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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
determinism/fate Despotis and Lohr (2022) 26, 102, 212, 331, 428, 429, 430, 431, 440, 445, 446
fate Augoustakis (2014) 162, 163, 164
Bay (2022) 60, 113, 170, 198
Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 21, 27, 46, 105, 148
Blidstein (2017) 123
Braund and Most (2004) 220, 246, 249
Del Lucchese (2019) 35, 40, 41, 144, 145, 158, 159, 161, 171, 175, 204, 212
Gagné (2020) 108, 135, 138, 195, 215, 217, 218, 225, 328, 337, 338, 352
Garcia (2021) 8, 31, 54, 113, 132, 163, 197, 203, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 224, 269
Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 59, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405
Gorain (2019) 181, 184, 185, 186, 187
Greensmith (2021) 124
Harte (2017) 259, 260, 263, 264, 274
Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 77, 97, 167, 168
Horkey (2019) 38, 39, 45, 127, 139, 152, 163, 230, 268
Inwood and Warren (2020) 114, 126, 136, 156
Iricinschi et al. (2013) 43
Joosse (2021) 174, 225
Konig and Wiater (2022) 85, 246, 248, 249, 260
König and Wiater (2022) 85, 246, 248, 249, 260
Linjamaa (2019) 42, 43, 86, 87, 136
Long (2006) 147, 149, 161, 162, 165, 166, 170, 176
McDonough (2009) 98, 100, 110, 111, 116, 117, 127, 163
Merz and Tieleman (2012) 1, 16, 17, 20, 33, 35, 37, 131, 165, 177, 194, 195, 197, 198, 203, 206
Mueller (2002) 118
O, Brien (2015) 126, 130, 131, 132, 186, 202
O, Daly (2020) 117
Pillinger (2019) 35
Rohmann (2016) 31, 55, 65, 72, 94, 102, 113, 118, 130, 191, 192
Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 97, 111
Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 81, 113, 114, 115, 124, 127, 129, 130, 131, 230
Schibli (2002) 330, 332, 333, 334, 342, 344, 346, 348, 352, 356, 358, 361, 362
Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 46, 105, 106, 116, 118, 247
Shilo (2022) 34, 53, 55, 60, 70, 71, 74, 75, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
Struck (2016) 107, 108, 177, 186, 187, 188, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 203, 206, 208
Verhagen (2022) 162, 163, 164
Williams (2009) 24, 43, 46
Wilson (2012) 413, 414
Wynne (2019) 43, 47, 188, 190, 193, 235
fate, / fatum / εἱμαρμένη Maso (2022) 39, 40, 41, 83, 97, 99, 100, 125, 126, 127
fate, and contingency, stoicism Agri (2022) 101
fate, and fortune in histories Shannon-Henderson (2019) 20, 21, 113, 138, 332
fate, and misfortunes Griffiths (1975) 1, 112
fate, and nature?, stoicism, hierarchy among god Williams (2012) 330
fate, and providence Hoenig (2018) 26, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201
fate, and purification, iranian thought, and Griffiths (1975) 289
fate, and, claudius Shannon-Henderson (2019) 8, 251, 277
fate, and, tiberius Shannon-Henderson (2019) 233, 234, 235
fate, apuleius on Hoenig (2018) 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 198, 199, 201
fate, as a power Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 310, 314, 323, 325, 327
fate, as divine law Hoenig (2018) 151, 197, 198, 199, 212
fate, as divine logos, stoicism Agri (2022) 111
fate, association with, zeus, justice/scales/ Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
fate, astrology, and Griffiths (1975) 242, 254, 276, 283, 289, 309, 322, 328
fate, calcidius on Hoenig (2018) 198
fate, calcidius, on Hoenig (2018) 19, 201, 202, 207, 212, 213
fate, catullus, and anxiety over books Johnson and Parker (2009) 168
fate, christianity, in africa, and victory over Griffiths (1975) 243
fate, chrysippus, on Brouwer (2013) 130, 131, 132, 133, 161, 165
fate, chrysippus, on the etymology of Brouwer (2013) 131
fate, concurrence, συνδρομή of Schibli (2002) 348
fate, conditional conception of Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 195
fate, contingency in Agri (2022) 101
fate, creation, of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 310
fate, daemons, administer Schibli (2002) 342
fate, decree of Schibli (2002) 348
fate, dirum fatum Mueller (2002) 98, 99
fate, divine will Schibli (2002) 342
fate, entwinement, πλέγμα of Schibli (2002) 348, 352
fate, etymology, of Brouwer (2013) 131
fate, eusebius, says christ is more powerful than Simmons(1995) 239
fate, extispicy Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 56, 89, 135, 267
fate, fatalism Luck (2006) 390, 408, 421
fate, fictions, ‘truth’ of O, Daly (2020) 97, 98, 106, 215, 216
fate, following or obeying Merz and Tieleman (2012) 173, 212, 213, 214, 220, 223, 228, 229
fate, foretold, troy Eidinow (2007) 36
fate, gnosticism, valentinian, and Griffiths (1975) 244
fate, great year, see great year and d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 243
fate, has no power over believers in isis, fate, and misfortunes, hostile Griffiths (1975) 15, 251
fate, heimarmenê, εἱμαρμένη‎ d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 135, 218, 240, 241, 243, 271, 334
fate, heimarmenê, εἱμαρμένη‎, vs. providence d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 134, 243
fate, heimarmenē, lat., fatum, chrysippus on Brouwer (2013) 130, 131, 132, 133, 165
fate, heimarmenē, lat., fatum, chrysippus on the etymology of Brouwer (2013) 131
fate, in ancient philosophy and religion Simmons(1995) 13, 143
fate, in ancient philosophy and religion, and early rome Simmons(1995) 64, 230
fate, in neoplatonism, theurgy, and Simmons(1995) 20
fate, in pausanias, ideas of divinity and Kirkland (2022) 266
fate, in pindar Eisenfeld (2022) 76, 92, 97, 234, 245
fate, in the iliad Eisenfeld (2022) 21, 172, 173, 174
fate, iranian thought, and Griffiths (1975) 244
fate, isis, unravels threads of Griffiths (1975) 322
fate, justice of providence Schibli (2002) 332, 340
fate, law of justice Schibli (2002) 342
fate, laws of Hoenig (2018) 32
fate, laws, of Schibli (2002) 362
fate, mythical Hellholm et al. (2010) 515
fate, nemesius, on Hoenig (2018) 19, 201
fate, nous, and Griffiths (1975) 244, 246
fate, nussbaum, m., on, alexander Harte (2017) 242, 245, 246, 249
fate, of all pronounced by, osiris Griffiths (1975) 27
fate, of all, pronounced by great god Griffiths (1975) 27
fate, of book Johnson and Parker (2009) 175, 179
fate, of book, private library, role of in Johnson and Parker (2009) 158, 160
fate, of cassandra Shilo (2022) 70, 71, 74, 75, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
fate, of faith wisdom Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 315, 318
fate, of humanity Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 326
fate, of ignatius Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196
fate, of jesus Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123
fate, of judas, tragedy of Scopello (2008) 262, 263, 264
fate, of prophets Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 119
fate, of soul Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 72
fate, of the, soul Struck (2016) 51, 219, 220, 223, 224
fate, or, ‘fates’, herodotus, on Joho (2022) 242, 243, 244
fate, pronoia, = isis, and Griffiths (1975) 323
fate, providence, and Hoenig (2018) 26, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158
fate, providential Schibli (2002) 355, 358
fate, sarapis, cult of in thessalonica, and Griffiths (1975) 244
fate, shai Griffiths (1975) 243
fate, stoic Mikalson (2010) 50
fate, stoicism Agri (2022) 9, 13, 39, 40, 59, 98, 99, 100, 101, 105, 112, 113
Malherbe et al (2014) 308
fate, stoics, and Griffiths (1975) 242
fate, stoics, on Mikalson (2010) 50
fate, sumpatheia, contingency in Agri (2022) 128
fate, tacita fata Mueller (2002) 99, 100
fate, the, fates, Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 27, 29, 109, 159, 160, 186, 216, 233, 258, 261, 262
fate, time, and Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 161
fate, two pictures of fairmindedness Jedan (2009) 4, 32, 41
fate, unravelled by hand of isis, fate, and misfortunes, threads of Griffiths (1975) 322
fate, unravelled by hand of isis, threads, of Griffiths (1975) 322
fate, xenocrates, on O, Brien (2015) 202
fate, zeus, determining atlas Segev (2017) 131
fate, είμαρµένη Schibli (2002) 228, 229, 236, 240
fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum Crabb (2020) 85, 135, 138, 144, 145, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 164, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 178, 203, 204, 210, 211, 215, 221, 240, 259, 275, 280
fate/, heimarmene Frede and Laks (2001) 24, 73, 75, 94, 96, 98, 99, 109, 113, 138, 241, 249, 252, 257, 270
fate/fatalism Wilson (2018) 3, 11, 12, 16, 17, 22, 23, 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 38, 47, 60, 89, 109, 172, 181, 184, 185, 192, 203, 204, 233, 236, 259, 273, 287, 290, 291, 292, 293, 295
fate/justice/scales, association of zeus with Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
fated Garcia (2021) 213
fateful, act, adam/adam Levison (2009) 255
fateful, day Jouanna (2018) 244, 245, 742
fates Bernabe et al (2013) 114, 336
Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 73, 74, 120, 193, 361, 490, 495, 499
Edmonds (2019) 77, 203, 234, 262, 302, 309, 364
Gaifman (2012) 67, 209
Ker and Wessels (2020) 39, 197
Pillinger (2019) 124, 134, 150, 161, 176, 192
Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 56, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 116, 118, 119, 120, 247, 248, 249
Simon (2021) 259
Xinyue (2022) 160, 168
fates, goddesses, moirai Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 42, 43, 141
fates, gods and goddesses, personifications, the Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 42, 43, 141
fates, the Goldman (2013) 66
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 170
fates, written vs. oral prophecy, tablets of the Pillinger (2019) 192
fortune/fate, and, germanicus Shannon-Henderson (2019) 4, 103, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115
justice/fate, association of zeus with, justice and political life, scales of Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
justice/fate, association of zeus with, scales of Simon (2021) 23, 24, 33
moirai/fates Bortolani et al (2019) 282

List of validated texts:
72 validated results for "fates"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • fate • fate, as a power

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 314, 327; Garcia (2021) 31; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 168; McDonough (2009) 98

2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃' '. None
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' '. None
2. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 28.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • femme fatale • soul, fate of the

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 328; Struck (2016) 223

28.8. וַיִּתְחַפֵּשׂ שָׁאוּל וַיִּלְבַּשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וּשְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים עִמּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה לָיְלָה וַיֹּאמֶר קסומי־קָסֳמִי־ נָא לִי בָּאוֹב וְהַעֲלִי לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלָיִךְ׃''. None
28.8. And Sha᾽ul disguised himself, and put on other clothes, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, divine for me by means of the familiar spirit, and bring him up for me, whom I shall name to thee.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 65.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 105; Crabb (2020) 145

65.11. וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי יְהוָה הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת־הַר קָדְשִׁי הַעֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ׃''. None
65.11. But ye that forsake the LORD, That forget My holy mountain, That prepare a table for Fortune, And that offer mingled wine in full measure unto Destiny,''. None
4. Hesiod, Theogony, 211, 217, 901-906 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Fates • Fates (goddesses, Moirai) • fate • fates • gods and goddesses, personifications (the Fates)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 42; Ker and Wessels (2020) 39; Maciver (2012) 113; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 106

211. νὺξ δʼ ἔτεκεν στυγερόν τε Μόρον καὶ Κῆρα μέλαιναν'
217. καὶ Μοίρας καὶ Κῆρας ἐγείνατο νηλεοποίνους,
901. δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902. Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 904. Μοίρας θʼ, ᾗ πλείστην τιμὴν πόρε μητίετα Ζεύς, 905. Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι 906. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε. '. None
211. A maid: holy Cythera first she neared,'
217. Cytherea, which she’d reached. She’s known as well,
901. A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 904. The sound of whelps was heard, sometimes the ear 905. Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change 906. To echoing along the mountain range. '. None
5. Homer, Iliad, 16.234-16.235, 16.433-16.438, 16.852-16.853, 21.264, 22.167-22.181, 22.203, 22.209-22.213, 22.363-22.366, 24.527-24.528 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Zeus, justice/scales/ fate, association with • day, fateful • fate • fate, Fates • fate, in the Iliad • fate/justice/scales, association of Zeus with • justice and political life, scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with • scales of justice/fate, association of Zeus with

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 172, 173, 174; Farrell (2021) 71, 72, 101, 269, 271; Jouanna (2018) 742; Lipka (2021) 26, 27; Maciver (2012) 92, 98, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 188, 189; Simon (2021) 23, 24; Waldner et al (2016) 21, 22

16.234. Δωδώνης μεδέων δυσχειμέρου, ἀμφὶ δὲ Σελλοὶ 16.235. σοὶ ναίουσʼ ὑποφῆται ἀνιπτόποδες χαμαιεῦναι,
16.433. ὤ μοι ἐγών, ὅ τέ μοι Σαρπηδόνα φίλτατον ἀνδρῶν 16.434. μοῖρʼ ὑπὸ Πατρόκλοιο Μενοιτιάδαο δαμῆναι. 16.435. διχθὰ δέ μοι κραδίη μέμονε φρεσὶν ὁρμαίνοντι, 16.436. ἤ μιν ζωὸν ἐόντα μάχης ἄπο δακρυοέσσης 16.437. θείω ἀναρπάξας Λυκίης ἐν πίονι δήμῳ, 16.438. ἦ ἤδη ὑπὸ χερσὶ Μενοιτιάδαο δαμάσσω.
16.852. οὔ θην οὐδʼ αὐτὸς δηρὸν βέῃ, ἀλλά τοι ἤδη 16.853. ἄγχι παρέστηκεν θάνατος καὶ μοῖρα κραταιὴ
21.264. καὶ λαιψηρὸν ἐόντα· θεοὶ δέ τε φέρτεροι ἀνδρῶν.
22.167. τοῖσι δὲ μύθων ἦρχε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε· 22.168. ὢ πόποι ἦ φίλον ἄνδρα διωκόμενον περὶ τεῖχος 22.169. ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ὁρῶμαι· ἐμὸν δʼ ὀλοφύρεται ἦτορ 22.170. Ἕκτορος, ὅς μοι πολλὰ βοῶν ἐπὶ μηρίʼ ἔκηεν 22.171. Ἴδης ἐν κορυφῇσι πολυπτύχου, ἄλλοτε δʼ αὖτε 22.172. ἐν πόλει ἀκροτάτῃ· νῦν αὖτέ ἑ δῖος Ἀχιλλεὺς 22.173. ἄστυ πέρι Πριάμοιο ποσὶν ταχέεσσι διώκει. 22.174. ἀλλʼ ἄγετε φράζεσθε θεοὶ καὶ μητιάασθε 22.175. ἠέ μιν ἐκ θανάτοιο σαώσομεν, ἦέ μιν ἤδη 22.176. Πηλεΐδῃ Ἀχιλῆϊ δαμάσσομεν ἐσθλὸν ἐόντα. 22.177. τὸν δʼ αὖτε προσέειπε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 22.178. ὦ πάτερ ἀργικέραυνε κελαινεφὲς οἷον ἔειπες· 22.179. ἄνδρα θνητὸν ἐόντα πάλαι πεπρωμένον αἴσῃ 22.180. ἂψ ἐθέλεις θανάτοιο δυσηχέος ἐξαναλῦσαι; 22.181. ἔρδʼ· ἀτὰρ οὔ τοι πάντες ἐπαινέομεν θεοὶ ἄλλοι.
22.203. εἰ μή οἱ πύματόν τε καὶ ὕστατον ἤντετʼ Ἀπόλλων
22.209. καὶ τότε δὴ χρύσεια πατὴρ ἐτίταινε τάλαντα, 22.210. ἐν δʼ ἐτίθει δύο κῆρε τανηλεγέος θανάτοιο, 22.211. τὴν μὲν Ἀχιλλῆος, τὴν δʼ Ἕκτορος ἱπποδάμοιο, 22.212. ἕλκε δὲ μέσσα λαβών· ῥέπε δʼ Ἕκτορος αἴσιμον ἦμαρ, 22.213. ᾤχετο δʼ εἰς Ἀΐδαο, λίπεν δέ ἑ Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων.
22.363. ὃν πότμον γοόωσα λιποῦσʼ ἀνδροτῆτα καὶ ἥβην. 22.364. τὸν καὶ τεθνηῶτα προσηύδα δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς· 22.365. τέθναθι· κῆρα δʼ ἐγὼ τότε δέξομαι ὁππότε κεν δὴ 22.366. Ζεὺς ἐθέλῃ τελέσαι ἠδʼ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι.
24.527. δοιοὶ γάρ τε πίθοι κατακείαται ἐν Διὸς οὔδει 24.528. δώρων οἷα δίδωσι κακῶν, ἕτερος δὲ ἑάων·''. None
16.234. and himself he washed his hands, and drew flaming wine. Then he made prayer, standing in the midst of the court, and poured forth the wine, looking up to heaven; and not unmarked was he of Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt:Zeus, thou king, Dodonaean, Pelasgian, thou that dwellest afar, ruling over wintry Dodona,—and about thee dwell the Selli, 16.235. thine interpreters, men with unwashen feet that couch on the ground. Aforetime verily thou didst hear my word, when I prayed: me thou didst honour, and didst mightily smite the host of the Achaeans; even so now also fulfill thou for me this my desire. Myself verily will I abide in the gathering of the ships,
16.433. even so with cries rushed they one against the other. And the son of crooked-counselling Cronos took pity when he saw them, and spake to Hera, his sister and his wife:Ah, woe is me, for that it is fated that Sarpedon, dearest of men to me, be slain by Patroclus, son of Menoetius! 16.435. And in twofold wise is my heart divided in counsel as I ponder in my thought whether I shall snatch him up while yet he liveth and set him afar from the tearful war in the rich land of Lycia, or whether I shall slay him now beneath the hands of the son of Menoetius.
16.852. and of men Euphorbus, while thou art the third in my slaying. And another thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart: verily thou shalt not thyself be long in life, but even now doth death stand hard by thee, and mighty fate, that thou be slain beneath the hands of Achilles, the peerless son of Aeacus.
21.264. and as it floweth all the pebbles beneath are swept along therewith, and it glideth swiftly onward with murmuring sound down a sloping place and outstrippeth even him that guideth it;—even thus did the flood of the River
22.167. even so these twain circled thrice with swift feet about the city of Priam; and all the gods gazed upon them. Then among these the father of men and gods was first to speak:Look you now, in sooth a well-loved man do mine eyes behold pursued around the wall; and my heart hath sorrow 22.170. for Hector, who hath burned for me many thighs of oxen on the crests of many-ridged Ida, and at other times on the topmost citadel; but now again is goodly Achilles pursuing him with swift feet around the city of Priam. Nay then, come, ye gods, bethink you and take counsel 22.175. whether we shall save him from death, or now at length shall slay him, good man though he be, by the hand of Achilles, son of Peleus. 22.179. whether we shall save him from death, or now at length shall slay him, good man though he be, by the hand of Achilles, son of Peleus. Then spake unto him the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene:O Father, Lord of the bright lightning and of the dark cloud, what a word hast thou said! A man that is mortal, doomed long since by fate, art thou minded 22.180. to deliver again from dolorous death? Do as thou wilt; but be sure that we other gods assent not all thereto. Then in answer to her spake Zeus, the cloud-gatherer:Be of good cheer, Tritogeneia, dear child. In no wise do I speak with full purpose of heart, but am minded to be kindly to thee.
22.203. the one availeth not to flee, nor the other to pursue—even so Achilles availed not to overtake Hector in his fleetness, neither Hector to escape. And how had Hector escaped the fates of death, but that Apollo, albeit for the last and latest time, drew nigh him to rouse his strength and make swift his knees?
22.209. And to his folk goodly Achilles made sign with a nod of his head, and would not suffer them to hurl at Hector their bitter darts, lest another might smite him and win glory, and himself come too late. But when for the fourth time they were come to the springs, lo then the Father lifted on high his golden scales, ' "22.210. and set therein two fates of grievous death, one for Achilles, and one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades; and Phoebus Apollo left him. But unto Peleus' son came the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, " "22.213. and set therein two fates of grievous death, one for Achilles, and one for horse-taming Hector; then he grasped the balance by the midst and raised it; and down sank the day of doom of Hector, and departed unto Hades; and Phoebus Apollo left him. But unto Peleus' son came the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, " '
22.363. valorous though thou art, at the Scaean gate. Even as he thus spake the end of death enfolded him and his soul fleeting from his limbs was gone to Hades, bewailing her fate, leaving manliness and youth. And to him even in his death spake goodly Achilles: 22.365. / Lie thou dead; my fate will I accept whenso Zeus willeth to bring it to pass and the other immortal gods.
24.527. For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.528. For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, ''. None
6. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, Fates

 Found in books: Farrell (2021) 124, 130; Lipka (2021) 25; Waldner et al (2016) 19, 22, 60

7. Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound, 516-519 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate, • fate

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 35; Lipka (2021) 103

516. Μοῖραι τρίμορφοι μνήμονές τʼ Ἐρινύες Χορός'517. τούτων ἄρα Ζεύς ἐστιν ἀσθενέστερος; Προμηθεύς 518. οὔκουν ἂν ἐκφύγοι γε τὴν πεπρωμένην. Χορός 519. τί γὰρ πέπρωται Ζηνὶ πλὴν ἀεὶ κρατεῖν; Προμηθεύς '. None
516. The three-shaped Fates and mindful Furies. Chorus '517. Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do? Prometheus 518. Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold. Chorus 519. Why, what is fated for Zeus except to hold eternal sway? Prometheu '. None
8. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, in Pindar

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 97; Waldner et al (2016) 19

9. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, in Pindar

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 234; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 45

10. Herodotus, Histories, 1.91, 4.35 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Herodotus, on fate or ‘Fates’ • fat • fate • fate,

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 135; Hau (2017) 185; Hitch (2017) 23; Joho (2022) 242

1.91. ἀπικομένοισι δὲ τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι καὶ λέγουσι τὰ ἐντεταλμένα τὴν Πυθίην λέγεται εἰπεῖν τάδε. “τὴν πεπρωμένην μοῖραν ἀδύνατα ἐστὶ ἀποφυγεῖν καὶ θεῷ· Κροῖσος δὲ πέμπτου γονέος ἁμαρτάδα ἐξέπλησε, ὃς ἐὼν δορυφόρος Ἡρακλειδέων, δόλῳ γυναικηίῳ ἐπισπόμενος ἐφόνευσε τὸν δεσπότεα καὶ ἔσχε τὴν ἐκείνου τιμὴν οὐδέν οἱ προσήκουσαν. προθυμεομένου δὲ Λοξίεω ὅκως ἂν κατὰ τοὺς παῖδας τοῦ Κροίσου γένοιτο τὸ Σαρδίων πάθος καὶ μὴ κατʼ αὐτὸν Κροῖσον, οὐκ οἷόν τε ἐγίνετο παραγαγεῖν μοίρας. ὅσον δὲ ἐνέδωκαν αὗται, ἤνυσέ τε καὶ ἐχαρίσατό οἱ· τρία γὰρ ἔτεα ἐπανεβάλετο τὴν Σαρδίων ἅλωσιν, καὶ τοῦτο ἐπιστάσθω Κροῖσος ὡς ὕστερον τοῖσι ἔτεσι τούτοισι ἁλοὺς τῆς πεπρωμένης. δευτέρα δὲ τούτων καιομένῳ αὐτῷ ἐπήρκεσε. κατὰ δὲ τὸ μαντήιον τὸ γενόμενον οὐκ ὀρθῶς Κροῖσος μέμφεται. προηγόρευε γὰρ οἱ Λοξίης, ἢν στρατεύηται ἐπὶ Πέρσας, μεγάλην ἀρχὴν αὐτὸν καταλύσειν. τὸν δὲ πρὸς ταῦτα χρῆν εὖ μέλλοντα βουλεύεσθαι ἐπειρέσθαι πέμψαντα κότερα τὴν ἑωυτοῦ ἢ τὴν Κύρου λέγοι ἀρχήν. οὐ συλλαβὼν δὲ τὸ ῥηθὲν οὐδʼ ἐπανειρόμενος ἑωυτὸν αἴτιον ἀποφαινέτω· τῷ καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον χρηστηριαζομένῳ εἶπε Λοξίης περὶ ἡμιόνου, οὐδὲ τοῦτο συνέλαβε. ἦν γὰρ δὴ ὁ Κῦρος οὗτος ἡμίονος· ἐκ γὰρ δυῶν οὐκ ὁμοεθνέων ἐγεγόνεε, μητρὸς ἀμείνονος, πατρὸς δὲ ὑποδεεστέρου· ἣ μὲν γὰρ ἦν Μηδὶς καὶ Ἀστυάγεος θυγάτηρ τοῦ Μήδων βασιλέος, ὁ δὲ Πέρσης τε ἦν καὶ ἀρχόμενος ὑπʼ ἐκείνοισι καὶ ἔνερθε ἐὼν τοῖσι ἅπασι δεσποίνῃ τῇ ἑωυτοῦ συνοίκεε.” ταῦτα μὲν ἡ Πυθίη ὑπεκρίνατο τοῖσι Λυδοῖσι, οἳ δὲ ἀνήνεικαν ἐς Σάρδις καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν Κροίσῳ. ὁ δὲ ἀκούσας συνέγνω ἑωυτοῦ εἶναι τὴν ἁμαρτάδα καὶ οὐ τοῦ θεοῦ. κατὰ μὲν δὴ τὴν Κροίσου τε ἀρχὴν καὶ Ἰωνίης τὴν πρώτην καταστροφὴν ἔσχε οὕτω.
4.35. αὗται μὲν δὴ ταύτην τιμὴν ἔχουσι πρὸς τῶν Δήλου οἰκητόρων. φασὶ δὲ οἱ αὐτοὶ οὗτοι καὶ τὴν Ἄργην τε καὶ τὴν Ὦπιν ἐούσας παρθένους ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς τούτους ἀνθρώπους πορευομένας ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Δῆλον ἔτι πρότερον Ὑπερόχης τε καὶ Λαοδίκης. ταύτας μέν νυν τῇ Εἰλειθυίῃ ἀποφερούσας ἀντὶ τοῦ ὠκυτόκου τὸν ἐτάξαντο φόρον ἀπικέσθαι, τὴν δὲ Ἄργην τε καὶ τὴν Ὦπιν ἅμα αὐτοῖσι θεοῖσι ἀπικέσθαι λέγουσι καὶ σφι τιμὰς ἄλλας δεδόσθαι πρὸς σφέων· καὶ γὰρ ἀγείρειν σφι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπονομαζούσας τὰ οὐνόματα ἐν τῷ ὕμνῳ τόν σφι Ὠλὴν ἀνὴρ Λύκιος ἐποίησε, παρὰ δὲ σφέων μαθόντας νησιώτας τε καὶ Ἴωνας ὑμνέειν Ὦπίν τε καὶ Ἄργην ὀνομάζοντάς τε καὶ ἀγείροντας ʽοὗτος δὲ ὁ Ὠλὴν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς παλαιοὺς ὕμνους ἐποίησε ἐκ Λυκίης ἐλθὼν τοὺς ἀειδομένους ἐν Δήλᾠ, καὶ τῶν μηρίων καταγιζομένων ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ τὴν σποδὸν ταύτην ἐπὶ τὴν θήκην τῆς Ὤπιός τε καὶ Ἄργης ἀναισιμοῦσθαι ἐπιβαλλομένην. ἡ δὲ θήκη αὐτέων ἐστὶ ὄπισθε τοῦ Ἀρτεμισίου, πρὸς ἠῶ τετραμμένη, ἀγχοτάτω τοῦ Κηίων ἱστιητορίου.''. None
1.91. When the Lydians came, and spoke as they had been instructed, the priestess (it is said) made the following reply. “No one may escape his lot, not even a god. Croesus has paid for the sin of his ancestor of the fifth generation before, who was led by the guile of a woman to kill his master, though he was one of the guard of the Heraclidae, and who took to himself the royal state of that master, to which he had no right. ,And it was the wish of Loxias that the evil lot of Sardis fall in the lifetime of Croesus' sons, not in his own; but he could not deflect the Fates. ,Yet as far as they gave in, he did accomplish his wish and favor Croesus: for he delayed the taking of Sardis for three years. And let Croesus know this: that although he is now taken, it is by so many years later than the destined hour. And further, Loxias saved Croesus from burning. ,But as to the oracle that was given to him, Croesus is wrong to complain concerning it. For Loxias declared to him that if he led an army against the Persians, he would destroy a great empire. Therefore he ought, if he had wanted to plan well, to have sent and asked whether the god spoke of Croesus' or of Cyrus' empire. But he did not understood what was spoken, or make further inquiry: for which now let him blame himself. ,When he asked that last question of the oracle and Loxias gave him that answer concerning the mule, even that Croesus did not understand. For that mule was in fact Cyrus, who was the son of two parents not of the same people, of whom the mother was better and the father inferior: ,for she was a Mede and the daughter of Astyages king of the Medes; but he was a Persian and a subject of the Medes and although in all respects her inferior he married this lady of his.” This was the answer of the priestess to the Lydians. They carried it to Sardis and told Croesus, and when he heard it, he confessed that the sin was not the god's, but his. And this is the story of Croesus' rule, and of the first overthrow of Ionia . " '
4.35. In this way, then, these maidens are honored by the inhabitants of Delos. These same Delians relate that two virgins, Arge and Opis, came from the Hyperboreans by way of the aforesaid peoples to Delos earlier than Hyperoche and Laodice; ,these latter came to bring to Eileithyia the tribute which they had agreed to pay for easing child-bearing; but Arge and Opis, they say, came with the gods themselves, and received honors of their own from the Delians. ,For the women collected gifts for them, calling upon their names in the hymn made for them by Olen of Lycia; it was from Delos that the islanders and Ionians learned to sing hymns to Opis and Arge, calling upon their names and collecting gifts (this Olen, after coming from Lycia, also made the other and ancient hymns that are sung at Delos). ,Furthermore, they say that when the thighbones are burnt in sacrifice on the altar, the ashes are all cast on the burial-place of Opis and Arge, behind the temple of Artemis, looking east, nearest the refectory of the people of Ceos. '". None
11. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Celsus, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Celsus on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate, Apuleius on • fate, Calcidius on • fate, and providence • fate, as divine law • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 118, 283; Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 405; Hoenig (2018) 198; Wilson (2018) 11

248c. λειμῶνος τυγχάνει οὖσα, ἥ τε τοῦ πτεροῦ φύσις, ᾧ ψυχὴ κουφίζεται, τούτῳ τρέφεται. θεσμός τε Ἀδραστείας ὅδε. ἥτις ἂν ψυχὴ θεῷ συνοπαδὸς γενομένη κατίδῃ τι τῶν ἀληθῶν, μέχρι τε τῆς ἑτέρας περιόδου εἶναι ἀπήμονα, κἂν ἀεὶ τοῦτο δύνηται ποιεῖν, ἀεὶ ἀβλαβῆ εἶναι· ὅταν δὲ ἀδυνατήσασα ἐπισπέσθαι μὴ ἴδῃ, καί τινι συντυχίᾳ χρησαμένη λήθης τε καὶ κακίας πλησθεῖσα βαρυνθῇ, βαρυνθεῖσα δὲ πτερορρυήσῃ τε καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν πέσῃ, τότε νόμος ταύτην' '. None
248c. on which the soul is raised up is nourished by this. And this is a law of Destiny, that the soul which follows after God and obtains a view of any of the truths is free from harm until the next period, and if it can always attain this, is always unharmed; but when, through inability to follow, it fails to see, and through some mischance is filled with forgetfulness and evil and grows heavy, and when it has grown heavy, loses its wings and falls to the earth, then it is the law that this soul' '. None
12. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calcidius, on fate • Celsus, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Fate • Fates • Nemesius, on fate • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • daemons, administer fate • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Celsus on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate, Apuleius on • fate, divine will • fate, justice of providence • fate, law of justice • fate/ heimarmene • fate/fatalism • providence, and fate

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 118, 130, 282; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 495; Frede and Laks (2001) 75; Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 386, 405; Hoenig (2018) 19, 150; Schibli (2002) 332, 342; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 46; Wilson (2018) 11

30b. λογισάμενος οὖν ηὕρισκεν ἐκ τῶν κατὰ φύσιν ὁρατῶν οὐδὲν ἀνόητον τοῦ νοῦν ἔχοντος ὅλον ὅλου κάλλιον ἔσεσθαί ποτε ἔργον, νοῦν δʼ αὖ χωρὶς ψυχῆς ἀδύνατον παραγενέσθαι τῳ. διὰ δὴ τὸν λογισμὸν τόνδε νοῦν μὲν ἐν ψυχῇ, ψυχὴν δʼ ἐν σώματι συνιστὰς τὸ πᾶν συνετεκταίνετο, ὅπως ὅτι κάλλιστον εἴη κατὰ φύσιν ἄριστόν τε ἔργον ἀπειργασμένος. οὕτως οὖν δὴ κατὰ λόγον τὸν εἰκότα δεῖ λέγειν τόνδε τὸν κόσμον ζῷον ἔμψυχον ἔννουν τε τῇ ἀληθείᾳ διὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ 41e. ἔνειμέν θʼ ἑκάστην πρὸς ἕκαστον, καὶ ἐμβιβάσας ὡς ἐς ὄχημα τὴν τοῦ παντὸς φύσιν ἔδειξεν, νόμους τε τοὺς εἱμαρμένους εἶπεν αὐταῖς, ὅτι γένεσις πρώτη μὲν ἔσοιτο τεταγμένη μία πᾶσιν, ἵνα μήτις ἐλαττοῖτο ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ, δέοι δὲ σπαρείσας αὐτὰς εἰς τὰ προσήκοντα ἑκάσταις ἕκαστα ὄργανα χρόνων 48a. οὖν ἡ τοῦδε τοῦ κόσμου γένεσις ἐξ ἀνάγκης τε καὶ νοῦ συστάσεως ἐγεννήθη· νοῦ δὲ ἀνάγκης ἄρχοντος τῷ πείθειν αὐτὴν τῶν γιγνομένων τὰ πλεῖστα ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιστον ἄγειν, ταύτῃ κατὰ ταῦτά τε διʼ ἀνάγκης ἡττωμένης ὑπὸ πειθοῦς ἔμφρονος οὕτω κατʼ ἀρχὰς συνίστατο τόδε τὸ πᾶν. εἴ τις οὖν ᾗ γέγονεν κατὰ ταῦτα ὄντως ἐρεῖ, μεικτέον καὶ τὸ τῆς πλανωμένης εἶδος αἰτίας, ᾗ φέρειν πέφυκεν· ὧδε οὖν πάλιν' '. None
30b. none that is irrational will be fairer, comparing wholes with wholes, than the rational; and further, that reason cannot possibly belong to any apart from Soul. So because of this reflection He constructed reason within soul and soul within body as He fashioned the All, that so the work He was executing might be of its nature most fair and most good. Thus, then, in accordance with the likely account, we must declare that this Cosmos has verily come into existence as a Living Creature endowed with soul and reason owing to the providence of God. 41e. and setting them each as it were in a chariot He showed them the nature of the Universe, and declared unto them the laws of destiny,—namely, how that the first birth should be one and the same ordained for all, in order that none might be slighted by Him; and how it was needful that they, when sown each into his own proper organ of time, should grow into the most god-fearing of living creatures; 48a. For, in truth, this Cosmos in its origin was generated as a compound, from the combination of Necessity and Reason. And inasmuch as Reason was controlling Necessity by persuading her to conduct to the best end the most part of the things coming into existence, thus and thereby it came about, through Necessity yielding to intelligent persuasion, that this Universe of ours was being in this wise constructed at the beginning. Wherefore if one is to declare how it actually came into being on this wise, he must include also the form of the Errant Cause, in the way that it really acts. To this point, therefore, we must return,' '. None
13. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • fate (Ἀνάγκη, κατὰ το χρεών)

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 4; Linjamaa (2019) 136

14. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 162; Verhagen (2022) 162

15. Cicero, On Divination, 1.9, 1.82-1.84, 1.117-1.118, 1.125-1.128, 1.132, 2.14-2.19, 2.89 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Fate / fatum / εἱμαρμένη • Fate, the Fates • fatalism • fate • fate, • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 137, 140, 146; Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 615; Edelmann-Singer et al (2020) 261; Frede and Laks (2001) 98, 249, 252; Maso (2022) 39, 40, 83, 126; Struck (2016) 177, 186, 187, 188, 195, 196, 198, 199, 203, 206; Wynne (2019) 47, 235, 241

1.9. Eius rationi non sane desidero quid respondeam; satis enim defensa religio est in secundo libro a Lucilio, cuius disputatio tibi ipsi, ut in extremo tertio scribis, ad veritatem est visa propensior. Sed, quod praetermissum est in illis libris (credo, quia commodius arbitratus es separatim id quaeri deque eo disseri), id est de divinatione, quae est earum rerum, quae fortuitae putantur, praedictio atque praesensio, id, si placet, videamus quam habeat vim et quale sit. Ego enim sic existimo, si sint ea genera dividi vera, de quibus accepimus quaeque colimus, esse deos, vicissimque, si di sint, esse qui divinent.
1.82. Quam quidem esse re vera hac Stoicorum ratione concluditur: Si sunt di neque ante declarant hominibus, quae futura sint, aut non diligunt homines aut, quid eventurum sit, ignorant aut existumant nihil interesse hominum scire, quid sit futurum, aut non censent esse suae maiestatis praesignificare hominibus, quae sunt futura, aut ea ne ipsi quidem di significare possunt; at neque non diligunt nos (sunt enim benefici generique hominum amici) neque ignorant ea, quae ab ipsis constituta et designata sunt, neque nostra nihil interest scire ea, quae eventura sunt, (erimus enim cautiores, si sciemus) neque hoc alienum ducunt maiestate sua (nihil est enim beneficentia praestantius) neque non possunt futura praenoscere; 1.83. non igitur sunt di nec significant futura; sunt autem di; significant ergo; et non, si significant, nullas vias dant nobis ad significationis scientiam (frustra enim significarent), nec, si dant vias, non est divinatio; est igitur divinatio. 1.84. Hac ratione et Chrysippus et Diogenes et Antipater utitur. Quid est igitur, cur dubitandum sit, quin sint ea, quae disputavi, verissima, si ratio mecum facit, si eventa, si populi, si nationes, si Graeci, si barbari, si maiores etiam nostri, si denique hoc semper ita putatum est, si summi philosophi, si poe+- tae, si sapientissimi viri, qui res publicas constituerunt, qui urbes condiderunt? An, dum bestiae loquantur, exspectamus, hominum consentiente auctoritate contenti non sumus?
1.117. Quo modo autem aut vates aut somniantes ea videant, quae nusquam etiam tunc sint, magna quaestio est. Sed explorata si sint ea, quae ante quaeri debeant, sint haec, quae quaerimus, faciliora. Continet enim totam hanc quaestionem ea ratio, quae est de natura deorum, quae a te secundo libro est explicata dilucide. Quam si obtinemus, stabit illud, quod hunc locum continet, de quo agimus, esse deos, et eorum providentia mundum administrari, eosdemque consulere rebus humanis, nec solum universis, verum etiam singulis. Haec si tenemus, quae mihi quidem non videntur posse convelli, profecto hominibus a dis futura significari necesse est. 1.118. Sed distinguendum videtur, quonam modo. Nam non placet Stoicis singulis iecorum fissis aut avium cantibus interesse deum; neque enim decorum est nec dis dignum nec fieri ullo pacto potest; sed ita a principio inchoatum esse mundum, ut certis rebus certa signa praecurrerent, alia in extis, alia in avibus, alia in fulgoribus, alia in ostentis, alia in stellis, alia in somniantium visis, alia in furentium vocibus. Ea quibus bene percepta sunt, ii non saepe falluntur; male coniecta maleque interpretata falsa sunt non rerum vitio, sed interpretum inscientia. Hoc autem posito atque concesso, esse quandam vim divinam hominum vitam continentem, non difficile est, quae fieri certe videmus, ea qua ratione fiant, suspicari. Nam et ad hostiam deligendam potest dux esse vis quaedam sentiens, quae est toto confusa mundo, et tum ipsum, cum immolare velis, extorum fieri mutatio potest, ut aut absit aliquid aut supersit; parvis enim momentis multa natura aut adfingit aut mutat aut detrahit.
1.125. Quin etiam hoc non dubitans dixerim, si unum aliquid ita sit praedictum praesensumque, ut, cum evenerit, ita cadat, ut praedictum sit, neque in eo quicquam casu et fortuito factum esse appareat, esse certe divinationem, idque esse omnibus confitendum. Quocirca primum mihi videtur, ut Posidonius facit, a deo, de quo satis dictum est, deinde a fato, deinde a natura vis omnis dividi ratioque repetenda. Fieri igitur omnia fato ratio cogit fateri. Fatum autem id appello, quod Graeci ei(marme/nhn, id est ordinem seriemque causarum, cum causae causa nexa rem ex se gignat. Ea est ex omni aeternitate fluens veritas sempiterna. Quod cum ita sit, nihil est factum, quod non futurum fuerit, eodemque modo nihil est futurum, cuius non causas id ipsum efficientes natura contineat. 1.126. Ex quo intellegitur, ut fatum sit non id, quod superstitiose, sed id, quod physice dicitur, causa aeterna rerum, cur et ea, quae praeterierunt, facta sint et, quae instant, fiant et, quae sequuntur, futura sint. Ita fit, ut et observatione notari possit, quae res quamque causam plerumque consequatur, etiamsi non semper (nam id quidem adfirmare difficile est), easdemque causas veri simile est rerum futurarum cerni ab iis, qui aut per furorem eas aut in quiete videant. 1.127. Praeterea cum fato omnia fiant, id quod alio loco ostendetur, si quis mortalis possit esse, qui conligationem causarum omnium perspiciat animo, nihil eum profecto fallat. Qui enim teneat causas rerum futurarum, idem necesse est omnia teneat, quae futura sint. Quod cum nemo facere nisi deus possit, relinquendum est homini, ut signis quibusdam consequentia declarantibus futura praesentiat. Non enim illa, quae futura sunt, subito exsistunt, sed est quasi rudentis explicatio sic traductio temporis nihil novi efficientis et primum quidque replicantis. Quod et ii vident, quibus naturalis divinatio data est, et ii, quibus cursus rerum observando notatus est. Qui etsi causas ipsas non cernunt, signa tamen causarum et notas cernunt; ad quas adhibita memoria et diligentia et monumentis superiorum efficitur ea divinatio, quae artificiosa dicitur, extorum, fulgorum, ostentorum signorumque caelestium. 1.128. Non est igitur, ut mirandum sit ea praesentiri a divitibus, quae nusquam sint; sunt enim omnia, sed tempore absunt. Atque ut in seminibus vis inest earum rerum, quae ex iis progignuntur, sic in causis conditae sunt res futurae, quas esse futuras aut concitata mens aut soluta somno cernit aut ratio aut coniectura praesentit. Atque ut ii, qui solis et lunae reliquorumque siderum ortus, obitus motusque cognorunt, quo quidque tempore eorum futurum sit, multo ante praedicunt, sic, qui cursum rerum eventorumque consequentiam diuturnitate pertractata notaverunt, aut semper aut, si id difficile est, plerumque, quodsi ne id quidem conceditur, non numquam certe, quid futurum sit, intellegunt. Atque haec quidem et quaedam eiusdem modi argumenta, cur sit divinatio, ducuntur a fato.
1.132. Nunc illa testabor, non me sortilegos neque eos, qui quaestus causa hariolentur, ne psychomantia quidem, quibus Appius, amicus tuus, uti solebat, agnoscere; non habeo denique nauci Marsum augurem, non vicanos haruspices, non de circo astrologos, non Isiacos coniectores, non interpretes somniorum; non enim sunt ii aut scientia aut arte divini, Séd superstitiósi vates ínpudentesque hárioli Aút inertes aút insani aut quíbus egestas ímperat, Quí sibi semitám non sapiunt, álteri monstránt viam; Quíbus divitias póllicentur, áb iis drachumam ipsí petunt. De hís divitiis síbi deducant dráchumam, reddant cétera. Atque haec quidem Ennius, qui paucis ante versibus esse deos censet, sed eos non curare opinatur, quid agat humanum genus. Ego autem, qui et curare arbitror et monere etiam ac multa praedicere, levitate, vanitate, malitia exclusa divinationem probo. Quae cum dixisset Quintus, Praeclare tu quidem, inquam, paratus
2.14. Atqui ne illa quidem divitis esse dicebas, ventos aut imbres inpendentes quibusdam praesentire signis (in quo nostra quaedam Aratea memoriter a te pronuntiata sunt), etsi haec ipsa fortuita sunt; plerumque enim, non semper eveniunt. Quae est igitur aut ubi versatur fortuitarum rerum praesensio, quam divinationem vocas? Quae enim praesentiri aut arte aut ratione aut usu aut coniectura possunt, ea non divinis tribuenda putas, sed peritis. Ita relinquitur, ut ea fortuita divinari possint, quae nulla nec arte nec sapientia provideri possunt; ut, si quis M. Marcellum illum, qui ter consul fuit, multis annis ante dixisset naufragio esse periturum, divinasset profecto; nulla enim arte alia id nec sapientia scire potuisset. Talium ergo rerum, quae in fortuna positae sunt, praesensio divinatio est. 2.15. Potestne igitur earum rerum, quae nihil habent rationis, quare futurae sint, esse ulla praesensio? Quid est enim aliud fors, quid fortuna, quid casus, quid eventus, nisi cum sic aliquid cecidit, sic evenit, ut vel aliter cadere atque evenire potuerit? Quo modo ergo id, quod temere fit caeco casu et volubilitate fortunae, praesentiri et praedici potest? 2.16. Medicus morbum ingravescentem ratione providet, insidias imperator, tempestates gubernator; et tamen ii ipsi saepe falluntur, qui nihil sine certa ratione opitur; ut agricola, cum florem oleae videt, bacam quoque se visurum putat, non sine ratione ille quidem; sed non numquam tamen fallitur. Quodsi falluntur ii, qui nihil sine aliqua probabili coniectura ac ratione dicunt, quid existimandum est de coniectura eorum, qui extis aut avibus aut ostentis aut oraclis aut somniis futura praesentiunt? Nondum dico, quam haec signa nulla sint, fissum iecoris, corvi cantus, volatus aquilae, stellae traiectio, voces furentium, sortes, somnia; de quibus singulis dicam suo loco; nunc de universis. 2.17. Qui potest provideri quicquam futurum esse, quod neque causam habet ullam neque notam, cur futurum sit? Solis defectiones itemque lunae praedicuntur in multos annos ab iis, qui siderum motus numeris persequuntur; ea praedicunt enim, quae naturae necessitas perfectura est. Vident ex constantissimo motu lunae, quando illa e regione solis facta incurrat in umbram terrae, quae est meta noctis, ut eam obscurari necesse sit, quandoque eadem luna subiecta atque opposita soli nostris oculis eius lumen obscuret, quo in signo quaeque errantium stellarum quoque tempore futura sit, qui exortus quoque die signi alicuius aut qui occasus futurus sit. Haec qui ante dicunt, quam rationem sequantur, vides. 2.18. Qui thesaurum inventum iri aut hereditatem venturam dicunt, quid sequuntur? aut in qua rerum natura inest id futurum? Quodsi haec eaque, quae sunt eiusdem generis, habent aliquam talem necessitatem, quid est tandem, quod casu fieri aut forte fortuna putemus? Nihil enim est tam contrarium rationi et constantiae quam fortuna, ut mihi ne in deum quidem cadere videatur, ut sciat, quid casu et fortuito futurum sit. Si enim scit, certe illud eveniet; sin certe eveniet, nulla fortuna est; est autem fortuna; rerum igitur fortuitarum nulla praesensio est. 2.19. Aut si negas esse fortunam et omnia, quae fiunt quaeque futura sunt, ex omni aeternitate definita dicis esse fataliter, muta definitionem divinationis, quam dicebas praesensionem esse rerum fortuitarum. Si enim nihil fieri potest, nihil accidere, nihil evenire, nisi quod ab omni aeternitate certum fuerit esse futurum rato tempore, quae potest esse fortuna? qua sublata qui locus est divinationi? quae a te fortuitarum rerum est dicta praesensio. Quamquam dicebas omnia, quae fierent futurave essent, fato contineri. Anile sane et plenum superstitionis fati nomen ipsum; sed tamen apud Stoicos de isto fato multa dicuntur; de quo alias; nunc quod necesse est.
2.89. Sed ut ratione utamur omissis testibus, sic isti disputant, qui haec Chaldaeorum natalicia praedicta defendunt: Vim quandam esse aiunt signifero in orbe, qui Graece zwdiako/s dicitur, talem, ut eius orbis una quaeque pars alia alio modo moveat inmutetque caelum, perinde ut quaeque stellae in his finitumisque partibus sint quoque tempore, eamque vim varie moveri ab iis sideribus, quae vocantur errantia; cum autem in eam ipsam partem orbis venerint, in qua sit ortus eius, qui nascatur, aut in eam, quae coniunctum aliquid habeat aut consentiens, ea triangula illi et quadrata nomit. Etenim cum †tempore anni tempestatumque caeli conversiones commutationesque tantae fiant accessu stellarum et recessu, cumque ea vi solis efficiantur, quae videmus, non veri simile solum, sed etiam verum esse censent perinde, utcumque temperatus sit ae+r, ita pueros orientis animari atque formari, ex eoque ingenia, mores, animum, corpus, actionem vitae, casus cuiusque eventusque fingi.''. None
1.9. However, I am really at no loss for a reply to his reasoning; for in the second book Lucilius has made an adequate defence of religion and his argument, as you yourself state at the end of the third book, seemed to you nearer to the truth than Cottas. But there is a question which you passed over in those books because, no doubt, you thought it more expedient to inquire into it in a separate discussion: I refer to divination, which is the foreseeing and foretelling of events considered as happening by chance. Now let us see, if you will, what efficacy it has and what its nature is. My own opinion is that, if the kinds of divination which we have inherited from our forefathers and now practise are trustworthy, then there are gods and, conversely, if there are gods then there are men who have the power of divination. 6
1.9. Nor is the practice of divination disregarded even among uncivilized tribes, if indeed there are Druids in Gaul — and there are, for I knew one of them myself, Divitiacus, the Aeduan, your guest and eulogist. He claimed to have that knowledge of nature which the Greeks call physiologia, and he used to make predictions, sometimes by means of augury and sometimes by means of conjecture. Among the Persians the augurs and diviners are the magi, who assemble regularly in a sacred place for practice and consultation, just as formerly you augurs used to do on the Nones.
1.82. The Stoics, for example, establish the existence of divination by the following process of reasoning:If there are gods and they do not make clear to man in advance what the future will be, then they do not love man; or, they themselves do not know what the future will be; or, they think that it is of no advantage to man to know what it will be; or, they think it inconsistent with their dignity to give man forewarnings of the future; or, finally, they, though gods, cannot give intelligible signs of coming events. But it is not true that the gods do not love us, for they are the friends and benefactors of the human race; nor is it true that they do not know their own decrees and their own plans; nor is it true that it is of no advantage to us to know what is going to happen, since we should be more prudent if we knew; nor is it true that the gods think it inconsistent with their dignity to give forecasts, since there is no more excellent quality than kindness; nor is it true that they have not the power to know the future; 1.83. therefore it is not true that there are gods and yet that they do not give us signs of the future; but there are gods, therefore they give us such signs; and if they give us such signs, it is not true that they give us no means to understand those signs — otherwise their signs would be useless; and if they give us the means, it is not true that there is no divination; therefore there is divination. 39 1.84. Chrysippus, Diogenes, and Antipater employ the same reasoning. Then what ground is there to doubt the absolute truth of my position? For I have on my side reason, facts, peoples, and races, both Greek and barbarian, our own ancestors, the unvarying belief of all ages, the greatest philosophers, the poets, the wisest men, the builders of cities, and the founders of republics. Are we not satisfied with the uimous judgement of men, and do we wait for beasts to give their testimony too?
1.117. Now there is a great problem as to how prophets and dreamers can see things, which, at the time, have no actual existence anywhere. But that question would be solved quite readily if we were to investigate certain other questions which demand consideration first. For the theory in regard to the nature of the gods, so clearly developed in the second book of your work on that subject, includes this whole question. If we maintain that theory we shall establish the very point which I am trying to make: namely, that there are gods; that they rule the universe by their foresight; and that they direct the affairs of men — not merely of men in the mass, but of each individual. If we succeed in holding that position — and for my part I think it impregnable — then surely it must follow that the gods give to men signs of coming events. 52 1.118. But it seems necessary to settle the principle on which these signs depend. For, according to the Stoic doctrine, the gods are not directly responsible for every fissure in the liver or for every song of a bird; since, manifestly, that would not be seemly or proper in a god and furthermore is impossible. But, in the beginning, the universe was so created that certain results would be preceded by certain signs, which are given sometimes by entrails and by birds, sometimes by lightnings, by portents, and by stars, sometimes by dreams, and sometimes by utterances of persons in a frenzy. And these signs do not often deceive the persons who observe them properly. If prophecies, based on erroneous deductions and interpretations, turn out to be false, the fault is not chargeable to the signs but to the lack of skill in the interpreters.Assuming the proposition to be conceded that there is a divine power which pervades the lives of men, it is not hard to understand the principle directing those premonitory signs which we see come to pass. For it may be that the choice of a sacrificial victim is guided by an intelligent force, which is diffused throughout the universe; or, it may be that at the moment when the sacrifice is offered, a change in the vitals occurs and something is added or taken away; for many things are added to, changed, or diminished in an instant of time.
1.125. Nay, if even one such instance is found and the agreement between the prediction and the thing predicted is so close as to exclude every semblance of chance or of accident, I should not hesitate to say in such a case, that divination undoubtedly exists and that everybody should admit its existence.Wherefore, it seems to me that we must do as Posidonius does and trace the vital principle of divination in its entirety to three sources: first, to God, whose connexion with the subject has been sufficiently discussed; secondly to Fate; and lastly, to Nature. Reason compels us to admit that all things happen by Fate. Now by Fate I mean the same that the Greeks call εἱμαρμένη, that is, an orderly succession of causes wherein cause is linked to cause and each cause of itself produces an effect. That is an immortal truth having its source in all eternity. Therefore nothing has happened which was not bound to happen, and, likewise, nothing is going to happen which will not find in nature every efficient cause of its happening. 1.126. Consequently, we know that Fate is that which is called, not ignorantly, but scientifically, the eternal cause of things, the wherefore of things past, of things present, and of things to come. Hence it is that it may be known by observation what effect will in most instances follow any cause, even if it is not known in all; for it would be too much to say that it is known in every case. And it is probable that these causes of coming events are perceived by those who see them during frenzy or in sleep. 56 1.127. Moreover, since, as will be shown elsewhere, all things happen by Fate, if there were a man whose soul could discern the links that join each cause with every other cause, then surely he would never be mistaken in any prediction he might make. For he who knows the causes of future events necessarily knows what every future event will be. But since such knowledge is possible only to a god, it is left to man to presage the future by means of certain signs which indicate what will follow them. Things which are to be do not suddenly spring into existence, but the evolution of time is like the unwinding of a cable: it creates nothing new and only unfolds each event in its order. This connexion between cause and effect is obvious to two classes of diviners: those who are endowed with natural divination and those who know the course of events by the observation of signs. They may not discern the causes themselves, yet they do discern the signs and tokens of those causes. The careful study and recollection of those signs, aided by the records of former times, has evolved that sort of divination, known as artificial, which is divination by means of entrails, lightnings, portents, and celestial phenomena. 1.128. Therefore it is not strange that diviners have a presentiment of things that exist nowhere in the material world: for all things are, though, from the standpoint of time, they are not present. As in seeds there inheres the germ of those things which the seeds produce, so in causes are stored the future events whose coming is foreseen by reason or conjecture, or is discerned by the soul when inspired by frenzy, or when it is set free by sleep. Persons familiar with the rising, setting, and revolutions of the sun, moon, and other celestial bodies, can tell long in advance where any one of these bodies will be at a given time. And the same thing may be said of men who, for a long period of time, have studied and noted the course of facts and the connexion of events, for they always know what the future will be; or, if that is putting it too strongly, they know in a majority of cases; or, if that will not be conceded either, then, surely, they sometimes know what the future will be. These and a few other arguments of the same kind for the existence of divination are derived from Fate. 57
1.132. I will assert, however, in conclusion, that I do not recognize fortune-tellers, or those who prophesy for money, or necromancers, or mediums, whom your friend Appius makes it a practice to consult.In fine, I say, I do not care a figFor Marsian augurs, village mountebanks,Astrologers who haunt the circus grounds,Or Isis-seers, or dream interpreters:— for they are not diviners either by knowledge or skill, —But superstitious bards, soothsaying quacks,Averse to work, or mad, or ruled by want,Directing others how to go, and yetWhat road to take they do not know themselves;From those to whom they promise wealth they begA coin. From what they promised let them takeTheir coin as toll and pass the balance on.Such are the words of Ennius who only a few lines further back expresses the view that there are gods and yet says that the gods do not care what human beings do. But for my part, believing as I do that the gods do care for man, and that they advise and often forewarn him, I approve of divination which is not trivial and is free from falsehood and trickery.When Quintus had finished I remarked, My dear Quintus, you have come admirably well prepared.
2.14. And you went on to say that even the foreknowledge of impending storms and rains by means of certain signs was not divination, and, in that connexion, you quoted a number of verses from my translation of Aratus. Yet such coincidences happen by chance, for though they happen frequently they do not happen always. What, then, is this thing you call divination — this foreknowledge of things that happen by chance — and where is it employed? You think that whatever can be foreknown by means of science, reason, experience, or conjecture is to be referred, not to diviners, but to experts. It follows, therefore, that divination of things that happen by chance is possible only of things which cannot be foreseen by means of skill or wisdom. Hence, if someone had declared many years in advance that the famous Marcus Marcellus, who was consul three times, would perish in a shipwreck, this, by your definition, undoubtedly would have been a case of divination, since that calamity could not have been foreseen by means of any other skill or by wisdom. That is why you say that divination is the foreknowledge of such things as depend upon chance. 6
2.14. When the soul itself is weakened and relaxed many such sights and sounds, you may be sure, are seen and heard in all manner of confusion and diversity. Then especially do the remts of our waking thoughts and deeds move and stir within the soul. For example, in the time of my banishment Marius was often in my mind as I recalled with what great fortitude and courage he had borne his own heavy misfortunes, and this I think is the reason why I dreamed about him.68 As for your dream, it occurred while you were thinking and worrying about me and then you had the vision of me as I suddenly arose from the river. For in the souls of us both were traces of our waking thoughts, but with some added features, of course: as, for example, my dreaming of Mariuss monument and your dreaming that the horse on which I rode sank with me and then reappeared. 2.15. Can there, then, be any foreknowledge of things for whose happening no reason exists? For we do not apply the words chance, luck, accident, or casualty except to an event which has so occurred or happened that it either might not have occurred at all, or might have occurred in any other way. How, then, is it possible to foresee and to predict an event that happens at random, as the result of blind accident, or of unstable chance? 2.15. Sleep is regarded as a refuge from every toil and care; but it is actually made the fruitful source of worry and fear. In fact dreams would be less regarded on their own account and would be viewed with greater indifference had they not been taken under the guardianship of philosophers — not philosophers of the meaner sort, but those of the keenest wit, competent to see what follows logically and what does not — men who are considered well-nigh perfect and infallible. Indeed, if their arrogance had not been resisted by Carneades, it is probable that by this time they would have adjudged the only philosophers. While most of my war of words has been with these men, it is not because I hold them in especial contempt, but on the contrary, it is because they seem to me to defend their own views with the greatest acuteness and skill. Moreover, it is characteristic of the Academy to put forward no conclusions of its own, but to approve those which seem to approach nearest to the truth; to compare arguments; to draw forth all that may be said in behalf of any opinion; and, without asserting any authority of its own, to leave the judgement of the inquirer wholly free. That same method, which by the way we inherited from Socrates, I shall, if agreeable to you, my dear Quintus, follow as often as possible in our future discussions.Nothing could please me better, Quintus replied.When this was said, we arose. 2.16. By the use of reason the physician foresees the progress of a disease, the general anticipates the enemys plans and the pilot forecasts the approach of bad weather. And yet even those who base their conclusions on accurate reasoning are often mistaken: for example, when the farmer sees his olive-tree in bloom he expects also, and not unreasonably, to see it bear fruit, but occasionally he is disappointed. If then mistakes are made by those who make no forecasts not based upon some reasonable and probable conjecture, what must we think of the conjectures of men who foretell the future by means of entrails, birds, portents, oracles, or dreams? I am not ready yet to take up one by one the various kinds of divination and show that the cleft in the liver, the croak of a raven, the flight of an eagle, the fall of a star, the utterances of persons in a frenzy, lots, and dreams have no prophetic value whatever; I shall discuss each of them in its turn — now I am discussing the subject as a whole. 2.17. How can anything be foreseen that has no cause and no distinguishing mark of its coming? Eclipses of the sun and also of the moon are predicted for many years in advance by men who employ mathematics in studying the courses and movements of the heavenly bodies; and the unvarying laws of nature will bring their predictions to pass. Because of the perfectly regular movements of the moon the astronomers calculate when it will be opposite the sun and in the earths shadow — which is the cone of night — and when, necessarily, it will become invisible. For the same reason they know when the moon will be directly between the earth and the sun and thus will hide the light of the sun from our eyes. They know in what sign each planet will be at any given time and at what time each day any constellation will rise and set. You see the course of reasoning followed in arriving at these predictions. 7 2.18. But what course of reasoning is followed by men who predict the finding of a treasure or the inheritance of an estate? On what law of nature do such prophecies depend? But, on the other hand, if the prophecies just mentioned and others of the same class are controlled by some natural and immutable law such as regulates the movements of the stars, pray, can we conceive of anything happening by accident, or chance? Surely nothing is so at variance with reason and stability as chance? Hence it seems to me that it is not in the power even of God himself to know what event is going to happen accidentally and by chance. For if He knows, then the event is certain to happen; but if it is certain to happen, chance does not exist. And yet chance does exist, therefore there is no foreknowledge of things that happen by chance. 2.19. But if you deny the existence of chance and assert that the course of everything present or future has been inevitably determined from all eternity, then you must change your definition of divination, which you said was the foreknowledge of things that happen by chance. For if nothing can happen, nothing befall, nothing come to pass, except what has been determined from all eternity as bound to happen at a fixed time, how can there be such a thing as chance? And if there is no such thing as chance, what room is there for that divination, which you termed a foreknowledge of things that happen by chance? And you were inconsistent enough, too, to say that everything that is or will be is controlled by Fate! Why, the very word Fate is full of superstition and old womens credulity, and yet the Stoics have much to say of this Fate of yours. A discussion on Fate is reserved for another occasion; at present I shall speak of it only in so far as it is necessary. 8
2.89. But let us dismiss our witnesses and employ reasoning. Those men who defend the natal-day prophecies of the Chaldeans, argue in this way: In the starry belt which the Greeks call the Zodiac there is a certain force of such a nature that every part of that belt affects and changes the heavens in a different way, according to the stars that are in this or in an adjoining locality at a given time. This force is variously affected by those stars which are called planets or wandering stars. But when they have come into that sign of the Zodiac under which someone is born, or into a sign having some connexion with or accord with the natal sign, they form what is called a triangle or square. Now since, through the procession and retrogression of the stars, the great variety and change of the seasons and of temperature take place, and since the power of the sun produces such results as are before our eyes, they believe that it is not merely probable, but certain, that just as the temperature of the air is regulated by this celestial force, so also children at their birth are influenced in soul and body and by this force their minds, manners, disposition, physical condition, career in life and destinies are determined. 43''. None
16. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.3, 2.58, 2.133, 2.162-2.163, 2.166-2.167 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fatalism, • fatalism, dog simile • fate • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 24, 96, 107, 109, 113; Konig and Wiater (2022) 248; König and Wiater (2022) 248; Struck (2016) 195; Wynne (2019) 188; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 125

2.3. Even if I had any clear view, I should still prefer to hear you speak in your turn, now that I have said so much myself." "Well," replied Balbus, "I will yield to your wish; and I shall be as brief as I can, for indeed when the errors of Epicurus have been refuted, my argument is robbed of all occasion for prolixity. To take a general view, the topic of the immortal gods which you raise is divided by our school into four parts: first they prove that the gods exist; next they explain their nature; then they show that the world is governed by them; and lastly that they care for the fortunes of mankind. In our present discourse however let us take the first two of these heads; the third and fourth, being questions of greater magnitude, had better I think be put off to another time." "No, no," cried Cotta, "we are at leisure now, and moreover the subjects which we are discussing might fitly claim precedence even of matters of business." ' "
2.58. the nature of the world itself, which encloses and contains all things in its embrace, is styled by Zeno not merely 'craftsmanlike' but actually 'a craftsman,' whose foresight plans out the work to serve its use and purpose in every detail. And as the other natural substances are generated, reared and sustained each by its own seeds, so the world-nature experiences all those motions of the will, those impulses of conation and desire, that the Greeks call hormae, and follows these up with the appropriate actions in the same way as do we ourselves, who experience emotions and sensations. Such being the nature of the world-mind, it can therefore correctly be designated as prudence or providence (for in Greek it is termed pronoia); and this providence is chiefly directed and concentrated upon three objects, namely to secure for the world, first, the structure best fitted for survival; next, absolute completeness; but chiefly, consummate beauty and embellishment of every kind. " '
2.133. "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature.
2.162. Nor only on the surface of the earth, but also in its darkest recesses there lurks an abundance of commodities which were created for men\'s use and which men alone discover. "The next subject is one which each of you perhaps will seize upon for censure, Cotta because Carneades used to enjoy tilting at the Stoics, Velleius because nothing provokes the ridicule of Epicurus so much as the art of prophecy; but in my view it affords the very strongest proof that man\'s welfare is studied by divine providence. I refer of course to Divination, which we see practised in many regions and upon various matters and occasions both private and more especially public. 2.163. Many observations are made by those who inspect the victims at sacrifices, many events are foreseen by augurs or revealed in oracles and prophecies, dreams and portents, a knowledge of which has often led to the acquisition of many things gratifying men\'s wishes and requirements, and also to the avoidance of many dangers. This power or art or instinct therefore has clearly been bestowed by the immortal gods on man, and on no other creature, for the ascertainment of future events. "And if perchance these arguments separately fail to convince you, nevertheless in combination their collective weight will be bound to do so.
2.166. It was this reason which drove the poets, and especially Homer, to attach to their chief heroes, Ulysses, Diomede, Agamemnon or Achilles, certain gods as the companions of their perils and adventures; moreover the gods have often appeared to men in person, as in the cases which I have mentioned above, so testifying that they care both for communities and for individuals. And the same is proved by the portents of future occurrences that are vouchsafed to men sometimes when they are asleep and sometimes when they are awake. Moreover we receive a number of warnings by means of signs and of the entrails of victims, and by many other things that long-continued usage has noted in such a manner as to create the art of divination. ' "2.167. Therefore no great man ever existed who did not enjoy some portion of divine inspiration. Nor yet is this argument to be deprived by pointing to cases where a man's cornfields or vineyards have been damaged by a storm, or an accident has robbed him of some commodity of value, and inferring that the victim of one of these misfortunes is the object of god's hatred or neglect. The gods attend to great matters; they neglect small ones. Now great men always prosper in all their affairs, assuming that the teachers of our school and Socrates, the prince of philosophy, have satisfactorily discoursed upon the bounteous abundance of wealth that virtue bestows. "'. None
17. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 7.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 145; Garcia (2021) 132

7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'"". None
18. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 15.11-15.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 197; Wilson (2018) 22

15.11. Do not say, "Because of the Lord I left the right way";for he will not do what he hates. 15.12. Do not say, "It was he who led me astray";for he had no need of a sinful man. 15.13. The Lord hates all abominations,and they are not loved by those who fear him. 15.14. It was he who created man in the beginning,and he left him in the power of his own inclination. 15.15. If you will, you can keep the commandments,and to act faithfully is a matter of your own choice. 15.16. He has placed before you fire and water:stretch out your hand for whichever you wish. 15.17. Before a man are life and death,and whichever he chooses will be given to him. 15.18. For great is the wisdom of the Lord;he is mighty in power and sees everything; 15.19. his eyes are on those who fear him,and he knows every deed of man.' '. None
19. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, on fate • Fate • Fate / fatum / εἱμαρμένη • Gregory of Nyssa, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoicism, fate • Stoics, and fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fatalism • fate • fate (heimarmenē, Lat., fatum) , Chrysippus on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Hermetics on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate, • fate, and divination • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 59; Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 138, 140, 143, 145, 146; Bezzel and Pfeiffer (2021) 46; Brouwer (2013) 165; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 119, 179; Frede and Laks (2001) 252; Hankinson (1998) 255, 258, 259; Linjamaa (2019) 136; Maso (2022) 41, 97, 100, 127; Struck (2016) 198; Wynne (2019) 43, 241

20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 54; Wilson (2018) 23

21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 248; König and Wiater (2022) 248

22. Ovid, Fasti, 5.492 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, tacita fata

 Found in books: Mueller (2002) 100; Waldner et al (2016) 118

5.492. inter se nulla continuata die.''. None
5.492. People say unlucky women wed in the month of May.''. None
23. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.670-4.678, 4.680-4.687, 4.689-4.701, 4.703-4.715, 4.717-4.723, 4.725-4.727, 4.729-4.734, 15.871-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Fates • fate • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum • written vs. oral prophecy, tablets of the Fates

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 164; Braund and Most (2004) 249; Crabb (2020) 164; Gorain (2019) 186; Pillinger (2019) 192; Verhagen (2022) 164

4.670. Illic inmeritam maternae pendere linguae 4.671. Andromedan poenas iniustus iusserat Ammon. 4.672. Quam simul ad duras religatam bracchia cautes 4.673. vidit Abantiades (nisi quod levis aura capillos 4.674. moverat et tepido manabant lumina fletu, 4.676. et stupet et visae correptus imagine formae 4.677. paene suas quatere est oblitus in aere pennas. 4.678. Ut stetit, “o” dixit “non istis digna catenis,
4.680. pande requirenti nomen terraeque tuumque, 4.681. et cur vincla geras.” Primo silet illa, nec audet 4.682. adpellare virum virgo; manibusque modestos 4.683. celasset vultus, si non religata fuisset: 4.684. lumina, quod potuit, lacrimis inplevit obortis. 4.685. Saepius instanti, sua ne delicta fateri 4.686. nolle videretur, nomen terraeque suumque, 4.687. quantaque maternae fuerit fiducia formae,
4.689. insonuit, veniensque inmenso belua ponto 4.690. inminet et latum sub pectore possidet aequor. 4.691. Conclamat virgo: genitor lugubris et una 4.692. mater adest, ambo miseri, sed iustius illa. 4.693. Nec secum auxilium, sed dignos tempore fletus 4.694. plangoremque ferunt vinctoque in corpore adhaerent, 4.695. cum sic hospes ait: “Lacrimarum longa manere 4.696. tempora vos poterunt: ad opem brevis hora ferendam est. 4.697. Hanc ego si peterem Perseus Iove natus et illa, 4.698. quam clausam inplevit fecundo Iuppiter auro, 4.699. Gorgonis anguicomae Perseus superator et alis 4.700. aerias ausus iactatis ire per auras, 4.701. praeferrer cunctis certe gener. Addere tantis
4.703. ut mea sit servata mea virtute, paciscor.” 4.704. Accipiunt legem (quis enim dubitaret?) et orant 4.705. promittuntque super regnum dotale parentes. 4.706. Ecce velut navis praefixo concita rostro 4.707. sulcat aquas, iuvenum sudantibus acta lacertis, 4.708. sic fera dimotis inpulsu pectoris undis 4.709. tantum aberat scopulis, quantum Balearica torto 4.710. funda potest plumbo medii transmittere caeli: 4.711. cum subito iuvenis pedibus tellure repulsa 4.712. arduus in nubes abiit. Ut in aequore summo 4.713. umbra viri visa est, visa fera saevit in umbra. 4.714. Utque Iovis praepes, vacuo cum vidit in arvo 4.715. praebentem Phoebo liventia terga draconem,
4.717. squamigeris avidos figit cervicibus ungues, 4.718. sic celeri missus praeceps per ie volatu 4.719. terga ferae pressit dextroque frementis in armo 4.720. Inachides ferrum curvo tenus abdidit hamo. 4.721. Vulnere laesa gravi modo se sublimis in auras 4.722. attollit, modo subdit aquis, modo more ferocis 4.723. versat apri, quem turba canum circumsona terret.
4.725. quaque patet, nunc terga cavis super obsita conchis, 4.726. nunc laterum costas, nunc qua tenuissima cauda 4.727. desinit in piscem, falcato vulnerat ense.
4.729. ore vomit: maduere graves adspergine pennae. 4.730. Nec bibulis ultra Perseus talaribus ausus 4.731. credere, conspexit scopulum, qui vertice summo 4.732. stantibus exstat aquis, operitur ab aequore moto. 4.733. Nixus eo rupisque tenens iuga prima sinistra 4.734. ter quater exegit repetita per ilia ferrum.
15.871. Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872. nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. 15.874. ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 15.875. parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876. astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877. quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878. ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879. siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.' '. None
4.670. of judgment, or they haunt the mansion where 4.671. abides the Utmost Tyrant, or they tend 4.672. to various callings, as their whilom way; — 4.673. appropriate punishment confines to pain 4.674. the multitude condemned. 4.676. impelled by rage and hate, from habitation 4.677. celestial, Juno, of Saturn born, descends, 4.678. ubmissive to its dreadful element.
4.680. than groans were uttered by the threshold, pressed 4.681. by her immortal form, and Cerberu 4.682. upraising his three-visaged mouths gave vent 4.683. to triple-barking howls.—She called to her 4.684. the sisters, Night-begot, implacable, 4.685. terrific Furies. They did sit before 4.686. the prison portals, adamant confined, 4.687. combing black vipers from their horrid hair.
4.689. they recognized, those Deities uprose. 4.690. O dread confines! dark seat of wretched vice! 4.691. Where stretched athwart nine acres, Tityus, 4.692. must thou endure thine entrails to be torn! 4.693. O Tantalus, thou canst not touch the wave, 4.694. and from thy clutch the hanging branches rise! 4.695. O Sisyphus, thou canst not stay the stone, 4.696. catching or pushing, it must fall again! 4.697. O thou Ixion! whirled around, around, 4.698. thyself must follow to escape thyself! 4.699. And, O Belides, (plotter of sad death 4.700. upon thy cousins) thou art always doomed 4.701. to dip forever ever-spilling waves!
4.703. a stern look on those wretches, first her glance 4.704. arrested on Ixion; but the next 4.705. on Sisyphus; and thus the goddess spoke;— 4.706. “For why should he alone of all his kin 4.707. uffer eternal doom, while Athamas, 4.708. luxurious in a sumptuous palace reigns; 4.709. and, haughty with his wife, despises me.” 4.710. So grieved she, and expressed the rage of hate 4.711. that such descent inspired, beseeching thus, 4.712. no longer should the House of Cadmus stand, 4.713. o that the sister Furies plunge in crime 4.714. overweening Athamas.—Entreating them, 4.715. he mingled promises with her commands.—
4.717. whose locks entangled are not ever smooth, 4.718. tossed them around, that backward from her face 4.719. uch crawling snakes were thrown;—then answered she: 4.720. “Since what thy will decrees may well be done, 4.721. why need we to consult with many words? 4.722. Leave thou this hateful region and convey 4.723. thyself, contented, to a better realm.”
4.725. before she enters her celestial home, 4.726. Iris, the child of Thaumas, purifie 4.727. her limbs in sprinkled water.
4.729. Tisiphone, revengeful, takes a torch;— 4.730. besmeared with blood, and vested in a robe, 4.731. dripping with crimson gore, and twisting-snake 4.732. engirdled, she departs her dire abode— 4.733. with twitching Madness, Terror, Fear and Woe: 4.734. and when she had arrived the destined house,
15.871. that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872. be seen a king throned in the capitol.” 15.874. the people and the grave and honored Senate. 15.875. But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876. betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877. raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878. after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879. “There is one here who will be king, if you' '. None
24. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 68-88 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • fatalism

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 555; Frede and Laks (2001) 290; Linjamaa (2019) 86

68. The aforesaid emigrations, if one is to be guided by the literal expressions of the scripture, were performed by a wise man; but if we look to the laws of allegory, by a soul devoted to virtue and busied in the search after the true God. '69. For the Chaldaeans were, above all nations, addicted to the study of astronomy, and attributed all events to the motions of the stars, by which they fancied that all the things in the world were regulated, and accordingly they magnified the visible essence by the powers which numbers and the analogies of numbers contain, taking no account of the invisible essence appreciable only by the intellect. But while they were busied in investigating the arrangement existing in them with reference to the periodical revolutions of the sun, and moon, and the other planets, and fixed-stars, and the changes of the seasons of the year, and the sympathy of the heavenly bodies with the things of the earth, they were led to imagine that the world itself was God, in their impious philosophy comparing the creature to the Creator. 70. The man who had been bred up in this doctrine, and who for a long time had studied the philosophy of the Chaldaeans, as if suddenly awakening from a deep slumber and opening the eye of the soul, and beginning to perceive a pure ray of light instead of profound darkness, followed the light, and saw what he had never see before, a certain governor and director of the world standing above it, and guiding his own work in a salutary manner, and exerting his care and power in behalf of all those parts of it which are worthy of divine superintendence. 71. In order, therefore, that he may the more firmly establish the sight which has thus been presented to him in his mind, the sacred word says to him, My good friend, great things are often made known by slight outlines, at which he who looks increases his imagination to an unlimited extent; therefore, having dismissed those who bend all their attention to the heavenly bodies, and discarding the Chaldaean science, rise up and depart for a short time from the greatest of cities, this world, to one which is smaller; for so you will be the better able to comprehend the nature of the Ruler of the universe. 72. It is for this reason that Abraham is said to have made this first migration from the country of the Chaldaeans into the land of Charran. XVI. But Charran, in the Greek language, means "holes," which is a figurative emblem of the regions of our outward senses; by means of which, as by holes, each of those senses is able to look out so as to comprehend the objects which belong to it. 73. But, some one may say, what is the use of these holes, unless the invisible mind, like the exhibition of a puppet show, does from within prompt its own powers, which at one time losing and allowing to roam, and at another time holding back and restraining by force? He gives sometimes an harmonious motion, and sometimes perfect quiet to his puppets. And having this example at home, you will easily comprehend that being, the understanding of whom you are so anxious to arrive at; 74. unless, indeed, you fancy that the world is situated in you as the domit part of you, which the whole common powers of the body obey, and which each of the outward senses follows; but that the world, the most beautiful, and greatest, and most perfect of works, of which everything else is but a part, is destitute of any king to hold it together, and to regulate it, and govern it in accordance with justice. And if it be invisible, wonder not at that, for neither can the mind which is in thee be perceived by the sight. 75. Any one who considers this, deriving his proofs not from a distance but close at hand, both from himself and from the circumstances around him, will clearly see that the world is not the first God, but that it is the work of the first God and Father of all things, who, being himself invisible, displays every thing, showing the nature of all things both small and great. 76. For he has not chosen to be beheld by the eyes of the body, perhaps because it was not consistent with holiness for what is mortal to touch what is everlasting, or perhaps because of the weakness of our sight; for it would never have been able to stand the rays which are poured forth from the living God, since it cannot even look straight at the rays of the sun. XVII. 77. And the most visible proof of this migration in which the mind quitted astronomy and the doctrines of the Chaldaeans, is this. For it is said in the scriptures that the very moment that the wise man quitted his abode, "God appeared unto Abraham," to whom, therefore, it is plain that he was not visible before, when he was adhering to the studies of the Chaldaeans, and attending to the motions of the stars, not properly comprehending any nature whatever, which was well arranged and appreciable by the intellect only, apart from the world and the essence perceptible by the outward senses. 78. But after he changed his abode and went into another country he learnt of necessity that the world was subject, and not independent; not an absolute ruler, but governed by the great cause of all things who had created it, whom the mind then for the first time looked up and saw; 79. for previously a great mist was shed over it by the objects of the external senses, which she, having dissipated by fervent and vivid doctrines, was scarcely able, as if in clear fine weather, to perceive him who had previously been concealed and invisible. But he, by reason of his love for mankind, did not reject the soul which came to him, but went forward to meet it, and showed to it his own nature as far as it was possible that he who was looking at it could see it. 80. For which reason it is said, not that the wise man saw God but that God appeared to the wise man; for it was impossible for any one to comprehend by his own unassisted power the true living God, unless he himself displayed and revealed himself to him. XVIII. 81. And there is evidence in support of what has here been said to be derived from the change and alteration of his name: for he was anciently called Abram, but afterwards he was named Abraham: the alteration of sound being only that which proceeds from one single letter, alpha, being doubled, but the alteration revealing in effect an important fact and doctrine; 82. for the name Abram being interpreted means "sublime father;" but Abraham signifies, "the elect father of sound." The first name being expressive of the man who is called an astronomer, and one addicted to the contemplation of the sublime bodies in the sky, and who was versed in the doctrines of the Chaldaeans, and who took care of them as a father might take care of his children. 83. But the last name intimating the really wise man; for the latter name, by the word sound, intimates the uttered speech; and by the word father, the domit mind. For the speech which is conceived within is naturally the father of that which is uttered, inasmuch as it is older than the latter, and as it also suggests what is to be said. And by the addition of the word elect his goodness is intimated. For the evil disposition is a random and confused one, but that which is elect is good, having been selected from all others by reason of its excellence. 84. Therefore, to him who is addicted to the contemplation of the sublime bodies of the sky there appears to be nothing whatever greater than the world; and therefore he refers the causes of all things that exist to the world. But the wise man, beholding with more accurate eyes that more perfect being that rules and governs all things, and is appreciable only by the intellect, to whom all things are subservient as to the master, and by whom every thing is directed, very often reproaches himself for his former way of life, and if he had lived the existence of a blind man, leaning upon objects perceptible by the outward senses, on things by their very nature worthless and unstable. 85. The second migration is again undertaken by the virtuous man under the influence of a sacred oracle, but this is no longer one from one city to another, but it is to a desolate country, in which he wandered about for a long time without being discontented at his wandering and at his unsettled condition, which necessarily arose from it. 86. And yet, what other man would not have been grieved, not only at departing from his own country but also at being driven away from every city into an inaccessible and impassable district? And what other man would have not turned back and returned to his former home, paying but little attention to his former hopes, but desiring to escape from his present perplexity, thinking it folly for the sake of uncertain advantages to undergo admitted evils? 87. But this man alone appears to have behaved in the contrary manner, thinking that life which was remote from the fellowship of many companions the most pleasant of all. And this is naturally the case; for those who seek and desire to find God, love that solitude which is dear to him, labouring for this as their dearest and primary object, to become like his blessed and happy nature. 88. Therefore, having now given both explanations, the literal one as concerning the man, and the allegorical one relating to the soul, we have shown that both the man and the mind are deserving of love; inasmuch as the one is obedient to the sacred oracles, and because of their influence submits to be torn away from things which it is hard to part; and the mind deserves to be loved because it has not submitted to be for ever deceived and to abide permanently with the essences perceptible by the outward senses, thinking the visible world the greatest and first of gods, but soaring upwards with its reason it has beheld another nature better than that which is visible, that, namely, which is appreciable only by the intellect; and also that being who is at the same time the Creator and ruler of both. XIX. '. None
25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 178 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philo of Alexandria, on fate and necessity (εἱμαρμένη καὶ ἀνάγκη) • fatalism

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 93; Frede and Laks (2001) 290

178. What then shall we say? The Chaldeans appear beyond all other men to have devoted themselves to the study of astronomy and of genealogies; adapting things on earth to things sublime, and also adapting the things of heaven to those on earth, and like people who, availing themselves of the principles of music, exhibit a most perfect symphony as existing in the universe by the common union and sympathy of the parts for one another, which though separated as to place, are not disunited in regard of kindred. ''. None
26. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 135 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philo of Alexandria, on fate and necessity (εἱμαρμένη καὶ ἀνάγκη) • fate

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 93; Schibli (2002) 334

135. Whose was the ring, or the pledge, or the seal of the whole, or the archetypal appearance, according to which all the things, though devoid of species and of distinctive quality, were all stamped and marked? And whose again was the armlet, or the ornament; that is to say, destiny, the link and analogy of all things which have an indissoluble connection? Whose, again, was the staff, the thing of strong support, which wavers not, which is not moved; that is to say, admonition, correction, instruction? Whose is the sceptre, the kingly power? ''. None
27. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 4.100-4.102, 4.122-4.125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fat

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 49; Rosenblum (2016) 53, 75

4.100. Moreover, Moses has not granted an unlimited possession and use of all other animals to those who partake in his sacred constitution, but he has forbidden with all his might all animals, whether of the land, or of the water, or that fly through the air, which are most fleshy and fat, and calculated to excite treacherous pleasure, well knowing that such, attracting as with a bait that most slavish of all the outward senses, namely, taste, produce insatiability, an incurable evil to both souls and bodies, for insatiability produces indigestion, which is the origin and source of all diseases and weaknesses. 4.101. Now of land animals, the swine is confessed to be the nicest of all meats by those who eat it, and of all aquatic animals the most delicate are the fish which have no scales; and Moses is above all other men skilful in training and inuring persons of a good natural disposition to the practice of virtue by frugality and abstinence, endeavouring to remove costly luxury from their characters, 4.102. at the same time not approving of unnecessary rigour, like the lawgiver of Lacedaemon, nor undue effeminacy, like the man who taught the Ionians and the Sybarites lessons of luxury and license, but keeping a middle path between the two courses, so that he has relaxed what was over strict, and tightened what was too loose, mingling the excesses which are found at each extremity with moderation, which lies between the two, so as to produce an irreproachable harmony and consistency of life, on which account he has laid down not carelessly, but with minute particularity, what we are to use and what to avoid.
4.122. But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, {26}{4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{4.124. But Moses commanded men to abstain from eating fat, because it is gross. And again, he gave us this injunction, in order to inculcate temperance and a zeal for an austere life: for some things we easily abandon, and without any hesitation; though we do not willingly encounter any anxieties or labours for the sake of the acquisition of virtue. 4.125. For which reason these two parts are to be taken out of every victim and burnt with fire, as a kind of first fruits, namely, the fat and the blood; the one being poured upon the altar as a libation; and the other as a fuel to the flame, being applied instead of oil, by reason of its fatness, to the consecrated and holy flame. ''. None
28. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 300 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philo of Alexandria, on fate and necessity (εἱμαρμένη καὶ ἀνάγκη) • fatalism

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 93; Frede and Laks (2001) 290

300. But up to what time this is to be he tells us himself, when he says, "For the wickednesses of the Amorites are not yet Fulfilled." And such words as these give an occasion to weaker brethren to fancy, that Moses represents fate and necessity as the causes of all things that exist or take place; ''. None
29. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Claudius, fate and • private library, role of in fate of book

 Found in books: Johnson and Parker (2009) 160; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 8

30. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Germanicus, fortune/fate and • extispicy, fate

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 89; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 115

31. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate, • determinism, and fatalism • fate

 Found in books: Del Lucchese (2019) 158; Hankinson (1998) 230; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 20; Long (2006) 165, 166, 170

32. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.278, 13.171-13.173, 18.12-18.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • determinism/fate • fate • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum • fate/fatalism • fated

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 148, 151, 152, 210; Despotis and Lohr (2022) 102; Garcia (2021) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 269; Wilson (2018) 27, 30, 31

10.278. οἳ τήν τε πρόνοιαν ἐκβάλλουσι τοῦ βίου καὶ θεὸν οὐκ ἀξιοῦσιν ἐπιτροπεύειν τῶν πραγμάτων, οὐδ' ὑπὸ τῆς μακαρίας καὶ ἀφθάρτου πρὸς διαμονὴν τῶν ὅλων οὐσίας κυβερνᾶσθαι τὰ σύμπαντα, ἄμοιρον δὲ ἡνιόχου καὶ ἀφρόντιστον τὸν κόσμον αὐτομάτως φέρεσθαι λέγουσιν." '
13.171. Κατὰ δὲ τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον τρεῖς αἱρέσεις τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἦσαν, αἳ περὶ τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων πραγμάτων διαφόρως ὑπελάμβανον, ὧν ἡ μὲν Φαρισαίων ἐλέγετο, ἡ δὲ Σαδδουκαίων, ἡ τρίτη δὲ ̓Εσσηνῶν.' "13.172. οἱ μὲν οὖν Φαρισαῖοι τινὰ καὶ οὐ πάντα τῆς εἱμαρμένης ἔργον εἶναι λέγουσιν, τινὰ δ' ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς ὑπάρχειν συμβαίνειν τε καὶ μὴ γίνεσθαι. τὸ δὲ τῶν ̓Εσσηνῶν γένος πάντων τὴν εἱμαρμένην κυρίαν ἀποφαίνεται καὶ μηδὲν ὃ μὴ κατ' ἐκείνης ψῆφον ἀνθρώποις ἀπαντᾶν." "13.173. Σαδδουκαῖοι δὲ τὴν μὲν εἱμαρμένην ἀναιροῦσιν οὐδὲν εἶναι ταύτην ἀξιοῦντες οὐδὲ κατ' αὐτὴν τὰ ἀνθρώπινα τέλος λαμβάνειν, ἅπαντα δὲ ἐφ' ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς κεῖσθαι, ὡς καὶ τῶν ἀγαθῶν αἰτίους ἡμᾶς γινομένους καὶ τὰ χείρω παρὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν ἀβουλίαν λαμβάνοντας. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων ἀκριβεστέραν πεποίημαι δήλωσιν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ βίβλῳ τῆς ̓Ιουδαϊκῆς πραγματείας." "
18.12. Οἵ τε γὰρ Φαρισαῖοι τὴν δίαιταν ἐξευτελίζουσιν οὐδὲν ἐς τὸ μαλακώτερον ἐνδιδόντες, ὧν τε ὁ λόγος κρίνας παρέδωκεν ἀγαθῶν ἕπονται τῇ ἡγεμονίᾳ περιμάχητον ἡγούμενοι τὴν φυλακὴν ὧν ὑπαγορεύειν ἠθέλησεν. τιμῆς γε τοῖς ἡλικίᾳ προήκουσιν παραχωροῦσιν οὐδ' ἐπ' ἀντιλέξει τῶν εἰσηγηθέντων ταῦτα οἱ θράσει ἐπαιρόμενοι." '
18.12. Οὐιτέλλιος δὲ παρασκευασάμενος ὡς εἰς πόλεμον τὸν πρὸς ̓Αρέταν δυσὶ τάγμασιν ὁπλιτῶν ὅσοι τε περὶ αὐτὰ ψιλοὶ καὶ ἱππεῖς συμμαχοῦντες ἐκ τῶν ὑπὸ ̔Ρωμαίοις βασιλειῶν ἀγόμενος, ἐπὶ τῆς Πέτρας ἠπείγετο καὶ ἔσχε Πτολεμαί̈δα.' "18.13. ̔Ηρώδῃ τῷ μεγάλῳ θυγατέρες ἐκ Μαριάμμης τῆς ̔Υρκανοῦ θυγατρὸς γίνονται δύο, Σαλαμψιὼ μὲν ἡ ἑτέρα, ἣ γαμεῖται Φασαήλῳ τῷ αὐτῆς ἀνεψιῷ Φασαήλου παιδὶ ὄντι τοῦ ̔Ηρώδου ἀδελφοῦ δεδωκότος τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτήν, Κύπρος δὲ ̓Αντιπάτρῳ καὶ αὐτὴ ἀνεψιῷ ̔Ηρώδου παιδὶ τῆς ἀδελφῆς Σαλώμης. 18.13. πράσσεσθαί τε εἱμαρμένῃ τὰ πάντα ἀξιοῦντες οὐδὲ τοῦ ἀνθρωπείου τὸ βουλόμενον τῆς ἐπ' αὐτοῖς ὁρμῆς ἀφαιροῦνται δοκῆσαν τῷ θεῷ κρίσιν γενέσθαι καὶ τῷ ἐκείνης βουλευτηρίῳ καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων τῷ ἐθελήσαντι προσχωρεῖν μετ' ἀρετῆς ἢ κακίας." '18.14. ̓Αλεξάνδρῳ δὲ Τιγράνης ὁμώνυμος τῷ ἀδελφῷ γίνεται παῖς καὶ βασιλεὺς ̓Αρμενίας ὑπὸ Νέρωνος ἐκπέμπεται υἱός τε ̓Αλέξανδρος αὐτῷ γίνεται. γαμεῖ δ' οὗτος ̓Αντιόχου τοῦ Κομμαγηνῶν βασιλέως θυγατέρα ̓Ιωτάπην, ἡσίοδός τε τῆς ἐν Κιλικίᾳ Οὐεσπασιανὸς αὐτὸν ἵσταται βασιλέα." "18.14. ἀθάνατόν τε ἰσχὺν ταῖς ψυχαῖς πίστις αὐτοῖς εἶναι καὶ ὑπὸ χθονὸς δικαιώσεις τε καὶ τιμὰς οἷς ἀρετῆς ἢ κακίας ἐπιτήδευσις ἐν τῷ βίῳ γέγονεν, καὶ ταῖς μὲν εἱργμὸν ἀίδιον προτίθεσθαι, ταῖς δὲ ῥᾳστώνην τοῦ ἀναβιοῦν.' "18.15. καὶ δι' αὐτὰ τοῖς τε δήμοις πιθανώτατοι τυγχάνουσιν καὶ ὁπόσα θεῖα εὐχῶν τε ἔχεται καὶ ἱερῶν ποιήσεως ἐξηγήσει τῇ ἐκείνων τυγχάνουσιν πρασσόμενα. εἰς τοσόνδε ἀρετῆς αὐτοῖς αἱ πόλεις ἐμαρτύρησαν ἐπιτηδεύσει τοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσι κρείσσονος ἔν τε τῇ διαίτῃ τοῦ βίου καὶ λόγοις." "18.15. οὐ μὴν ἐπὶ πλεῖόν γε ̔Ηρώδης ἐνέμεινε τοῖς δεδογμένοις, καίτοι γε οὐδ' ὣς ἀρκοῦντα ἦν: ἐν γὰρ Τύρῳ παρὰ συνουσίαν ὑπὸ οἴνου γενομένων αὐτοῖς λοιδοριῶν, ἀνεκτὸν οὐχ ἡγησάμενος ̓Αγρίππας τοῦ ̔Ηρώδου τε ἐπονειδίσαντος εἰς ἀπορίαν καὶ τροφῆς ἀναγκαίας μετάδοσιν, ὡς Φλάκκον τὸν ὑπατικὸν εἴσεισιν φίλον ἐπὶ ̔Ρώμης τὰ μάλιστα αὐτῷ γεγονότα πρότερον: Συρίαν δὲ ἐν τῷ τότε διεῖπεν." '18.16. Σαδδουκαίοις δὲ τὰς ψυχὰς ὁ λόγος συναφανίζει τοῖς σώμασι, φυλακῇ δὲ οὐδαμῶς τινων μεταποίησις αὐτοῖς ἢ τῶν νόμων: πρὸς γὰρ τοὺς διδασκάλους σοφίας, ἣν μετίασιν, ἀμφιλογεῖν ἀρετὴν ἀριθμοῦσιν. 18.16. ἡ δὲ ὑπισχνεῖτο, καὶ ὁ ̓Αλέξανδρος πέντε τάλαντα αὐτοῖς ἐν τῇ ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ δοὺς τὸ λοιπὸν ἐν Δικαιαρχείᾳ γενομένοις παρέξειν ἐπηγγέλλετο, δεδιὼς τοῦ ̓Αγρίππου τὸ εἰς τὰ ἀναλώματα ἕτοιμον. καὶ Κύπρος μὲν ἀπαλλάξασα τὸν ἄνδρα ἐπὶ τῆς ̓Ιταλίας πλευσούμενον αὐτὴ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων ἐπὶ ̓Ιουδαίας ἀνέζευξεν.' "18.17. εἰς ὀλίγους δὲ ἄνδρας οὗτος ὁ λόγος ἀφίκετο, τοὺς μέντοι πρώτους τοῖς ἀξιώμασι, πράσσεταί τε ἀπ' αὐτῶν οὐδὲν ὡς εἰπεῖν: ὁπότε γὰρ ἐπ' ἀρχὰς παρέλθοιεν, ἀκουσίως μὲν καὶ κατ' ἀνάγκας, προσχωροῦσι δ' οὖν οἷς ὁ Φαρισαῖος λέγει διὰ τὸ μὴ ἄλλως ἀνεκτοὺς γενέσθαι τοῖς πλήθεσιν." "18.17. οὔτε γὰρ πρεσβειῶν ὑποδοχὰς ἐκ τοῦ ὀξέος ἐποιεῖτο ἡγεμόσι τε ἢ ἐπιτρόποις ὑπ' αὐτοῦ σταλεῖσιν οὐδεμία ἦν διαδοχή, ὁπότε μὴ φθαῖεν τετελευτηκότες: ὅθεν καὶ δεσμωτῶν ἀκροάσεως ἀπερίοπτος ἦν." '18.18. ̓Εσσηνοῖς δὲ ἐπὶ μὲν θεῷ καταλείπειν φιλεῖ τὰ πάντα ὁ λόγος, ἀθανατίζουσιν δὲ τὰς ψυχὰς περιμάχητον ἡγούμενοι τοῦ δικαίου τὴν πρόσοδον. 18.18. τιμία δὲ ἦν ̓Αντωνία Τιβερίῳ εἰς τὰ πάντα συγγενείας τε ἀξιώματι, Δρούσου γὰρ ἦν ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ γυνή, καὶ ἀρετῇ τοῦ σώφρονος: νέα γὰρ χηρεύειν παρέμεινεν γάμῳ τε ἀπεῖπεν τῷ πρὸς ἕτερον καίπερ τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ κελεύοντός τινι γαμεῖσθαι, καὶ λοιδοριῶν ἀπηλλαγμένον διεσώσατο αὐτῆς τὸν βίον.' "18.19. ἐπεὶ δ' ὁ Καῖσαρ περιοδεύσας τὸν ἱππόδρομον λαμβάνει τὸν ̓Αγρίππαν ἑστηκότα, “καὶ μὴν δή, φησίν, Μάκρων, τοῦτον εἶπον δεθῆναι”. τοῦ δὲ ἐπανερομένου ὅντινα, “̓Αγρίππαν γε” εἶπεν." "18.19. εἰς δὲ τὸ ἱερὸν ἀναθήματα στέλλοντες θυσίας ἐπιτελοῦσιν διαφορότητι ἁγνειῶν, ἃς νομίζοιεν, καὶ δι' αὐτὸ εἰργόμενοι τοῦ κοινοῦ τεμενίσματος ἐφ' αὑτῶν τὰς θυσίας ἐπιτελοῦσιν. βέλτιστοι δὲ ἄλλως ἄνδρες τὸν τρόπον καὶ τὸ πᾶν πονεῖν ἐπὶ γεωργίᾳ τετραμμένοι." "18.21. καὶ οὔτε γαμετὰς εἰσάγονται οὔτε δούλων ἐπιτηδεύουσιν κτῆσιν, τὸ μὲν εἰς ἀδικίαν φέρειν ὑπειληφότες, τὸ δὲ στάσεως ἐνδιδόναι ποίησιν, αὐτοὶ δ' ἐφ' ἑαυτῶν ζῶντες διακονίᾳ τῇ ἐπ' ἀλλήλοις ἐπιχρῶνται." '18.21. οὕτως ἀνεπαχθῶς ὡμίλησε τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. ἐξ ὧν μέγα ὄφελος καὶ τῷ παιδὶ αὐτοῦ παρὰ πᾶσιν κατελέλειπτο τοῖς τε ἄλλοις καὶ μάλιστα τὸ στρατιωτικὸν ἦρτο, ἀρετὴν ἀριθμοῦντες τὸ περὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἐκείνῳ περιγενησομένης, εἰ δεήσει, καὶ τελευτᾶν.' "18.22. ἀξιῶ δέ σε μηδὲν ἀμνημονεῖν ὁμιλήσαντα αὐτῇ μήτ' εὐνοίας τῆς ἐμῆς, ὃς εἰς τοσόνδε ἀξιώματος καθίστημι μέγεθος," 18.22. ἀποδέκτας δὲ τῶν προσόδων χειροτονοῦντες καὶ ὁπόσα ἡ γῆ φέροι ἄνδρας ἀγαθούς, ἱερεῖς δὲ ἐπὶ ποιήσει σίτου τε καὶ βρωμάτων. ζῶσι δὲ οὐδὲν παρηλλαγμένως, ἀλλ' ὅτι μάλιστα ἐμφέροντες Δακῶν τοῖς πλείστοις λεγομένοις." "". None
10.278. who cast Providence out of human life, and do not believe that God takes care of the affairs of the world, nor that the universe is governed and continued in being by that blessed and immortal nature, but say that the world is carried along of its own accord, without a ruler and a curator;
13.171. 9. At this time there were three sects among the Jews, who had different opinions concerning human actions; the one was called the sect of the Pharisees, another the sect of the Sadducees, and the other the sect of the Essenes. 13.172. Now for the Pharisees, they say that some actions, but not all, are the work of fate, and some of them are in our own power, and that they are liable to fate, but are not caused by fate. But the sect of the Essenes affirm, that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination. 13.173. And for the Sadducees, they take away fate, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power, so that we are ourselves the causes of what is good, and receive what is evil from our own folly. However, I have given a more exact account of these opinions in the second book of the Jewish War.
18.12. 3. Now, for the Pharisees, they live meanly, and despise delicacies in diet; and they follow the conduct of reason; and what that prescribes to them as good for them they do; and they think they ought earnestly to strive to observe reason’s dictates for practice. They also pay a respect to such as are in years; nor are they so bold as to contradict them in any thing which they have introduced;
18.12. 3. So Vitellius prepared to make war with Aretas, having with him two legions of armed men; he also took with him all those of light armature, and of the horsemen which belonged to them, and were drawn out of those kingdoms which were under the Romans, and made haste for Petra, and came to Ptolemais. 18.13. 4. Herod the Great had two daughters by Mariamne, the grand daughter of Hyrcanus; the one was Salampsio, who was married to Phasaelus, her first cousin, who was himself the son of Phasaelus, Herod’s brother, her father making the match; the other was Cypros, who was herself married also to her first cousin Antipater, the son of Salome, Herod’s sister. 18.13. and when they determine that all things are done by fate, they do not take away the freedom from men of acting as they think fit; since their notion is, that it hath pleased God to make a temperament, whereby what he wills is done, but so that the will of man can act virtuously or viciously. 18.14. Alexander had a son of the same name with his brother Tigranes, and was sent to take possession of the kingdom of Armenia by Nero; he had a son, Alexander, who married Jotape, the daughter of Antiochus, the king of Commagena; Vespasian made him king of an island in Cilicia. 18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again; 18.15. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria. 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.16. 4. But the doctrine of the Sadducees is this: That souls die with the bodies; nor do they regard the observation of any thing besides what the law enjoins them; for they think it an instance of virtue to dispute with those teachers of philosophy whom they frequent: 18.16. o she undertook to repay it. Accordingly, Alexander paid them five talents at Alexandria, and promised to pay them the rest of that sum at Dicearchia Puteoli; and this he did out of the fear he was in that Agrippa would soon spend it. So this Cypros set her husband free, and dismissed him to go on with his navigation to Italy, while she and her children departed for Judea. 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them. 18.17. for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were despatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners; 18.18. 5. The doctrine of the Essenes is this: That all things are best ascribed to God. They teach the immortality of souls, and esteem that the rewards of righteousness are to be earnestly striven for; 18.18. Now Antonia was greatly esteemed by Tiberius on all accounts, from the dignity of her relation to him, who had been his brother Drusus’s wife, and from her eminent chastity; for though she was still a young woman, she continued in her widowhood, and refused all other matches, although Augustus had enjoined her to be married to somebody else; yet did she all along preserve her reputation free from reproach. 18.19. But when Caesar had gone round the hippodrome, he found Agrippa standing: “For certain,” said he, “Macro, this is the man I meant to have bound;” and when he still asked, “Which of these is to be bound?” he said “Agrippa.” 18.19. and when they send what they have dedicated to God into the temple, they do not offer sacrifices because they have more pure lustrations of their own; on which account they are excluded from the common court of the temple, but offer their sacrifices themselves; yet is their course of life better than that of other men; and they entirely addict themselves to husbandry. 18.21. and neither marry wives, nor are desirous to keep servants; as thinking the latter tempts men to be unjust, and the former gives the handle to domestic quarrels; but as they live by themselves, they minister one to another. 18.21. that it turned greatly to the advantage of his son among all; and, among others, the soldiery were so peculiarly affected to him, that they reckoned it an eligible thing, if need were, to die themselves, if he might but attain to the government. 18.22. They also appoint certain stewards to receive the incomes of their revenues, and of the fruits of the ground; such as are good men and priests, who are to get their corn and their food ready for them. They none of them differ from others of the Essenes in their way of living, but do the most resemble those Dacae who are called Polistae dwellers in cities. 18.22. and I desire thee never to be unmindful when thou comest to it, either of my kindness to thee, who set thee in so high a dignity,' '. None
33. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.119-2.129, 2.131-2.139, 2.141-2.149, 2.151-2.166 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • determinism/fate • fate • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum • fate/fatalism • fated

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 151, 152, 175, 210, 211; Despotis and Lohr (2022) 102; Garcia (2021) 210, 213, 214, 216; Wilson (2018) 27, 30

2.119. Τρία γὰρ παρὰ ̓Ιουδαίοις εἴδη φιλοσοφεῖται, καὶ τοῦ μὲν αἱρετισταὶ Φαρισαῖοι, τοῦ δὲ Σαδδουκαῖοι, τρίτον δέ, ὃ δὴ καὶ δοκεῖ σεμνότητα ἀσκεῖν, ̓Εσσηνοὶ καλοῦνται, ̓Ιουδαῖοι μὲν γένος ὄντες, φιλάλληλοι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλέον. 2.121. τὸν μὲν γάμον καὶ τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ διαδοχὴν οὐκ ἀναιροῦντες, τὰς δὲ τῶν γυναικῶν ἀσελγείας φυλαττόμενοι καὶ μηδεμίαν τηρεῖν πεπεισμένοι τὴν πρὸς ἕνα πίστιν.' "2.122. Καταφρονηταὶ δὲ πλούτου, καὶ θαυμάσιον αὐτοῖς τὸ κοινωνικόν, οὐδὲ ἔστιν εὑρεῖν κτήσει τινὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς ὑπερέχοντα: νόμος γὰρ τοὺς εἰς τὴν αἵρεσιν εἰσιόντας δημεύειν τῷ τάγματι τὴν οὐσίαν, ὥστε ἐν ἅπασιν μήτε πενίας ταπεινότητα φαίνεσθαι μήθ' ὑπεροχὴν πλούτου, τῶν δ' ἑκάστου κτημάτων ἀναμεμιγμένων μίαν ὥσπερ ἀδελφοῖς ἅπασιν οὐσίαν εἶναι." "2.123. κηλῖδα δ' ὑπολαμβάνουσι τὸ ἔλαιον, κἂν ἀλειφθῇ τις ἄκων, σμήχεται τὸ σῶμα: τὸ γὰρ αὐχμεῖν ἐν καλῷ τίθενται λευχειμονεῖν τε διαπαντός. χειροτονητοὶ δ' οἱ τῶν κοινῶν ἐπιμεληταὶ καὶ ἀδιαίρετοι πρὸς ἁπάντων εἰς τὰς χρείας ἕκαστοι." "2.124. Μία δ' οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτῶν πόλις ἀλλ' ἐν ἑκάστῃ μετοικοῦσιν πολλοί. καὶ τοῖς ἑτέρωθεν ἥκουσιν αἱρετισταῖς πάντ' ἀναπέπταται τὰ παρ' αὐτοῖς ὁμοίως ὥσπερ ἴδια, καὶ πρὸς οὓς οὐ πρότερον εἶδον εἰσίασιν ὡς συνηθεστάτους:" "2.125. διὸ καὶ ποιοῦνται τὰς ἀποδημίας οὐδὲν μὲν ὅλως ἐπικομιζόμενοι, διὰ δὲ τοὺς λῃστὰς ἔνοπλοι. κηδεμὼν δ' ἐν ἑκάστῃ πόλει τοῦ τάγματος ἐξαιρέτως τῶν ξένων ἀποδείκνυται ταμιεύων ἐσθῆτα καὶ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια." '2.126. καταστολὴ δὲ καὶ σχῆμα σώματος ὅμοιον τοῖς μετὰ φόβου παιδαγωγουμένοις παισίν. οὔτε δὲ ἐσθῆτας οὔτε ὑποδήματα ἀμείβουσι πρὶν διαρραγῆναι τὸ πρότερον παντάπασιν ἢ δαπανηθῆναι τῷ χρόνῳ.' "2.127. οὐδὲν δ' ἐν ἀλλήλοις οὔτ' ἀγοράζουσιν οὔτε πωλοῦσιν, ἀλλὰ τῷ χρῄζοντι διδοὺς ἕκαστος τὰ παρ' αὐτῷ τὸ παρ' ἐκείνου χρήσιμον ἀντικομίζεται: καὶ χωρὶς δὲ τῆς ἀντιδόσεως ἀκώλυτος ἡ μετάληψις αὐτοῖς παρ' ὧν ἂν θέλωσιν." '2.128. Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "
2.131. προκατεύχεται δ' ὁ ἱερεὺς τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ γεύσασθαί τινα πρὶν τῆς εὐχῆς ἀθέμιτον: ἀριστοποιησάμενος δ' ἐπεύχεται πάλιν: ἀρχόμενοί τε καὶ παυόμενοι γεραίρουσι θεὸν ὡς χορηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς. ἔπειθ' ὡς ἱερὰς καταθέμενοι τὰς ἐσθῆτας πάλιν ἐπ' ἔργα μέχρι δείλης τρέπονται." "2.132. δειπνοῦσι δ' ὁμοίως ὑποστρέψαντες συγκαθεζομένων τῶν ξένων, εἰ τύχοιεν αὐτοῖς παρόντες. οὔτε δὲ κραυγή ποτε τὸν οἶκον οὔτε θόρυβος μιαίνει, τὰς δὲ λαλιὰς ἐν τάξει παραχωροῦσιν ἀλλήλοις." "2.133. καὶ τοῖς ἔξωθεν ὡς μυστήριόν τι φρικτὸν ἡ τῶν ἔνδον σιωπὴ καταφαίνεται, τούτου δ' αἴτιον ἡ διηνεκὴς νῆψις καὶ τὸ μετρεῖσθαι παρ' αὐτοῖς τροφὴν καὶ ποτὸν μέχρι κόρου." "2.134. Τῶν μὲν οὖν ἄλλων οὐκ ἔστιν ὅ τι μὴ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν προσταξάντων ἐνεργοῦσι, δύο δὲ ταῦτα παρ' αὐτοῖς αὐτεξούσια, ἐπικουρία καὶ ἔλεος: βοηθεῖν τε γὰρ τοῖς ἀξίοις, ὁπόταν δέωνται, καὶ καθ' ἑαυτοὺς ἐφίεται καὶ τροφὰς ἀπορουμένοις ὀρέγειν. τὰς δὲ εἰς τοὺς συγγενεῖς μεταδόσεις οὐκ ἔξεστι ποιεῖσθαι δίχα τῶν ἐπιτρόπων." "2.135. ὀργῆς ταμίαι δίκαιοι, θυμοῦ καθεκτικοί, πίστεως προστάται, εἰρήνης ὑπουργοί. καὶ πᾶν μὲν τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἰσχυρότερον ὅρκου, τὸ δὲ ὀμνύειν αὐτοῖς περιίσταται χεῖρον τῆς ἐπιορκίας ὑπολαμβάνοντες: ἤδη γὰρ κατεγνῶσθαί φασιν τὸν ἀπιστούμενον δίχα θεοῦ." "2.136. σπουδάζουσι δ' ἐκτόπως περὶ τὰ τῶν παλαιῶν συντάγματα μάλιστα τὰ πρὸς ὠφέλειαν ψυχῆς καὶ σώματος ἐκλέγοντες: ἔνθεν αὐτοῖς πρὸς θεραπείαν παθῶν ῥίζαι τε ἀλεξητήριον καὶ λίθων ἰδιότητες ἀνερευνῶνται." "2.137. Τοῖς δὲ ζηλοῦσιν τὴν αἵρεσιν αὐτῶν οὐκ εὐθὺς ἡ πάροδος, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ ἐνιαυτὸν ἔξω μένοντι τὴν αὐτὴν ὑποτίθενται δίαιταν ἀξινάριόν τε καὶ τὸ προειρημένον περίζωμα καὶ λευκὴν ἐσθῆτα δόντες." '2.138. ἐπειδὰν δὲ τούτῳ τῷ χρόνῳ πεῖραν ἐγκρατείας δῷ, πρόσεισιν μὲν ἔγγιον τῇ διαίτῃ καὶ καθαρωτέρων τῶν πρὸς ἁγνείαν ὑδάτων μεταλαμβάνει, παραλαμβάνεται δὲ εἰς τὰς συμβιώσεις οὐδέπω. μετὰ γὰρ τὴν τῆς καρτερίας ἐπίδειξιν δυσὶν ἄλλοις ἔτεσιν τὸ ἦθος δοκιμάζεται καὶ φανεὶς ἄξιος οὕτως εἰς τὸν ὅμιλον ἐγκρίνεται.' "2.139. πρὶν δὲ τῆς κοινῆς ἅψασθαι τροφῆς ὅρκους αὐτοῖς ὄμνυσι φρικώδεις, πρῶτον μὲν εὐσεβήσειν τὸ θεῖον, ἔπειτα τὰ πρὸς ἀνθρώπους δίκαια φυλάξειν καὶ μήτε κατὰ γνώμην βλάψειν τινὰ μήτε ἐξ ἐπιτάγματος, μισήσειν δ' ἀεὶ τοὺς ἀδίκους καὶ συναγωνιεῖσθαι τοῖς δικαίοις:" "
2.141. τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἀγαπᾶν ἀεὶ καὶ τοὺς ψευδομένους προβάλλεσθαι: χεῖρας κλοπῆς καὶ ψυχὴν ἀνοσίου κέρδους καθαρὰν φυλάξειν καὶ μήτε κρύψειν τι τοὺς αἱρετιστὰς μήθ' ἑτέροις αὐτῶν τι μηνύσειν, κἂν μέχρι θανάτου τις βιάζηται." '2.142. πρὸς τούτοις ὄμνυσιν μηδενὶ μὲν μεταδοῦναι τῶν δογμάτων ἑτέρως ἢ ὡς αὐτὸς μετέλαβεν, ἀφέξεσθαι δὲ λῃστείας καὶ συντηρήσειν ὁμοίως τά τε τῆς αἱρέσεως αὐτῶν βιβλία καὶ τὰ τῶν ἀγγέλων ὀνόματα. τοιούτοις μὲν ὅρκοις τοὺς προσιόντας ἐξασφαλίζονται.' "2.143. Τοὺς δ' ἐπ' ἀξιοχρέοις ἁμαρτήμασιν ἁλόντας ἐκβάλλουσι τοῦ τάγματος. ὁ δ' ἐκκριθεὶς οἰκτίστῳ πολλάκις μόρῳ διαφθείρεται: τοῖς γὰρ ὅρκοις καὶ τοῖς ἔθεσιν ἐνδεδεμένος οὐδὲ τῆς παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις τροφῆς δύναται μεταλαμβάνειν, ποηφαγῶν δὲ καὶ λιμῷ τὸ σῶμα τηκόμενος διαφθείρεται." '2.144. διὸ δὴ πολλοὺς ἐλεήσαντες ἐν ταῖς ἐσχάταις ἀναπνοαῖς ἀνέλαβον, ἱκανὴν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήμασιν αὐτῶν τὴν μέχρι θανάτου βάσανον ἡγούμενοι.' "2.145. Περὶ δὲ τὰς κρίσεις ἀκριβέστατοι καὶ δίκαιοι, καὶ δικάζουσι μὲν οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν ἑκατὸν συνελθόντες, τὸ δ' ὁρισθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀκίνητον. σέβας δὲ μέγα παρ' αὐτοῖς μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τοὔνομα τοῦ νομοθέτου, κἂν βλασφημήσῃ τις εἰς τοῦτον κολάζεται θανάτῳ." '2.146. τοῖς δὲ πρεσβυτέροις ὑπακούουσιν καὶ τοῖς πλείοσιν ἐν καλῷ: δέκα γοῦν συγκαθεζομένων οὐκ ἂν λαλήσειέν τις ἀκόντων τῶν ἐννέα.' "2.147. καὶ τὸ πτύσαι δὲ εἰς μέσους ἢ τὸ δεξιὸν μέρος φυλάσσονται καὶ ταῖς ἑβδομάσιν ἔργων ἐφάπτεσθαι διαφορώτατα ̓Ιουδαίων ἁπάντων: οὐ μόνον γὰρ τροφὰς ἑαυτοῖς πρὸ μιᾶς ἡμέρας παρασκευάζουσιν, ὡς μὴ πῦρ ἐναύοιεν ἐκείνην τὴν ἡμέραν, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ σκεῦός τι μετακινῆσαι θαρροῦσιν οὐδὲ ἀποπατεῖν." "2.148. ταῖς δ' ἄλλαις ἡμέραις βόθρον ὀρύσσοντες βάθος ποδιαῖον τῇ σκαλίδι, τοιοῦτον γάρ ἐστιν τὸ διδόμενον ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀξινίδιον τοῖς νεοσυστάτοις, καὶ περικαλύψαντες θοιμάτιον, ὡς μὴ τὰς αὐγὰς ὑβρίζοιεν τοῦ θεοῦ, θακεύουσιν εἰς αὐτόν." "2.149. ἔπειτα τὴν ἀνορυχθεῖσαν γῆν ἐφέλκουσιν εἰς τὸν βόθρον: καὶ τοῦτο ποιοῦσι τοὺς ἐρημοτέρους τόπους ἐκλεγόμενοι. καίπερ δὴ φυσικῆς οὔσης τῆς τῶν λυμάτων ἐκκρίσεως ἀπολούεσθαι μετ' αὐτὴν καθάπερ μεμιασμένοις ἔθιμον." "
2.151. καὶ μακρόβιοι μέν, ὡς τοὺς πολλοὺς ὑπὲρ ἑκατὸν παρατείνειν ἔτη, διὰ τὴν ἁπλότητα τῆς διαίτης ἔμοιγε δοκεῖν καὶ τὴν εὐταξίαν, καταφρονηταὶ δὲ τῶν δεινῶν, καὶ τὰς μὲν ἀλγηδόνας νικῶντες τοῖς φρονήμασιν, τὸν δὲ θάνατον, εἰ μετ' εὐκλείας πρόσεισι, νομίζοντες ἀθανασίας ἀμείνονα." "2.152. διήλεγξεν δὲ αὐτῶν ἐν ἅπασιν τὰς ψυχὰς ὁ πρὸς ̔Ρωμαίους πόλεμος, ἐν ᾧ στρεβλούμενοί τε καὶ λυγιζόμενοι καιόμενοί τε καὶ κλώμενοι καὶ διὰ πάντων ὁδεύοντες τῶν βασανιστηρίων ὀργάνων, ἵν' ἢ βλασφημήσωσιν τὸν νομοθέτην ἢ φάγωσίν τι τῶν ἀσυνήθων, οὐδέτερον ὑπέμειναν παθεῖν, ἀλλ' οὐδὲ κολακεῦσαί ποτε τοὺς αἰκιζομένους ἢ δακρῦσαι." '2.153. μειδιῶντες δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἀλγηδόσιν καὶ κατειρωνευόμενοι τῶν τὰς βασάνους προσφερόντων εὔθυμοι τὰς ψυχὰς ἠφίεσαν ὡς πάλιν κομιούμενοι.' "2.154. Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," "2.155. ἐπειδὰν δὲ ἀνεθῶσι τῶν κατὰ σάρκα δεσμῶν, οἷα δὴ μακρᾶς δουλείας ἀπηλλαγμένας τότε χαίρειν καὶ μετεώρους φέρεσθαι. καὶ ταῖς μὲν ἀγαθαῖς ὁμοδοξοῦντες παισὶν ̔Ελλήνων ἀποφαίνονται τὴν ὑπὲρ ὠκεανὸν δίαιταν ἀποκεῖσθαι καὶ χῶρον οὔτε ὄμβροις οὔτε νιφετοῖς οὔτε καύμασι βαρυνόμενον, ἀλλ' ὃν ἐξ ὠκεανοῦ πραὺ̈ς ἀεὶ ζέφυρος ἐπιπνέων ἀναψύχει: ταῖς δὲ φαύλαις ζοφώδη καὶ χειμέριον ἀφορίζονται μυχὸν γέμοντα τιμωριῶν ἀδιαλείπτων." "2.156. δοκοῦσι δέ μοι κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ἔννοιαν ̔́Ελληνες τοῖς τε ἀνδρείοις αὐτῶν, οὓς ἥρωας καὶ ἡμιθέους καλοῦσιν, τὰς μακάρων νήσους ἀνατεθεικέναι, ταῖς δὲ τῶν πονηρῶν ψυχαῖς καθ' ᾅδου τὸν ἀσεβῶν χῶρον, ἔνθα καὶ κολαζομένους τινὰς μυθολογοῦσιν, Σισύφους καὶ Ταντάλους ̓Ιξίονάς τε καὶ Τιτυούς, πρῶτον μὲν ἀιδίους ὑφιστάμενοι τὰς ψυχάς, ἔπειτα εἰς προτροπὴν ἀρετῆς καὶ κακίας ἀποτροπήν." '2.157. τούς τε γὰρ ἀγαθοὺς γίνεσθαι κατὰ τὸν βίον ἀμείνους ἐλπίδι τιμῆς καὶ μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν, τῶν τε κακῶν ἐμποδίζεσθαι τὰς ὁρμὰς δέει προσδοκώντων, εἰ καὶ λάθοιεν ἐν τῷ ζῆν, μετὰ τὴν διάλυσιν ἀθάνατον τιμωρίαν ὑφέξειν. 2.158. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ̓Εσσηνοὶ περὶ ψυχῆς θεολογοῦσιν ἄφυκτον δέλεαρ τοῖς ἅπαξ γευσαμένοις τῆς σοφίας αὐτῶν καθιέντες.' "2.159. Εἰσὶν δ' ἐν αὐτοῖς οἳ καὶ τὰ μέλλοντα προγινώσκειν ὑπισχνοῦνται, βίβλοις ἱεραῖς καὶ διαφόροις ἁγνείαις καὶ προφητῶν ἀποφθέγμασιν ἐμπαιδοτριβούμενοι: σπάνιον δ' εἴ ποτε ἐν ταῖς προαγορεύσεσιν ἀστοχοῦσιν." "2.161. δοκιμάζοντες μέντοι τριετίᾳ τὰς γαμετάς, ἐπειδὰν τρὶς καθαρθῶσιν εἰς πεῖραν τοῦ δύνασθαι τίκτειν, οὕτως ἄγονται. ταῖς δ' ἐγκύμοσιν οὐχ ὁμιλοῦσιν, ἐνδεικνύμενοι τὸ μὴ δι' ἡδονὴν ἀλλὰ τέκνων χρείαν γαμεῖν. λουτρὰ δὲ ταῖς γυναιξὶν ἀμπεχομέναις ἐνδύματα, καθάπερ τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐν περιζώματι. τοιαῦτα μὲν ἔθη τοῦδε τοῦ τάγματος." '2.162. Δύο δὲ τῶν προτέρων Φαρισαῖοι μὲν οἱ μετὰ ἀκριβείας δοκοῦντες ἐξηγεῖσθαι τὰ νόμιμα καὶ τὴν πρώτην ἀπάγοντες αἵρεσιν εἱμαρμένῃ τε καὶ θεῷ προσάπτουσι πάντα, 2.163. καὶ τὸ μὲν πράττειν τὰ δίκαια καὶ μὴ κατὰ τὸ πλεῖστον ἐπὶ τοῖς ἀνθρώποις κεῖσθαι, βοηθεῖν δὲ εἰς ἕκαστον καὶ τὴν εἱμαρμένην: ψυχήν τε πᾶσαν μὲν ἄφθαρτον, μεταβαίνειν δὲ εἰς ἕτερον σῶμα τὴν τῶν ἀγαθῶν μόνην, τὰς δὲ τῶν φαύλων ἀιδίῳ τιμωρίᾳ κολάζεσθαι. 2.164. Σαδδουκαῖοι δέ, τὸ δεύτερον τάγμα, τὴν μὲν εἱμαρμένην παντάπασιν ἀναιροῦσιν καὶ τὸν θεὸν ἔξω τοῦ δρᾶν τι κακὸν ἢ ἐφορᾶν τίθενται:' "2.165. φασὶν δ' ἐπ' ἀνθρώπων ἐκλογῇ τό τε καλὸν καὶ τὸ κακὸν προκεῖσθαι καὶ κατὰ γνώμην ἑκάστου τούτων ἑκατέρῳ προσιέναι. ψυχῆς τε τὴν διαμονὴν καὶ τὰς καθ' ᾅδου τιμωρίας καὶ τιμὰς ἀναιροῦσιν." '2.166. καὶ Φαρισαῖοι μὲν φιλάλληλοί τε καὶ τὴν εἰς τὸ κοινὸν ὁμόνοιαν ἀσκοῦντες, Σαδδουκαίων δὲ καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους τὸ ἦθος ἀγριώτερον αἵ τε ἐπιμιξίαι πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοίους ἀπηνεῖς ὡς πρὸς ἀλλοτρίους. τοιαῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν ἐν ̓Ιουδαίοις φιλοσοφούντων εἶχον εἰπεῖν.' '. None
2.119. 2. For there are three philosophical sects among the Jews. The followers of the first of which are the Pharisees; of the second, the Sadducees; and the third sect, which pretends to a severer discipline, are called Essenes. These last are Jews by birth, and seem to have a greater affection for one another than the other sects have. 2.121. They do not absolutely deny the fitness of marriage, and the succession of mankind thereby continued; but they guard against the lascivious behavior of women, and are persuaded that none of them preserve their fidelity to one man. 2.122. 3. These men are despisers of riches, and so very communicative as raises our admiration. Nor is there anyone to be found among them who hath more than another; for it is a law among them, that those who come to them must let what they have be common to the whole order,—insomuch that among them all there is no appearance of poverty, or excess of riches, but every one’s possessions are intermingled with every other’s possessions; and so there is, as it were, one patrimony among all the brethren. 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all. 2.124. 4. They have no one certain city, but many of them dwell in every city; and if any of their sect come from other places, what they have lies open for them, just as if it were their own; and they go in to such as they never knew before, as if they had been ever so long acquainted with them. 2.125. For which reason they carry nothing at all with them when they travel into remote parts, though still they take their weapons with them, for fear of thieves. Accordingly, there is, in every city where they live, one appointed particularly to take care of strangers, and to provide garments and other necessaries for them. 2.126. But the habit and management of their bodies is such as children use who are in fear of their masters. Nor do they allow of the change of garments, or of shoes, till they be first entirely torn to pieces or worn out by time. 2.127. Nor do they either buy or sell anything to one another; but every one of them gives what he hath to him that wanteth it, and receives from him again in lieu of it what may be convenient for himself; and although there be no requital made, they are fully allowed to take what they want of whomsoever they please. 2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple,
2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 2.132. then they return home to supper, after the same manner; and if there be any strangers there, they sit down with them. Nor is there ever any clamor or disturbance to pollute their house, but they give every one leave to speak in their turn; 2.133. which silence thus kept in their house appears to foreigners like some tremendous mystery; the cause of which is that perpetual sobriety they exercise, and the same settled measure of meat and drink that is allotted to them, and that such as is abundantly sufficient for them. 2.134. 6. And truly, as for other things, they do nothing but according to the injunctions of their curators; only these two things are done among them at everyone’s own free will, which are to assist those that want it, and to show mercy; for they are permitted of their own accord to afford succor to such as deserve it, when they stand in need of it, and to bestow food on those that are in distress; but they cannot give any thing to their kindred without the curators. 2.135. They dispense their anger after a just manner, and restrain their passion. They are eminent for fidelity, and are the ministers of peace; whatsoever they say also is firmer than an oath; but swearing is avoided by them, and they esteem it worse than perjury for they say that he who cannot be believed without swearing by God is already condemned. 2.136. They also take great pains in studying the writings of the ancients, and choose out of them what is most for the advantage of their soul and body; and they inquire after such roots and medicinal stones as may cure their distempers. 2.137. 7. But now, if anyone hath a mind to come over to their sect, he is not immediately admitted, but he is prescribed the same method of living which they use, for a year, while he continues excluded; and they give him also a small hatchet, and the fore-mentioned girdle, and the white garment. 2.138. And when he hath given evidence, during that time, that he can observe their continence, he approaches nearer to their way of living, and is made a partaker of the waters of purification; yet is he not even now admitted to live with them; for after this demonstration of his fortitude, his temper is tried two more years; and if he appear to be worthy, they then admit him into their society. 2.139. And before he is allowed to touch their common food, he is obliged to take tremendous oaths, that, in the first place, he will exercise piety towards God, and then that he will observe justice towards men, and that he will do no harm to any one, either of his own accord, or by the command of others; that he will always hate the wicked, and be assistant to the righteous;
2.141. that he will be perpetually a lover of truth, and propose to himself to reprove those that tell lies; that he will keep his hands clear from theft, and his soul from unlawful gains; and that he will neither conceal anything from those of his own sect, nor discover any of their doctrines to others, no, not though anyone should compel him so to do at the hazard of his life. 2.142. Moreover, he swears to communicate their doctrines to no one any otherwise than as he received them himself; that he will abstain from robbery, and will equally preserve the books belonging to their sect, and the names of the angels or messengers. These are the oaths by which they secure their proselytes to themselves. 2.143. 8. But for those that are caught in any heinous sins, they cast them out of their society; and he who is thus separated from them does often die after a miserable manner; for as he is bound by the oath he hath taken, and by the customs he hath been engaged in, he is not at liberty to partake of that food that he meets with elsewhere, but is forced to eat grass, and to famish his body with hunger, till he perish; 2.144. for which reason they receive many of them again when they are at their last gasp, out of compassion to them, as thinking the miseries they have endured till they came to the very brink of death to be a sufficient punishment for the sins they had been guilty of. 2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator Moses, whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally. 2.146. They also think it a good thing to obey their elders, and the major part. Accordingly, if ten of them be sitting together, no one of them will speak while the other nine are against it. 2.147. They also avoid spitting in the midst of them, or on the right side. Moreover, they are stricter than any other of the Jews in resting from their labors on the seventh day; for they not only get their food ready the day before, that they may not be obliged to kindle a fire on that day, but they will not remove any vessel out of its place, nor go to stool thereon. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, 2.149. after which they put the earth that was dug out again into the pit; and even this they do only in the more lonely places, which they choose out for this purpose; and although this easement of the body be natural, yet it is a rule with them to wash themselves after it, as if it were a defilement to them.
2.151. They are long-lived also, insomuch that many of them live above a hundred years, by means of the simplicity of their diet; nay, as I think, by means of the regular course of life they observe also. They condemn the miseries of life, and are above pain, by the generosity of their mind. And as for death, if it will be for their glory, they esteem it better than living always; 2.152. and indeed our war with the Romans gave abundant evidence what great souls they had in their trials, wherein, although they were tortured and distorted, burnt and torn to pieces, and went through all kinds of instruments of torment, that they might be forced either to blaspheme their legislator, or to eat what was forbidden them, yet could they not be made to do either of them, no, nor once to flatter their tormentors, or to shed a tear; 2.153. but they smiled in their very pains, and laughed those to scorn who inflicted the torments upon them, and resigned up their souls with great alacrity, as expecting to receive them again. 2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 2.155. but that when they are set free from the bonds of the flesh, they then, as released from a long bondage, rejoice and mount upward. And this is like the opinions of the Greeks, that good souls have their habitations beyond the ocean, in a region that is neither oppressed with storms of rain or snow, or with intense heat, but that this place is such as is refreshed by the gentle breathing of a west wind, that is perpetually blowing from the ocean; while they allot to bad souls a dark and tempestuous den, full of never-ceasing punishments. 2.156. And indeed the Greeks seem to me to have followed the same notion, when they allot the islands of the blessed to their brave men, whom they call heroes and demigods; and to the souls of the wicked, the region of the ungodly, in Hades, where their fables relate that certain persons, such as Sisyphus, and Tantalus, and Ixion, and Tityus, are punished; which is built on this first supposition, that souls are immortal; and thence are those exhortations to virtue, and dehortations from wickedness collected; 2.157. whereby good men are bettered in the conduct of their life by the hope they have of reward after their death; and whereby the vehement inclinations of bad men to vice are restrained, by the fear and expectation they are in, that although they should lie concealed in this life, they should suffer immortal punishment after their death. 2.158. These are the Divine doctrines of the Essenes about the soul, which lay an unavoidable bait for such as have once had a taste of their philosophy. 2.159. 12. There are also those among them who undertake to foretell things to come, by reading the holy books, and using several sorts of purifications, and being perpetually conversant in the discourses of the prophets; and it is but seldom that they miss in their predictions. 2.161. However, they try their spouses for three years; and if they find that they have their natural purgations thrice, as trials that they are likely to be fruitful, they then actually marry them. But they do not use to accompany with their wives when they are with child, as a demonstration that they do not marry out of regard to pleasure, but for the sake of posterity. Now the women go into the baths with some of their garments on, as the men do with somewhat girded about them. And these are the customs of this order of Essenes. 2.162. 14. But then as to the two other orders at first mentioned: the Pharisees are those who are esteemed most skillful in the exact explication of their laws, and introduce the first sect. These ascribe all to fate or providence, and to God, 2.163. and yet allow, that to act what is right, or the contrary, is principally in the power of men, although fate does cooperate in every action. They say that all souls are incorruptible, but that the souls of good men only are removed into other bodies,—but that the souls of bad men are subject to eternal punishment. 2.164. But the Sadducees are those that compose the second order, and take away fate entirely, and suppose that God is not concerned in our doing or not doing what is evil; 2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades. 2.166. Moreover, the Pharisees are friendly to one another, and are for the exercise of concord, and regard for the public; but the behavior of the Sadducees one towards another is in some degree wild, and their conversation with those that are of their own party is as barbarous as if they were strangers to them. And this is what I had to say concerning the philosophic sects among the Jews.' '. None
34. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.80-1.83, 2.9-2.11, 2.14-2.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate, • Stoicism, fate • fate

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 98, 99; Del Lucchese (2019) 175; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 199

1.80. Abide not long the mightiest lords of earth; Beneath too heavy a burden great the fall. Thus Rome o'ergrew her strength. So when that hour, The last in all the centuries, shall sound The world's disruption, all things shall revert To that primaeval chaos, stars on stars Shall crash; and fiery meteors from the sky Plunge in the ocean. Earth shall then no more Front with her bulwark the encroaching sea: The moon, indigt at her path oblique, " "
2.9. Book 2 This was made plain the anger of the gods; The universe gave signs Nature reversed In monstrous tumult fraught with prodigies Her laws, and prescient spake the coming guilt. How seemed it just to thee, Olympus' king, That suffering mortals at thy doom should know By omens dire the massacre to come? Or did the primal parent of the world When first the flames gave way and yielding left " "2.10. Matter unformed to his subduing hand, And realms unbalanced, fix by stern decree' Unalterable laws to bind the whole (Himself, too, bound by law), so that for aye All Nature moves within its fated bounds? Or, is Chance sovereign over all, and we The sport of Fortune and her turning wheel? Whate'er be truth, keep thou the future veiled From mortal vision, and amid their fears May men still hope. Thus known how great the woes " "2.15. Matter unformed to his subduing hand, And realms unbalanced, fix by stern decree' Unalterable laws to bind the whole (Himself, too, bound by law), so that for aye All Nature moves within its fated bounds? Or, is Chance sovereign over all, and we The sport of Fortune and her turning wheel? Whate'er be truth, keep thou the future veiled From mortal vision, and amid their fears May men still hope. Thus known how great the woes "". None
35. New Testament, Acts, 2.22-2.24, 2.37-2.40, 4.25-4.26, 8.9, 8.11, 21.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • determinism/fate • fate • fate, of Jesus • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 117, 122, 123; Crabb (2020) 158, 164, 203, 204, 259; Despotis and Lohr (2022) 428, 431; Rohmann (2016) 113; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 111

2.22. Ἄνδρες Ἰσραηλεῖται, ἀκούσατε τοὺς λόγους τούτους. Ἰησοῦν τὸν Ναζωραῖον, ἄνδρα ἀποδεδειγμένον ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς ὑμᾶς δυνάμεσι καὶ τέρασι καὶ σημείοις οἷς ἐποίησεν διʼ αὐτοῦ ὁ θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ ὑμῶν, καθὼς αὐτοὶ οἴδατε, 2.23. τοῦτον τῇ ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ θεοῦ ἔκδοτον διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων προσπήξαντες ἀνείλατε, 2.24. ὃν ὁ θεὸς ἀνέστησεν λύσας τὰς ὠδῖνας τοῦ θανάτου, καθότι οὐκ ἦν δυνατὸν κρατεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ·
2.37. Ἀκούσαντες δὲ κατενύγησαν τὴν καρδίαν, εἶπάν τε πρὸς τὸν Πέτρον καὶ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποστόλους Τί ποιήσωμεν, 2.38. ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί; Πέτρος δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Μετανοήσατε, καὶ βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, καὶ λήμψεσθε τὴν δωρεὰν τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος· 2.39. ὑμῖν γάρ ἐστιν ἡ ἐπαγγελία καὶ τοῖς τέκνοις ὑμῶν καὶ πᾶσι τοῖς εἰς μακρὰν ὅσους ἂν προσκαλέσηται Κύριος ὁ θεὸς ἡμῶν. 2.40. ἑτέροις τε λόγοις πλείοσιν διεμαρτύρατο, καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτοὺς λέγων Σώθητε ἀπὸ τῆς γενεᾶς τῆς σκολιᾶς ταύτης.
4.25. τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς, ὁ τοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου στόματος Δαυεὶδ παιδός σου εἰπών 4.26.
8.9. Ἀνὴρ δέ τις ὀνόματι Σίμων προυπῆρχεν ἐν τῇ πόλει μαγεύων καὶ ἐξιστάνων τὸ ἔθνος τῆς Σαμαρίας, λέγων εἶναί τινα ἑαυτὸν μέγαν,
8.11. προσεῖχον δὲ αὐτῷ διὰ τὸ ἱκανῷ χρόνῳ ταῖς μαγίαις ἐξεστακέναι αὐτούς.
21.11. καὶ ἐλθὼν πρὸς ἡμᾶς καὶ ἄρας τὴν ζώνην τοῦ Παύλου δήσας ἑαυτοῦ τοὺς πόδας καὶ τὰς χεῖρας εἶπεν Τάδε λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον Τὸν ἄνδρα οὗ ἐστὶν ἡ ζώνη αὕτη οὕτως δήσουσιν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι καὶ παραδώσουσιν εἰς χεῖρας ἐθνῶν.''. None
2.22. "You men of Israel, hear these words. Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved by God to you by mighty works and wonders and signs which God did by him in the midst of you, even as you yourselves know, 2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; 2.24. whom God raised up, having freed him from the agony of death, because it was not possible that he should be held by it.
2.37. Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart, and said to Peter and the rest of the apostles, "Brothers, what shall we do?" 2.38. Peter said to them, "Repent, and be baptized, everyone of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. 2.39. For to you is the promise, and to your children, and to all who are far off, even as many as the Lord our God will call to himself." 2.40. With many other words he testified, and exhorted them, saying, "Save yourselves from this crooked generation!"' "
4.25. who by the mouth of your servant, David, said, 'Why do the nations rage, And the peoples plot a vain thing? " "4.26. The kings of the earth take a stand, And the rulers take council together, Against the Lord, and against his Christ.' " '
8.9. But there was a certain man, Simon by name, who had used sorcery in the city before, and amazed the people of Samaria, making himself out to be some great one,
8.11. They listened to him, because for a long time he had amazed them with his sorceries.
21.11. Coming to us, and taking Paul\'s belt, he bound his own feet and hands, and said, "Thus says the Holy Spirit: \'So will the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man who owns this belt, and will deliver him into the hands of the Gentiles.\'"''. None
36. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Linjamaa (2019) 86; Wilson (2018) 293

2.3. ἐν οἷς καὶ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἀνεστράφημέν ποτε ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν, ποιοῦντες τὰ θελήματα τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ τῶν διανοιῶν, καὶ ἤμεθα τέκνα φύσει ὀργῆς ὡς καὶ οἱ λοιποί·—''. None
2.3. among whom we also all once lived in the lust of our flesh, doing the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, even as the rest. ''. None
37. New Testament, Romans, 8.32, 8.38-8.39, 11.3-11.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, in Africa, and victory over fate • Fate • Fate, and misfortunes, hostile fate has no power over believers in Isis • Shai, fate • fate • fate, • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 113; Griffiths (1975) 243, 251; Linjamaa (2019) 86; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 97; Wilson (2018) 38, 185, 293

8.32. ὅς γε τοῦ ἰδίου υἱοῦ οὐκ ἐφείσατο, ἀλλὰ ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν πάντων παρέδωκεν αὐτόν, πῶς οὐχὶ καὶ σὺν αὐτῷ τὰ πάντα ἡμῖν χαρίσεται;
8.38. πέπεισμαι γὰρ ὅτι οὔτε θάνατος οὔτε ζωὴ οὔτε ἄγγελοι οὔτε ἀρχαὶ οὔτε ἐνεστῶτα οὔτε μέλλοντα οὔτε δυνάμεις 8.39. οὔτε ὕψωμα οὔτε βάθος οὔτε τις κτίσις ἑτέρα δυνήσεται ἡμᾶς χωρίσαι ἀπὸ τῆς ἀγάπης τοῦ θεοῦ τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν.
11.3. Κύριε, τοὺς προφήτας σου ἀπέκτειναν, τὰ θυσιαστήριά σου κατέσκαψαν, κἀγὼ ὑπελείφθην μόνος, καὶ ζητοῦσιν τὴν ψυχήν μου. 11.4. ἀλλὰ τί λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ χρηματισμός;Κατέλιπονἐμαυτῷἑπτακισχιλίους ἄνδρας, οἵτινες οὐκ ἔκαμψαν γόνυ τῇ Βάαλ. 11.5. οὕτως οὖν καὶ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ λίμμα κατʼ ἐκλογὴν χάριτος γέγονεν·''. None
8.32. He who didn't spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? " '
8.38. For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers, 8.39. nor height, nor depth, nor any other created thing, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
11.3. "Lord, they have killed your prophets, they have broken down your altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life." 11.4. But how does God answer him? "I have reserved for myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to Baal." 11.5. Even so then at this present time also there is a remt according to the election of grace. '". None
38. New Testament, John, 1.9-1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • determinism/fate • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Despotis and Lohr (2022) 331, 428; McDonough (2009) 127; Wilson (2018) 109, 172

1.9. Ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον. 1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω. 1.11. Εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν, καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον. 1.12. ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, 1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν. 1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔' '. None
1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. ' "1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " "1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. " "1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: " '1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. ' '. None
39. New Testament, Luke, 9.22, 18.32, 24.7, 24.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, of Jesus • fate, of prophets • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 119, 122; Crabb (2020) 157, 158, 164; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 111

9.22. εἰπὼν ὅτι Δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου πολλὰ παθεῖν καὶ ἀποδοκιμασθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ ἀρχιερέων καὶ γραμματέων καὶ ἀποκτανθῆναι καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἐγερθῆναι.
18.32. παραδοθήσεται γὰρ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν καὶ ἐμπαιχθήσεται καὶ ὑβρισθήσεται καὶ ἐμπτυσθήσεται,
24.7. λέγων τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὅτι δεῖ παραδοθῆναι εἰς χεῖρας ἀνθρώπων ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ σταυρωθῆναι καὶ τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ ἀναστῆναι.
24.26. οὐχὶ ταῦτα ἔδει παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ;''. None
9.22. saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and the third day be raised up."
18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on.
24.7. saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again?"
24.26. Didn\'t the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory?"''. None
40. Plutarch, Mark Antony, 33.2-33.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 260; König and Wiater (2022) 260

33.2. ἦν γάρ τις ἀνὴρ σὺν αὐτῷ μαντικὸς ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου τῶν τὰς γενέσεις ἐπισκοπούντων, ὃς εἴτε Κλεοπάτρᾳ χαριζόμενος εἴτε χρώμενος ἀληθείᾳ πρὸς τὸν Ἀντώνιον ἐπαρρησιάζετο, λέγων τὴν τύχην αὐτοῦ λαμπροτάτην οὖσαν καὶ μεγίστην ὑπὸ τῆς Καίσαρος ἀμαυροῦσθαι, καὶ συνεβούλευε πορρωτάτω τοῦ νεανίσκου ποιεῖν ἑαυτόν. ὁ γὰρ σός, ἔφη, δαίμων τὸν τούτου φοβεῖται· καὶ γαῦρος ὢν καὶ ὑψηλὸς ὅταν ᾖ καθʼ ἑαυτόν, ὑπʼ ἐκείνου γίνεται ταπεινότερος ἐγγίσαντος καὶ ἀγεννέστερος. 33.3. καὶ μέντοι τὰ γινόμενα τῷ Αἰγυπτίῳ μαρτυρεῖν ἐδόκει. λέγεται γὰρ ὅτι κληρουμένων μετὰ παιδιᾶς ἐφʼ ὅτῳ τύχοιεν ἑκάστοτε καὶ κυβευόντων ἔλαττον ἔχων ὁ Ἀντώνιος ἀπῄει. πολλάκις δὲ συμβαλόντων ἀλεκτρυόνας, πολλάκις δὲ μαχίμους ὄρτυγας, ἐνίκων οἱ Καίσαρος. ἐφʼ οἷς ἀνιώμενος ἀδήλως ὁ Ἀντώνιος καὶ μᾶλλόν τι τῷ Αἰγυπτίῳ προσέχων, ἀπῆρεν ἐκ τῆς Ἰταλίας, ἐγχειρίσας Καίσαρι τὰ οἰκεῖα· τὴν δὲ Ὀκταουίαν ἄχρι τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἐπήγετο θυγατρίου γεγονότος αὐτοῖς.''. None
33.2. 33.3. ''. None
41. Tacitus, Annals, 1.3.3, 1.55.3, 4.64.1, 6.22, 6.46.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Germanicus, fortune/fate and • Histories, fate and fortune in • Sibylline Books, as libri fatales • Tiberius, fate and • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 618; Crabb (2020) 153, 169; Davies (2004) 171; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 21, 113, 233, 234, 235

6.22. Sed mihi haec ac talia audienti in incerto iudicium est fatone res mortalium et necessitate immutabili an forte volvantur. quippe sapientissimos veterum quique sectam eorum aemulantur diversos reperies, ac multis insitam opinionem non initia nostri, non finem, non denique homines dis curae; ideo creberrime tristia in bonos, laeta apud deteriores esse. contra alii fatum quidem congruere rebus putant, sed non e vagis stellis, verum apud principia et nexus naturalium causarum; ac tamen electionem vitae nobis relinquunt, quam ubi elegeris, certum imminentium ordinem. neque mala vel bona quae vulgus putet: multos qui conflictari adversis videantur beatos, at plerosque quamquam magnas per opes miserrimos, si illi gravem fortunam constanter tolerent, hi prospera inconsulte utantur. ceterum plurimis mortalium non eximitur quin primo cuiusque ortu ventura destinentur, sed quaedam secus quam dicta sint cadere fallaciis ignara dicentium: ita corrumpi fidem artis cuius clara documenta et antiqua aetas et nostra tulerit. quippe a filio eiusdem Thrasulli praedictum Neronis imperium in tempore memorabitur, ne nunc incepto longius abierim.' '. None
1.3.3. \xa0Meanwhile, to consolidate his power, Augustus raised Claudius Marcellus, his sister's son and a mere stripling, to the pontificate and curule aedileship: Marcus Agrippa, no aristocrat, but a good soldier and his partner in victory, he honoured with two successive consulates, and a little later, on the death of Marcellus, selected him as a son-inâ\x80\x91law. Each of his step-children, Tiberius Nero and Claudius Drusus, was given the title of Imperator, though his family proper was still intact: for he had admitted Agrippa's children, Gaius and Lucius, to the Caesarian hearth, and even during their minority had shown, under a veil of reluctance, a consuming desire to see them consuls designate with the title Princes of the Youth. When Agrippa gave up the ghost, untimely fate, or the treachery of their stepmother Livia, cut off both Lucius and Caius Caesar, Lucius on his road to the Spanish armies, Caius â\x80\x94 wounded and sick â\x80\x94 on his return from Armenia. Drusus had long been dead, and of the stepsons Nero survived alone. On him all centred. Adopted as son, as colleague in the empire, as consort of the tribunician power, he was paraded through all the armies, not as before by the secret diplomacy of his mother, but openly at her injunction. For so firmly had she riveted her chains upon the aged Augustus that he banished to the isle of Planasia his one remaining grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who though guiltless of a virtue, and confident brute-like in his physical strength, had been convicted of no open scandal. Yet, curiously enough, he placed Drusus' son Germanicus at the head of eight legions on the Rhine, and ordered Tiberius to adopt him: it was one safeguard the more, even though Tiberius had already an adult son under his roof. War at the time was none, except an outstanding campaign against the Germans, waged more to redeem the prestige lost with Quintilius Varus and his army than from any wish to extend the empire or with any prospect of an adequate recompense. At home all was calm. The officials carried the old names; the younger men had been born after the victory of Actium; most even of the elder generation, during the civil wars; few indeed were left who had seen the Republic. <" '
1.55.3. \xa0Drusus Caesar and Gaius Norbanus were now consuls, and a triumph was decreed to Germanicus with the war still in progress. He was preparing to prosecute it with his utmost power in the summer; but in early spring he anticipated matters by a sudden raid against the Chatti. Hopes had arisen that the enemy was becoming divided between Arminius and Segestes: both famous names, one for perfidy towards us, the other for good faith. Arminius was the troubler of Germany: Segestes had repeatedly given warning of projected risings, especially at the last great banquet which preceded the appeal to arms; when he urged Varus to arrest Arminius, himself, and the other chieftains, on the ground that, with their leaders out of the way, the mass of the people would venture nothing, while he would have time enough later to discriminate between guilt and innocence. Varus, however, succumbed to his fate and the sword of Arminius; Segestes, though forced into the war by the united will of the nation, continued to disapprove, and domestic episodes embittered the feud: for Arminius by carrying off his daughter, who was pledged to another, had made himself the hated son-inâ\x80\x91law of a hostile father, and a relationship which cements the affection of friends now stimulated the fury of enemies. <
4.64.1. \xa0The disaster had not yet faded from memory, when a fierce outbreak of fire affected the city to an unusual degree by burning down the Caelian Hill. "It was a fatal year, and the sovereign\'s decision to absent himself had been adopted under an evil star" â\x80\x94 so men began to remark, converting, as is the habit of the crowd, the fortuitous into the culpable, when the Caesar checked the critics by a distribution of money in proportion to loss sustained. Thanks were returned to him; in the senate, by the noble; in the streets, by the voice of the people: for without respect of persons, and without the intercession of relatives, he had aided with his liberality even unknown sufferers whom he had himself encouraged to apply. Proposals were added that the Caelian Hill should for the future be known as the Augustan, since, with all around on fire, the one thing to remain unscathed had been a bust of Tiberius in the house of the senator Junius. "The same," it was said, "had happened formerly to Claudia Quinta; whose statue, twice escaped from the fury of the flames, our ancestors had dedicated in the temple of the Mother of the Gods. The Claudian race was sacrosanct and acceptable to Heaven, and additional solemnity should be given to the ground on which the gods had shown so notable an honour to the sovereign."' "
6.22. \xa0For myself, when I\xa0listen to this and similar narratives, my judgement wavers. Is the revolution of human things governed by fate and changeless necessity, or by accident? You will find the wisest of the ancients, and the disciplines attached to their tenets, at complete variance; in many of them a fixed belief that Heaven concerns itself neither with our origins, nor with our ending, nor, in fine, with mankind, and that so adversity continually assails the good, while prosperity dwells among the evil. Others hold, on the contrary, that, though there is certainly a fate in harmony with events, it does not emanate from wandering stars, but must be sought in the principles and processes of natural causation. Still, they leave us free to choose our life: that choice made, however, the order of the future is certain. Nor, they maintain, are evil and good what the crowd imagines: many who appear to be the sport of adverse circumstances are happy; numbers are wholly wretched though in the midst of great possessions â\x80\x94 provided only that the former endure the strokes of fortune with firmness, while the latter employ her favours with unwisdom. With most men, however, the faith is ineradicable that the future of an individual is ordained at the moment of his entry into life; but at times a prophecy is falsified by the event, through the dishonesty of the prophet who speaks he knows not what; and thus is debased the credit of an art, of which the most striking evidences have been furnished both in the ancient world and in our own. For the forecast of Nero's reign, made by the son of this very Thrasyllus, shall be related at its fitting place: at present I\xa0do not care to stray too far from my theme. <" '
6.46.3. \xa0This the emperor knew; and he hesitated therefore with regard to the succession â\x80\x94 first between his grandchildren. of these, the issue of Drusus was the nearer to him in blood and by affection, but had not yet entered the years of puberty: the son of Germanicus possessed the vigour of early manhood, but also the affections of the multitude â\x80\x94 and that, with his grandsire, was a ground of hatred. Even Claudius with his settled years and aspirations to culture came under consideration: the obstacle was his mental instability. Yet, if a successor were sought outside the imperial family, he dreaded that the memory of Augustus â\x80\x94 the name of the Caesars â\x80\x94 might be turned to derision and to contempt. For the care of Tiberius was not so much to enjoy popularity in the present as to court the approval of posterity. Soon, mentally irresolute, physically outworn, he left to fate a decision beyond his competence; though remarks escaped him which implied a foreknowledge of the future. For, with an allusion not difficult to read, he upbraided Macro with forsaking the setting and looking to the rising sun; and to Caligula, who in some casual conversation was deriding Lucius Sulla, he made the prophecy that he would have all the vices of Sulla with none of the Sullan virtues. At the same time, with a burst of tears, he embraced the younger of his grandsons; then, at the lowering looks of the other:â\x80\x94 "Thou wilt slay him," he said, "and another thee." Yet, in defiance of his failing health, he relinquished no detail of his libertinism: he was striving to make endurance pass for strength; and he had always had a sneer for the arts of the physicians, and for men who, after thirty years of life, needed the counsel of a stranger in order to distinguish things salutary to their system from things deleterious. <'". None
42. Tacitus, Histories, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Histories, fate and fortune in • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Crabb (2020) 144; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 20

3.1. \xa0The generals of the Flavian party were planning their campaign with better fortune and greater loyalty. They had come together at Poetovio, the winter quarters of the Thirteenth legion. There they discussed whether they should guard the passes of the Pannonian Alps until the whole mass of their forces could be raised behind them, or whether it would not be a bolder stroke to engage the enemy at once and struggle with him for the possession of Italy. Those who favoured waiting for the auxiliaries and prolonging the war, emphasized the strength and reputation of the German legions and dwelt on the fact that the flower of the army in Britain had recently arrived with Vitellius; they pointed out that they had on their side an inferior number of legions, and at best legions which had lately been beaten, and that although the soldiers talked boldly enough, the defeated always have less courage. But while they meantime held the Alps, Mucianus, they said, would arrive with the troops from the east; Vespasian had besides full control of the sea and his fleets, and he could count on the enthusiastic support of the provinces, through whose aid he could raise the storm of almost a second war. Therefore they declared that delay would favour them, that new forces would join them, and that they would lose none of their present advantages.''. None
43. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Philo of Alexandria, on fate and necessity (εἱμαρμένη καὶ ἀνάγκη) • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoicism, fate • Stoics/Stoicism, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Stoics on

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 99; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 93, 121

44. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate/fatalism • following or obeying fate

 Found in books: Merz and Tieleman (2012) 212, 228, 229; Wilson (2018) 192

45. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Stoicism, fate

 Found in books: Malherbe et al (2014) 308; McDonough (2009) 98

46. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate/ heimarmene • following or obeying fate

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 109; Merz and Tieleman (2012) 229

47. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 246; König and Wiater (2022) 246

48. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 78.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christianity, in Africa, and victory over fate • Fate • Fates • Gregory of Nyssa, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Shai, fate • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Hermetics on

 Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 123; Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 560, 561; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 208; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 120; Griffiths (1975) 243; Linjamaa (2019) 86; Wilson (2012) 414

74. Therefore the Lord came down bringing the peace which is from heaven to those on earth, as the Apostle says, 'Peace on the earth and glory in the heights.' Therefore a strange and new star arose doing away with the old astral decree, shining with a new unearthly light, which revolved on a new path of salvation, as the Lord himself, men's guide, who came down to earth to transfer from Fate to his providence those who believed in Christ."
78.2. Until baptism, they say, Fate is real, but after it the astrologists are no longer right. But it is not only the washing that is liberating, but the knowledge of/who we were, and what we have become, where we were or where we were placed, whither we hasten, from what we are redeemed, what birth is and what rebirth. 81. The material element of fire lays hold of all material things, and the pure and immaterial element lays hold of immaterial things such as demons, angels of evil and the devil himself. Thus the heavenly fire is dual in its nature, belonging partly to the mind, partly to the senses. By analogy, therefore, baptism is also dual in its nature, the sensible part works through water which extinguishes the sensible fire, but the intellectual through Spirit, a defense against the intellectual fire. And the material Spirit when it is little becomes food and kindling for the sensible fire, but when it has increased it has become an extinguisher, but the Spirit given us from above, since it is immaterial, rules not only over the Elements, but over the Powers and the evil Principalities.' "'. None
49. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.21.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fates, • Stoics, and fate • Zeno of Citium, on fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fate

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 262; Hankinson (1998) 265

1.21.2. But there is also with the Indians a sect composed of those philosophizing among the Brachmans. They spend a contented existence, abstain both from living creatures and all cooked food, being satisfied with fruits; and not gathering these from the trees, but carrying off those that have fallen to the earth. They subsist upon them, drinking the water of the river Tazabena. But they pass their life naked, affirming that the body has been constituted a covering to the soul by the Deity. These affirm that God is light, not such as one sees, nor such as the sun and fire; but to them the Deity is discourse, not that which finds expression in articulate sounds, but that of the knowledge through which the secret mysteries of nature are perceived by the wise. And this light which they say is discourse, their god, they assert that the Brachmans only know on account of their alone rejecting all vanity of opinion which is the soul's ultimate covering. These despise death, and always in their own peculiar language call God by the name which we have mentioned previously, and they send up hymns (to him). But neither are there women among them, nor do they beget children. But they who aim at a life similar to these, after they have crossed over to the country on the opposite side of the river, continue to reside there, returning no more; and these also are called Brachmans. But they do not pass their life similarly, for there are also in the place women, of whom those that dwell there are born, and in turn beget children. And this discourse which they name God they assert to be corporeal, and enveloped in a body outside himself, just as if one were wearing a sheep's skin, but that on divesting himself of body that he would appear clear to the eye. But the Brachmans say that there is a conflict in the body that surrounds them, (and they consider that the body is for them full of conflicts); in opposition to which, as if marshalled for battle against enemies, they contend, as we have already explained. And they say that all men are captive to their own congenital struggles, viz., sensuality and inchastity, gluttony, anger, joy, sorrow, concupiscence, and such like. And he who has reared a trophy over these, alone goes to God; wherefore the Brachmans deify Dandamis, to whom Alexander the Macedonian paid a visit, as one who had proved victorious in the bodily conflict. But they bear down on Calanus as having profanely withdrawn from their philosophy. But the Brachmans, putting off the body, like fishes jumping out of water into the pure air, behold the sun. "". None
50. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.21.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fates, • Stoics, and fate • Zeno of Citium, on fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fate

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 262; Hankinson (1998) 265

1.21.2. They maintain that those who have attained to perfect knowledge must of necessity be regenerated into that power which is above all. For it is otherwise impossible to find admittance within the Pleroma, since this regeneration it is which leads them down into the depths of Bythus. For the baptism instituted by the visible Jesus was for the remission of sins, but the redemption brought in by that Christ who descended upon Him, was for perfection; and they allege that the former is animal, but the latter spiritual. And the baptism of John was proclaimed with a view to repentance, but the redemption by Jesus was brought in for the sake of perfection. And to this He refers when He says, "And I have another baptism to be baptized with, and I hasten eagerly towards it." Moreover, they affirm that the Lord added this redemption to the sons of Zebedee, when their mother asked that they might sit, the one on His right hand, and the other on His left, in His kingdom, saying, "Can ye be baptized with the baptism which I shall be baptized with?" Paul, too, they declare, has often set forth, in express terms, the redemption which is in Christ Jesus; and this was the same which is handed down by them in so varied and discordant forms.''. None
51. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.19.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fates

 Found in books: Gaifman (2012) 67; Simon (2021) 259

1.19.2. —ἐς δὲ τὸ χωρίον, ὃ Κήπους ὀνομάζουσι, καὶ τῆς Ἀφροδίτης τὸν ναὸν οὐδεὶς λεγόμενός σφισίν ἐστι λόγος· οὐ μὴν οὐδὲ ἐς τὴν Ἀφροδίτην, ἣ τοῦ ναοῦ πλησίον ἕστηκε. ταύτης γὰρ σχῆμα μὲν τετράγωνον κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ τοῖς Ἑρμαῖς, τὸ δὲ ἐπίγραμμα σημαίνει τὴν Οὐρανίαν Ἀφροδίτην τῶν καλουμένων Μοιρῶν εἶναι πρεσβυτάτην. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀφροδίτης τῆς ἐν τοῖς Κήποις ἔργον ἐστὶν Ἀλκαμένους καὶ τῶν Ἀθήνῃσιν ἐν ὀλίγοις θέας ἄξιον.''. None
1.19.2. Concerning the district called The Gardens, and the temple of Aphrodite, there is no story that is told by them, nor yet about the Aphrodite which stands near the temple. Now the shape of it is square, like that of the Hermae, and the inscription declares that the Heavenly Aphrodite is the oldest of those called Fates. But the statue of Aphrodite in the Gardens is the work of Alcamenes, and one of the most note worthy things in Athens .''. None
52. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • fatalism

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 557; Rohmann (2016) 113

53. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Calcidius, on fate • daemons, administer fate • fate • fate, Apuleius on • fate, divine will • fate, law of justice • providence, and fate

 Found in books: Hoenig (2018) 148, 150, 202; Schibli (2002) 342

54. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Celsus, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Celsus on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate, conditional conception of • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 119, 130, 289; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 195; Wilson (2018) 12

55. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 249; König and Wiater (2022) 249

56. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 7.23, 7.75, 7.135, 7.149, 7.155 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, On Fate • Fate • Gregory of Nyssa, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoics, and fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Hermetics on • fate, and necessity

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 161; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 178; Hankinson (1998) 253, 258; Inwood and Warren (2020) 114, 136; Konig and Wiater (2022) 248; König and Wiater (2022) 248; McDonough (2009) 110; Schibli (2002) 334; Struck (2016) 186; Wynne (2019) 235

7.23. Again he would say that if we want to master the sciences there is nothing so fatal as conceit, and again there is nothing we stand so much in need of as time. To the question Who is a friend? his answer was, A second self (alter ego). We are told that he was once chastising a slave for stealing, and when the latter pleaded that it was his fate to steal, Yes, and to be beaten too, said Zeno. Beauty he called the flower of chastity, while according to others it was chastity which he called the flower of beauty. Once when he saw the slave of one of his acquaintance marked with weals, I see, said he, the imprints of your anger. To one who had been drenched with unguent, Who is this, quoth he, who smells of woman? When Dionysius the Renegade asked, Why am I the only pupil you do not correct? the reply was, Because I mistrust you. To a stripling who was talking nonsense his words were, The reason why we have two ears and only one mouth is that we may listen the more and talk the less.' "
7.75. A probable judgement is one which induces to assent, e.g. Whoever gave birth to anything, is that thing's mother. This, however, is not necessarily true; for the hen is not mother of an egg.Again, some things are possible, others impossible; and some things are necessary, others are not necessary. A proposition is possible which admits of being true, there being nothing in external circumstances to prevent it being true, e.g. Diocles is alive. Impossible is one which does not admit of being true, as e.g. The earth flies. That is necessary which besides being true does not admit of being false or, while it may admit of being false, is prevented from being false by circumstances external to itself, as Virtue is beneficial. Not necessary is that which, while true, yet is capable of being false if there are no external conditions to prevent, e.g. Dion is walking." '
7.135. Body is defined by Apollodorus in his Physics as that which is extended in three dimensions, length, breadth, and depth. This is also called solid body. But surface is the extremity of a solid body, or that which has length and breadth only without depth. That surface exists not only in our thought but also in reality is maintained by Posidonius in the third book of his Celestial Phenomena. A line is the extremity of a surface or length without breadth, or that which has length alone. A point is the extremity of a line, the smallest possible mark or dot.God is one and the same with Reason, Fate, and Zeus; he is also called by many other names.
7.149. Nature, they hold, aims both at utility and at pleasure, as is clear from the analogy of human craftsmanship. That all things happen by fate or destiny is maintained by Chrysippus in his treatise De fato, by Posidonius in his De fato, book ii., by Zeno and by Boethus in his De fato, book i. Fate is defined as an endless chain of causation, whereby things are, or as the reason or formula by which the world goes on. What is more, they say that divination in all its forms is a real and substantial fact, if there is really Providence. And they prove it to be actually a science on the evidence of certain results: so Zeno, Chrysippus in the second book of his De divinatione, Athenodorus, and Posidonius in the second book of his Physical Discourse and the fifth book of his De divinatione. But Panaetius denies that divination has any real existence.
7.155. They maintain that the parts of the world are arranged thus. The earth is in the middle answering to a centre; next comes the water, which is shaped like a sphere all round it, concentric with the earth, so that the earth is in water. After the water comes a spherical layer of air. There are five celestial circles: first, the arctic circle, which is always visible; second, the summer tropic; third, the circle of the equinox; fourth, the winter tropic; and fifth, the antarctic, which is invisible to us. They are called parallel, because they do not incline towards one another; yet they are described round the same centre. The zodiac is an oblique circle, as it crosses the parallel circles.''. None
57. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 2.15.6 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Gnosticism, Valentinian, and fate • Gregory of Nyssa, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Iranian thought, and fate • Nous, and fate • Sarapis, cult of, in Thessalonica, and fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Hermetics on

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 208; Griffiths (1975) 244

2.15.6. When, therefore, the number of men had begun to increase, God in His forethought, lest the devil, to whom from the beginning He had given power over the earth, should by his subtlety either corrupt or destroy men, as he had done at first, sent angels for the protection and improvement of the human race; and inasmuch as He had given these a free will, He enjoined them above all things not to defile themselves with contamination from the earth, and thus lose the dignity of their heavenly nature. He plainly prohibited them from doing that which He knew that they would do, that they might entertain no hope of pardon. Therefore, while they abode among men, that most deceitful ruler of the earth, by his very association, gradually enticed them to vices, and polluted them by intercourse with women. Then, not being admitted into heaven on account of the sins into which they had plunged themselves, they fell to the earth. Thus from angels the devil makes them to become his satellites and attendants. But they who were born from these, because they were neither angels nor men, but bearing a kind of mixed nature, were not admitted into hell, as their fathers were not into heaven. Thus there came to be two kinds of demons; one of heaven, the other of the earth. The latter are the wicked spirits, the authors of all the evils which are done, and the same devil is their prince. Whence Trismegistus calls him the ruler of the demons. But grammarians say that they are called demons, as though dœmones, that is, skilled and acquainted with matters: for they think that these are gods. They are acquainted, indeed, with many future events, but not all, since it is not permitted them entirely to know the counsel of God; and therefore they are accustomed to accommodate their answers to ambiguous results. The poets both know them to be demons, and so describe them. Hesiod thus speaks:- These are the demons according to the will of Zeus, Good, living on the earth, the guardians of mortal men.And this is said for this purpose, because God had sent them as guardians to the human race; but they themselves also, though they are the destroyers of men, yet wish themselves to appear as their guardians, that they themselves may be worshipped, and God may not be worshipped. The philosophers also discuss the subject of these beings. For Plato attempted even to explain their natures in his Banquet; and Socrates said that there was a demon continually about him, who had become attached to him when a boy, by whose will and direction his life was guided. The art also and power of the Magi altogether consists in the influences of these; invoked by whom they deceive the sight of men with deceptive illusions, so that they do not see those things which exist, and think that they see those things which do not exist. These contaminated and abandoned spirits, as I say, wander over the whole earth, and contrive a solace for their own perdition by the destruction of men. Therefore they fill every place with snares, deceits, frauds, and errors; for they cling to individuals, and occupy whole houses from door to door, and assume to themselves the name of genii; for by this word they translate demons in the Latin language. They consecrate these in their houses, to these they daily pour out libations of wine, and worship the wise demons as gods of the earth, and as averters of those evils which they themselves cause and impose. And these, since spirits are without substance and not to be grasped, insinuate themselves into the bodies of men; and secretly working in their inward parts, they corrupt the health, hasten diseases, terrify their souls with dreams, harass their minds with phrenzies, that by these evils they may compel men to have recourse to their aid. ''. None
58. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoics/Stoicism, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Stoics on • fate, Apuleius on • fate, Calcidius on • fate, and providence • fate, as divine law • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 123; Frede and Laks (2001) 98; Hoenig (2018) 197, 198, 200

59. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, on fate • Chrysippus, on the etymology of fate • Stoics, and fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • etymology, of fate • fate • fate (heimarmenē, Lat., fatum) , Chrysippus on • fate (heimarmenē, Lat., fatum) , Chrysippus on the etymology of • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Epicurus on • fate, and divination • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 130, 131, 132, 133; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 174; Frede and Laks (2001) 257; Hankinson (1998) 259; Wynne (2019) 190

60. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fates, • fate

 Found in books: Edmonds (2019) 364; Lipka (2021) 241, 243

61. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Fates • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Plotinus, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoics/Stoicism, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • entwinement (πλέγμα) (of fate) • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Plotinus • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Stoics on • fate, conditional conception of • fate, justice of providence • fate/fatalism

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 130, 212, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 266, 268; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 361, 495; Gerson and Wilberding (2022) 389, 395, 397, 400, 401, 402, 403, 405; Harte (2017) 263, 264, 274; Horkey (2019) 152, 163; Long (2006) 149; Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 195; Schibli (2002) 332, 352; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 56; Wilson (2018) 33, 34, 172

62. None, None, nan (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, On Fate • fairmindedness, fate, two pictures of

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 161; Jedan (2009) 32

63. Strabo, Geography, 5.3.8, 17.1.36
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 248, 249; König and Wiater (2022) 248, 249

5.3.8. These advantages accrued to the city from the nature of the country; but the foresight of the Romans added others besides. The Grecian cities are thought to have flourished mainly on account of the felicitous choice made by their founders, in regard to the beauty and strength of their sites, their proximity to some port, and the fineness of the country. But the Roman prudence was more particularly employed on matters which had received but little attention from the Greeks, such as paving their roads, constructing aqueducts, and sewers, to convey the sewage of the city into the Tiber. In fact, they have paved the roads, cut through hills, and filled up valleys, so that the merchandise may be conveyed by carriage from the ports. The sewers, arched over with hewn stones, are large enough in some parts for waggons loaded with hay to pass through; while so plentiful is the supply of water from the aqueducts, that rivers may be said to flow through the city and the sewers, and almost every house is furnished with water-pipes and copious fountains. To effect which Marcus Agrippa directed his special attention; he likewise bestowed upon the city numerous ornaments. We may remark, that the ancients, occupied with greater and more necessary concerns, paid but little attention to the beautifying of Rome. But their successors, and especially those of our own day, without neglecting these things, have at the same time embellished the city with numerous and splendid objects. Pompey, divus Caesar, and Augustus, with his children, friends, wife, and sister, have surpassed all others in their zeal and munificence in these decorations. The greater number of these may be seen in the Campus Martius, which to the beauties of nature adds those of art. The size of the plain is marvellous, permitting chariot-races and other feats of horsemanship without impediment, and multitudes to exercise themselves at ball, in the circus and the palaestra. The structures which surround it, the turf covered with herbage all the year round, the summits of the hills beyond the Tiber, extending from its banks with panoramic effect, present a spectacle which the eye abandons with regret. Near to this plain is another surrounded with columns, sacred groves, three theatres, an amphitheatre, and superb temples in close contiguity to each other; and so magnificent, that it would seem idle to describe the rest of the city after it. For this cause the Romans, esteeming it as the most sacred place, have there erected funeral monuments to the most illustrious persons of either sex. The most remarkable of these is that designated as the Mausoleum, which consists of a mound of earth raised upon a high foundation of white marble, situated near the river, and covered to the top with ever-green shrubs. Upon the summit is a bronze statue of Augustus Caesar, and beneath the mound are the ashes of himself, his relatives, and friends. Behind is a large grove containing charming promenades. In the centre of the plain, is the spot where this prince was reduced to ashes; it is surrounded with a double enclosure, one of marble, the other of iron, and planted within with poplars. If from hence you proceed to visit the ancient forum, which is equally filled with basilicas, porticos, and temples, you will there behold the Capitol, the Palatium, with the noble works which adorn them, and the promenade of Livia, each successive place causing you speedily to forget what you have before seen. Such is Rome.
17.1.36. We have treated these subjects at length in the First Book of the Geography. At present we shall make a few remarks on the operations of nature and of Providence conjointly. On the operations of nature, that all things converge to a point, namely, the centre of the whole, and assume a spherical shape around it. The earth is the densest body, and nearer the centre than all others: the less dense and next to it is water; but both land and water are spheres, the first solid, the second hollow, containing the earth within it.— On the operations of Providence, that it has exercised a will, is disposed to variety, and is the artificer of innumerable works. In the first rank, as greatly surpassing all the rest, is the generation of animals, of which the most excellent are gods and men, for whose sake the rest were formed. To the gods Providence assigned heaven; and the earth to men, the extreme parts of the world; for the extreme parts of the sphere are the centre and the circumference. But since water encompasses the earth, and man is not an aquatic, but a land-animal, living in the air, and requiring much light, Providence formed many eminences and cavities in the earth, so that these cavities should receive the whole or a great part of the water which covers the land beneath it; and that the eminences should rise and conceal the water beneath them, except so much as was necessary for the use of the human race, the animals and plants about it.But as all things are in constant motion, and undergo great changes, (for it is not possible that things of such a nature, so numerous and vast, could be otherwise regulated in the world,) we must not suppose the earth or the water always to continue in this state, so as to retain perpetually the same bulk, without increase or diminution, or that each preserves the same fixed place, particularly as the reciprocal change of one into the other is most consot to nature from their proximity; but that much of the land is changed into water, and a great portion of water becomes land, just as we observe great differences in the earth itself. For one kind of earth crumbles easily, another is solid and rocky, and contains iron; and so of others. There is also a variety in the quality of water; for some waters are saline, others sweet and potable, others medicinal, and either salutary or noxious, others cold or hot Is it therefore surprising that some parts of the earth which are now inhabited should formerly have been occupied by sea, and that what are now seas should formerly have been inhabited land ? so also fountains once existing have failed, and others have burst forth; and similarly in the case of rivers and lakes: again, mountains and plains have been converted reciprocally one into the other. On this subject I have spoken before at length, and now let this be said:''. None
64. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.1, 1.7, 1.229-1.253, 1.257-1.296, 1.336-1.368, 1.378-1.379, 1.450-1.459, 1.461-1.490, 3.374-3.380, 3.433-3.434, 3.441-3.452, 3.461, 4.265-4.278, 5.562, 5.669, 6.343-6.346, 6.753-6.818, 6.820-6.892, 7.302, 8.219-8.248, 8.250-8.267, 12.435-12.436, 12.793, 12.830-12.831
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeneas, resentment of fate • Astrology, and fate • Catullus, and anxiety over books fate • Fate • Fate, and misfortunes, hostile fate has no power over believers in Isis • Fate, and misfortunes, threads of fate unravelled by hand of Isis • Fates • Germanicus, fortune/fate and • Histories, fate and fortune in • Isis, unravels threads of fate • Stoicism, fate • Threads, of fate, unravelled by hand of Isis • fate • fate, Fates • fate, fictions, ‘truth’ of • fate, εἱμαρμένη/fatum

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 99, 100; Augoustakis (2014) 164; Braund and Most (2004) 220, 249; Crabb (2020) 85, 135, 150, 171, 172, 240, 280; Farrell (2021) 44, 50, 100, 101, 130, 146, 170, 230, 245, 281, 282; Griffiths (1975) 251, 322; Johnson and Parker (2009) 168; Kazantzidis and Spatharas (2018) 175; O, Daly (2020) 97, 98; Pillinger (2019) 161; Shannon-Henderson (2019) 113; Verhagen (2022) 164; Xinyue (2022) 160, 168

1.1. Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
1.7. Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae. 1.230. aeternis regis imperiis, et fulmine terres, 1.231. quid meus Aeneas in te committere tantum, 1.232. quid Troes potuere, quibus, tot funera passis, 1.233. cunctus ob Italiam terrarum clauditur orbis? 1.234. Certe hinc Romanos olim, volventibus annis, 1.235. hinc fore ductores, revocato a sanguine Teucri, 1.236. qui mare, qui terras omni dicione tenerent, 1.237. pollicitus, quae te, genitor, sententia vertit? 1.238. Hoc equidem occasum Troiae tristisque ruinas 1.239. solabar, fatis contraria fata rependens; 1.240. nunc eadem fortuna viros tot casibus actos 1.241. insequitur. Quem das finem, rex magne, laborum? 1.242. Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 1.243. Illyricos penetrare sinus, atque intima tutus 1.244. regna Liburnorum, et fontem superare Timavi, 1.245. unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 1.246. it mare proruptum et pelago premit arva soti. 1.247. Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit 1.248. Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit 1.249. Troia; nunc placida compostus pace quiescit: 1.250. nos, tua progenies, caeli quibus adnuis arcem, 1.251. navibus (infandum!) amissis, unius ob iram 1.252. prodimur atque Italis longe disiungimur oris. 1.253. Hic pietatis honos? Sic nos in sceptra reponis?
1.257. Parce metu, Cytherea: manent immota tuorum 1.258. fata tibi; cernes urbem et promissa Lavini 1.259. moenia, sublimemque feres ad sidera caeli 1.260. magimum Aenean; neque me sententia vertit. 1.261. Hic tibi (fabor enim, quando haec te cura remordet, 1.262. longius et volvens fatorum arcana movebo) 1.263. bellum ingens geret Italia, populosque feroces 1.264. contundet, moresque viris et moenia ponet, 1.266. ternaque transierint Rutulis hiberna subactis. 1.267. At puer Ascanius, cui nunc cognomen Iulo 1.268. additur,—Ilus erat, dum res stetit Ilia regno,— 1.269. triginta magnos volvendis mensibus orbis 1.270. imperio explebit, regnumque ab sede Lavini 1.271. transferet, et longam multa vi muniet Albam. 1.272. Hic iam ter centum totos regnabitur annos 1.273. gente sub Hectorea, donec regina sacerdos, 1.274. Marte gravis, geminam partu dabit Ilia prolem. 1.275. Inde lupae fulvo nutricis tegmine laetus 1.276. Romulus excipiet gentem, et Mavortia condet 1.277. moenia, Romanosque suo de nomine dicet. 1.279. imperium sine fine dedi. Quin aspera Iuno, 1.280. quae mare nunc terrasque metu caelumque fatigat, 1.281. consilia in melius referet, mecumque fovebit 1.282. Romanos rerum dominos gentemque togatam: 1.283. sic placitum. Veniet lustris labentibus aetas, 1.284. cum domus Assaraci Phthiam clarasque Mycenas 1.285. servitio premet, ac victis dominabitur Argis. 1.286. Nascetur pulchra Troianus origine Caesar, 1.287. imperium oceano, famam qui terminet astris,— 1.288. Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo. 1.289. Hunc tu olim caelo, spoliis Orientis onustum, 1.290. accipies secura; vocabitur hic quoque votis. 1.291. Aspera tum positis mitescent saecula bellis; 1.292. cana Fides, et Vesta, Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 1.293. iura dabunt; dirae ferro et compagibus artis 1.294. claudentur Belli portae; Furor impius intus, 1.295. saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus aenis 1.296. post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento.
1.336. virginibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetram, 1.337. purpureoque alte suras vincire cothurno. 1.338. Punica regna vides, Tyrios et Agenoris urbem; 1.339. sed fines Libyci, genus intractabile bello. 1.340. Imperium Dido Tyria regit urbe profecta, 1.341. germanum fugiens. Longa est iniuria, longae 1.342. ambages; sed summa sequar fastigia rerum. 1.343. Huic coniunx Sychaeus erat, ditissimus agri 1.344. Phoenicum, et magno miserae dilectus amore, 1.346. ominibus. Sed regna Tyri germanus habebat 1.347. Pygmalion, scelere ante alios immanior omnes. 1.348. Quos inter medius venit furor. Ille Sychaeum 1.349. impius ante aras, atque auri caecus amore, 1.350. clam ferro incautum superat, securus amorum 1.351. germanae; factumque diu celavit, et aegram, 1.352. multa malus simulans, vana spe lusit amantem. 1.353. Ipsa sed in somnis inhumati venit imago 1.354. coniugis, ora modis attollens pallida miris, 1.355. crudeles aras traiectaque pectora ferro 1.356. nudavit, caecumque domus scelus omne retexit. 1.357. Tum celerare fugam patriaque excedere suadet, 1.358. auxiliumque viae veteres tellure recludit 1.359. thesauros, ignotum argenti pondus et auri. 1.360. His commota fugam Dido sociosque parabat: 1.361. conveniunt, quibus aut odium crudele tyranni 1.362. aut metus acer erat; navis, quae forte paratae, 1.363. corripiunt, onerantque auro: portantur avari 1.364. Pygmalionis opes pelago; dux femina facti. 1.365. Devenere locos, ubi nunc ingentia cernis 1.366. moenia surgentemque novae Karthaginis arcem, 1.367. mercatique solum, facti de nomine Byrsam, 1.368. taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo.
1.378. Sum pius Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates 1.379. classe veho mecum, fama super aethera notus.
1.450. Hoc primum in luco nova res oblata timorem 1.451. leniit, hic primum Aeneas sperare salutem 1.452. ausus, et adflictis melius confidere rebus. 1.453. Namque sub ingenti lustrat dum singula templo, 1.454. reginam opperiens, dum, quae fortuna sit urbi, 1.455. artificumque manus inter se operumque laborem 1.456. miratur, videt Iliacas ex ordine pugnas, 1.457. bellaque iam fama totum volgata per orbem, 1.458. Atridas, Priamumque, et saevum ambobus Achillem. 1.459. Constitit, et lacrimans, Quis iam locus inquit Achate,
1.461. En Priamus! Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi; 1.462. sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt. 1.463. Solve metus; feret haec aliquam tibi fama salutem. 1.464. Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit ii, 1.465. multa gemens, largoque umectat flumine voltum. 1.466. Namque videbat, uti bellantes Pergama circum 1.467. hac fugerent Graii, premeret Troiana iuventus, 1.468. hac Phryges, instaret curru cristatus Achilles. 1.469. Nec procul hinc Rhesi niveis tentoria velis 1.470. adgnoscit lacrimans, primo quae prodita somno 1.471. Tydides multa vastabat caede cruentus, 1.472. ardentisque avertit equos in castra, prius quam 1.473. pabula gustassent Troiae Xanthumque bibissent. 1.474. Parte alia fugiens amissis Troilus armis, 1.475. infelix puer atque impar congressus Achilli, 1.476. fertur equis, curruque haeret resupinus ii, 1.477. lora tenens tamen; huic cervixque comaeque trahuntur 1.478. per terram, et versa pulvis inscribitur hasta. 1.479. Interea ad templum non aequae Palladis ibant 1.480. crinibus Iliades passis peplumque ferebant, 1.481. suppliciter tristes et tunsae pectora palmis; 1.482. diva solo fixos oculos aversa tenebat. 1.483. Ter circum Iliacos raptaverat Hectora muros, 1.484. exanimumque auro corpus vendebat Achilles. 1.485. Tum vero ingentem gemitum dat pectore ab imo, 1.486. ut spolia, ut currus, utque ipsum corpus amici, 1.487. tendentemque manus Priamum conspexit inermis. 1.488. Se quoque principibus permixtum adgnovit Achivis, 1.489. Eoasque acies et nigri Memnonis arma. 1.490. Ducit Amazonidum lunatis agmina peltis
3.374. Nate dea,—nam te maioribus ire per altum 3.375. auspiciis manifesta fides: sic fata deum rex 3.376. sortitur, volvitque vices; is vertitur ordo— 3.377. pauca tibi e multis, quo tutior hospita lustres 3.378. aequora et Ausonio possis considere portu, 3.379. expediam dictis; prohibent nam cetera Parcae 3.380. scire Helenum farique vetat Saturnia Iuno.
3.433. Praeterea, si qua est Heleno prudentia, vati 3.434. si qua fides, animum si veris implet Apollo,
3.441. Huc ubi delatus Cumaeam accesseris urbem, 3.442. divinosque lacus, et Averna sotia silvis, 3.443. insanam vatem aspicies, quae rupe sub ima 3.444. fata canit, foliisque notas et nomina mandat. 3.445. Quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo, 3.446. digerit in numerum, atque antro seclusa relinquit. 3.447. Illa manent immota locis, neque ab ordine cedunt; 3.448. verum eadem, verso tenuis cum cardine ventus 3.450. numquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo, 3.451. nec revocare situs aut iungere carmina curat: 3.452. inconsulti abeunt, sedemque odere Sibyllae.
3.461. Haec sunt, quae nostra liceat te voce moneri.
4.265. Continuo invadit: Tu nunc Karthaginis altae 4.266. fundamenta locas, pulchramque uxorius urbem 4.267. exstruis, heu regni rerumque oblite tuarum? 4.268. Ipse deum tibi me claro demittit Olympo 4.269. regnator, caelum ac terras qui numine torquet; 4.270. ipse haec ferre iubet celeris mandata per auras: 4.271. quid struis, aut qua spe Libycis teris otia terris? 4.272. Si te nulla movet tantarum gloria rerum, 4.273. 5.562. agmine partito fulgent paribusque magistris.
5.669. castra, nec exanimes possunt retinere magistri.
6.343. Dic age. Namque mihi, fallax haud ante repertus, 6.344. hoc uno responso animum delusit Apollo, 6.345. qui fore te ponto incolumem, finesque canebat 6.346. venturum Ausonios. En haec promissa fides est?
6.753. conventus trahit in medios turbamque sotem, 6.754. et tumulum capit, unde omnes longo ordine possit 6.755. adversos legere, et venientum discere vultus. 6.756. Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur 6.757. gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes, 6.758. inlustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituras, 6.759. expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo. 6.760. Ille, vides, pura iuvenis qui nititur hasta, 6.761. proxuma sorte tenet lucis loca, primus ad auras 6.762. aetherias Italo commixtus sanguine surget, 6.763. silvius, Albanum nomen, tua postuma proles, 6.764. quem tibi longaevo serum Lavinia coniunx 6.765. educet silvis regem regumque parentem, 6.766. unde genus Longa nostrum dominabitur Alba. 6.767. Proxumus ille Procas, Troianae gloria gentis, 6.768. et Capys, et Numitor, et qui te nomine reddet 6.769. Silvius Aeneas, pariter pietate vel armis 6.770. egregius, si umquam regdam acceperit Albam. 6.771. Qui iuvenes! Quantas ostentant, aspice, vires, 6.772. atque umbrata gerunt civili tempora quercu! 6.773. Hi tibi Nomentum et Gabios urbemque Fidenam, 6.774. hi Collatinas imponent montibus arces, 6.775. Pometios Castrumque Inui Bolamque Coramque. 6.776. Haec tum nomina erunt, nunc sunt sine nomine terrae. 6.777. Quin et avo comitem sese Mavortius addet 6.778. Romulus, Assaraci quem sanguinis Ilia mater 6.779. educet. Viden, ut geminae stant vertice cristae, 6.780. et pater ipse suo superum iam signat honore? 6.781. En, huius, nate, auspiciis illa incluta Roma 6.782. imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo, 6.783. septemque una sibi muro circumdabit arces, 6.784. felix prole virum: qualis Berecyntia mater 6.785. invehitur curru Phrygias turrita per urbes, 6.786. laeta deum partu, centum complexa nepotes, 6.787. omnes caelicolas, omnes supera alta tenentes. 6.788. Huc geminas nunc flecte acies, hanc aspice gentem 6.789. Romanosque tuos. Hic Caesar et omnis Iuli 6.790. progenies magnum caeli ventura sub axem. 6.791. Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti saepius audis, 6.792. Augustus Caesar, Divi genus, aurea condet 6.793. saecula qui rursus Latio regnata per arva 6.794. Saturno quondam, super et Garamantas et Indos 6.795. proferet imperium: iacet extra sidera tellus, 6.796. extra anni solisque vias, ubi caelifer Atlas 6.797. axem umero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum. 6.798. Huius in adventum iam nunc et Caspia regna 6.799. responsis horrent divom et Maeotia tellus, 6.800. et septemgemini turbant trepida ostia Nili. 6.801. Nec vero Alcides tantum telluris obivit, 6.802. fixerit aeripedem cervam licet, aut Erymanthi 6.803. pacarit nemora, et Lernam tremefecerit arcu; 6.804. nec, qui pampineis victor iuga flectit habenis, 6.805. Liber, agens celso Nysae de vertice tigres. 6.806. Et dubitamus adhuc virtute extendere vires, 6.807. aut metus Ausonia prohibet consistere terra? 6.809. sacra ferens? Nosco crines incanaque menta 6.810. regis Romani, primus qui legibus urbem 6.811. fundabit, Curibus parvis et paupere terra 6.812. missus in imperium magnum. Cui deinde subibit, 6.813. otia qui rumpet patriae residesque movebit 6.814. Tullus in arma viros et iam desueta triumphis 6.815. agmina. Quem iuxta sequitur iactantior Ancus, 6.816. nunc quoque iam nimium gaudens popularibus auris. 6.817. Vis et Tarquinios reges, animamque superbam 6.818. ultoris Bruti, fascesque videre receptos?
6.820. accipiet, natosque pater nova bella moventes 6.821. ad poenam pulchra pro libertate vocabit. 6.822. Infelix, utcumque ferent ea facta minores, 6.823. vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido. 6.824. Quin Decios Drusosque procul saevumque securi 6.825. aspice Torquatum et referentem signa Camillum. 6.826. Illae autem, paribus quas fulgere cernis in armis, 6.827. concordes animae nunc et dum nocte premuntur, 6.828. heu quantum inter se bellum, si lumina vitae 6.829. attigerint, quantas acies stragemque ciebunt! 6.830. Aggeribus socer Alpinis atque arce Monoeci 6.831. descendens, gener adversis instructus Eois. 6.832. Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella, 6.833. neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires; 6.834. tuque prior, tu parce, genus qui ducis Olympo, 6.835. proice tela manu, sanguis meus!— 6.836. Ille triumphata Capitolia ad alta Corintho 6.837. victor aget currum, caesis insignis Achivis. 6.838. Eruet ille Argos Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, 6.839. ipsumque Aeaciden, genus armipotentis Achilli, 6.840. ultus avos Troiae, templa et temerata Minervae. 6.841. Quis te, magne Cato, tacitum, aut te, Cosse, relinquat? 6.842. Quis Gracchi genus, aut geminos, duo fulmina belli, 6.843. Scipiadas, cladem Libyae, parvoque potentem 6.844. Fabricium vel te sulco Serrane, serentem? 6.845. quo fessum rapitis, Fabii? Tu Maxumus ille es, 6.846. unus qui nobis cunctando restituis rem. 6.847. Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848. credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849. orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850. describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851. tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852. hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853. parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos. 6.854. Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit: 6.855. Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis 6.856. ingreditur, victorque viros supereminet omnes! 6.857. Hic rem Romanam, magno turbante tumultu, 6.858. sistet, eques sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem, 6.859. tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino. 6.860. Atque hic Aeneas; una namque ire videbat 6.861. egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis, 6.862. sed frons laeta parum, et deiecto lumina voltu: 6.863. Quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem? 6.864. Filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum? 6.865. Quis strepitus circa comitum! Quantum instar in ipso! 6.866. Sed nox atra caput tristi circumvolat umbra. 6.867. Tum pater Anchises, lacrimis ingressus obortis: 6.868. O gnate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum; 6.869. ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra 6.870. esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago 6.871. visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent. 6.872. Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem 6.873. campus aget gemitus, vel quae, Tiberine, videbis 6.874. funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem! 6.875. Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos 6.876. in tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam 6.877. ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno. 6.878. Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello 6.879. dextera! Non illi se quisquam impune tulisset 6.880. obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem, 6.881. seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos. 6.882. Heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas, 6.883. tu Marcellus eris. Manibus date lilia plenis, 6.884. purpureos spargam flores, animamque nepotis 6.885. his saltem adcumulem donis, et fungar ii 6.886. munere—Sic tota passim regione vagantur 6.887. aëris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant. 6.888. Quae postquam Anchises natum per singula duxit, 6.889. incenditque animum famae venientis amore, 6.890. exin bella viro memorat quae deinde gerenda, 6.891. Laurentisque docet populos urbemque Latini, 6.892. et quo quemque modo fugiatque feratque laborem.
7.302. Quid Syrtes aut Scylla mihi, quid vasta Charybdis
8.219. Hic vero Alcidae furiis exarserat atro 8.220. felle dolor: rapit arma manu nodisque gravatum 8.221. robur et aerii cursu petit ardua montis. 8.222. Tum primum nostri Cacum videre timentem 8.223. turbatumque oculis: fugit ilicet ocior Euro 8.224. speluncamque petit, pedibus timor addidit alas. 8.225. Ut sese inclusit ruptisque immane catenis 8.226. deiecit saxum, ferro quod et arte paterna 8.227. pendebat, fultosque emuniit obice postis, 8.228. ecce furens animis aderat Tirynthius omnemque 8.229. accessum lustrans huc ora ferebat et illuc, 8.230. dentibus infrendens. Ter totum fervidus ira 8.231. lustrat Aventini montem, ter saxea temptat 8.232. limina nequiquam, ter fessus valle resedit. 8.233. Stabat acuta silex, praecisis undique saxis 8.234. speluncae dorso insurgens, altissima visu, 8.235. dirarum nidis domus opportuna volucrum. 8.236. Hanc, ut prona iugo laevum incumbebat in amnem, 8.237. dexter in adversum nitens concussit et imis 8.239. inpulit, inpulsu quo maximus intonat aether 8.240. dissultant ripae refluitque exterritus amnis. 8.241. At specus et Caci detecta apparuit ingens 8.242. regia, et umbrosae penitus patuere cavernae: 8.243. non secus ac siqua penitus vi terra dehiscens 8.244. infernas reseret sedes et regna recludat 8.245. pallida, dis invisa, superque immane barathrum 8.246. cernatur, trepident inmisso lumine manes. 8.247. Ergo insperata deprensum luce repente 8.248. inclusumque cavo saxo atque insueta rudentem
8.250. advocat et ramis vastisque molaribus instat. 8.251. Ille autem, neque enim fuga iam super ulla pericli, 8.252. faucibus ingentem fumum (mirabile dictu) 8.253. evomit involvitque domum caligine caeca, 8.254. prospectum eripiens oculis, glomeratque sub antro 8.255. fumiferam noctem commixtis igne tenebris. 8.256. Non tulit Alcides animis seque ipse per ignem 8.257. praecipiti iecit saltu, qua plurimus undam 8.258. fumus agit nebulaque ingens specus aestuat atra. 8.259. Hic Cacum in tenebris incendia vana vomentem 8.260. corripit in nodum complexus et angit inhaerens 8.261. elisos oculos et siccum sanguine guttur. 8.262. Panditur extemplo foribus domus atra revolsis, 8.263. abstractaeque boves abiurataeque rapinae 8.264. caelo ostenduntur, pedibusque informe cadaver 8.265. protrahitur. Nequeunt expleri corda tuendo 8.266. terribilis oculos, voltum villosaque saetis 8.267. pectora semiferi atque extinctos faucibus ignis.
12.435. Disce, puer, virtutem ex me verumque laborem, 12.436. fortunam ex aliis. Nunc te mea dextera bello
12.793. Qua iam finis erit, coniunx? Quid denique restat?
12.830. Es germana Iovis Saturnique altera proles: 12.831. irarum tantos volvis sub pectore fluctus.' '. None
1.1. Arms and the man I sing, who first made way,
1.7. he suffered, seeking at the last to found 1.230. Hither Aeneas of his scattered fleet 1.231. aving but seven, into harbor sailed; 1.232. with passionate longing for the touch of land, 1.233. forth leap the Trojans to the welcome shore, 1.234. and fling their dripping limbs along the ground. 1.235. Then good Achates smote a flinty stone, 1.236. ecured a flashing spark, heaped on light leaves, 1.237. and with dry branches nursed the mounting flame. ' "1.238. Then Ceres' gift from the corrupting sea " '1.239. they bring away; and wearied utterly ' "1.240. ply Ceres' cunning on the rescued corn, " "1.241. and parch in flames, and mill 'twixt two smooth stones. " '1.242. Aeneas meanwhile climbed the cliffs, and searched 1.243. the wide sea-prospect; haply Antheus there, 1.244. torm-buffeted, might sail within his ken, 1.245. with biremes, and his Phrygian mariners, 1.246. or Capys or Caicus armor-clad, 1.247. upon a towering deck. No ship is seen; 1.248. but while he looks, three stags along the shore 1.249. come straying by, and close behind them comes 1.250. the whole herd, browsing through the lowland vale 1.251. in one long line. Aeneas stopped and seized 1.252. his bow and swift-winged arrows, which his friend, 1.253. trusty Achates, close beside him bore.
1.257. in panic through the leafy wood, nor ceased 1.258. the victory of his bow, till on the ground 1.259. lay seven huge forms, one gift for every ship. 1.260. Then back to shore he sped, and to his friends 1.261. distributed the spoil, with that rare wine 1.262. which good Acestes while in Sicily 1.263. had stored in jars, and prince-like sent away 1.264. with his Ioved guest;—this too Aeneas gave; 1.266. “Companions mine, we have not failed to feel 1.267. calamity till now. O, ye have borne 1.268. far heavier sorrow: Jove will make an end 1.269. also of this. Ye sailed a course hard by ' "1.270. infuriate Scylla's howling cliffs and caves. " "1.271. Ye knew the Cyclops' crags. Lift up your hearts! " '1.272. No more complaint and fear! It well may be 1.273. ome happier hour will find this memory fair. 1.274. Through chance and change and hazard without end, 1.275. our goal is Latium ; where our destinies 1.276. beckon to blest abodes, and have ordained 1.277. that Troy shall rise new-born! Have patience all! 1.279. Such was his word, but vexed with grief and care, 1.280. feigned hopes upon his forehead firm he wore, ' "1.281. and locked within his heart a hero's pain. " '1.282. Now round the welcome trophies of his chase 1.283. they gather for a feast. Some flay the ribs 1.284. and bare the flesh below; some slice with knives, 1.285. and on keen prongs the quivering strips impale, 1.286. place cauldrons on the shore, and fan the fires. 1.287. Then, stretched at ease on couch of simple green, 1.288. they rally their lost powers, and feast them well 1.289. on seasoned wine and succulent haunch of game. 1.290. But hunger banished and the banquet done, 1.291. in long discourse of their lost mates they tell, ' "1.292. 'twixt hopes and fears divided; for who knows " '1.293. whether the lost ones live, or strive with death, 1.294. or heed no more whatever voice may call? 1.295. Chiefly Aeneas now bewails his friends, 1.296. Orontes brave and fallen Amycus,
1.336. were hung on temple walls; and, to this day, 1.337. lying in perfect peace, the hero sleeps. 1.338. But we of thine own seed, to whom thou dost 1.339. a station in the arch of heaven assign, 1.340. behold our navy vilely wrecked, because 1.341. a single god is angry; we endure 1.342. this treachery and violence, whereby ' "1.343. wide seas divide us from th' Hesperian shore. " '1.344. Is this what piety receives? Or thus 1.346. Smiling reply, the Sire of gods and men, 1.347. with such a look as clears the skies of storm 1.348. chastely his daughter kissed, and thus spake on: 1.349. “Let Cytherea cast her fears away! 1.350. Irrevocably blest the fortunes be 1.351. of thee and thine. Nor shalt thou fail to see 1.352. that City, and the proud predestined wall 1.353. encompassing Lavinium . Thyself 1.354. hall starward to the heights of heaven bear 1.355. Aeneas the great-hearted. Nothing swerves 1.356. my will once uttered. Since such carking cares 1.357. consume thee, I this hour speak freely forth, 1.358. and leaf by leaf the book of fate unfold. 1.359. Thy son in Italy shall wage vast war 1.360. and, quell its nations wild; his city-wall 1.361. and sacred laws shall be a mighty bond 1.362. about his gathered people. Summers three 1.363. hall Latium call him king; and three times pass ' "1.364. the winter o'er Rutulia's vanquished hills. " '1.365. His heir, Ascanius, now Iulus called ' "1.366. (Ilus it was while Ilium 's kingdom stood), " '1.367. full thirty months shall reign, then move the throne 1.368. from the Lavinian citadel, and build
1.378. but empire without end. Yea, even my Queen, 1.379. Juno, who now chastiseth land and sea
1.450. has crossed my path, thou maid without a name! 1.451. Thy beauty seems not of terrestrial mould, 1.452. nor is thy music mortal! Tell me, goddess, ' "1.453. art thou bright Phoebus' sister? Or some nymph, " "1.454. the daughter of a god? Whate'er thou art, " '1.455. thy favor we implore, and potent aid 1.456. in our vast toil. Instruct us of what skies, ' "1.457. or what world's end, our storm-swept lives have found! " '1.458. Strange are these lands and people where we rove, 1.459. compelled by wind and wave. Lo, this right hand
1.461. Then Venus: “Nay, I boast not to receive 1.462. honors divine. We Tyrian virgins oft 1.463. bear bow and quiver, and our ankles white 1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies 1.465. the Punic power, where Tyrian masters hold ' "1.466. Agenor's town; but on its borders dwell " '1.467. the Libyans, by battles unsubdued. 1.468. Upon the throne is Dido, exiled there ' "1.469. from Tyre, to flee th' unnatural enmity " "1.470. of her own brother. 'T was an ancient wrong; " '1.471. too Iong the dark and tangled tale would be; 1.472. I trace the larger outline of her story: 1.473. Sichreus was her spouse, whose acres broad 1.474. no Tyrian lord could match, and he was-blessed ' "1.475. by his ill-fated lady's fondest love, " '1.476. whose father gave him her first virgin bloom 1.477. in youthful marriage. But the kingly power 1.478. among the Tyrians to her brother came, 1.479. Pygmalion, none deeper dyed in crime 1.480. in all that land. Betwixt these twain there rose 1.481. a deadly hatred,—and the impious wretch, 1.482. blinded by greed, and reckless utterly ' "1.483. of his fond sister's joy, did murder foul " '1.484. upon defenceless and unarmed Sichaeus, 1.485. and at the very altar hewed him down. 1.486. Long did he hide the deed, and guilefully 1.487. deceived with false hopes, and empty words, 1.488. her grief and stricken love. But as she slept, ' "1.489. her husband's tombless ghost before her came, " '1.490. with face all wondrous pale, and he laid bare
3.374. Smile, Heaven, upon your faithful votaries.” 3.375. Then bade he launch away, the chain undo, 3.376. et every cable free and spread all sail. ' "3.377. O'er the white waves we flew, and took our way " "3.378. where'er the helmsman or the winds could guide. " '3.379. Now forest-clad Zacynthus met our gaze, 3.380. engirdled by the waves; Dulichium,
3.433. at the portentous sight, she swooning fell 3.434. and lay cold, rigid, lifeless, till at last,
3.441. brief answer to her passion, but replied 3.442. with broken voice and accents faltering: ' "3.443. “I live, 't is true. I lengthen out my days " '3.444. through many a desperate strait. But O, believe 3.445. that what thine eyes behold is vision true. 3.446. Alas! what lot is thine, that wert unthroned ' "3.447. from such a husband's side? What after-fate " '3.448. could give thee honor due? Andromache, 3.450. With drooping brows and lowly voice she cried : 3.451. “O, happy only was that virgin blest, 3.452. daughter of Priam, summoned forth to die ' "
3.461. and nuptial-bond with Lacedaemon's Iords, " '
4.265. but with the morn she takes her watchful throne 4.266. high on the housetops or on lofty towers, 4.267. to terrify the nations. She can cling 4.268. to vile invention and maligt wrong, 4.269. or mingle with her word some tidings true. ' "4.270. She now with changeful story filled men's ears, " '4.271. exultant, whether false or true she sung: 4.272. how, Trojan-born Aeneas having come, 4.273. Dido, the lovely widow, Iooked his way, 4.274. deigning to wed; how all the winter long 4.275. they passed in revel and voluptuous ease, ' "4.276. to dalliance given o'er; naught heeding now " '4.277. of crown or kingdom—shameless! lust-enslaved! 4.278. Such tidings broadcast on the lips of men
5.562. and on his youth relied; the other strong
5.669. lifeless she fell, and left in light of heaven
6.343. Begin thy journey! Draw thy sheathed blade! ' "6.344. Now, all thy courage! now, th' unshaken soul!” " '6.345. She spoke, and burst into the yawning cave 6.346. With frenzied step; he follows where she leads,
6.753. And strove to thrust Jove from his seat on high. 6.754. I saw Salmoneus his dread stripes endure, 6.755. Who dared to counterfeit Olympian thunder ' "6.756. And Jove's own fire. In chariot of four steeds, " '6.757. Brandishing torches, he triumphant rode ' "6.758. Through throngs of Greeks, o'er Elis ' sacred way, " '6.759. Demanding worship as a god. 0 fool! ' "6.760. To mock the storm's inimitable flash— " '6.761. With crash of hoofs and roll of brazen wheel! 6.762. But mightiest Jove from rampart of thick cloud 6.763. Hurled his own shaft, no flickering, mortal flame, 6.764. And in vast whirl of tempest laid him low. 6.765. Next unto these, on Tityos I looked, 6.766. Child of old Earth, whose womb all creatures bears: ' "6.767. Stretched o'er nine roods he lies; a vulture huge " '6.768. Tears with hooked beak at his immortal side, 6.769. Or deep in entrails ever rife with pain 6.770. Gropes for a feast, making his haunt and home 6.771. In the great Titan bosom; nor will give 6.772. To ever new-born flesh surcease of woe. 6.773. Why name Ixion and Pirithous, 6.774. The Lapithae, above whose impious brows 6.775. A crag of flint hangs quaking to its fall, 6.776. As if just toppling down, while couches proud, 6.777. Propped upon golden pillars, bid them feast 6.778. In royal glory: but beside them lies 6.779. The eldest of the Furies, whose dread hands 6.780. Thrust from the feast away, and wave aloft 6.781. A flashing firebrand, with shrieks of woe. 6.782. Here in a prison-house awaiting doom 6.783. Are men who hated, long as life endured, 6.784. Their brothers, or maltreated their gray sires, 6.785. Or tricked a humble friend; the men who grasped 6.786. At hoarded riches, with their kith and kin 6.787. Not sharing ever—an unnumbered throng; 6.788. Here slain adulterers be; and men who dared 6.789. To fight in unjust cause, and break all faith 6.790. With their own lawful lords. Seek not to know 6.791. What forms of woe they feel, what fateful shape ' "6.792. of retribution hath o'erwhelmed them there. " '6.793. Some roll huge boulders up; some hang on wheels, 6.794. Lashed to the whirling spokes; in his sad seat 6.795. Theseus is sitting, nevermore to rise; 6.796. Unhappy Phlegyas uplifts his voice 6.797. In warning through the darkness, calling loud, 6.798. ‘0, ere too late, learn justice and fear God!’ 6.799. Yon traitor sold his country, and for gold 6.800. Enchained her to a tyrant, trafficking 6.801. In laws, for bribes enacted or made void; 6.802. Another did incestuously take 6.803. His daughter for a wife in lawless bonds. 6.804. All ventured some unclean, prodigious crime; 6.805. And what they dared, achieved. I could not tell, 6.806. Not with a hundred mouths, a hundred tongues, 6.807. Or iron voice, their divers shapes of sin, ' "6.809. So spake Apollo's aged prophetess. " '6.810. “Now up and on!” she cried. “Thy task fulfil! 6.811. We must make speed. Behold yon arching doors 6.812. Yon walls in furnace of the Cyclops forged! ' "6.813. 'T is there we are commanded to lay down " "6.814. Th' appointed offering.” So, side by side, " '6.815. Swift through the intervening dark they strode, 6.816. And, drawing near the portal-arch, made pause. 6.817. Aeneas, taking station at the door, ' "6.818. Pure, lustral waters o'er his body threw, " '
6.820. Now, every rite fulfilled, and tribute due 6.821. Paid to the sovereign power of Proserpine, 6.822. At last within a land delectable 6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers 6.824. of groves where all is joy,—a blest abode! 6.825. An ampler sky its roseate light bestows 6.826. On that bright land, which sees the cloudless beam 6.827. of suns and planets to our earth unknown. 6.828. On smooth green lawns, contending limb with limb, 6.829. Immortal athletes play, and wrestle long ' "6.830. 'gainst mate or rival on the tawny sand; " '6.831. With sounding footsteps and ecstatic song, 6.832. Some thread the dance divine: among them moves 6.833. The bard of Thrace, in flowing vesture clad, 6.834. Discoursing seven-noted melody, 6.835. Who sweeps the numbered strings with changeful hand, 6.836. Or smites with ivory point his golden lyre. 6.837. Here Trojans be of eldest, noblest race, 6.838. Great-hearted heroes, born in happier times, 6.839. Ilus, Assaracus, and Dardanus, 6.840. Illustrious builders of the Trojan town. 6.841. Their arms and shadowy chariots he views, 6.842. And lances fixed in earth, while through the fields 6.843. Their steeds without a bridle graze at will. 6.844. For if in life their darling passion ran 6.845. To chariots, arms, or glossy-coated steeds, 6.846. The self-same joy, though in their graves, they feel. 6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests 6.854. Who kept them undefiled their mortal day; 6.855. And poets, of whom the true-inspired song ' "6.856. Deserved Apollo's name; and all who found " "6.857. New arts, to make man's life more blest or fair; " '6.858. Yea! here dwell all those dead whose deeds bequeath 6.859. Deserved and grateful memory to their kind. 6.860. And each bright brow a snow-white fillet wears. 6.861. Unto this host the Sibyl turned, and hailed 6.862. Musaeus, midmost of a numerous throng, ' "6.863. Who towered o'er his peers a shoulder higher: " '6.864. “0 spirits blest! 0 venerable bard! 6.865. Declare what dwelling or what region holds 6.866. Anchises, for whose sake we twain essayed 6.867. Yon passage over the wide streams of hell.” 6.868. And briefly thus the hero made reply: 6.869. “No fixed abode is ours. In shadowy groves 6.870. We make our home, or meadows fresh and fair, 6.871. With streams whose flowery banks our couches be. 6.872. But you, if thitherward your wishes turn, 6.873. Climb yonder hill, where I your path may show.” 6.874. So saying, he strode forth and led them on, 6.875. Till from that vantage they had prospect fair 6.876. of a wide, shining land; thence wending down, 6.877. They left the height they trod; for far below 6.878. Father Anchises in a pleasant vale 6.879. Stood pondering, while his eyes and thought surveyed 6.880. A host of prisoned spirits, who there abode 6.881. Awaiting entrance to terrestrial air. 6.882. And musing he reviewed the legions bright 6.883. of his own progeny and offspring proud— 6.884. Their fates and fortunes, virtues and great deeds. 6.885. Soon he discerned Aeneas drawing nigh ' "6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands " '6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth. 6.888. Tears from his eyelids rained, and thus he spoke: 6.889. “Art here at last? Hath thy well-proven love 6.890. of me thy sire achieved yon arduous way? 6.891. Will Heaven, beloved son, once more allow 6.892. That eye to eye we look? and shall I hear
7.302. in friendship or in war, that many a tribe
8.219. and with a wide-eyed wonder I did view ' "8.220. those Teucrian lords, Laomedon's great heir, " '8.221. and, towering highest in their goodly throng, 8.222. Anchises, whom my warm young heart desired 8.223. to speak with and to clasp his hand in mine. 8.224. So I approached, and joyful led him home ' "8.225. to Pheneus' olden wall. He gave me gifts " '8.226. the day he bade adieu; a quiver rare 8.227. filled with good Lycian arrows, a rich cloak 8.228. inwove with thread of gold, and bridle reins 8.229. all golden, now to youthful Pallas given. 8.230. Therefore thy plea is granted, and my hand 8.231. here clasps in loyal amity with thine. 8.232. To-morrow at the sunrise thou shalt have 8.233. my tribute for the war, and go thy way 8.234. my glad ally. But now this festival, ' "8.235. whose solemn rite 't were impious to delay, " '8.236. I pray thee celebrate, and bring with thee 8.237. well-omened looks and words. Allies we are! 8.239. So saying, he bade his followers renew ' "8.240. th' abandoned feast and wine; and placed each guest " '8.241. on turf-built couch of green, most honoring 8.242. Aeneas by a throne of maple fair ' "8.243. decked with a lion's pelt and flowing mane. " "8.244. Then high-born pages, with the altar's priest, " '8.245. bring on the roasted beeves and load the board 8.246. with baskets of fine bread; and wine they bring — 8.247. of Ceres and of Bacchus gift and toil. 8.248. While good Aeneas and his Trojans share
8.250. When hunger and its eager edge were gone, 8.251. Evander spoke: “This votive holiday, 8.252. yon tables spread and altar so divine, 8.253. are not some superstition dark and vain, 8.254. that knows not the old gods, O Trojan King! 8.255. But as men saved from danger and great fear 8.256. this thankful sacrifice we pay. Behold, 8.257. yon huge rock, beetling from the mountain wall, 8.258. hung from the cliff above. How lone and bare 8.259. the hollowed mountain looks! How crag on crag 8.260. tumbled and tossed in huge confusion lie! 8.261. A cavern once it was, which ran deep down ' "8.262. into the darkness. There th' half-human shape " '8.263. of Cacus made its hideous den, concealed 8.264. from sunlight and the day. The ground was wet 8.265. at all times with fresh gore; the portal grim 8.266. was hung about with heads of slaughtered men, 8.267. bloody and pale—a fearsome sight to see.
12.435. this frantic stir, this quarrel rashly bold? 12.436. Recall your martial rage! The pledge is given
12.793. its portals to the Trojan, or drag forth
12.830. pursued a scattered few; but less his speed, 12.831. for less and less his worn steeds worked his will; ' '. None
65. Vergil, Georgics, 3.68, 3.478
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 164; Verhagen (2022) 164

3.68. et labor, et durae rapit inclementia mortis.
3.478. Hic quondam morbo caeli miseranda coorta est''. None
3.68. And burly neck, whose hanging dewlaps reach
3.478. Many there be who from their mothers keep''. None
66. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • fate

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 33; Maciver (2012) 116, 117, 118

67. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Stoicism, fate • Stoicism, fate and contingency • contingency in fate

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 98, 99, 101; Augoustakis (2014) 162, 163, 164; Verhagen (2022) 162, 163, 164

68. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Chrysippus, On Fate • Chrysippus, on fate • Fate / fatum / εἱμαρμένη • Fate, • Gregory of Nyssa, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Plotinus, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoics, and fate • Stoics/Stoicism, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Zeno of Citium, on fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fate • fate (heimarmenē, Lat., fatum) , Chrysippus on • fate (είμαρµένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Hermetics on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Plotinus • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Stoics on • fate, and divination • fate, and necessity • fate/ heimarmene

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 161, 165; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 119, 121, 178, 179, 253, 256; Del Lucchese (2019) 175; Frede and Laks (2001) 24, 249, 252; Hankinson (1998) 253, 258, 259, 265; Konig and Wiater (2022) 246; König and Wiater (2022) 246; Maso (2022) 125; Schibli (2002) 228, 334, 346; Wilson (2012) 414

69. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Epicurus on

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 174; Long (2006) 161

70. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • fate • fate, fatalism,

 Found in books: Long (2006) 147; Luck (2006) 408

71. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Platonists/Platonism/Plato, on fate (εἱμαρμένη) • Stoics, and fate • causation, on fate • determinism, and fatalism • fate • fate (εἱμαρμένη) • fate (εἱμαρμένη), Platonists on • fate, Apuleius on • fate/fatalism • providence, and fate

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 117, 119, 212; Hankinson (1998) 258; Hoenig (2018) 153; Wilson (2018) 293

72. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Fate • Judas, tragedy of fate of

 Found in books: Bowen and Rochberg (2020) 561; Scopello (2008) 262

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