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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
figura, figure, Lynskey (2021) 141, 149, 174, 180, 202, 242, 283, 289, 305, 309, 310, 312, 330
figural, aniconism, and the Gaifman (2012) 11, 12, 21, 133, 135, 232, 233, 308
figural, art Levine (2005) 236
figural, art and jewish naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic symbols Levine (2005) 224, 362, 372
figural, art, blessings Levine (2005) 226
figural, art, catacombs, bet shearim Levine (2005) 481
figural, art, church fathers Levine (2005) 481
figural, art, seals Levine (2005) 225, 226, 478
figural, art, yafia Levine (2005) 224
figural, composition, aesthetic model of Dawson (2001) 254
figural, composition, theological model of Dawson (2001) 254
figural, exegesis Černušková (2016) 109
figural, extension of literal sense Dawson (2001) 146
figural, graffiti drawings, animals Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 43, 61, 70, 71, 92
figural, graffiti drawings, boats/ships Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 17, 43, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 70, 71, 92, 120
figural, graffiti drawings, geometric designs Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 61, 71
figural, graffiti drawings, gladiators Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 27, 88
figural, graffiti drawings, head in profile Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 43, 88, 92
figural, graffiti, drawings Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 88, 92, 98, 256
figural, interpretation O, Daly (2012) 24
figural, interpretation of tabernacle Dawson (2001) 68, 69, 242
figural, interpretation, ‘for ever and ever’ formula O, Daly (2012) 182
figural, readers, ancient christian Dawson (2001) 247
figural, readers, construction of relationships Dawson (2001) 87
figural, readers, self-understanding of Dawson (2001) 221
figural, reading of bible Dawson (2001) 4
figural, reading of isaiah Dawson (2001) 5
figural, reading of old testament Dawson (2001) 4, 5, 100, 249
figural, reading on, identity, christian, effect of Dawson (2001) 14
figural, reading, allegory, and Dawson (2001) 12
figural, reading, and allegorical reading Dawson (2001) 12
figural, reading, and literal reading Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reading, auerbach on Dawson (2001) 137, 146, 247, 261
figural, reading, basic features of Dawson (2001) 87
figural, reading, bultmann, on Dawson (2001) 137, 146, 247, 261
figural, reading, family resemblances in Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reading, family resemblances, in Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reading, frei on Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reading, frei, hans, on Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reading, meaning in Dawson (2001) 89
figural, reading, meaning, in Dawson (2001) 89
figural, reading, of historical reality Dawson (2001) 120
figural, reading, of past occurrences Dawson (2001) 127
figural, reading, of the old testament Dawson (2001) 4, 5, 100, 249
figural, reading, pauline Dawson (2001) 107
figural, reading, self-subversion of Dawson (2001) 247
figural, reading, spiritual character of Dawson (2001) 93
figural, reading, spirituality, of Dawson (2001) 93
figural, relations, extension of literal sense Dawson (2001) 146
figural, reliefs, state funeral for the war dead Barbato (2020) 61
figural, subversion, figural, relations, and Dawson (2001) 87, 89
figurality Hirshman (2009) 29
figuration Glowalsky (2020) 70, 92, 116, 117, 122, 138, 142
Lynskey (2021) 139, 140, 141, 152, 161, 238, 242, 255, 268, 279, 282, 283, 285, 286, 289, 305, 311, 312, 313, 325, 334
figuration, in contrast to, prefiguration, typology Kaplan (2015) 66, 67
figurative Binder (2012) 106, 135, 136, 160, 230
figurative, and literal Tite (2009) 65, 79, 80, 136, 139, 140, 141, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 216
figurative, arts, amazons, in the Barbato (2020) 145, 146, 158, 159, 167, 170
figurative, death in exile, ovid Williams and Vol (2022) 303, 304, 305, 307
figurative, exegesis Boulluec (2022) 135, 136, 239, 240, 334, 386, 387, 458, 459, 503, 504, 511, 512, 513, 522, 523, 524, 527, 528, 529, 531, 532, 533, 534
figurative, interpretation of bible, literal and O, Daly (2020) 170, 198, 199, 208, 209, 302, 303, 304
figurative, language Gray (2021) 31, 88, 117, 127, 140, 145, 150
James (2021) 96, 109, 110, 125, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 204
figurative, language, allegory as James (2021) 85
figurative, language, contrast with parrhesia James (2021) 228, 230
figurative, ludi Richlin (2018) 171, 174, 184
figurative, meaning Dawson (2001) 224
figurative, nonliterality Dawson (2001) 146, 224
figurative, nonliterality, figural, reading, and Dawson (2001) 146
figurative, reading, aristarchus of samothrace, and Ward (2022) 49, 50, 51
figurative, use, blindness Gray (2021) 138, 139, 151, 154, 177, 220
figurative, use, disease Gray (2021) 138, 175, 176, 203
figurative, use, vision, see also revelation Gray (2021) 127, 140, 144, 150, 154, 176, 177, 178
figuratively, of mental turmoil, storms in tristia Williams and Vol (2022) 272, 273, 321
figure, , moriah abraham, biblical, aqedah Levine (2005) 205
figure, abraham, biblical Levine (2005) 539
figure, agamemnon, as ancestor Shilo (2022) 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 132
figure, and fulfillment Dawson (2001) 93, 254
figure, and fulfillment, auerbach on Dawson (2001) 116
figure, and fulfillment, bultmann, on Dawson (2001) 116
figure, and fulfillment, historical reality of Dawson (2001) 89
figure, and fulfillment, origen on Dawson (2001) 116
figure, anna, ot Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 503
figure, as, angels, giant Janowitz (2002b) 49
figure, as, lykainion, lykanion, lycaenion, courtesan Pinheiro et al (2012a) 184, 185
figure, character, homer, odysseus Toloni (2022) 28, 29, 31, 45, 57, 196, 201, 203, 209, 219
figure, consultation at trophonion, amyntas son of perdikkas, macedonian royal Renberg (2017) 569
figure, cook of Bierl (2017) 50, 175
figure, cratylus, historical Harte (2017) 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 193
figure, cumaean sibyl, as composite Pillinger (2019) 149, 166, 173, 174
figure, empusa, greek folklore Luck (2006) 214
figure, ennius, as wisdom Čulík-Baird (2022) 34
figure, ephraim, biblical Champion (2022) 87, 150
figure, epicurus, and of imagining advice from a respected Sorabji (2000) 220
figure, epiphanius, literary Klein and Wienand (2022) 276, 277
figure, for enemies of israel, esau Lieber (2014) 314
figure, from, san el-hagar Griffiths (1975) 221
figure, heracles, mythical Champion (2022) 204
figure, hermogenes, historical Harte (2017) 184
figure, in automaton, sacred animals, greek, serpent Renberg (2017) 597, 598
figure, in bedtrick unifying narratives, as Pinheiro et al (2012a) 167
figure, in dream, pastophori, sacred college, summoned by lector, one of asinius marcellus, like Griffiths (1975) 27
figure, in herodotean reception, thucydides, fundamental Kirkland (2022) 1, 2, 3
figure, in simaetha theocritus Brule (2003) 168, 169
figure, in statius’ propempticon, cleopatra vii, faded Manolaraki (2012) 212, 213
figure, iolaos, mythical Stavrianopoulou (2013) 269
figure, jesus, as secondary Sneed (2022) 96
figure, joseph, biblical Rubenstein (2018) 43, 148, 149
Secunda (2014) 124, 208
figure, joshua, biblical Lieber (2014) 181
figure, judah, biblical Lieber (2014) 335
Rubenstein (2018) 43, 44, 45
figure, judas, as abraham-like Scopello (2008) 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
figure, judith, symbolic Gera (2014) 27, 98, 99, 102, 177, 256, 261, 262, 304, 328, 331, 406, 452, 455, 473
figure, lycurgus, another mythical Bednarek (2021) 43
figure, mercury, as a trickster Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 26, 28
figure, messianic Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 130
figure, miletopolis, relief of zeus and sleeping Renberg (2017) 655, 656
figure, miletus, mythical Bierl (2017) 241, 242, 243
figure, miriam, biblical Levine (2005) 336, 516
figure, mormo, greek folklore Luck (2006) 214
figure, mosaic motif, abraham, biblical Levine (2005) 61, 68
figure, odysseus, as a poet-like Tor (2017) 94
figure, of christ, moses, as Dawson (2001) 93
figure, of daniel Gera (2014) 75, 101, 102, 267, 270, 284, 289, 353, 368, 369
figure, of god, male lover, as Lieber (2014) 75, 77, 110, 200, 201
figure, of israel, female lover, as Lieber (2014) 110
figure, of jesus christ, moses as Dawson (2001) 93
figure, of jesus, manichaean Richter et al. (2015) 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108
figure, of judas, function of Scopello (2008) 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186
figure, of messiah, dove, as Lieber (2014) 176
figure, of moses and aaron, breasts, as Lieber (2014) 113, 135, 188, 226
figure, of sanhedrin breasts, as Lieber (2014) 150
figure, of titus albucius, toady Yona (2018) 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 220, 289
figure, of torah, spices, as Lieber (2014) 143
figure, of women, marginal Hasan Rokem (2003) 130
figure, peter Gunderson (2022) 243
figure, potnia theron, mediterranean Kowalzig (2007) 291, 292, 293, 294
figure, protagoras, historical Harte (2017) 34, 35, 168, 188, 193, 195, 212, 213
figure, samuel, biblical Levine (2005) 254, 356
figure, sardanapallus, as legendary Rohland (2022) 44, 45
figure, schweitzer, quest, jesus, enigmatic Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 526
figure, sophia, legendary Klein and Wienand (2022) 118, 155
figure, tamar, biblical Rubenstein (2018) 43, 44, 45
figure, trickster Riess (2012) 309
figure, typhon, mythical Stavrianopoulou (2013) 269
figure, varro, historical Erler et al (2021) 100
figured, as adultery, idolatry Lieber (2014) 358
figured, as body, history and historiography Oksanish (2019) 110, 111, 112
figured, robes Edmondson (2008) 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216
figured, speech Richlin (2018) 339
Xinyue (2022) 6
figures, adam and eve, biblical Champion (2022) 31, 32, 33
figures, aiakids, as cult Kowalzig (2007) 208, 221
figures, and scenes, sepphoris synagogue, biblical Levine (2005) 389
figures, antithesis, gorgianic Martin and Whitlark (2018) 202, 203, 207
figures, as rabbis, rabbis, babylonian, reading of biblical Kalmin (2014) 40, 96, 116, 120, 121
figures, as, laws, biblical Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 62, 73, 136, 148, 149
figures, ascetics as animal König (2012) 8, 337, 343, 347
figures, asklepios, dedications representing mythological Renberg (2017) 687, 688
figures, authority Najman (2010) 63, 66, 74, 85, 139, 140
figures, biblical Geljon and Runia (2013) 25
figures, biblical, historical reality of Dawson (2001) 120
figures, dantes use of Dawson (2001) 107
figures, demetrius, chronographer, patriarchs as historical Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 16, 17, 18
figures, demons, as sympathetic Kalmin (2014) 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121
figures, ephesos, ivory Marek (2019) 115
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, achilles Renberg (2017) 58, 100, 117
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, adrastos Renberg (2017) 667, 673
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, aegeus Renberg (2017) 603
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, aegisthus Renberg (2017) 324
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, aegyptos Renberg (2017) 324
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, antiope Renberg (2017) 687, 688
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, autolykos Renberg (2017) 526
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, baton Renberg (2017) 672
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, bellerophon Renberg (2017) 101, 102, 670
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, canopus Renberg (2017) 339, 340
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, charon Renberg (2017) 297
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, danaids Renberg (2017) 324
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, hippolytus Renberg (2017) 104
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, iolaos Renberg (2017) 109, 526
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, jason Renberg (2017) 221
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, medea Renberg (2017) 603
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, melampos Renberg (2017) 13, 665, 666
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, menestheus Renberg (2017) 526
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, odysseus Renberg (2017) 287, 305, 306, 315, 526
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, phineus Renberg (2017) 221
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, polyidos of corinth Renberg (2017) 101, 102
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, polyphidos Renberg (2017) 665, 666
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, protesilaos Renberg (2017) 322, 526
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, teiresias Renberg (2017) 287, 305, 306, 315, 527, 528
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, theseus Renberg (2017) 183
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, thespios Renberg (2017) 108
figures, excluding olympian gods and their mythological offspring, tyndaros Renberg (2017) 672
figures, exemplary Gera (2014) 255, 281, 284, 285, 286, 298, 303, 313, 317
figures, forensic training, of ecclesiastical Humfress (2007) 171, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 180, 181, 182, 183
figures, geographical scope, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority Cohen (2010) 284, 285
figures, giant, divine Janowitz (2002b) 49
figures, gorgianic Konig and Wiater (2022) 280, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 305, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 316
König and Wiater (2022) 280, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 305, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 316
Martin and Whitlark (2018) 202, 203, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 217, 218
figures, grave Steiner (2001) 6
figures, hecataeus of abdera, mythical Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 18
figures, historicity, of biblical Dawson (2001) 120
figures, holy men, as antagonists of conventional religious and political Kalmin (2014) 118, 119, 122, 123
figures, in comedy, helper Meister (2019) 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160
figures, in dura europos synagogue, depiction of biblical Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94
figures, in prophets, jewish Damm (2018) 48, 49
figures, intermarriage, biblical Gruen (2020) 114, 115, 116, 117, 155
figures, josephus, credibility of for population Feldman (2006) 209, 210, 211, 212, 213
figures, literary Damm (2018) 48, 49
figures, merot, biblical Levine (2005) 362
figures, mosaic law, as embodied by early biblical Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 64, 397, 398
figures, nude female Eidinow (2007) 339
figures, of authority, thecla, resisting of male Kraemer (2010) 138
figures, of roman religion, mythical Mackey (2022) 88
figures, of speech Geljon and Runia (2013) 32
Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 289
figures, of speech, anaphora Geljon and Runia (2019) 186
figures, of speech, apostrophe Geljon and Runia (2013) 32, 168, 169, 180, 200, 238
Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 169, 190, 223
figures, of speech, asyndeton Geljon and Runia (2013) 251
figures, of speech, chiasmus Geljon and Runia (2013) 32, 183, 201
Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 104
figures, of speech, fictional opponent Geljon and Runia (2013) 114, 159, 178, 180
figures, of speech, gorgianic van der EIjk (2005) 36
figures, of speech, hendiadys Geljon and Runia (2013) 263
figures, of speech, homonyms Geljon and Runia (2019) 270, 271
figures, of speech, hyperbole Geljon and Runia (2019) 187, 241
figures, of speech, litotes Geljon and Runia (2019) 286
figures, of speech, metaphor Geljon and Runia (2019) 93, 97, 110, 122, 134, 168, 254
figures, of speech, oxymoron Geljon and Runia (2013) 200, 249
figures, of speech, paradox Geljon and Runia (2013) 230
figures, of speech, personification Geljon and Runia (2013) 111
figures, of speech, polysyndeton Geljon and Runia (2013) 238
figures, of speech, rhetorical question Geljon and Runia (2013) 96, 113, 125, 126, 203, 211, 218
Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 140, 141, 286, 290
figures, of speech, sententia Geljon and Runia (2013) 125
figures, of speech, synonyms Geljon and Runia (2013) 39, 126, 130, 133, 142, 160, 172, 193, 247, 255
Geljon and Runia (2019) 25, 33, 86, 94, 131, 139, 143, 144, 153, 160, 203, 206, 207, 220, 221, 240, 248, 267, 270, 272, 286, 293
figures, of speech, tautology Geljon and Runia (2019) 241
figures, of speech, tricolon Geljon and Runia (2013) 32, 110, 113, 118, 126, 133, 137, 143, 158, 171, 239, 247
Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 102, 176, 186, 232, 239, 272, 285, 289
figures, of tax revenues in josephus, discrepancies on Udoh (2006) 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189
figures, of thought, rhetorical speech, use of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 300
figures, on vase of gold, egyptian Griffiths (1975) 11, 232
figures, parallels, to other cultural traditions, syncretistic, iranian and jewish mythical Hayes (2022) 420
figures, parisosis, gorgianic Martin and Whitlark (2018) 202, 203, 209, 210, 218
figures, paromoiosis, gorgianic Martin and Whitlark (2018) 202, 204
figures, periodization, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority Cohen (2010) 284
figures, population Marek (2019) 396
figures, prophetic Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 381
figures, rabbis, babylonian, self-perception of in relation to biblical Kalmin (2014) 78, 79
figures, rabbis, competing with other religious Janowitz (2002b) 105
figures, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority Cohen (2010) 283
figures, range of authority, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as authority Cohen (2010) 285, 286, 287, 288, 289
figures, relationships in Dawson (2001) 87
figures, rhetorical Keeline (2018) 47, 66, 67, 82, 168, 302
figures, sleeping on stones, religion, minoan, images of Renberg (2017) 70
figures, spiritual understanding of Dawson (2001) 93
figures, symbolic interpretation, of biblical Geljon and Runia (2019) 24, 149, 171, 192, 225, 244, 246, 247, 248, 283, 286, 287
figures, tertullians use of Dawson (2001) 107
figures, γοργίεια gorgianic ϲχήματα Amendola (2022) 70, 71
figuring, animals, ostraca, egyptian Griffiths (1975) 27
symbolic/figural, language Černušková (2016) 90, 91, 92, 93, 130, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 145, 289

List of validated texts:
52 validated results for "figure"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 3.11, 4.5, 4.12, 5.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses (Biblical Figure), spirit of divine inspiration possessed by • Prophets, Jewish, figures in • breasts, as figure of Moses and Aaron • educational metaphor, fig tree • figures (literary) • male lover, as figure of God • spices, as figure of Torah • typology, figuration, in contrast to prefiguration

 Found in books: Damm (2018) 48; Hirshman (2009) 59; Kaplan (2015) 67; Kosman (2012) 147; Lieber (2014) 77, 113, 143, 188, 201

3.11. צְאֶינָה וּרְאֶינָה בְּנוֹת צִיּוֹן בַּמֶּלֶךְ שְׁלֹמֹה בָּעֲטָרָה שֶׁעִטְּרָה־לּוֹ אִמּוֹ בְּיוֹם חֲתֻנָּתוֹ וּבְיוֹם שִׂמְחַת לִבּוֹ׃
4.5. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תְּאוֹמֵי צְבִיָּה הָרוֹעִים בַּשּׁוֹשַׁנִּים׃
4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃
5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃''. None
3.11. Go forth, O ye daughters of Zion, And gaze upon king Solomon, Even upon the crown wherewith his mother hath crowned him in the day of his espousals, And in the day of the gladness of his heart.
4.5. Thy two breasts are like two fawns That are twins of a gazelle, Which feed among the lilies.
4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed.
5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 16.21, 17.15, 20.6, 21.10-21.14, 31.9, 32.7-32.9, 32.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • Judith, symbolic figure • figural art • figuration • figures of speech, apostrophe • figures of speech, fictional opponent • figures of speech, oxymoron • figures of speech, polysyndeton • figures of speech, synonyms • figures of speech, tricolon • intermarriage, biblical figures • laws, biblical figures as • symbolic interpretation, of biblical figures • typology, figuration, in contrast to prefiguration

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 10; Boulluec (2022) 512, 513; Geljon and Runia (2013) 178, 180, 238, 239, 249; Geljon and Runia (2019) 24, 86, 176, 207; Gera (2014) 328; Gruen (2020) 117, 155; Kaplan (2015) 66; Levine (2005) 236; Lynskey (2021) 140

16.21. לֹא־תִטַּע לְךָ אֲשֵׁרָה כָּל־עֵץ אֵצֶל מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה־לָּךְ׃
17.15. שׂוֹם תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ מִקֶּרֶב אַחֶיךָ תָּשִׂים עָלֶיךָ מֶלֶךְ לֹא תוּכַל לָתֵת עָלֶיךָ אִישׁ נָכְרִי אֲשֶׁר לֹא־אָחִיךָ הוּא׃
20.6. וּמִי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־נָטַע כֶּרֶם וְלֹא חִלְּלוֹ יֵלֵךְ וְיָשֹׁב לְבֵיתוֹ פֶּן־יָמוּת בַּמִּלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ אַחֵר יְחַלְּלֶנּוּ׃' '21.11. וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת־תֹּאַר וְחָשַׁקְתָּ בָהּ וְלָקַחְתָּ לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.12. וַהֲבֵאתָהּ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְגִלְּחָה אֶת־רֹאשָׁהּ וְעָשְׂתָה אֶת־צִפָּרְנֶיהָ׃ 21.13. וְהֵסִירָה אֶת־שִׂמְלַת שִׁבְיָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וְיָשְׁבָה בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבָכְתָה אֶת־אָבִיהָ וְאֶת־אִמָּהּ יֶרַח יָמִים וְאַחַר כֵּן תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיהָ וּבְעַלְתָּהּ וְהָיְתָה לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 21.14. וְהָיָה אִם־לֹא חָפַצְתָּ בָּהּ וְשִׁלַּחְתָּהּ לְנַפְשָׁהּ וּמָכֹר לֹא־תִמְכְּרֶנָּה בַּכָּסֶף לֹא־תִתְעַמֵּר בָּהּ תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר עִנִּיתָהּ׃
31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
32.7. זְכֹר יְמוֹת עוֹלָם בִּינוּ שְׁנוֹת דּוֹר־וָדוֹר שְׁאַל אָבִיךָ וְיַגֵּדְךָ זְקֵנֶיךָ וְיֹאמְרוּ לָךְ׃ 32.8. בְּהַנְחֵל עֶלְיוֹן גּוֹיִם בְּהַפְרִידוֹ בְּנֵי אָדָם יַצֵּב גְּבֻלֹת עַמִּים לְמִסְפַּר בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 32.9. כִּי חֵלֶק יְהֹוָה עַמּוֹ יַעֲקֹב חֶבֶל נַחֲלָתוֹ׃
32.15. וַיִּשְׁמַן יְשֻׁרוּן וַיִּבְעָט שָׁמַנְתָּ עָבִיתָ כָּשִׂיתָ וַיִּטֹּשׁ אֱלוֹהַ עָשָׂהוּ וַיְנַבֵּל צוּר יְשֻׁעָתוֹ׃''. None
16.21. Thou shalt not plant thee an Asherah of any kind of tree beside the altar of the LORD thy God, which thou shalt make thee.
17.15. thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose; one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee; thou mayest not put a foreigner over thee, who is not thy brother.
20.6. And what man is there that hath planted a vineyard, and hath not used the fruit thereof? let him go and return unto his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man use the fruit thereof.
21.10. When thou goest forth to battle against thine enemies, and the LORD thy God delivereth them into thy hands, and thou carriest them away captive, 21.11. and seest among the captives a woman of goodly form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife; 21.12. then thou shalt bring her home to thy house; and she shall shave her head, and pare her nails; 21.13. and she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month; and after that thou mayest go in unto her, and be her husband, and she shall be thy wife. 21.14. And it shall be, if thou have no delight in her, then thou shalt let her go whither she will; but thou shalt not sell her at all for money, thou shalt not deal with her as a slave, because thou hast humbled her.
31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
32.7. Remember the days of old, Consider the years of many generations; Ask thy father, and he will declare unto thee, Thine elders, and they will tell thee. 32.8. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the children of men, He set the borders of the peoples according to the number of the children of Israel. 32.9. For the portion of the LORD is His people, Jacob the lot of His inheritance.
32.15. But Jeshurun waxed fat, and kicked— Thou didst wax fat, thou didst grow thick, thou didst become gross— And he forsook God who made him, And contemned the Rock of his salvation.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.15, 15.1, 15.3, 15.17-15.18, 16.4, 16.7-16.10, 20.20, 27.2, 27.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dura Europos synagogue, depiction of biblical figures in • Gideon son of Joash (Biblical Figure) • Judith, symbolic figure • Samuel (biblical figure) • allegory, figurative • exemplary figures • figures of speech, apostrophe • figures of speech, synonyms • intermarriage, biblical figures • male lover, as figure of God • mediatory figures

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94; Brooke et al (2008) 31, 340; Estes (2020) 206; Geljon and Runia (2013) 172; Geljon and Runia (2019) 86, 223; Gera (2014) 286, 313, 317, 452; Gruen (2020) 116; Kosman (2012) 171; Levine (2005) 356; Lieber (2014) 75

2.15. וַיִּשְׁמַע פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְבַקֵּשׁ לַהֲרֹג אֶת־מֹשֶׁה וַיִּבְרַח מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־מִדְיָן וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הַבְּאֵר׃
15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃
15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃
15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃

15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃
15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃
16.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃
16.7. וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו תַלִּינוּ עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃' '
27.2. וְאַתָּה תְּצַוֶּה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִקְחוּ אֵלֶיךָ שֶׁמֶן זַיִת זָךְ כָּתִית לַמָּאוֹר לְהַעֲלֹת נֵר תָּמִיד׃
27.2. וְעָשִׂיתָ קַרְנֹתָיו עַל אַרְבַּע פִּנֹּתָיו מִמֶּנּוּ תִּהְיֶיןָ קַרְנֹתָיו וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת׃''. None
2.15. Now when Pharaoh heard this thing, he sought to slay Moses. But Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh, and dwelt in the land of Midian; and he sat down by a well.
15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.
15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name.

15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established.
15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.
16.4. Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not.
16.7. and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’ 16.8. And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’ 16.9. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’ 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
20.20. Ye shall not make with Me—gods of silver, or gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you.
27.2. And thou shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof; the horns thereof shall be of one piece with it; and thou shalt overlay it with brass.

27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7, 4.2, 5.24, 9.20, 28.10-28.21, 32.25, 49.8-49.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Figures • Bible, literal and figurative interpretation of • Demetrius, Chronographer, Patriarchs as historical figures • Hecataeus of Abdera, Mythical figures • Homer, Odysseus, figure, character • Jesus, as secondary figure • Judah (biblical figure) • Judas, as Abraham-like figure • Religion (Minoan), images of figures sleeping on stones • Samuel (biblical figure) • biblical figures • figures of speech • figures of speech, apostrophe • figures of speech, asyndeton • figures of speech, chiasmus • figures of speech, fictional opponent • figures of speech, hendiadys • figures of speech, metaphor • figures of speech, oxymoron • figures of speech, paradox • figures of speech, personification • figures of speech, polysyndeton • figures of speech, rhetorical question • figures of speech, sententia • figures of speech, synonyms • figures of speech, tricolon • idolatry, figured as adultery • laws, biblical figures as • male lover, as figure of God • symbolic interpretation, of biblical figures

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 7; Geljon and Runia (2013) 25, 32, 39, 96, 110, 111, 113, 114, 118, 125, 126, 130, 133, 137, 142, 143, 158, 159, 160, 168, 169, 171, 172, 178, 180, 183, 193, 200, 201, 203, 211, 218, 230, 238, 239, 247, 249, 251, 255, 263; Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 86, 94, 122, 143, 176, 192, 207; Levine (2005) 254; Lieber (2014) 75, 335, 358; Najman (2010) 63; O, Daly (2020) 208; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 18; Renberg (2017) 70; Scopello (2008) 118; Sneed (2022) 96; Toloni (2022) 196, 209

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
4.2. וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה אֶת־יָבָל הוּא הָיָה אֲבִי יֹשֵׁב אֹהֶל וּמִקְנֶה׃
4.2. וַתֹּסֶף לָלֶדֶת אֶת־אָחִיו אֶת־הָבֶל וַיְהִי־הֶבֶל רֹעֵה צֹאן וְקַיִן הָיָה עֹבֵד אֲדָמָה׃
5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃' '28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.13. וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.14. וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 28.19. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית־אֵל וְאוּלָם לוּז שֵׁם־הָעִיר לָרִאשֹׁנָה׃ 28.21. וְשַׁבְתִּי בְשָׁלוֹם אֶל־בֵּית אָבִי וְהָיָה יְהוָה לִי לֵאלֹהִים׃
32.25. וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃
49.8. יְהוּדָה אַתָּה יוֹדוּךָ אַחֶיךָ יָדְךָ בְּעֹרֶף אֹיְבֶיךָ יִשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לְךָ בְּנֵי אָבִיךָ׃ 49.9. גּוּר אַרְיֵה יְהוּדָה מִטֶּרֶף בְּנִי עָלִיתָ כָּרַע רָבַץ כְּאַרְיֵה וּכְלָבִיא מִי יְקִימֶנּוּ׃''. None
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
4.2. And again she bore his brother Abel. And Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground.
5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.
28.10. And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran. 28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep. 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. 28.13. And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed. 28.14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’ 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’ 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’ 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 28.19. And he called the name of that place Beth-el, but the name of the city was Luz at the first. 28.20. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying: ‘If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, 28.21. o that I come back to my father’s house in peace, then shall the LORD be my God,
32.25. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day.
49.8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; Thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies; Thy father’s sons shall bow down before thee. 49.9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, thou art gone up. He stooped down, he couched as a lion, And as a lioness; who shall rouse him up? 49.10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, As long as men come to Shiloh; And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.' '. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.4, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • figures of speech, paradox • figures of speech, synonyms • figures of speech, tricolon • laws, biblical figures as • symbolic interpretation, of biblical figures

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 7; Boulluec (2022) 458; Geljon and Runia (2013) 230; Geljon and Runia (2019) 25, 239, 244, 247, 248

11.4. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃
11.4. וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
19.24. וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃''. None
11.4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.
19.24. And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 17.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Figures • exemplary figures

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 303; Najman (2010) 140

17.13. וַיַּעֲמֹד בֵּין־הַמֵּתִים וּבֵין הַחַיִּים וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה׃''. None
17.13. And he stood between the dead and the living; and the plague was stayed.''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 3.18, 7.12-7.13, 27.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Daniel, figure of • Figs • Figs, parable of the sprouting of • Prophets, Jewish, figures in • allegory, figurative • educational metaphor, fig tree • figures (literary)

 Found in books: Damm (2018) 48; Estes (2020) 206; Gera (2014) 289; Hasan Rokem (2003) 131; Hirshman (2009) 59

3.18. עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃
7.12. פַּעַם בַּחוּץ פַּעַם בָּרְחֹבוֹת וְאֵצֶל כָּל־פִּנָּה תֶאֱרֹב׃ 7.13. וְהֶחֱזִיקָה בּוֹ וְנָשְׁקָה־לּוֹ הֵעֵזָה פָנֶיהָ וַתֹּאמַר לוֹ׃
27.18. נֹצֵר תְּאֵנָה יֹאכַל פִּרְיָהּ וְשֹׁמֵר אֲדֹנָיו יְכֻבָּד׃''. None
3.18. She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast.
7.12. Now she is in the streets, now in the broad places, And lieth in wait at every corner. 7.13. So she caught him, and kissed him, And with an impudent face she said unto him:
27.18. Whoso keepeth the fig-tree shall eat the fruit thereof; And he that waiteth on his master shall be honoured.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 73.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • figurative language

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 511, 512; James (2021) 138, 139

73.14. וָאֱהִי נָגוּעַ כָּל־הַיּוֹם וְתוֹכַחְתִּי לַבְּקָרִים׃''. None
73.14. For all the day have I been plagued, And my chastisement came every morning.''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 18.4 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • exemplary figures • seals, figural art

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 298; Levine (2005) 225

18.4. הוּא הֵסִיר אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת וְשִׁבַּר אֶת־הַמַּצֵּבֹת וְכָרַת אֶת־הָאֲשֵׁרָה וְכִתַּת נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה מֹשֶׁה כִּי עַד־הַיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה הָיוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְקַטְּרִים לוֹ וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ נְחֻשְׁתָּן׃''. None
18.4. He removed the high places, and broke the pillars, and cut down the Asherah; and he broke in pieces the brazen serpent that Moses had made; for unto those days the children of Israel did offer to it; and it was called Nehushtan.''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.9-7.13, 11.2-11.3, 20.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Bible, literal and figurative interpretation of • Daniel, figure of • David (Biblical Figure) • Judith, symbolic figure • intermarriage, biblical figures • mediatory figures

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 31; Gera (2014) 256, 331, 368, 473; Gruen (2020) 117; Kosman (2012) 74; O, Daly (2020) 209

7.9. וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃' '7.11. וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃ 7.12. כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃ 7.13. הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃
11.2. וְהָיָה אִם־תַּעֲלֶה חֲמַת הַמֶּלֶךְ וְאָמַר לְךָ מַדּוּעַ נִגַּשְׁתֶּם אֶל־הָעִיר לְהִלָּחֵם הֲלוֹא יְדַעְתֶּם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יֹרוּ מֵעַל הַחוֹמָה׃
11.2. וַיְהִי לְעֵת הָעֶרֶב וַיָּקָם דָּוִד מֵעַל מִשְׁכָּבוֹ וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ עַל־גַּג בֵּית־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיַּרְא אִשָּׁה רֹחֶצֶת מֵעַל הַגָּג וְהָאִשָּׁה טוֹבַת מַרְאֶה מְאֹד׃ 11.3. וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיִּדְרֹשׁ לָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר הֲלוֹא־זֹאת בַּת־שֶׁבַע בַּת־אֱלִיעָם אֵשֶׁת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי׃
20.3. וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקַּח הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת עֶשֶׂר־נָשִׁים פִּלַגְשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הִנִּיחַ לִשְׁמֹר הַבַּיִת וַיִּתְּנֵם בֵּית־מִשְׁמֶרֶת וַיְכַלְכְּלֵם וַאֲלֵיהֶם לֹא־בָא וַתִּהְיֶינָה צְרֻרוֹת עַד־יוֹם מֻתָן אַלְמְנוּת חַיּוּת׃''. None
7.9. and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth. 7.10. Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning, 7.11. and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house. 7.12. And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. 7.13. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever.
11.2. And it came to pass one evening, that David arose from his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king’s house: and from the roof he saw a woman bathing; and the woman was very fair to look upon. 11.3. And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bat-sheva, the daughter of Eli῾am, the wife of Uriyya the Ĥittite?
20.3. And David came to his house at Yerushalayim, and the king took the ten women his concubines, whom he had left to keep the house, and put them under guard, and provided for them, but went not in to them. So they were shut up to the day of their death, widows of a living husband.''. None
11. Hesiod, Works And Days, 203-212 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Georgic poet and Caesar (Octavian),, and other poet figures • Georgic poet, as Iron Age figure • Georgic poet, as isolated figure • Orpheus,, as isolated and regressive figure • hydriai, red-figure • kylikes, red-figure

 Found in books: Perkell (1989) 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 85, 86, 130, 131, 134, 148; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 129

203. ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον'204. ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205. ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206. μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 207. δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208. τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 209. δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210. ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211. νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212. ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. '. None
203. The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim'204. With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205. Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206. And voice, adoring villainy, and then 207. Into Olympus from the endless space 208. Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 209. Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210. And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211. For men: against all evil there shall be 212. No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know '. None
12. Homer, Iliad, 18.535, 23.73 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Titus Albucius, contrasted with author-figure • Titus Albucius, toady, figure of • eidôla,, as life-like figures • eidôla,, small winged figures • grave figures • lekythoi, ceramic, black-figure, with eidôla • robes, figured

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 209; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 148; Steiner (2001) 6; Yona (2018) 197, 198

18.535. ἐν δʼ Ἔρις ἐν δὲ Κυδοιμὸς ὁμίλεον, ἐν δʼ ὀλοὴ Κήρ,
23.73. οὐδέ μέ πω μίσγεσθαι ὑπὲρ ποταμοῖο ἐῶσιν,''. None
18.535. And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought;
23.73. Not in my life wast thou unmindful of me, but now in my death! Bury me with all speed, that I pass within the gates of Hades. Afar do the spirits keep me aloof, the phantoms of men that have done with toils, neither suffer they me to join myself to them beyond the River, but vainly I wander through the wide-gated house of Hades. ''. None
13. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Figural reading, Pauline • Figures, Dantes use of • Figures, Tertullians use of • Tertullian, use of figura • female lover, as figure of Israel • male lover, as figure of God

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 107; Lieber (2014) 110

14. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 36.26 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses (Biblical Figure) • figuration

 Found in books: Kosman (2012) 139; Lynskey (2021) 152

36.26. וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב חָדָשׁ וְרוּחַ חֲדָשָׁה אֶתֵּן בְּקִרְבְּכֶם וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־לֵב הָאֶבֶן מִבְּשַׂרְכֶם וְנָתַתִּי לָכֶם לֵב בָּשָׂר׃''. None
36.26. A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you; and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh.''. None
15. Euripides, Ion, 1144-1145 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in the figurative arts • robes, figured

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 145; Edmondson (2008) 209

1144. ἀνάθημα Δίου παιδός, οὓς ̔Ηρακλέης'1145. ̓Αμαζόνων σκυλεύματ' ἤνεγκεν θεῷ." '". None
1144. intending to invite all Delphi to the feast. Then from the temple-treasury tapestry he took and therewith made a shelter, wondrous sight to see. First o’er the roof-tree he threw a canopy of robes, an offering Heracles, the son of Zeus,'1145. had brought unto the god from his Amazonian spoils. On them was broidered many a pictured scene, to wit, Heaven marshalling his host of stars upon the vaulted sky; there was the sun-god urging on his steeds toward his fiery goal, the bright star of evening at his heels. '. None
16. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 3.10, 9.1, 9.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Esau, figure for enemies of Israel • Exegesis, figurative • Figs • Figs, parable of the sprouting of • mediatory figures • messianic figure

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 130; Boulluec (2022) 532; Brooke et al (2008) 65; Hasan Rokem (2003) 131; Lieber (2014) 314

9.1. וְהִכְרַתִּי־רֶכֶב מֵאֶפְרַיִם וְסוּס מִירוּשָׁלִַם וְנִכְרְתָה קֶשֶׁת מִלְחָמָה וְדִבֶּר שָׁלוֹם לַגּוֹיִם וּמָשְׁלוֹ מִיָּם עַד־יָם וּמִנָּהָר עַד־אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ׃'
9.1. מַשָּׂא דְבַר־יְהוָה בְּאֶרֶץ חַדְרָךְ וְדַמֶּשֶׂק מְנֻחָתוֹ כִּי לַיהוָה עֵין אָדָם וְכֹל שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ '. None
3.10. In that day, saith the LORD of hosts, shall ye call every man his neighbour under the vine and under the fig-tree.
9.1. The burden of the word of the LORD. In the land of Hadrach, And in Damascus shall be His resting-place; For the LORD’S is the eye of man And all the tribes of Israel.

9.10. And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, And the horse from Jerusalem, And the battle bow shall be cut off, And he shall speak peace unto the nations; And his dominion shall be from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth.''. None
17. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 1.22.4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Physician, figure of • Thucydides, fundamental figure in Herodotean reception

 Found in books: Kirkland (2022) 1, 2, 3; Petridou (2016) 67

1.22.4. καὶ ἐς μὲν ἀκρόασιν ἴσως τὸ μὴ μυθῶδες αὐτῶν ἀτερπέστερον φανεῖται: ὅσοι δὲ βουλήσονται τῶν τε γενομένων τὸ σαφὲς σκοπεῖν καὶ τῶν μελλόντων ποτὲ αὖθις κατὰ τὸ ἀνθρώπινον τοιούτων καὶ παραπλησίων ἔσεσθαι, ὠφέλιμα κρίνειν αὐτὰ ἀρκούντως ἕξει. κτῆμά τε ἐς αἰεὶ μᾶλλον ἢ ἀγώνισμα ἐς τὸ παραχρῆμα ἀκούειν ξύγκειται.''. None
1.22.4. The absence of romance in my history will, I fear, detract somewhat from its interest; but if it be judged useful by those inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the interpretation of the future, which in the course of human things must resemble if it does not reflect it, I shall be content. In fine, I have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time. ''. None
18. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Helper figures, in comedy • trickster (figure)

 Found in books: Meister (2019) 155; Riess (2012) 309

19. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gorgianic figures

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 292; König and Wiater (2022) 292

20. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.8-1.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Daniel, figure of • figs

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 75, 267, 369; McGowan (1999) 85

1.8. וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃ 1.9. וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃' '1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃ 1.12. נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃ 1.13. וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃ 1.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃ 1.15. וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃ 1.16. וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃''. None
1.8. But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself. 1.9. And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers. 1.10. And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’ 1.11. Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah: 1.12. ’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink. 1.13. Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’ 1.14. So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days. 1.15. And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food. 1.16. So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse.''. None
21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gorgianic figures

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 310; König and Wiater (2022) 310

22. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 20 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • figures of speech, tricolon • laws, biblical figures as

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2; Geljon and Runia (2019) 239

20. and I will explain each kind as well as I can. VI. And first of all, I will speak of those which rather resemble heads of laws, of which in the first place one must at once admire the number, inasmuch as they are completed in the perfect number of the decade, which contains every variety of number, both those which are even, and those which are odd, and those which are even-odd; the even numbers being such as two, the odd numbers such as three, the even-odd such as five, it also comprehends all the varieties of the multiplication of numbers, and of those numbers which contain a whole number and a fraction, and of those which contain several fractional parts; ''. None
23. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 23, 47, 154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory, figurative • figures of speech, asyndeton • figures of speech, synonyms • figures of speech, tricolon • laws, biblical figures as • symbolic interpretation, of biblical figures

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2; Estes (2020) 198; Geljon and Runia (2013) 251; Geljon and Runia (2019) 149, 153, 206, 239

23. And God, not being urged on by any prompter (for who else could there have been to prompt him?) but guided by his own sole will, decided that it was fitting to benefit with unlimited and abundant favours a nature which, without the divine gift, was unable to itself to partake of any good thing; but he benefits it, not according to the greatness of his own graces, for they are illimitable and eternal, but according to the power of that which is benefited to receive his graces. For the capacity of that which is created to receive benefits does not correspond to the natural power of God to confer them; since his powers are infinitely greater, and the thing created being not sufficiently powerful to receive all their greatness would have sunk under it, if he had not measured his bounty, allotting to each, in due proportion, that which was poured upon it.
47. This is the cause why the earth bore fruit and herbs before God proceeded to adorn the heaven. And next the heaven was embellished in the perfect number four, and if any one were to pronounce this number the origin and source of the all-perfect decade he would not err. For what the decade is in actuality, that the number four, as it seems, is in potentiality, at all events if the numerals from the unit to Four are placed together in order, they will make ten, which is the limit of the number of immensity, around which the numbers wheel and turn as around a goal.
154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV. ''. None
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.73 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • intermarriage, biblical figures • laws, biblical figures as

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2; Gruen (2020) 155

2.73. For while it does not permit them to lend on usury to their fellow countrymen, it has allowed them to receive interest from foreigners; calling the former, with great felicity of expression, their brothers, in order to prevent any one's grudging to give of his possessions to those who are as if by nature joint inheritors with themselves; but those who are not their fellow countrymen are called strangers, as is very natural. For the being a stranger shows that a person has no right to a participation in any thing, unless, indeed, any one out of an excess of virtue should treat even those in the conditions of strangers as kindred and related, from having been bred up under a virtuous state of things, and under virtuous laws which look upon what is virtuous alone as good. "". None
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 195-196, 223-225 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • intermarriage, biblical figures • laws, biblical figures as

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2; Gruen (2020) 155

195. On which account, I imagine, that nobility herself, if God were to invest her with the form and organs of a man, would stand before those obstinate and unworthy descendants and speak thus: "Relationship is not measured by blood alone, where truth is the judge, but by a similarity of actions, and by a careful imitation of the conduct of your ancestors. But you have pursued an opposite line of conduct, thinking hateful such actions as are dear to me, and loving such deeds as are hateful to me; for in my eyes modesty, and truth, and moderation, and a due government of the passions, and simplicity, and innocence, are honourable, but in your opinion they are dishonourable; and to me all shameless behaviour is hateful, and all falsehood, and all immoderate indulgence of the passions, and all pride, and all wickedness. But you look upon these things as near and dear to you. '196. Why, then, do you, when by your actions you show all possible eagerness to alienate yourselves from them, sheltering yourselves under a plausible name, hypocritically pretend in words to a relationship? For I cannot endure seductive insinuations falsely put on, or any deceit; because it is easy for any persons to find out specious arguments, but it is not easy to change an evil disposition into a good one.
223. but her handmaidens were born of parents who lived on the other side of the Euphrates on the extremities of the country of Babylon, such as were given as part of their dowry to maidens of high rank when they were married, but still were often thought worthy to be taken to the bed of a wise man; and so they first of all were raised from the title of concubines to the name and dignity of wives, and in a short time, I may almost say, instead of being looked upon as handmaidens they were raised to an equality in point of dignity and consideration with their mistresses, and, which is the most extraordinary circumstance of all, were even invited by their mistresses to this position and dignity. For envy does not dwell in the souls of the wise, and whenever that is not present they all have all things in common. 224. And the illegitimate sons borne by those handmaidens differed in no respect from the legitimate children of the real wives, not only in the eyes of the father who begot them, for it is not at all surprising if he who was the father of them all displayed an equal degree of good-will to them all, since they were all equally his children; but they also were equally esteemed by their stepmothers. For they, laying aside all that dislike which women so commonly feel towards their stepsons, changed it into an unceasing affection with which they united themselves to them. 225. And the stepsons, showing a reciprocal good will to them, honoured their stepmothers as if they had been their natural mothers. And their brothers, being separated from them only by the mixture in their blood, nevertheless did not think them worthy of only a half degree of affection, but even increased their feelings so that they entertained a twofold degree of love for them, being equally beloved by them in return; and thus more than filled up what might else have appeared likely to be deficient, showing an eagerness to exhibit the same harmony and union of disposition with them that they did with their brethren by both parents. XLI. '. None
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.30 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • figures of speech, fictional opponent • laws, biblical figures as

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 2; Geljon and Runia (2013) 159

1.30. Therefore men in general, even if the slightest breeze of prosperity does only blow their way for a moment, become puffed up and give themselves great airs, becoming insolent to all those who are in a lower condition than themselves, and calling them dregs of the earth, and annoyances, and sources of trouble, and burdens of the earth, and all sorts of names of that kind, as if they had been thoroughly able to establish the undeviating character of their prosperity on a solid foundation, though, very likely, they will not remain in the same condition even till tomorrow, ''. None
27. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 140, 178, 228 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • figures of speech, hyperbole • figures of speech, metaphor • figures of speech, rhetorical question • figures of speech, tautology • figures of speech, tricolon

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 218; Geljon and Runia (2019) 97, 102, 241

140. Let good men, then, by all means having received joy and hope for their blessed inheritance, either possess or expect good things: but let bad men, of whom Cain is a companion, living in fear and pain, reap a harvest of a most bitter portion, namely, either the presence or the expectation of evils, groaning over the miseries which are actually oppressing them, and trembling and shuddering at the expected fearful dangers. XXXIX. '
178. Or may we not suppose that this mark was set upon Cain to prevent his being slain, as a token that he would never be destroyed? For he has never once mentioned his death in the whole of the law, showing enigmatically that, like that fabulous monster Scylla, so also folly is an undying evil, which never entirely perishes, and yet which as to its capability of dying receives all time, and is never wholly free from death. And I would that the opposite event might happen, that all evils might be utterly eradicated, and might endure total destruction; but as it is they are constantly budding forth, and inflict an incurable disease on all who are once infected by them.Troubles in essay writing? Check out
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.18-1.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dura Europos synagogue, depiction of biblical figures in • mediatory figures

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94; Brooke et al (2008) 132, 146

1.18. ̓Επειδὴ δὲ πάντα σχεδὸν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νομοθέτου σοφίας ἡμῖν ἀνήρτηται Μωυσέος, ἀνάγκη μοι βραχέα περὶ ἐκείνου προειπεῖν, ὅπως μή τινες τῶν ἀναγνωσομένων διαπορῶσι, πόθεν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος περὶ νόμων καὶ πράξεων ἔχων τὴν ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον φυσιολογίας κεκοινώνηκεν.
1.18. ἔνθα ὁ τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως, ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα.' "1.19. ἰστέον οὖν, ὅτι πάντων ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκαιότατον ἡγήσατο τῷ καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μέλλοντι βίον οἰκονομήσειν καλῶς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις νομοθετεῖν θεοῦ πρῶτον φύσιν κατανοῆσαι καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐκείνου θεατὴν τῷ νῷ γενόμενον οὕτως παράδειγμα τὸ πάντων ἄριστον μιμεῖσθαι καθ' ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ πειρᾶσθαι κατακολουθεῖν." "1.19. παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι, νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος. τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε: τίκτει δὲ μετ' οὐ πολὺ ̓Ισμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι, διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας." "1.21. παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν, παρ' αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο." '1.21. τοῦτο δὴ παιδεῦσαι βουληθεὶς Μωυσῆς τὸ παίδευμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ πολίτας τῆς τῶν νόμων θέσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ συμβολαίων καὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους δικαίων ἤρξατο τοῖς ἄλλοις παραπλησίως, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευὴν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἀναγαγὼν καὶ πείσας, ὅτι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἔργων τοῦ θεοῦ κάλλιστόν ἐσμεν ἄνθρωποι, ὅτε πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν ἔσχεν ὑπακούοντας, ῥᾳδίως ἤδη περὶ πάντων ἔπειθεν." "1.22. ̓Ανδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον, ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ἐξ οὗ παῖδες ̓Ισμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες, Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος ̓Αβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος ̓Ιδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος ̓Ιετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος.' "1.22. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι νομοθέται τοῖς μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων εἰς τοὺς θεοὺς τῷ λόγῳ τὴν αἰσχύνην μετέθεσαν καὶ πολλὴν ὑποτίμησιν τοῖς πονηροῖς ἔδωκαν: 1.23. ἐπεὶ δ' ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος, ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν, ἃ συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις, ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου," "1.23. ὁ δ' ἡμέτερος νομοθέτης ἀκραιφνῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντα τὸν θεὸν ἀποφήνας ᾠήθη δεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐκείνης πειρᾶσθαι μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὴ ταῦτα φρονοῦντας μηδὲ μὴν πιστεύοντας ἀπαραιτήτως ἐκόλασε." "1.24. μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ ̓Αλέξανδρος ὁ πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως: “Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ ̓Ιουδαίων, καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας ̔Αβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί.' 1.24. πρὸς ταύτην οὖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξέτασιν τοὺς ἀναγνωσομένους παρακαλῶ: φανεῖται γὰρ σκοπουμένοις οὕτως οὐδὲν οὔτ' ἄλογον αὐτοῖς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν μεγαλειότητα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν ἀνάρμοστον: πάντα γὰρ τῇ τῶν ὅλων φύσει σύμφωνον ἔχει τὴν διάθεσιν, τὰ μὲν αἰνιττομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου δεξιῶς, τὰ δ' ἀλληγοροῦντος μετὰ σεμνότητος, ὅσα δ' ἐξ εὐθείας λέγεσθαι συνέφερε, ταῦτα ῥητῶς ἐμφανίζοντος." ''. None
1.18. 4. But because almost all our constitution depends on the wisdom of Moses, our legislator, I cannot avoid saying somewhat concerning him beforehand, though I shall do it briefly; I mean, because otherwise those that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy.
1.18. where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. 1.19. He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother’s prayer. 1.19. The reader is therefore to know, that Moses deemed it exceeding necessary, that he who would conduct his own life well, and give laws to others, in the first place should consider the divine nature; and, upon the contemplation of God’s operations, should thereby imitate the best of all patterns, so far as it is possible for human nature to do, and to endeavor to follow after it: 1.21. He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. 1.21. Now when Moses was desirous to teach this lesson to his countrymen, he did not begin the establishment of his laws after the same manner that other legislators did; I mean, upon contracts and other rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds upwards to regard God, and his creation of the world; and by persuading them, that we men are the most excellent of the creatures of God upon earth. Now when once he had brought them to submit to religion, he easily persuaded them to submit in all other things: 1.22. 4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. 1.22. for as to other legislators, they followed fables, and by their discourses transferred the most reproachful of human vices unto the gods, and so afforded wicked men the most plausible excuses for their crimes; 1.23. Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, 1.23. but as for our legislator, when he had once demonstrated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it; and on those who did not so think, and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishments. 1.24. And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: “Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah:' 1.24. I exhort, therefore, my readers to examine this whole undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them, that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind; for all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe; while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly. '. None
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.201-5.206, 5.212-5.214 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham (biblical figure), mosaic motif • laws, biblical figures as • mediatory figures

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 62; Brooke et al (2008) 146; Levine (2005) 61

5.201. Τῶν δὲ πυλῶν αἱ μὲν ἐννέα χρυσῷ καὶ ἀργύρῳ κεκαλυμμέναι πανταχόθεν ἦσαν ὁμοίως τε αἵ τε παραστάδες καὶ τὰ ὑπέρθυρα, μία δ' ἡ ἔξωθεν τοῦ νεὼ Κορινθίου χαλκοῦ πολὺ τῇ τιμῇ τὰς καταργύρους καὶ περιχρύσους ὑπεράγουσα." '5.202. καὶ δύο μὲν ἑκάστου πυλῶνος θύραι, τριάκοντα δὲ πηχῶν τὸ ὕψος ἑκάστης καὶ τὸ πλάτος ἦν πεντεκαίδεκα.' "5.203. μετὰ μέντοι τὰς εἰσόδους ἐνδοτέρω πλατυνόμενοι παρ' ἑκάτερον τριακονταπήχεις ἐξέδρας εἶχον εὖρός τε καὶ μῆκος πυργοειδεῖς, ὑψηλὰς δ' ὑπὲρ τεσσαράκοντα πήχεις: δύο δ' ἀνεῖχον ἑκάστην κίονες δώδεκα πηχῶν τὴν περιοχὴν ἔχοντες." "5.204. καὶ τῶν μὲν ἄλλων ἴσον ἦν τὸ μέγεθος, ἡ δ' ὑπὲρ τὴν Κορινθίαν ἀπὸ τῆς γυναικωνίτιδος ἐξ ἀνατολῆς ἀνοιγομένη τῆς τοῦ ναοῦ πύλης ἀντικρὺ πολὺ μείζων:" '5.205. πεντήκοντα γὰρ πηχῶν οὖσα τὴν ἀνάστασιν τεσσαρακονταπήχεις τὰς θύρας εἶχε καὶ τὸν κόσμον πολυτελέστερον ἐπὶ δαψιλὲς πάχος ἀργύρου τε καὶ χρυσοῦ. τοῦτον δὲ ταῖς ἐννέα πύλαις ἐπέχεεν ὁ Τιβερίου πατὴρ ̓Αλέξανδρος. 5.206. βαθμοὶ δὲ δεκαπέντε πρὸς τὴν μείζονα πύλην ἀπὸ τοῦ τῶν γυναικῶν διατειχίσματος ἀνῆγον: τῶν γὰρ κατὰ τὰς ἄλλας πέντε βαθμῶν ἦσαν βραχύτεροι.' "
5.212. πρὸ δὲ τούτων ἰσόμηκες καταπέτασμα πέπλος ἦν Βαβυλώνιος ποικιλτὸς ἐξ ὑακίνθου καὶ βύσσου κόκκου τε καὶ πορφύρας, θαυμαστῶς μὲν εἰργασμένος, οὐκ ἀθεώρητον δὲ τῆς ὕλης τὴν κρᾶσιν ἔχων, ἀλλ' ὥσπερ εἰκόνα τῶν ὅλων:" "5.213. ἐδόκει γὰρ αἰνίττεσθαι τῇ κόκκῳ μὲν τὸ πῦρ, τῇ βύσσῳ δὲ τὴν γῆν, τῇ δ' ὑακίνθῳ τὸν ἀέρα, καὶ τῇ πορφύρᾳ τὴν θάλασσαν, τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς χροίας ὁμοιουμένων, τῆς δὲ βύσσου καὶ τῆς πορφύρας διὰ τὴν γένεσιν, ἐπειδὴ τὴν μὲν ἀναδίδωσιν ἡ γῆ, τὴν δ' ἡ θάλασσα." "5.214. κατεγέγραπτο δ' ὁ πέπλος ἅπασαν τὴν οὐράνιον θεωρίαν πλὴν ζῳδίων."". None
5.201. 3. Now nine of these gates were on every side covered over with gold and silver, as were the jambs of their doors and their lintels; but there was one gate that was without the inward court of the holy house, which was of Corinthian brass, and greatly excelled those that were only covered over with silver and gold. 5.202. Each gate had two doors, whose height was severally thirty cubits, and their breadth fifteen. 5.203. However, they had large spaces within of thirty cubits, and had on each side rooms, and those, both in breadth and in length, built like towers, and their height was above forty cubits. Two pillars did also support these rooms, and were in circumference twelve cubits. 5.204. Now the magnitudes of the other gates were equal one to another; but that over the Corinthian gate, which opened on the east over against the gate of the holy house itself, was much larger; 5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius. 5.206. Now there were fifteen steps, which led away from the wall of the court of the women to this greater gate; whereas those that led thither from the other gates were five steps shorter.
5.212. but before these doors there was a veil of equal largeness with the doors. It was a Babylonian curtain, embroidered with blue, and fine linen, and scarlet, and purple, and of a contexture that was truly wonderful. Nor was this mixture of colors without its mystical interpretation, but was a kind of image of the universe; 5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other. 5.214. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens, excepting that of the twelve signs, representing living creatures.''. None
30. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judas, function of figure of • figura, figure

 Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 202; Scopello (2008) 177

2.5. καὶ αὐτοὶ ὡς λίθοι ζῶντες οἰκοδομεῖσθε οἶκος πνευματικὸς εἰς ἱεράτευμα ἅγιον, ἀνενέγκαι πνευματικὰς θυσίας εὐπροσδέκτους θεῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ·''. None
2.5. You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. ''. None
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.20, 10.11, 12.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adam (biblical figure) • Exegesis, figurative • exegesis, figural • figura, figure • language, symbolic/figural

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 522, 523, 524, 529; Goldhill (2022) 107; Lynskey (2021) 309; Černušková (2016) 91, 109

9.20. καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω·
10.11. ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκεν.
12.12. Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ χριστός·''. None
9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law;
10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come.
12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ.''. None
32. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • figuration

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 532; Lynskey (2021) 282

2.3. μή τις ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατήσῃ κατὰ μηδένα τρόπον· ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ ἔλθῃ ἡ ἀποστασία πρῶτον καὶ ἀποκαλυφθῇ ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας,''. None
2.3. Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not be, unless the falling away comes first, and the man of sin is revealed, the son of destruction, ''. None
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 12.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • Jesus, as secondary figure • Rachel (biblical figure) • contrasted with manhood, overlooked in biblical figures

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 532; Farag (2021) 169, 170; Sneed (2022) 96; Vargas (2021) 28

12.1. Καὶ σημεῖον μέγα ὤφθη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, γυνὴ περιβεβλημένη τὸν ἥλιον, καὶ ἡ σελήνη ὑποκάτω τῶν ποδῶν αὐτῆς, καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτῆς στέφανος ἀστέρων δώδεκα, καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἔχουσα·' '. None
12.1. A great sign was seen in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.' '. None
34. New Testament, James, 2.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judas, as Abraham-like figure • exemplary figures

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 285; Scopello (2008) 118

2.21. Ἀβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, ἀνενέγκας Ἰσαὰκ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον;''. None
2.21. Wasn't Abraham our father justified by works, in that he offered up Isaac his son on the altar? "". None
35. New Testament, Galatians, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • allegory, figurative

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 529; Estes (2020) 207

3.13. Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα, ὅτι γέγραπταιἘπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου,''. None
3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree," ''. None
36. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.3, 4.15, 11.17, 11.28, 11.37-11.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Figurative language • Gorgianic figures • Gorgianic figures, antithesis • Gorgianic figures, parisosis • Jesus, Manichaean figure of • Tabernacle, figural interpretation of • Vision (see also Revelation), figurative use • exemplary figures • figurative language

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 69; Gera (2014) 285; Gray (2021) 127; James (2021) 141, 142; Martin and Whitlark (2018) 207, 210, 217, 218; Richter et al. (2015) 40

1.3. ὃς ὢν ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης καὶ χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ, φέρων τε τὰ πάντα τῷ ῥήματι τῆς δυνάμεως αὐτοῦ, καθαρισμὸν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ποιησάμενοςἐκάθισεν ἐν δεξιᾷτῆς μεγαλωσύνης ἐν ὑψηλοῖς,
4.15. οὐ γὰρ ἔχομεν ἀρχιερέα μὴ δυνάμενον συνπαθῆσαι ταῖς ἀσθενείαις ἡμῶν, πεπειρασμένον δὲ κατὰ πάντα καθʼ ὁμοιότητα χωρὶς ἁμαρτίας.
11.17. Πίστειπροσενήνοχεν Ἀβραὰμ τὸν Ἰσαὰκ πειραζόμενος,καὶ τὸν μονογενῆ προσέφερεν ὁ τὰς ἐπαγγελίας ἀναδεξάμενος, πρὸς ὃν ἐλαλήθη ὅτι
11.28. Πίστει πεποίηκεντὸ πάσχακαὶ τὴν πρόσχυσιντοῦ αἵματος,ἵνα μὴὁ ὀλοθρεύωντὰ πρωτότοκα θίγῃ αὐτῶν. 1
1.37. ἐλιθάσθησαν, ἐπειράσθησαν, ἐπρίσθησαν, ἐν φόνῳ μαχαίρης ἀπέθανον, περιῆλθον ἐν μηλωταῖς, ἐν αἰγίοις δέρμασιν, ὑστερούμενοι, θλιβόμενοι, κακουχούμενοι, 1
1.38. ὧν οὐκ ἦν ἄξιος ὁ κόσμος ἐπὶ ἐρημίαις πλανώμενοι καὶ ὄρεσι καὶ σπηλαίοις καὶ ταῖς ὀπαῖς τῆς γῆς.''. None
1.3. His Son is the radiance of his glory, the very image of his substance, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself made purification for our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; ' "
4.15. For we don't have a high priest who can't be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one who has been in all points tempted like we are, yet without sin. " '
11.17. By faith, Abraham, being tested, offered up Isaac. Yes, he who had gladly received the promises was offering up his one and only son;
11.28. By faith, he kept the Passover, and the sprinkling of the blood, that the destroyer of the firstborn should not touch them. 1
1.37. They were stoned. They were sawn apart. They were tempted. They were slain with the sword. They went around in sheepskins, in goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated 1
1.38. (of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts, mountains, caves, and the holes of the earth. ''. None
37. New Testament, John, 1.7, 1.14-1.18, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • Figural reading, of past occurrences • language, symbolic/figural

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 531; Dawson (2001) 127; Černušková (2016) 91, 289

1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ.
1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔ 1.15. Ἰωάνης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων — οὗτος ἦν ὁ εἰπών — Ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν·̓ 1.16. ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἐλάβομεν, καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος· 1.17. ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωυσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο. 1.18. θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.
14.6. λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ διʼ ἐμοῦ.''. None
1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him.
1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, \'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.\'" 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him.
14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. ''. None
38. New Testament, Luke, 23.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory, figurative • figuration

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 207; Lynskey (2021) 279

23.31. ὅτι εἰ ἐν ὑγρῷ ξύλῳ ταῦτα ποιοῦσιν, ἐν τῷ ξηρῷ τί γένηται;''. None
23.31. For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?"''. None
39. New Testament, Matthew, 13.8, 25.1-25.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athanasius, transitional figure • Bible, literal and figurative interpretation of • Exegesis, figurative • prophetic, figures

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 381; Boulluec (2022) 240; Esler (2000) 1123; O, Daly (2020) 198, 199

13.8. ἄλλα δὲ ἔπεσεν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν τὴν καλὴν καὶ ἐδίδου καρπόν, ὃ μὲν ἑκατὸν ὃ δὲ ἑξήκοντα ὃ δὲ τριάκοντα.
25.1. Τότε ὁμοιωθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν δέκα παρθένοις, αἵτινες λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν τοῦ νυμφίου. 25.2. πέντε δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν μωραὶ καὶ πέντε φρόνιμοι· 25.3. αἱ γὰρ μωραὶ λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔλαβον μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν ἔλαιον· 25.4. αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν. 25.5. χρονίζοντος δὲ τοῦ νυμφίου ἐνύσταξαν πᾶσαι καὶ ἐκάθευδον. 25.6. μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν. 25.7. τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοι ἐκεῖναι καὶ ἐκόσμησαν τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν. 25.8. αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν Δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται. 25.9. ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι Μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς.
25.10. ἀπερχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀγοράσαι ἦλθεν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ αἱ ἕτοιμοι εἰσῆλθον μετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς γάμους, καὶ ἐκλείσθη ἡ θύρα.
25.11. ὕστερον δὲ ἔρχονται καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι λέγουσαι Κύριε κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν·
25.12. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς.''. None
13.8. and others fell on good soil, and yielded fruit: some one hundred times as much, some sixty, and some thirty.
25.1. "Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25.2. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3. Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5. Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. ' "25.6. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' " '25.7. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. ' "25.8. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' " "25.9. But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' " '
25.10. While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. ' "
25.11. Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' " "
25.12. But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' "'. None
40. Plutarch, Cato The Elder, 20.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Contemplation, contemplative figures • Physician, figure of

 Found in books: Petridou (2016) 41; Zanker (1996) 254

20.4. οὐκ ἠξίου δὲ τὸν υἱόν, ὥς φησιν αὐτός, ὑπὸ δούλου κακῶς ἀκούειν ἢ τοῦ ὠτὸς ἀνατείνεσθαι μανθάνοντα βράδιον, οὐδέ γε μαθήματος τηλικούτου τῷ δούλῳ χάριν ὀφείλειν, ἀλλʼ αὐτὸς μὲν ἦν γραμματιστής, αὐτὸς δὲ νομοδιδάκτης, αὐτὸς δὲ γυμναστής, οὐ μόνον ἀκοντίζειν οὐδʼ ὁπλομαχεῖν οὐδʼ ἱππεύειν διδάσκων τὸν υἱόν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ πὺξ παίειν καὶ καῦμα καὶ ψῦχος ἀνέχεσθαι καὶ τὰ δινώδη καὶ τραχύνοντα τοῦ ποταμοῦ διανηχόμενον ἀποβιάζεσθαι.''. None
20.4. ''. None
41. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Petronius, Satyrica, figure of Encolpius • nude female figures

 Found in books: Eidinow (2007) 339; Elsner (2007) 183

42. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.18.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • aniconism,, and the figural • figs,

 Found in books: Gaifman (2012) 135; Marincola et al (2021) 312

1.18.3. πλησίον δὲ πρυτανεῖόν ἐστιν, ἐν ᾧ νόμοι τε οἱ Σόλωνός εἰσι γεγραμμένοι καὶ θεῶν Εἰρήνης ἀγάλματα κεῖται καὶ Ἑστίας, ἀνδριάντες δὲ ἄλλοι τε καὶ Αὐτόλυκος ὁ παγκρατιαστής· τὰς γὰρ Μιλτιάδου καὶ Θεμιστοκλέους εἰκόνας ἐς Ῥωμαῖόν τε ἄνδρα καὶ Θρᾷκα μετέγραψαν.''. None
1.18.3. Hard by is the Prytaneum (Town-hall), in which the laws of Solon are inscribed, and figures are placed of the goddesses Peace and Hestia (Hearth), while among the statues is Autolycus the pancratiast. See Paus. 1.35.6 . For the likenesses of Miltiades and Themistocles have had their titles changed to a Roman and a Thracian.''. None
43. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Figures • breasts, as figure of Sanhedrin

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 150; Najman (2010) 85

3a. חייב בשמחה ואת שאינו לא שומע ולא מדבר ושוטה וקטן פטורין אף מן השמחה הואיל ופטורין מכל מצות האמורות בתורה מאי שנא לענין ראיה דפטירי ומאי שנא לענין שמחה דמחייבי,לענין ראיה גמר ראיה ראיה מהקהל דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף וכתיב (דברים לא, יא) בבא כל ישראל לראות,והתם מנלן דכתיב (דברים לא, יב) למען ישמעו ולמען ילמדו ותניא למען ישמעו פרט למדבר ואינו שומע ולמען ילמדו פרט לשומע ואינו מדבר,למימרא דכי לא משתעי לא גמר והא הנהו תרי אילמי דהוו בשבבותיה דרבי בני ברתיה דרבי יוחנן בן גודגדא ואמרי לה בני אחתיה דרבי יוחנן דכל אימת דהוה עייל רבי לבי מדרשא הוו עיילי ויתבי קמייהו ומניידי ברישייהו ומרחשין שפוותייהו,ובעי רבי רחמי עלייהו ואיתסו ואשתכח דהוו גמירי הלכתא וספרא וספרי וכולה הש"ס,אמר מר זוטרא קרי ביה למען ילמדו רב אשי אמר ודאי למען ילמדו הוא דאי סלקא דעתך למען ילמדו וכיון דלא משתעי לא גמר וכיון דלא שמע לא גמר,האי מלמען ישמעו נפקא אלא ודאי למען ילמדו הוא,אמר ר\' תנחום חרש באזנו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר (דברים לא, יא) באזניהם,והאי באזניהם מבעי ליה באזניהם דכולהו ישראל ההוא מנגד כל ישראל נפקא אי מנגד כל ישראל הוה אמינא אע"ג דלא שמעי כתב רחמנא באזניהם והוא דשמעי,ההוא מלמען ישמעו נפקא,אמר רבי תנחום חיגר ברגלו אחת פטור מן הראיה שנאמר רגלים,והא רגלים מבעי ליה פרט לבעלי קבין ההוא מפעמים נפקא דתניא פעמים אין פעמים אלא רגלים וכן הוא אומר (ישעיהו כו, ו) תרמסנה רגל רגלי עני פעמי דלים ואומר (שיר השירים ז, ב) מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב מה יפו פעמיך בנעלים בת נדיב כמה נאין רגליהן של ישראל בשעה שעולין לרגל בת נדיב בתו של אברהם אבינו שנקרא נדיב שנאמר (תהלים מז, י) נדיבי עמים נאספו עם אלהי אברהם אלהי אברהם ולא אלהי יצחק ויעקב אלא אלהי אברהם שהיה תחילה לגרים,אמר רב כהנא דרש רב נתן בר מניומי משום ר\' תנחום מאי דכתיב (בראשית לז, כד) והבור רק אין בו מים משמע שנאמר והבור רק איני יודע שאין בו מים אלא מים אין בו אבל נחשים ועקרבים יש בו,ת"ר מעשה ברבי יוחנן בן ברוקה ורבי אלעזר (בן) חסמא שהלכו להקביל פני ר\' יהושע בפקיעין אמר להם מה חידוש היה בבית המדרש היום אמרו לו תלמידיך אנו ומימיך אנו שותין אמר להם אף על פי כן אי אפשר לבית המדרש בלא חידוש,שבת של מי היתה שבת של ר\' אלעזר בן עזריה היתה ובמה היתה הגדה היום אמרו לו בפרשת הקהל ומה דרש בה,(דברים לא, יב) הקהל את העם האנשים והנשים והטף אם אנשים באים ללמוד נשים באות לשמוע טף למה באין כדי ליתן שכר למביאיהן אמר להם מרגלית טובה היתה בידכם ובקשתם לאבדה ממני,ועוד דרש (דברים כו, יז) את ה\' האמרת היום וה\' האמירך היום,אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם אתם עשיתוני חטיבה אחת בעולם דכתיב (דברים ו, ד) שמע ישראל ה\' אלהינו ה\' אחד ואני אעשה אתכם חטיבה אחת בעולם שנאמר''. None
3a. they are obligated in rejoicing. And one who does not hear and does not speak, an imbecile, and a minor are all exempt even from rejoicing, since they are exempt from all the mitzvot mentioned in the Torah. The Gemara asks: What is different with regard to the mitzva of appearance, that a deaf person and a mute are exempt from this mitzva? And what is different with regard to the mitzva of rejoicing, that they are obligated?,The Gemara explains: With regard to their exemption from the obligation of appearance, the tanna derives this halakha by means of a verbal analogy between the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of appearance at the Temple on the pilgrim Festival and the term appearance stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly, i.e., the obligation to assemble in the Temple on Sukkot in the year following the Sabbatical Year. As it is written, with regard to the mitzva of assembly: “Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones” (Deuteronomy\xa031:12), and it is written in that context: “When all of Israel come to appear” (Deuteronomy\xa031:11). Just as a deaf person and a mute are not obligated to attend the assembly, they are likewise exempt from appearing in the Temple on the Festivals.,The Gemara asks: And there, with regard to the mitzva of assembly, from where do we derive that a deaf person and a mute are exempt? As it is written there: “That they may hear, and that they may learn” (Deuteronomy 31:12), and it is taught in a baraita that the phrase “that they may hear” excludes one who speaks but does not hear; and the phrase “and that they may learn” excludes one who hears but does not speak, as he is unable to learn.,The Gemara asks: Is that to say that one who is not able to speak is not able to learn? But consider the following incident. There were two mute people who were in the neighborhood of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. They were the sons of the daughter of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda, and some say that they were the sons of the sister of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Gudgeda. Whenever Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would enter the study hall they would also enter and sit before the Sages, and they would nod their heads as if they understood and move their lips.,And Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prayed for God to have mercy upon them, and they were healed. And it was discovered that they had learned and were proficient in halakha, i.e., Mishna; Sifra, the halakhic midrash on Leviticus; Sifrei, the halakhic midrash on Numbers and Deuteronomy; and the entire Talmud. This shows that those who cannot speak are able to learn.,Mar Zutra said that one should read into the verse: That they may teach yelamdu, instead of: “That they may learn yilmedu” (Deuteronomy 31:12). Even if a mute person is able to learn he cannot teach others. Rav Ashi said that the verse is certainly to be read: That they may teach. As, if it enters your mind that one should read: “That they may learn,” as it is written, and you will explain that since he is not able to speak he is not able to learn, and similarly the reason for the exemption of a deaf person is that since he is not able to hear he is not able to learn, you will have erred. According to this interpretation, it is clear from the context that a deaf person is exempted by the phrase: “That they may hear,” not merely due to his lack of hearing but because his inability to hear prevents him from learning.,However, this is incorrect, for if so, this exemption of a mute could also be derived from: “That they may hear,” as the verse has already taught the basic principle that anyone who cannot learn is not obligated in the mitzva of assembly. Rather, the verse is certainly to be read as: “That they may teach,” which indicates that although a mute is able to learn himself, and therefore he is not exempted by the previous verse, he is nevertheless exempt because he is unable to teach others.,Rabbi Tanḥum said: One who is deaf in one ear is exempt from the mitzva of appearance in the Temple, as it is stated with regard to the mitzva of assembly: “When all Israel comes to appear before the Lord your God in the place that He shall choose, you shall read this law before all Israel in their ears” (Deuteronomy\xa031:11). This verse indicates that the obligation of assembly applies only to those who can hear with both ears. Since the two mitzvot are connected by verbal analogy, as explained above, this halakha applies to the mitzva of appearance as well.,The Gemara asks: But this phrase: “In their ears,” is necessary to teach that the reading of the Torah at the assembly must enter the ears of the entire Jewish people. Consequently, it cannot serve as the source of the halakha concerning one who is deaf in one ear. The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the reading of the Torah must be heard by the entire Jewish people, is derived from the phrase: “Before all Israel” (Deuteronomy\xa031:11). The Gemara asks: If that halakha were derived from: “Before all Israel,” I would say that the mitzva applies even though they cannot hear; therefore, the Merciful One writes: “In their ears,” and that indicates that they must be able to hear. If so, this phrase is not available for deriving the halakha of someone who is deaf in one ear.,The Gemara answers: That halakha, that the people must hear, is derived from: “That they may hear” (Deuteronomy\xa031:12). Therefore, the phrase: “In their ears,” is not required for that purpose. Rather, it teaches that only those who can hear with both ears are obligated in the mitzva of assembly, and by extension, in the mitzva of appearance as well.,Rabbi Tanḥum said: One who is lame in one leg is exempt from the mitzva of appearance, as it is stated: “Three times regalim shall you keep a feast for Me in the year” (Exodus 23:14).Since the term for feet is raglayim, it can be inferred from here that the obligation to ascend involves the use of both of one’s legs.,The Gemara asks: But the term regalim” is necessary to exclude people with artificial legs. Although these people are capable of walking, as they do not have two natural legs they are exempt from ascending to the Temple. The Gemara responds: That halakha is derived from: “Three occasions pe’amim in the year all your males will appear before the Lord God” (Exodus\xa023:17). The term pe’amim can also mean legs, as it is taught in a baraita, with regard to the term pe’amim”: Pe’amim means nothing other than legs. And so it says: “The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor and the steps pa’amei of the needy” (Isaiah 26:6), and it says: “How beautiful are your feet fe’amayikh in sandals, daughter of the prince” (Song of Songs 7:2).,With regard to the aforementioned verse, Rava taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “How beautiful are your feet in sandals, daughter of the prince nadiv”? How pleasant are the feet raglehen of the Jewish people when they ascend to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festival regel. “Daughter of the prince”: this is referring to the daughter of Abraham our father who is called a prince, as it is stated: “The princes of the peoples are gathered together, the people of the God of Abraham” (Psalms 47:10). The Gemara asks: Is God only “the God of Abraham,” and not the God of Isaac and Jacob? Rather, the verse mentions “the God of Abraham,” as he was the first of the converts. Abraham was the first prince, as all converts who follow in his path are called “the princes of the peoples.”,The Gemara cites another statement of Rabbi Tanḥum. Rav Kahana said that Rabbi Natan bar Manyumi taught in the name of Rabbi Tanḥum: What is the meaning of that which is written with regard to Joseph: “And they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it” (Genesis 37:24). By inference from that which is stated: “And the pit was empty,” don’t I know that there was no water in it? Rather, this teaches that there was no water in it, but there were snakes and scorpions in it.The Sages taught: There was an incident involving Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma, when they went to greet Rabbi Yehoshua in Peki’in. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: What novel idea was taught today in the study hall? They said to him: We are your students and we drink from your water, i.e., all of our Torah knowledge comes from you, and therefore how can we tell you something you have not already learned? He said to them: Even so, there cannot be a study hall without a novelty.,He asked them: Whose week was it, i.e. who was the lecturer this week? They said to him: It was Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s week. He inquired: And on what subject was the lecture today? They said to him: He spoke about the portion of the mitzva of assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua persisted: And what verse did he interpret homiletically with regard to this mitzva?,They said to him that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya interpreted the following verse: “Assemble the people, the men and the women and the little ones” (Deuteronomy 31:12). This verse is puzzling: If men come to learn, and women, who might not understand, come at least to hear, why do the little ones come? They come in order for God to give a reward to those who bring them, i.e., God credits those who bring their children to the assembly. Rabbi Yehoshua said to them: This good pearl of wisdom was in your hands, and you tried to conceal it from me?,Upon seeing that Rabbi Yehoshua was pleased to hear this idea, Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka and Rabbi Elazar ben Ḥisma said to him: Additionally, Rabbi Elazar interpreted the following verses homiletically: “You have affirmed, this day, that the Lord is your God, and that you will walk in His ways and keep His statutes, His mitzvot, and His ordices, and listen to His voice. And the Lord has affirmed you, this day, to be His treasure, as He promised you, and that you should keep all His mitzvot” (Deuteronomy 26:17–18).,Rabbi Elazar explained: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to the Jewish people: You have made Me a single entity\xa0in the world, as you singled Me out as separate and unique. And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as you will be a treasured nation, chosen by God. You have made Me a single entity in the world, as it is written: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One” (Deuteronomy 6:4). And therefore I will make you a single entity in the world, as it is stated:''. None
44. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 10.22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, figurative • figurative language, contrast with parrhesia

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 532; James (2021) 228

10.22. Wherefore John, endued with prophetic boldness and not terrified at the royal dignity of Herod, nor through fear of death keeping silence in regard to so flagrant a sin, filled with a divine spirit said to Herod, It is not lawful for you to have her; for it is not lawful for you to have the wife of your brother. For Herod having laid hold on John bound him and put him in prison, not daring to slay him outright and to take away the prophetic word from the people; but the wife of the king of Trachonitis - which is a kind of evil opinion and wicked teaching - gave birth to a daughter of the same name, whose movements, seemingly harmonious, pleasing Herod, who was fond of matters connected with birthdays, came the cause of there being no longer a prophetic head among the people. And up to this point I think that the movements of the people of the Jews, which seem to be according to the law, were nothing else than the movements of the daughter of Herodias; but the dancing of Herodias was opposed to that holy dancing with which those who have not danced will be reproached when they hear the words, We piped unto you, and you did not dance. And on birthdays, when the lawless word reigns over them, they dance so that their movements please that word. Some one of those before us has observed what is written in Genesis about the birthday of Pharaoh, and has told that the worthless man who loves things connected with birth keeps birthday festivals; and we, taking this suggestion from him, find in no Scripture that a birthday was kept by a righteous man. For Herod was more unjust than that famous Pharaoh; for by the latter on his birthday feast a chief baker is killed; Genesis 40:20 but by the former, John, than whom no one greater has risen among those born of women, Matthew 11:11 in regard to whom the Saviour says, But for what purpose did ye go out? To see a prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet. Luke 7:26 But thanks be unto God, that, even if the grace of prophecy was taken from the people, a grace greater than all that was poured forth among the Gentiles by our Saviour Jesus Christ, who became free among the dead; for though He were crucified through weakness, yet He lives through the power of God. 2 Corinthians 13:4 Consider also the word in which pure and impure meats are inquired into; but prophecy is despised when it is brought forward in a charger instead of meat. But the Jews have not the head of prophecy, inasmuch as they disown the crown of all prophecy, Christ Jesus; and the prophet is beheaded, because of an oath in a case where the duty was rather to break the oath than to keep the oath; for the charge of rashness in taking an oath and of breaking it because of the rashness is not the same in guilt as the death of a prophet. And not on this account alone is he beheaded, but because of those who sat at meat with him, who preferred that the prophet should be killed rather than live. And they recline at the same table and also feast along with the evil word which reigns over the Jews, who make merry over his birth. At times you may make a graceful application of the passage to those who swear rashly and wish to hold fast oaths which are taken with a view to unlawful deeds, by saying that not every keeping of oaths is seemly, just as the keeping of the oath of Herod was not. And mark, further, that not openly but secretly and in prison does Herod put John to death. For even the present word of the Jews does not openly deny the prophecies, but virtually and in secret denies them, and is convicted of disbelieving them. For as if they believed Moses they would have believed Jesus, John 5:46 so if they had believed the prophets they would have received Him who had been the subject of prophecy. But disbelieving Him they also disbelieve them, and cut off and confine in prison the prophetic word, and hold it dead and divided, and in no way wholesome, since they do not understand it. But we have the whole Jesus, the prophecy concerning Him being fulfilled which said, A bone shall not be broken. ''. None
45. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • demons, as sympathetic figures • holy men, as antagonists of conventional religious and political figures • parallels (to other cultural traditions), syncretistic, Iranian and Jewish mythical figures • rabbis, Babylonian, reading of biblical figures as rabbis

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 420; Kalmin (2014) 96, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123

46. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tabernacle, figural interpretation of • figurative language

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 242; James (2021) 110

47. Strabo, Geography, 9.1.16, 9.2.11, 14.1.41
 Tagged with subjects: • Gorgianic figures • Gorgianic figures (Γοργίεια ϲχήματα) • Mythological figures (excluding Olympian gods and their offspring), Baton • Mythological figures (excluding Olympian gods and their offspring), Tyndaros • figs

 Found in books: Amendola (2022) 71; Bernabe et al (2013) 113; Konig and Wiater (2022) 291, 294; König and Wiater (2022) 291, 294; Renberg (2017) 672

9.1.16. The city itself is a rock situated in a plain and surrounded by dwellings. On the rock is the sacred precinct of Athena, comprising both the old temple of Athena Polias, in which is the lamp that is never quenched, and the Parthenon built by Ictinus, in which is the work in ivory by Pheidias, the Athena. However, if I once began to describe the multitude of things in this city that are lauded and proclaimed far and wide, I fear that I should go too far, and that my work would depart from the purpose I have in view. For the words of Hegesias occur to me: I see the Acropolis, and the mark of the huge trident there. I see Eleusis, and I have become an initiate into its sacred mysteries; yonder is the Leocorium, here is the Theseium; I am unable to point them all out one by one; for Attica is the possession of the gods, who seized it as a sanctuary for themselves, and of the ancestral heroes. So this writer mentioned only one of the significant things on the Acropolis; but Polemon the Periegete wrote four books on the dedicatory offerings on the Acropolis alone. Hegesias is proportionately brief in referring to the other parts of the city and to the country; and though he mentions Eleusis, one of the one hundred and seventy demes (or one hundred and seventy-four, as the number is given), he names none of the others.
9.2.11. Also Mycalessus, a village, is in the Tanagraean territory. It is situated on the road that leads from Thebes to Chalcis; and in the Boeotian dialect it is called Mycalettus. And Harma is likewise in the Tanagraean territory; it is a deserted village near Mycalettus, and received its name from the chariot of Amphiaraus, and is a different place from the Harma in Attica, which is near Phyle, a deme of Attica bordering on Tanagra. Here originated the proverb, when the lightning flashes through Harma; for those who are called the Pythaistae look in the general direction of Harma, in accordance with an oracle, and note any flash of lightning in that direction, and then, when they see the lightning flash, take the offering to Delphi. They would keep watch for three months, for three days and nights each month, from the altar of Zeus Astrapaeus; this altar is within the walls between the Pythium and the Olympium. In regard to the Harma in Boeotia, some say that Amphiaraus fell in the battle out of his chariot near the place where his sanctuary now is, and that the chariot was drawn empty to the place which bears the same name; others say that the chariot of Adrastus, when he was in flight, was smashed to pieces there, but that Adrastus safely escaped on Areion. But Philochorus says that Adrastus was saved by the inhabitants of the village, and that on this account they obtained equal rights of citizenship from the Argives.
14.1.41. Well-known natives of Magnesia are: Hegesias the orator, who, more than any other, initiated the Asiatic style, as it is called, whereby he corrupted the established Attic custom; and Simus the melic poet, he too a man who corrupted the style handed down by the earlier melic poets and introduced the Simoedia, just as that style was corrupted still more by the Lysioedi and the Magoedi, and by Cleomachus the pugilist, who, having fallen in love with a certain cinaedus and with a young female slave who was kept as a prostitute by the cinaedus, imitated the style of dialects and mannerisms that was in vogue among the cinaedi. Sotades was the first man to write the talk of the cinaedi; and then Alexander the Aitolian. But though these two men imitated that talk in mere speech, Lysis accompanied it with song; and so did Simus, who was still earlier than he. As for Anaxenor, the citharoede, the theatres exalted him, but Antony exalted him all he possibly could, since he even appointed him exactor of tribute from four cities, giving him a body.guard of soldiers. Further, his native land greatly increased his honors, having clad him in purple as consecrated to Zeus Sosipolis, as is plainly indicated in his painted image in the market-place. And there is also a bronze statue of him in the theatre, with the inscription,Surely this is a beautiful thing, to listen to a singer such as this man is, like unto the gods in voice. But the engraver, missing his guess, left out the last letter of the second verse, the base of the statue not being wide enough for its inclusion; so that he laid the city open to the charge of ignorance, Because of the ambiguity of the writing, as to whether the last word should be taken as in the nominative case or in the dative; for many write the dative case without the iota, and even reject the ordinary usage as being without natural cause.''. None
48. Vergil, Georgics, 1.24-1.25, 1.40-1.41, 1.125-1.135, 2.483, 3.12-3.16, 3.22, 3.259, 3.291-3.292, 4.116-4.117, 4.125-4.148, 4.325-4.326, 4.399-4.400, 4.443, 4.452, 4.463, 4.469, 4.485-4.493, 4.495, 4.507-4.515, 4.517-4.522, 4.559-4.566
 Tagged with subjects: • Cleopatra VII, faded figure in Statius’ Propempticon • Corycian gardener, as Golden Age figure • Georgic poet and Caesar (Octavian),, and other poet figures • Georgic poet, as Iron Age figure • Georgic poet, as isolated figure • Orpheus,, as isolated and regressive figure • Virgil, as pastoral figure • farmer,, as normative figure of georgic poem • figured speech • robes, figured

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 208, 211, 212; Gale (2000) 55, 183; Manolaraki (2012) 212; Perkell (1989) 19, 20, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 85, 86, 130, 131, 134, 148; Xinyue (2022) 6

1.24. tuque adeo, quem mox quae sint habitura deorum 1.25. concilia, incertum est, urbisne invisere, Caesar,
1.40. da facilem cursum atque audacibus adnue coeptis 1.41. ignarosque viae mecum miseratus agrestis
1.125. Ante Iovem nulli subigebant arva coloni; 1.126. ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 1.127. fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellus 1.128. omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat. 1.129. Ille malum virus serpentibus addidit atris 1.130. praedarique lupos iussit pontumque moveri, 1.131. mellaque decussit foliis ignemque removit 1.132. et passim rivis currentia vina repressit, 1.133. ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis 1.134. paulatim et sulcis frumenti quaereret herbam. 1.135. Ut silicis venis abstrusum excuderet ignem.
2.483. Sin, has ne possim naturae accedere partis,
3.12. primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13. et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14. propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15. Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16. In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit:
3.22. dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas
3.259. durus amor? Nempe abruptis turbata procellis
3.291. sed me Parnasi deserta per ardua dulcis 3.292. raptat amor; iuvat ire iugis, qua nulla priorum
4.116. Atque equidem, extremo ni iam sub fine laborum 4.117. vela traham et terris festinem advertere proram,
4.125. Namque sub Oebaliae memini me turribus arcis, 4.126. qua niger umectat flaventia culta Galaesus, 4.127. Corycium vidisse senem, cui pauca relicti 4.128. iugera ruris erant, nec fertilis illa iuvencis 4.129. nec pecori opportuna seges nec commoda Baccho. 4.130. Hic rarum tamen in dumis olus albaque circum 4.131. lilia verbenasque premens vescumque papaver 4.132. regum aequabat opes animis seraque revertens 4.133. nocte domum dapibus mensas onerabat inemptis. 4.134. Primus vere rosam atque autumno carpere poma, 4.135. et cum tristis hiems etiamnum frigore saxa 4.136. rumperet et glacie cursus frenaret aquarum, 4.137. ille comam mollis iam tondebat hyacinthi 4.138. aestatem increpitans seram Zephyrosque morantes. 4.139. Ergo apibus fetis idem atque examine multo 4.140. primus abundare et spumantia cogere pressis 4.141. mella favis; illi tiliae atque uberrima pinus, 4.142. quotque in flore novo pomis se fertilis arbos 4.143. induerat, totidem autumno matura tenebat. 4.144. Ille etiam seras in versum distulit ulmos 4.145. eduramque pirum et spinos iam pruna ferentes 4.146. iamque ministrantem platanum potantibus umbras. 4.147. Verum haec ipse equidem spatiis exclusus iniquis 4.148. praetereo atque aliis post me memoranda relinquo.
4.325. pulsus amor? quid me caelum sperare iubebas? 4.326. En etiam hunc ipsum vitae mortalis honorem,
4.399. orando flectes; vim duram et vincula capto 4.400. tende; doli circum haec demum frangentur ies.
4.443. Verum ubi nulla fugam reperit fallacia, victus
4.452. et graviter frendens sic fatis ora resolvit.
4.463. atque Getae atque Hebrus et Actias Orithyia.
4.469. ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum
4.485. Iamque pedem referens casus evaserat omnes; 4.486. redditaque Eurydice superas veniebat ad auras, 4.487. pone sequens, namque hanc dederat Proserpina legem, 4.488. cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem, 4.489. ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere manes. 4.490. Restitit Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa 4.491. immemor heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 4.492. effusus labor atque immitis rupta tyranni 4.493. foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis.
4.495. quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
4.507. Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 4.508. rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 4.509. flesse sibi et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris 4.510. mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus; 4.511. qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512. amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513. observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514. flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515. integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet.
4.517. Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518. arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519. lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520. dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres 4.521. inter sacra deum nocturnique orgia Bacchi 4.522. discerptum latos iuvenem sparsere per agros.
4.559. Haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam 4.560. et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 4.561. fulminat Euphraten bello victorque volentes 4.562. per populos dat iura viamque adfectat Olympo. 4.563. Illo Vergilium me tempore dulcis alebat 4.564. Parthenope studiis florentem ignobilis oti, 4.565. carmina qui lusi pastorum audaxque iuventa, 4.566. Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi.''. None
1.24. Minerva, from whose hand the olive sprung; 1.25. And boy-discoverer of the curved plough;
1.40. Before thee, and Tethys win thee to her son 1.41. With all her waves for dower; or as a star' "
1.125. Ye husbandmen; in winter's dust the crop" '1.126. Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127. No tilth makes 2.483. Dance in their tipsy frolic. Furthermore
3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height;' "
3.22. Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell." "
3.259. Ay, therefore 'tis they banish bulls afar" '
3.291. Its rounded breast, and, onward rolled to land 3.292. Falls with prodigious roar among the rocks,
4.116. of peerless front and lit with flashing scales; 4.117. That other, from neglect and squalor foul,
4.125. Symmetric: this the likelier breed; from these, 4.126. When heaven brings round the season, thou shalt strain 4.127. Sweet honey, nor yet so sweet as passing clear,' "4.128. And mellowing on the tongue the wine-god's fire." '4.129. But when the swarms fly aimlessly abroad, 4.130. Disport themselves in heaven and spurn their cells, 4.131. Leaving the hive unwarmed, from such vain play 4.132. Must you refrain their volatile desires,' "4.133. Nor hard the task: tear off the monarchs' wings;" '4.134. While these prove loiterers, none beside will dare 4.135. Mount heaven, or pluck the standards from the camp. 4.136. Let gardens with the breath of saffron flower 4.137. Allure them, and the lord of 4.325. Will nerve them, fill the cells up, tier on tier, 4.326. And weave their granaries from the rifled flowers.
4.399. And more and more the fleeting breeze they take, 4.400. Till, like a shower that pours from summer-clouds,' "
4.443. of Vulcan's idle vigilance and the stealth" '
4.452. Peering above the wave-top, and from far
4.463. A pathway for his footsteps; but the wave
4.469. And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that
4.485. The board with dainties, and set on afresh 4.486. The brimming goblets; with Panchaian fire 4.487. Upleap the altars; then the mother spake, 4.488. “Take beakers of Maconian wine,” she said, 4.489. “Pour we to Ocean.” Ocean, sire of all, 4.490. She worships, and the sister-nymphs who guard 4.491. The hundred forests and the hundred streams;' "4.492. Thrice Vesta's fire with nectar clear she dashed," '4.493. Thrice to the roof-top shot the flame and shone:' "
4.495. “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," '
4.507. And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508. No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509. His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510. With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511. His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512. I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513. When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514. Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515. Whither he hies him weary from the waves,
4.517. But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518. Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519. Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520. To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled, 4.521. And tawny-tufted lioness, or send forth 4.522. A crackling sound of fire, and so shake of
4.559. With a great cry leapt on him, and ere he rose 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless, 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft, 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing, 4.563. Fire and a fearful beast, and flowing stream. 4.564. But when no trickery found a path for flight, 4.565. Baffled at length, to his own shape returned, 4.566. With human lips he spake, “Who bade thee, then,''. None
49. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Figs • ascetics as animal figures

 Found in books: Cain (2016) 230; König (2012) 347

50. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Gorgianic figures

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 309, 310, 311; König and Wiater (2022) 309, 310, 311

51. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Gorgianic figures

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 305, 307; König and Wiater (2022) 305, 307

52. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses (Biblical Figure), spirit of divine inspiration possessed by • breasts, as figure of Moses and Aaron • breasts, as figure of Sanhedrin

 Found in books: Kosman (2012) 147; Lieber (2014) 135, 150

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