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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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22 results for "fast"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 19.15, 51.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
19.15. "יִהְיוּ לְרָצוֹן אִמְרֵי־פִי וְהֶגְיוֹן לִבִּי לְפָנֶיךָ יְהוָה צוּרִי וְגֹאֲלִי׃", 51.17. "אֲדֹנָי שְׂפָתַי תִּפְתָּח וּפִי יַגִּיד תְּהִלָּתֶךָ׃", 19.15. "Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable before Thee, O LORD, my Rock, and my Redeemer.", 51.17. "O Lord, open Thou my lips; and my mouth shall declare Thy praise.",
2. Tosefta, Berachot, 1.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
1.2. "רבי שמעון אומר פעמים שאדם קורא אותה שתי פעמים בלילה אחת קודם שיעלה עמוד השחר ואחת משיעלה עמוד השחר ונמצא יוצא [בה] ידי חובה של יום ושל לילה.",
3. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
3.21. "כתב הנכתב ליחיד מכנין אותה לרבים לרבים אין מכנין אותה ליחיד רבי יהודה אומר המתרגם פסוק כצורתו הרי זה בדאי והמוסיף הרי זה מגדף. תורגמן העומד לפני חכם אינו רשאי לא לפחות ולא להוסיף ולא לשנות אלא אם כן יהיה אביו או רבו. ",
4. Tosefta, Menachot, 13.21 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 519
5. Tosefta, Sotah, 13.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 519
13.8. "שנה שמת בה שמעון הצדיק [אמר להם בשנה זו אני] מת אמרו לו מנין אתה יודע אמר להם כל ימות הכפורים היה זקן [אחד לובש] בגדים לבנים ומתכסה לבנים נכנס עמי [ויוצא] עמי שנה זו נכנס עמי ולא יצא לאחר הרגל חלה שבעת ימים ומת משמת שמעון הצדיק פסקו מלברך בשם <ס\"א> [נמנעו אחיו מלברך בשם].", 13.8. "The year in which Shimon the Righteous died [he said to them] \"in this year I will die\" \"how do you know this?\" they responded. He (Shimon the Righteous) responded: \"all of the Yom Kippur days there was an old man dressed in all white who would go with me into the holy of holies and leave with me, on this year he went in with me but did not come out with me.\" Seven days passed after the holiday and he died. From the time of the death of Rebbi Shimon the Righteous they ceased blessing in the name of Hashem.",
6. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.13-1.14, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 205, 439, 519, 568
3.1. "[בתשעה בחודש הובקעה העיר בשניה ובראשונה ובז' בו אם נאמר (ירמיהו נ״ב:ו׳) בז' בחודש למה נאמר בט' בחודש אם נאמר בט' בחודש למה נאמר בז' בחודש אלא בז' בחודש כיבשו האומות את ההיכל] ונטלו את העמודים ואת הים ואת המכונות [והיו מקרקרים] שביעי שמיני ותשיעי [עד שפנה יום] וכה\"א (שם) אוי לנו כי פנה היום כי ינטו צללי ערב לעתותי ערב הציתו בו את האור ונשרף עם שקיעת החמה בעשור לחודש.", 3.1. "בשלשה פרקים נושאין כפיהן ד' פעמים ביום [בשחר] בחצות במנחה [ובנעילה] דברי ר' מאיר וחכמים אומרים במנחה ובנעילה לא היה שם נשיאת כפים שנאמר (דברים י״ח:ה׳) לעמוד לשרת בשם ה' הוא ובניו מקיש בניו [לו] מה הוא מעומד ונשיאות כפים בבוקר אף בניו מעומד ונשיאות כפים בבוקר.",
7. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 205
2.5. "מַעֲשֶׂה בִימֵי רַבִּי חֲלַפְתָּא וְרַבִּי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן תְּרַדְיוֹן, שֶׁעָבַר אֶחָד לִפְנֵי הַתֵּבָה וְגָמַר אֶת הַבְּרָכָה כֻלָּהּ, וְלֹא עָנוּ אַחֲרָיו אָמֵן. תִּקְעוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים תְּקָעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ בְּהַר הַמּוֹרִיָּה הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. הָרִיעוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הָרִיעוּ. מִי שֶׁעָנָה אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עַל יַם סוּף, הוּא יַעֲנֶה אֶתְכֶם וְיִשְׁמַע בְּקוֹל צַעֲקַתְכֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה. וּכְשֶׁבָּא דָבָר אֵצֶל חֲכָמִים, אָמְרוּ, לֹא הָיִינוּ נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן אֶלָּא בְשַׁעַר מִזְרָח וּבְהַר הַבָּיִת:", 2.5. "It happened in the days of Rabbi Halafta and Rabbi Hanina ben Tradyon that a man passed before the ark [as shaliah tzibbur] and completed the entire benediction and they did not respond, “amen.” [The hazzan called out]: Sound a tekiah, priests, sound a tekiah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered Abraham on Mt. Moriah, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. Then [the hazzan called out]: Sound a teru'ah, sons of Aaron, sound a teru'ah. [The shaliah tzibbur continued]: He who answered our fathers at the Sea of Reeds, He shall answer you and hear the voice of your cry on this day. And when the matter came up before the sages, they said: they only practiced in this way at the eastern gates on the Temple Mount.",
8. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan nan
9. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 205
10. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
11. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
12. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
13. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר מי שלא ראה שמחת בית השואבה לא ראה שמחה מימיו מי שלא ראה ירושלים בתפארתה לא ראה כרך נחמד מעולם מי שלא ראה בהמ"ק בבנינו לא ראה בנין מפואר מעולם מאי היא אמר אביי ואיתימא רב חסדא זה בנין הורדוס,במאי בניה אמר (רבא) באבני שישא ומרמרא איכא דאמרי באבני שישא כוחלא ומרמרא אפיק שפה ועייל שפה כי היכי דלקבל סידא סבר למשעיין בדהבא אמרו ליה רבנן שבקיה דהכי שפיר טפי דמיתחזי כאדותא דימא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר מי שלא ראה דיופלוסטון של אלכסנדריא של מצרים לא ראה בכבודן של ישראל אמרו כמין בסילקי גדולה היתה סטיו לפנים מסטיו פעמים שהיו בה (ששים רבוא על ששים רבוא) כפלים כיוצאי מצרים והיו בה ע"א קתדראות של זהב כנגד ע"א של סנהדרי גדולה כל אחת ואחת אינה פחותה מעשרים ואחד רבוא ככרי זהב ובימה של עץ באמצעיתה וחזן הכנסת עומד עליה והסודרין בידו וכיון שהגיע לענות אמן הלה מניף בסודר וכל העם עונין אמן,ולא היו יושבין מעורבין אלא זהבין בפני עצמן וכספין בפני עצמן ונפחין בפני עצמן וטרסיים בפני עצמן וגרדיים בפני עצמן וכשעני נכנס שם היה מכיר בעלי אומנתו ונפנה לשם ומשם פרנסתו ופרנסת אנשי ביתו,אמר אביי וכולהו קטלינהו אלכסנדרוס מוקדן מ"ט איענשו משום דעברי אהאי קרא (דברים יז, טז) לא תוסיפון לשוב בדרך הזה עוד ואינהו הדור אתו,כי אתא אשכחינהו דהוו קרו בסיפרא (דברים כח, מט) ישא ה' עליך גוי מרחוק אמר מכדי ההוא גברא בעי למיתי ספינתא בעשרה יומי דליה זיקא ואתי ספינתא בחמשא יומי נפל עלייהו וקטלינהו:,במוצאי יום טוב כו': מאי תיקון גדול אמר רבי אלעזר כאותה ששנינו חלקה היתה בראשונה והקיפוה גזוזטרא והתקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו נשים מבפנים ואנשים מבחוץ והיו באים לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מבחוץ ואנשים מבפנים ועדיין היו באין לידי קלות ראש התקינו שיהו נשים יושבות מלמעלה ואנשים מלמטה,היכי עביד הכי והכתיב (דברי הימים א כח, יט) הכל בכתב מיד ה' עלי השכיל,אמר רב קרא אשכחו ודרוש 51b. b with flaming torches /b that they would juggle b in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise /b to God. b And the Levites /b would play b on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless /b other b musical instruments. /b The musicians would stand b on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen /b Songs of the b Ascents in Psalms, /b i.e., chapters 120–134, and b upon which /b the b Levites stand with musical instruments and recite /b their b song. /b , b And /b this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: b Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. /b When b the rooster crowed /b at dawn, b they sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b When b they /b who would draw the water b reached the tenth stair /b the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i , /b to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When b they reached the /b Women’s b Courtyard /b with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . /b ,When b they reached the ground /b of the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters b sounded a i tekia /i , and sounded a i terua /i , and sounded a i tekia /i . They continued sounding /b the trumpets b until they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, /b from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When b they reached the gate /b through b which /b one b exits to the east, they turned from /b facing b east to /b facing b west, /b toward the Holy of Holies, b and said: Our ancestors who were in this place /b during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood b “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” /b (Ezekiel 8:16), b and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says /b that b they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing /b of the Water, b never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed /b state, b never saw a magnificent structure. /b The Gemara asks: b What is /b the Temple building to which the Sages refer? b Abaye said, and some say /b that it was b Rav Ḥisda /b who said: b This /b is referring to the magnificent b building of Herod, /b who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: b With what /b materials b did he construct it? Rava said: /b It was b with stones of /b green-gray b marble and white marble [ i marmara /i ]. Some say: /b It was b with stones of blue marble and white marble. /b The rows of stones were set with b one row /b slightly b protruded and one row /b slightly b indented, so that the plaster would take /b better. b He thought to plate /b the Temple b with gold, /b but b the Sages said to him: Leave it /b as is, and do not plate it, b as it is better this way, as /b with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, b it has the appearance of waves of the sea. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue [ i deyofloston /i ] of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said /b that its structure b was like a large basilica [ i basileki /i ], /b with b a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand /b men b and /b another b six hundred thousand /b men b in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs [ i katedraot /i ], corresponding to the seventy-one /b members b of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which /b consisted of b no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And /b there was b a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue /b would b stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And /b because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, b when /b the prayer leader b reached /b the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people b to answer amen, /b the sexton b waved the scarf and all the people /b would b answer amen. /b , b And /b the members of the various crafts b would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths /b would sit b among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor /b stranger b entered there, he would recognize people /b who plied b his craft, and he would turn to /b join them b there. And from there /b he would secure b his livelihood /b as well as b the livelihood /b of the b members of his household, /b as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that b Abaye said: All of /b the people who congregated in that synagogue b were killed by Alexander /b the Great b of Macedonia. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that b they were punished /b and killed? It is b due to /b the fact b that they violated /b the prohibition with regard to Egypt in b this verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way” /b (Deuteronomy 17:16), b and they returned. /b Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished., b When /b Alexander b arrived, he found them, /b and saw b that they were reading /b the verse b in the /b Torah b scroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far, /b from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). b He said, /b referring to himself: b Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, /b and b a wind carried it and the ship arrived in /b only b five days, /b apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, b he set upon them and slaughtered them. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b At the conclusion of /b the first b Festival /b day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: b What /b is this b significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said /b that b it is like that which we learned: /b The walls of the Women’s Courtyard b were smooth, /b without protrusions, b initially. /b Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and b surrounded /b the courtyard b with a balcony [ i gezuztra /i ]. And they instituted that /b the b women should sit above and /b the b men below. /b , b The Sages taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b Initially, women would /b stand b on the inside /b of the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, b and the men /b were b on the outside /b in the courtyard and on the rampart. b And they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity /b in each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages b instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to /b conduct themselves with inappropriate b levity. /b Therefore, b they instituted /b in the interest of complete separation b that the women would sit above and the men below. /b ,The Gemara asks: b How could one do so, /b i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? b But isn’t it written /b with regard to the Temple: b “All this /b I give you b in writing, /b as b the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, /b even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?, b Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically /b and acted accordingly:
14. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 439
16b. היינו מטופל ואין לו היינו ביתו ריקם אמר רב חסדא זהו שביתו ריקם מן העבירה: ופרקו נאה אמר אביי זה שלא יצא (לו) שם רע בילדותו,(ירמיהו יב, ח) היתה לי נחלתי כאריה ביער נתנה עלי בקולה על כן שנאתיה מאי נתנה עלי בקולה אמר מר זוטרא בר טוביה אמר רב ואמרי לה אמר רבי חמא אמר רבי אלעזר זה שליח צבור (היורד לפני התיבה שאינו הגון):,ואומר לפניהם עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש: הני שש שבע הוויין כדתנן על השביעית הוא אומר ברוך מרחם על הארץ אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי שביעית שביעית לארוכה,כדתניא בגואל ישראל מאריך ובחותמה הוא אומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו אמן וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו בני אהרן הריעו וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו:,במה דברים אמורים בגבולין אבל במקדש אינו כן לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש,שנאמר (נחמיה ט, ה) קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם עד העולם ויברכו שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה יכול על כל ברכות כולן לא תהא אלא תהלה אחת ת"ל ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה תן לו תהלה,ואלא במקדש מהו אומר ברוך ה' אלהים אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר להם תקעו הכהנים בני אהרן תקעו,וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל זוכר הנשכחות והם עונים אחריו בשכמל"ו וחזן הכנסת אומר להם הריעו הכהנים בני אהרן הריעו וכו' וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שגומר את כולן,וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר לפני חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית,ואית דאמרי כדתניא אומר לפניהן עשרים וארבע ברכות שמונה עשרה שבכל יום ומוסיף עליהן עוד שש ואותן שש היכן אומרן בין גואל לרופא חולי ומאריך בגאולה והן עונין אחריו אמן על כל ברכה וברכה וכך היו נוהגין בגבולין,אבל במקדש היו אומרים ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל ולא היו עונין אחריו אמן וכל כך למה לפי שאין עונין אמן במקדש ומנין שאין עונין אמן במקדש שנאמר קומו ברכו את ה' אלהיכם מן העולם ועד העולם ויברכו (את) שם כבודך ומרומם על כל ברכה ותהלה על כל ברכה וברכה תן לו תהלה:,תנו רבנן על הראשונות הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך גואל ישראל והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד וחזן הכנסת אומר תקעו כהנים תקעו וחוזר ואומר מי שענה את אברהם בהר המוריה הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה (והן תוקעין ומריעין ותוקעין) ועל השניה הוא אומר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם ברוך זוכר הנשכחות והן עונין אחריו ברוך שם כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד,וחזן הכנסת אומר הריעו בני אהרן הריעו ואומר מי שענה את אבותינו על ים סוף הוא יענה אתכם וישמע בקול צעקתכם היום הזה והם מריעין ותוקעין ומריעין וכן בכל ברכה וברכה באחת אומר תקעו ובאחת אומר הריעו עד שיגמור את הברכות כולן וכך הנהיג ר' חלפתא בצפורי ור' חנניה בן תרדיון בסיכני וכשבא דבר אצל חכמים אמרו לא היו נוהגין כן אלא בשערי מזרח ובהר הבית:,ר' יהודה אומר לא היה צריך לומר זכרונות כו': א"ר אדא דמן יפו מאי טעמא דר' יהודה לפי שאין אומרים זכרונות ושופרות 16b. The Gemara asks a question concerning the explanation of Rabbi Yehuda: One who has b dependent /b children b and does not have /b anything with which to support them b is /b apparently b the same as /b one whose b house is empty. /b Why does Rabbi Yehuda list both descriptions? b Rav Ḥisda said: This /b expression means b that his house is empty of transgression. And /b Rabbi Yehuda further said that the prayer leader must be one b whose youth was becoming. /b In explanation of this phrase, b Abaye said: This /b is b one who did not have a bad reputation /b at any time b during his youth. /b ,The Gemara cites a verse in relation to the prayer leader: b “My heritage has become to me as a lion in the forest. She has uttered her voice against me; therefore I have hated her” /b (Jeremiah 12:8). b What is /b the meaning of the phrase: b “She has uttered her voice against me”? Mar Zutra bar Toviyya said /b that b Rav said, and some say Rabbi Ḥama said /b that b Rabbi Elazar said: This is an unworthy prayer leader who descends before the ark. /b When this person calls out to God, He thinks, so to speak: I hate the sound of his prayer.,§ The mishna teaches: b And /b the prayer leader b recites twenty-four blessings before them: /b The b eighteen /b blessings b of /b the b everyday /b i Amida /i prayer, b to which he adds another six /b blessings. The Gemara asks: Are b these six /b blessings? In fact, b they are seven, as we learned /b in a mishna: b For the seventh he recites, /b Blessed are You, Lord, b Who has mercy on the Land. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: What /b is the meaning of the b seventh /b blessing? This is referring to the b seventh for length, /b i.e., there were actually six new blessings, but as the prayer leader lengthens the sixth weekday blessing it is considered an additional blessing., b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b In /b the blessing of: b Redeemer of Israel, /b the prayer leader b lengthens /b the blessing, b and for its conclusion he recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel. And /b the community b answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b sons of Aaron, blow. /b , b And /b the prayer leader b resumes and recites /b the second blessing, concluding: b He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Who remembers the forgotten. And /b the community b answers amen after him. And the sexton says to them: Blast /b a wavering sound, b sons of Aaron, blast. And similarly, /b this is the procedure b for each and every /b additional b blessing: After one /b blessing b he says: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and after /b the next b one he says: Blast /b a wavering sound.,The Gemara asks: b In what /b case b is this statement said? /b This method applies b in the outlying areas, /b i.e., everywhere except in the Temple. b However, in the Temple /b itself this b is not /b the correct procedure, b as one does not answer amen in the Temple. /b Instead, one responds with a long blessing. The Gemara inquires: b And from where /b is it derived b that one does not answer amen in the Temple? /b ,The Gemara answers: b As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” /b (Nehemiah 9:5). One b might /b have thought that b for all blessings there should be only one praise, /b i.e., all blessings are answered with amen. Therefore, b the verse states: “That is exalted above all [ i al kol /i ] blessing and praise,” /b which indicates that b for every [ i al kol /i ] blessing, /b you should b give it /b its own b praise. /b , b But /b if so, b in the Temple, what /b would the prayer leader b recite? /b He would conclude the blessing: b Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel. And /b instead of amen, b they answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blow, priests, sons of Aaron, blow. /b , b And /b the prayer leader b resumes and recites /b the second blessing, concluding: b He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, Who remembers the forgotten. And /b the community b answers after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says to them: Blast, priests, sons of Aaron, blast, etc. And similarly, /b this is the procedure b for each and every /b additional b blessing: After one /b blessing b he says: Blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and after /b the next b one he says: Blast /b a wavering sound, b until he concludes all /b the blessings.,§ The Gemara relates: b And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in /b the city of b Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon in /b the city of b Sikhni. And when /b this b matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act /b in accordance with b this custom only at the Eastern Gate /b of the Temple b and on the Temple Mount, /b but not outside the Temple., b And /b some b say /b that they acted b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b And he recites twenty-four blessings before them: /b The b eighteen /b blessings b of /b the b everyday /b i Amida /i prayer, b to which he adds another six /b blessings. b And those /b extra b six, where does he recite them? Between /b the blessings: b Redeemer /b of Israel, b and: Healer of the sick. And he lengthens /b the earlier prayer b of redemption, and /b the congregation b answers amen after him, for each and every blessing. And this was the custom in the outlying areas, /b outside the Temple., b However, in the Temple they would recite: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel, and they would not answer amen after him. And why /b did the practice differ b so much? Because one does not answer amen in the Temple. And from where /b is it derived b that one does not answer amen in the Temple? As it is stated: “Stand up and bless the Lord, your God, from everlasting to everlasting, and let them say: Blessed be Your glorious Name, that is exalted above all blessing and praise” /b (Nehemiah 9:5). As stated above, this verse indicates that b for every blessing, /b you should b give it /b its own b praise. /b , b The Sages taught: In /b concluding b the first /b blessing b he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed /b are You, Lord, b Redeemer of Israel, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. And the sexton says: Blow, priests, blow. And he resumes /b the blessings b and recites: He Who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow /b a long, unwavering sound, b and blast /b a wavering sound, b and blow. And for the second /b blessing b he recites: Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting, who remembers the forgotten, and they would answer after him: Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom forever and all time. /b , b And the sexton says: Blast, sons of Aaron, blast. And he recites: He Who answered our forefathers by the Red Sea, He will answer you and hear the sound of your cry on this day. And they blow, and blast, and blow. And similarly, for each and every blessing: After one he says: Blow, and after /b the next b one he says: Blast, until he concludes all of them. And this was the custom Rabbi Ḥalafta established in Tzippori, and Rabbi Ḥaya ben Teradyon in Sikhni. And when /b this b matter came before the Sages, they said: They would act /b in accordance with b this custom only at the Eastern Gate and on the Temple Mount. /b ,§ The mishna taught: Rabbi Yehuda says: The prayer leader b did not need to recite /b the b Remembrances /b and i Shofarot /i passages. Instead, he recited verses dealing with famine and suffering. b Rabbi Adda from Jaffa said: What is Rabbi Yehuda’s reason? /b Rabbi Yehuda maintains b that one recites Remembrances and i Shofarot /i /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 519
71b. (איוב יד, ט) מריח מים יפריח ועשה קציר כמו נטע,ויום טוב היה עושה לאוהביו ת"ר מעשה בכהן גדול אחד שיצא מבית המקדש והוו אזלי כולי עלמא בתריה כיון דחזיונהו לשמעיה ואבטליון שבקוהו לדידיה ואזלי בתר שמעיה ואבטליון,לסוף אתו שמעיה ואבטליון לאיפטורי מיניה דכהן גדול אמר להן ייתון בני עממין לשלם אמרו ליה ייתון בני עממין לשלם דעבדין עובדא דאהרן ולא ייתי בר אהרן לשלם דלא עביד עובדא דאהרן, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן גדול משמש בשמונה כלים וההדיוט בארבעה בכתונת ומכנסים ומצנפת ואבנט מוסיף עליו כ"ג חשן ואפוד ומעיל וציץ באלו נשאלין באורים ותומים ואין נשאלין אלא למלך ולאב ב"ד ולמי שהציבור צריך בו, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר דברים שנאמר בהן שש חוטן כפול ששה משזר שמונה מעיל שנים עשר פרוכת עשרים וארבעה חושן ואפוד עשרים ושמונה,חוטן כפול ששה מנא לן דאמר קרא (שמות לט, א) ויעשו את הכתנת שש ואת המצנפת שש ואת פארי המגבעות שש ואת מכנסי הבד שש משזר חמשה קראי כתיבי חד לגופיה דכיתנא ניהוו וחד שיהא חוטן כפול ששה וחד שיהיו שזורין וחד לשאר בגדים שלא נאמר בהן שש וחד לעכב,מאי משמע דהאי שש כיתנא הוא אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא דאמר קרא בד דבר העולה מן הקרקע בד בד ואימא עמרא עמרא איפצולי מיפצלא כיתנא נמי איפצולי מפציל כיתנא אגב לקותיה מפציל,רבינא אמר מהכא (יחזקאל מד, יח) פארי פשתים יהיו על ראשם ומכנסי פשתים יהיו על מתניהם,אמר ליה רב אשי הא מקמי דאתי יחזקאל מאן אמרה ולטעמיך הא דאמר רב חסדא דבר זה מתורת משה רבינו לא למדנו מדברי יחזקאל בן בוזי למדנו (יחזקאל מד, ט) כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר לא יבא אל מקדשי (לשרתני) הא מקמי דאתי יחזקאל מאן אמרה אלא גמרא גמירי לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא הכא נמי גמרא גמירי לה ואתא יחזקאל ואסמכה אקרא,משזר שמונה מנא לן דכתיב (שמות לט, כד) ויעשו על שולי המעיל רמוני תכלת וארגמן ותולעת שני משזר ויליף משזר משזר מפרוכת מה להלן עשרים וארבעה אף כאן עשרים וארבעה דהוה כל חד וחד תמני,ונילף מחשן ואפוד מה להלן עשרים ושמונה אף כאן עשרים ושמונה דנין דבר שלא נאמר בו זהב מדבר שלא נאמר בו זהב לאפוקי חשן ואפוד שנאמר בהן זהב אדרבה דנין בגד מבגד לאפוקי פרוכת דאהל הוא,אלא דנין מאבנט ודנין בגד ודבר שלא נאמר בו זהב מבגד ודבר שלא נאמר בו זהב ואין דנין דבר שאין בו זהב מדבר שיש בו זהב,רב מרי אמר תעשנו כתיב תעשנו לזה ולא לאחר,רב אשי אמר ועשית כתיב שיהיו כל עשיות שוות והיכי נעביד נעביד תלתא דעשרה עשרה הוו להו תלתין נעביד תרי דתשעה תשעה וחד דעשרה אמר קרא ועשית שיהיו כל עשיותיו שוות,מעיל שנים עשר מנא לן דכתיב (שמות כח, לא) ועשית את מעיל האפוד 71b. b from the scent of water it will blossom and put forth branches like a plant” /b (Job 14:8–9). If the figurative trunk of one’s family is drying up through lack of Torah, he should plant himself in a place of water, i.e., a family of scholars, water being a metaphor for Torah. This will ensure that his children will blossom into Torah scholars.,§ It was taught in the mishna: The people escort the High Priest to his house. b And he would make a feast for his loved ones. The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b There was an incident involving one High Priest who exited the Holy Temple and everyone followed him. When they saw Shemaya and Avtalyon, /b the heads of the Sanhedrin, walking along, in deference to them b they left /b the High Priest b by himself and walked after Shemaya and Avtalyon. /b , b Eventually, Shemaya and Avtalyon came to take leave of the High Priest /b before returning to their homes. Envious of the attention they received, b he /b angrily b said to them: Let the descendants of /b the gentile b nations come in peace. /b Shemaya and Avtalyon descended from converts, and he scornfully drew attention to that fact. b They said to him: Let the descendants of the /b gentile b nations come in peace, who perform the acts of Aaron, /b who loved and pursued peace; b and let not a descendant of Aaron come in peace, who does not perform the acts of Aaron /b and who speaks condescendingly to descendants of converts., strong MISHNA: /strong Throughout the year b the High Priest serves in eight garments, and the common priest /b serves b in four: In a tunic and trousers and a mitre and a belt. The High Priest adds /b another four garments b beyond /b those worn by the common priest: b A breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a frontplate. /b When dressed b in these /b eight garments, the High Priest may b be consulted for /b the decision of the b i Urim VeTummim /i . And he may be consulted /b for the decision of the i Urim VeTummim /i b only on behalf of the king, or on behalf of the president of the court, or on behalf of one whom the community needs. /b Individual inquiries are not posed to the i Urim VeTummim /i ., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to those b items /b of the priestly vestments about which b it is stated /b they must be made with b linen [ i shesh /i ], their threads /b are spun b six-fold, /b as suggested by the use of the term i shesh /i , which also means six. When the Torah states that certain items are b twined, /b it means their threads are spun b eight /b - b fold. /b Threads used to weave the b robe /b were spun from b twelve /b strands. The threads of the b curtain /b were spun from b twenty-four /b strands. The threads used to weave the b breastplate and ephod /b were spun from b twenty-eight /b strands.,The Gemara asks: That b the threads /b made from i shesh /i are spun b six-fold, from where do we /b derive this? b The verse states: “And they made the tunics of linen /b [ b i shesh /i /b ] of woven work for Aaron and for his sons. b And the mitre of linen, and the adorning mitres of linen, and the linen [ i bad /i ] trousers of twined linen” /b (Exodus 39:27–28). b Five mentions /b of the word linen are b written; /b four times as “ i shesh /i ” and an additional instance of “ i bad /i ,” both meaning linen. b One /b mention is stated b for that /b i halakha /i b itself, /b to teach b that they should be /b made of b linen. And one /b mention is written to teach b that the threads should be /b spun b six-fold, /b i shesh /i being interpreted as six. b And one /b mention teaches that the six strands b should be spun together /b into one. b And one /b mention teaches that this also applies b to the other garments, /b even though the term b i shesh /i is not stated /b with regard to them. b And one /b mention teaches that this requirement is b indispensable /b and that garments not made this way are invalid.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b may it b be inferred that this /b term b i shesh /i /b means b linen? Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: As the verse /b also b states: “ i Bad /i ,” /b and uses it interchangeably with i shesh /i . And i bad /i refers to b something which sprouts from the ground stalk by stalk [ i bad bad /i ], /b each one by itself. This is a fitting description of flax, the plant used to produce linen, as opposed to other plants, such as cotton, whose fibers grow meshed together. The Gemara asks: b And say /b that it refers to b wool, /b since when it grows from the animal, each hair grows separately. The Gemara answers: b Wool splits, /b with each hair dividing into several hairs, so it does not fully fit the description of sprouting stalk by stalk. The Gemara asks: But b flax also splits /b into individual hairs. The Gemara answers: b Flax, /b unlike wool, b splits /b only b when beaten. /b , b Ravina said: /b We have a proof for the matter b from here: /b The verse states: b “They shall have linen /b [ b i pishtim /i /b ] b mitres upon their heads, and linen trousers upon their loins” /b (Ezekiel 44:18). The term i pishtim /i used in Ezekiel certainly refers to linen; therefore, it is clear that the terms i shesh /i and i bad /i , used in the Torah for the same garments, also refer to linen., b Rav Ashi said to him: But before Ezekiel came, who said /b this i halakha /i ? How was it known? Ravina retorted: b And according to your reasoning, /b the same question could be asked with regard to b that which Rav Ḥisda said /b concerning the disqualification of an uncircumcised priest from serving in the Temple: b This matter we did not learn from the Torah of Moses our teacher, /b as it is not written explicitly in the Torah; rather, b we learned it from the words of Ezekiel ben Buzi, /b as the verse states: b “No foreigner, uncircumcised of heart or uncircumcised of flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary” /b (Ezekiel 44:9). One could ask here as well: b Before Ezekiel came, who said /b this i halakha /i ? b Rather, /b perforce, b they learned it as a tradition and /b then b Ezekiel came and supported it with a verse. Here, too, they learned it as a tradition and /b then b Ezekiel came and supported it with a verse. /b ,The Gemara continues to explain the i baraita /i . That the use of the term b twined /b implies that the thread should be spun from b eight /b strands, b from where do we /b derive this? b As it is written: “And they made upon the skirts of the robe pomegranates of sky-blue, and purple, and scarlet, twined” /b (Exodus 39:24); b and derive /b a verbal analogy from the term b “twined” /b used in this verse and the term b “twined” from /b the verse about b the curtain: Just as there, /b with regard to the curtain, there are b twenty-four /b strands, as will be explained, b so too here, /b there are b twenty-four /b strands in total. And since each pomegranate is made of three colors, sky-blue, purple, and scarlet, it must be b that each one of them was /b spun from b eight /b strands.,The Gemara challenges this derivation: b Let us derive /b the number of strands instead b from /b the b breastplate and ephod /b and say: b Just as there, /b with regard to the breastplate and ephod, there are b twenty-eight /b strands, b so too, here /b there are b twenty-eight /b strands. The Gemara answers: It is preferable to b derive /b the i halakhot /i of b an item, /b i.e., the pomegranates, b with regard to which /b the use of b gold /b threads b is not stated, from /b the i halakhot /i of b an item, /b i.e., the curtain, b with regard to which /b the use of b gold /b threads b is /b also b not stated. /b This would come b to exclude /b the possibility of deriving them from the b breastplate and ephod, with regard to which /b the use of b gold /b threads b is stated. /b The Gemara asks: b On the contrary, /b it should be preferable to b derive /b the i halakhot /i of one b garment from /b another b garment, /b i.e., the i halakhot /i of the robe from the i halakhot /i of the breastplate and ephod. This would come b to exclude /b the possibility of deriving them from the b curtain, which is a tent, /b i.e., part of the Temple building, and not a garment. The Gemara accepts that the derivation is flawed., b Rather, /b the need for thread of eight strands b is derived from the belt, /b which had twenty-four threads in total, b and a garment and an item with regard to which /b the use of b gold /b thread b is not stated, /b i.e., the pomegranates, b are derived /b from b a garment and an item with regard to which /b the use of b gold /b thread b is not stated. And an item with no gold, /b such as the pomegranates and robe, b is not derived from an item that has gold in it, /b such as the breastplate and ephod., b Rav Mari said /b another reason not to derive the number of strands in a pomegranate from the breastplate and ephod: “Like the work of the ephod b you shall make it” /b (Exodus 28:15) b is written /b with regard to the breastplate to indicate that b you shall make it, /b i.e., the breastplate, like the ephod, which indicates that b for this, /b i.e., the breastplate, you shall use thread of twenty-eight strands, b and not for anything else. /b , b Rav Ashi said /b another reason that there could not be twenty-eight strands in a pomegranate: b “And you shall make /b pomegranates of sky-blue, and of purple, and of scarlet” (Exodus 28:33) b is written /b to indicate b that all the makings of it must be equal, /b i.e., that each color thread should be made from the same number of strands. However, if there are twenty-eight strands in total, the three threads, each of a different color, cannot be made with an equal number of strands, as b how should we do /b it? b Let us make three /b colored threads b of ten /b strands b each; /b then b they are thirty /b strands in total, which is too many. b Let us make two /b colored threads b of nine /b strands b and one of ten; /b but b the verse states: “And you shall make,” /b to indicate b that all the makings of it must be equal. /b Perforce, the threads used for the pomegranates and the robe must be derived from an item woven from threads of a number of strands divisible by three, such as the curtain.,The Gemara continues to explain the i baraita /i : That the b robe /b must be woven from threads spun from b twelve /b strands, b from where do we /b derive this? b As it is written: “And you shall make the robe of the ephod /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
12b. רבי יהודה אומר המקום ירחם עליך ועל חולי ישראל רבי יוסי אומר המקום ירחם עליך בתוך חולי ישראל שבנא איש ירושלים בכניסתו אומר שלום וביציאתו אומר שבת היא מלזעוק ורפואה קרובה לבא ורחמיו מרובין ושבתו בשלום כמאן אזלא הא דאמר רבי חנינא מי שיש לו חולה בתוך ביתו צריך שיערבנו בתוך חולי ישראל כמאן כר' יוסי,ואמר רבי חנינא בקושי התירו לנחם אבלים ולבקר חולים בשבת אמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי אלעזר לשיולי בתפיחה זימנין אמר המקום יפקדך לשלום וזימנין אמר (ליה) רחמנא ידכרינך לשלם היכי עביד הכי והאמר רב יהודה לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו בלשון ארמי ואמר רבי יוחנן כל השואל צרכיו בלשון ארמי אין מלאכי השרת נזקקין לו שאין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי שאני חולה דשכינה עמו,דאמר רב ענן אמר רב מנין ששכינה סועד את החולה שנאמר (תהלים מא, ד) ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי תניא נמי הכי הנכנס לבקר את החולה לא ישב לא על גבי מטה ולא על גבי כסא אלא מתעטף ויושב לפניו מפני ששכינה למעלה מראשותיו של חולה שנאמר ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי ואמר רבא אמר רבין מנין שהקב"ה זן את החולה שנאמר ה' יסעדנו על ערש דוי:,ולא יקרא לאור הנר: אמר רבה אפילו גבוה שתי קומות ואפי' שתי מרדעות ואפילו עשרה בתים זו על גב זו חד הוא דלא ליקרי הא תרי שפיר דמי והתניא לא אחד ולא שנים אמר ר' אלעזר לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני ענינים אמר רב הונא ובמדורה אפי' עשרה בני אדם אסור,אמר רבא אם אדם חשוב הוא מותר מיתיבי לא יקרא לאור הנר שמא יטה אמר ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע אני אקרא ולא אטה פעם א' קרא ובקש להטות אמר כמה גדולים דברי חכמים שהיו אומרים לא יקרא לאור הנר ר' נתן אומר קרא והטה וכתב על פנקסו אני ישמעאל בן אלישע קריתי והטיתי נר בשבת לכשיבנה בהמ"ק אביא חטאת שמנה א"ר אבא שאני ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע הואיל ומשים עצמו על דברי תורה כהדיוט,תני חדא שמש בודק כוסות וקערות לאור הנר ותניא אידך לא יבדוק לא קשיא כאן בשמש קבוע כאן בשמש שאינו קבוע ואי בעית אימא הא והא בשמש קבוע ולא קשיא הא בדמשחא והא בדנפטא,איבעיא להו שמש שאינו קבוע בדמשחא מהו אמר רב הלכה ואין מורין כן ור' ירמיה בר אבא אמר הלכה ומורין כן ר' ירמיה בר אבא איקלע לבי רב אסי קם שמעיה קא בדיק לנהורא דשרגא אמרה ליה דביתהו ומר לא עביד הכי אמר לה שבקיה כרביה ס"ל:,באמת אמרו החזן כו': והאמרת רישא רואה מאי לאו לקרות לא לסדר ראשי פרשיותיו וכן אמר רבה בר שמואל אבל מסדר הוא ראשי פרשיותיו וכולה פרשה לא 12b. b Rabbi Yehuda says /b that it is appropriate to say: b May the Omnipresent have compassion upon you and upon all the sick people of Israel. Rabbi Yosei says /b that it is appropriate to say: b May the Omnipresent have compassion upon you among the sick people of Israel, /b thereby including this sick person within the community of Israel. When b Shevna of Jerusalem /b would visit a sick person on Shabbat, b upon entering, he would say /b i shalom /i b . And when he exited he would say: It is Shabbat /b when one is prohibited b to cry out, and healing is soon to come, and His compassion is abundant, and rest /b on Shabbat b in peace. /b The Gemara asks: b In accordance with whose /b opinion b is /b the i halakha /i that b Rabbi Ḥanina said: One who has a sick person in his house must include him among the sick people of Israel /b in his prayer? b In accordance with whose /b opinion? b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei. /b , b And Rabbi Ḥanina said: It was /b only b with great difficulty that /b the Sages b permitted to comfort the mourners and visit the sick on Shabbat, /b as both the visitor and the comforter experience suffering on Shabbat. They permitted it only due to the mitzva involved in these activities. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would follow Rabbi Elazar to inquire about /b the health of b a sick person; sometimes he would say /b in Hebrew: b May the Omnipresent remember you for peace /b , b and sometimes he would say to him /b in Aramaic: b May the all-Merciful remember you for peace. /b He would say it in Aramaic when the sick person did not understand Hebrew (Rav Elazar Moshe Horovitz). The Gemara asks: b How did he do this, /b pray in Aramaic? b Didn’t Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request /b that b his needs /b be met b in the Aramaic language /b ? b And, /b similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Anyone who requests /b that b his needs /b be met b in the Aramaic language /b , b the ministering angels do not attend to him /b to bring his prayer before God, b as the ministering angels are not familiar with the Aramaic language, /b but only with the sacred tongue, Hebrew, exclusively. The Gemara responds: b A sick person is different. /b He does not need the angels to bring his prayer before God because b the Divine Presence is with him. /b , b As Rav A said /b that b Rav said: From where is it derived that the Divine Presence cares for /b and aids b the sick person? As it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness” /b (Psalms 41:4). The Gemara comments: b That was also taught /b in a i baraita /i : b One who enters to visit the sick person should sit neither on the bed nor on a chair; rather, he should wrap himself /b in his prayer shawl with trepidation and awe, b and sit before /b the sick person below him, b as the Divine Presence is above the head of the sick person, as it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness,” /b and he must treat the Divine Presence with deference. On a similar note, b Rava said /b that b Ravin said: From where /b is it derived b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, feeds the sick person /b during his illness? b As it is stated: “God will support him on the bed of illness.” /b ,We learned in the mishna that b one may not read /b a book b by candlelight /b on Shabbat. b Rabba said: /b Since a decree was issued, there is no distinction whether or not the lamp was near enough to him to enable him to adjust the wick. The prohibition applies b even /b if the lamp was b two statures /b of a person b high, and even /b as high as b two plow handles, and even /b if it was as high as b ten houses one atop the other. /b We learned in the mishna that one may not read, and the Gemara infers: b One may not read, but /b for b two, /b apparently, he may b well /b do so. They will not violate any prohibition, as two people together will certainly not forget the Shabbat prohibition. The Gemara asks: b Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b neither one nor two /b are permitted to read by the light of the lamp? b Rabbi Elazar said: /b This is b not difficult, /b as there is room to distinguish between them and say that b here, /b where two were permitted to read by candlelight, it is referring to a case where they are both engaged b in one matter /b and will remind each other to refrain from adjusting the wick. b There, /b where two were prohibited to read by candlelight it is referring to a case where they are engaged b in two /b different b matters. /b Since each is preoccupied with a different text, they will not pay attention and remind each other. b Rav Huna said: And with regard to a bonfire, /b where everyone is sitting around it and not adjacent to it, b even /b if they were b ten people, it is prohibited /b to read by its light. When sitting around a bonfire, everyone sits at a distance from the others, and therefore they do not notice each other, and each is liable to adjust the firebrands to provide himself with more light., b Rava said: /b Even though they prohibited reading by candlelight due to a decree lest they adjust the wick, b if he is an important person, it is permitted, /b as even on weekdays he is not accustomed to adjust a lamp that is dirty with oil. The Gemara b raises an objection /b from that which was taught in a i Tosefta /i : b One may not read /b a book on Shabbat b by the light of the lamp, lest he adjust it. /b The i Tosefta /i relates that b Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha said: I will read and will not adjust, /b as I will certainly not forget that it is Shabbat. However, b once he read /b a book by candlelight b and /b he b sought to adjust /b the wick. b He said: How great are the words of the Sages, who would say /b that b one may not read by candlelight, /b as even a person like me sought to adjust the wick. b Rabbi Natan says: /b That was not the way it happened. Rather, b he read and /b actually b adjusted /b the wick, b and he wrote /b afterward b in his notebook [ i pinkas /i ]: I, Yishmael ben Elisha, read and adjusted a lamp on Shabbat. When the Temple will be rebuilt I will bring a fat sin-offering /b as atonement for this sin. This proves that even an important person like Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha is liable to adjust the wick. b Rabbi Abba said: Rabbi Yishmael ben Elisha is different, since with regard to the study of Torah, he comports himself like a simple man /b with no air of importance, but generally, an important person would not dirty his hands and adjust the wick.,On this subject, the Gemara cites two apparently contradictory i baraitot /i . b It was taught /b in b one /b i baraita /i that a b servant may examine cups and bowls by candlelight /b to check if they are clean. b And it was taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i that b he may not examine /b them. The Gemara explains: This is b not difficult. /b Rather, b here, /b the i baraita /i that prohibited examining the cups, is referring b to a regularly /b employed b servant /b who fears his master and examines the dishes meticulously. Therefore, there is concern lest he come to adjust the wick. While b there, /b the i baraita /i that permitted examining the cups, is referring b to a servant who is not regularly /b employed, does not fear his master, and therefore will not check meticulously. There is no concern lest he come to adjust the wick. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b this /b i baraita /i b and that /b i baraita /i are both referring b to a regularly /b employed b servant. And /b this is b not difficult, /b as they are not referring to the same kind of lamp. b This /b i baraita /i , which prohibited examining the dishes, is referring b to an oil lamp, /b where there is room for concern lest he adjust it. b And that /b i baraita /i , which permitted examining the dishes, is referring b to a naphtha /b [ b i nafta /i /b ] b lamp. /b Since the naphtha lamp is dirty, the servant certainly will not touch it while checking the cups and dishes., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b What is /b the ruling with regard to b a servant who is not regularly /b employed in terms of examining cups and dishes by the light of b an oil lamp? /b Is he permitted to examine the cups by candlelight, or not? From the perspective of his being a servant not regularly employed, it should be permitted. On the other hand, because it is an oil lamp it should be prohibited. b Rav said: The i halakha /i /b is that it is permitted, b and, /b however, i ab initio /i b a /b public b ruling is not issued to that effect /b so that they will not come to sin. However, one who knows the i halakha /i that it is permitted may practice accordingly. b Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba said: That i halakha /i is /b that it is permitted b and a /b public b ruling is issued to that effect. /b The Gemara relates that b Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba happened to /b come to b the house of Rav Asi /b on Shabbat. Rabbi Yirmeya’s b servant stood and examined the cups by the light of a lamp /b [ b i sheraga /i /b ], as he was not a regularly employed servant in the house of Rav Asi. Rav Asi’s b wife said to /b Rav Asi: But b the Master, /b you, b does not do so. /b You prohibit doing so. Why is the servant of Rabbi Yirmeya examining the cups? b He said to her: Leave him, he holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b his master. /b ,We learned in the mishna that b in truth they said /b that b the attendant /b sees where in the book the children under his supervision are reading, but he himself should not read. The Gemara asked: b Didn’t you say in the first clause /b of the mishna that the attendant b sees? Doesn’t /b that mean that he sees in order b to read? /b How can that part of the mishna conclude by saying that he may not read? The Gemara answers: b No, /b it does not mean that the attendant is permitted to actually read; rather, he is only permitted b to /b look and b arrange the beginning of his sections /b of the Torah that b he /b must read the next day. b And so too, Rabba bar Shmuel said: However, he may arrange the beginning of his sections /b that he must read the next day. The Gemara asks: b And /b may he b not /b read b the entire section? /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
24b. של חמשה ושל ששה ושל שמונה ושל שבעה לא יעשה אפי' של שאר מיני מתכות רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו מלכי בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראייה שפודין של ברזל היו וחיפום בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו העשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, יט) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא דמות ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם א"ר הונא בריה דרב אידי מפרקיה דאביי שמיעא לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והא תניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקודש ומלאכי השרת אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת כי תניא ההיא לעבדם,אי לעבדם אפילו שלשול קטן נמי אין ה"נ דתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בארץ לרבות הרים וגבעות ימים ונהרות אפיקים וגאיות מתחת לרבות שלשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם חותמו בולט הוה ומשום חשדא כדתניא טבעת חותמו בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמו שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא ההיא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דהוה ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי רב ושמואל ואבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו התם ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא ר"ג יחיד הוא כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה איבעית אימא דפרקים הוה,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד עבד וכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה שבאו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו שחרית במזרח 24b. a candelabrum b of five or of six or of eight /b lamps. b But one may not fashion /b a candelabrum with b seven /b lamps b even /b if he constructs it b from other kinds of metal /b rather than gold, as in exigent circumstances the candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals. b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Also, one may not fashion /b a candelabrum b of wood, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned /b it. When they first purified the Temple they had to prepare the candelabrum out of wood, as no other material was available. Since this candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The other Sages b said to /b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: b From there /b you seek to bring b a proof? /b There the branches of the candelabrum b were /b comprised of b spits [ i shippudin /i ] of iron and they covered them with tin. /b Later, when b they grew richer /b and could afford a candelabrum of higher-quality material, b they fashioned them from silver. /b When b they grew even richer, they fashioned them from gold. /b Still, Abaye proves from this i baraita /i that the prohibition against forming an image applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s forms were permitted.,The Gemara asks: b And is it /b really b permitted /b to form images of b those attendants /b concerning b which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), comes to teach: b You shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high. /b Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon. b Abaye said: /b This does not include the sun and the moon, as b the Torah prohibited only /b the fashioning of b an image of /b all b four faces /b of the creatures of the Heavenly Chariot b together /b (see Ezekiel, chapter 1). However, all other images, which are not the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b However, if /b that is b so, let /b the fashioning of an image of b a human face [ i partzuf /i ] alone be permitted. Why, /b then, b is it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b All faces are permitted /b for ornamental purposes, b except for the face of a person? Rav Huna, son of Rav Idi, said: From a lecture of Abaye I heard /b that there is a different reason why one may not form an image of a human face, as the verse states: b “You shall not make with Me [ i iti /i ]” /b (Exodus 20:19). This can be read as: b You shall not make Me [ i oti /i ]. /b Since man is created in the image of God, it is prohibited to form an image of a human being.,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b other attendants? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high, for example, i ofanim /i and seraphim and the sacred i ḥayyot /i and the ministering angels. Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only /b those b attendants that are /b found b in the upper Heaven, /b i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but not the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b those /b bodies found b in the lower heaven? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:3). The phrase b “that is in heaven” /b comes b to include /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b The term b “above” /b serves b to include the ministering angels. /b Apparently, it is prohibited to form an image even of the celestial bodies found in the lower Heaven. The Gemara answers: b When that /b i baraita /i b is taught, /b it is in reference to the prohibition b against worshipping them. /b However, there is no prohibition against forming an image in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: b If /b that i baraita /i is referring to b the prohibition against worshipping them, /b then b even a tiny worm /b should b also /b be prohibited. The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, as it is taught /b in the same i baraita /i with regard to the continuation of the verse, b “in the earth” /b comes b to include mountains and hills, seas and rivers, streams and valleys; “beneath” /b comes b to include a tiny worm. /b If so, it is indeed possible to explain that the entire i baraita /i is referring to the prohibition against idol worship.,The Gemara raises yet another objection: b And is the mere fashioning /b of images of the celestial bodies b permitted? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i : b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19). This verse teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me, for example /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars and /b the b constellations. /b This is explicit proof that it is prohibited to form images of the sun and the moon; consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty with Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of b Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, /b i.e., gentiles, b fashioned /b those images b for him, /b and it is prohibited only for a Jew to fashion such images; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b there is the case of b Rav Yehuda, as others fashioned for him /b a seal in the form of a human being, b and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, /b who was his student: b Sharp-witted one, blind this one’s eyes, /b i.e., disfigure the image, as it is prohibited even to have the image of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b in the case of Rav Yehuda, b his was a protruding seal, /b i.e., the image projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it b due to /b the potential b suspicion /b that he had an object of idol worship in his hand. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b a ring, /b if b its seal protrudes it is prohibited to place it /b on one’s finger, due to the suspicion of idol worship, b but it is permitted to seal /b objects b with it. /b In this case, the act of sealing creates an image that is sunken below the surface, which is not prohibited. However, if b its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it /b on one’s finger, b but it is prohibited to seal /b objects b with it, /b as that creates a protruding image.,The Gemara asks: b And are we concerned about /b arousing b suspicion /b in a case of this kind? b But /b what about that b certain synagogue that had been /b destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and its stones were b relocated and /b it was rebuilt so that it b sat in Neharde’a, /b and b there was a statue [ i andarta /i ] /b of the king b in it. And /b nevertheless b Rav and Shmuel and Shmuel’s father and Levi would /b all b enter and pray there and they were not concerned about /b arousing b suspicion. /b The Gemara answers: When b many /b Jews are present it b is different, /b as a large group is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for purposes of ornamentation.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? /b According to this reasoning, his images of the moon should have been prohibited, as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: b Since he is the i Nasi /i , /b the head of the Great Sanhedrin, b many /b people b were /b always b found with him, /b and therefore there was no room for suspicion. The Gemara suggests an alternative answer: b If you wish, say /b that these images were not whole; rather, they b were /b formed b from pieces /b of images that had to be put together. Only complete images are prohibited.,The Gemara suggests yet another answer: b If you wish, say: /b Rabban Gamliel b did /b this b to teach himself, /b which is not prohibited, as b it is written: “You shall not learn to do /b after the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9), which indicates: b However, you may learn to understand and to teach. /b In other words, it is permitted to do certain things for the sake of Torah study which would otherwise be prohibited., strong MISHNA: /strong There was b an incident /b in b which two /b witnesses b came /b to testify about the new moon, b and they said: We saw /b the waning moon b in the morning in the east, /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
23b. כנגדו נמי לא בעי,מתקיף לה רבא והרי (ירמיהו ז, כא) עולותיכם ספו דלא הויין עשרין וחד וקרינן שאני התם דסליק עניינא,והיכא דלא סליק עניינא לא והאמר רב שמואל בר אבא זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דר' יוחנן וכי הוה קרינן עשרה פסוקי אמר לן אפסיקו מקום שיש תורגמן שאני דתני רב תחליפא בר שמואל לא שנו אלא במקום שאין תורגמן אבל מקום שיש תורגמן פוסק:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פורסין על שמע ואין עוברין לפני התיבה ואין נושאין את כפיהם ואין קורין בתורה ואין מפטירין בנביא,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים ותנחומי אבלים וברכת חתנים ואין מזמנין בשם פחות מעשרה ובקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מה"מ אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן דאמר קרא (ויקרא כב, לב) ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל כל דבר שבקדושה לא יהא פחות מעשרה,מאי משמע דתני ר' חייא אתיא תוך תוך כתיב הכא ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל וכתיב התם (במדבר טז, כא) הבדלו מתוך העדה,ואתיא עדה עדה דכתיב התם (במדבר יד, כז) עד מתי לעדה הרעה הזאת מה להלן עשרה אף כאן עשרה:,ואין עושין מעמד ומושב פחות מעשרה: כיון דבעי למימר עמדו יקרים עמודו שבו יקרים שבו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,ואין אומרים ברכת אבלים וברכת חתנים (וכו'): מאי ברכת אבלים ברכת רחבה דא"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן ברכת אבלים בעשרה ואין אבלים מן המנין ברכת חתנים בעשרה וחתנים מן המנין:,ואין מזמנין על המזון בשם פחות מעשרה (וכו'): כיון דבעי למימר נברך לאלהינו בציר מעשרה לאו אורח ארעא:,והקרקעות תשעה וכהן ואדם כיוצא בהן (וכו'): מנה"מ,אמר שמואל עשרה כהנים כתובים בפרשה חד לגופיה (וחד למעוטי) ואידך הוי מיעוט אחר מיעוט ואין מיעוט אחר מיעוט אלא לרבות תשעה ישראלים וחד כהן,ואימא חמשה כהנים וחמשה ישראלים קשיא:,ואדם כיוצא בהן: אדם מי קדוש,אמר רבי אבהו באומר דמי עלי דתניא האומר דמי עלי שמין אותו כעבד ועבד איתקש לקרקעות דכתיב (ויקרא כה, מו) והתנחלתם אותם לבניכם אחריכם לרשת אחוזה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הקורא בתורה לא יפחות משלשה פסוקים ולא יקרא למתורגמן יותר מפסוק אחד 23b. b it is not necessary /b to b also /b add corresponding verses in the i haftara /i ., b Rava strongly objects to this /b i baraita /i : b But /b there is the i haftara /i that begins with the words: b “Add your burnt offerings” /b (Jeremiah 7:21–28), b which does not have twenty-one verses, and /b nevertheless b we read it. /b The Gemara answers: b There it is different, as the topic is completed /b in fewer than twenty-one verses, and it is not necessary to begin another topic merely to complete the number of verses.,The Gemara asks: b But /b is it true that b where the topic is not completed, /b we do b not /b read fewer than twenty-one verses? b Didn’t Rav Shmuel bar Abba say: Many times I stood before Rabbi Yoḥa /b as a translator, b and when we had read ten verses he would say to us: Stop. /b This indicates that a i haftara /i need not be twenty-one verses. The Gemara answers: b In a place where there is a translator, /b who translates each verse into Aramaic and adds additional explanation, b it is different. /b In that case, it is not necessary for the i haftara /i to consist of twenty-one verses, so as not to overburden the congregation, b as Rav Taḥalifa bar Shmuel taught: They taught /b that twenty-one verses must be read from the i haftara /i b only /b in b a place where there is no translator; but in a place where there is a translator, one may stop /b even before that., strong MISHNA: /strong b One does not recite the /b introductory prayers and b blessing [ i poresin /i ] /b before b i Shema /i ; nor does one pass before the ark /b to repeat the i Amida /i prayer; b nor do the /b priests b lift their hands /b to recite the Priestly Benediction; b nor is the Torah read /b in public; b nor does one conclude with /b a reading from b the Prophets /b [ i haftara /i ] in the presence of fewer than ten men., b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service; b nor does one recite the mourners’ blessing or comfort mourners /b in two lines after the funeral; b or /b recite the b bridegrooms’ blessing; and one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , b with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b men b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b i.e., that ten people are needed in each of these cases, derived? b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b It is b as the verse states: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 22:32), which indicates that b any expression of sanctity may not be /b recited in a quorum of b fewer than ten /b men.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b in the verse may this b be inferred? /b The Gemara responds that it must be understood b as Rabbi Ḥiyya taught: It is inferred /b by means of a verbal analogy [ i gezera shava /i ] between the words b “among,” “among.” Here, it is written: “And I shall be hallowed among the children of Israel,” and there, /b with regard to Korah’s congregation, b it is written “Separate yourselves from among this congregation” /b (Numbers 16:21). Just as with regard to Korah the reference is to ten men, so too, the name of God is to be hallowed in a quorum of ten men.,The connotation of ten associated with the word “among” in the portion of Korah is, in turn, b inferred /b by means of another verbal analogy between the word b “congregation” /b written there and the word b “congregation” /b written in reference to the ten spies who slandered Eretz Yisrael, b as it is written there: “How long shall I bear with this evil congregation?” /b (Numbers 14:27). Consequently, b just as there, /b in the case of the spies, it was a congregation of b ten /b people, as there were twelve spies altogether, and Joshua and Caleb were not included in the evil congregation, b so too, here, /b in the case of Korah, the reference is to a congregation of b ten /b people. The first several items mentioned in the mishna are expressions of sanctity, and they consequently require a quorum of ten.,§ We learned in the mishna: b And one does not observe /b the practice of b standing up and sitting down /b for the delivery of eulogies at a funeral service b with fewer than ten /b men present. As this is not an expression of sanctity, it is therefore necessary to explain why a quorum is required. The Gemara explains: b Since /b the leader of the funeral procession b is required to say: Stand, dear /b friends, b stand; sit down, dear /b friends, b sit down, /b when there are b fewer than ten it is not proper conduct /b to speak in such a dignified style.,We also learned in the mishna that b one does not recite the mourners’ blessing and the bridegrooms’ blessing /b with fewer than ten men present. The Gemara asks: b What is the mourners’ blessing? The blessing /b recited b in the square /b next to the cemetery. Following the burial, those who participated in the funeral would assemble in the square and bless the mourners that God should comfort them, b as Rabbi Yitzḥak said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: The mourners’ blessing /b is recited only b with ten /b men present, b and mourners /b themselves b are not included in the count. The bridegrooms’ blessing /b is also recited only b with ten /b men present, b and bridegrooms /b themselves b are included in the count. /b Consequently, only nine other men are needed.,We learned further in the mishna: b And one does not invite /b others to recite Grace after Meals, i.e., conduct a i zimmun /i , in order to thank God b for /b one’s b nourishment, with the name /b of God, b with fewer than ten /b men present. b Since one is required to say: Let us bless our Lord, /b in the presence of b fewer than ten /b it is b not proper conduct /b to mention the name of God.,§ If one consecrated b land /b and now wishes to redeem it, the land must be assessed by b nine /b Israelites b and one priest, /b for a total of ten. b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters, /b that consecrated land must be assessed by ten people, one of whom is a priest, derived?, b Shmuel said: /b The word b priest /b is b written ten /b times b in the /b Torah b portion /b that addresses the redemption of consecrated property, indicating that ten people are required to assess the value of such property (Leviticus, chapter 27). b One /b instance of the word is needed b for itself, /b to indicate that a priest must participate in the assessment. b And one /b instance is needed b to exclude /b all non-priests from fulfilling that role. b And /b all b the other /b instances of the word b are restrictions following /b other b restrictions, /b and there is a general hermeneutical principle that b one restriction after another /b serves b only to amplify. /b Therefore, each additional time the word priest is repeated, it extends the criteria applied to appraisers, so as to allow non-priests to participate. Consequently, the assessment may be carried out by b nine /b ordinary b Israelites and one priest. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And /b on the basis of this principle, b say /b that the first usage of the term is restrictive and requires a priest for the assessment; the second usage amplifies and allows for a non-priest; the third usage again requires a priest; the fourth usage allows for a non-priest; and so on. Consequently, the assessment must be carried out by b five priests and five /b ordinary b Israelites. /b The Gemara concludes: Indeed, it is b difficult, /b as the derivation has not been sufficiently explained.,We learned in the mishna: b And similarly, /b assessing the value of b a person /b who has pledged his own value to the Temple must be undertaken by ten people, one of whom must be a priest. The Gemara asks: b Can a person become consecrated /b and thereby require redemption?, b Rabbi Abbahu said: /b The mishna is referring b to one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b and thereby pledges to donate a sum of money equivalent to his own monetary value to the Temple treasury, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who says: My assessment /b is incumbent b upon me, /b the court b assesses him as /b though he were b a slave /b in order to determine the amount he is obligated to donate to the Temple treasury. b And a slave is compared to land, as it is written /b with regard to slaves: b “And you shall take them as an inheritance for your children after you, to inherit them for a possession” /b (Leviticus 25:46). Consequently, the same criteria that apply to assessing consecrated land apply to assessing the monetary value of an individual., strong MISHNA: /strong b One who reads from the Torah /b in the synagogue b should not read fewer than three verses. And /b when it is being translated, b he should not read to the translator more than one verse /b at a time, so that the translator will not become confused.
19. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
4b. ואי כרבן גמליאל סבירא להו לימרו כרבן גמליאל,לעולם כרבן גמליאל סבירא להו והא דקא אמרי עד חצות כדי להרחיק את האדם מן העבירה כדתניא חכמים עשו סייג לדבריהם כדי שלא יהא אדם בא מן השדה בערב ואומר אלך לביתי ואוכל קימעא ואשתה קימעא ואישן קימעא ואח"כ אקרא ק"ש ואתפלל וחוטפתו שינה ונמצא ישן כל הלילה אבל אדם בא מן השדה בערב נכנס לבית הכנסת אם רגיל לקרות קורא ואם רגיל לשנות שונה וקורא ק"ש ומתפלל ואוכל פתו ומברך,וכל העובר על דברי חכמים חייב מיתה,מאי שנא בכל דוכתא דלא קתני חייב מיתה ומאי שנא הכא דקתני חייב מיתה,איבעית אימא משום דאיכא אונס שינה ואיבע"א לאפוקי ממאן דאמר תפלת ערבית רשות קמ"ל דחובה:,אמר מר קורא ק"ש ומתפלל מסייע ליה לר' יוחנן דאמר ר' יוחנן איזהו בן העולם הבא זה הסומך גאולה לתפלה של ערבית רבי יהושע בן לוי אומר תפלות באמצע תקנום,במאי קא מפלגי,אי בעית אימא קרא איבע"א סברא,איבע"א סברא,דר' יוחנן סבר גאולה מאורתא נמי הוי אלא גאולה מעלייתא לא הויא אלא עד צפרא ור' יהושע בן לוי סבר כיון דלא הויא אלא מצפרא לא הויא גאולה מעלייתא,ואב"א קרא ושניהם מקרא אחד דרשו דכתיב (דברים ו, ז) בשכבך ובקומך,ר' יוחנן סבר מקיש שכיבה לקימה מה קימה ק"ש ואח"כ תפלה אף שכיבה נמי ק"ש ואח"כ תפלה ר' יהושע בן לוי סבר מקיש שכיבה לקימה מה קימה ק"ש סמוך למטתו אף שכיבה נמי ק"ש סמוך למטתו,מתיב מר בריה דרבינא בערב מברך שתים לפניה ושתים לאחריה ואי אמרת בעי לסמוך הא לא קא סמך גאולה לתפלה דהא בעי למימר השכיבנו,אמרי כיון דתקינו רבנן השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא דאי לא תימא הכי שחרית היכי מצי סמיך והא אמר רבי יוחנן בתחלה אומר (תהלים נא, יז) ה' שפתי תפתח ולבסוף הוא אומר (תהלים יט, טו) יהיו לרצון אמרי פי,אלא התם כיון דתקינו רבנן למימר ה' שפתי תפתח כתפלה אריכתא דמיא הכא נמי כיון דתקינו רבנן למימר השכיבנו כגאולה אריכתא דמיא:,אמר רבי אלעזר א"ר אבינא כל האומר (תהלים קמה, א) תהלה לדוד בכל יום שלש פעמים מובטח לו שהוא בן העולם הבא,מאי טעמא,אילימא משום דאתיא באל"ף בי"ת נימא (תהלים קיט, א) אשרי תמימי דרך דאתיא בתמניא אפין,אלא משום דאית ביה (תהלים קמה, טז) פותח את ידך נימא הלל הגדול דכתיב ביה (תהלים קלו, כה) נותן לחם לכל בשר,אלא משום דאית ביה תרתי,אמר רבי יוחנן מפני מה לא נאמר נו"ן באשרי מפני שיש בה מפלתן של שונאי ישראל דכתיב (עמוס ה, ב) נפלה לא תוסיף קום בתולת ישראל,במערבא מתרצי לה הכי נפלה ולא תוסיף לנפול עוד קום בתולת ישראל אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק אפילו הכי חזר דוד וסמכן ברוח הקדש שנא' (תהלים קמה, יד) סומך ה' לכל הנופלים:,א"ר אלעזר בר אבינא גדול מה שנאמר במיכאל יותר ממה שנאמר בגבריאל דאילו במיכאל כתי' (ישעיהו ו, ו) ויעף אלי אחד מן השרפים ואלו גבי גבריאל כתי' (דניאל ט, כא) והאיש גבריאל אשר ראיתי בחזון בתחלה מועף ביעף וגו',מאי משמע דהאי אחד מיכאל הוא,אמר ר' יוחנן אתיא אחד אחד כתיב הכא ויעף אלי אחד מן השרפים וכתי' התם (דניאל י, יג) והנה מיכאל אחד (מן) השרים הראשונים בא לעזרני,תנא מיכאל באחת גבריאל בשתים אליהו בארבע ומלאך המות בשמנה ובשעת המגפה באחת:,א"ר יהושע בן לוי אע"פ שקרא אדם ק"ש בביהכ"נ מצוה לקרותו על מטתו אמר רבי יוסי מאי קרא (תהלים ד, ה) רגזו ואל תחטאו אמרו בלבבכם על משכבכם ודומו סלה,אמר רב נחמן 4b. b And if /b they explain this verse b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Gamliel /b who says that “when you lie down” refers to the entire night, then b let /b the Rabbis also b say /b that one may recite the evening i Shema /i until dawn, b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Gamliel. /b ,The Gemara answers: b Actually, /b the Rabbis b hold in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabban Gamliel, /b and the fact b that they say until midnight is /b in order b to distance a person from transgression. As it was taught /b in a i baraita /i , b the Rabbis created a “fence” for their pronouncements /b with regard to the recitation of i Shema /i b in order to prevent /b a situation where b a person comes home from the field in the evening, /b tired from his day’s work, and knowing that he is permitted to recite i Shema /i until dawn b says /b to himself: b I will go home, eat a little, drink a little, sleep a little and then I will recite /b i Shema /i b and recite /b the evening prayer. In the meantime, b he is overcome by sleep and ends up sleeping all night. However, /b since one is concerned lest he fall asleep and fail to wake up before midnight in order to recite i Shema /i at the appropriate time, b he will come from the field in the evening, enter the synagogue, /b and until it is time to pray, he will immerse himself in Torah. b If he is accustomed to reading the Bible, he reads. If he is accustomed to learning /b i mishnayot /i , a more advanced level of study, b he learns. And /b then b he recites /b i Shema /i b and prays /b as he should. When he arrives home, b he eats his meal /b with a contented heart b and recites a blessing. /b ,The i baraita /i concludes with a warning: b Anyone who transgresses the pronouncements of the Sages is liable to /b receive the b death /b penalty.,This is a startling conclusion. b What is different in all /b other b places that it is not taught that one is liable /b to receive b the death penalty and what is different here that it is taught that he is liable to /b receive the b death penalty? /b There is no unique stringency apparent in the rabbinic restriction on the recitation of i Shema /i .,The Gemara offers two answers, explaining that the conclusion of the i baraita /i essentially stems not from the magnitude of the transgression, but rather from concern that the “fence” created around this particular mitzva may be neglected. b If you wish, say /b that one returning from work is quite anxious to go to sleep, and due to the risk that he will be b overcome by sleep, /b he must be particularly vigilant in the recitation of i Shema /i . b And if you wish, say /b instead that strong language is employed here in order b to exclude /b the opinion of b he who says that /b although the morning prayer and the afternoon prayer are mandatory, b the evening prayer is optional. /b Therefore, b it teaches us /b that the evening prayer b is mandatory, /b and anyone who transgresses the pronouncement of the Sages in this regard is liable to receive the death penalty.,In this i baraita /i , b the Master said /b that when one returns from work in the evening, he enters the synagogue, b recites i Shema /i , and prays. /b From this i baraita /i , we see that at night, just as during the day, one first recites i Shema /i and then prays. This b supports /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: Who /b is assured b of /b a place in b the World-to-Come? It is /b one b who juxtaposes /b the blessing of b redemption, /b recited after i Shema /i , b to the evening prayer. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: The prayers were instituted /b to be recited b between /b the two recitations of i Shema /i . According to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, one recites the morning i Shema /i , then recites all of the prayers and only after the recitation of the evening prayer does he recite the evening i Shema /i .,Although the practical difference between these two positions is clear, the Gemara seeks to determine: b With regard to what do they disagree? /b What is the basis of their argument?,The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that they disagree over the interpretation of b a verse; if you wish, say /b instead that they disagree on a point of b logic. /b , b If you say /b that they disagree on a point of b logic, /b then the argument relates to the redemption recited after i Shema /i , whose focus is the exodus from Egypt, the first redemption. The question is whether that redemption began at night, which would render it appropriate to juxtapose redemption to the blessing of the evening prayers as well, in prayer for immediate redemption. Or, perhaps, the redemption from Egypt only began during the day., b Rabbi Yoḥa holds: Redemption occurred in the evening as well; /b however, b the full-fledged redemption was only in the morning. /b Since the redemption began in the evening, it is appropriate to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the daily evening prayer. b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, /b on the other hand, b holds: Since /b full-fledged redemption b only occurred in the morning, /b and the redemption of the previous evening b was not a full-fledged redemption, /b there is no need to juxtapose the blessing of redemption to the evening prayer., b And if you wish, say /b instead that the dispute between Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is not a difference over a point of logic, but over the interpretation of b a verse. Both derived their opinions from the same verse: “When you lie down, and when you rise.” /b Both interpreted that the juxtaposition in this verse of the recitation of i Shema /i at night and the recitation of i Shema /i in the morning draws a parallel between them., b Rabbi Yoḥa holds: /b The verse b juxtaposes lying down and rising. Just as when one rises, the recitation of /b i Shema /i b is followed by prayer, /b as everyone agrees that in the morning one juxtaposes redemption to the morning prayer, b so too, when one lies down, the recitation of /b i Shema /i b is followed by prayer. And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi maintains: /b The verse b juxtaposes lying down and rising /b in a different sense. b Just as when one rises, /b he recites i Shema /i b adjacent to /b rising from b his bed, /b as the verse, when you rise, means when one awakens, b so too when one lies down, he recites /b i Shema /i b adjacent to /b lying down in b his bed. /b Therefore, the recitation of the evening i Shema /i should be performed as close as possible to the moment when one actually lies down.,According to Rabbi Yoḥa, it is a mitzva to recite i Shema /i before the evening prayer. b Mar, son of Ravina, raises an objection /b from a mishna: How can one do that? We learn in a later mishna: b In the evening, one recites two /b blessings b prior to /b the recitation of i Shema /i b and two /b blessings b afterward. And if you say /b that b one must juxtapose /b redemption to prayer, b doesn’t he fail to juxtapose redemption to prayer, as he must recite: Help us lie down [ i hashkivenu /i ], /b the blessing recited after the blessing of redemption, which constitutes an interruption between redemption and prayer?, b They say /b in response: b Since the Sages instituted /b the practice of reciting: b Help us lie down, it is considered one extended blessing of redemption, /b and therefore does not constitute an interruption. b As if you fail to say /b that the sections added by the Sages are considered no less significant than the original prayers, b then can one juxtapose redemption to prayer /b even b in the morning? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Before /b every prayer b one recites /b the verse: b “Lord, open my lips, that my mouth may declare Your glory” /b (Psalms 51:17) as a prelude to prayer? b Afterward, one recites /b the verse: b “May the words of my mouth and the meditations of my heart be acceptable before You” /b (Psalms 19:15). Doesn’t the verse: Lord, open my lips, constitute an interruption between redemption and prayer?, b Rather, there, since the Sages instituted /b that one must b recite: Lord, open my lips, it is considered as an extended prayer /b and not as an interruption. b Here, too, /b with regard to the evening prayer, b since the Sages instituted to recite /b the blessing b Help us lie down, it is considered as one extended /b blessing of b redemption. /b ,Tangential to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement that one who juxtaposes redemption and prayer is assured of a place in the World-to-Come, a similar statement is cited. b Rabbi Elazar said /b that b Rabbi Avina said: Anyone who recites: “A Psalm of David” /b (Psalms 145) b three times every day is assured of /b a place in b the World-to-Come. /b ,This statement extolling the significance of this particular chapter of Psalms, usually referred to as i ashrei /i because its recitation is preceded by recitation of the verse, “Happy [ i ashrei /i ] are those who dwell in Your House, they praise You Selah” (Psalms 84:5), raises the question: b What is the reason /b that such significance is ascribed to this particular chapter?, b If you say that it is because it is arranged alphabetically, /b then b let us say: “Happy are they who are upright in the way” /b (Psalms 119) b where /b the alphabetical arrangement b appears eight times /b ., b Rather, /b if you suggest that this particular chapter is recited b because it contains /b praise for God’s provision of sustece to all of creation: b “You open Your hand /b and satisfy every living thing with favor” (Psalms 145:16), then b let him recite the great i hallel /i /b (Psalms 136), b in which /b numerous praises are b written, /b including: b “Who provides food to all flesh, /b Whose kindness endures forever” (Psalms 136:25)., b Rather, /b the reason why i tehilla leDavid /i is accorded preference b is because it contains both /b an alphabetic acrostic as well as mention of God’s provision of sustece to all creation.,Additionally, with regard to this psalm, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Why is there no /b verse beginning with the letter b i nun /i in i ashrei /i ? Because it contains /b an allusion to b the downfall of the enemies of Israel, /b a euphemism for Israel itself. b As it is written: “The virgin of Israel has fallen and she will rise no more; /b abandoned in her land, none will raise her up” (Amos 5:2), which begins with the letter i nun /i . Due to this verse, i ashrei /i does not include a verse beginning with the letter i nun /i .,In order to ease the harsh meaning of this verse, b in the West, /b in Eretz Yisrael, b they interpreted it /b with a slight adjustment: b “She has fallen but she shall fall no more; rise, virgin of Israel.” Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b adds: b Even so, David went and /b provided b support, through divine inspiration. /b Although King David did not include a verse beginning with the letter i nun /i alluding to Israel’s downfall, he foresaw the verse that would be written by Amos through divine inspiration; and the very next verse, which begins with the letter i samekh /i , reads: b “The Lord upholds the fallen /b and raises up those who are bowed down” (Psalms 145:14). Therefore, through divine inspiration, David offered hope and encouragement; although the virgin of Israel may have fallen, the Lord upholds the fallen.,After this discussion of the statement that Rabbi Elazar said that Rabbi Avina said, another statement of Rabbi Elazar is cited. b Rabbi Elazar bar Avina said: What was said about /b the angel b Michael is greater than what was said about /b the angel b Gabriel. As about Michael, it is written: “And one of the seraphim flew to me” /b (Isaiah 6:6), indicating that with a single flight, the seraph arrived and performed his mission, while b regarding Gabriel, it is written: “The man, Gabriel, whom I had seen at the beginning, in a vision, being caused to fly swiftly, /b approached close to me about the time of the evening offering” (Daniel 9:21). The double language used in the phrase “to fly swiftly [ i muaf biaf] /i ,” indicates that he did not arrive at his destination in a single flight, but rather, that it took him two flights.,To Rabbi Elazar bar Avina, it is clear that “one of the seraphim” refers to Michael, and the Gemara asks: b From where is it inferred that the one /b mentioned in the verse b is Michael? /b , b Rabbi Yoḥa said: This is derived /b through a verbal analogy between the words b one and one. Here, it is written: “And one of the seraphim flew to me” /b (Isaiah 6:6), b and there, it is written: “And behold, Michael, one of the chief ministers of the king, came to my aid” /b (Daniel 10:13). Since the verse from Daniel refers to Michael as “one,” which aggadic midrash interprets as “the unique one,” so, too, “one of the seraphs” described in Isaiah must also refer to the unique one, Michael.,This discussion in the Gemara concludes with a i Tosefta /i that arrives at a hierarchy of angels based on the number of flights required by each to arrive at his destination. b It was taught /b in a i Tosefta /i : b Michael, /b as stated above, b in one /b flight; b Gabriel, in two /b flights; b Elijah /b the Prophet, b in four /b flights; b and the Angel of Death, in eight /b flights. b During a time of plague, /b however, when the Angel of Death seems ubiquitous, he arrives everywhere b in one /b flight., b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Even though one recited i Shema /i in the synagogue, it is a mitzva to recite it upon his bed /b in fulfillment of the verse: “When you lie down.” b Rabbi Yosei said: What verse /b alludes to the fact that one must recite i Shema /i in the evening, upon his bed, as well? b “Tremble, and do not sin; say to your heart upon your bed and be still, Selah” /b (Psalms 4:5). This is understood to mean: Recite i Shema /i , about which it is written, “on your hearts,” upon your bed, and afterward be still and sleep.,With regard to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s statement, b Rabbi Naḥman said: /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
33a. כל התורה בכל לשון נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בלשון הקודש נאמרה והיו דכתב רחמנא למה לי,איצטריך משום דכתיב שמע,לימא קסברי רבנן כל התורה כולה בלשון קודש נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בכל לשון שמע דכתב רחמנא למה לי,איצטריך משום דכתיב והיו,תפלה רחמי היא כל היכי דבעי מצלי,ותפלה בכל לשון והאמר רב יהודה לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו בלשון ארמית דאמר רבי יוחנן כל השואל צרכיו בלשון ארמי אין מלאכי השרת נזקקין לו לפי שאין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי,לא קשיא הא ביחיד הא בצבור,ואין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי והתניא יוחנן כהן גדול שמע ב"ק מבית קדש הקדשים שהוא אומר נצחו טליא דאזלו לאגחא קרבא לאנטוכיא ושוב מעשה בשמעון הצדיק ששמע בת קול מבית קדש הקדשים שהוא אומר בטילת עבידתא דאמר שנאה לאייתאה על היכלא ונהרג גסקלגס ובטלו גזירותיו וכתבו אותה שעה וכיוונו ובלשון ארמי היה אומר,אי בעית אימא בת קול שאני דלאשמועי עבידא ואי בעית אימא גבריאל הוה דאמר מר בא גבריאל ולימדו שבעים לשון,ברכת המזון דכתיב (דברים ח, י) ואכלת ושבעת וברכת את ה' אלהיך בכל לשון שאתה מברך,שבועת העדות דכתיב (ויקרא ה, א) ונפש כי תחטא ושמעה קול אלה בכל לשון שהיא שומעת,שבועת הפקדון אתיא תחטא תחטא משבועת העדות,ואלו נאמרין בלשון הקודש מקרא ביכורים וחליצה כו' עד מקרא ביכורים כיצד (דברים כו, ה) וענית ואמרת לפני ה' אלהיך ולהלן הוא אומר (דברים כז, יד) וענו הלוים ואמרו אל כל איש ישראל מה ענייה האמורה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלה"ק,ולוים גופייהו מנלן אתיא קול קול ממשה כתיב הכא קול רם וכתיב התם (שמות יט, יט) משה ידבר והאלהים יעננו בקול מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,חליצה כיצד וכו' ורבנן האי ככה מאי עבדי ליה מיבעי להו לדבר שהוא מעשה מעכב,ור' יהודה מכה ככה ורבנן כה ככה לא משמע להו 33a. that b the entire Torah may be recited in any language, as, if it should enter your mind /b to say b that /b the entire Torah b may be recited /b only b in the sacred tongue /b and not in any other language, b why do I /b need b that which the Merciful One writes: “And /b these words, which I command you this day, b will be”? /b If in fact it is prohibited for one to recite any portion of the Torah in a language other than Hebrew, then prohibiting the recitation of i Shema /i in a language other than Hebrew is superfluous. Since the Torah specifically requires i Shema /i to be recited in Hebrew, it must be because the rest of the Torah may be recited in any language.,The Gemara rejects this suggestion: This is not unquestionably so, as the phrase “and these words, which I command you this day, will be” b is necessary /b in this case b because “hear” is /b also b written. /b Had it not said “and these words, which I command you this day, will be,” it would have been derived from the word “hear” that i Shema /i may be recited in any language, in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis. Therefore, the phrase “and these words, which I command you this day, will be” is necessary.,The Gemara asks: b Shall we say /b that b the Rabbis hold /b that b the entire Torah may be recited /b only b in the sacred tongue /b and not in any other language? b As, if it should enter your mind /b to say b that /b the Torah b may be recited in any language, why do I /b need b that which the Merciful One writes: “Hear”? /b It is permitted for one to recite the entire Torah in any language, rendering a specific requirement with regard to i Shema /i superfluous.,The Gemara rejects this: The word “hear” b is necessary /b in any case, b because “and /b these words, which I command you this day, b will be” is /b also b written. /b Had it not been for the word “hear,” the Rabbis would have understood that it is prohibited to recite i Shema /i in any other language, in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. Therefore, the word “hear” is necessary.,§ It is stated in the mishna that the i Amida /i b prayer /b may be recited in any language. The reason for this is that since prayer b is /b a request for divine b mercy, one may pray in any way that one desires. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b may b prayer /b really be recited b in any language? But didn’t Rav Yehuda say: A person should never request in the Aramaic language /b that b his needs /b be met, b as Rabbi Yoḥa said /b that with regard to b anyone who requests in the Aramaic language /b that b his needs /b be met, b the ministering angels do not attend to him, as the ministering angels are not familiar [ i makkirin /i ] with the Aramaic language? /b ,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult, /b as b that /b statement of Rabbi Yoḥa is referring b to /b the prayer of b an individual, /b who needs the support of the angels, whereas b this /b statement of the mishna is referring b to communal /b prayer.,The Gemara asks: b And are the ministering angels not familiar with the Aramaic language? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 13:5): b Yoḥa the High Priest heard a Divine Voice /b emerging b from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The youth who went to wage war in Antokhya have been victorious. And /b there was b another incident involving Shimon HaTzaddik, who heard a Divine Voice /b emerging b from the House of the Holy of Holies that was saying: The decree that the enemy intended to bring against the Temple is annulled, and Gaskalgas, /b Caligula, b has been killed and his decrees have been voided. And /b people b wrote /b down b that time /b that the Divine Voice was heard, b and /b later found that it b matched /b exactly the moment that Caligula was killed. The Gemara concludes: b And /b this Divine Voice b was speaking in the Aramaic language. /b ,The Gemara answers: b If you wish, say /b that the b Divine Voice is different, as its purpose is to communicate /b a message, and therefore it also communicates in Aramaic. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b it was /b the angel b Gabriel, as the Master said /b with regard to Joseph: b Gabriel came and taught him seventy languages, /b as he knows all of the languages, as opposed to the other angels, who do not.,§ It is stated in the mishna that b Grace after Meals /b may be recited in any language. b As it is written: “And you shall eat, and be satisfied, and bless the Lord your God” /b (Deuteronomy 8:10). The word “bless” is homiletically interpreted to mean: b In any language that you bless. /b ,It is stated in the mishna that b an oath of testimony /b may be said in any language, b as it is written: “And if anyone sins, in that he heard the voice of adjuration” /b (Leviticus 5:1). The emphasis on hearing in the verse is interpreted to mean that it can be recited b in any language that a person hears, /b i.e., understands.,It is stated in the mishna that b an oath on a deposit /b may be taken in any language. This b is derived /b by means of a verbal analogy b from /b the word b “sins” /b (Leviticus 5:21) that appears in the portion of an oath on a deposit, and the word b “sins” /b (Leviticus 5:1) that is mentioned in the portion of b an oath of testimony. /b ,§ It is stated in the mishna: b And these are recited /b only b in the sacred tongue: The recitation of /b the verses that one recounts when bringing the b first fruits /b to the Temple; b and i ḥalitza /i …how /b is it derived that the b recitation /b when bringing the b first fruits /b is recited specifically in Hebrew? When the Torah discusses this mitzva it states: b “And you shall speak and say before the Lord your God” /b (Deuteronomy 26:5), b and below, /b in the discussion of the blessings and curses, b it states: “And the Levites shall speak and say to all the men of Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 27:14). b Just as there, /b in the portion of the Levites, they speak b in the sacred tongue, so too here, /b in the portion of the first fruits, the recitation is b in the sacred tongue. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And from where do we /b derive that b the Levites themselves /b answered in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: It is b derived from /b a verbal analogy between the word b “voice” /b that appears here, in the portion of the blessings and curses, and the word b “voice” /b in the verse that relates to b Moses. It is written here: “With a loud voice” /b (Deuteronomy 27:14), b and it is written there: “Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice” /b (Exodus 19:19). b Just as there, /b the Ten Commandments were stated b in the sacred tongue, so too here, /b the Levites spoke b in the sacred tongue. /b ,It is stated in the mishna: b How /b is it derived that the recitation at b a i ḥalitza /i /b ceremony must be in Hebrew? The verse states: “And she shall speak and say: So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brother’s house” (Deuteronomy 25:9). Rabbi Yehuda derives this i halakha /i from the phrase: “And she shall speak and say: So” (Deuteronomy 25:9). The Gemara asks: b And what do the Rabbis do with, /b i.e., how do they interpret, b this /b word b “so”? They require /b it b to /b teach that any b matter /b detailed in the portion b that is an action is indispensable /b to the i ḥalitza /i ceremony, as the verse states: “So shall it be done.” However, the other aspects of the ritual, e.g., the recitations, are not indispensable, and in their absence the ritual is valid after the fact., b And Rabbi Yehuda /b derives this i halakha /i b from /b the fact that the verse could have used the shorter form of the word b so [ i ko /i ], /b and instead uses the longer form of the word b so [ i kakha /i ]. /b He therefore derives both i halakhot /i from this word. b And the Rabbis do not learn anything from /b the difference between b i ko /i /b and b i kakha /i . /b
21. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 22, 29, 32, 42-43, 49, 55, 47  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 568
22. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •fast days, public, priestly blessing, priests Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 565
43b. לא אסרה תורה אלא בדמות ד' פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב יהושע מפרקיה דרבי יהושע שמיע לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי אבל שאר שמשין שרי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת,כי תניא ההיא לעובדם,אי לעובדם אפילו שילשול קטן נמי אין הכי נמי ומסיפיה דקרא נפקא דתניא אשר בארץ לרבות ימים ונהרות הרים וגבעות מתחת לרבות שילשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו,והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם בחותמו בולט ומשום חשדא דתניא טבעת שחותמה בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמה שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דאוקמי ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי ביה אבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו בגויה ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא רבן גמליאל דיחיד הוה כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה ואיבעית אימא דפרקים הואי,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד שאני דתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:,רשב"ג אומר וכו': איזו הן מכובדין ואיזו הן מבוזין,אמר רב מכובדין למעלה מן המים מבוזין למטה מן המים ושמואל אמר אלו ואלו מבוזין הן אלא אלו הן מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות,תניא כוותיה דשמואל מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות מבוזין שעל היורות ועל הקומקמסין ועל מחמי חמים ושעל הסדינין ועל המטפחות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רבי יוסי אומר שוחק וזורה לרוח או מטיל לים אמרו לו אף הוא נעשה זבל שנאמר (דברים יג, יח) לא ידבק בידך מאומה מן החרם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא אמר להם רבי יוסי והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ט, כא) ואת חטאתכם 43b. This does not include the sun and the moon, as b the Torah prohibits /b the fashioning b only /b of b a figure of /b all b four faces /b of the creatures of the Divine Chariot b together /b (see Ezekiel 1:10). All other figures, which are not in the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b If that is so, let /b the fashioning of a figure of b a human face alone be permitted. Why /b then b is it taught /b in a i baraita /i : Figures of b all faces are permitted, except for the human face? /b , b Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: I heard in a lecture of Rabbi Yehoshua /b that there is a different reason why one may not fashion a figure of a human face; the verse states: b “You shall not make with Me [ i iti /i ]” /b (Exodus 20:20). This can be read as: b You shall not make Me [ i oti /i ]. /b Since the human being was created in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27), it is prohibited to fashion an image of a human being. b But /b fashioning figures of b other attendants /b of God is b permitted. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to fashion figures of b other attendants /b of God? b But isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that b you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example, i ofanim /i , and seraphim, and the sacred i ḥayyot /i , and the ministering angels? /b , b Abaye said: The Torah prohibits /b fashioning figures of b only /b those b attendants that are in the upper heaven, /b i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but it does not prohibit fashioning the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to fashion figures of those bodies b that are in the lower heaven? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4): The phrase b “that is in heaven” /b serves b to include /b the b sun, and /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b The term b “above” /b serves b to include the ministering angels. /b Apparently, it is prohibited to fashion a figure even of the celestial bodies that are in the lower heaven.,The Gemara answers: b When that /b i baraita /i b is taught, /b it is in reference b to /b the prohibition against b worshipping them. /b There is no prohibition against forming a figure in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: b If /b that i baraita /i is referring b to /b the prohibition against b worshipping them, /b then why does it mention only celestial bodies? It is prohibited to worship b even a tiny worm. /b The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so; and /b this prohibition b is derived from the latter clause of that verse, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “That is in the earth” /b serves b to include seas, and rivers, mountains, and hills. /b The word b “beneath” /b serves b to include a tiny worm. /b ,The Gemara asks: b And is the mere fashioning /b of figures of the celestial bodies b permitted? But isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that b you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example: /b The b sun, and /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b This is proof that it is prohibited to fashion figures of the sun and the moon. Consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty of Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of b Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, /b i.e., gentiles, b fashioned /b those figures b for him, /b and it is prohibited for a Jew only to fashion such figures; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession.,The Gemara asks: b But /b there is the case of b Rav Yehuda, where others fashioned for him /b a seal with a figure of a person on it, b and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, /b who was his student: b Sharp-witted one [ i shina /i ], destroy this one’s eyes, /b i.e., disfigure it, as it is prohibited even to have a figure of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: b There, in /b the case of Rav Yehuda, b his was a protruding seal, /b i.e., the figure projected from the ring, b and /b Shmuel prohibited it b due to /b the potential b suspicion /b that he had an object of idol worship in his possession. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : In the case of b a ring whose seal protrudes, /b it is b prohibited to place it /b on one’s finger due to suspicion of idol worship, b but /b it is b permitted to seal /b objects b with it. /b In this case, the act of sealing forms a figure that is sunken below the surface of the object upon which the seal was impressed, which is not prohibited. If b its seal is sunken, /b it is b permitted to place it /b on one’s finger, b but /b it is b prohibited to seal /b objects b with it, /b as that forms a protruding figure.,The Gemara asks: b And are we concerned about /b arousing b suspicion /b due to the use of a human figure? b But /b what about that b synagogue that had been destroyed /b in Eretz Yisrael b and was reestablished in Neharde’a, /b and b they erected a statue /b of the king b in it? And /b nevertheless, b Shmuel’s father and Levi would enter and pray in it, and they were not concerned about /b arousing b suspicion. /b The Gemara answers: b A public /b institution b is different; /b the public is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for ornamental purposes.,The Gemara asks: b But wasn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? /b According to this reasoning, his figures of the moon should have been forbidden as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: b Since he was the i Nasi /i , /b the head of the Sanhedrin, members of b the public /b would often b be found with him, /b and therefore there was no room for suspicion. b And if you wish, say /b there is an alternative answer, namely, b that /b these figures were not whole; rather, they b were /b formed from b pieces /b of figures that had to be assembled. Only complete figures are forbidden., b And if you wish, say /b there is yet another answer: Fashioning figures in order b to teach oneself is different, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: b “You shall not learn to do /b like the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9): b But you may learn /b in order b to understand /b the matter yourself b and teach /b it to others. In other words, it is permitted to perform certain acts for the sake of Torah study that would otherwise be prohibited.,§ The mishna (42b) teaches that b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b Those figures that are upon respectable vessels are forbidden. Those that are upon disgraceful vessels are permitted. The Gemara asks: b Which /b vessels b are /b considered b respectable and which are /b considered b disgraceful? /b , b Rav says: /b These terms do not represent different types of vessels, but rather the location of the figure upon the vessel. b A respectable /b location for an idolatrous figure is on the side of the vessel b above /b the level of b the water /b or food contents; b a disgraceful /b location is b below the water /b level. b And Shmuel says: /b Both b these and those /b locations on eating utensils b are disgraceful. Rather, these are respectable /b locations: b Upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings. /b ,The Gemara comments: b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Shmuel /b ( i Tosefta /i 5:1): b Respectable /b locations for idolatrous figures are b upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings. Disgraceful /b locations are b upon /b large b pots, or upon /b small b kettles [ i hakumkemasin /i ], or upon samovars, or upon sheets, or upon towels. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b Rabbi Yosei says: /b When one encounters an idol, he should b grind /b the idol b and throw /b the dust b to the wind or cast /b it b into the sea. /b The Rabbis b said to him: /b What is the good of that? b That also /b gives a Jew benefit from the idol, as it b becomes fertilizer /b for his crops, b and /b deriving any kind of benefit is prohibited, as b it is stated: /b “And b nothing of the proscribed items shall cleave to your hand” /b (Deuteronomy 13:18)., strong GEMARA: /strong b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 3:16): b Rabbi Yosei said to them: But isn’t it already stated: “And your sin, /b