away with him and violated her; and that the Delphians because of this deplorable occurrence passed a law that in future a virgin should no longer prophesy but that an elderly woman of fifty should declare the oracles and that she should be dressed in the costume of a virgin, as a sort of reminder of the prophetess of olden times. Such are the details of the legend regarding the discovery of the oracle; and now we shall turn to the activities of olden times.
11. New Testament, Luke, 8.22-8.36 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •popular culture see reception history, and food Found in books: Sneed (2022) 3
8.22. Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν μιᾷ τῶν ἡμερῶν καὶ αὐτὸς ἐνέβη εἰς πλοῖον καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς λίμνης, καὶ ἀνήχθησαν. 8.23. πλεόντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀφύπνωσεν. καὶ κατέβη λαῖλαψ ἀνέμου εἰς τὴν λίμνην, καὶ συνεπληροῦντο καὶ ἐκινδύνευον. 8.24. προσελθόντες δὲ διήγειραν αὐτὸν λέγοντες Ἐπιστάτα ἐπιστάτα, ἀπολλύμεθα· ὁ δὲ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ τῷ κλύδωνι τοῦ ὕδατος, καὶ ἐπαύσαντο, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη. 8.25. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτοῖς Ποῦ ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν; φοβηθέντες δὲ ἐθαύμασαν, λέγοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ τοῖς ἀνέμοις ἐπιτάσσει καὶ τῷ ὕδατι, καὶ ὑπακούουσιν αὐτῷ; 8.26. Καὶ κατέπλευσαν εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Γερασηνῶν, ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀντίπερα τῆς Γαλιλαίας. 8.27. ἐξελθόντι δὲ αὐτῷ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ὑπήντησεν ἀνήρ τις ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἔχων δαιμόνια· καὶ χρόνῳ ἱκανῷ οὐκ ἐνεδύσατο ἱμάτιον, καὶ ἐν οἰκίᾳ οὐκ ἔμενεν ἀλλʼ ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν. 8.28. ἰδὼν δὲ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀνακράξας προσέπεσεν αὐτῷ καὶ φωνῇ μεγάλῃ εἶπεν Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ [τοῦ θεοῦ] τοῦ ὑψίστου; δέομαί σου, μή με βασανίσῃς· 8.29. παρήγγελλεν γὰρ τῷ πνεύματι τῷ ἀκαθάρτῳ ἐξελθεῖν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. πολλοῖς γὰρ χρόνοις συνηρπάκει αὐτόν, καὶ ἐδεσμεύετο ἁλύσεσιν καὶ πέδαις φυλασσόμενος, καὶ διαρήσσων τὰ δεσμὰ ἠλαύνέτο ἀπὸ τοῦ δαιμονίου εἰς τὰς ἐρήμους. 8.30. ἐπηρώτησεν δὲ αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Τί σοὶ ὄνομά ἐστιν; ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Λεγιών, ὅτι εἰσῆλθεν δαιμόνια πολλὰ εἰς αὐτόν. 8.31. καὶ παρεκάλουν αὐτὸν ἵνα μὴ ἐπιτάξῃ αὐτοῖς εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον ἀπελθεῖν. 8.32. Ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ ἀγέλη χοίρων ἱκανῶν βοσκομένη ἐν τῷ ὄρει· καὶ παρεκάλεσαν αὐτὸν ἵνα ἐπιτρέψῃ αὐτοῖς εἰς ἐκείνους εἰσελθεῖν· καὶ ἐπέτρεψεν αὐτοῖς. 8.33. ἐξελθόντα δὲ τὰ δαιμόνια ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσῆλθον εἰς τοὺς χοίρους, καὶ ὥρμησεν ἡ ἀγέλη κατὰ τοῦ κρημνοῦ εἰς τὴν λίμνην καὶ ἀπεπνίγη. 8.34. Ἰδόντες δὲ οἱ βόσκοντες τὸ γεγονὸς ἔφυγον καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς. 8.35. ἐξῆλθον δὲ ἰδεῖν τὸ γεγονὸς καὶ ἦλθαν πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ εὗραν καθήμενον τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἀφʼ οὗ τὰ δαιμόνια ἐξῆλθεν ἱματισμένον καὶ σωφρονοῦντα παρὰ τοὺς πόδας [τοῦ] Ἰησοῦ, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν. 8.36. ἀπήγγειλαν δὲ αὐτοῖς οἱ ἰδόντες πῶς ἐσώθη ὁ δαιμονισθείς. 8.22. Now it happened on one of those days, that he entered into a boat, himself and his disciples, and he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side of the lake." So they launched out. 8.23. But as they sailed, he fell asleep. A wind storm came down on the lake, and they were taking on dangerous amounts of water. 8.24. They came to him, and awoke him, saying, "Master, master, we are dying!" He awoke, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water, and they ceased, and it was calm. 8.25. He said to them, "Where is your faith?" Being afraid they marveled, saying one to another, "Who is this, then, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him?" 8.26. They arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is opposite Galilee. 8.27. When Jesus stepped ashore, a certain man out of the city who had demons for a long time met him. He wore no clothes, and didn't live in a house, but in the tombs. 8.28. When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, "What do I have to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I beg you, don't torment me!" 8.29. For Jesus was commanding the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For the unclean spirit had often seized the man. He was kept under guard, and bound with chains and fetters. Breaking the bands apart, he was driven by the demon into the desert. 8.30. Jesus asked him, "What is your name?"He said, "Legion," for many demons had entered into him. 8.31. They begged him that he would not command them to go into the abyss. 8.32. Now there was there a herd of many pigs feeding on the mountain, and they begged him that he would allow them to enter into those. He allowed them. 8.33. The demons came out from the man, and entered into the pigs, and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake, and were drowned. 8.34. When those who fed them saw what had happened, they fled, and told it in the city and in the country. 8.35. People went out to see what had happened. They came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting at Jesus' feet, clothed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. 8.36. Those who saw it told them how he who had been possessed by demons was healed.
12. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 7.63-4, 28.70-82 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
13. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
435d. Wherefore it is silly to employ one woman alone for the purpose of the oracles and to give her trouble by watching her to keep her pure and chaste all her life. As a matter of fact, this Coretas, who the people of Delphi say was the first, because he fell in, to supply any means of knowing about the power with which the place is endowed, was not, Ithink, any different from the rest of the goatherds and shepherds, if so be that this is not a fable or a fabrication as I,for one, think it is. When Itake into account the number of benefactions to the Greeks for which this oracle has been responsible, both in wars and in the founding of cities, in cases of pestilence and failure of crops,
14. Seneca The Younger, Hercules Furens, 919 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26
15. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 3.1-3.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Penniman (2017) 18
3.1. Κἀγώ, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἠδυνήθην λαλῆσαι ὑμῖν ὡς πνευματικοῖς ἀλλʼ ὡς σαρκίνοις, ὡς νηπίοις ἐν Χριστῷ. 3.2. γάλα ὑμᾶς ἐπότισα, οὐ βρῶμα, οὔπω γὰρ ἐδύνασθε. 3.3. Ἀλλʼ οὐδὲ [ἔτι] νῦν δύνασθε, ἔτι γὰρ σαρκικοί ἐστε. ὅπου γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε; 3.1. Brothers, I couldn't speak to you as to spiritual, but as tofleshly, as to babies in Christ. 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready, 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men?
16. Plutarch, On The Delays of Divine Vengeance, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26
17. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 5.95 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
18. Plutarch, Fragments, 97 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
19. Plutarch, Fragments, 97 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
20. Columella, De Re Rustica, 11.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
21. New Testament, 1 Peter, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •popular culture see reception history, and food Found in books: Sneed (2022) 3
4.6. εἰς τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ νεκροῖς εὐηγγελίσθη ἵνα κριθῶσι μὲν κατὰ ἀνθρώπους σαρκὶ ζῶσι δὲ κατὰ θεὸν πνεύματι. 4.6. For to this end was the gospel preached even to the dead, that they might be judged indeed as men in the flesh, but live as to God in the spirit.
22. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 4.7.7, 5.21.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24, 25
23. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.10.4, 2.33.2, 3.18.4, 7.9.7, 7.19.1-7.19.3, 7.25.7, 8.1.13, 9.27.6, 10.34.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24, 26
2.10.4. οὗτος μὲν δὴ παρείχετο ὁ περίβολος τοσάδε ἐς μνήμην, πέραν δὲ διʼ αὐτοῦ δὲ ἄλλος ἐστὶν Ἀφροδίτης ἱερός· ἐν δὲ αὐτῷ πρῶτον ἄγαλμά ἐστιν Ἀντιόπης· εἶναι γάρ οἱ τοὺς παῖδας Σικυωνίους καὶ διʼ ἐκείνους ἐθέλουσι καὶ αὐτὴν Ἀντιόπην προσήκειν σφίσι. μετὰ τοῦτο ἤδη τὸ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης ἐστὶν ἱερόν. ἐσίασι μὲν δὴ ἐς αὐτὸ γυνή τε νεωκόρος, ᾗ μηκέτι θέμις παρʼ ἄνδρα φοιτῆσαι, καὶ παρθένος ἱερωσύνην ἐπέτειον ἔχουσα· λουτροφόρον τὴν παρθένον ὀνομάζουσι· τοῖς δὲ ἄλλοις κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ὁρᾶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἐσόδου τὴν θεὸν καὶ αὐτόθεν προσεύχεσθαι. 2.33.2. Καλαύρειαν δὲ Ἀπόλλωνος ἱερὰν τὸ ἀρχαῖον εἶναι λέγουσιν, ὅτε περ ἦσαν καὶ οἱ Δελφοὶ Ποσειδῶνος· λέγεται δὲ καὶ τοῦτο, ἀντιδοῦναι τὰ χωρία σφᾶς ἀλλήλοις. φασὶ δὲ ἔτι καὶ λόγιον μνημονεύουσιν· ἶσόν τοι Δῆλόν τε Καλαύρειάν τε νέμεσθαι Πυθώ τʼ ἠγαθέην καὶ Ταίναρον ἠνεμόεσσαν. Unknown ἔστι δʼ οὖν Ποσειδῶνος ἱερὸν ἐνταῦθα ἅγιον, ἱερᾶται δὲ αὐτῷ παρθένος, ἔστʼ ἂν ἐς ὥραν προέλθῃ γάμου. 3.18.4. τὰ δὲ ἐς τὴν Κναγίαν Ἄρτεμίν ἐστιν οὕτω λεγόμενα· Κναγέα ἄνδρα ἐπιχώριον στρατεῦσαί φασιν ἐς Ἄφιδναν ὁμοῦ τοῖς Διοσκούροις, ληφθέντα δὲ αἰχμάλωτον ἐν τῇ μάχῃ καὶ πραθέντα ἐς Κρήτην δουλεύειν ἔνθα ἦν Ἀρτέμιδος τοῖς Κρησὶν ἱερόν, ἀνὰ χρόνον δὲ αὐτόν τε ἀποδρᾶναι καὶ παρθένον τὴν ἱερωμένην ἔχοντα οἴχεσθαι τὸ ἄγαλμα ἀγομένην. ἐπὶ τούτῳ δὲ λέγουσιν ὀνομάζειν Κναγίαν Ἄρτεμιν· 7.9.7. τοῦτο Ἀχαιοὺς ἐς τὰ μάλιστα ἠνίασεν, ὡς οὔτε ἄλλως πάσχοντας δίκαια ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων καὶ ἐς τὸ ἀνωφελὲς προϋπηργμένων σφίσιν ἐς αὐτούς, οἳ ἐπὶ τὰ Φιλίππου καὶ Αἰτωλῶν ἐναντία καὶ αὖθις Ἀντιόχου στρατεύσαντες χάριτι τῇ ἐς Ῥωμαίους ἐγίνοντο ὕστεροι φυγάδων ἀνθρώπων καὶ οὐ καθαρῶν χεῖρας· ὅμως δὲ εἴκειν σφίσιν ἐδόκει. 7.19.1. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τῷ μεταξὺ τοῦ ναοῦ τε τῆς Λαφρίας καὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ πεποιημένον μνῆμα Εὐρυπύλου. τὰ δὲ ὅστις τε ὢν καὶ καθʼ ἥντινα αἰτίαν ἀφίκετο ἐς τὴν γῆν ταύτην, δηλώσει μοι καὶ ταῦτα ὁ λόγος προδιηγησαμένῳ πρότερον ὁποῖα ὑπὸ τοῦ Εὐρυπύλου τὴν ἐπιδημίαν τοῖς ἐνταῦθα ἦν τὰ παρόντα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. Ἰώνων τοῖς Ἀρόην καὶ Ἄνθειαν καὶ Μεσάτιν οἰκοῦσιν ἦν ἐν κοινῷ τέμενος καὶ ναὸς Ἀρτέμιδος Τρικλαρίας ἐπίκλησιν, καὶ ἑορτὴν οἱ Ἴωνες αὐτῇ καὶ παννυχίδα ἦγον ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος. ἱερωσύνην δὲ εἶχε τῆς θεοῦ παρθένος, ἐς ὃ ἀποστέλλεσθαι παρὰ ἄνδρα ἔμελλε. 7.19.2. λέγουσιν οὖν συμβῆναί ποτε ὡς ἱερᾶσθαι μὲν τῆς θεοῦ Κομαιθὼ τὸ εἶδος καλλίστην παρθένον, τυγχάνειν δὲ αὐτῆς ἐρῶντα Μελάνιππον, τά τε ἄλλα τοὺς ἡλικιώτας καὶ ὄψεως εὐπρεπείᾳ μάλιστα ὑπερηρκότα. ὡς δὲ ὁ Μελάνιππος ἐς τὸ ἴσον τοῦ ἔρωτος ὑπηγάγετο τὴν παρθένον, ἐμνᾶτο αὐτὴν παρὰ τοῦ πατρός. ἕπεται δέ πως τῷ γήρᾳ τά τε ἄλλα ὡς τὸ πολὺ ἐναντιοῦσθαι νέοις καὶ οὐχ ἥκιστα ἐς τοὺς ἐρῶντας τὸ ἀνάλγητον, ὅπου καὶ Μελανίππῳ τότε ἐθέλοντι ἐθέλουσαν ἄγεσθαι Κομαιθὼ οὔτε παρὰ τῶν ἑαυτοῦ γονέων οὔτε παρὰ τῶν Κομαιθοῦς ἥμερον ἀπήντησεν οὐδέν. 7.19.3. ἐπέδειξε δὲ ἐπὶ πολλῶν τε δὴ ἄλλων καὶ ἐν τοῖς Μελανίππου παθήμασιν, ὡς μέτεστιν ἔρωτι καὶ ἀνθρώπων συγχέαι νόμιμα καὶ ἀνατρέψαι θεῶν τιμάς, ὅπου καὶ τότε ἐν τῷ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος ἱερῷ Κομαιθὼ καὶ Μελάνιππος καὶ ἐξέπλησαν τοῦ ἔρωτος τὴν ὁρμήν. καὶ οἱ μὲν ἔμελλον τῷ ἱερῷ καὶ ἐς τὸ ἔπειτα ἴσα καὶ θαλάμῳ χρήσεσθαι· τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπους αὐτίκα ἐξ Ἀρτέμιδος μήνιμα ἔφθειρε, τῆς τε γῆς καρπὸν οὐδένα ἀποδιδούσης καὶ νόσοι σφίσιν οὐ κατὰ τὰ εἰωθότα καὶ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν θάνατοι πλείονες ἢ τὰ πρότερα ἐγίνοντο. 7.25.7. ἐν Κερυνείᾳ δὲ ἱερόν ἐστιν Εὐμενίδων· ἱδρύσασθαι δὲ αὐτὸ Ὀρέστην λέγουσιν. ὃς δʼ ἂν ἐνταῦθα ἢ αἵματι ἢ ἄλλῳ τῳ μιάσματι ἔνοχος ἢ καὶ ἀσεβὴς ἐσέλθῃ θέλων θεάσασθαι, αὐτίκα λέγεται δείμασιν ἐκτὸς τῶν φρενῶν γίνεσθαι· καὶ τοῦδε ἕνεκα οὐ τοῖς πᾶσιν ἡ ἔσοδος οὐδὲ ἐξ ἐπιδρομῆς ἐστι. τοῖς μὲν δὴ ἀγάλμασι ξύλων εἰργασμένοις μέγεθός εἰσιν οὐ μεγάλοι, κατὰ δὲ τὴν ἔσοδον ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν γυναικῶν εἰκόνες λίθου τέ εἰσιν εἰργασμέναι καὶ ἔχουσαι τέχνης εὖ· ἐλέγοντο δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων ἱέρειαι ταῖς Εὐμενίσιν αἱ γυναῖκες γενέσθαι. 9.27.6. καὶ Ἡρακλέους Θεσπιεῦσίν ἐστιν ἱερόν· ἱερᾶται δὲ αὐτοῦ παρθένος, ἔστʼ ἂν ἐπιλάβῃ τὸ χρεὼν αὐτήν. αἴτιον δὲ τούτου φασὶν εἶναι τοιόνδε, Ἡρακλέα ταῖς θυγατράσι πεντήκοντα οὔσαις ταῖς Θεστίου συγγενέσθαι πάσαις πλὴν μιᾶς ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ νυκτί· ταύτην δὲ οὐκ ἐθελῆσαί οἱ τὴν μίαν μιχθῆναι· τὸν δὲ ὑβρισθῆναι νομίζοντα δικάσαι μένειν παρθένον πάντα αὐτὴν τὸν βίον ἱερωμένην αὐτῷ. 10.34.8. τὸν δὲ ἱερέα ἐκ παίδων αἱροῦνται τῶν ἀνήβων, πρόνοιαν ποιούμενοι πρότερον τῆς ἱερωσύνης ἐξήκειν οἱ τὸν χρόνον πρὶν ἢ ἡβῆσαι· ἱερᾶται δὲ ἔτη συνεχῆ πέντε, ἐν οἷς τήν τε ἄλλην δίαιταν ἔχει παρὰ τῇ θεῷ καὶ λουτρὰ αἱ ἀσάμινθοι κατὰ τρόπον εἰσὶν αὐτῷ τὸν ἀρχαῖον. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐποίησαν μὲν καὶ τοῦτο οἱ Πολυκλέους παῖδες , ἔστι δὲ ἐσκευασμένον ὡς ἐς μάχην· καὶ ἐπείργασται τῇ ἀσπίδι τῶν Ἀθήνῃσι μίμημα ἐπὶ τῇ ἀσπίδι τῆς καλουμένης ὑπὸ Ἀθηναίων Παρθένου. 2.10.4. Such are the noteworthy things that this enclosure presented to me, and opposite is another enclosure, sacred to Aphrodite. The first thing inside is a statue of Antiope. They say that her sons were Sicyonians, and because of them the Sicyonians will have it that Antiope herself is related to themselves. After this is the sanctuary of Aphrodite, into which enter only a female verger, who after her appointment may not have intercourse with a man, and a virgin, called the Bath-bearer, holding her sacred office for a year. All others are wont to behold the goddess from the entrance, and to pray from that place. 2.33.2. Calaurea, they say, was sacred to Apollo of old, at the time when Delphi was sacred to Poseidon. Legend adds that the two gods exchanged the two places. They still say this, and quote an oracle:— Delos and Calaurea alike thou lovest to dwell in, Pytho , too, the holy, and Taenarum swept by the high winds. Unknown . At any rate, there is a holy sanctuary of Poseidon here, and it is served by a maiden priestess until she reaches an age fit for marriage. 3.18.4. The story of Artemis Cnagia is as follows. Cnageus, they say, was a native who joined the Dioscuri in their expedition against Aphidna . Being taken prisoner in the battle and sold into Crete , he lived as a slave where the Cretans had a sanctuary of Artemis; but in course of time he ran away in the company of the maiden priestess, who took the image with her. It is for this reason that they name Artemis Cnagia. 7.9.7. This caused the greatest vexation to the Achaeans. They bethought themselves of the injustice they had suffered at the hands of the Romans, and how all their services had proved of no avail; to please the Romans they had made war against Philip, against the Aetolians and afterwards against Antiochus, and after all there was preferred before them a band of exiles, whose hands were stained with blood. Nevertheless, they decided to give way. 7.19.1. Between the temple of Laphria and the altar stands the tomb of Eurypylus. Who he was and for what reason he came to this land I shall set forth presently; but I must first describe what the condition of affairs was at his arrival. The Ionians who lived in Aroe, Antheia and Mesatis had in common a precinct and a temple of Artemis surnamed Triclaria, and in her honor the Ionians used to celebrate every year a festival and an all-night vigil. The priesthood of the goddess was held by a maiden until the time came for her to be sent to a husband. 7.19.2. Now the story is that once upon a time it happened that the priestess of the goddess was Comaetho, a most beautiful maiden, who had a lover called Melanippus, who was far better and handsomer than his fellows. When Melanippus had won the love of the maiden, he asked the father for his daughter's hand. It is somehow a characteristic of old age to oppose the young in most things, and especially is it insensible to the desires of lovers. So Melanippus found it; although both he and Comaetho were eager to wed, he met with nothing but harshness from both his own parents and from those of his lover. 7.19.3. The history of Melanippus, like that of many others, proved that love is apt both to break the laws of men and to desecrate the worship of the gods, seeing that this pair had their fill of the passion of love in the sanctuary of Artemis. And hereafter also were they to use the sanctuary as a bridal-chamber. Forthwith the wrath of Artemis began to destroy the inhabitants; the earth yielded no harvest, and strange diseases occurred of an unusually fatal character. 7.25.7. In Ceryneia is a sanctuary of the Eumenides, which they say was established by Orestes. Whosoever enters with the desire to see the sights, if he be guilty of bloodshed, defilement or impiety, is said at once to become insane with fright, and for this reason the right to enter is not given to all and sundry. The images made of wood . . . they are not very large in size, and at the entrance to the sanctuary are statues of women, made of stone and of artistic workmanship. The natives said that the women are portraits of the former priestesses of the Eumenides. 9.27.6. At Thespiae is also a sanctuary of Heracles. The priestess there is a virgin, who acts as such until she dies. The reason of this is said to be as follows. Heracles, they say, had intercourse with the fifty daughters of Thestius, except one, in a single night. She was the only one who refused to have connection with him. Heracles,thinking that he had been insulted, condemned her to remain a virgin all her life, serving him as his priest. 10.34.8. They choose the priest from boys who have not yet reached the age of puberty, taking care beforehand that his term of office shall run out before puberty arrives. The office lasts for five successive years, during which the priest boards with the goddess, and bathes in tubs after the ancient manner. This image too was made by the sons of Polycles. It is armed as for battle, and on the shield is wrought in relief a copy of what at Athens is wrought on the shield of her whom the Athenians call the Virgin.
24. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 8.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26
25. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 54 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26
26. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 1.22.2 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
27. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 11.30 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
28. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.50, 4.20 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24, 25
2.50. 50.But if in the sacred rites which are here, those that are priests and diviners order both themselves and others to abstain from sepulchres, from impious men, from menstrual purgations, and from venereal congress, and likewise from base and mournful spectacles, and from those auditions which excite the passions, (because frequently, through those that are present being impure, something appears which disturbs the diviner; on which account it is said, that to sacrifice inopportunely, is attended with greater detriment than gain); --- if this, therefore, is the case, will he, who is the priest of the father of all things, suffer himself to become the sepulchre of dead bodies? And will such a one, being full of defilement, endeavour to associate with the transcendent God? It is sufficient, indeed, that in fruits we assume parts of death, for the support of our present life. This, however, is not yet the place for such a discussion. We must, therefore, still farther investigate what pertains to sacrifices. SPAN 4.20. 20.For holy men were of opinion that purity consisted in a thing not being mingled with its contrary, and that mixture is defilement. Hence, they thought that nutriment should be assumed from fruits, and not from dead bodies, and that we should not, by introducing that which is animated to our nature, defile what is administered by nature. But they conceived, that the slaughter of animals, as they are sensitive, and the depriving them of their souls, is a defilement to the living; and that the pollution is much greater, to mingle a body which was once sensitive, but is now deprived of sense, with a sensitive and living being. Hence, universally, the purity pertaining to piety consists in rejecting and abstaining from many things, and in an abandonment of such as are of a contrary nature, and the assumption of such as are appropriate and concordant. On this account, venereal connexions are attended with defilement. For in these, a conjunction takes place of the female with the male; and the seed, when retained by the woman, and causing her to be pregt, defiles the soul, through its association with the body; but when it does not produce conception, it pollutes, in consequence of becoming a lifeless mass. The connexion also of males with males defiles, because it is an emission of seed as it were into a dead body, and because it is contrary to nature. And, in short, all venery, and emissions of the seed in sleep, pollute, because the soul becomes mingled with the body, and is drawn down to pleasure. The passions of the soul likewise defile, through the complication of the irrational and effeminate part with reason, the internal masculine part. For, in a certain respect, defilement and pollution manifest the mixture of things of an heterogeneous nature, and especially when the abstersion of this mixture is attended with difficulty. Whence, also, in tinctures which are produced through mixture, one species being complicated with another, this mixture is denominated a defilement. As when some woman with a lively red Stains the pure iv'ry --- says Homer 22. And again painters call the mixtures of colours, |134 corruptions. It is usual, likewise to denominate that which is unmingled and pure, incorruptible, and to call that which is genuine, unpolluted. For water, when mingled with earth, is corrupted, and is not genuine. But water, which is diffluent, and runs with tumultuous rapidity, leaves behind in its course the earth which it carries in its stream. When from a limpid and perennial fount It defluous runs --- as Hesiod says 23. For such water is salubrious, because it is uncorrupted and unmixed. The female, likewise, that does not receive into herself the exhalation of seed, is said to be uncorrupted. So that the mixture of contraries is corruption and defilement. For the mixture of dead with living bodies, and the insertion of beings that were once living and sentient into animals, and of dead into living flesh, may be reasonably supposed to introduce defilement and stains to our nature; just, again, as the soul is polluted when it is invested with the body. Hence, he who is born, is polluted by the mixture of his soul with body; and he who dies, defiles his body, through leaving it a corpse, different and foreign from that which possesses life. The soul, likewise, is polluted by anger and desire, and the multitude of passions of which in a certain respect diet is a co-operating cause. But as water which flows through a rock is more uncorrupted than that which runs through marshes, because it does not bring with it much mud; thus, also, the soul which administers its own affairs in a body that is dry, and is not moistened by the juices of foreign flesh, is in a more excellent condition, is more uncorrupted, and is more prompt for intellectual energy. Thus too, it is said, that the thyme which is the driest and the sharpest to the taste, affords the best honey to bees. The dianoetic, therefore, or discursive power of the soul, is polluted; or rather, he who energizes dianoetically, when this energy is mingled with the energies of either the imaginative or doxastic power. But purification consists in a separation from all these, and the wisdom which is adapted to divine concerns, is a desertion of every thing of this kind. The proper nutriment likewise, of each thing, is that which essentially preserves it. Thus you may say, that the nutriment of a stone is the cause of its continuing to be a stone, and of firmly remaining in a lapideous form; but the nutriment of a plant is that which preserves it in increase and fructification; and of an animated body, that which preserves its composition. It is one thing, however, |135 to nourish, and another to fatten; and one thing to impart what is necessary, and another to procure what is luxurious. Various, therefore, are the kinds of nutriment, and various also is the nature of the things that are nourished. And it is necessary, indeed, that all things should be nourished, but we should earnestly endeavour to fatten our most principal parts. Hence, the nutriment of the rational soul is that which preserves it in a rational state. But this is intellect; so that it is to be nourished by intellect; and we should earnestly endeavour that it may be fattened through this, rather than that the flesh may become pinguid through esculent substances. For intellect preserves for us eternal life, but the body when fattened causes the soul to be famished, through its hunger after a blessed life not being satisfied, increases our mortal part, since it is of itself insane, and impedes our attainment of an immortal condition of being. It likewise defiles by corporifying the soul, and drawing her down to that which is foreign to her nature. And the magnet, indeed, imparts, as it were, a soul to the iron which is placed near it; and the iron, though most heavy, is elevated, and runs to the spirit of the stone. Should he, therefore, who is suspended from incorporeal and intellectual deity, be anxiously busied in procuring food which fattens the body, that is an impediment to intellectual perception? Ought he not rather, by contracting hat is necessary to the flesh into that which is little and easily procured, he himself nourished, by adhering to God more closely than the iron to the magnet? I wish, indeed, that our nature was not so corruptible, and that it were possible we could live free from molestation, even without the nutriment derived from fruits. O that, as Homer 24 says, we were not in want either of meat or drink, that we might be truly immortal! --- the poet in thus speaking beautifully signifying, that food is the auxiliary not only of life, but also of death. If therefore, we were not in want even of vegetable aliment, we should be by so much the more blessed, in proportion as we should be more immortal. But now, being in a mortal condition, we render ourselves, if it be proper so to speak, still more mortal, through becoming ignorant that, by the addition of this mortality, the soul, as Theophrastus says, does not only confer a great benefit on the body by being its inhabitant, but gives herself wholly to it. 25 Hence, it is much |136 to be wished that we could easily obtain the life celebrated in fables, in which hunger and thirst are unknown; so that, by stopping the everyway-flowing river of the body, we might in a very little time be present with the most excellent natures, to which he who accedes, since deity is there, is himself a God. But how is it possible not to lament the condition of the generality of mankind, who are so involved in darkness as to cherish their own evil, and who, in the first place, hate themselves, and him who truly begot them, and afterwards, those who admonish them, and call on them to return from ebriety to a sober condition of being? Hence, dismissing things of this kind, will it not be requisite to pass on to what remains to be discussed? SPAN
29. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •popular culture see reception history, and food Found in books: Sneed (2022) 136
75a. קניגיא עם לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, כה) התמשוך לויתן בחכה ובחבל תשקיע לשונו ואלמלא הקב"ה עוזרו אין יכול לו שנאמר (איוב מ, יט) העושו יגש חרבו,כי אתא רב דימי אמר רבי יוחנן בשעה שלויתן רעב מוציא הבל מפיו ומרתיח כל מימות שבמצולה שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ירתיח כסיר מצולה ואלמלא מכניס ראשו לגן עדן אין כל בריה יכולה לעמוד בריחו שנאמר (איוב מא, כג) ים ישים כמרקחה,ובשעה שצמא עושה תלמים תלמים בים שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) אחריו יאיר נתיב אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אין תהום חוזר לאיתנו עד שבעים שנה שנאמר (איוב מא, כד) יחשוב תהום לשיבה ואין שיבה פחותה משבעים,אמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סעודה לצדיקים מבשרו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יכרו עליו חברים ואין כרה אלא סעודה שנאמר (מלכים ב ו, כג) ויכרה להם כרה גדולה ויאכלו וישתו ואין חברים אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר (שיר השירים ח, יג) היושבת בגנים חברים מקשיבים לקולך השמיעני,והשאר מחלקין אותו ועושין בו סחורה בשוקי ירושלים שנאמר (איוב מ, ל) יחצוהו בין כנענים ואין כנענים אלא תגרים שנאמר (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה לעשק אהב ואי בעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות סוכה לצדיקים מעורו של לויתן שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) התמלא בשכות עורו זכה עושין לו סוכה לא זכה עושין לו צלצל שנאמר (איוב מ, לא) ובצלצל דגים ראשו,זכה עושין לו צלצל לא זכה עושין לו ענק שנאמר (משלי א, ט) וענקים לגרגרותיך זכה עושין לו ענק לא זכה עושין לו קמיע שנאמר (איוב מ, כט) ותקשרנו לנערותיך,והשאר פורסו הקב"ה על חומות ירושלים וזיוו מבהיק מסוף העולם ועד סופו שנאמר (ישעיהו ס, ג) והלכו גוים לאורך ומלכים לנוגה זרחך:,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושמתי כדכד שמשותיך א"ר שמואל בר נחמני פליגי תרי מלאכי ברקיעא גבריאל ומיכאל ואמרי לה תרי אמוראי במערבא ומאן אינון יהודה וחזקיה בני רבי חייא חד אמר שוהם וחד אמר ישפה אמר להו הקב"ה להוי כדין וכדין,(ישעיהו נד, יב) ושעריך לאבני אקדח כי הא דיתיב רבי יוחנן וקא דריש עתיד הקב"ה להביא אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם שלשים על שלשים וחוקק בהן עשר על עשרים ומעמידן בשערי ירושלים לגלג עליו אותו תלמיד השתא כביעתא דציצלא לא משכחינן כולי האי משכחינן,לימים הפליגה ספינתו בים חזא מלאכי השרת דיתבי וקא מינסרי אבנים טובות ומרגליות שהם ל' על ל' וחקוק בהן עשר ברום עשרים אמר להו הני למאן אמרו ליה שעתיד הקב"ה להעמידן בשערי ירושלים אתא לקמיה דרבי יוחנן אמר ליה דרוש רבי לך נאה לדרוש כאשר אמרת כן ראיתי אמר לו ריקא אלמלא (לא) ראית לא האמנת מלגלג על דברי חכמים אתה נתן עיניו בו ונעשה גל של עצמות,מיתיבי (ויקרא כו, יג) ואולך אתכם קוממיות רבי מאיר אומר מאתים אמה כשתי קומות של אדם הראשון,רבי יהודה אומר מאה אמה כנגד היכל וכתליו שנאמר (תהלים קמד, יב) אשר בנינו כנטיעים מגודלים בנעוריהם בנותינו כזויות מחוטבות תבנית היכל כי קאמר ר' יוחנן לכווי דבי זיקא,ואמר רבה א"ר יוחנן עתיד הקב"ה לעשות שבע חופות לכל צדיק וצדיק שנאמר (ישעיהו ד, ה) וברא ה' על כל מכון הר ציון ועל מקראיה ענן יומם ועשן ונוגה אש להבה לילה כי על כל כבוד חופה מלמד שכל אחד ואחד עושה לו הקדוש ברוך הוא חופה לפי כבודו,עשן בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא שכל מי שעיניו צרות בתלמידי חכמים בעולם הזה מתמלאות עיניו עשן לעולם הבא ואש בחופה למה אמר רבי חנינא מלמד שכל אחד ואחד נכוה מחופתו של חבירו אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר כז, כ) ונתתה מהודך עליו ולא כל הודך זקנים שבאותו הדור אמרו פני משה כפני חמה פני יהושע כפני לבנה אוי לה לאותה בושה אוי לה לאותה כלימה,אמר רבי חמא (בר) חנינא עשר חופות עשה הקדוש ברוך הוא לאדם הראשון בגן עדן שנאמר (יחזקאל כח, יג) בעדן גן אלהים היית כל אבן יקרה וגו' מר זוטרא אמר אחת עשרה שנאמר כל אבן יקרה אמר רבי יוחנן וגרוע שבכולן זהב דקא חשיב ליה לבסוף,מאי (יחזקאל כח, יג) מלאכת תופיך ונקביך בך אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא לחירם מלך צור בך נסתכלתי ובראתי נקבים נקבים באדם ואיכא דאמרי הכי קאמר בך נסתכלתי 75a. b a hunt of the leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you draw out leviathan with a fish hook? Or press down his tongue with a cord?” /b (Job 40:25). b And were the Holy One, Blessed be He, not assisting /b Gabriel, b he would not be able to /b hunt b it, as it is stated: “Only He Who made him can use His sword to approach him” /b (Job 40:19)., b When Rav Dimi came /b from Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he said that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: When /b the b leviathan is hungry, he produces breath from his mouth and /b thereby b boils all of the waters in the depths /b of the sea. b As it is stated: “He makes the deep boil like a pot” /b (Job 41:23). b And if /b the leviathan b did not place its head in the Garden of Eden, no creature could withstand his /b foul b smell, as it is stated: “He makes the sea like a seething mixture [ i merkaḥa /i ]” /b (Job 41:23), and the term i merkaḥa /i is also used to describe something with a smell (see Exodus 30:25)., b And when he is thirsty, he makes many furrows in the sea, as it is stated: “He makes a path to shine after him” /b (Job 41:24). b Rav Aḥa bar Yaakov says: /b After the leviathan drinks from the sea, b the depth /b of the sea does b not return to its normal condition until seventy years /b have passed, b as it is stated: “One would think the deep to be hoary” /b (Job 41:24), b and hoary /b indicates a person who is b no less than seventy /b years old., b Rabba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b In the b future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will make a feast for the righteous from the flesh of the leviathan, as it is stated: “The i ḥabbarim /i will make a feast [ i yikhru /i ] of him” /b (Job 40:30). b And i kera /i /b means b nothing other than a feast, as it is stated: “And he prepared [ i va’yikhreh /i ] for them a great feast [ i kera /i ]; and they ate and drank” /b (II Kings 6:23). b And i ḥabbarim /i /b means b nothing other than Torah scholars, as it is stated: “You that dwell in the gardens, the companions [ i ḥaverim /i ] hearken for your voice: Cause me to hear it” /b (Song of Songs 8:13). This verse is interpreted as referring to Torah scholars, who listen to God’s voice., b And /b with regard to b the remainder /b of the leviathan, they will b divide it and use it for commerce in the markets of Jerusalem, as it is stated: “They will part him among the i kena’anim /i ” /b (Job 40:30). b And i kena’anim /i /b means b nothing other than merchants, as it is stated: “As for the merchant [ i kena’an /i ], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He loves to oppress” /b (Hosea 12:8). b And if you wish, say /b that the proof is b from here: “Whose merchants are princes, whose traffickers [ i kieha /i ] are the honorable of the earth” /b (Isaiah 23:8)., b And Rabba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b In the b future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will prepare a i sukka /i for the righteous from the skin of /b the b leviathan, as it is stated: “Can you fill his skin with barbed irons [ i besukkot /i ]” /b (Job 40:31). If one b is deserving /b of being called righteous, an entire b i sukka /i is prepared for him /b from the skin of the leviathan; if one is b not deserving /b of this honor, b a covering is prepared for his /b head, b as it is stated: “Or his head with fish-spears” /b (Job 40:31).,If one is b deserving /b at least of this reward, b a covering is prepared for him, /b and if one is b not deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, as it is stated: “And necklaces about your neck” /b (Proverbs 1:9). If one is somewhat b deserving, a necklace is prepared for him, /b and if one is b not deserving /b even of this, only b an amu-let is prepared for him /b from the skin of the leviathan, b as it is stated: “Or will you bind him for your maidens” /b (Job 40:29), i.e., a small amulet is prepared for him, like the amulets tied on children’s necks., b And /b with regard to b the remaining /b part of the skin of the leviathan, b the Holy One, Blessed be He, spreads it on the walls of Jerusalem, and its glory radiates from /b one b end of the world until the /b other b end. As it is stated: “And nations shall walk in your light, and kings at the brightness of your rising” /b (Isaiah 60:3).,§ With regard to the future glory of Jerusalem, the Gemara interprets the verse: b “And I will make your pinnacles of i kadkhod /i ” /b (Isaiah 54:12). b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said: Two angels in heaven, Gabriel and Michael, disagree /b with regard to the material that will be used to form the walls of Jerusalem. b And some say /b that this dispute is between b two i amora’im /i in the West, /b i.e., Eretz Yisrael. b And who are they? /b They are b Yehuda and Ḥizkiyya, the sons of Rabbi Ḥiyya. One said /b they will be made of b onyx, and one said /b of b jasper. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to them: Let it be like this [ i kedein /i ] and like that [ i ukhedein /i ], /b i.e., let them be formed from both together. This compromise is indicated by the word i kadkhod /i , a combination of this [ i kedein /i ] and that [ i ukhedein /i ].,The Gemara analyzes the rest of that verse: b “And your gates of precious stones” /b (Isaiah 54:12). This should be understood b in /b light of b that /b incident b where Rabbi Yoḥa sat and taught: /b In the b future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will bring precious stones and pearls that are thirty by thirty /b cubits, b and He will hollow out in them /b a hole of b ten by twenty /b cubits b and set them in the gates of Jerusalem. A certain /b unnamed b student sneered at him, /b saying: b Now we do not find /b precious stones even b of /b the size of b an egg of a dove, /b and yet b all of this we will find? /b , b After /b a period of b time /b that student’s b ship went to sea, /b where b he saw ministering angels sitting and sawing precious stones and pearls that were thirty by thirty /b cubits, b and hollowed out in them /b were holes of b ten by twenty /b cubits. b He said to /b the angels: b For whom are these? They said to him that /b in the b future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will place them in the gates of Jerusalem. /b Later, the student b came before Rabbi Yoḥa /b and b said to him: /b Continue to b interpret, my teacher, it is fitting for you to interpret, /b as b I saw /b just b as you said. /b Rabbi Yoḥa b said to him: Worthless /b man, b if you had not seen, you would not have believed; /b clearly, b you are mocking the statement of the Sages. /b Rabbi Yoḥa b set his eyes upon him, and /b the student was instantly killed b and turned into a pile of bones. /b ,The Gemara b raises an objection /b against Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement, based on a i baraita /i . The verse states: b “And I will make you go upright [ i komemiyyut /i ]” /b (Leviticus 26:13). b Rabbi Meir says: /b In the future, the Jewish people will have the stature of b two hundred cubits, equivalent to two /b times the b height [ i komot /i ] of Adam the first /b man, whose height was one hundred cubits. Rabbi Meir interprets the word i komemiyyut /i as two i komot /i ., b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b They will have the stature of b one hundred cubits, corresponding to the Sanctuary and its walls, as it is stated: “We whose sons are as plants grown up in their youth; whose daughters are as corner-pillars carved after the fashion of the Sanctuary” /b (Psalms 144:12). But if they are each one hundred cubits tall, how could the Jews enter the gates of Jerusalem, whose entrance gate will be ten by twenty cubits, as claimed by Rabbi Yoḥa? The Gemara answers: b When Rabbi Yoḥa stated /b that idea, he was not referring to the gates themselves but b to /b the b windows that /b allow b wind /b to enter.,§ b And Rabba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b In the b future, the Holy One, Blessed be He, will fashion seven canopies for each and every righteous /b individual, b as it is stated: “And the Lord will create over the whole habitation of Mount Zion, and over those who are invited to it, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for over all the glory shall be a canopy” /b (Isaiah 4:5). This b teaches that /b for b each and every /b righteous individual, b the Holy One, Blessed be He, fashions for him a canopy /b seven times over, b in accordance with his honor, /b i.e., greater individuals receive grander and larger canopies.,The Gemara asks a question with regard to the above verse: b Why /b should there be b smoke in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said: /b It is b because anyone whose eyes are narrow, /b i.e., is stingy, b toward Torah scholars in this world, his eyes fill with smoke in the World-to-Come. And why /b should there be b fire in a canopy? Rabbi Ḥanina said: /b This b teaches that each and every one is burned from /b embarrassment at the size of b the canopy of the other, /b and says: b Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace, /b that I did not merit a canopy as large as his., b In a similar manner, you /b can b say /b that God said to Moses about Joshua: b “And you shall put of your honor upon him” /b (Numbers 27:20), which indicates that you should put some of your honor, b but not all of your honor. The elders of that generation said: The face of Moses /b was as bright b as the face of the sun; the face of Joshua /b was b like the face of the moon. Woe for this embarrassment, woe for this disgrace, /b that we did not merit another leader of the stature of Moses., b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, fashioned ten canopies for Adam the first /b man, b in the Garden of Eden; as it is stated /b to Hiram, king of Tyre: b “You were in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone /b was your covering, the carnelian, the topaz, and the emerald, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the carbuncle, and the smaragd, and gold; the workmanship of your drums and of your holes was in you; they were prepared on the day that you were created” (Ezekiel 28:13). This verse mentions ten items, from carnelian to gold. b Mar Zutra said: /b There were b eleven /b canopies, b as it states: “Every precious stone,” /b which is also part of the tally. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: And the worst of all of them /b was b gold, as it is counted last, /b which indicates that the other items are more valuable.,The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the phrase: b “The workmanship of your drums and of your holes [ i nekavekha /i ]” /b (Ezekiel 28:13)? b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hiram, king of Tyre: /b Were you in the Garden of Eden when I created all of this for you? b I looked at you, /b saw that you would one day claim divinity for yourself, b and created many orifices [ i nekavim /i ] in man, /b i.e., the excretory system, so that you would know that you are human and not a god. b And there are /b those b who say /b that b this /b is what God b said /b to Hiram: b I looked at you /b
30. Anon., Pereq Arayot, None  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
31. Anon., Mekhilta D’Rabbi Ishmael Kaspa Mishpatim, 5, 110  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
32. Anon., 4 Ezra, 6.49-6.52  Tagged with subjects: •popular culture see reception history, and food Found in books: Sneed (2022) 136
6.49. "Then thou didst keep in existence two living creatures; the name of one thou didst call Behemoth and the name of the other Leviathan. 6.50. And thou didst separate one from the other, for the seventh part where the water had been gathered together could not hold them both. 6.51. And thou didst give Behemoth one of the parts which had been dried up on the third day, to live in it, where there are a thousand mountains; 6.52. but to Leviathan thou didst give the seventh part, the watery part; and thou hast kept them to be eaten by whom thou wilt, and when thou wilt.
33. Epigraphy, Lss, 119, 91  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
34. Epigraphy, Lscg, 151, 99  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 25
35. Epigraphy, Lsam, 12, 18  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
36. Demosthenes, Orations, 21.43-46, 23.72, 37.59  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan
37. Anon, Scholia To Aeschines, 27.21-27.23  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 24
38. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.717-2.720  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26
2.717. quit not the strife, nor from loud wrath refrained: 2.718. “Thy crime and impious outrage, may the gods 2.719. (if Heaven to mortals render debt and due) 2.720. justly reward and worthy honors pay!
39. Philo of Alexandria, Mating, 66  Tagged with subjects: •food, culture Found in books: Penniman (2017) 70
40. Anon., Liber Resurrectionis Bartholomaei, 138  Tagged with subjects: •food, impurity of in ancient cultures Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 26