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354 results for "fast"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 4.1-4.22, 11.18-11.19, 12.8, 14.15 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 265, 474; Toloni (2022) 131
4.1. On that day Tobit remembered the money which he had left in trust with Gabael at Rages in Media, and he said to himself; 4.2. "I have asked for death. Why do I not call my son Tobias so that I may explain to him about the money before I die?" 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.17. Place your bread on the grave of the righteous, but give none to sinners. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.20. And now let me explain to you about the ten talents of silver which I left in trust with Gabael the son of Gabrias at Rages in Media. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight." 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came, 11.19. and Tobias marriage was celebrated for seven days with great festivity. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
2. Septuagint, Susanna, None (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 188
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 6.22, 11.29, 13.17-13.21, 14.8, 19.18-19.20, 20.1-20.13, 29.7, 30.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 47, 182; Harkins and Maier (2022) 43; Putthoff (2016) 65; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714, 723; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213
6.22. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 11.29. "וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מֹשֶׁה הַמְקַנֵּא אַתָּה לִי וּמִי יִתֵּן כָּל־עַם יְהוָה נְבִיאִים כִּי־יִתֵּן יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם׃", 13.17. "וַיִּשְׁלַח אֹתָם מֹשֶׁה לָתוּר אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם עֲלוּ זֶה בַּנֶּגֶב וַעֲלִיתֶם אֶת־הָהָר׃", 13.18. "וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ מַה־הִוא וְאֶת־הָעָם הַיֹּשֵׁב עָלֶיהָ הֶחָזָק הוּא הֲרָפֶה הַמְעַט הוּא אִם־רָב׃", 13.19. "וּמָה הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יֹשֵׁב בָּהּ הֲטוֹבָה הִוא אִם־רָעָה וּמָה הֶעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־הוּא יוֹשֵׁב בָּהֵנָּה הַבְּמַחֲנִים אִם בְּמִבְצָרִים׃", 13.21. "וַיַּעֲלוּ וַיָּתֻרוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ מִמִּדְבַּר־צִן עַד־רְחֹב לְבֹא חֲמָת׃", 14.8. "אִם־חָפֵץ בָּנוּ יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וּנְתָנָהּ לָנוּ אֶרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־הִוא זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃", 19.18. "וְלָקַח אֵזוֹב וְטָבַל בַּמַּיִם אִישׁ טָהוֹר וְהִזָּה עַל־הָאֹהֶל וְעַל־כָּל־הַכֵּלִים וְעַל־הַנְּפָשׁוֹת אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ־שָׁם וְעַל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בַּעֶצֶם אוֹ בֶחָלָל אוֹ בַמֵּת אוֹ בַקָּבֶר׃", 19.19. "וְהִזָּה הַטָּהֹר עַל־הַטָּמֵא בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְחִטְּאוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וְכִבֶּס בְּגָדָיו וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר בָּעָרֶב׃", 20.1. "וַיַּקְהִלוּ מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַקָּהָל אֶל־פְּנֵי הַסָּלַע וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם שִׁמְעוּ־נָא הַמֹּרִים הֲמִן־הַסֶּלַע הַזֶּה נוֹצִיא לָכֶם מָיִם׃", 20.1. "וַיָּבֹאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־הָעֵדָה מִדְבַּר־צִן בַּחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם בְּקָדֵשׁ וַתָּמָת שָׁם מִרְיָם וַתִּקָּבֵר שָׁם׃", 20.2. "וְלֹא־הָיָה מַיִם לָעֵדָה וַיִּקָּהֲלוּ עַל־מֹשֶׁה וְעַל־אַהֲרֹן׃", 20.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תַעֲבֹר וַיֵּצֵא אֱדוֹם לִקְרָאתוֹ בְּעַם כָּבֵד וּבְיָד חֲזָקָה׃", 20.3. "וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר וְלוּ גָוַעְנוּ בִּגְוַע אַחֵינוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃", 20.4. "וְלָמָה הֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־קְהַל יְהוָה אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר הַזֶּה לָמוּת שָׁם אֲנַחְנוּ וּבְעִירֵנוּ׃", 20.5. "וְלָמָה הֶעֱלִיתֻנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָבִיא אֹתָנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הָרָע הַזֶּה לֹא מְקוֹם זֶרַע וּתְאֵנָה וְגֶפֶן וְרִמּוֹן וּמַיִם אַיִן לִשְׁתּוֹת׃", 20.6. "וַיָּבֹא מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן מִפְּנֵי הַקָּהָל אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד־יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם׃", 20.7. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 20.8. "קַח אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה וְהַקְהֵל אֶת־הָעֵדָה אַתָּה וְאַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְדִבַּרְתֶּם אֶל־הַסֶּלַע לְעֵינֵיהֶם וְנָתַן מֵימָיו וְהוֹצֵאתָ לָהֶם מַיִם מִן־הַסֶּלַע וְהִשְׁקִיתָ אֶת־הָעֵדָה וְאֶת־בְּעִירָם׃", 20.9. "וַיִּקַּח מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַמַּטֶּה מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּהוּ׃", 20.11. "וַיָּרֶם מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיַּךְ אֶת־הַסֶּלַע בְּמַטֵּהוּ פַּעֲמָיִם וַיֵּצְאוּ מַיִם רַבִּים וַתֵּשְׁתְּ הָעֵדָה וּבְעִירָם׃", 20.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן יַעַן לֹא־הֶאֱמַנְתֶּם בִּי לְהַקְדִּישֵׁנִי לְעֵינֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֵן לֹא תָבִיאוּ אֶת־הַקָּהָל הַזֶּה אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתִּי לָהֶם׃", 20.13. "הֵמָּה מֵי מְרִיבָה אֲשֶׁר־רָבוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־יְהוָה וַיִּקָּדֵשׁ בָּם׃", 29.7. "וּבֶעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כָּל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ׃", 30.14. "כָּל־נֵדֶר וְכָל־שְׁבֻעַת אִסָּר לְעַנֹּת נָפֶשׁ אִישָׁהּ יְקִימֶנּוּ וְאִישָׁהּ יְפֵרֶנּוּ׃", 6.22. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 11.29. "And Moses said unto him: ‘Art thou jealous for my sake? would that all the LORD’S people were prophets, that the LORD would put His spirit upon them! ’", 13.17. "And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said unto them: ‘Get you up here into the South, and go up into the mountains;", 13.18. "and see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they are strong or weak, whether they are few or many;", 13.19. "and what the land is that they dwell in, whether it is good or bad; and what cities they are that they dwell in, whether in camps, or in strongholds;", 13.20. "and what the land is, whether it is fat or lean, whether there is wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land.’—Now the time was the time of the first-ripe grapes.—", 13.21. "So they went up, and spied out the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, at the entrance to Hamath.", 14.8. "If the LORD delight in us, then He will bring us into this land, and give it unto us—a land which floweth with milk and honey.", 19.18. "And a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that were there, and upon him that touched the bone, or the slain, or the dead, or the grave.", 19.19. "And the clean person shall sprinkle upon the unclean on the third day, and on the seventh day; and on the seventh day he shall purify him; and he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and shall be clean at even.", 19.20. "But the man that shall be unclean, and shall not purify himself, that soul shall be cut off from the midst of the assembly, because he hath defiled the sanctuary of the LORD; the water of sprinkling hath not been dashed against him: he is unclean.", 20.1. "And the children of Israel, even the whole congregation, came into the wilderness of Zin in the first month; and the people abode in Kadesh; and Miriam died there, and was buried there.", 20.2. "And there was no water for the congregation; and they assembled themselves together against Moses and against Aaron.", 20.3. "And the people strove with Moses, and spoke, saying: ‘Would that we had perished when our brethren perished before the LORD!", 20.4. "And why have ye brought the assembly of the LORD into this wilderness, to die there, we and our cattle?", 20.5. "And wherefore have ye made us to come up out of Egypt, to bring us in unto this evil place? it is no place of seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates; neither is there any water to drink.’", 20.6. "And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tent of meeting, and fell upon their faces; and the glory of the LORD appeared unto them.", 20.7. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 20.8. "’Take the rod, and assemble the congregation, thou, and Aaron thy brother, and speak ye unto the rock before their eyes, that it give forth its water; and thou shalt bring forth to them water out of the rock; so thou shalt give the congregation and their cattle drink.’", 20.9. "And Moses took the rod from before the LORD, as He commanded him.", 20.10. "And Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly together before the rock, and he said unto them: ‘Hear now, ye rebels; are we to bring you forth water out of this rock?’", 20.11. "And Moses lifted up his hand, and smote the rock with his rod twice; and water came forth abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their cattle.", 20.12. "And the LORD said unto Moses and Aaron: ‘Because ye believed not in Me, to sanctify Me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this assembly into the land which I have given them.’", 20.13. "These are the waters of Meribah, where the children of Israel strove with the LORD, and He was sanctified in them.", 29.7. "And on the tenth day of this seventh month ye shall have a holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls; ye shall do no manner of work;", 30.14. "Every vow, and every binding oath to afflict the soul, her husband may let it stand, or her husband may make it void.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Zephaniah, 3.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
3.12. "וְהִשְׁאַרְתִּי בְקִרְבֵּךְ עַם עָנִי וָדָל וְחָסוּ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה׃", 3.12. "And I will leave in the midst of thee An afflicted and poor people, And they shall take refuge in the name of the LORD.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 4.2-4.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 191
4.2. "וַיִּקַּח עֲשָׂרָה אֲנָשִׁים מִזִּקְנֵי הָעִיר וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁבוּ־פֹה וַיֵּשֵׁבוּ׃", 4.2. "וְעַמִּינָדָב הוֹלִיד אֶת־נַחְשׁוֹן וְנַחְשׁוֹן הוֹלִיד אֶת־שַׂלְמָה׃", 4.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר לַגֹּאֵל חֶלְקַת הַשָּׂדֶה אֲשֶׁר לְאָחִינוּ לֶאֱלִימֶלֶךְ מָכְרָה נָעֳמִי הַשָּׁבָה מִשְּׂדֵה מוֹאָב׃", 4.4. "וַאֲנִי אָמַרְתִּי אֶגְלֶה אָזְנְךָ לֵאמֹר קְנֵה נֶגֶד הַיֹּשְׁבִים וְנֶגֶד זִקְנֵי עַמִּי אִם־תִּגְאַל גְּאָל וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל הַגִּידָה לִּי ואדע [וְאֵדְעָה] כִּי אֵין זוּלָתְךָ לִגְאוֹל וְאָנֹכִי אַחֲרֶיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֶגְאָל׃", 4.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר בֹּעַז בְּיוֹם־קְנוֹתְךָ הַשָּׂדֶה מִיַּד נָעֳמִי וּמֵאֵת רוּת הַמּוֹאֲבִיָּה אֵשֶׁת־הַמֵּת קניתי [קָנִיתָה] לְהָקִים שֵׁם־הַמֵּת עַל־נַחֲלָתוֹ׃", 4.6. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לֹא אוּכַל לגאול־[לִגְאָל־] לִי פֶּן־אַשְׁחִית אֶת־נַחֲלָתִי גְּאַל־לְךָ אַתָּה אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתִי כִּי לֹא־אוּכַל לִגְאֹל׃", 4.7. "וְזֹאת לְפָנִים בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הַגְּאוּלָּה וְעַל־הַתְּמוּרָה לְקַיֵּם כָּל־דָּבָר שָׁלַף אִישׁ נַעֲלוֹ וְנָתַן לְרֵעֵהוּ וְזֹאת הַתְּעוּדָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 4.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַגֹּאֵל לְבֹעַז קְנֵה־לָךְ וַיִּשְׁלֹף נַעֲלוֹ׃", 4.2. "And he took ten men of the elders of the city, and said: ‘Sit ye down here.’ And they sat down.", 4.3. "And he said unto the near kinsman: ‘Naomi, that is come back out of the field of Moab, selleth the parcel of land, which was our brother Elimelech’s;", 4.4. "and I thought to disclose it unto thee, saying: Buy it before them that sit here, and before the elders of my people. If thou wilt redeem it, redeem it; but if it will not be redeemed, then tell me, that I may know; for there is none to redeem it beside thee; and I am after thee.’ And he said: ‘I will redeem it.’", 4.5. "Then said Boaz: ‘What day thou buyest the field of the hand of Naomi—hast thou also bought of Ruth the Moabitess, the wife of the dead, to raise up the name of the dead upon his inheritance?’", 4.6. "And the near kinsman said: ‘I cannot redeem it for myself, lest I mar mine own inheritance; take thou my right of redemption on thee; for I cannot redeem it.’—", 4.7. "Now this was the custom in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning exchanging, to confirm all things: a man drew off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour; and this was the attestation in Israel.—", 4.8. "So the near kinsman said unto Boaz: ‘Buy it for thyself.’ And he drew off his shoe.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 30.12, 31.9, 34.18, 35.13, 37.11, 37.14-37.15, 51.7, 69.22, 72.3, 77.25, 78.25, 81.3, 82.3, 90.11-90.12, 91.16, 93.1, 102.5, 117.14, 137.6, 138.6, 149.3, 150.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 69, 88, 89, 191; Cain (2016) 80, 173; Gera (2014) 182, 184, 188, 264, 266, 474; Lynskey (2021) 320; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715, 723; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213, 333
30.12. "הָפַכְתָּ מִסְפְּדִי לְמָחוֹל לִי פִּתַּחְתָּ שַׂקִּי וַתְּאַזְּרֵנִי שִׂמְחָה׃", 31.9. "וְלֹא הִסְגַּרְתַּנִי בְּיַד־אוֹיֵב הֶעֱמַדְתָּ בַמֶּרְחָב רַגְלָי׃", 34.18. "צָעֲקוּ וַיהוָה שָׁמֵעַ וּמִכָּל־צָרוֹתָם הִצִּילָם׃", 35.13. "וַאֲנִי בַּחֲלוֹתָם לְבוּשִׁי שָׂק עִנֵּיתִי בַצּוֹם נַפְשִׁי וּתְפִלָּתִי עַל־חֵיקִי תָשׁוּב׃", 37.11. "וַעֲנָוִים יִירְשׁוּ־אָרֶץ וְהִתְעַנְּגוּ עַל־רֹב שָׁלוֹם׃", 37.14. "חֶרֶב פָּתְחוּ רְשָׁעִים וְדָרְכוּ קַשְׁתָּם לְהַפִּיל עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן לִטְבוֹחַ יִשְׁרֵי־דָרֶךְ׃", 37.15. "חַרְבָּם תָּבוֹא בְלִבָּם וְקַשְּׁתוֹתָם תִּשָּׁבַרְנָה׃", 51.7. "הֵן־בְּעָווֹן חוֹלָלְתִּי וּבְחֵטְא יֶחֱמַתְנִי אִמִּי׃", 69.22. "וַיִּתְּנוּ בְּבָרוּתִי רֹאשׁ וְלִצְמָאִי יַשְׁקוּנִי חֹמֶץ׃", 72.3. "יִשְׂאוּ הָרִים שָׁלוֹם לָעָם וּגְבָעוֹת בִּצְדָקָה׃", 78.25. "לֶחֶם אַבִּירִים אָכַל אִישׁ צֵידָה שָׁלַח לָהֶם לָשֹׂבַע׃", 81.3. "שְׂאוּ־זִמְרָה וּתְנוּ־תֹף כִּנּוֹר נָעִים עִם־נָבֶל׃", 82.3. "שִׁפְטוּ־דַל וְיָתוֹם עָנִי וָרָשׁ הַצְדִּיקוּ׃", 90.11. "מִי־יוֹדֵעַ עֹז אַפֶּךָ וּכְיִרְאָתְךָ עֶבְרָתֶךָ׃", 90.12. "לִמְנוֹת יָמֵינוּ כֵּן הוֹדַע וְנָבִא לְבַב חָכְמָה׃", 91.16. "אֹרֶךְ יָמִים אַשְׂבִּיעֵהוּ וְאַרְאֵהוּ בִּישׁוּעָתִי׃", 93.1. "יְהוָה מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ לָבֵשׁ יְהוָה עֹז הִתְאַזָּר אַף־תִּכּוֹן תֵּבֵל בַּל־תִּמּוֹט׃", 102.5. "הוּכָּה־כָעֵשֶׂב וַיִּבַשׁ לִבִּי כִּי־שָׁכַחְתִּי מֵאֲכֹל לַחְמִי׃", 137.6. "תִּדְבַּק־לְשׁוֹנִי לְחִכִּי אִם־לֹא אֶזְכְּרֵכִי אִם־לֹא אַעֲלֶה אֶת־יְרוּשָׁלִַם עַל רֹאשׁ שִׂמְחָתִי׃", 138.6. "כִּי־רָם יְהוָה וְשָׁפָל יִרְאֶה וְגָבֹהַּ מִמֶּרְחָק יְיֵדָע׃", 149.3. "יְהַלְלוּ שְׁמוֹ בְמָחוֹל בְּתֹף וְכִנּוֹר יְזַמְּרוּ־לוֹ׃", 150.4. "הַלְלוּהוּ בְתֹף וּמָחוֹל הַלְלוּהוּ בְּמִנִּים וְעוּגָב׃", 30.12. "Thou didst turn for me my mourning into dancing; Thou didst loose my sackcloth, and gird me with gladness;", 31.9. "And Thou hast not given me over into the hand of the enemy; Thou hast set my feet in a broad place.", 34.18. "They cried, and the LORD heard, And delivered them out of all their troubles.", 35.13. "But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing was sackcloth, I afflicted my soul with fasting; And my prayer, may it return into mine own bosom.", 37.11. "But the humble shall inherit the land, and delight themselves in the abundance of peace.", 37.14. "The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have bent their bow; to cast down the poor and needy, to slay such as are upright in the way;", 37.15. "Their sword shall enter into their own heart, and their bows shall be broken.", 51.7. "Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.", 69.22. "Yea, they put poison into my food; And in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.", 72.3. "Let the mountains bear peace to the people, and the hills, through righteousness.", 78.25. "Man did eat the bread of the mighty; He sent them provisions to the full.", 81.3. "Take up the melody, and sound the timbrel, the sweet harp with the psaltery.", 82.3. "Judge the poor and fatherless; do justice to the afflicted and destitute.", 90.11. "Who knoweth the power of Thine anger, And Thy wrath according to the fear that is due unto Thee?", 90.12. "So teach us to number our days, That we may get us a heart of wisdom.", 91.16. "With long life will I satisfy him, And make Him to behold My salvation.'", 93.1. "The LORD reigneth; He is clothed in majesty; The LORD is clothed, He hath girded Himself with strength; Yea, the world is established, that it cannot be moved.", 102.5. "My heart is smitten like grass, and withered; for I forget to eat my bread.", 137.6. "Let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, If I remember thee not; If I set not Jerusalem Above my chiefest joy.", 138.6. "For though the LORD be high, yet regardeth He the lowly, And the haughty He knoweth from afar.", 149.3. "Let them praise His name in the dance; Let them sing praises unto Him with the timbrel and harp.", 150.4. "Praise Him with the timbrel and dance; Praise Him with stringed instruments and the pipe.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 7.21, 16.19, 29.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 80; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
7.21. "הִטַּתּוּ בְּרֹב לִקְחָהּ בְּחֵלֶק שְׂפָתֶיהָ תַּדִּיחֶנּוּ׃", 16.19. "טוֹב שְׁפַל־רוּחַ אֶת־עניים [עֲנָוִים] מֵחַלֵּק שָׁלָל אֶת־גֵּאִים׃", 29.23. "גַּאֲוַת אָדָם תַּשְׁפִּילֶנּוּ וּשְׁפַל־רוּחַ יִתְמֹךְ כָּבוֹד׃", 7.21. "With her much fair speech she causeth him to yield, With the blandishment of her lips she enticeth him away.", 16.19. "Better it is to be of a lowly spirit with the humble, Than to divide the spoil with the proud.", 29.23. "A man’s pride shall bring him low; but he that is of a lowly spirit shall attain to honour.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 191
7.4. "טוֹבָם כְּחֵדֶק יָשָׁר מִמְּסוּכָה יוֹם מְצַפֶּיךָ פְּקֻדָּתְךָ בָאָה עַתָּה תִהְיֶה מְבוּכָתָם׃", 7.4. "The best of them is as a brier; The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge; The day of thy watchmen, even thy visitation, is come; Now shall be their perplexity.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 10.8-10.11, 14.4, 16.2, 16.12-16.13, 16.15, 16.29, 16.31, 17.10-17.14, 18.24, 22.10, 23.27, 23.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 125; Gera (2014) 183; Putthoff (2016) 65; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213, 303, 304
10.8. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃", 10.9. "יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ בְּבֹאֲכֶם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְלֹא תָמֻתוּ חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃", 10.11. "וּלְהוֹרֹת אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֵת כָּל־הַחֻקִּים אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיהֶם בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃", 14.4. "וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃", 16.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאַל־יָבֹא בְכָל־עֵת אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֶל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֹן וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃", 16.2. "וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי׃", 16.12. "וְלָקַח מְלֹא־הַמַּחְתָּה גַּחֲלֵי־אֵשׁ מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וּמְלֹא חָפְנָיו קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים דַּקָּה וְהֵבִיא מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת׃", 16.13. "וְנָתַן אֶת־הַקְּטֹרֶת עַל־הָאֵשׁ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְכִסָּה עֲנַן הַקְּטֹרֶת אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדוּת וְלֹא יָמוּת׃", 16.15. "וְשָׁחַט אֶת־שְׂעִיר הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר לָעָם וְהֵבִיא אֶת־דָּמוֹ אֶל־מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וְעָשָׂה אֶת־דָּמוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְדַם הַפָּר וְהִזָּה אֹתוֹ עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת וְלִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃", 16.29. "וְהָיְתָה לָכֶם לְחֻקַּת עוֹלָם בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ תְּעַנּוּ אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְכָל־מְלָאכָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ הָאֶזְרָח וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם׃", 16.31. "שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הִיא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם׃", 17.11. "כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃", 17.12. "עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃", 17.13. "וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃", 17.14. "כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃", 18.24. "אַל־תִּטַּמְּאוּ בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי בְכָל־אֵלֶּה נִטְמְאוּ הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי מְשַׁלֵּחַ מִפְּנֵיכֶם׃", 23.27. "אַךְ בֶּעָשׂוֹר לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי הַזֶּה יוֹם הַכִּפֻּרִים הוּא מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃", 23.32. "שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתוֹן הוּא לָכֶם וְעִנִּיתֶם אֶת־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם בְּתִשְׁעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב מֵעֶרֶב עַד־עֶרֶב תִּשְׁבְּתוּ שַׁבַּתְּכֶם׃", 10.8. "And the LORD spoke unto Aaron, saying:", 10.9. "’Drink no wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tent of meeting, that ye die not; it shall be a statute forever throughout your generations.", 10.10. "And that ye may put difference between the holy and the common, and between the unclean and the clean;", 10.11. "and that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the LORD hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.’", 14.4. "then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop.", 16.2. "and the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the veil, before the ark-cover which is upon the ark; that he die not; for I appear in the cloud upon the ark-cover.", 16.12. "And he shall take a censer full of coals of fire from off the altar before the LORD, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil.", 16.13. "And he shall put the incense upon the fire before the LORD, that the cloud of the incense may cover the ark-cover that is upon the testimony, that he die not.", 16.15. "Then shall he kill the goat of the sin-offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover.", 16.29. "And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, ye shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourneth among you.", 16.31. "It is a sabbath of solemn rest unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; it is a statute for ever.", 17.10. "And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people.", 17.11. "For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life.", 17.12. "Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood.", 17.13. "And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust.", 17.14. "For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.", 18.24. "Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things; for in all these the nations are defiled, which I cast out from before you.", 22.10. "There shall no acommon man eat of the holy thing; a tet of a priest, or a hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing.", 23.27. "Howbeit on the tenth day of this seventh month is the day of atonement; there shall be a holy convocation unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; and ye shall bring an offering made by fire unto the LORD.", 23.32. "It shall be unto you a sabbath of solemn rest, and ye shall afflict your souls; in the ninth day of the month at even, from even unto even, shall ye keep your sabbath.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 1.13, 2.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 47, 180, 181, 182, 183, 189
1.13. "חִגְרוּ וְסִפְדוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים הֵילִילוּ מְשָׁרְתֵי מִזְבֵּחַ בֹּאוּ לִינוּ בַשַּׂקִּים מְשָׁרְתֵי אֱלֹהָי כִּי נִמְנַע מִבֵּית אֱלֹהֵיכֶם מִנְחָה וָנָסֶךְ׃", 2.17. "בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ יִבְכּוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְשָׁרְתֵי יְהוָה וְיֹאמְרוּ חוּסָה יְהוָה עַל־עַמֶּךָ וְאַל־תִּתֵּן נַחֲלָתְךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לִמְשָׁל־בָּם גּוֹיִם לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ בָעַמִּים אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃", 1.13. "Gird yourselves, and lament, ye priests, Wail, ye ministers of the altar; Come, lie all night in sackcloth, Ye ministers of my God; For the meal-offering and the drink-offering is withholden From the house of your God.", 2.17. "Let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar, And let them say: ‘Spare thy people, O LORD, And give not Thy heritage to reproach, That the nations should make them a byword: Wherefore should they say among the peoples: Where is their God?’",
11. Hebrew Bible, Job, 2.8, 5.11, 16.15, 42.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 184, 474; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
2.8. "וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃", 5.11. "לָשׂוּם שְׁפָלִים לְמָרוֹם וְקֹדְרִים שָׂגְבוּ יֶשַׁע׃", 16.15. "שַׂק תָּפַרְתִּי עֲלֵי גִלְדִּי וְעֹלַלְתִּי בֶעָפָר קַרְנִי׃", 42.17. "וַיָּמָת אִיּוֹב זָקֵן וּשְׂבַע יָמִים׃", 2.8. "And he took him a potsherd to scrape himself therewith; and he sat among the ashes.", 5.11. "So that He setteth up on high those that are low, And those that mourn are exalted to safety.", 16.15. "I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, And have laid my horn in the dust.", 42.17. "So Job died, being old and full of days.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 5.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 191
5.6. "בְּצֹאנָם וּבִבְקָרָם יֵלְכוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּ חָלַץ מֵהֶם׃", 5.6. "With their flocks and with their herds they shall go To seek the LORD, but they shall not find Him; He hath withdrawn Himself from them.",
13. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.2, 1.31, 2.21, 14.21-14.24, 15.15, 17.12-17.13, 18.11, 23.1-23.2, 23.19, 24.1, 25.10, 28.13, 29.17, 35.17, 37.34, 38.14, 38.19, 39.6, 49.31, 50.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fast, fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79; Dobroruka (2014) 115; Gera (2014) 183, 184, 241, 264, 267, 470, 474; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 304; Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
1.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יִשְׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁרֶץ נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה וְעוֹף יְעוֹפֵף עַל־הָאָרֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי רְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 1.2. "וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃", 1.31. "וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה וְהִנֵּה־טוֹב מְאֹד וַיְהִי־עֶרֶב וַיְהִי־בֹקֶר יוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי׃", 2.21. "וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃", 14.21. "וַיֹּאמֶר מֶלֶךְ־סְדֹם אֶל־אַבְרָם תֶּן־לִי הַנֶּפֶשׁ וְהָרְכֻשׁ קַח־לָךְ׃", 14.22. "וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־מֶלֶךְ סְדֹם הֲרִימֹתִי יָדִי אֶל־יְהוָה אֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃", 14.23. "אִם־מִחוּט וְעַד שְׂרוֹךְ־נַעַל וְאִם־אֶקַּח מִכָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ וְלֹא תֹאמַר אֲנִי הֶעֱשַׁרְתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָם׃", 14.24. "בִּלְעָדַי רַק אֲשֶׁר אָכְלוּ הַנְּעָרִים וְחֵלֶק הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אִתִּי עָנֵר אֶשְׁכֹּל וּמַמְרֵא הֵם יִקְחוּ חֶלְקָם׃", 15.15. "וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה׃", 17.12. "וּבֶן־שְׁמֹנַת יָמִים יִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־כֶּסֶף מִכֹּל בֶּן־נֵכָר אֲשֶׁר לֹא מִזַּרְעֲךָ הוּא׃", 17.13. "הִמּוֹל יִמּוֹל יְלִיד בֵּיתְךָ וּמִקְנַת כַּסְפֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה בְרִיתִי בִּבְשַׂרְכֶם לִבְרִית עוֹלָם׃", 18.11. "וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה אֹרַח כַּנָּשִׁים׃", 23.1. "וַיִּהְיוּ חַיֵּי שָׂרָה מֵאָה שָׁנָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְשֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שְׁנֵי חַיֵּי שָׂרָה׃", 23.1. "וְעֶפְרוֹן יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי־חֵת וַיַּעַן עֶפְרוֹן הַחִתִּי אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בְּאָזְנֵי בְנֵי־חֵת לְכֹל בָּאֵי שַׁעַר־עִירוֹ לֵאמֹר׃", 23.2. "וַיָּקָם הַשָּׂדֶה וְהַמְּעָרָה אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ לְאַבְרָהָם לַאֲחֻזַּת־קָבֶר מֵאֵת בְּנֵי־חֵת׃", 23.2. "וַתָּמָת שָׂרָה בְּקִרְיַת אַרְבַּע הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַיָּבֹא אַבְרָהָם לִסְפֹּד לְשָׂרָה וְלִבְכֹּתָהּ׃", 23.19. "וְאַחֲרֵי־כֵן קָבַר אַבְרָהָם אֶת־שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ אֶל־מְעָרַת שְׂדֵה הַמַּכְפֵּלָה עַל־פְּנֵי מַמְרֵא הִוא חֶבְרוֹן בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן׃", 24.1. "וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל׃", 24.1. "וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד עֲשָׂרָה גְמַלִּים מִגְּמַלֵּי אֲדֹנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ וְכָל־טוּב אֲדֹנָיו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם אֶל־עִיר נָחוֹר׃", 28.13. "וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃", 29.17. "וְעֵינֵי לֵאָה רַכּוֹת וְרָחֵל הָיְתָה יְפַת־תֹּאַר וִיפַת מַרְאֶה׃", 35.17. "וַיְהִי בְהַקְשֹׁתָהּ בְּלִדְתָּהּ וַתֹּאמֶר לָהּ הַמְיַלֶּדֶת אַל־תִּירְאִי כִּי־גַם־זֶה לָךְ בֵּן׃", 37.34. "וַיִּקְרַע יַעֲקֹב שִׂמְלֹתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם שַׂק בְּמָתְנָיו וַיִּתְאַבֵּל עַל־בְּנוֹ יָמִים רַבִּים׃", 38.14. "וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃", 38.19. "וַתָּקָם וַתֵּלֶךְ וַתָּסַר צְעִיפָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתִּלְבַּשׁ בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ׃", 39.6. "וַיַּעֲזֹב כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ בְּיַד־יוֹסֵף וְלֹא־יָדַע אִתּוֹ מְאוּמָה כִּי אִם־הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר־הוּא אוֹכֵל וַיְהִי יוֹסֵף יְפֵה־תֹאַר וִיפֵה מַרְאֶה׃", 49.31. "שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וְאֵת שָׂרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ שָׁמָּה קָבְרוּ אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֵת רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ וְשָׁמָּה קָבַרְתִּי אֶת־לֵאָה׃", 50.15. "וַיִּרְאוּ אֲחֵי־יוֹסֵף כִּי־מֵת אֲבִיהֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוּ יִשְׂטְמֵנוּ יוֹסֵף וְהָשֵׁב יָשִׁיב לָנוּ אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר גָּמַלְנוּ אֹתוֹ׃", 1.2. "Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters.", 1.31. "And God saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.", 2.21. "And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof.", 14.21. "And the king of Sodom said unto Abram: ‘Give me the persons, and take the goods to thyself.’", 14.22. "And Abram said to the king of Sodom: ‘I have lifted up my hand unto the LORD, God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth,", 14.23. "that I will not take a thread nor a shoe-latchet nor aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say: I have made Abram rich;", 14.24. "save only that which the young men have eaten, and the portion of the men which went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, let them take their portion.’", 15.15. "But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age.", 17.12. "And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any foreigner, that is not of thy seed.", 17.13. "He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy money, must needs be circumcised; and My covet shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covet.", 18.11. "Now Abraham and Sarah were old, and well stricken in age; it had ceased to be with Sarah after the manner of women.—", 23.1. "And the life of Sarah was a hundred and seven and twenty years; these were the years of the life of Sarah.", 23.2. "And Sarah died in Kiriatharba—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.", 23.19. "And after this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah before Mamre—the same is Hebron—in the land of Canaan.", 24.1. "And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things.", 25.10. "the field which Abraham purchased of the children of Heth; there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife.", 28.13. "And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed.", 29.17. "And Leah’s eyes were weak; but Rachel was of beautiful form and fair to look upon.", 35.17. "And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the mid-wife said unto her: ‘Fear not; for this also is a son for thee.’", 37.34. "And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days.", 38.14. "And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife.", 38.19. "And she arose, and went away, and put off her veil from her, and put on the garments of her widowhood.", 39.6. "And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand; and, having him, he knew not aught save the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was of beautiful form, and fair to look upon.", 49.31. "There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah.", 50.15. "And when Joseph’s brethren saw that their father was dead, they said: ‘It may be that Joseph will hate us, and will fully requite us all the evil which we did unto him.’",
14. Hebrew Bible, Jonah, 3.5-3.10, 4.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 180, 181, 182, 183, 184
3.5. "וַיַּאֲמִינוּ אַנְשֵׁי נִינְוֵה בֵּאלֹהִים וַיִּקְרְאוּ־צוֹם וַיִּלְבְּשׁוּ שַׂקִּים מִגְּדוֹלָם וְעַד־קְטַנָּם׃", 3.6. "וַיִּגַּע הַדָּבָר אֶל־מֶלֶך נִינְוֵה וַיָּקָם מִכִּסְאוֹ וַיַּעֲבֵר אַדַּרְתּוֹ מֵעָלָיו וַיְכַס שַׂק וַיֵּשֶׁב עַל־הָאֵפֶר׃", 3.7. "וַיַּזְעֵק וַיֹּאמֶר בְּנִינְוֵה מִטַּעַם הַמֶּלֶךְ וּגְדֹלָיו לֵאמֹר הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה הַבָּקָר וְהַצֹּאן אַל־יִטְעֲמוּ מְאוּמָה אַל־יִרְעוּ וּמַיִם אַל־יִשְׁתּוּ׃", 3.8. "וְיִתְכַּסּוּ שַׂקִּים הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה וְיִקְרְאוּ אֶל־אֱלֹהִים בְּחָזְקָה וְיָשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ מִדַּרְכּוֹ הָרָעָה וּמִן־הֶחָמָס אֲשֶׁר בְּכַפֵּיהֶם׃", 3.9. "מִי־יוֹדֵעַ יָשׁוּב וְנִחַם הָאֱלֹהִים וְשָׁב מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְלֹא נֹאבֵד׃", 4.11. "וַאֲנִי לֹא אָחוּס עַל־נִינְוֵה הָעִיר הַגְּדוֹלָה אֲשֶׁר יֶשׁ־בָּהּ הַרְבֵּה מִשְׁתֵּים־עֶשְׂרֵה רִבּוֹ אָדָם אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַע בֵּין־יְמִינוֹ לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ וּבְהֵמָה רַבָּה׃", 3.5. "And the people of Nineveh believed God; and they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them.", 3.6. "And the tidings reached the king of Nineveh, and he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from him, and covered him with sackcloth, and sat in ashes.", 3.7. "And he caused it to be proclaimed and published through Nineveh by the decree of the king and his nobles, saying: ‘Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste any thing; let them not feed, nor drink water;", 3.8. "but let them be covered with sackcloth, both man and beast, and let them cry mightily unto God; yea, let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands.", 3.9. "Who knoweth whether God will not turn and repent, and turn away from His fierce anger, that we perish not?’", 3.10. "And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, which He said He would do unto them; and He did it not.", 4.11. "and should not I have pity on Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than sixscore thousand persons that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand, and also much cattle?’",
15. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 7.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
7.1. "וְחִכֵּךְ כְּיֵין הַטּוֹב הוֹלֵךְ לְדוֹדִי לְמֵישָׁרִים דּוֹבֵב שִׂפְתֵי יְשֵׁנִים׃", 7.1. "שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי הַשּׁוּלַמִּית שׁוּבִי שׁוּבִי וְנֶחֱזֶה־בָּךְ מַה־תֶּחֱזוּ בַּשּׁוּלַמִּית כִּמְחֹלַת הַמַּחֲנָיִם׃", 7.1. Return, return, O Shulammite; Return, return, that we may look upon thee. What will ye see in the Shulammite? As it were a dance of two companies.
16. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.24-2.25, 3.8-3.9, 3.17, 4.31, 7.10-7.12, 12.22, 12.44, 15.19, 15.21, 16.1, 17.1-17.7, 18.12, 26.31-26.37, 32.6, 34.6, 34.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals •scroll of fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 24; Cain (2016) 199; Gera (2014) 47, 183, 188, 231, 265; Putthoff (2016) 65; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213, 333; van , t Westeinde (2021) 105
2.24. "וַיִּשְׁמַע אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נַאֲקָתָם וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּרִיתוֹ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִצְחָק וְאֶת־יַעֲקֹב׃", 2.25. "וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּדַע אֱלֹהִים׃", 3.8. "וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃", 3.9. "וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה צַעֲקַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּאָה אֵלָי וְגַם־רָאִיתִי אֶת־הַלַּחַץ אֲשֶׁר מִצְרַיִם לֹחֲצִים אֹתָם׃", 3.17. "וָאֹמַר אַעֲלֶה אֶתְכֶם מֵעֳנִי מִצְרַיִם אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃", 4.31. "וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃", 7.11. "וַיִּקְרָא גַּם־פַּרְעֹה לַחֲכָמִים וְלַמְכַשְּׁפִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ גַם־הֵם חַרְטֻמֵּי מִצְרַיִם בְּלַהֲטֵיהֶם כֵּן׃", 7.12. "וַיַּשְׁלִיכוּ אִישׁ מַטֵּהוּ וַיִּהְיוּ לְתַנִּינִם וַיִּבְלַע מַטֵּה־אַהֲרֹן אֶת־מַטֹּתָם׃", 12.22. "וּלְקַחְתֶּם אֲגֻדַּת אֵזוֹב וּטְבַלְתֶּם בַּדָּם אֲשֶׁר־בַּסַּף וְהִגַּעְתֶּם אֶל־הַמַּשְׁקוֹף וְאֶל־שְׁתֵּי הַמְּזוּזֹת מִן־הַדָּם אֲשֶׁר בַּסָּף וְאַתֶּם לֹא תֵצְאוּ אִישׁ מִפֶּתַח־בֵּיתוֹ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃", 12.44. "וְכָל־עֶבֶד אִישׁ מִקְנַת־כָּסֶף וּמַלְתָּה אֹתוֹ אָז יֹאכַל בּוֹ׃", 15.19. "כִּי בָא סוּס פַּרְעֹה בְּרִכְבּוֹ וּבְפָרָשָׁיו בַּיָּם וַיָּשֶׁב יְהוָה עֲלֵהֶם אֶת־מֵי הַיָּם וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הָלְכוּ בַיַּבָּשָׁה בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּם׃", 15.21. "וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃", 16.1. "וַיִּסְעוּ מֵאֵילִם וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־מִדְבַּר־סִין אֲשֶׁר בֵּין־אֵילִם וּבֵין סִינָי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי לְצֵאתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 16.1. "וַיְהִי כְּדַבֵּר אַהֲרֹן אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּפְנוּ אֶל־הַמִּדְבָּר וְהִנֵּה כְּבוֹד יְהוָה נִרְאָה בֶּעָנָן׃", 17.1. "וַיִּסְעוּ כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּדְבַּר־סִין לְמַסְעֵיהֶם עַל־פִּי יְהוָה וַיַּחֲנוּ בִּרְפִידִים וְאֵין מַיִם לִשְׁתֹּת הָעָם׃", 17.1. "וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר־לוֹ מֹשֶׁה לְהִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק וּמֹשֶׁה אַהֲרֹן וְחוּר עָלוּ רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה׃", 17.2. "וַיָּרֶב הָעָם עִם־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמְרוּ תְּנוּ־לָנוּ מַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם מֹשֶׁה מַה־תְּרִיבוּן עִמָּדִי מַה־תְּנַסּוּן אֶת־יְהוָה׃", 17.3. "וַיִּצְמָא שָׁם הָעָם לַמַּיִם וַיָּלֶן הָעָם עַל־מֹשֶׁה וַיֹּאמֶר לָמָּה זֶּה הֶעֱלִיתָנוּ מִמִּצְרַיִם לְהָמִית אֹתִי וְאֶת־בָּנַי וְאֶת־מִקְנַי בַּצָּמָא׃", 17.4. "וַיִּצְעַק מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה לָעָם הַזֶּה עוֹד מְעַט וּסְקָלֻנִי׃", 17.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה עֲבֹר לִפְנֵי הָעָם וְקַח אִתְּךָ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמַטְּךָ אֲשֶׁר הִכִּיתָ בּוֹ אֶת־הַיְאֹר קַח בְּיָדְךָ וְהָלָכְתָּ׃", 17.6. "הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 17.7. "וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם מַסָּה וּמְרִיבָה עַל־רִיב בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל נַסֹּתָם אֶת־יְהוָה לֵאמֹר הֲיֵשׁ יְהוָה בְּקִרְבֵּנוּ אִם־אָיִן׃", 18.12. "וַיִּקַּח יִתְרוֹ חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה עֹלָה וּזְבָחִים לֵאלֹהִים וַיָּבֹא אַהֲרֹן וְכֹל זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֶאֱכָל־לֶחֶם עִם־חֹתֵן מֹשֶׁה לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 26.31. "וְעָשִׂיתָ פָרֹכֶת תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ כְּרֻבִים׃", 26.32. "וְנָתַתָּה אֹתָהּ עַל־אַרְבָּעָה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים מְצֻפִּים זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב עַל־אַרְבָּעָה אַדְנֵי־כָסֶף׃", 26.33. "וְנָתַתָּה אֶת־הַפָּרֹכֶת תַּחַת הַקְּרָסִים וְהֵבֵאתָ שָׁמָּה מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֵת אֲרוֹן הָעֵדוּת וְהִבְדִּילָה הַפָּרֹכֶת לָכֶם בֵּין הַקֹּדֶשׁ וּבֵין קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃", 26.34. "וְנָתַתָּ אֶת־הַכַּפֹּרֶת עַל אֲרוֹן הָעֵדֻת בְּקֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃", 26.35. "וְשַׂמְתָּ אֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן מִחוּץ לַפָּרֹכֶת וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה נֹכַח הַשֻּׁלְחָן עַל צֶלַע הַמִּשְׁכָּן תֵּימָנָה וְהַשֻּׁלְחָן תִּתֵּן עַל־צֶלַע צָפוֹן׃", 26.36. "וְעָשִׂיתָ מָסָךְ לְפֶתַח הָאֹהֶל תְּכֵלֶת וְאַרְגָּמָן וְתוֹלַעַת שָׁנִי וְשֵׁשׁ מָשְׁזָר מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵם׃", 26.37. "וְעָשִׂיתָ לַמָּסָךְ חֲמִשָּׁה עַמּוּדֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב וָוֵיהֶם זָהָב וְיָצַקְתָּ לָהֶם חֲמִשָּׁה אַדְנֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃", 32.6. "וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ מִמָּחֳרָת וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיַּגִּשׁוּ שְׁלָמִים וַיֵּשֶׁב הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְשָׁתוֹ וַיָּקֻמוּ לְצַחֵק׃", 34.6. "וַיַּעֲבֹר יְהוָה עַל־פָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא יְהוָה יְהוָה אֵל רַחוּם וְחַנּוּן אֶרֶךְ אַפַּיִם וְרַב־חֶסֶד וֶאֱמֶת", 34.28. "וַיְהִי־שָׁם עִם־יְהוָה אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַל וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתָה וַיִּכְתֹּב עַל־הַלֻּחֹת אֵת דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדְּבָרִים׃", 2.24. "And God heard their groaning, and God remembered His covet with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.", 2.25. "And God saw the children of Israel, and God took cognizance of them.", 3.8. "and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.", 3.9. "And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel is come unto Me; moreover I have seen the oppression wherewith the Egyptians oppress them.", 3.17. "And I have said: I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt unto the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, unto a land flowing with milk and honey.", 4.31. "And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.", 7.10. "And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and they did so, as the LORD had commanded; and Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and before his servants, and it became a serpent.", 7.11. "Then Pharaoh also called for the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did in like manner with their secret arts.", 7.12. "For they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods.", 12.22. "And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two side-posts with the blood that is in the basin; and none of you shall go out of the door of his house until the morning.", 12.44. "but every man’s servant that is bought for money, when thou hast circumcised him, then shall he eat thereof.", 15.19. "For the horses of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought back the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea.", 15.21. "And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.", 16.1. "And they took their journey from Elim, and all the congregation of the children of Israel came unto the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departing out of the land of Egypt.", 17.1. "And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, by their stages, according to the commandment of the LORD, and encamped in Rephidim; and there was no water for the people to drink.", 17.2. "Wherefore the people strove with Moses, and said: ‘Give us water that we may drink.’ And Moses said unto them: ‘Why strive ye with me? wherefore do ye try the LORD?’", 17.3. "And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said: ‘Wherefore hast thou brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?’", 17.4. "And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying: ‘What shall I do unto this people? they are almost ready to stone me.’", 17.5. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Pass on before the people, and take with thee of the elders of Israel; and thy rod, wherewith thou smotest the river, take in thy hand, and go.", 17.6. "Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.", 17.7. "And the name of the place was called Massah, and Meribah, because of the striving of the children of Israel, and because they tried the LORD, saying: ‘Is the LORD among us, or not?’", 18.12. "And Jethro, Moses’father-in-law, took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’father-in-law before God.", 26.31. "And thou shalt make a veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen; with cherubim the work of the skilful workman shall it be made.", 26.32. "And thou shalt hang it upon four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, their hooks being of gold, upon four sockets of silver.", 26.33. "And thou shalt hang up the veil under the clasps, and shalt bring in thither within the veil the ark of the testimony; and the veil shall divide unto you between the holy place and the most holy.", 26.34. "And thou shalt put the ark-cover upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place.", 26.35. "And thou shalt set the table without the veil, and the candlestick over against the table on the side of the tabernacle toward the south; and thou shalt put the table on the north side.", 26.36. "And thou shalt make a screen for the door of the Tent, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, the work of the weaver in colours.", 26.37. "And thou shalt make for the screen five pillars of acacia, and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold; and thou shalt cast five sockets of brass for them.", 32.6. "And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry.", 34.6. "And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed: ‘The LORD, the LORD, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth;", 34.28. "And he was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covet, the ten words.",
17. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 4.1, 4.3, 4.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 181, 182, 184, 231, 301, 330
4.1. "וַתֹּאמֶר אֶסְתֵּר לַהֲתָךְ וַתְּצַוֵּהוּ אֶל־מָרְדֳּכָי׃", 4.1. "וּמָרְדֳּכַי יָדַע אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר נַעֲשָׂה וַיִּקְרַע מָרְדֳּכַי אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וַיִּלְבַּשׁ שַׂק וָאֵפֶר וַיֵּצֵא בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר וַיִּזְעַק זְעָקָה גְדֹלָה וּמָרָה׃", 4.3. "וּבְכָל־מְדִינָה וּמְדִינָה מְקוֹם אֲשֶׁר דְּבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ וְדָתוֹ מַגִּיעַ אֵבֶל גָּדוֹל לַיְּהוּדִים וְצוֹם וּבְכִי וּמִסְפֵּד שַׂק וָאֵפֶר יֻצַּע לָרַבִּים׃", 4.16. "לֵךְ כְּנוֹס אֶת־כָּל־הַיְּהוּדִים הַנִּמְצְאִים בְּשׁוּשָׁן וְצוּמוּ עָלַי וְאַל־תֹּאכְלוּ וְאַל־תִּשְׁתּוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים לַיְלָה וָיוֹם גַּם־אֲנִי וְנַעֲרֹתַי אָצוּם כֵּן וּבְכֵן אָבוֹא אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־כַדָּת וְכַאֲשֶׁר אָבַדְתִּי אָבָדְתִּי׃", 4.1. "Now when Mordecai knew all that was done, Mordecai rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes, and went out into the midst of the city, and cried with a loud and a bitter cry;", 4.3. "And in every province, whithersoever the king’s commandment and his decree came, there was great mourning among the Jews, and fasting, and weeping, and wailing; and many lay in sackcloth and ashes.", 4.16. "’Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day; I also and my maidens will fast in like manner; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law; and if I perish, I perish.’",
18. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 3.14, 6.16, 8.3, 9.9, 12.12, 12.18, 15.12, 18.9, 24.17, 26.7, 26.14, 32.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fast, fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 169, 173; Dobroruka (2014) 115; Gera (2014) 188, 241, 264, 470, 474; Putthoff (2016) 65; Toloni (2022) 131
3.14. "יָאִיר בֶּן־מְנַשֶּׁה לָקַח אֶת־כָּל־חֶבֶל אַרְגֹּב עַד־גְּבוּל הַגְּשׁוּרִי וְהַמַּעֲכָתִי וַיִּקְרָא אֹתָם עַל־שְׁמוֹ אֶת־הַבָּשָׁן חַוֺּת יָאִיר עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 6.16. "לֹא תְנַסּוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתֶם בַּמַּסָּה׃", 8.3. "וַיְעַנְּךָ וַיַּרְעִבֶךָ וַיַּאֲכִלְךָ אֶת הַמָּן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָדַעְתָּ וְלֹא יָדְעוּן אֲבֹתֶיךָ לְמַעַן הוֹדִעֲךָ כִּי לֹא עַל־הַלֶּחֶם לְבַדּוֹ יִחְיֶה הָאָדָם כִּי עַל־כָּל־מוֹצָא פִי־יְהוָה יִחְיֶה הָאָדָם׃", 9.9. "בַּעֲלֹתִי הָהָרָה לָקַחַת לוּחֹת הָאֲבָנִים לוּחֹת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־כָּרַת יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם וָאֵשֵׁב בָּהָר אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה לֶחֶם לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּמַיִם לֹא שָׁתִיתִי׃", 12.12. "וּשְׂמַחְתֶּם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַתֶּם וּבְנֵיכֶם וּבְנֹתֵיכֶם וְעַבְדֵיכֶם וְאַמְהֹתֵיכֶם וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר בְּשַׁעֲרֵיכֶם כִּי אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה אִתְּכֶם׃", 12.18. "כִּי אִם־לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ תֹּאכְלֶנּוּ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בּוֹ אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתֶךָ וְהַלֵּוִי אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂמַחְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מִשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ׃", 15.12. "כִּי־יִמָּכֵר לְךָ אָחִיךָ הָעִבְרִי אוֹ הָעִבְרִיָּה וַעֲבָדְךָ שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת תְּשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ חָפְשִׁי מֵעִמָּךְ׃", 18.9. "כִּי אַתָּה בָּא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא־תִלְמַד לַעֲשׂוֹת כְּתוֹעֲבֹת הַגּוֹיִם הָהֵם׃", 24.17. "לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט גֵּר יָתוֹם וְלֹא תַחֲבֹל בֶּגֶד אַלְמָנָה׃", 26.7. "וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃", 26.14. "לֹא־אָכַלְתִּי בְאֹנִי מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא־בִעַרְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ בְּטָמֵא וְלֹא־נָתַתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֵת שָׁמַעְתִּי בְּקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי עָשִׂיתִי כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתָנִי׃", 32.24. "מְזֵי רָעָב וּלְחֻמֵי רֶשֶׁף וְקֶטֶב מְרִירִי וְשֶׁן־בְּהֵמוֹת אֲשַׁלַּח־בָּם עִם־חֲמַת זֹחֲלֵי עָפָר׃", 3.14. "Jair the son of Manasseh took all the region of Argob, unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maacathites, and called them, even Bashan, after his own name, Havvoth-jair, unto this day.—", 6.16. "Ye shall not try the LORD your God, as ye tried Him in Massah.", 8.3. "And He afflicted thee, and suffered thee to hunger, and fed thee with manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that He might make thee know that man doth not live by bread only, but by every thing that proceedeth out of the mouth of the LORD doth man live.", 9.9. "When I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables of stone, even the tables of the covet which the LORD made with you, then I abode in the mount forty days and forty nights; I did neither eat bread nor drink water.", 12.12. "And ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God, ye, and your sons, and your daughters, and your men-servants, and your maid-servants, and the Levite that is within your gates, forasmuch as he hath no portion nor inheritance with you.", 12.18. "but thou shalt eat them before the LORD thy God in the place which the LORD thy God shall choose, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy man-servant, and thy maid-servant, and the Levite that is within thy gates; and thou shalt rejoice before the LORD thy God in all that thou puttest thy hand unto.", 15.12. "If thy brother, a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, he shall serve thee six years; and in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee.", 18.9. "When thou art come into the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations.", 24.17. "Thou shalt not pervert the justice due to the stranger, or to the fatherless; nor take the widow’s raiment to pledge.", 26.7. "And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression.", 26.14. "I have not eaten thereof in my mourning, neither have I put away thereof, being unclean, nor given thereof for the dead; I have hearkened to the voice of the LORD my God, I have done according to all that Thou hast commanded me.", 32.24. "The wasting of hunger, and the devouring of the fiery bolt, And bitter destruction; And the teeth of beasts will I send upon them, With the venom of crawling things of the dust.",
19. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 4.13, 8.5 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 68, 191; Gera (2014) 266
4.13. "כִּי הִנֵּה יוֹצֵר הָרִים וּבֹרֵא רוּחַ וּמַגִּיד לְאָדָם מַה־שֵּׂחוֹ עֹשֵׂה שַׁחַר עֵיפָה וְדֹרֵךְ עַל־בָּמֳתֵי אָרֶץ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי־צְבָאוֹת שְׁמוֹ׃", 8.5. "לֵאמֹר מָתַי יַעֲבֹר הַחֹדֶשׁ וְנַשְׁבִּירָה שֶּׁבֶר וְהַשַּׁבָּת וְנִפְתְּחָה־בָּר לְהַקְטִין אֵיפָה וּלְהַגְדִּיל שֶׁקֶל וּלְעַוֵּת מֹאזְנֵי מִרְמָה׃", 4.13. "For, lo, He that formeth the mountains, and createth the wind, And declareth unto man what is his thought, That maketh the morning darkness, And treadeth upon the high places of the earth; The LORD, the God of hosts, is His name.", 8.5. "Saying: ‘When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell grain? And the sabbath, that we may set forth corn? Making the ephah small, and the shekel great, And falsifying the balances of deceit;",
20. Hesiod, Works And Days, 770 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 227
770. Him double, then, if he would be again
21. Homer, Iliad, 7.81-7.84 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 470
7.81. / that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships, 7.82. / that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships, 7.83. / that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships, 7.84. / that the Trojans and the Trojan wives may give me my due meed of fire in my death. But if so be I slay him, and Apollo give me glory, I will spoil him of his armour and bear it to sacred Ilios and hang it upon the temple of Apollo, the god that smiteth afar, but his corpse will I render back to the well-benched ships,
22. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 2.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 184
2.10. "They sit upon the ground, and keep silence, The elders of the daughter of Zion; They have cast up dust upon their heads, They have girded themselves with sackcloth; The virgins of Jerusalem hang down Their heads to the ground.",
23. Hebrew Bible, Judges, None (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 188
10.12. "וְצִידוֹנִים וַעֲמָלֵק וּמָעוֹן לָחֲצוּ אֶתְכֶם וַתִּצְעֲקוּ אֵלַי וָאוֹשִׁיעָה אֶתְכֶם מִיָּדָם׃", 10.12. "The Żidonim also, and ῾Amaleq and Ma῾on, did oppress you; and you cried to me, and I delivered you out of their hand.",
24. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 6.19, 6.24, 8.31, 13.1, 23.1-23.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 169; Gera (2014) 470, 474
6.19. "וְכֹל כֶּסֶף וְזָהָב וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת וּבַרְזֶל קֹדֶשׁ הוּא לַיהוָה אוֹצַר יְהוָה יָבוֹא׃", 6.24. "וְהָעִיר שָׂרְפוּ בָאֵשׁ וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ רַק הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב וּכְלֵי הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וְהַבַּרְזֶל נָתְנוּ אוֹצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה׃", 8.31. "כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה מֹשֶׁה עֶבֶד־יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּכָּתוּב בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים שְׁלֵמוֹת אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הֵנִיף עֲלֵיהֶן בַּרְזֶל וַיַּעֲלוּ עָלָיו עֹלוֹת לַיהוָה וַיִּזְבְּחוּ שְׁלָמִים׃", 13.1. "וְכֹל עָרֵי סִיחוֹן מֶלֶךְ הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר מָלַךְ בְּחֶשְׁבּוֹן עַד־גְּבוּל בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃", 13.1. "וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו אַתָּה זָקַנְתָּה בָּאתָ בַיָּמִים וְהָאָרֶץ נִשְׁאֲרָה הַרְבֵּה־מְאֹד לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃", 23.1. "וַיְהִי מִיָּמִים רַבִּים אַחֲרֵי אֲשֶׁר־הֵנִיחַ יְהוָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מִכָּל־אֹיְבֵיהֶם מִסָּבִיב וִיהוֹשֻׁעַ זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים׃", 23.1. "אִישׁ־אֶחָד מִכֶּם יִרְדָּף־אָלֶף כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא הַנִּלְחָם לָכֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר לָכֶם׃", 23.2. "וַיִּקְרָא יְהוֹשֻׁעַ לְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִזְקֵנָיו וּלְרָאשָׁיו וּלְשֹׁפְטָיו וּלְשֹׁטְרָיו וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי בָּאתִי בַּיָּמִים׃", 6.19. "But all the silver, and gold, and vessels of brass and iron, are holy unto the LORD; they shall come into the treasury of the LORD.’", 6.24. "And they burnt the city with fire, and all that was therein; only the silver, and the gold, and the vessels of brass and of iron, they put into the treasury of the house of the LORD.", 8.31. "as Moses the servant of the LORD commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, an altar of unhewn stones, upon which no man had lifted up any iron; and they offered thereon burnt-offerings unto the LORD, and sacrificed peace-offerings.", 13.1. "Now Joshua was old and well stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him: ‘Thou art old and well stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed.", 23.1. "And it came to pass after many days, when the LORD had given rest unto Israel from all their enemies round about, and Joshua was old and well stricken in years;", 23.2. "that Joshua called for all Israel, for their elders and for their heads, and for their judges and for their officers, and said unto them: ‘I am old and well stricken in years.",
25. Homer, Odyssey, 10.100-10.137, 11.20-11.50 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •david, as fasting Found in books: Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 375
26. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.7-1.8, 7.5-7.13, 9.16, 11.15, 15.3, 15.11, 16.7, 17.54, 20.18, 21.1-21.10, 22.19-22.23, 31.9-31.10, 31.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 254; Gera (2014) 180, 181, 182, 188, 231, 264, 266, 470; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 51, 461
1.7. "וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה שָׁנָה בְשָׁנָה מִדֵּי עֲלֹתָהּ בְּבֵית יְהוָה כֵּן תַּכְעִסֶנָּה וַתִּבְכֶּה וְלֹא תֹאכַל׃", 1.8. "וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ אֶלְקָנָה אִישָׁהּ חַנָּה לָמֶה תִבְכִּי וְלָמֶה לֹא תֹאכְלִי וְלָמֶה יֵרַע לְבָבֵךְ הֲלוֹא אָנֹכִי טוֹב לָךְ מֵעֲשָׂרָה בָּנִים׃", 7.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל קִבְצוּ אֶת־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּצְפָּתָה וְאֶתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְכֶם אֶל־יְהוָה׃", 7.6. "וַיִּקָּבְצוּ הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיִּשְׁאֲבוּ־מַיִם וַיִּשְׁפְּכוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיָּצוּמוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ שָׁם חָטָאנוּ לַיהוָה וַיִּשְׁפֹּט שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּצְפָּה׃", 7.7. "וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ פְלִשְׁתִּים כִּי־הִתְקַבְּצוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמִּצְפָּתָה וַיַּעֲלוּ סַרְנֵי־פְלִשְׁתִּים אֶל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּרְאוּ מִפְּנֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים׃", 7.8. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל אַל־תַּחֲרֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ מִזְּעֹק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְיֹשִׁעֵנוּ מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃", 7.9. "וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל טְלֵה חָלָב אֶחָד ויעלה [וַיַּעֲלֵהוּ] עוֹלָה כָּלִיל לַיהוָה וַיִּזְעַק שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה בְּעַד יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲנֵהוּ יְהוָה׃", 7.11. "וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הַמִּצְפָּה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכּוּם עַד־מִתַּחַת לְבֵית כָּר׃", 7.12. "וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶבֶן אַחַת וַיָּשֶׂם בֵּין־הַמִּצְפָּה וּבֵין הַשֵּׁן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָהּ אֶבֶן הָעָזֶר וַיֹּאמַר עַד־הֵנָּה עֲזָרָנוּ יְהוָה׃", 7.13. "וַיִּכָּנְעוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְלֹא־יָסְפוּ עוֹד לָבוֹא בִּגְבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתְּהִי יַד־יְהוָה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים כֹּל יְמֵי שְׁמוּאֵל׃", 9.16. "כָּעֵת מָחָר אֶשְׁלַח אֵלֶיךָ אִישׁ מֵאֶרֶץ בִּנְיָמִן וּמְשַׁחְתּוֹ לְנָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־עַמִּי מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים כִּי רָאִיתִי אֶת־עַמִּי כִּי בָּאָה צַעֲקָתוֹ אֵלָי׃", 11.15. "וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל־הָעָם הַגִּלְגָּל וַיַּמְלִכוּ שָׁם אֶת־שָׁאוּל לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בַּגִּלְגָּל וַיִּזְבְּחוּ־שָׁם זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיִּשְׂמַח שָׁם שָׁאוּל וְכָל־אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־מְאֹד׃", 15.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר חָטָאתִי עַתָּה כַּבְּדֵנִי נָא נֶגֶד זִקְנֵי־עַמִּי וְנֶגֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשׁוּב עִמִּי וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֵיתִי לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 15.3. "עַתָּה לֵךְ וְהִכִּיתָה אֶת־עֲמָלֵק וְהַחֲרַמְתֶּם אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ וְלֹא תַחְמֹל עָלָיו וְהֵמַתָּה מֵאִישׁ עַד־אִשָּׁה מֵעֹלֵל וְעַד־יוֹנֵק מִשּׁוֹר וְעַד־שֶׂה מִגָּמָל וְעַד־חֲמוֹר׃", 15.11. "נִחַמְתִּי כִּי־הִמְלַכְתִּי אֶת־שָׁאוּל לְמֶלֶךְ כִּי־שָׁב מֵאַחֲרַי וְאֶת־דְּבָרַי לֹא הֵקִים וַיִּחַר לִשְׁמוּאֵל וַיִּזְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה כָּל־הַלָּיְלָה׃", 16.7. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל אַל־תַּבֵּט אֶל־מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל־גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ כִּי לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה הָאָדָם כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וַיהוָה יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב׃", 17.54. "וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־רֹאשׁ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַיְבִאֵהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִָם וְאֶת־כֵּלָיו שָׂם בְּאָהֳלוֹ׃", 20.18. "וַיֹּאמֶר־לוֹ יְהוֹנָתָן מָחָר חֹדֶשׁ וְנִפְקַדְתָּ כִּי יִפָּקֵד מוֹשָׁבֶךָ׃", 21.1. "וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלַךְ וִיהוֹנָתָן בָּא הָעִיר׃", 21.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר הַכֹּהֵן חֶרֶב גָּלְיָת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי אֲשֶׁר־הִכִּיתָ בְּעֵמֶק הָאֵלָה הִנֵּה־הִיא לוּטָה בַשִּׂמְלָה אַחֲרֵי הָאֵפוֹד אִם־אֹתָהּ תִּקַּח־לְךָ קָח כִּי אֵין אַחֶרֶת זוּלָתָהּ בָּזֶה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֵין כָּמוֹהָ תְּנֶנָּה לִּי׃", 21.2. "וַיָּבֹא דָוִד נֹבֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַכֹּהֵן וַיֶּחֱרַד אֲחִימֶלֶךְ לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ מַדּוּעַ אַתָּה לְבַדֶּךָ וְאִישׁ אֵין אִתָּךְ׃", 21.3. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַכֹּהֵן הַמֶּלֶךְ צִוַּנִי דָבָר וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי אִישׁ אַל־יֵדַע מְאוּמָה אֶת־הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־אָנֹכִי שֹׁלֵחֲךָ וַאֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִךָ וְאֶת־הַנְּעָרִים יוֹדַעְתִּי אֶל־מְקוֹם פְּלֹנִי אַלְמוֹנִי׃", 21.4. "וְעַתָּה מַה־יֵּשׁ תַּחַת־יָדְךָ חֲמִשָּׁה־לֶחֶם תְּנָה בְיָדִי אוֹ הַנִּמְצָא׃", 21.5. "וַיַּעַן הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין־לֶחֶם חֹל אֶל־תַּחַת יָדִי כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם קֹדֶשׁ יֵשׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְרוּ הַנְּעָרִים אַךְ מֵאִשָּׁה׃", 21.6. "וַיַּעַן דָּוִד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כִּי אִם־אִשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה־לָנוּ כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם בְּצֵאתִי וַיִּהְיוּ כְלֵי־הַנְּעָרִים קֹדֶשׁ וְהוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְאַף כִּי הַיּוֹם יִקְדַּשׁ בַּכֶּלִי׃", 21.7. "וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַכֹּהֵן קֹדֶשׁ כִּי לֹא־הָיָה שָׁם לֶחֶם כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם הַפָּנִים הַמּוּסָרִים מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה לָשׂוּם לֶחֶם חֹם בְּיוֹם הִלָּקְחוֹ׃", 21.8. "וְשָׁם אִישׁ מֵעַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא נֶעְצָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וּשְׁמוֹ דֹּאֵג הָאֲדֹמִי אַבִּיר הָרֹעִים אֲשֶׁר לְשָׁאוּל׃", 21.9. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ וְאִין יֶשׁ־פֹּה תַחַת־יָדְךָ חֲנִית אוֹ־חָרֶב כִּי גַם־חַרְבִּי וְגַם־כֵּלַי לֹא־לָקַחְתִּי בְיָדִי כִּי־הָיָה דְבַר־הַמֶּלֶךְ נָחוּץ׃", 22.19. "וְאֵת נֹב עִיר־הַכֹּהֲנִים הִכָּה לְפִי־חֶרֶב מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד־יוֹנֵק וְשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר וָשֶׂה לְפִי־חָרֶב׃", 22.21. "וַיַּגֵּד אֶבְיָתָר לְדָוִד כִּי הָרַג שָׁאוּל אֵת כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה׃", 22.22. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאֶבְיָתָר יָדַעְתִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־שָׁם דויג [דּוֹאֵג] הָאֲדֹמִי כִּי־הַגֵּד יַגִּיד לְשָׁאוּל אָנֹכִי סַבֹּתִי בְּכָל־נֶפֶשׁ בֵּית אָבִיךָ׃", 22.23. "שְׁבָה אִתִּי אַל־תִּירָא כִּי אֲשֶׁר־יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ כִּי־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אַתָּה עִמָּדִי׃", 31.9. "וַיִּכְרְתוּ אֶת־רֹאשׁוֹ וַיַּפְשִׁיטוּ אֶת־כֵּלָיו וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ בְאֶרֶץ־פְּלִשְׁתִּים סָבִיב לְבַשֵּׂר בֵּית עֲצַבֵּיהֶם וְאֶת־הָעָם׃", 31.13. "וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־עַצְמֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְבְּרוּ תַחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל בְּיָבֵשָׁה וַיָּצֻמוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 1.7. "And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the Lord, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.", 1.8. "Then Elqana her husband said to her, Ĥanna, why dost thou weep? and why dost thou not eat? and why is thy heart grieved? am I not better to thee than ten sons?", 7.5. "And Shemu᾽el said, Gather all Yisra᾽el to Miżpa, and I will pray for you to the Lord.", 7.6. "And they gathered together to Miżpa, and drew water, and poured it out before the Lord, and fasted on that day, and said there, We have sinned against the Lord. And Shemu᾽el judged the children of Yisra᾽el in Miżpa.", 7.7. "And when the Pelishtim heard that the children of Yisra᾽el were gathered together to Miżpa the lords of the Pelishtim went up against Yisra᾽el. And when the children of Yisra᾽el heard it, they were afraid of the Pelishtim.", 7.8. "And the children of Yisra᾽el said to Shemu᾽el, Cease not to cry to the Lord our God for us, that he will save us out of the hand of the Pelishtim.", 7.9. "And Shemu᾽el took a sucking lamb, and offered it for a burnt offering wholly to the Lord: and Shemu᾽el cried to the Lord for Yisra᾽el; and the Lord heard him.", 7.10. "And as Shemu᾽el was offering up the burnt offering, the Pelishtim drew near to battle against Yisra᾽el: but the Lord thundered with a great thunder on that day upon the Pelishtim, and confounded them; and they were beaten before Yisra᾽el.", 7.11. "And the men of Yisra᾽el went out of Miżpa and pursued the Pelishtim, and smote them, until they came under Bet-kar.", 7.12. "Then Shemu᾽el took a stone, and set it between Miżpa and Shen, and called the name of it Even-ha῾ezer, saying, Hitherto the Lord has helped us.", 7.13. "So the Pelishtim were subdued, and they came no more into the territory of Yisra᾽el: and the hand of the Lord was against the Pelishtim all the days of Shemu᾽el.", 9.16. "To morrow about this time I will send thee a man out of the land of Binyamin, and thou shalt anoint him to be a prince over my people Yisra᾽el, that he may save my people out of the hand of the Pelishtim: for I have looked upon my people, because their cry is come to me.", 11.15. "And all the people went to Gilgal; and there they made Sha᾽ul king before the Lord in Gilgal: and there they made sacrifices of peace offerings before the Lord; and there Sha᾽ul and all the men of Yisra᾽el rejoiced greatly.", 15.3. "Now go and smite ῾Amaleq, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.", 15.11. "I regret that I have set up Sha᾽ul to be king: for he is turned back from following me, and he has not performed my commandments. And it grieved Shemu᾽el; and he cried to the Lord all night.", 16.7. "But the Lord said to Shemu᾽el, Look not on his countece, nor on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for it is not as a man sees; for a man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.", 17.54. "And David took the head of the Pelishtian, and brought it to Yerushalayim; and he put his armour in his tent.", 20.18. "Then Yehonatan said to David, Tomorrow is the new moon: and thou shalt be missed, because thy seat will be empty.", 21.1. "And he arose and departed: and Yehonatan went into the city.", 21.2. "Then David came to Nov to Aĥimelekh the priest: and Aĥimelekh was afraid at meeting David, and said to him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee?", 21.3. "And David said to Aĥimelekh the priest, The king has commanded me a business, and has said to me, Let no man know anything of the business about which I am sending thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have despatched my servants to such and such a place.", 21.4. "Now therefore what is under thy hand? give me five loaves of bread in my hand, or whatever there is.", 21.5. "And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread in my hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.", 21.6. "And David answered the priest, and said to him, of a truth women have been kept from us as always when I am on a journey, and the vessels of the young men are holy, (although it is a common journey,) how much more today when there will be hallowed bread in their vessel.", 21.7. "So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the showbread, that was taken from before the Lord, to put hot bread in its place on the day when it was taken away.", 21.8. "Now a certain man of the servants of Sha᾽ul was there that day, detained before the Lord; and his name was Do᾽eg the Edomite, the chiefest of the herdmen that belonged to Sha᾽ul.", 21.9. "And David said to Aĥimelekh, And is there not here under thy hand a spear or a sword? for I have neither brought my sword nor my weapons with me, because the king’s business was urgent.", 21.10. "And the priest said, The sword of Golyat the Pelishtian, whom thou didst slay in the valley of Ela, behold it is here wrapped in a cloth behind the efod: if thou wilt take that, take it: for there is no other save that here. And David said, There is none like that; give it to me.", 22.19. "And Nov, the city of the priests, he smote with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.", 22.20. "And one of the sons of Aĥimelekh the son of Aĥituv, named Evyatar escaped, and fled after David,", 22.21. "And Evyatar told David that Sha᾽ul had slain the Lord’s priests.", 22.22. "And David said to Evyatar, I knew it that day, when Do᾽eg the Edomite was there, that he would surely tell Sha᾽ul: I have occasioned the death of all the persons of thy father’s house.", 22.23. "Remain with me, fear not: for he that seeks my life seeks thy life: but with me thou shalt be in safeguard.", 31.9. "And they cut off his head, and stripped off his armour, and sent into the land of the Pelishtim round about, to publish it in the house of their idols, and among the people.", 31.10. "And they put his armour in the house of ῾Ashtarot: and they fastened his body to the wall of Bet-shan.", 31.13. "And they took their bones, and buried them under a tamarisk tree at Yavesh, and fasted seven days.",
27. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 5.8, 6.26, 16.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 80; Gera (2014) 184; Toloni (2022) 131
5.8. "סוּסִים מְיֻזָּנִים מַשְׁכִּים הָיוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֵשֶׁת רֵעֵהוּ יִצְהָלוּ׃", 6.26. "בַּת־עַמִּי חִגְרִי־שָׂק וְהִתְפַּלְּשִׁי בָאֵפֶר אֵבֶל יָחִיד עֲשִׂי לָךְ מִסְפַּד תַּמְרוּרִים כִּי פִתְאֹם יָבֹא הַשֹּׁדֵד עָלֵינוּ׃", 16.7. "וְלֹא־יִפְרְסוּ לָהֶם עַל־אֵבֶל לְנַחֲמוֹ עַל־מֵת וְלֹא־יַשְׁקוּ אוֹתָם כּוֹס תַּנְחוּמִים עַל־אָבִיו וְעַל־אִמּוֹ׃", 5.8. "They are become as well-fed horses, lusty stallions; Every one neigheth after his neighbour’s wife.", 6.26. "O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, And wallow thyself in ashes; Make thee mourning, as for an only son, Most bitter lamentation; For the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us.", 16.7. "neither shall men break bread for them in mourning, to comfort them for the dead; neither shall men give them the cup of consolation to drink for their father or for their mother.",
28. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.13, 1.15-1.16, 19.20, 23.18, 54.1, 58.5 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 191; Blidstein (2017) 78; Gera (2014) 184, 188, 266; Lynskey (2021) 319
1.13. "לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃", 1.15. "וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃", 1.16. "רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃", 23.18. "וְהָיָה סַחְרָהּ וְאֶתְנַנָּהּ קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה לֹא יֵאָצֵר וְלֹא יֵחָסֵן כִּי לַיֹּשְׁבִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה יִהְיֶה סַחְרָהּ לֶאֱכֹל לְשָׂבְעָה וְלִמְכַסֶּה עָתִיק׃", 54.1. "רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 54.1. "כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃", 58.5. "הֲכָזֶה יִהְיֶה צוֹם אֶבְחָרֵהוּ יוֹם עַנּוֹת אָדָם נַפְשׁוֹ הֲלָכֹף כְּאַגְמֹן רֹאשׁוֹ וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר יַצִּיעַ הֲלָזֶה תִּקְרָא־צוֹם וְיוֹם רָצוֹן לַיהוָה׃", 1.13. "Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly.", 1.15. "And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood.", 1.16. "Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;", 19.20. "And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the LORD of hosts in the land of Egypt; for they shall cry unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and He will send them a saviour, and a defender, who will deliver them.", 23.18. "And her gain and her hire shall be holiness to the LORD; it shall not be treasured nor laid up; for her gain shall be for them that dwell before the LORD, to eat their fill, and for stately clothing.", 54.1. "Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.", 58.5. "Is such the fast that I have chosen? The day for a man to afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, And to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? Wilt thou call this a fast, And an acceptable day to the LORD?",
29. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 1.1, 4.33, 19.8, 20.31, 21.27 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 184, 188, 474; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213
1.1. "וְאֶת־נָתָן הַנָּבִיא וּבְנָיָהוּ וְאֶת־הַגִּבּוֹרִים וְאֶת־שְׁלֹמֹה אָחִיו לֹא קָרָא׃", 1.1. "וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיְכַסֻּהוּ בַּבְּגָדִים וְלֹא יִחַם לוֹ׃", 19.8. "וַיָּקָם וַיֹּאכַל וַיִּשְׁתֶּה וַיֵּלֶךְ בְּכֹחַ הָאֲכִילָה הַהִיא אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לַיְלָה עַד הַר הָאֱלֹהִים חֹרֵב׃", 20.31. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו עֲבָדָיו הִנֵּה־נָא שָׁמַעְנוּ כִּי מַלְכֵי בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־מַלְכֵי חֶסֶד הֵם נָשִׂימָה נָּא שַׂקִּים בְּמָתְנֵינוּ וַחֲבָלִים בְּרֹאשֵׁנוּ וְנֵצֵא אֶל־מֶלֶךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל אוּלַי יְחַיֶּה אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ׃", 21.27. "וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ אַחְאָב אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּקְרַע בְּגָדָיו וַיָּשֶׂם־שַׂק עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וַיָּצוֹם וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּשָּׂק וַיְהַלֵּךְ אַט׃", 1.1. "Now King David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he could get no heat.", 19.8. "And he arose, and did eat and drink, and went in the strength of that meal forty days and forty nights unto Horeb the mount of God.", 20.31. "And his servants said unto him: ‘Behold now, we have heard that the kings of the house of Israel are merciful kings; let us, we pray thee, put sackcloth on our loins, and ropes upon our heads, and go out to the king of Israel; peradventure he will save thy life.’", 21.27. "And it came to pass, when Ahab heard those words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softy.",
30. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 1.12, 3.31, 3.35, 8.7-8.12, 11.27, 12.16-12.23, 13.19, 14.2, 22.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 182, 184, 188, 264, 301, 470; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 375, 459, 461
1.12. "וַיִּסְפְּדוּ וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיָּצֻמוּ עַד־הָעָרֶב עַל־שָׁאוּל וְעַל־יְהוֹנָתָן בְּנוֹ וְעַל־עַם יְהוָה וְעַל־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי נָפְלוּ בֶּחָרֶב׃", 3.31. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־יוֹאָב וְאֶל־כָּל־הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ קִרְעוּ בִגְדֵיכֶם וְחִגְרוּ שַׂקִּים וְסִפְדוּ לִפְנֵי אַבְנֵר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה׃", 3.35. "וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לְהַבְרוֹת אֶת־דָּוִד לֶחֶם בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם וַיִּשָּׁבַע דָּוִד לֵאמֹר כֹּה יַעֲשֶׂה־לִּי אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יֹסִיף כִּי אִם־לִפְנֵי בוֹא־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אֶטְעַם־לֶחֶם אוֹ כָל־מְאוּמָה׃", 8.7. "וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֵת שִׁלְטֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ אֶל עַבְדֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר וַיְבִיאֵם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃", 8.8. "וּמִבֶּטַח וּמִבֵּרֹתַי עָרֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר לָקַח הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד נְחֹשֶׁת הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃", 8.9. "וַיִּשְׁמַע תֹּעִי מֶלֶךְ חֲמָת כִּי הִכָּה דָוִד אֵת כָּל־חֵיל הֲדַדְעָזֶר׃", 8.11. "גַּם־אֹתָם הִקְדִּישׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד לַיהוָה עִם־הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר כִּבֵּשׁ׃", 8.12. "מֵאֲרָם וּמִמּוֹאָב וּמִבְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמֵעֲמָלֵק וּמִשְּׁלַל הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחֹב מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה׃", 11.27. "וַיַּעֲבֹר הָאֵבֶל וַיִּשְׁלַח דָּוִד וַיַּאַסְפָהּ אֶל־בֵּיתוֹ וַתְּהִי־לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה וַתֵּלֶד לוֹ בֵּן וַיֵּרַע הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה דָוִד בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה׃", 12.16. "וַיְבַקֵּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים בְּעַד הַנָּעַר וַיָּצָם דָּוִד צוֹם וּבָא וְלָן וְשָׁכַב אָרְצָה׃", 12.17. "וַיָּקֻמוּ זִקְנֵי בֵיתוֹ עָלָיו לַהֲקִימוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא אָבָה וְלֹא־בָרָא אִתָּם לָחֶם׃", 12.18. "וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי וַיָּמָת הַיָּלֶד וַיִּרְאוּ עַבְדֵי דָוִד לְהַגִּיד לוֹ כִּי־מֵת הַיֶּלֶד כִּי אָמְרוּ הִנֵּה בִהְיוֹת הַיֶּלֶד חַי דִּבַּרְנוּ אֵלָיו וְלֹא־שָׁמַע בְּקוֹלֵנוּ וְאֵיךְ נֹאמַר אֵלָיו מֵת הַיֶּלֶד וְעָשָׂה רָעָה׃", 12.19. "וַיַּרְא דָּוִד כִּי עֲבָדָיו מִתְלַחֲשִׁים וַיָּבֶן דָּוִד כִּי מֵת הַיָּלֶד וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־עֲבָדָיו הֲמֵת הַיֶּלֶד וַיֹּאמְרוּ מֵת׃", 12.21. "וַיֹּאמְרוּ עֲבָדָיו אֵלָיו מָה־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָה בַּעֲבוּר הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתָּ וַתֵּבְךְּ וְכַאֲשֶׁר מֵת הַיֶּלֶד קַמְתָּ וַתֹּאכַל לָחֶם׃", 12.22. "וַיֹּאמֶר בְּעוֹד הַיֶּלֶד חַי צַמְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה כִּי אָמַרְתִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ יחנני [וְחַנַּנִי] יְהוָה וְחַי הַיָּלֶד׃", 12.23. "וְעַתָּה מֵת לָמָּה זֶּה אֲנִי צָם הַאוּכַל לַהֲשִׁיבוֹ עוֹד אֲנִי הֹלֵךְ אֵלָיו וְהוּא לֹא־יָשׁוּב אֵלָי׃", 13.19. "וַתִּקַּח תָּמָר אֵפֶר עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וּכְתֹנֶת הַפַּסִּים אֲשֶׁר עָלֶיהָ קָרָעָה וַתָּשֶׂם יָדָהּ עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ וַתֵּלֶךְ הָלוֹךְ וְזָעָקָה׃", 14.2. "לְבַעֲבוּר סַבֵּב אֶת־פְּנֵי הַדָּבָר עָשָׂה עַבְדְּךָ יוֹאָב אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַאדֹנִי חָכָם כְּחָכְמַת מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים לָדַעַת אֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃", 14.2. "וַיִּשְׁלַח יוֹאָב תְּקוֹעָה וַיִּקַּח מִשָּׁם אִשָּׁה חֲכָמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִתְאַבְּלִי־נָא וְלִבְשִׁי־נָא בִגְדֵי־אֵבֶל וְאַל־תָּסוּכִי שֶׁמֶן וְהָיִית כְּאִשָּׁה זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים מִתְאַבֶּלֶת עַל־מֵת׃", 22.7. "בַּצַּר־לִי אֶקְרָא יְהוָה וְאֶל־אֱלֹהַי אֶקְרָא וַיִּשְׁמַע מֵהֵיכָלוֹ קוֹלִי וְשַׁוְעָתִי בְּאָזְנָיו׃", 1.12. "and they mourned, and wept, and fasted until evening, for Sha᾽ul, and for Yehonatan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Yisra᾽el; because they were fallen by the sword.", 3.31. "And David said to Yo᾽av, and to all the people that were with him, Rend your clothes, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Avner. And king David himself followed the bier.", 3.35. "And all the people came to cause David to eat bread while it was yet day, but David swore, saying, So do God to me, and more also, if I taste bread, or anything else, till the sun be down.", 8.7. "And David took the shields of gold that were on the servants of Hadad῾ezer, and brought them to Yerushalayim.", 8.8. "And from Betaĥ, and from Berotay, cities of Hadad῾ezer, king David took very much brass.", 8.9. "When To῾i king of Ĥamat heard that David had smitten all the army of Hadad῾ezer,", 8.10. "then To῾i sent Yoram his son to king David, to greet him, and to bless him, because he had fought against Hadad῾ezer, and smitten him: for Hadad῾ezer had wars with To῾i. And Yoram brought with him vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and vessels of brass:", 8.11. "which also king David did dedicate to the Lord, with the silver and gold that he had dedicated of all the nations which he had conquered;", 8.12. "from Aram, and Mo᾽av, and the children of ῾Ammon, and from the Pelishtim, and ῾Amaleq, and of the spoil of Hadad῾ezer, son of Reĥov, king of Żova.", 11.27. "And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bore him a son. But the thing that David had done was evil in the eyes of the Lord.", 12.16. "David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the ground.", 12.17. "And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the ground: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them.", 12.18. "And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spoke to him, and he would not hearken to our voice; how then shall we tell him that the child is dead, and he will do himself a mischief?", 12.19. "But when David saw that his servants whispered, David understood that the child was dead: therefore David said to his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead.", 12.20. "Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat.", 12.21. "Then his servants said to him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread.", 12.22. "And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell? God may be gracious to me, and the child may live?", 12.23. "But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not come back to me.", 13.19. "And Tamar put ashes on her head, and tore her long sleeved garment that was on her, and laid her hand on her head, crying aloud as she went.", 14.2. "And Yo᾽av sent to Teqo῾a, and fetched from there a wise woman, and said to her, I pray thee, feign thyself to be a mourner, and put on now mourning apparel, and do not anoint thyself with oil, but be as a woman that had a long time mourned for the dead:", 22.7. "in my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God: and he heard my voice out of his temple, and my cry entered into his ears.",
31. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 4.23, 6.30, 19.7-19.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 184, 265, 266, 301
4.23. "וַיֹּאמֶר מַדּוּעַ אתי [אַתְּ] הלכתי [הֹלֶכֶת] אֵלָיו הַיּוֹם לֹא־חֹדֶשׁ וְלֹא שַׁבָּת וַתֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם׃", 19.7. "הִנְנִי נֹתֵן בּוֹ רוּחַ וְשָׁמַע שְׁמוּעָה וְשָׁב לְאַרְצוֹ וְהִפַּלְתִּיו בַּחֶרֶב בְּאַרְצוֹ׃", 19.8. "וַיָּשָׁב רַב־שָׁקֵה וַיִּמְצָא אֶת־מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר נִלְחָם עַל־לִבְנָה כִּי שָׁמַע כִּי נָסַע מִלָּכִישׁ׃", 4.23. "And he said: Wherefore wilt thou go to him today? it is neither new moon nor sabbath.’ And she said: ‘It shall be well.’", 6.30. "And it came to pass, when the king heard the words of the woman, that he rent his clothes—now he was passing by upon the wall—and the people looked, and, behold, he had sackcloth within upon his flesh.", 19.7. "Behold, I will put a spirit in him, and he shall hear a rumour, and shall return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.’", 19.8. "So Rab-shakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah; for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish.",
32. Hebrew Bible, Haggai, 1.14 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 189
1.14. "וַיָּעַר יְהוָה אֶת־רוּחַ זְרֻבָּבֶל בֶּן־שַׁלְתִּיאֵל פַּחַת יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־רוּחַ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן־יְהוֹצָדָק הַכֹּהֵן הַגָּדוֹל וְאֶת־רוּחַ כֹּל שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם וַיָּבֹאוּ וַיַּעֲשׂוּ מְלָאכָה בְּבֵית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃", 1.14. "And the LORD stirred up the spirit of Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, and the spirit of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and the spirit of all the remt of the people; and they came and did work in the house of the LORD of hosts, their God,",
33. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 24.17, 27.30, 44.21, 46.17-46.18 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 184; Taylor and Hay (2020) 303, 304; Toloni (2022) 131
24.17. "הֵאָנֵק דֹּם מֵתִים אֵבֶל לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה פְאֵרְךָ חֲבוֹשׁ עָלֶיךָ וּנְעָלֶיךָ תָּשִׂים בְּרַגְלֶיךָ וְלֹא תַעְטֶה עַל־שָׂפָם וְלֶחֶם אֲנָשִׁים לֹא תֹאכֵל׃", 44.21. "וְיַיִן לֹא־יִשְׁתּוּ כָּל־כֹּהֵן בְּבוֹאָם אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַפְּנִימִית׃", 46.17. "וְכִי־יִתֵּן מַתָּנָה מִנַּחֲלָתוֹ לְאַחַד מֵעֲבָדָיו וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ עַד־שְׁנַת הַדְּרוֹר וְשָׁבַת לַנָּשִׂיא אַךְ נַחֲלָתוֹ בָּנָיו לָהֶם תִּהְיֶה׃", 46.18. "וְלֹא־יִקַּח הַנָּשִׂיא מִנַּחֲלַת הָעָם לְהוֹנֹתָם מֵאֲחֻזָּתָם מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ יַנְחִל אֶת־בָּנָיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יָפֻצוּ עַמִּי אִישׁ מֵאֲחֻזָּתוֹ׃", 24.17. "Sigh in silence; make no mourning for the dead, bind thy headtire upon thee, and put thy shoes upon thy feet, and cover not thine upper lip, and eat not the bread of men.’", 27.30. "And shall cause their voice to be heard over thee, And shall cry bitterly, And shall cast up dust upon their heads, They shall roll themselves in the ashes;", 44.21. "Neither shall any priest drink wine, when they enter into the inner court.", 46.17. "But if he give of his inheritance a gift to one of his servants, it shall be his to the year of liberty; then it shall return to the prince; but as for his inheritance, it shall be for his sons.", 46.18. "Moreover the prince shall not take of the people’s inheritance, to thrust them wrongfully out of their possession; he shall give inheritance to his sons out of his own possession; that My people be not scattered every man from his possession.’",
34. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.3-20.13 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 180, 181, 182
20.3. "וַיִּרָא וַיִּתֵּן יְהוֹשָׁפָט אֶת־פָּנָיו לִדְרוֹשׁ לַיהוָה וַיִּקְרָא־צוֹם עַל־כָּל־יְהוּדָה׃", 20.3. "וַתִּשְׁקֹט מַלְכוּת יְהוֹשָׁפָט וַיָּנַח לוֹ אֱלֹהָיו מִסָּבִיב׃", 20.4. "וַיִּקָּבְצוּ יְהוּדָה לְבַקֵּשׁ מֵיְהוָה גַּם מִכָּל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה בָּאוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־יְהוָה׃", 20.5. "וַיַּעֲמֹד יְהוֹשָׁפָט בִּקְהַל יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלִַם בְּבֵית יְהוָה לִפְנֵי הֶחָצֵר הַחֲדָשָׁה׃", 20.6. "וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ הֲלֹא אַתָּה־הוּא אֱלֹהִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וְאַתָּה מוֹשֵׁל בְּכֹל מַמְלְכוֹת הַגּוֹיִם וּבְיָדְךָ כֹּחַ וּגְבוּרָה וְאֵין עִמְּךָ לְהִתְיַצֵּב׃", 20.7. "הֲלֹא אַתָּה אֱלֹהֵינוּ הוֹרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מִלִּפְנֵי עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתִּתְּנָהּ לְזֶרַע אַבְרָהָם אֹהַבְךָ לְעוֹלָם׃", 20.8. "וַיֵּשְׁבוּ־בָהּ וַיִּבְנוּ לְךָ בָּהּ מִקְדָּשׁ לְשִׁמְךָ לֵאמֹר׃", 20.9. "אִם־תָּבוֹא עָלֵינוּ רָעָה חֶרֶב שְׁפוֹט וְדֶבֶר וְרָעָב נַעַמְדָה לִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת הַזֶּה וּלְפָנֶיךָ כִּי שִׁמְךָ בַּבַּיִת הַזֶּה וְנִזְעַק אֵלֶיךָ מִצָּרָתֵנוּ וְתִשְׁמַע וְתוֹשִׁיעַ׃", 20.11. "וְהִנֵּה־הֵם גֹּמְלִים עָלֵינוּ לָבוֹא לְגָרְשֵׁנוּ מִיְּרֻשָּׁתְךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹרַשְׁתָּנוּ׃", 20.12. "אֱלֹהֵינוּ הֲלֹא תִשְׁפָּט־בָּם כִּי אֵין בָּנוּ כֹּחַ לִפְנֵי הֶהָמוֹן הָרָב הַזֶּה הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לֹא נֵדַע מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה כִּי עָלֶיךָ עֵינֵינוּ׃", 20.13. "וְכָל־יְהוּדָה עֹמְדִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה גַּם־טַפָּם נְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם׃", 20.3. "And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek unto the LORD; and he proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.", 20.4. "And Judah gathered themselves together, to seek help of the LORD; even out of all the cities of Judah they came to seek the LORD.", 20.5. "And Jehoshaphat stood in the congregation of Judah and Jerusalem, in the house of the LORD, before the new court;", 20.6. "and he said: ‘O LORD, the God of our fathers, art not Thou alone God in heaven? and art not Thou ruler over all the kingdoms of the nations? and in Thy hand is power and might, so that none is able to withstand Thee.", 20.7. "Didst not Thou, O our God, drive out the inhabitants of this land before Thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham Thy friend for ever?", 20.8. "And they dwelt therein, and have built Thee a sanctuary therein for Thy name, saying:", 20.9. "If evil come upon us, the sword, judgment, or pestilence, or famine, we will stand before this house, and before Thee—for Thy name is in this house—and cry unto Thee in our affliction, and Thou wilt hear and save.", 20.10. "And now, behold, the children of Ammon and Moab and mount Seir, whom Thou wouldest not let Israel invade, when they came out of the land of Egypt, but they turned aside from them, and destroyed them not;", 20.11. "behold, they render unto us [evil], to come to cast us out of Thy possession, which Thou hast given us to inherit.", 20.12. "O our God, wilt Thou not execute judgment on them? for we have no might against this great multitude that cometh against us; neither know we what to do; but our eyes are upon Thee.’", 20.13. "And all Judah stood before the LORD, with their little ones, their wives, and their children.",
35. Herodotus, Histories, 9.24 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 183
9.24. When the cavalry returned to camp, Mardonius and the whole army mourned deeply for Masistius, cutting their own hair and the hair of their horses and beasts of burden, and lamenting loudly; the sound of this was heard over all Boeotia, for a man was dead who, next to Mardonius, was most esteemed by all Persia and the king.
36. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 8.21, 9.3-9.5, 10.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 182, 301
8.21. "וָאֶקְרָא שָׁם צוֹם עַל־הַנָּהָר אַהֲוָא לְהִתְעַנּוֹת לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְשָׁרָה לָנוּ וּלְטַפֵּנוּ וּלְכָל־רְכוּשֵׁנוּ׃", 9.3. "וּכְשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה קָרַעְתִּי אֶת־בִּגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶמְרְטָה מִשְּׂעַר רֹאשִׁי וּזְקָנִי וָאֵשְׁבָה מְשׁוֹמֵם׃", 9.4. "וְאֵלַי יֵאָסְפוּ כֹּל חָרֵד בְּדִבְרֵי אֱלֹהֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל מַעַל הַגּוֹלָה וַאֲנִי יֹשֵׁב מְשׁוֹמֵם עַד לְמִנְחַת הָעָרֶב׃", 9.5. "וּבְמִנְחַת הָעֶרֶב קַמְתִּי מִתַּעֲנִיתִי וּבְקָרְעִי בִגְדִי וּמְעִילִי וָאֶכְרְעָה עַל־בִּרְכַּי וָאֶפְרְשָׂה כַפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי׃", 10.1. "וַיָּקָם עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם אַתֶּם מְעַלְתֶּם וַתֹּשִׁיבוּ נָשִׁים נָכְרִיּוֹת לְהוֹסִיף עַל־אַשְׁמַת יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 10.1. "וּכְהִתְפַּלֵּל עֶזְרָא וּכְהִתְוַדֹּתוֹ בֹּכֶה וּמִתְנַפֵּל לִפְנֵי בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים נִקְבְּצוּ אֵלָיו מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קָהָל רַב־מְאֹד אֲנָשִׁים וְנָשִׁים וִילָדִים כִּי־בָכוּ הָעָם הַרְבֵּה־בֶכֶה׃", 8.21. "Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river Ahava, that we might humble ourselves before our God, to seek of Him a straight way, for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance.", 9.3. "And when I heard this thing, I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled.", 9.4. "Then were assembled unto me every one that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the evening offering.", 9.5. "And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands unto the LORD my God;", 10.1. "Now while Ezra prayed, and made confession, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there was gathered together unto him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children; for the people wept very sore.",
37. Hippocrates, On Airs, Waters, And Places, 12, 4 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 302
38. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 1.4, 8.15, 9.1, 9.27, 12.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Cain (2016) 169; Gera (2014) 184, 188; Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
1.4. "וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעִי אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה יָשַׁבְתִּי וָאֶבְכֶּה וָאֶתְאַבְּלָה יָמִים וָאֱהִי צָם וּמִתְפַּלֵּל לִפְנֵי אֱלֹהֵי הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 8.15. "וַאֲשֶׁר יַשְׁמִיעוּ וְיַעֲבִירוּ קוֹל בְּכָל־עָרֵיהֶם וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר צְאוּ הָהָר וְהָבִיאוּ עֲלֵי־זַיִת וַעֲלֵי־עֵץ שֶׁמֶן וַעֲלֵי הֲדַס וַעֲלֵי תְמָרִים וַעֲלֵי עֵץ עָבֹת לַעֲשֹׂת סֻכֹּת כַּכָּתוּב׃", 9.1. "וּבְיוֹם עֶשְׂרִים וְאַרְבָּעָה לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה נֶאֶסְפוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּצוֹם וּבְשַׂקִּים וַאֲדָמָה עֲלֵיהֶם׃", 9.1. "וַתִּתֵּן אֹתֹת וּמֹפְתִים בְּפַרְעֹה וּבְכָל־עֲבָדָיו וּבְכָל־עַם אַרְצוֹ כִּי יָדַעְתָּ כִּי הֵזִידוּ עֲלֵיהֶם וַתַּעַשׂ־לְךָ שֵׁם כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃", 9.27. "וַתִּתְּנֵם בְּיַד צָרֵיהֶם וַיָּצֵרוּ לָהֶם וּבְעֵת צָרָתָם יִצְעֲקוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְאַתָּה מִשָּׁמַיִם תִּשְׁמָע וּכְרַחֲמֶיךָ הָרַבִּים תִּתֵּן לָהֶם מוֹשִׁיעִים וְיוֹשִׁיעוּם מִיַּד צָרֵיהֶם׃", 12.27. "וּבַחֲנֻכַּת חוֹמַת יְרוּשָׁלִַם בִּקְשׁוּ אֶת־הַלְוִיִּם מִכָּל־מְקוֹמֹתָם לַהֲבִיאָם לִירוּשָׁלִָם לַעֲשֹׂת חֲנֻכָּה וְשִׂמְחָה וּבְתוֹדוֹת וּבְשִׁיר מְצִלְתַּיִם נְבָלִים וּבְכִנֹּרוֹת׃", 1.4. "And it came to pass, when I heard these words, that I sat down and wept, and mourned certain days; and I fasted and prayed before the God of heaven,", 8.15. "and that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying: ‘Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and branches of wild olive, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.’", 9.1. "Now in the twenty and fourth day of this month the children of Israel were assembled with fasting, and with sackcloth, and earth upon them.", 9.27. "Therefore Thou didst deliver them into the hand of their adversaries, who distressed them; and in the time of their trouble, when they cried unto Thee, Thou heardest from heaven; and according to Thy manifold mercies Thou gavest them saviours who might save them out of the hand of their adversaries.", 12.27. "And at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem they sought the Levites out of all their places, to bring them to Jerusalem, to keep the dedication with gladness, both with thanksgivings, and with singing, with cymbals, psalteries, and with harps.",
39. Aristophanes, Frogs, 369, 338 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Parker (2005) 347
338. ὡς ἡδύ μοι προσέπνευσε χοιρείων κρεῶν.
40. Isaeus, Orations, 3.80 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 274
41. Diogenes Sinopensis, Letters, 44 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 213
42. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 10.10, 10.12, 13.8, 26.26-26.28, 29.1-29.9 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Gera (2014) 188, 470; Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
10.12. "וַיָּקוּמוּ כָּל־אִישׁ חַיִל וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־גּוּפַת שָׁאוּל וְאֵת גּוּפֹת בָּנָיו וַיְבִיאוּם יָבֵישָׁה וַיִּקְבְּרוּ אֶת־עַצְמוֹתֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָאֵלָה בְּיָבֵשׁ וַיָּצוּמוּ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃", 13.8. "וְדָוִיד וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מְשַׂחֲקִים לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים בְּכָל־עֹז וּבְשִׁירִים וּבְכִנֹּרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבְתֻפִּים וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבַחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃", 26.26. "הוּא שְׁלֹמוֹת וְאֶחָיו עַל כָּל־אֹצְרוֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ וְרָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְשָׂרֵי־הָאֲלָפִים וְהַמֵּאוֹת וְשָׂרֵי הַצָּבָא׃", 26.27. "מִן־הַמִּלְחָמוֹת וּמִן־הַשָּׁלָל הִקְדִּישׁוּ לְחַזֵּק לְבֵית יְהוָה׃", 26.28. "וְכֹל הַהִקְדִּישׁ שְׁמוּאֵל הָרֹאֶה וְשָׁאוּל בֶּן־קִישׁ וְאַבְנֵר בֶּן־נֵר וְיוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה כֹּל הַמַּקְדִּישׁ עַל יַד־שְׁלֹמִית וְאֶחָיו׃", 29.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ לְכָל־הַקָּהָל שְׁלֹמֹה בְנִי אֶחָד בָּחַר־בּוֹ אֱלֹהִים נַעַר וָרָךְ וְהַמְּלָאכָה גְדוֹלָה כִּי לֹא לְאָדָם הַבִּירָה כִּי לַיהוָה אֱלֹהִים׃", 29.1. "וַיְבָרֶךְ דָּוִיד אֶת־יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי כָּל־הַקָּהָל וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד בָּרוּךְ אַתָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אָבִינוּ מֵעוֹלָם וְעַד־עוֹלָם׃", 29.2. "וּכְכָל־כֹּחִי הֲכִינוֹתִי לְבֵית־אֱלֹהַי הַזָּהָב לַזָּהָב וְהַכֶּסֶף לַכֶּסֶף וְהַנְּחֹשֶׁת לַנְּחֹשֶׁת הַבַּרְזֶל לַבַּרְזֶל וְהָעֵצִים לָעֵצִים אַבְנֵי־שֹׁהַם וּמִלּוּאִים אַבְנֵי־פוּךְ וְרִקְמָה וְכֹל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה וְאַבְנֵי־שַׁיִשׁ לָרֹב׃", 29.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לְכָל־הַקָּהָל בָּרְכוּ־נָא אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וַיְבָרֲכוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה וְלַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 29.3. "וְעוֹד בִּרְצוֹתִי בְּבֵית אֱלֹהַי יֶשׁ־לִי סְגֻלָּה זָהָב וָכָסֶף נָתַתִּי לְבֵית־אֱלֹהַי לְמַעְלָה מִכָּל־הֲכִינוֹתִי לְבֵית הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃", 29.3. "עִם כָּל־מַלְכוּתוֹ וּגְבוּרָתוֹ וְהָעִתִּים אֲשֶׁר עָבְרוּ עָלָיו וְעַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל כָּל־מַמְלְכוֹת הָאֲרָצוֹת׃", 29.4. "שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים כִּכְּרֵי זָהָב מִזְּהַב אוֹפִיר וְשִׁבְעַת אֲלָפִים כִּכַּר־כֶּסֶף מְזֻקָּק לָטוּחַ קִירוֹת הַבָּתִּים׃", 29.5. "לַזָּהָב לַזָּהָב וְלַכֶּסֶף לַכֶּסֶף וּלְכָל־מְלָאכָה בְּיַד חָרָשִׁים וּמִי מִתְנַדֵּב לְמַלֹּאות יָדוֹ הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה׃", 29.6. "וַיִּתְנַדְּבוּ שָׂרֵי הָאָבוֹת וְשָׂרֵי שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְשָׂרֵי הָאֲלָפִים וְהַמֵּאוֹת וּלְשָׂרֵי מְלֶאכֶת הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 29.7. "וַיִּתְּנוּ לַעֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־הָאֱלֹהִים זָהָב כִּכָּרִים חֲמֵשֶׁת־אֲלָפִים וַאֲדַרְכֹנִים רִבּוֹ וְכֶסֶף כִּכָּרִים עֲשֶׂרֶת אֲלָפִים וּנְחֹשֶׁת רִבּוֹ וּשְׁמוֹנַת אֲלָפִים כִּכָּרִים וּבַרְזֶל מֵאָה־אֶלֶף כִּכָּרִים׃", 29.8. "וְהַנִּמְצָא אִתּוֹ אֲבָנִים נָתְנוּ לְאוֹצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה עַל יַד־יְחִיאֵל הַגֵּרְשֻׁנִּי׃", 29.9. "וַיִּשְׂמְחוּ הָעָם עַל־הִתְנַדְּבָם כִּי בְּלֵב שָׁלֵם הִתְנַדְּבוּ לַיהוָה וְגַם דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ שָׂמַח שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה׃", 10.10. "And they put his armour in the house of their gods, and fastened his head in the house of Dagon.", 10.12. "all the valiant men arose, and took away the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, and brought them to Jabesh, and buried their bones under the terebinth in Jabesh, and fasted seven days.", 13.8. "And David and all Israel played before God with all their might; even with songs, and with harps, and with psalteries, and with timbrels, and with cymbals, and with trumpets.", 26.26. "This Shelomith and his brethren were over all the treasuries of the dedicated things, which David the king, and the heads of the fathers’houses, the captains over thousands and hundreds, and the captains of the host, had dedicated.", 26.27. "Out of the spoil won in battles did they dedicate to repair the house of the LORD.", 26.28. "And all that Samuel the seer, and Saul the son of Kish, and Abner the son of Ner, and Joab the son of Zeruiah, had dedicated; whosoever had dedicated any thing, it was under the hand of Shelomith, and of his brethren.", 29.1. "And David the king said unto all the congregation: ‘Solomon my son, whom alone God hath chosen, is yet young and tender, and the work is great; for the palace is not for man, but for the LORD God.", 29.2. "Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the brass for the things of brass, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood; onyx stones, and stones to be set, glistering stones, and of divers colours, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance.", 29.3. "Moreover also, because I have set my affection on the house of my God, seeing that I have a treasure of mine own of gold and silver, I give it unto the house of my God, over and above all that I have prepared for the holy house,", 29.4. "even three thousand talents of gold, of the gold of Ophir, and seven thousand talents of refined silver, wherewith to overlay the walls of the houses;", 29.5. "of gold for the things of gold, and of silver for the things of silver, and for all manner of work to be made by the hands of artificers. Who then offereth willingly to consecrate himself this day unto the LORD?’", 29.6. "Then the princes of the fathers’houses, and the princes of the tribes of Israel, and the captains of thousands and of hundreds, with the rulers over the king’s work, offered willingly;", 29.7. "and they gave for the service of the house of God of gold five thousand talents and ten thousand darics, and of silver ten thousand talents, and of brass eighteen thousand talents, and of iron a hundred thousand talents.", 29.8. "And they with whom precious stones were found gave them to the treasure of the house of the LORD, under the hand of Jehiel the Gershonite.", 29.9. "Then the people rejoiced, for that they offered willingly, because with a whole heart they offered willingly to the LORD; and David the king also rejoiced with great joy.",
43. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 7.3 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 189
7.3. "לֵאמֹר אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר לְבֵית־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וְאֶל־הַנְּבִיאִים לֵאמֹר הַאֶבְכֶּה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִשִׁי הִנָּזֵר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי זֶה כַּמֶּה שָׁנִים׃", 7.3. "and to speak unto the priests of the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the prophets, saying: ‘Should I weep in the fifth month, separating myself, as I have done these so many years?’",
44. Aristophanes, Birds, 1519 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 274
1519. ἀλλ' ὡσπερεὶ Θεσμοφορίοις νηστεύομεν
45. Euripides, Alcestis, 425-426, 428-429, 427 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gera (2014) 183
46. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
271d. περὶ τοῦ πάντα αὐτόματα γίγνεσθαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις, ἥκιστα τῆς νῦν ἐστι καθεστηκυίας φορᾶς, ἀλλʼ ἦν καὶ τοῦτο τῆς ἔμπροσθεν. τότε γὰρ αὐτῆς πρῶτον τῆς κυκλήσεως ἦρχεν ἐπιμελούμενος ὅλης ὁ θεός, ὣς δʼ αὖ κατὰ τόπους ταὐτὸν τοῦτο, ὑπὸ θεῶν ἀρχόντων πάντʼ ἦν τὰ τοῦ κόσμου μέρη διειλημμένα· καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ ζῷα κατὰ γένη καὶ ἀγέλας οἷον νομῆς θεῖοι διειλήφεσαν δαίμονες, αὐτάρκης εἰς πάντα ἕκαστος ἑκάστοις 271d. No, the life about which you ask, when all the fruits of the earth sprang up of their own accord for men, did not belong at all to the present period of revolution, but this also belonged to the previous one. For then, in the beginning, God ruled and supervised the whole revolution, and so again, in the same way, all the parts of the universe were divided by regions among gods who ruled them, and, moreover, the animals were distributed by species and flocks among inferior deities as divine shepherds, each of whom was in all respects the independent guardian of the creatures under his own care,
47. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cultic ritual practice, fasting Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 16
955e. ἂν χρῆσθαι βούληται, χρῆται, κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστον βουλευομένων, ἐάντε τοῦ τιμήματος ὅλου μέρει ἐάντε τῆς γενομένης ἐπʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἑκάστοτε προσόδου, χωρὶς τῶν εἰς τὰ συσσίτια τελουμένων. ΑΘ. 955e. and may determine year by year whether it will require a proportion of the whole assessed value, or a proportion of the current yearly income, exclusive of the taxes paid for the common meals. Ath.
48. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Wilson (2012) 104
254b. ἀγανακτοῦντε, ὡς δεινὰ καὶ παράνομα ἀναγκαζομένω· τελευτῶντε δέ, ὅταν μηδὲν ᾖ πέρας κακοῦ, πορεύεσθον ἀγομένω, εἴξαντε καὶ ὁμολογήσαντε ποιήσειν τὸ κελευόμενον. καὶ πρὸς αὐτῷ τʼ ἐγένοντο καὶ εἶδον τὴν ὄψιν τὴν τῶν παιδικῶν ἀστράπτουσαν. ἰδόντος δὲ τοῦ ἡνιόχου ἡ μνήμη πρὸς τὴν τοῦ κάλλους φύσιν ἠνέχθη, καὶ πάλιν εἶδεν αὐτὴν μετὰ σωφροσύνης ἐν ἁγνῷ βάθρῳ βεβῶσαν· ἰδοῦσα δὲ ἔδεισέ τε καὶ σεφθεῖσα ἀνέπεσεν ὑπτία, καὶ ἅμα ἠναγκάσθη εἰς 254b. will not be forced to do terrible and unlawful deeds; but finally, as the trouble has no end, they go forward with him, yielding and agreeing to do his bidding. And they come to the beloved and behold his radiant face. And as the charioteer looks upon him, his memory is borne back to the true nature of beauty, and he sees it standing with modesty upon a pedestal of chastity, and when he sees this he is afraid and falls backward in reverence, and in falling he is forced to pull the rein
49. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.3.5 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Wilson (2012) 274
1.3.5. διαίτῃ δὲ τήν τε ψυχὴν ἐπαίδευσε καὶ τὸ σῶμα ᾗ χρώμενος ἄν τις, εἰ μή τι δαιμόνιον εἴη, θαρραλέως καὶ ἀσφαλῶς διάγοι καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἀπορήσειε τοσαύτης δαπάνης. οὕτω γὰρ εὐτελὴς ἦν, ὥστʼ οὐκ οἶδʼ εἴ τις οὕτως ἂν ὀλίγα ἐργάζοιτο ὥστε μὴ λαμβάνειν τὰ Σωκράτει ἀρκοῦντα. σίτῳ μὲν γὰρ τοσούτῳ ἐχρῆτο, ὅσον ἡδέως ἤσθιε, καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦτο οὕτω παρεσκευασμένος ᾔει ὥστε τὴν ἐπιθυμίαν τοῦ σίτου ὄψον αὐτῷ εἶναι· ποτὸν δὲ πᾶν ἡδὺ ἦν αὐτῷ διὰ τὸ μὴ πίνειν, εἰ μὴ διψῴη. 1.3.5. He schooled his body and soul by following, a system which, in all human calculation, would give him a life of confidence and security, and would make it easy to meet his expenses. For he was so frugal that it is hardly possible to imagine a man doing so little work as not to earn enough to satisfy the needs of Socrates . He ate just sufficient food to make eating a pleasure, and he was so ready for his food that he found appetite the best sauce Cyropaedia I. v. 12. : and any kind of drink he found pleasant, because he drank only when he was thirsty.
50. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 271
51. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.10-1.13, 4.1-4.22, 11.18-11.19, 12.8, 14.15 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 265, 474; Taylor and Hay (2020) 303; Toloni (2022) 131
1.10. Now when I was carried away captive to Nineveh, all my brethren and my relatives ate the food of the Gentiles; 1.11. but I kept myself from eating it, 1.12. because I remembered God with all my heart. 1.13. Then the Most High gave me favor and good appearance in the sight of Shalmaneser, and I was his buyer of provisions. 4.1. On that day Tobit remembered the money which he had left in trust with Gabael at Rages in Media, and he said to himself; 4.2. "I have asked for death. Why do I not call my son Tobias so that I may explain to him about the money before I die?" 4.3. So he called him and said, "My son, when I die, bury me, and do not neglect your mother. Honor her all the days of your life; do what is pleasing to her, and do not grieve her. 4.4. Remember, my son, that she faced many dangers for you while you were yet unborn. When she dies bury her beside me in the same grave. 4.5. Remember the Lord our God all your days, my son, and refuse to sin or to transgress his commandments. Live uprightly all the days of your life, and do not walk in the ways of wrongdoing. 4.6. For if you do what is true, your ways will prosper through your deeds. 4.7. Give alms from your possessions to all who live uprightly, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you make it. Do not turn your face away from any poor man, and the face of God will not be turned away from you. 4.8. If you have many possessions, make your gift from them in proportion; if few, do not be afraid to give according to the little you have. 4.9. So you will be laying up a good treasure for yourself against the day of necessity. 4.10. For charity delivers from death and keeps you from entering the darkness; 4.11. and for all who practice it charity is an excellent offering in the presence of the Most High. 4.12. Beware, my son, of all immorality. First of all take a wife from among the descendants of your fathers and do not marry a foreign woman, who is not of your fathers tribe; for we are the sons of the prophets. Remember, my son, that Noah, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, our fathers of old, all took wives from among their brethren. They were blessed in their children, and their posterity will inherit the land. 4.13. So now, my son, love your brethren, and in your heart do not disdain your brethren and the sons and daughters of your people by refusing to take a wife for yourself from among them. For in pride there is ruin and great confusion; and in shiftlessness there is loss and great want, because shiftlessness is the mother of famine. 4.14. Do not hold over till the next day the wages of any man who works for you, but pay him at once; and if you serve God you will receive payment. "Watch yourself, my son, in everything you do, and be disciplined in all your conduct. 4.15. And what you hate, do not do to any one. Do not drink wine to excess or let drunkenness go with you on your way. 4.16. Give of your bread to the hungry, and of your clothing to the naked. Give all your surplus to charity, and do not let your eye begrudge the gift when you made it. 4.17. Place your bread on the grave of the righteous, but give none to sinners. 4.18. Seek advice from every wise man, and do not despise any useful counsel. 4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 4.20. And now let me explain to you about the ten talents of silver which I left in trust with Gabael the son of Gabrias at Rages in Media. 4.21. Do not be afraid, my son, because we have become poor. You have great wealth if you fear God and refrain from every sin and do what is pleasing in his sight." 11.18. Ahikar and his nephew Nadab came, 11.19. and Tobias marriage was celebrated for seven days with great festivity. 12.8. Prayer is good when accompanied by fasting, almsgiving, and righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than much with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to treasure up gold. 14.15. But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineveh, which Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus had captured. Before his death he rejoiced over Nineveh.
52. Anon., 1 Enoch, 5.8, 9.10, 25.1-25.7, 81.1-81.4, 93.1, 96.5, 103.2, 104.1-104.6, 108.1, 108.6-108.9, 108.11, 108.13-108.14 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 65; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714, 715, 722, 723
5.8. And then there shall be bestowed upon the elect wisdom, And they shall all live and never again sin, Either through ungodliness or through pride: But they who are wise shall be humble. 25.1. And he said unto me: 'Enoch, why dost thou ask me regarding the fragrance of the tree, 25.2. and why dost thou wish to learn the truth' Then I answered him saying: 'I wish to" 25.3. know about everything, but especially about this tree.' And he answered saying: 'This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit 25.4. the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree no mortal is permitted to touch it till the great judgement, when He shall take vengeance on all and bring (everything) to its consummation 25.5. for ever. It shall then be given to the righteous and holy. Its fruit shall be for food to the elect: it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King. 25.6. Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, And into the holy place shall they enter; And its fragrance shall be in their bones, And they shall live a long life on earth, Such as thy fathers lived:And in their days shall no sorrow or plague Or torment or calamity touch them.' 25.7. Then blessed I the God of Glory, the Eternal King, who hath prepared such things for the righteous, and hath created them and promised to give to them. 81.1. And he said unto me: ' Observe, Enoch, these heavenly tablets, And read what is written thereon, And mark every individual fact.' 81.1. And in those days they ceased to speak to me, and I came to my people, blessing the Lord of the world. 81.2. And I observed the heavenly tablets, and read everything which was written (thereon) and understood everything, and read the book of all the deeds of mankind, and of all the children of flesh 81.3. that shall be upon the earth to the remotest generations. And forthwith I blessed the great Lord the King of glory for ever, in that He has made all the works of the world,And I extolled the Lord because of His patience, And blessed Him because of the children of men. 81.4. And after that I said: ' Blessed is the man who dies in righteousness and goodness, Concerning whom there is no book of unrighteousness written, And against whom no day of judgement shall be found.' 93.1. And at its close shall be elected The elect righteous of the eternal plant of righteousness, To receive sevenfold instruction concerning all His creation. 96.5. Woe to you who devour the finest of the wheat, And drink wine in large bowls, And tread under foot the lowly with your might. 103.2. Mighty One in dominion, and by His greatness I swear to you. I know a mystery And have read the heavenly tablets, And have seen the holy books, And have found written therein and inscribed regarding them: 104.1. I swear unto you, that in heaven the angels remember you for good before the glory of the Great 104.1. idols; for all your lying and all your godlessness issue not in righteousness but in great sin. And now I know this mystery, that sinners will alter and pervert the words of righteousness in many ways, and will speak wicked words, and lie, and practice great deceits, and write books concerning 104.2. One: and your names are written before the glory of the Great One. Be hopeful; for aforetime ye were put to shame through ill and affliction; but now ye shall shine as the lights of heaven, 104.3. ye shall shine and ye shall be seen, and the portals of heaven shall be opened to you. And in your cry, cry for judgement, and it shall appear to you; for all your tribulation shall be visited on the 104.4. rulers, and on all who helped those who plundered you. Be hopeful, and cast not away your hopes for ye shall have great joy as the angels of heaven. What shall ye be obliged to do Ye shall not have to hide on the day of the great judgement and ye shall not be found as sinners, and the eternal 104.6. judgement shall be far from you for all the generations of the world. And now fear not, ye righteous, when ye see the sinners growing strong and prospering in their ways: be not companions with them, 108.1. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him, 108.1. found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame, 108.6. fire, and the voice of weeping and crying and lamentation and strong pain.' And he said unto me: ' This place which thou seest-here are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers, and of those who work wickedness, and of those who pervert everything that the Lord hath spoken through the mouth 108.7. of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed 108.8. by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were 108.11. yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed 108.13. have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. And they shall be resplendent for times without number; for righteousness is the judgement of God; for to the faithful 108.14. He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were ,
53. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 4.1-4.6, 5.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 714
54. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 3.4, 4.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 265, 267, 301
3.4. And I fasted in those seven years, and I appeared to the Egyptians as one living delicately, for they that fast for God's sake receive beauty of face. 4.3. Owing to all these things I lay upon the ground, and besought God that the Lord would deliver me from her deceit.
55. Anon., Jubilees, 1.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 266
1.14. and My sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set My name upon it, and that it should dwell (there).
56. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 10.14, 11.12, 30.18, 31.23, 31.28-31.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 715; Toloni (2022) 131; Wilson (2012) 273, 274
10.14. The Lord has cast down the thrones of rulers,and has seated the lowly in their place. 10.14. Good things and bad, life and death,poverty and wealth, come from the Lord. 30.18. Good things poured out upon a mouth that is closed are like offerings of food placed upon a grave. 31.23. Men will praise the one who is liberal with food,and their testimony to his excellence is trustworthy. 31.28. Wine drunk in season and temperately is rejoicing of heart and gladness of soul. 31.29. Wine drunk to excess is bitterness of soul,with provocation and stumbling.
57. Anon., Testament of Naphtali, 8.7-8.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
8.7. For the commandments of the law are twofold, And through prudence must they be fulfilled. 8.8. For there is a season for a man to embrace his wife, And a season to abstain therefrom for his prayer. 8.9. So, then, there are two commandments; and, unless they be done in due order, they bring very great sin upon men.
58. Septuagint, Judith, 1.11-1.12, 1.16, 3.8, 4.2-4.3, 4.6-4.7, 4.9-4.15, 5.3-5.4, 5.12, 6.3, 6.10-6.11, 6.16, 6.18, 7.7-7.17, 7.19-7.32, 8.2, 8.5-8.6, 8.10, 8.12-8.13, 8.16-8.17, 8.29, 9.1-9.14, 10.1, 10.3-10.5, 10.7, 10.14, 10.19, 10.21, 10.23, 11.5-11.19, 11.21-11.22, 12.1-12.4, 12.9-12.10, 12.13, 12.20, 13.1, 13.4, 13.9, 13.15, 14.4, 14.11, 14.14-14.19, 15.10-15.12, 16.4-16.9, 16.17, 16.24 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 47, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 188, 189, 231, 241, 264, 265, 267, 301, 330, 374, 470, 474; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
1.11. But all who lived in the whole region disregarded the orders of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians, and refused to join him in the war; for they were not afraid of him, but looked upon him as only one man, and they sent back his messengers empty-handed and shamefaced. 1.12. Then Nebuchadnezzar was very angry with this whole region, and swore by his throne and kingdom that he would surely take revenge on the whole territory of Cilicia and Damascus and Syria, that he would kill them by the sword, and also all the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the people of Ammon, and all Judea, and every one in Egypt, as far as the coasts of the two seas. 1.16. Then he returned with them to Nineveh, he and all his combined forces, a vast body of troops; and there he and his forces rested and feasted for one hundred and twenty days. 3.8. And he demolished all their shrines and cut down their sacred groves; for it had been given to him to destroy all the gods of the land, so that all nations should worship Nebuchadnezzar only, and all their tongues and tribes should call upon him as god. 4.2. they were therefore very greatly terrified at his approach, and were alarmed both for Jerusalem and for the temple of the Lord their God. 4.3. For they had only recently returned from the captivity, and all the people of Judea were newly gathered together, and the sacred vessels and the altar and the temple had been consecrated after their profanation. 4.6. And Joakim, the high priest, who was in Jerusalem at the time, wrote to the people of Bethulia and Betomesthaim, which faces Esdraelon opposite the plain near Dothan, 4.7. ordering them to seize the passes up into the hills, since by them Judea could be invaded, and it was easy to stop any who tried to enter, for the approach was narrow, only wide enough for two men at the most. 4.9. And every man of Israel cried out to God with great fervor, and they humbled themselves with much fasting. 4.10. They and their wives and their children and their cattle and every resident alien and hired laborer and purchased slave -- they all girded themselves with sackcloth. 4.11. And all the men and women of Israel, and their children, living at Jerusalem, prostrated themselves before the temple and put ashes on their heads and spread out their sackcloth before the Lord. 4.12. They even surrounded the altar with sackcloth and cried out in unison, praying earnestly to the God of Israel not to give up their infants as prey and their wives as booty, and the cities they had inherited to be destroyed, and the sanctuary to be profaned and desecrated to the malicious joy of the Gentiles. 4.13. So the Lord heard their prayers and looked upon their affliction; for the people fasted many days throughout Judea and in Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty. 4.14. And Joakim the high priest and all the priests who stood before the Lord and ministered to the Lord, with their loins girded with sackcloth, offered the continual burnt offerings and the vows and freewill offerings of the people. 4.15. With ashes upon their turbans, they cried out to the Lord with all their might to look with favor upon the whole house of Israel. 5.3. and said to them, "Tell me, you Canaanites, what people is this that lives in the hill country? What cities do they inhabit? How large is their army, and in what does their power or strength consist? Who rules over them as king, leading their army? 5.4. And why have they alone, of all who live in the west, refused to come out and meet me?" 5.12. Then they cried out to their God, and he afflicted the whole land of Egypt with incurable plagues; and so the Egyptians drove them out of their sight. 6.3. He will send his forces and will destroy them from the face of the earth, and their God will not deliver them -- we the king's servants will destroy them as one man. They cannot resist the might of our cavalry. 6.10. Then Holofernes ordered his slaves, who waited on him in his tent, to seize Achior and take him to Bethulia and hand him over to the men of Israel. 6.11. So the slaves took him and led him out of the camp into the plain, and from the plain they went up into the hill country and came to the springs below Bethulia. 6.16. They called together all the elders of the city, and all their young men and their women ran to the assembly; and they set Achior in the midst of all their people, and Uzziah asked him what had happened. 6.18. Then the people fell down and worshiped God, and cried out to him, and said, 7.7. and examined the approaches to the city, and visited the springs that supplied their water, and seized them and set guards of soldiers over them, and then returned to his army. 7.8. Then all the chieftains of the people of Esau and all the leaders of the Moabites and the commanders of the coastland came to him and said, 7.9. "Let our lord hear a word, lest his army be defeated. 7.10. For these people, the Israelites, do not rely on their spears but on the height of the mountains where they live, for it is not easy to reach the tops of their mountains. 7.11. Therefore, my lord, do not fight against them in battle array, and not a man of your army will fall. 7.12. Remain in your camp, and keep all the men in your forces with you; only let your servants take possession of the spring of water that flows from the foot of the mountain -- 7.13. for this is where all the people of Bethulia get their water. So thirst will destroy them, and they will give up their city. We and our people will go up to the tops of the nearby mountains and camp there to keep watch that not a man gets out of the city. 7.14. They and their wives and children will waste away with famine, and before the sword reaches them they will be strewn about in the streets where they live. 7.15. So you will pay them back with evil, because they rebelled and did not receive you peaceably." 7.16. These words pleased Holofernes and all his servants, and he gave orders to do as they had said. 7.17. So the army of the Ammonites moved forward, together with five thousand Assyrians, and they encamped in the valley and seized the water supply and the springs of the Israelites. 7.19. The people of Israel cried out to the Lord their God, for their courage failed, because all their enemies had surrounded them and there was no way of escape from them. 7.20. The whole Assyrian army, their infantry, chariots, and cavalry, surrounded them for thirty-four days, until all the vessels of water belonging to every inhabitant of Bethulia were empty; 7.21. their cisterns were going dry, and they did not have enough water to drink their fill for a single day, because it was measured out to them to drink. 7.22. Their children lost heart, and the women and young men fainted from thirst and fell down in the streets of the city and in the passages through the gates; there was no strength left in them any longer. 7.23. Then all the people, the young men, the women, and the children, gathered about Uzziah and the rulers of the city and cried out with a loud voice, and said before all the elders, 7.24. "God be judge between you and us! For you have done us a great injury in not making peace with the Assyrians. 7.25. For now we have no one to help us; God has sold us into their hands, to strew us on the ground before them with thirst and utter destruction. 7.26. Now call them in and surrender the whole city to the army of Holofernes and to all his forces, to be plundered. 7.27. For it would be better for us to be captured by them; for we will be slaves, but our lives will be spared, and we shall not witness the death of our babes before our eyes, or see our wives and children draw their last breath. 7.28. We call to witness against you heaven and earth and our God, the Lord of our fathers, who punishes us according to our sins and the sins of our fathers. Let him not do this day the things which we have described!" 7.29. Then great and general lamentation arose throughout the assembly, and they cried out to the Lord God with a loud voice. 7.30. And Uzziah said to them, "Have courage, my brothers! Let us hold out for five more days; by that time the Lord our God will restore to us his mercy, for he will not forsake us utterly. 7.31. But if these days pass by, and no help comes for us, I will do what you say." 7.32. Then he dismissed the people to their various posts, and they went up on the walls and towers of their city. The women and children he sent home. And they were greatly depressed in the city. 8.2. Her husband Manasseh, who belonged to her tribe and family, had died during the barley harvest. 8.5. She set up a tent for herself on the roof of her house, and girded sackcloth about her loins and wore the garments of her widowhood. 8.6. She fasted all the days of her widowhood, except the day before the sabbath and the sabbath itself, the day before the new moon and the day of the new moon, and the feasts and days of rejoicing of the house of Israel. 8.10. she sent her maid, who was in charge of all she possessed, to summon Chabris and Charmis, the elders of her city. 8.12. Who are you, that have put God to the test this day, and are setting yourselves up in the place of God among the sons of men? 8.13. You are putting the Lord Almighty to the test -- but you will never know anything! 8.16. Do not try to bind the purposes of the Lord our God; for God is not like man, to be threatened, nor like a human being, to be won over by pleading. 8.17. Therefore, while we wait for his deliverance, let us call upon him to help us, and he will hear our voice, if it pleases him. 8.29. Today is not the first time your wisdom has been shown, but from the beginning of your life all the people have recognized your understanding, for your heart's disposition is right. 9.1. Then Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes on her head, and uncovered the sackcloth she was wearing; and at the very time when that evening's incense was being offered in the house of God in Jerusalem, Judith cried out to the Lord with a loud voice, and said, 9.2. "O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword to take revenge on the strangers who had loosed the girdle of a virgin to defile her, and uncovered her thigh to put her to shame, and polluted her womb to disgrace her; for thou hast said, `It shall not be done' -- yet they did it. 9.3. So thou gavest up their rulers to be slain, and their bed, which was ashamed of the deceit they had practiced, to be stained with blood, and thou didst strike down slaves along with princes, and princes on their thrones; 9.4. and thou gavest their wives for a prey and their daughters to captivity, and all their booty to be divided among thy beloved sons, who were zealous for thee, and abhorred the pollution of their blood, and called on thee for help -- O God, my God, hear me also, a widow. 9.5. "For thou hast done these things and those that went before and those that followed; thou hast designed the things that are now, and those that are to come. Yea, the things thou didst intend came to pass, 9.6. and the things thou didst will presented themselves and said, `Lo, we are here'; for all they ways are prepared in advance, and thy judgment is with foreknowledge. 9.7. "Behold now, the Assyrians are increased in their might; they are exalted, with their horses and riders; they glory in the strength of their foot soldiers; they trust in shield and spear, in bow and sling, and know not that thou art the Lord who crushest wars; the Lord is thy name. 9.8. Break their strength by thy might, and bring down their power in thy anger; for they intend to defile thy sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name rests, and to cast down the horn of thy altar with the sword. 9.9. Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads; give to me, a widow, the strength to do what I plan. 9.10. By the deceit of my lips strike down the slave with the prince and the prince with his servant; crush their arrogance by the hand of a woman. 9.11. "For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. 9.12. Hear, O hear me, God of my father, God of the inheritance of Israel, Lord of heaven and earth, Creator of the waters, King of all thy creation, hear my prayer! 9.13. Make my deceitful words to be their wound and stripe, for they have planned cruel things against thy covet, and against thy consecrated house, and against the top of Zion, and against the house possessed by thy children. 9.14. And cause thy whole nation and every tribe to know and understand that thou art God, the God of all power and might, and that there is no other who protects the people of Israel but thou alone!" 10.1. When Judith had ceased crying out to the God of Israel, and had ended all these words, 10.3. and she removed the sackcloth which she had been wearing, and took off her widow's garments, and bathed her body with water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and combed her hair and put on a tiara, and arrayed herself in her gayest apparel, which she used to wear while her husband Manasseh was living. 10.4. And she put sandals on her feet, and put on her anklets and bracelets and rings, and her earrings and all her ornaments, and made herself very beautiful, to entice the eyes of all men who might see her. 10.5. And she gave her maid a bottle of wine and a flask of oil, and filled a bag with parched grain and a cake of dried fruit and fine bread; and she wrapped up all her vessels and gave them to her to carry. 10.7. When they saw her, and noted how her face was altered and her clothing changed, they greatly admired her beauty, and said to her, 10.14. When the men heard her words, and observed her face -- she was in their eyes marvelously beautiful -- they said to her, 10.19. And they marveled at her beauty, and admired the Israelites, judging them by her, and every one said to his neighbor, "Who can despise these people, who have women like this among them? Surely not a man of them had better be left alive, for if we let them go they will be able to ensnare the whole world!" 10.21. Holofernes was resting on his bed, under a canopy which was woven with purple and gold and emeralds and precious stones. 10.23. And when Judith came into the presence of Holofernes and his servants, they all marveled at the beauty of her face; and she prostrated herself and made obeisance to him, and his slaves raised her up. 11.5. Judith replied to him, "Accept the words of your servant, and let your maidservant speak in your presence, and I will tell nothing false to my lord this night. 11.6. And if you follow out the words of your maidservant, God will accomplish something through you, and my lord will not fail to achieve his purposes. 11.7. Nebuchadnezzar the king of the whole earth lives, and as his power endures, who had sent you to direct every living soul, not only do men serve him because of you, but also the beasts of the field and the cattle and the birds of the air will live by your power under Nebuchadnezzar and all his house. 11.8. For we have heard of your wisdom and skill, and it is reported throughout the whole world that you are the one good man in the whole kingdom, thoroughly informed and marvelous in military strategy. 11.9. "Now as for the things Achior said in your council, we have heard his words, for the men of Bethulia spared him and he told them all he had said to you. 11.10. Therefore, my lord and master, do not disregard what he said, but keep it in your mind, for it is true: our nation cannot be punished, nor can the sword prevail against them, unless they sin against their God. 11.11. "And now, in order that my lord may not be defeated and his purpose frustrated, death will fall upon them, for a sin has overtaken them by which they are about to provoke their God to anger when they do what is wrong. 11.12. Since their food supply is exhausted and their water has almost given out, they have planned to kill their cattle and have determined to use all that God by his laws has forbidden them to eat. 11.13. They have decided to consume the first fruits of the grain and the tithes of the wine and oil, which they had consecrated and set aside for the priests who minister in the presence of our God at Jerusalem -- although it is not lawful for any of the people so much as to touch these things with their hands. 11.14. They have sent men to Jerusalem, because even the people living there have been doing this, to bring back to them permission from the senate. 11.15. When the word reaches them and they proceed to do this, on that very day they will be handed over to you to be destroyed. 11.16. "Therefore, when I, your servant, learned all this, I fled from them; and God has sent me to accomplish with you things that will astonish the whole world, as many as shall hear about them. 11.17. For your servant is religious, and serves the God of heaven day and night; therefore, my lord, I will remain with you, and every night your servant will go out into the valley, and I will pray to God and he will tell me when they have committed their sins. 11.18. And I will come and tell you, and then you shall go out with your whole army, and not one of them will withstand you. 11.19. Then I will lead you through the middle of Judea, till you come to Jerusalem; and I will set your throne in the midst of it; and you will lead them like sheep that have no shepherd, and not a dog will so much as open its mouth to growl at you. For this has been told me, by my foreknowledge; it was announced to me, and I was sent to tell you." 11.21. "There is not such a woman from one end of the earth to the other, either for beauty of face or wisdom of speech!" 11.22. And Holofernes said to her, "God has done well to send you before the people, to lend strength to our hands and to bring destruction upon those who have slighted my lord. 12.1. Then he commanded them to bring her in where his silver dishes were kept, and ordered them to set a table for her with some of his own food and to serve her with his own wine. 12.2. But Judith said, "I cannot eat it, lest it be an offense; but I will be provided from the things I have brought with me." 12.3. Holofernes said to her, "If your supply runs out, where can we get more like it for you? For none of your people is here with us." 12.4. Judith replied, "As your soul lives, my lord, your servant will not use up the things I have with me before the Lord carries out by my hand what he has determined to do." 12.9. So she returned clean and stayed in the tent until she ate her food toward evening. 12.10. On the fourth day Holofernes held a banquet for his slave only, and did not invite any of his officers. 12.13. So Bagoas went out from the presence of Holofernes, and approached her and said, "This beautiful maidservant will please come to my lord and be honored in his presence, and drink wine and be merry with us, and become today like one of the daughters of the Assyrians who serve in the house of Nebuchadnezzar." 12.20. And Holofernes was greatly pleased with her, and drank a great quantity of wine, much more than he had ever drunk in any one day since he was born. 13.1. When evening came, his slaves quickly withdrew, and Bagoas closed the tent from outside and shut out the attendants from his master's presence; and they went to bed, for they all were weary because the banquet had lasted long. 13.4. So every one went out, and no one, either small or great, was left in the bedchamber. Then Judith, standing beside his bed, said in her heart, "O Lord God of all might, look in this hour upon the work of my hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem. 13.9. Then she tumbled his body off the bed and pulled down the canopy from the posts; after a moment she went out, and gave Holofernes' head to her maid, 13.15. Then she took the head out of the bag and showed it to them, and said, "See, here is the head of Holofernes, the commander of the Assyrian army, and here is the canopy beneath which he lay in his drunken stupor. The Lord has struck him down by the hand of a woman. 14.4. and you and all who live within the borders of Israel shall pursue them and cut them down as they flee. 14.11. As soon as it was dawn they hung the head of Holofernes on the wall, and every man took his weapons, and they went out in companies to the passes in the mountains. 14.14. So Bagoas went in and knocked at the door of the tent, for he supposed that he was sleeping with Judith. 14.15. But when no one answered, he opened it and went into the bedchamber and found him thrown down on the platform dead, with his head cut off and missing. 14.16. And he cried out with a loud voice and wept and groaned and shouted, and rent his garments. 14.17. Then he went to the tent where Judith had stayed, and when he did not find her he rushed out to the people and shouted, 14.18. "The slaves have tricked us! One Hebrew woman has brought disgrace upon the house of King Nebuchadnezzar! For look, here is Holofernes lying on the ground, and his head is not on him!" 14.19. When the leaders of the Assyrian army heard this, they rent their tunics and were greatly dismayed, and their loud cries and shouts arose in the midst of the camp. 15.10. You have done all this singlehanded; you have done great good to Israel, and God is well pleased with it. May the Almighty Lord bless you for ever!" And all the people said, "So be it!" 15.11. So all the people plundered the camp for thirty days. They gave Judith the tent of Holofernes and all his silver dishes and his beds and his bowls and all his furniture; and she took them and loaded her mule and hitched up her carts and piled the things on them. 15.12. Then all the women of Israel gathered to see her, and blessed her, and some of them performed a dance for her; and she took branches in her hands and gave them to the women who were with her; 16.4. The Assyrian came down from the mountains of the north; he came with myriads of his warriors; their multitude blocked up the valleys, their cavalry covered the hills. 16.5. He boasted that he would burn up my territory, and kill my young men with the sword, and dash my infants to the ground and seize my children as prey, and take my virgins as booty. 16.6. But the Lord Almighty has foiled them by the hand of a woman. 16.7. For their mighty one did not fall by the hands of the young men, nor did the sons of the Titans smite him, nor did tall giants set upon him; but Judith the daughter of Merari undid him with the beauty of her countece. 16.8. For she took off her widow's mourning to exalt the oppressed in Israel. She anointed her face with ointment and fastened her hair with a tiara and put on a linen gown to deceive him. 16.9. Her sandal ravished his eyes, her beauty captivated his mind, and the sword severed his neck. 16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever. 16.24. and the house of Israel mourned for her seven days. Before she died she distributed her property to all those who were next of kin to her husband Manasseh, and to her own nearest kindred.
59. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 16.20, 30.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723; Toloni (2022) 131
16.20. Instead of these things thou didst give thy people food of angels,and without their toil thou didst supply them from heaven with bread ready to eat,providing every pleasure and suited to every taste.
60. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.19, 5.26, 6.8-6.31, 7.1-7.42, 10.25, 11.11, 12.28, 15.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 182, 184, 241, 474; Stuckenbruck (2007) 722
3.19. Women, girded with sackcloth under their breasts, thronged the streets. Some of the maidens who were kept indoors ran together to the gates, and some to the walls, while others peered out of the windows.' 5.26. He put to the sword all those who came out to see them, then rushed into the city with his armed men and killed great numbers of people.' 6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,' 6.9. and should slay those who did not choose to change over to Greek customs. One could see, therefore, the misery that had come upon them.' 6.10. For example, two women were brought in for having circumcised their children. These women they publicly paraded about the city, with their babies hung at their breasts, then hurled them down headlong from the wall.' 6.11. Others who had assembled in the caves near by, to observe the seventh day secretly, were betrayed to Philip and were all burned together, because their piety kept them from defending themselves, in view of their regard for that most holy day.' 6.12. Now I urge those who read this book not to be depressed by such calamities, but to recognize that these punishments were designed not to destroy but to discipline our people.' 6.13. In fact, not to let the impious alone for long, but to punish them immediately, is a sign of great kindness.' 6.14. For in the case of the other nations the Lord waits patiently to punish them until they have reached the full measure of their sins; but he does not deal in this way with us,' 6.15. in order that he may not take vengeance on us afterward when our sins have reached their height." 6.16. Therefore he never withdraws his mercy from us. Though he disciplines us with calamities, he does not forsake his own people.' 6.17. Let what we have said serve as a reminder; we must go on briefly with the story." 6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.' 6.19. But he, welcoming death with honor rather than life with pollution, went up to the the rack of his own accord, spitting out the flesh,' 6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.' 6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,' 6.22. o that by doing this he might be saved from death, and be treated kindly on account of his old friendship with them.' 6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.' 6.24. Such pretense is not worthy of our time of life, he said, 'lest many of the young should suppose that Eleazar in his ninetieth year has gone over to an alien religion,' 6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.' 6.26. For even if for the present I should avoid the punishment of men, yet whether I live or die I shall not escape the hands of the Almighty.' 6.27. Therefore, by manfully giving up my life now, I will show myself worthy of my old age' 6.28. and leave to the young a noble example of how to die a good death willingly and nobly for the revered and holy laws.'When he had said this, he went at once to the rack.' 6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.' 6.30. When he was about to die under the blows, he groaned aloud and said: 'It is clear to the Lord in his holy knowledge that, though I might have been saved from death, I am enduring terrible sufferings in my body under this beating, but in my soul I am glad to suffer these things because I fear him.' 6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.' 7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.' 7.2. One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, 'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.' 7.3. The king fell into a rage, and gave orders that pans and caldrons be heated.' 7.4. These were heated immediately, and he commanded that the tongue of their spokesman be cut out and that they scalp him and cut off his hands and feet, while the rest of the brothers and the mother looked on.' 7.5. When he was utterly helpless, the king ordered them to take him to the fire, still breathing, and to fry him in a pan. The smoke from the pan spread widely, but the brothers and their mother encouraged one another to die nobly, saying,' 7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.'' 7.7. After the first brother had died in this way, they brought forward the second for their sport. They tore off the skin of his head with the hair, and asked him, 'Will you eat rather than have your body punished limb by limb?' 7.8. He replied in the language of his fathers, and said to them, 'No.'Therefore he in turn underwent tortures as the first brother had done.' 7.9. And when he was at his last breath, he said, 'You accursed wretch, you dismiss us from this present life, but the King of the universe will raise us up to an everlasting renewal of life, because we have died for his laws.' 7.10. After him, the third was the victim of their sport. When it was demanded, he quickly put out his tongue and courageously stretched forth his hands,' 7.11. and said nobly, 'I got these from Heaven, and because of his laws I disdain them, and from him I hope to get them back again.' 7.12. As a result the king himself and those with him were astonished at the young man's spirit, for he regarded his sufferings as nothing.' 7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.' 7.14. And when he was near death, he said, 'One cannot but choose to die at the hands of men and to cherish the hope that God gives of being raised again by him. But for you there will be no resurrection to life!' 7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him." 7.16. But he looked at the king, and said, 'Because you have authority among men, mortal though you are, you do what you please. But do not think that God has forsaken our people.' 7.17. Keep on, and see how his mighty power will torture you and your descendants!' 7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.' 7.19. But do not think that you will go unpunished for having tried to fight against God!' 7.20. The mother was especially admirable and worthy of honorable memory. Though she saw her seven sons perish within a single day, she bore it with good courage because of her hope in the Lord.' 7.21. She encouraged each of them in the language of their fathers. Filled with a noble spirit, she fired her woman's reasoning with a man's courage, and said to them,' 7.22. I do not know how you came into being in my womb. It was not I who gave you life and breath, nor I who set in order the elements within each of you.' 7.23. Therefore the Creator of the world, who shaped the beginning of man and devised the origin of all things, will in his mercy give life and breath back to you again, since you now forget yourselves for the sake of his laws.' 7.24. Antiochus felt that he was being treated with contempt, and he was suspicious of her reproachful tone. The youngest brother being still alive, Antiochus not only appealed to him in words, but promised with oaths that he would make him rich and enviable if he would turn from the ways of his fathers, and that he would take him for his friend and entrust him with public affairs.' 7.25. Since the young man would not listen to him at all, the king called the mother to him and urged her to advise the youth to save himself.' 7.26. After much urging on his part, she undertook to persuade her son.' 7.27. But, leaning close to him, she spoke in their native tongue as follows, deriding the cruel tyrant: 'My son, have pity on me. I carried you nine months in my womb, and nursed you for three years, and have reared you and brought you up to this point in your life, and have taken care of you.' 7.28. I beseech you, my child, to look at the heaven and the earth and see everything that is in them, and recognize that God did not make them out of things that existed. Thus also mankind comes into being.' 7.29. Do not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I may get you back again with your brothers.' 7.30. While she was still speaking, the young man said, 'What are you waiting for? I will not obey the king's command, but I obey the command of the law that was given to our fathers through Moses.' 7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.' 7.32. For we are suffering because of our own sins." 7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.' 7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.' 7.35. You have not yet escaped the judgment of the almighty, all-seeing God.' 7.36. For our brothers after enduring a brief suffering have drunk of everflowing life under God's covet; but you, by the judgment of God, will receive just punishment for your arrogance.' 7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,' 7.38. and through me and my brothers to bring to an end the wrath of the Almighty which has justly fallen on our whole nation.' 7.39. The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.' 7.40. So he died in his integrity, putting his whole trust in the Lord.' 7.41. Last of all, the mother died, after her sons.' 7.42. Let this be enough, then, about the eating of sacrifices and the extreme tortures.' 10.25. As he drew near, Maccabeus and his men sprinkled dust upon their heads and girded their loins with sackcloth, in supplication to God.' 11.11. They hurled themselves like lions against the enemy, and slew eleven thousand of them and sixteen hundred horsemen, and forced all the rest to flee.' 12.28. But the Jews called upon the Sovereign who with power shatters the might of his enemies, and they got the city into their hands, and killed as many as twenty-five thousand of those who were within it.' 15.27. So, fighting with their hands and praying to God in their hearts, they laid low no less than thirty-five thousand men, and were greatly gladdened by God's manifestation.'
61. Cicero, On Divination, 1.29.60, 1.62, 2.58.119, 2.119 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 41; Renberg (2017) 626
1.62. Epicurum igitur audiemus potius? Namque Carneades concertationis studio modo hoc, modo illud ait; ille, quod sentit; sentit autem nihil umquam elegans, nihil decorum. Hunc ergo antepones Platoni et Socrati? qui ut rationem non redderent, auctoritate tamen hos minutos philosophos vincerent. Iubet igitur Plato sic ad somnum proficisci corporibus adfectis, ut nihil sit, quod errorem animis perturbationemque adferat. Ex quo etiam Pythagoriis interdictum putatur, ne faba vescerentur, quod habet inflationem magnam is cibus tranquillitati mentis quaerenti vera contrariam. 2.119. Similis est error in somniis; quorum quidem defensio repetita quam longe est! Divinos animos censent esse nostros, eosque esse tractos extrinsecus, animorumque consentientium multitudine conpletum esse mundum; hac igitur mentis et ipsius divinitate et coniunctione cum externis mentibus cerni, quae sint futura. Contrahi autem animum Zeno et quasi labi putat atque concidere, id ipsum esse dormire. Iam Pythagoras et Plato, locupletissimi auctores, quo in somnis certiora videamus, praeparatos quodam cultu atque victu proficisci ad dormiendum iubent; faba quidem Pythagorei utique abstinere, quasi vero eo cibo mens, non venter infletur. Sed nescio quo modo nihil tam absurde dici potest, quod non dicatur ab aliquo philosophorum. 1.62. Then shall we listen to Epicurus rather than to Plato? As for Carneades, in his ardour for controversy he asserts this and now that. But, you retort, Epicurus says what he thinks. But he thinks nothing that is ever well reasoned, or worthy of a philosopher. Will you, then, put this man before Plato or Socrates, who though they gave no reason, would yet prevail over these petty philosophers by the mere weight of their name? Now Platos advice to us is to set out for the land of dreams with bodies so prepared that no error or confusion may assail the soul. For this reason, it is thought, the Pythagoreans were forbidden to indulge in beans; for that food produces great flatulence and induces a condition at war with a soul in search for truth. 2.119. There is a like error in regard to dreams. How far-fetched is the argument in their defence! Our souls (according to the view of your school) are divine and are derived from an external source; the universe is filled with a multitude of harmonious souls; therefore, because of its divinity and its contact with other souls, the human soul during sleep foresees what is to come. But Zeno thinks that sleep is nothing more than a contraction — a slipping and a collapse, as it were — of the human soul. Then Pythagoras and Plato, who are most respectable authorities, bid us, if we would have trustworthy dreams, to prepare for sleep by following a prescribed course in conduct and in eating. The Pythagoreans make a point of prohibiting beans, as if thereby the soul and not the belly was filled with wind! Somehow or other no statement is too absurd for some philosophers to make.
62. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 1.5-1.16, 2.18, 9.3, 10.2-10.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting •fast, fasting Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 25; Gera (2014) 184, 265, 267, 301, 374; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714
1.5. "וַיְמַן לָהֶם הַמֶּלֶךְ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ מִפַּת־בַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּמִיֵּין מִשְׁתָּיו וּלְגַדְּלָם שָׁנִים שָׁלוֹשׁ וּמִקְצָתָם יַעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 1.6. "וַיְהִי בָהֶם מִבְּנֵי יְהוּדָה דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃", 1.7. "וַיָּשֶׂם לָהֶם שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים שֵׁמוֹת וַיָּשֶׂם לְדָנִיֵּאל בֵּלְטְשַׁאצַּר וְלַחֲנַנְיָה שַׁדְרַךְ וּלְמִישָׁאֵל מֵישַׁךְ וְלַעֲזַרְיָה עֲבֵד נְגוֹ׃", 1.8. "וַיָּשֶׂם דָּנִיֵּאל עַל־לִבּוֹ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִתְגָּאַל בְּפַתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וּבְיֵין מִשְׁתָּיו וַיְבַקֵּשׁ מִשַּׂר הַסָּרִיסִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא יִתְגָּאָל׃", 1.9. "וַיִּתֵּן הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־דָּנִיֵּאל לְחֶסֶד וּלְרַחֲמִים לִפְנֵי שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים׃", 1.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּנִיֵּאל אֶל־הַמֶּלְצַר אֲשֶׁר מִנָּה שַׂר הַסָּרִיסִים עַל־דָּנִיֵּאל חֲנַנְיָה מִישָׁאֵל וַעֲזַרְיָה׃", 1.12. "נַס־נָא אֶת־עֲבָדֶיךָ יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה וְיִתְּנוּ־לָנוּ מִן־הַזֵּרֹעִים וְנֹאכְלָה וּמַיִם וְנִשְׁתֶּה׃", 1.13. "וְיֵרָאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ מַרְאֵינוּ וּמַרְאֵה הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכַאֲשֶׁר תִּרְאֵה עֲשֵׂה עִם־עֲבָדֶיךָ׃", 1.14. "וַיִּשְׁמַע לָהֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיְנַסֵּם יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה׃", 1.15. "וּמִקְצָת יָמִים עֲשָׂרָה נִרְאָה מַרְאֵיהֶם טוֹב וּבְרִיאֵי בָּשָׂר מִן־כָּל־הַיְלָדִים הָאֹכְלִים אֵת פַּתְבַּג הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 1.16. "וַיְהִי הַמֶּלְצַר נֹשֵׂא אֶת־פַּתְבָּגָם וְיֵין מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְנֹתֵן לָהֶם זֵרְעֹנִים׃", 2.18. "וְרַחֲמִין לְמִבְעֵא מִן־קֳדָם אֱלָהּ שְׁמַיָּא עַל־רָזָה דְּנָה דִּי לָא יְהֹבְדוּן דָּנִיֵּאל וְחַבְרוֹהִי עִם־שְׁאָר חַכִּימֵי בָבֶל׃", 9.3. "וָאֶתְּנָה אֶת־פָּנַי אֶל־אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים לְבַקֵּשׁ תְּפִלָּה וְתַחֲנוּנִים בְּצוֹם וְשַׂק וָאֵפֶר׃", 10.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר הֲיָדַעְתָּ לָמָּה־בָּאתִי אֵלֶיךָ וְעַתָּה אָשׁוּב לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־שַׂר פָּרָס וַאֲנִי יוֹצֵא וְהִנֵּה שַׂר־יָוָן בָּא׃", 10.2. "בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם אֲנִי דָנִיֵּאל הָיִיתִי מִתְאַבֵּל שְׁלֹשָׁה שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃", 10.3. "לֶחֶם חֲמֻדוֹת לֹא אָכַלְתִּי וּבָשָׂר וָיַיִן לֹא־בָא אֶל־פִּי וְסוֹךְ לֹא־סָכְתִּי עַד־מְלֹאת שְׁלֹשֶׁת שָׁבֻעִים יָמִים׃", 1.5. "And the king appointed for them a daily portion of the king’s food, and of the wine which he drank, and that they should be nourished three years; that at the end thereof they might stand before the king.", 1.6. "Now among these were, of the children of Judah, Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah.", 1.7. "And the chief of the officers gave names unto them: unto Daniel he gave the name of Belteshazzar; and to Haiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego.", 1.8. "But Daniel purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the king’s food, nor with the wine which he drank; therefore he requested of the chief of the officers that he might not defile himself.", 1.9. "And God granted Daniel mercy and compassion in the sight of the chief of the officers.", 1.10. "And the chief of the officers said unto Daniel: ‘I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your food and your drink; for why should he see your faces sad in comparison with the youths that are of your own age? so would ye endanger my head with the king.’", 1.11. "Then said Daniel to the steward, whom the chief of the officers had appointed over Daniel, Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah:", 1.12. "’Try thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink.", 1.13. "Then let our counteces be looked upon before thee, and the countece of the youths that eat of the king’s food; and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.’", 1.14. "So he hearkened unto them in this matter, and tried them ten days.", 1.15. "And at the end of ten days their counteces appeared fairer, and they were fatter in flesh, than all the youths that did eat of the king’s food.", 1.16. "So the steward took away their food, and the wine that they should drink, and gave them pulse.", 2.18. "that they might ask mercy of the God of heaven concerning this secret; that Daniel and his companions should not perish with the rest of the wise men of Babylon.", 9.3. "And I set my face unto the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes.", 10.2. "In those days I Daniel was mourning three whole weeks.", 10.3. "I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole weeks were fulfilled.",
63. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.18-1.20, 5.51, 6.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 181, 182, 231
1.18. The virgins who had been enclosed in their chambers rushed out with their mothers, sprinkled their hair with dust, and filled the streets with groans and lamentations. 1.19. Those women who had recently been arrayed for marriage abandoned the bridal chambers prepared for wedded union, and, neglecting proper modesty, in a disorderly rush flocked together in the city. 1.20. Mothers and nurses abandoned even newborn children here and there, some in houses and some in the streets, and without a backward look they crowded together at the most high temple. 5.51. and cried out in a very loud voice, imploring the Ruler over every power to manifest himself and be merciful to them, as they stood now at the gates of death. 6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land.
64. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 88
65. Dead Sea Scrolls, Hodayot, 12.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 88
66. Anon., Testament of Simeon, 3.4 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 265
3.4. and so long as he that is envied flourisheth, he that envieth fadeth away.
67. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 3.42-3.54, 7.36-7.38, 10.34, 13.12, 13.45 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 180, 181, 182, 184, 189, 266
3.42. Now Judas and his brothers saw that misfortunes had increased and that the forces were encamped in their territory. They also learned what the king had commanded to do to the people to cause their final destruction. 3.43. But they said to one another, "Let us repair the destruction of our people, and fight for our people and the sanctuary." 3.44. And the congregation assembled to be ready for battle, and to pray and ask for mercy and compassion. 3.45. Jerusalem was uninhabited like a wilderness;not one of her children went in or out. The sanctuary was trampled down,and the sons of aliens held the citadel;it was a lodging place for the Gentiles. Joy was taken from Jacob;the flute and the harp ceased to play. 3.46. So they assembled and went to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem, because Israel formerly had a place of prayer in Mizpah. 3.47. They fasted that day, put on sackcloth and sprinkled ashes on their heads, and rent their clothes. 3.48. And they opened the book of the law to inquire into those matters about which the Gentiles were consulting the images of their idols. 3.49. They also brought the garments of the priesthood and the first fruits and the tithes, and they stirred up the Nazirites who had completed their days; 3.50. and they cried aloud to Heaven, saying, "What shall we do with these?Where shall we take them? 3.51. Thy sanctuary is trampled down and profaned,and thy priests mourn in humiliation. 3.52. And behold, the Gentiles are assembled against us to destroy us;thou knowest what they plot against us. 3.53. How will we be able to withstand them,if thou dost not help us?" 3.54. Then they sounded the trumpets and gave a loud shout. 7.36. Then the priests went in and stood before the altar and the temple, and they wept and said, 7.37. "Thou didst choose this house to be called by thy name,and to be for thy people a house of prayer and supplication. 7.38. Take vengeance on this man and on his army,and let them fall by the sword;remember their blasphemies,and let them live no longer." 10.34. And all the feasts and sabbaths and new moons and appointed days, and the three days before a feast and the three after a feast -- let them all be days of immunity and release for all the Jews who are in my kingdom. 13.12. Then Trypho departed from Ptolemais with a large army to invade the land of Judah, and Jonathan was with him under guard. 13.45. The men in the city, with their wives and children, went up on the wall with their clothes rent, and they cried out with a loud voice, asking Simon to make peace with them;
68. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 167 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fast, fasting Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 118
167. We have now, then, given a full explanation concerning the vision which appeared to Abraham, and concerning his celebrated and allglorious hospitality, in which the entertainer, who appeared to himself to be entertaining others was himself entertained; expounding every part of the passage with as much accuracy as we were able. But we must not pass over in silence the most important action of all, which is worthy of being listened to. For I was nearly saying that it is of more importance than all the actions of piety and religion put together. So we must say what seems to be reasonable concerning it.
69. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 35 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
35. When then, after having had recourse to every expedient of contentious doctrines, men are destroyed, being overwhelmed by the opposing violence of contrary arguments, then the wise man will very justly and suitably establish a most sacred chorus, and melodiously sing a triumphal song;
70. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 32 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 304
32. But do you adopt a moderate course without being compelled thereto, and if ever you are constrained to indulge yourself in things beyond moderation, still make reason the governor of the necessity, and never go so far as to change pleasure into unpleasantness, but, if we may speak in such a manner, be drunk in a sober manner. VI.
71. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.54, 1.180, 1.255, 2.67-2.70 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 714; Taylor and Hay (2020) 302, 304, 333
1.54. But Moses, seeing what was done, for he was at no great distance, hastened and ran up; and, when he had come near to them, he said: "Will not you desist from behaving thus unjustly, thinking this solitary place a fitting field for the exercise of your covetousness? Are you not ashamed to have such cowardly arms and hands? You are long-haired people, female flesh, and not men. The damsels behave like vigorous youths, hesitating about nothing that they ought to do; but you, young men, are now behaving lazily, like girls. 1.180. Then the Hebrews, being amazed at this great and wonderful event, gained a victory which they had never hoped for without bloodshed or loss; and, seeing the instantaneous and complete destruction of the enemy, formed two choruses, one of men and the other of women, on the sea shore, and sang hymns of gratitude to God, Moses leading the song of the men, and his sister that of the women; for these two persons were the leaders of the choruses. 1.255. A short time afterwards, having found a copious spring of water which supplied drink to all the multitude, and the spring was in a well and on the borders of the country, drawing it up and drinking it as though it had been not water but pure wine, they were refreshed in their souls, and those among the people who loved God established choruses and dances in a circle around the well, out of their cheerfulness and joy, and sang a new song to God, the possessor and giver of their inheritance and the real leader of their colony, because now at the first moment of their coming forth from the direction in which they had so long been dwelling in to the inhabited land which they were ordained to possess, they had found abundant drink, and therefore they thought it right not to pass this spring by without due honour. 2.67. Therefore he, with a few other men, was dear to God and devoted to God, being inspired by heavenly love, and honouring the Father of the universe above all things, and being in return honoured by him in a particular manner. And it was an honour well adapted to the wise man to be allowed to serve the true and living God. Now the priesthood has for its duty the service of God. of this honour, then, Moses was thought worthy, than which there is no greater honour in the whole world, being instructed by the sacred oracles of God in everything that related to the sacred offices and ministrations. 2.68. But, in the first place, before assuming that office, it was necessary for him to purify not only his soul but also his body, so that it should be connected with and defiled by no passion, but should be pure from everything which is of a mortal nature, from all meat and drink, and from all connection with women. 2.69. And this last thing, indeed, he had despised for a long time, and almost from the first moment that he began to prophesy and to feel a divine inspiration, thinking that it was proper that he should at all times be ready to give his whole attention to the commands of God. And how he neglected all meat and drink for forty days together, evidently because he had more excellent food than that in those contemplations with which he was inspired from above from heaven, by which also he was improved in the first instance in his mind, and, secondly, in his body, through his soul, increasing in strength and health both of body and soul, so that those who saw him afterwards could not believe that he was the same person. 2.70. For, having gone up into the loftiest and most sacred mountain in that district in accordance with the divine commands, a mountain which was very difficult of access and very hard to ascend, he is said to have remained there all that time without eating any of that food even which is necessary for life; and, as I said before, he descended again forty days afterwards, being much more beautiful in his face than when he went up, so that those who saw him wondered and were amazed, and could no longer endure to look upon him with their eyes, inasmuch as his countece shone like the light of the sun.
72. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 2.5 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 118
17. "What has become of him? Tell me, is he alive, or is he dead? If he is dead, show me his corpse that I may weep over his body, and so alleviate my grief. When I see him lying dead I shall be comforted; for why should we bear ill will to the dead? There is no envy excited against those who are out of sight. And if he is alive, to what country has he departed?
73. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 53 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
53. Now of such a city as this, every impious man is found to be a builder in his own miserable soul, until God deliberately causes complete and great confusion to their sophistical Arts. And this will be, when not only "they build a city and tower, the head of which will reach to heaven," that is to say, [...] the mind or the reason of each individual as conversant about making great works, which they represent as having for its head a conception peculiar to itself, which is called in symbolical language heaven. For it is plain that the head and object of every reasoning must be the aforesaid mind; for the sake of which, long digressions and sentences are in the habit of being used by men who write histories. XVI.
74. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 59-63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 714
63. Let us then, with reference to our gratitude to and honouring of the omnipotent God, be active and ready, deprecating all sluggishness and delay; for those who are passing over from obedience to the passions to the contemplation of virtue, are enjoined to keep the passover with their loins girded up, being ready to do service, and binding up the burden of the flesh, or, as it is expressed, their shoes, "standing upright, and firmly on their feet, and having in their hands a Staff," that is to say education, with the object of succeeding without any failure in all the affairs of life; and lastly, "to eat the passover in haste." For, by the passover, is signified the crossing over of the created and perishable being to God:--and very appropriately; for there is no single good thing which does not belong to God, and which is not divine.
75. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.36, 1.123, 1.125, 1.157-1.159, 2.1-2.4, 2.162 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting •fast, fasting Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 115, 118; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714; Taylor and Hay (2020) 302
1.36. of which, if the sound ever reached our ears, love, which could not be restrained, and frantic desires, and furious impetuosity, which could not be put an end to or pacified, would be engendered, and would compel us to give up even what is necessary, nourishing ourselves no longer like ordinary mortals on the meat and drink, which is received by means of our throat, but on the inspired songs of music in its highest perfection, as persons about to be made immortal through the medium of their ears: and it is said that Moses was an incorporeal hearer of these melodies, when he went for forty days, and an equal number of nights, without at all touching any bread or any water. VII. 1.123. But by night, when it is time to turn towards rest, having prepared costly couches and the most exquisite of beds, they lie down in the most exceeding softness, imitating the luxury of women, whom nature has permitted to indulge in a more relaxed system of life, inasmuch as their maker, the Creator of the universe, has made their bodies of a more delicate stamp. 1.125. To these men, the soft earth is their most costly couch; their bed is bushes, and grass, and herbage, and a thick layer of leaves; and the pillows for their head are a few stones, or any little mounds which happen to rise a little above the surface of the plain. Such a life as this, is, by luxurious men, denominated a life of hardship, but by those who live for virtue, it is called most delightful; for it is well adapted, not for those who are called men, for those who really are such. 1.157. But the dream also represented the archangel, namely the Lord himself, firmly planted on the ladder; for we must imagine that the living God stands above all things, like the charioteer of a chariot, or the pilot of a ship; that is, above bodies, and above souls, and above all creatures, and above the earth, and above the air, and above the heaven, and above all the powers of the outward senses, and above the invisible natures, in short, above all things whether visible or invisible; for having made the whole to depend upon himself, he governs it and all the vastness of nature. 1.158. But let no one who hears that he was firmly planted thus suppose that any thing at all assists God, so as to enable him to stand firmly, but let him rather consider this fact that what is here indicated is equivalent to the assertion that the firmest position, and the bulwark, and the strength, and the steadiness of everything is the immoveable God, who stamps the character of immobility on whatever he pleases; for, in consequence of his supporting and consolidating things, those which he does combine remain firm and indestructible. 1.159. Therefore he who stands upon the ladder of heaven says to him who is beholding the dream, "I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac; be not Afraid." This oracle and this vision were also the firmest support of the soul devoted to the practice of virtue, inasmuch as it taught it that the Lord and God of the universe is both these things also to his own race, being entitled both the Lord and God of all men, and of his grandfathers and ancestors, and being called by both names in order that the whole world and the man devoted to virtue might have the same inheritance; since it is also said, "The Lord himself is his Inheritance." XXVI. 2.1. In describing the third species of dreams which are sent from God, we very naturally call on Moses as an ally, in order that as he learnt, having previously been ignorant, so he may instruct us who are also ignorant, concerning these signs, illustrating each separate one of them. Now this third species of dreams exists, whenever in sleep the mind being set in motion by itself, and agitating itself, is filled with frenzy and inspiration, so as to predict future events by a certain prophetic power. 2.2. For the first kind of dreams which we mentioned, was that which proceeded from God as the author of its motion, and, as some invisible manner prompted us what was indistinct to us, but well known to himself. The second kind was when our own intellect was set in motion simultaneously with the soul of the universe, and became filled with divine madness, by means of which it is allowed to prognosticate events which are about to happen; 2.3. and for this reason the interpreter of the sacred will very plainly and clearly speaks of dreams, indicating by this expression the visions which appear according to the first species, as if God, by means of dreams, gave suggestions which were equivalent to distinct and precise oracles. of the visions according to the second species he speaks neither very clearly nor very obscurely; an instance of which is afforded by the vision which was exhibited of the ladder reaching up to heaven; for this version was an enigmatical one; nevertheless, the meaning was not hidden from those who were able to see with any great acuteness. 2.4. But these visions which are afforded according to the third species of dreams, being less clear than the two former kinds by reason of their having an enigmatical meaning deeply seated and fully coloured, require the science of an interpreter of dreams. At all events all the dreams of this class, which are recorded by the lawgiver, are interpreted by men who are skilled in the aforesaid art. 2.162. But the deep and long-enduring sleep in which every wicked man is held, removes all true conceptions, and fills the mind with all kinds of false images, and unsubstantial visions, persuading it to embrace what is shameful as praiseworthy. For at one time it dreams of grief as joy, and does not perceive that it is looking at the vine, the plant of folly and error.
76. Ovid, Fasti, 4.657-4.658 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 625
4.657. usus abest Veneris, nec fas animalia mensis 4.658. ponere, nec digitis anulus ullus inest, 4.657. He abstained from sex: no meat might be served 4.658. At table, nor could he wear a ring on any finger.
77. Horace, Epodes, 2.67-2.70 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 231
78. Horace, Odes, 2.2.14-2.2.16, 3.13.12, 3.13.15-3.13.16 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting, moderation •christ, fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 227, 247, 248
79. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 1-5, 7, 6 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 227
6. Perhaps some one may say here: "Do you then, my good man, you who have determined to accuse this man, bring no accusation whatever against him, but on the contrary, weave long panegyrics in his honour? Are you not doting and mad?" "I am not mad, my friend, nor am I a downright fool, so as to be unable to see the consequences of connexion of things.
80. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 7.149 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
81. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 11, 2, 24-27, 30-31, 33-38, 40-54, 56-90, 55 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 227
55. and afterwards some of the dishes are carried away empty from the insatiable greediness of those at table, who, gorging themselves like cormorants, devour all the delicacies so completely that they gnaw even the bones, which some left half devoured after all that they contained has been torn to pieces and spoiled. And when they are completely tired with eating, having their bellies filled up to their very throats, but their desires still unsatisfied, being fatigued with eating.
82. Horace, Sermones, 2.2.77-2.2.79 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 208
83. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.98-1.100, 1.255-1.256, 1.274, 4.191 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303, 304
1.98. After he has given these precepts, he issues additional commandments, and orders him, whenever he approaches the altar and touches the sacrifices, at the time when it is appointed for him to perform his sacred ministrations, not to drink wine or any other strong drink, on account of four most important reasons, hesitation, and forgetfulness, and sleep, and folly. 1.99. For the intemperate man relaxes the powers of his body, and renders his limbs more slow of motion, and makes his whole body more inclined to hesitation, and compels it by force to become drowsy. And he also relaxes the energies of his soul, and so becomes the cause to it of forgetfulness and folly. But in the case of abstemious men all the parts of the body are lighter, and as such more active and moveable, and the outer senses are more pure and unalloyed, and the mind is gifted with a more acute sight, so that it is able to see things beforehand, and never forgets what it has previously seen; 1.100. in short, therefore, we must look upon the use of wine to be a most unprofitable thing for all the purposes of life, inasmuch as by it the soul is weighed down, the outward senses are dimmed, and the body is enervated. For it does not leave any one of our faculties free and unembarrassed, but is a hindrance to every one of them, so as to impede its attaining that object to which it is by nature fitted. But in sacred ceremonies and holy rites the mischief is most grievous of all, in proportion as it is worse and more intolerable to sin with respect to God than with respect to man. On which account it probably is that it is commanded to the priest to offer up sacrifices without wine, in order to make a difference and distinction between sacred and profane things, and pure and impure things, and lawful and unlawful things.XIX. 1.255. These sacred fires are common to all the rest of the people. But it was fitting that the priests also should offer up something on the altar as first fruits, not thinking that the services and sacred ministrations to which they have been appointed have secured them an exemption from such duties. And the first fruits suitable for the priests to offer do not come from anything containing blood, but from the purest portion of human food; 1.256. for the fine wheaten flour is their continual offering; a tenth part of a sacred measure every day; one half of which is offered up in the morning, and one half in the evening, having been soaked in oil, so that no portion of it can be left for food; for the command of God is, that all the sacrifices of the priests shall be wholly burnt, and that no portion of them shall be allotted for food. Having now, then, to the best of our ability, discussed the matters relating to the sacrifices, we will proceed in due order to speak concerning those who offer Them.{35}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On Those Who offer Sacrifice. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XLVIII in the Loeb 1.274. for one is made of stones, carefully selected so to fit one another, and unhewn, and it is erected in the open air, near the steps of the temple, and it is for the purpose of sacrificing victims which contain blood in them. And the other is made of gold, and is erected in the inner part of the temple, within the first veil, and may not be seen by any other human being except those of the priests who keep themselves pure, and it is for the purpose of offering incense upon; 4.191. For the genuine, sincere worshippers of God are by care and diligence rendered acute in their intellects, inasmuch as they are not indifferent even to slight errors, because of the exceeding excellence of the Monarch whom they serve in every point. On which account it is commanded that the priests shall go Soberly{42}{#le 10:9.} to offer sacrifice, in order that no medicine such as causes men to err, or to speak and act foolishly may enter into the mind and obscure its vision,
84. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 2.85 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 304
85. Anon., The Life of Adam And Eve, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
86. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 72.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 183
72.2. τοῦτο οὐδενὶ λογισμῷ τὸ πάθος Ἀλέξανδρος ἤνεγκεν, ἀλλʼ εὐθὺς μὲν ἵππους τε κεῖραι πάντας ἐπὶ πένθει καὶ ἡμιόνους ἐκέλευσε καὶ τῶν πέριξ πόλεων ἀφεῖλε τὰς ἐπάλξεις, τὸν δὲ ἄθλιον ἰατρὸν ἀνεσταύρωσεν, αὐλοὺς δὲ κατέπαυσε καὶ μουσικὴν πᾶσαν ἐν τῷ στρατοπέδῳ πολὺν χρόνον, ἕως ἐξ Ἄμμωνος ἦλθε μαντεία τιμᾶν Ἡφαιστίωνα καὶ θύειν ὡς ἥρωϊ παρακελεύουσα. 72.2. Alexander’s grief at this loss knew no bounds. Arrian finds great diversity in the accounts of Alexander’s displays of grief at Hephaestion’s death ( Anab. vii. 14 ). He immediately ordered that the manes and tails of all horses and mules should be shorn in token of mourning and took away the battlements of the cities round about; he also crucified the wretched physician, and put a stop to the sound of flutes and every kind of music in the camp for a long time, until an oracular response from Ammon came bidding him honour Hephaestion as a hero and sacrifice to him.
87. Plutarch, Aristides, 14.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 183
88. Plutarch, On The Obsolescence of Oracles, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 43
89. Plutarch, On The Sign of Socrates, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 43
90. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan nan
69. How, then, are we to deal with their gloomy, solemn, and mournful sacrifices, if it be not proper either to omit the customary ceremonials or to confound and confuse our opinions about the gods by unwarranted suspicions ? Among the Greeks also many things are done which are similar to the Egyptian ceremonies in the shrines of Isis, and they do them at about the same time. At Athens the women fast at the Thesmophoria sitting upon the ground; and the Boeotians move the halls of the Goddess of Sorrow and name that festival the Festival of Sorrow, Cf. Pausanias, ix. 8. 1, and Preller, Griechische Mythologie ⁴, i. 752, note 3; but the matter is very uncertain. since Demeter is in sorrow because of her Daughter’s descent to Pluto’s realm. This month, in the season of the Pleiades, is the month of seeding which the Egyptians call Athyr, the Athenians Pyanepsion, and the Boeotians Damatrius. The month sacred to Demeter. Theopompus Frag. 335. records that the people who live toward the west believe that the winter is Cronus, the summer Aphrodite, and the spring Persephonê, and that they call them by these names and believe that from Cronus and Aphroditê all things have their origin. The Phrygians, believing that the god is asleep in the winter and awake in the summer, sing lullabies for him in the winter and in the summer chants to arouse him, after the manner of bacchic worshippers. The Paphlagonians assert that in the winter he is bound fast and imprisoned, but that in the spring he bestirs himself and sets himself free again.
91. Plutarch, On The Delays of Divine Vengeance, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 43
92. Plutarch, Demetrius, 30.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 274
30.5. διόπερ οἱ νοῦν ἔχοντες οὐκ εἰς ἀνδριάντας οὐδὲ γραφὰς οὐδὲ ἀποθεώσεις, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εἰς τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὰς πράξεις τὰς ἑαυτῶν ἀποβλέποντες ἢ πιστεύουσιν, ὡς τιμαῖς, ἢ ἀπιστοῦσιν, ὡς ἀνάγκαις· ὡς οἵ γε δῆμοι πολλάκις ἐν αὐταῖς μάλιστα ταῖς τιμαῖς μισοῦσι τοὺς ἀμέτρως καὶ ὑπερόγκως καὶ παρʼ ἀκόντων λαμβάνοντας. 30.5.
93. Plutarch, Demosthenes, 30.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 274
30.5. τούτῳ μὲν ὀλίγον ὕστερον ὁ τῶν Ἀθηναίων δῆμος ἀξίαν ἀποδιδοὺς τιμήν εἰκόνα τε χαλκῆν ἀνέστησε καὶ τὸν πρεσβύτατον ἐψηφίσατο τῶν ἀπὸ γένους ἐν Πρυτανείῳ σίτησιν ἔχειν. καὶ τὸ ἐπίγραμμα τὸ θρυλούμενον ἐπεγράφη τῇ βάσει τοῦ ἀνδριάντος· εἴπερ ἴσην ῥώμην γνώμῃ, Δημόσθενες, εἶχες, οὔποτʼ ἂν Ἑλλήνων ἦρξεν Ἄρης Μακεδών. οἱ γὰρ αὐτὸν τὸν Δημοσθένην τοῦτο ποιῆσαι λέγοντες ἐν Καλαυρίᾳ, μέλλοντα τὸ φάρμακον προσφέρεσθαι, κομιδῇ φλυαροῦσι. 30.5.
94. Plutarch, Pelopidas, 33.8, 34.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 183
34.2. Ἀλέξανδρος δὲ ὁ μέγας Ἡφαιστίωνος ἀποθανόντος οὐ μόνον ἵππους ἔκειρε καὶ ἡμιόνους, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς ἐπάλξεις ἀφεῖλε τῶν τειχῶν, ὡς ἂν δοκοῖεν αἱ πόλεις πενθεῖν, ἀντὶ τῆς πρόσθεν μορφῆς κούριμον σχῆμα καὶ ἄτιμον ἀναλαμβάνουσαι. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν προστάγματα δεσποτῶν ὄντα, καὶ μετὰ πολλῆς ἀνάγκης περαινόμενα καὶ μετὰ φθόνου τῶν τυχόντων καὶ μίσους τῶν βιαζομένων, οὐδεμιᾶς χάριτος ἦν οὐδὲ τιμῆς, ὄγκου δὲ βαρβαρικοῦ καὶ τρυφῆς καὶ ἀλαζονείας ἐπίδειξις, εἰς κενὰ καὶ ἄζηλα τὴν περιουσίαν διατιθεμένων· 34.2. Alexander the Great, too, when Hephaestion died, not only sheared the manes of his horses and mules, but actually took away the battlements of the city-walls, in order that the cities might seem to be in mourning, assuming a shorn and dishevelled appearance instead of their former beauty. These honours, however, were dictated by despots, were performed under strong compulsion, and were attended with envy of those who received them and hatred of those who enforced them; they were a manifestation of no gratitude or esteem whatever, but of barbaric pomp and luxury and vain-glory, on the part of men who lavished their superfluous wealth on vain and sorry practices.
95. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.7, 19.5, 30.4-30.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 181, 188; Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
96. Plutarch, On Talkativeness, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Wilson (2012) 274
503e. drunkenness lives in the same house with it; or rather, drunkenness is madness, shorter in duration, but more culpable, because the will also is involved in it. And there is no fault so generally ascribed to drunkenness as that of intemperate and unlimited speech. "For wine," says the Poet, Urges a man to sing, though he be wise, And stirs to merry laughter and the dance. And what is here so very dreadful? Singing and laughing and dancing? Nothing so far— But it lets slip some word better unsaid: this is where the dreadful and dangerous part now comes in. And perhaps the Poet has here resolved the question debated by the philosophers,
97. New Testament, Colossians, 2.16, 2.18-2.23, 3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting, Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 86, 87; Huttner (2013) 128; Stuckenbruck (2007) 714
2.16. Μὴ οὖν τις ὑμᾶς κρινέτω ἐν βρώσει καὶ ἐν πόσει ἢ ἐν μέρει ἑορτῆς ἢ νεομηνίας ἢ σαββάτων, 2.18. μηδεὶς ὑμᾶς καταβραβευέτω θέλων ἐν ταπεινοφροσύνῃ καὶ θρησκείᾳ τῶν ἀγγέλων, ἃ ἑόρακεν ἐμβατεύων, εἰκῇ φυσιούμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ νοὸς τῆς σαρκὸς αὐτοῦ, 2.19. καὶ οὐ κρατῶν τὴν κεφαλήν, ἐξ οὗ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα διὰ τῶν ἁφῶν καὶ συνδέσμων ἐπιχορηγούμενον καὶ συνβιβαζόμενον αὔξει τὴν αὔξησιν τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.20. Εἰ ἀπεθάνετε σὺν Χριστῷ ἀπὸ τῶν στοιχείεν τοῦ κόσμου, τί ὡς ζῶντες ἐν κόσμῳ δογματίζεσθε 2.21. Μὴ ἅψῃ μηδὲ γεύσῃ μηδὲ θίγῃς, 2.22. ἅ ἐστιν πάντα εἰς φθορὰν τῇ ἀποχρήσει, κατὰ τὰἐντάλματα καὶ διδασκαλίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων; 2.23. ἅτινά ἐστιν λόγον μὲν ἔχοντα σο φίας ἐν ἐθελοθρησκίᾳ καὶ ταπεινοφροσύνῃ [καὶ] ἀφειδίᾳ σώματος, οὐκ ἐν τιμῇ τινὶ πρὸς πλησμονὴν τῆς σαρκός. 3.12. Ἐνδύσασθε οὖν ὡς ἐκλεκτοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ, ἅγιοι καὶ ἠγαπημένοι, σπλάγχνα οἰκτιρμοῦ, χρηστότητα, ταπεινοφροσύνην, πραΰτητα, μακροθυμίαν, 2.16. Let no man therefore judge you in eating, or in drinking, or with respect to a feast day or a new moon or a Sabbath day, 2.18. Let no one rob you of your prize by a voluntary humility and worshipping of the angels, dwelling in the things which he has not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind, 2.19. and not holding firmly to the Head, from whom all the body, being supplied and knit together through the joints and ligaments, grows with God's growth. 2.20. If you died with Christ from the elements of the world, why, as though living in the world, do you subject yourselves to ordices, 2.21. "Don't handle, nor taste, nor touch" 2.22. (all of which perish with use), according to the precepts and doctrines of men? 2.23. Which things indeed appear like wisdom in self-imposed worship, and humility, and severity to the body; but aren't of any value against the indulgence of the flesh. 3.12. Put on therefore, as God's elect, holy and beloved, a heart of compassion, kindness, lowliness, humility, and perseverance;
98. New Testament, Matthew, 4.1-4.4, 4.6-4.7, 4.9-4.10, 5.17-5.20, 5.46-5.47, 6.1-6.6, 6.16-6.18, 9.15-9.17, 12.39-12.40, 15.11, 18.17, 23.1-23.2, 23.16-23.23, 27.63 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •david, as fasting Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 254; Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 91, 92; Blidstein (2017) 80; Cain (2016) 169, 173; Lieu (2004) 132; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 461
4.1. Τότε [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς ἀνήχθη εἰς τὴν ἔρημον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος, πειρασθῆναι ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. 4.2. καὶ νηστεύσας ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα καὶ νύκτας τεσσεράκοντα ὕστερον ἐπείνασεν. 4.3. Καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ πειράζων εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὸν ἵνα οἱ λίθοι οὗτοι ἄρτοι γένωνται. 4.4. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Γέγραπται Οὐκ ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ἀλλʼ ἐπὶ παντὶ ῥήματι ἐκπορευομένῳ διὰ στόματος θεοῦ. 4.6. καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν κάτω· γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ καὶ ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε, μή ποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου. 4.7. ἔφη αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Πάλιν γέγραπται Οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου. 4.9. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ Ταῦτά σοι πάντα δώσω ἐὰν πεσὼν προσκυνήσῃς μοι. 4.10. τότε λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ὕπαγε, Σατανᾶ· γέγραπται γάρ Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις. 5.17. Μὴ νομίσητε ὅτι ἦλθον καταλῦσαι τὸν νόμον ἢ τοὺς προφήτας· οὐκ ἦλθον καταλῦσαι ἀλλὰ πληρῶσαι· 5.18. ἀμὴν γὰρ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἕως ἂν παρέλθῃ ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ, ἰῶτα ἓν ἢ μία κερέα οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου ἕως [ἂν] πάντα γένηται. 5.19. ὃς ἐὰν οὖν λύσῃ μίαν τῶν ἐντολῶν τούτων τῶν ἐλαχίστων καὶ διδάξῃ οὕτως τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ἐλάχιστος κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν· ὃς δʼ ἂν ποιήσῃ καὶ διδάξῃ, οὗτος μέγας κληθήσεται ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.20. λέγω γὰρ ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐὰν μὴ περισσεύσῃ ὑμῶν ἡ δικαιοσύνη πλεῖον τῶν γραμματέων καὶ Φαρισαίων, οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.46. ἐὰν γὰρ ἀγαπήσητε τοὺς ἀγαπῶντας ὑμᾶς, τίνα μισθὸν ἔχετε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ τελῶναι τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 5.47. καὶ ἐὰν ἀσπάσησθε τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς ὑμῶν μόνον, τί περισσὸν ποιεῖτε; οὐχὶ καὶ οἱ ἐθνικοὶ τὸ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσιν; 6.1. Προσέχετε [δὲ] τὴν δικαιοσύνην ὑμῶν μὴ ποιεῖν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρὸς τὸ θεαθῆναι αὐτοῖς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, μισθὸν οὐκ ἔχετε παρὰ τῷ πατρὶ ὑμῶν τῷ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς. 6.2. Ὅταν οὖν ποιῇς ἐλεημοσύνην, μὴ σαλπίσῃς ἔμπροσθέν σου, ὥσπερ οἱ ὑποκριταὶ ποιοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς ῥύμαις, ὅπως δοξασθῶσιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.3. σοῦ δὲ ποιοῦντος ἐλεημοσύνην μὴ γνώτω ἡ ἀριστερά σου τί ποιεῖ ἡ δεξιά σου, 6.4. ὅπως ᾖ σου ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι. 6.5. Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί· ὅτι φιλοῦσιν ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς καὶ ἐν ταῖς γωνίαις τῶν πλατειῶν ἑστῶτες προσεύχεσθαι, ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσι τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.6. σὺ δὲ ὅταν προσεύχῃ, εἴσελθε εἰς τὸ ταμεῖόν σου καὶ κλείσας τὴν θύραν σου πρόσευξαι τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ ἀποδώσει σοι. 6.16. Ὅταν δὲ νηστεύητε, μὴ γίνεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταὶ σκυθρωποί, ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύοντες· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.17. σὺ δὲ νηστεύων ἄλειψαί σου τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου νίψαι, 6.18. ὅπως μὴ φανῇς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύων ἀλλὰ τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ ἀποδώσει σοι. 9.15. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος πενθεῖν ἐφʼ ὅσον μετʼ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ὁ νυμφίος; ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν. 9.16. οὐδεὶς δὲ ἐπιβάλλει ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπὶ ἱματίῳ παλαιῷ· αἴρει γὰρ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱματίου, καὶ χεῖρον σχίσμα γίνεται. 9.17. οὐδὲ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήγνυνται οἱ ἀσκοί, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἐκχεῖται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπόλλυνται· ἀλλὰ βάλλουσιν οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς, καὶ ἀμφότεροι συντηροῦνται. 12.39. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Γενεὰ πονηρὰ καὶ μοιχαλὶς σημεῖον ἐπιζητεῖ, καὶ σημεῖον οὐ δοθήσεται αὐτῇ εἰ μὴ τὸ σημεῖον Ἰωνᾶ τοῦ προφήτου. 12.40. ὥσπερ γὰρ ἦν Ἰωνᾶς ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας, οὕτως ἔσται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ τῆς γῆς τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας. 15.11. οὐ τὸ εἰσερχόμενον εἰς τὸ στόμα κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀλλὰ τὸ ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκ τοῦ στόματος τοῦτο κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 18.17. ἐὰν δὲ παρακούσῃ αὐτῶν, εἰπὸν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ· ἐὰν δὲ καὶ τῆς ἐκκλησίας παρακούσῃ, ἔστω σοι ὥσπερ ὁ ἐθνικὸς καὶ ὁ τελώνης. 23.1. Τότε [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν τοῖς ὄχλοις καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ λέγων 23.2. Ἐπὶ τῆς Μωυσέως καθέδρας ἐκάθισαν οἱ γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι. 23.16. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, ὁδηγοὶ τυφλοὶ οἱ λέγοντες Ὃς ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ ναῷ, οὐδέν ἐστιν, ὃς δʼ ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ χρυσῷ τοῦ ναοῦ ὀφείλει· 23.17. μωροὶ καὶ τυφλοί, τίς γὰρ μείζων ἐστίν, ὁ χρυσὸς ἢ ὁ ναὸς ὁ ἁγιάσας τὸν χρυσόν; 23.18. καί Ὃς ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ, οὐδέν ἐστιν, ὃς δʼ ἂν ὀμόσῃ ἐν τῷ δώρῳ τῷ ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ ὀφείλει· 23.19. τυφλοί, τί γὰρ μεῖζον, τὸ δῶρον ἢ τὸ θυσιαστήριον τὸ ἁγιάζον τὸ δῶρον; 23.20. ὁ οὖν ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ θυσιαστηρίῳ ὀμνύει ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ· 23.21. καὶ ὁ ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ ναῷ ὀμνύει ἐν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν τῷ κατοικοῦντι αὐτόν· 23.22. καὶ ὁ ὀμόσας ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὀμνύει ἐν τῷ θρόνῳ τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ. 23.23. Οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, γραμματεῖς καὶ Φαρισαῖοι ὑποκριταί, ὅτι ἀποδεκατοῦτε τὸ ἡδύοσμον καὶ τὸ ἄνηθον καὶ τὸ κύμινον, καὶ ἀφήκατε τὰ βαρύτερα τοῦ νόμου, τὴν κρίσιν καὶ τὸ ἔλεος καὶ τὴν πίστιν· ταῦτα δὲ ἔδει ποιῆσαι κἀκεῖνα μὴ ἀφεῖναι. 27.63. λέγοντες Κύριε, ἐμνήσθημεν ὅτι ἐκεῖνος ὁ πλάνος εἶπεν ἔτι ζῶν Μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἐγείρομαι· 4.1. Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. 4.2. When he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was hungry afterward. 4.3. The tempter came and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command that these stones become bread." 4.4. But he answered, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God.'" 4.6. and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, throw yourself down, for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you.' and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, So that you don't dash your foot against a stone.'" 4.7. Jesus said to him, "Again, it is written, 'You shall not test the Lord, your God.'" 4.9. He said to him, "I will give you all of these things, if you will fall down and worship me." 4.10. Then Jesus said to him, "Get behind me, Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'" 5.17. "Don't think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn't come to destroy, but to fulfill. 5.18. For most assuredly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. 5.19. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.20. For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 6.1. "Be careful that you don't do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. 6.2. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don't sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.3. But when you do merciful deeds, don't let your left hand know what your right hand does, 6.4. so that your merciful deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.5. "When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.16. "Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 9.15. Jesus said to them, "Can the friends of the bridegroom mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then they will fast. 9.16. No one puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment; for the patch would tear away from the garment, and a worse hole is made. 9.17. Neither do people put new wine into old wineskins, or else the skins would burst, and the wine be spilled, and the skins ruined. No, they put new wine into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved." 12.39. But he answered them, "An evil and adulterous generation seeks after a sign, but no sign will be given it but the sign of Jonah the prophet. 12.40. For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 15.11. That which enters into the mouth doesn't defile the man; but that which proceeds out of the mouth, this defiles the man." 18.17. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 23.1. Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to his disciples, 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.16. "Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.20. He therefore who swears by the altar, swears by it, and by everything on it. 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.23. "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you tithe mint, dill, and cumin, and have left undone the weightier matters of the law: justice, mercy, and faith. But you ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 27.63. saying, "Sir, we remember what that deceiver said while he was still alive: 'After three days I will rise again.'
99. New Testament, James, 1.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
1.9. Καυχάσθω δὲ [ὁ] ἀδελφὸς ὁ ταπεινὸς ἐν τῷ ὕψει αὐτοῦ, 1.9. But let the brother in humble circumstances glory in his high position;
100. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.17, 4.1-4.12, 8.4, 10.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 509; Harkins and Maier (2022) 112; Putthoff (2016) 65; Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
2.17. Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου, καὶ δώσω αὐτῷ ψῆφον λευκήν, καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν ψῆφονὄνομα καινὸνγεγραμμένον ὃ οὐδεὶς οἶδεν εἰ μὴ ὁ λαμβάνων. 4.1. Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ θύρα ἠνεῳγμένη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἡ φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη ἣν ἤκουσα ὡςσάλπιγγοςλαλούσης μετʼ ἐμοῦ, λέγωνἈνάβαὧδε, καὶ δείξω σοιἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι. 4.2. μετὰ ταῦτα εὐθέως ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι· καὶ ἰδοὺ θρόνος ἔκειτο ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον καθήμενος, 4.3. καὶ ὁ καθήμενος ὅμοιος ὁράσει λίθῳ ἰάσπιδι καὶ σαρδίῳ, καὶἶρις κυκλόθεν τοῦ θρόνουὅμοιος ὁράσει σμαραγδίνῳ. 4.4. καὶ κυκλόθεν τοῦ θρόνου θρόνοι εἴκοσι τέσσαρες, καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς θρόνους εἴκοσι τέσσαρας πρεσβυτέρους καθημένους περιβεβλημένους ἱματίοις λευκοῖς, καὶ ἐπὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς αὐτῶν στεφάνους χρυσοῦς. 4.5. καὶ ἐκ τοῦ θρόνουἐκπορεύονται ἀστραπαὶ καὶ φωναὶκαὶβρονταί·καὶ ἑπτὰ λαμπάδες πυρὸς καιόμεναι ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, ἅ εἰσιν τὰ ἑπτὰ πνεύματα τοῦ θεοῦ, 4.6. καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ὡς θάλασσα ὑαλίνηὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ. καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ θρόνουκαὶκύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου τέσσερα ζῷα γέμοντα ὀφθαλμῶνἔμπροσθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν· 4.7. καὶ τὸ ζῷοντὸ πρῶτονὅμοιονλέοντι, καὶ τὸ δεύτερονζῷον ὅμοιονμόσχῳ, καὶ τὸ τρίτονζῷον ἔχωντὸ πρόσωπονὡςἀνθρώπου, καὶ τὸ τέταρτονζῷον ὅμοιονἀετῷπετομένῳ· 4.8. καὶ τὰ τέσσερα ζῷα,ἓν καθʼ ἓναὐτῶν ἔχωνἀνὰ πτέρυγας ἕξ, κυκλόθενκαὶ ἔσωθενγέμουσιν ὀφθαλμῶν·καὶ ἀνάπαυσιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς λέγοντες Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος, ὁ θεός, ὁ παντοκράτωρ, ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ὤν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος. 4.9. Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷκαθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου, τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, 4.10. πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦκαθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου,καὶ προσκυνήσουσιντῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, λέγοντες 4.11. 8.4. καὶ ἀνέβη ὁ καπνὸςτῶν θυμιαμάτων ταῖς προσευχαῖςτῶν ἁγίων ἐκ χειρὸς τοῦ ἀγγέλου ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ. 10.2. καὶ ἔχων ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ βιβλαρίδιον ἠνεῳγμένον. καὶ ἔθηκεν τὸν πόδα αὐτοῦ τὸν δεξιὸν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης, τὸν δὲ εὐώνυμον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ ἔκραξεν φωνῇ μεγάλῃ ὥσπερ λέων μυκᾶται. 2.17. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes, to him I will give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name written, which no one knows but he who receives it. 4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this." 4.2. Immediately I was in the Spirit. Behold, there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting on the throne 4.3. that looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. There was a rainbow around the throne, like an emerald to look at. 4.4. Around the throne were twenty-four thrones. On the thrones were twenty-four elders sitting, dressed in white garments, with crowns of gold on their heads. 4.5. Out of the throne proceed lightnings, sounds, and thunders. There were seven lamps of fire burning before his throne, which are the seven Spirits of God. 4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come!" 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever, 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying, 4.11. "Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created!" 8.4. The smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, went up before God out of the angel's hand. 10.2. He had in his hand a little book open. He set his right foot on the sea, and his left on the land.
101. New Testament, Acts, 9.9, 10.13, 27.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •apocryphal acts of the apostles, representations of fasting and asceticism •fasting Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 441; König (2012) 299, 302
9.9. καὶ ἦν ἡμέρας τρεῖς μὴ βλέπων, καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲ ἔπιεν. 10.13. καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ πρὸς αὐτόν Ἀναστάς, Πέτρε, θῦσον καὶ φάγε. 27.9. Ἱκανοῦ δὲ χρόνου διαγενομένου καὶ ὄντος ἤδη ἐπισφαλοῦς τοῦ πλοὸς διὰ τὸ καὶ τὴν νηστείαν ἤδη παρεληλυθέναι, παρῄνει ὁ Παῦλος λέγων αὐτοῖς 9.9. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat!" 27.9. When much time was spent, and the voyage was now dangerous, because the Fast had now already gone by, Paul admonished them,
102. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 199
3.8. ὃν τρόπον δὲ Ἰαννῆς καὶ Ἰαμβρῆς ἀντέστησαν Μωυσεῖ, οὕτως καὶ οὗτοι ἀνθίστανται τῇ ἀληθείᾳ, ἄνθρωποι κατεφθαρμένοι τὸν νοῦν, ἀδόκιμοι περὶ τὴν πίστιν. 3.8. Even as Jannes and Jambres opposed Moses, so do these also oppose the truth; men corrupted in mind, reprobate concerning the faith.
103. New Testament, Galatians, 2.12, 3.11, 4.14, 4.29, 5.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting, Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 256; Cain (2016) 169; Huttner (2013) 128; Lynskey (2021) 290, 319
2.12. πρὸ τοῦ γὰρ ἐλθεῖν τινὰς ἀπὸ Ἰακώβου μετὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν συνήσθιεν· ὅτε δὲ ἦλθον, ὑπέστελλεν καὶ ἀφώριζεν ἑαυτόν, φοβούμενος τοὺς ἐκ περιτομῆς. 3.11. ὅτι δὲ ἐν νόμῳ οὐδεὶς δικαιοῦται παρὰ τῷ θεῷ δῆλον, ὅτιὉ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται, 4.14. καὶ τὸν πειρασμὸν ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου οὐκ ἐξουθενήσατε οὐδὲ ἐξεπτύσατε, ἀλλὰ ὡς ἄγγελον θεοῦ ἐδέξασθέ με, ὡς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν. 4.29. ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. 5.16. Λέγω δέ, πνεύματι περιπατεῖτε καὶ ἐπιθυμίαν σαρκὸς οὐ μὴ τελέσητε. 2.12. For before some people came fromJames, he ate with the Gentiles. But when they came, he drew back andseparated himself, fearing those who were of the circumcision. 3.11. Now that no man is justified by the law before God isevident, for, "The righteous will live by faith." 4.14. That which was a temptation to you in my flesh,you didn't despise nor reject; but you received me as an angel of God,even as Christ Jesus. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 5.16. But I say, walk by the Spirit, and you won't fulfill the lust ofthe flesh.
104. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lampe (2003) 93
105. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 1.13, 4.1-4.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79, 192
1.13. τὸ πρότερον ὄντα βλάσφημον καὶ διώκτην καὶ ἱβριστήν· ἀλλὰ ἠλεήθην, ὅτι ἀγνοῶν ἐποίησα ἐν ἀπιστίᾳ, 4.1. Τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ῥητῶς λέγει ὅτι ἐν ὑστέροις καιροῖς ἀποστήσονταί τινες τῆς πίστεως, προσέχοντες πνεύμασι πλάνοις καὶ διδασκαλίαις δαιμονίων 4.2. ἐν ὑποκρίσει ψευδολόγων, κεκαυστηριασμένων τὴν ἰδίαν συνείδησιν, 4.3. κωλυόντων γαμεῖν, ἀπέχεσθαι βρωμάτων ἃ ὁ θεὸς ἔκτισεν εἰς μετάλημψιν μετὰ εὐχαριστίας τοῖς πιστοῖς καὶ ἐπεγνωκόσι τὴν ἀλήθειαν. 4.4. ὅτι πᾶν κτίσμα θεοῦ καλόν, καὶ οὐδὲν ἀπόβλητον μετὰ εὐχαριστίας λαμβανόμενον, 4.5. ἁγιάζεται γὰρ διὰ λόγου θεοῦ καὶ ἐντεύξεως. 1.13. although I was before a blasphemer, a persecutor, and insolent. However, I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief. 4.1. But the Spirit says expressly that in later times some will fall away from the faith, paying attention to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons, 4.2. through the hypocrisy of men who speak lies, branded in their own conscience as with a hot iron; 4.3. forbidding marriage and commanding to abstain from foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4.4. For every creature of God is good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it is received with thanksgiving. 4.5. For it is sanctified through the word of God and prayer.
106. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.2, 3.2-3.3, 10.26-10.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79, 192; Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
1.2. τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ οὔσῃ ἐν Κορίνθῳ, ἡγιασμένοις ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, κλητοῖς ἁγίοις, σὺν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐπικαλουμένοις τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐν παντὶ τόπῳ αὐτῶν καὶ ἡμῶν· 3.2. γάλα ὑμᾶς ἐπότισα, οὐ βρῶμα, οὔπω γὰρ ἐδύνασθε. 3.3. Ἀλλʼ οὐδὲ [ἔτι] νῦν δύνασθε, ἔτι γὰρ σαρκικοί ἐστε. ὅπου γὰρ ἐν ὑμῖν ζῆλος καὶ ἔρις, οὐχὶ σαρκικοί ἐστε καὶ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον περιπατεῖτε; 10.26. τοῦ κυρίουγὰρἡ γῆ καὶ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτῆς. 10.27. εἴ τις καλεῖ ὑμᾶς τῶν ἀπίστων καὶ θέλετε πορεύεσθαι, πᾶν τὸ παρατιθέμενον ὑμῖν ἐσθίετε μηδὲν ἀνακρίνοντες διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν· 10.28. ἐὰν δέ τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ Τοῦτο ἱερόθυτόν ἐστιν, μὴ ἐσθίετε διʼ ἐκεῖνον τὸν μηνύσαντα καὶ τὴν συνείδησιν· 10.29. συνείδησιν δὲ λέγω οὐχὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀλλὰ τὴν τοῦ ἑτέρου· ἵνα τί γὰρ ἡ ἐλευθερία μου κρίνεται ὑπὸ ἄλλης συνειδήσεως; 10.30. εἰ ἐγὼ χάριτι μετέχω, τί βλασφημοῦμαι ὑπὲρ οὗ ἐγὼ εὐχαριστῶ; 10.31. Εἴτε οὖν ἐσθίετε εἴτε πίνετε εἴτε τι ποιεῖτε, πάντα εἰς δόξαν θεοῦ ποιεῖτε. 1.2. to the assembly of God whichis at Corinth; those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to besaints, with all who call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ in everyplace, both theirs and ours: 3.2. I fed you with milk, not withmeat; for you weren't yet ready. Indeed, not even now are you ready, 3.3. for you are still fleshly. For insofar as there is jealousy,strife, and factions among you, aren't you fleshly, and don't you walkin the ways of men? 10.26. for "the earth is the Lord's, andits fullness." 10.27. But if one of those who don't believe invitesyou to a meal, and you are inclined to go, eat whatever is set beforeyou, asking no questions for the sake of conscience. 10.28. But ifanyone says to you, "This was offered to idols," don't eat it for thesake of the one who told you, and for the sake of conscience. For "theearth is the Lord's, and all its fullness." 10.29. Conscience, I say,not your own, but the other's conscience. For why is my liberty judgedby another conscience? 10.30. If I partake with thankfulness, why am Idenounced for that for which I give thanks? 10.31. Whether thereforeyou eat, or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God.
107. New Testament, Hebrews, 1.9, 5.12-5.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •david, as fasting •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 459
1.9. 5.12. καὶ γὰρ ὀφείλοντες εἶναι διδάσκαλοι διὰ τὸν χρόνον, πάλιν χρείαν ἔχετε τοῦ διδάσκειν ὑμᾶς τινὰ τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς τῶν λογίων τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ γεγόνατε χρείαν ἔχοντες γάλακτος, οὐ στερεᾶς τροφῆς. 5.13. πᾶς γὰρ ὁ μετέχων γάλακτος ἄπειρος λόγου δικαιοσύνης, νήπιος γάρ ἐστιν· 5.14. τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή, τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα ἐχόντων πρὸς διάκρισιν καλοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ. 1.9. You have loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; Therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows." 5.12. For when by reason of the time you ought to be teachers, you again need to have someone teach you the rudiments of the first principles of the oracles of God. You have come to need milk, and not solid food. 5.13. For everyone who lives on milk is not experienced in the word of righteousness, for he is a baby. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil.
108. New Testament, 1 Peter, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
2.2. ὡς ἀρτιγέννητα βρέφη τὸ λογικὸν ἄδολον γάλα ἐπιποθήσατε, ἵνα ἐν αὐτῷ αὐξηθῆτε εἰς σωτηρίαν, 2.2. as newborn babes, long for the pure milk of the Word, that you may grow thereby,
109. Anon., Didache, 1, 1.4, 2, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7-4.14, 4, 5, 6, 6.1, 6.3, 7, 7.1, 8, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2, 11.3, 13, 2018-01-0600:00:00 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lieu (2004) 132
13. But every true prophet that wills to abide among you is worthy of his support. So also a true teacher is himself worthy, as the workman, of his support. Matthew 10:10; cf. Luke 10:7 Every first-fruit, therefore, of the products of wine-press and threshing-floor, of oxen and of sheep, you shall take and give to the prophets, for they are your high priests. But if you have not a prophet, give it to the poor. If you make a batch of dough, take the first-fruit and give according to the commandment. So also when you open a jar of wine or of oil, take the first-fruit and give it to the prophets; and of money (silver) and clothing and every possession, take the first-fruit, as it may seem good to you, and give according to the commandment.
110. Mishnah, Sukkah, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 333
5.4. "חֲסִידִים וְאַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה הָיוּ מְרַקְּדִים לִפְנֵיהֶם בַּאֲבוּקוֹת שֶׁל אוֹר שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶן, וְאוֹמְרִים לִפְנֵיהֶן דִּבְרֵי שִׁירוֹת וְתִשְׁבָּחוֹת. וְהַלְוִיִּם בְּכִנּוֹרוֹת וּבִנְבָלִים וּבִמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבַחֲצוֹצְרוֹת וּבִכְלֵי שִׁיר בְּלֹא מִסְפָּר, עַל חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת הַיּוֹרְדוֹת מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, כְּנֶגֶד חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שִׁיר הַמַּעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּהִלִּים, שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן לְוִיִּים עוֹמְדִין בִּכְלֵי שִׁיר וְאוֹמְרִים שִׁירָה. וְעָמְדוּ שְׁנֵי כֹהֲנִים בַּשַּׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיּוֹרֵד מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת נָשִׁים, וּשְׁתֵּי חֲצוֹצְרוֹת בִּידֵיהֶן. קָרָא הַגֶּבֶר, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לְמַעְלָה עֲשִׂירִית, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הִגִּיעוּ לָעֲזָרָה, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. הָיוּ תוֹקְעִין וְהוֹלְכִין, עַד שֶׁמַּגִּיעִין לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִזְרָח. הִגִּיעוּ לַשַּׁעַר הַיּוֹצֵא מִמִּזְרָח, הָפְכוּ פְנֵיהֶן לַמַּעֲרָב, וְאָמְרוּ, אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁהָיוּ בַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם אֶל הֵיכַל ה' וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה, וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִים קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ, וְאָנוּ לְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הָיוּ שׁוֹנִין וְאוֹמְרִין, אָנוּ לְיָהּ, וּלְיָהּ עֵינֵינוּ: \n", 5.4. "Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”",
111. New Testament, Romans, 2.21-2.22, 14.5-14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 441; Blidstein (2017) 79; Lieu (2004) 133
2.21. ὁ οὖν διδάσκων ἕτερον σεαυτὸν οὐ διδάσκεις; ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν κλέπτεις; 2.22. ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν μοιχεύεις; ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα ἱεροσυλεῖς; 14.5. ὃς μὲν [γὰρ] κρίνει ἡμέραν παρʼ ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει πᾶσαν ἡμέραν· ἕκαστος ἐν τῷ ἰδίῳ νοῒ πληροφορείσθω· 14.6. ὁ φρονῶν τὴν ἡμέραν κυρίῳ φρονεῖ. καὶ ὁ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ ἐσθίει, εὐχαριστεῖ γὰρ τῷ θεῷ· καὶ ὁ μὴ ἐσθίων κυρίῳ οὐκ ἐσθίει, καὶ εὐχαριστεῖ τῷ θεῷ. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 14.5. One man esteems one day as more important. Another esteems every day alike. Let each man be fully assured in his own mind. 14.6. He who observes the day, observes it to the Lord; and he who does not observe the day, to the Lord he does not observe it. He who eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks. He who doesn't eat, to the Lord he doesn't eat, and gives God thanks.
112. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement;
113. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.279 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 304
3.279. And on this account it is that those who wear the sacerdotal garments are without spot, and eminent for their purity and sobriety: nor are they permitted to drink wine so long as they wear those garments. Moreover, they offer sacrifices that are entire, and have no defect whatsoever.
114. New Testament, Titus, 1.10-1.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
1.10. Εἰσὶν γὰρ πολλοὶ ἀνυπότακτοι, ματαιολόγοι καὶ φρεναπάται, μάλιστα οἱ ἐκ τῆς περιτομῆς, 1.11. οὓς δεῖ ἐπιστομίζειν, οἵτινες ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπουσιν διδάσκοντες ἃ μὴ δεῖ αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν. 1.12. εἶπέν τις ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἴδιος αὐτῶν προφήτης, Κρῆτες ἀεὶ ψεῦσται, κακὰ θηρία, γαστέρες ἀργαί· 1.13. ἡ μαρτυρία αὕτη ἐστὶν ἀληθής. διʼ ἣν αἰτίαν ἔλεγχε αὐτοὺς ἀποτόμως, 1.14. ἵνα ὑγιαίνωσιν [ἐν] τῇ πίστει, μὴ προσέχοντες Ἰουδαϊκοῖς μύθοις καὶ ἐντολαῖς ἀνθρώπων ἀποστρεφομένων τὴν ἀλήθειαν. 1.15. πάντα καθαρὰ τοῖς καθαροῖς· τοῖς δὲ μεμιαμμένοις καὶ ἀπίστοις οὐδὲν καθαρόν, ἀλλὰ μεμίανται αὐτῶν καὶ ὁ νοῦς καὶ ἡ συνείδησις. 1.16. θεὸν ὁμολογοῦσιν εἰδέναι, τοῖς δὲ ἔργοις ἀρνοῦνται, βδελυκτοὶ ὄντες καὶ ἀπειθεῖς καὶ πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἀδόκιμοι. 1.10. For there are also many unruly men, vain talkers and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, 1.11. whose mouths must be stopped; men who overthrow whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for dishonest gain's sake. 1.12. One of them, a prophet of their own, said, "Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons." 1.13. This testimony is true. For this cause, reprove them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith, 1.14. not paying attention to Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 1.15. To the pure, all things are pure; but to those who are defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 1.16. They profess that they know God, but by their works they deny him, being abominable, disobedient, and unfit for any good work.
115. New Testament, John, 6.52-6.66, 19.28-19.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •apocryphal acts of the apostles, representations of fasting and asceticism •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 89; Blidstein (2017) 78; König (2012) 299; Taylor and Hay (2020) 213
6.52. Ἐμάχοντο οὖν πρὸς ἀλλήλους οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι λέγοντες Πῶς δύναται οὗτος ἡμῖν δοῦναι τὴν σάρκα [αὐτοῦ] φαγεῖν; 6.53. εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς. 6.54. ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἔχει ζωὴν αἰώνιον, κἀγὼ ἀναστήσω αὐτὸν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ ἡμέρᾳ· 6.55. ἡ γὰρ σάρξ μου ἀληθής ἐστι βρῶσις, καὶ τὸ αἷμά μου ἀληθής ἐστι πόσις. 6.56. ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μένει κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ. 6.57. καθὼς ἀπέστειλέν με ὁ ζῶν πατὴρ κἀγὼ ζῶ διὰ τὸν πατέρα, καὶ ὁ τρώγων με κἀκεῖνος ζήσει διʼ ἐμέ. 6.58. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ἐξ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, οὐ καθὼς ἔφαγον οἱ πατέρες καὶ ἀπέθανον· ὁ τρώγων τοῦτον τὸν ἄρτον ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. 6.59. Ταῦτα εἶπεν ἐν συναγωγῇ διδάσκων ἐν Καφαρναούμ. 6.60. Πολλοὶ οὖν ἀκούσαντες ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ εἶπαν Σκληρός ἐστιν ὁ λόγος οὗτος· τίς δύναται αὐτοῦ ἀκούειν; 6.61. εἰδὼς δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐν ἑαυτῷ ὅτι γογγύζουσιν περὶ τούτου οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τοῦτο ὑμᾶς σκανδαλίζει; 6.62. ἐὰν οὖν θεωρῆτε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀναβαίνοντα ὅπου ἦν τὸ πρότερον; 6.63. τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν τὸ ζωοποιοῦν, ἡ σὰρξ οὐκ ὠφελεῖ οὐδέν· τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἐγὼ λελάληκα ὑμῖν πνεῦμά ἐστιν καὶ ζωή ἐστιν· 6.64. ἀλλὰ εἰσὶν ἐξ ὑμῶν τινὲς οἳ οὐ πιστεύουσιν. Ἤιδει γὰρ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τίνες εἰσὶν οἱ μὴ πιστεύοντες καὶ τίς ἐστιν ὁ παραδώσων αὐτόν. 6.65. καὶ ἔλεγεν Διὰ τοῦτο εἴρηκα ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐδεὶς δύναται ἐλθεῖν πρός με ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ δεδομένον αὐτῷ ἐκ τοῦ πατρός. 6.66. Ἐκ τούτου πολλοὶ ἐκ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω καὶ οὐκέτι μετʼ αὐτοῦ περιεπάτουν. 19.28. Μετὰ τοῦτο εἰδὼς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἤδη πάντα τετέλεσται ἵνα τελειωθῇ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει Διψῶ. 19.29. σκεῦος ἔκειτο ὄξους μεστόν· σπόγγον οὖν μεστὸν τοῦ ὄξους ὑσσώπῳ περιθέντες προσήνεγκαν αὐτοῦ τῷ στόματι. 19.30. ὅτε οὖν ἔλαβεν τὸ ὄξος [ὁ] Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν Τετέλεσται, καὶ κλίνας τὴν κεφαλὴν παρέδωκεν τὸ πνεῦμα. 6.52. The Jews therefore contended with one another, saying, "How can this man give us his flesh to eat?" 6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don't have life in yourselves. 6.54. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. 6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. 6.56. He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood lives in me, and I in him. 6.57. As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father; so he who feeds on me, he will also live because of me. 6.58. This is the bread which came down out of heaven -- not as our fathers ate the manna, and died. He who eats this bread will live forever." 6.59. These things he said in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. 6.60. Therefore many of his disciples, when they heard this, said, "This is a hard saying! Who can listen to it?" 6.61. But Jesus knowing in himself that his disciples murmured at this, said to them, "Does this cause you to stumble? 6.62. Then what if you would see the Son of Man ascending to where he was before? 6.63. It is the spirit who gives life. The flesh profits nothing. The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life. 6.64. But there are some of you who don't believe." For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were who didn't believe, and who it was who would betray him. 6.65. He said, "For this cause have I said to you that no one can come to me, unless it is given to him by my Father." 6.66. At this, many of his disciples went back, and walked no more with him. 19.28. After this, Jesus, seeing that all things were now finished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, said, "I am thirsty." 19.29. Now a vessel full of vinegar was set there; so they put a sponge full of the vinegar on hyssop, and held it at his mouth. 19.30. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, "It is finished." He bowed his head, and gave up his spirit.
116. New Testament, Luke, 1.52, 2.36-2.37, 4.1-4.4, 4.7-4.12, 5.34, 5.36-5.38 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 254; Cain (2016) 169, 173; Gera (2014) 265; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715
1.52. καθεῖλεν δυνάστας ἀπὸ θρόνων καὶ ὕψωσεν ταπεινούς, 2.36. Καὶ ἦν Ἅννα προφῆτις, θυγάτηρ Φανουήλ, ἐκ φυλῆς Ἀσήρ,?̔αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς, ζήσασα μετὰ ἀνδρὸς ἔτη ἑπτὰ ἀπὸ τῆς παρθενίας αὐτῆς, 2.37. καὶ αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων?̓ ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν. 4.1. Ἰησοῦς δὲ πλήρης πνεύματος ἁγίου ὑπέστρεψεν ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, καὶ ἤγετο ἐν τῷ πνεύματι ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ 4.2. ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου. Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις, καὶ συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν. 4.3. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ διάβολος Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, εἰπὲ τῷ λίθῳ τούτῳ ἵνα γένηται ἄρτος. 4.4. καὶ ἀπεκρίθη πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Ἰησοῦς Γέγραπται ὅτι Οὐκ ἐπʼ ἄρτῳ μόνῳ ζήσεται ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 4.7. σὺ οὖν ἐὰν προσκυνήσῃς ἐνώπιον ἐμοῦ, ἔσται σοῦ πᾶσα. 4.8. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Γέγραπται Κύριον τὸν θεόν σου προσκυνήσεις καὶ αὐτῷ μόνῳ λατρεύσεις. 4.9. Ἤγαγεν δὲ αὐτὸν εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ ἔστησεν ἐπὶ τὸ πτερύγιον τοῦ ἱεροῦ, καὶ εἶπεν [αὐτῷ] Εἰ υἱὸς εἶ τοῦ θεοῦ, βάλε σεαυτὸν ἐντεῦθεν κάτω· 4.10. γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ ἐντελεῖται περὶ σοῦ τοῦ διαφυλάξαι σε, 4.11. καὶ ὅτι ἐπὶ χειρῶν ἀροῦσίν σε μή ποτε προσκόψῃς πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα σου. 4.12. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Εἴρηται 5.34. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Μὴ δύνασθε τοὺς υἱοὺς τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ποιῆσαι νηστεῦσαι; 5.36. Ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ παραβολὴν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ἀπὸ ἱματίου καινοῦ σχίσας ἐπιβάλλει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν· εἰ δὲ μήγε, καὶ τὸ καινὸν σχίσει καὶ τῷ παλαιῷ οὐ συμφωνήσει τὸ ἐπίβλημα τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ καινοῦ. 5.37. καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μήγε, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος ὁ νέος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐκχυθήσεται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοὶ ἀπολοῦνται· 5.38. ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινοὺς βλητέον. 1.52. He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. 2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 4.1. Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness 4.2. for forty days, being tempted by the devil. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 4.3. The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread." 4.4. Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.'" 4.7. If you therefore will worship before me, it will all be yours." 4.8. Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve.'" 4.9. He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here, 4.10. for it is written, 'He will give his angels charge concerning you, to guard you;' 4.11. and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, Lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.'" 4.12. Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt the Lord your God.'" 5.34. He said to them, "Can you make the friends of the bridegroom fast, while the bridegroom is with them? 5.36. He also told a parable to them. "No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old garment, or else he will tear the new, and also the piece from the new will not match the old. 5.37. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed. 5.38. But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved.
117. New Testament, Mark, 1.12, 2.1-2.28, 3.1-3.9, 3.20-3.35, 4.35-4.41, 5.1-5.10, 5.14-5.20, 6.1-6.6, 6.14-6.52, 7.14-7.15, 7.17-7.23, 8.1-8.12, 8.20-8.21, 15.38, 15.42 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 254, 256; Blidstein (2017) 80; Cain (2016) 169; Gera (2014) 266; Putthoff (2016) 65
1.12. Καὶ εὐθὺς τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτὸν ἐκβάλλει εἰς τὴν ἔρημον. 2.1. Καὶ εἰσελθὼν πάλιν εἰς Καφαρναοὺμ διʼ ἡμερῶν ἠκούσθη ὅτι ἐν οἴκῳ ἐστίν· 2.2. καὶ συνήχθησαν πολλοὶ ὥστε μηκέτι χωρεῖν μηδὲ τὰ πρὸς τὴν θύραν, καὶ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς τὸν λόγον. 2.3. καὶ ἔρχονται φέροντες πρὸς αὐτὸν παραλυτικὸν αἰρόμενον ὑπὸ τεσσάρων. 2.4. καὶ μὴ δυνάμενοι προσενέγκαι αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄχλον ἀπεστέγασαν τὴν στέγην ὅπου ἦν, καὶ ἐξορύξαντες χαλῶσι τὸν κράβαττον ὅπου ὁ παραλυτικὸς κατέκειτο. 2.5. καὶ ἰδὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν πίστιν αὐτῶν λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ Τέκνον, ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι. 2.6. ἦσαν δέ τινες τῶν γραμματέων ἐκεῖ καθήμενοι καὶ διαλογιζόμενοι ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν 2.7. Τί οὗτος οὕτω λαλεῖ; βλασφημεῖ· τίς δύναται ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός; 2.8. καὶ εὐθὺς ἐπιγνοὺς ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ ὅτι [οὕτως] διαλογίζονται ἐν ἑαυτοῖς λέγει [αὐτοῖς] Τί ταῦτα διαλογίζεσθε ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ὑμῶν; 2.9. τί ἐστιν εὐκοπώτερον, εἰπεῖν τῷ παραλυτικῷ Ἀφίενταί σου αἱ ἁμαρτίαι, ἢ εἰπεῖν Ἐγείρου [καὶ] ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ περιπάτει; 2.10. ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχει ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀφιέναι ἁμαρτίας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς — λέγει τῷ παραλυτικῷ 2.11. Σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε ἆρον τὸν κράβαττόν σου καὶ ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου. 2.12. καὶ ἠγέρθη καὶ εὐθὺς ἄρας τὸν κράβαττον ἐξῆλθεν ἔμπροσθεν πάντων, ὥστε ἐξίστασθαι πάντας καὶ δοξάζειν τὸν θεὸν [λέγοντας] ὅτι Οὕτως οὐδέποτε εἴδαμεν. 2.13. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν· καὶ πᾶς ὁ ὄχλος ἤρχετο πρὸς αὐτόν, καὶ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτούς. 2.14. Καὶ παράγων εἶδεν Λευεὶν τὸν τοῦ Ἁλφαίου καθήμενον ἐπὶ τὸ τελώνιον, καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Ἀκολούθει μοι. καὶ ἀναστὰς ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ. 2.15. Καὶ γίνεται κατακεῖσθαι αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ, καὶ πολλοὶ τελῶναι καὶ ἁμαρτωλοὶ συνανέκειντο τῷ Ἰησοῦ καὶ τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, ἦσαν γὰρ πολλοὶ καὶ ἠκολούθουν αὐτῷ. 2.16. καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς τῶν Φαρισαίων ἰδόντες ὅτι ἐσθίει μετὰ τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν καὶ τελωνῶν ἔλεγον τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ Ὅτι μετὰ τῶν τελωνῶν καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν ἐσθίει; 2.17. καὶ ἀκούσας ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει αὐτοῖς [ὅτι] Οὐ χρείαν ἔχουσιν οἱ ἰσχύοντες ἰατροῦ ἀλλʼ οἱ κακῶς ἔχοντες· οὐκ ἦλθον καλέσαι δικαίους ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλούς. 2.18. Καὶ ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι νηστεύοντες. καὶ ἔρχονται καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διὰ τί οἱ μαθηταὶ Ἰωάνου καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ τῶν Φαρισαίων νηστεύουσιν, οἱ δὲ σοὶ [μαθηταὶ] οὐ νηστεύουσιν; 2.19. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Μὴ δύνανται οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ νυμφῶνος ἐν ᾧ ὁ νυμφίος μετʼ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν νηστεύειν; ὅσον χρόνον ἔχουσιν τὸν νυμφίον μετʼ αὐτῶν οὐ δύνανται νηστεύειν· 2.20. ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι ὅταν ἀπαρθῇ ἀπʼ αὐτῶν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ τότε νηστεύσουσιν ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ. 2.21. οὐδεὶς ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπιράπτει ἐπὶ ἱμάτιον παλαιόν· εἰ δὲ μή, αἴρει τὸ πλήρωμα ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ τὸ καινὸν τοῦ παλαιοῦ, καὶ χεῖρον σχίσμα γίνεται. 2.22. καὶ οὐδεὶς βάλλει οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς παλαιούς· εἰ δὲ μή, ῥήξει ὁ οἶνος τοὺς ἀσκούς, καὶ ὁ οἶνος ἀπόλλυται καὶ οἱ ἀσκοί· [ἀλλὰ οἶνον νέον εἰς ἀσκοὺς καινούς.] 2.23. Καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν διαπορεύεσθαι διὰ τῶν σπορίμων, καὶ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν τίλλοντες τοὺς στάχυας. 2.24. καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι ἔλεγον αὐτῷ Ἴδε τί ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν; 2.25. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Οὐδέποτε ἀνέγνωτε τί ἐποίησεν Δαυεὶδ ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ ἐπείνασεν αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ; 2.26. [πῶς] εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως καὶ τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως ἔφαγεν, οὓς οὐκ ἔξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς, καὶ ἔδωκεν καὶ τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν; 2.27. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Τὸ σάββατον διὰ τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο καὶ οὐχ ὁ ἄνθρωπος διὰ τὸ σάββατον· 2.28. ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου. 3.1. Καὶ εἰσῆλθεν πάλιν εἰς συναγωγήν, καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ ἄνθρωπος ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα· 3.2. καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτὸν εἰ τοῖς σάββασιν θεραπεύσει αὐτόν, ἵνα κατηγορήσωσιν αὐτοῦ. 3.3. καὶ λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ τὴν χεῖρα ἔχοντι ξηράν Ἔγειρε εἰς τὸ μέσον. 3.4. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Ἔξεστιν τοῖς σάββασιν ἀγαθοποιῆσαι ἢ κακοποιῆσαι, ψυχὴν σῶσαι ἢ ἀποκτεῖναι; οἱ δὲ ἐσιώπων. 3.5. καὶ περιβλεψάμενος αὐτοὺς μετʼ ὀργῆς, συνλυπούμενος ἐπὶ τῇ πωρώσει τῆς καρδίας αὐτῶν, λέγει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ Ἔκτεινον τὴν χεῖρά σου· καὶ ἐξέτεινεν, καὶ ἀπεκατεστάθη ἡ χεὶρ αὐτοῦ. 3.6. Καὶ ἐξελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν συμβούλιον ἐδίδουν κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 3.7. Καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἀνεχώρησεν πρὸς τὴν θάλασσαν· καὶ πολὺ πλῆθος ἀπὸ τῆς Γαλιλαίας ἠκολούθησεν, 3.8. καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰουδαίας καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς Ἰδουμαίας καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου καὶ περὶ Τύρον καὶ Σιδῶνα, πλῆθος πολύ, ἀκούοντες ὅσα ποιεῖ ἦλθαν πρὸς αὐτόν. 3.9. καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα πλοιάριον προσκαρτερῇ αὐτῷ διὰ τὸν ὄχλον ἵνα μὴ θλίβωσιν αὐτόν· 3.20. Καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς οἶκον· καὶ συνέρχεται πάλιν [ὁ] ὄχλος, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι αὐτοὺς μηδὲ ἄρτον φαγεῖν. 3.21. καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ παρʼ αὐτοῦ ἐξῆλθον κρατῆσαι αὐτόν, ἔλεγον γὰρ ὅτι ἐξέστη. 3.22. καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς οἱ ἀπὸ Ἰεροσολύμων καταβάντες ἔλεγον ὅτι Βεεζεβοὺλ ἔχει, καὶ ὅτι ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια. 3.23. καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος αὐτοὺς ἐν παραβολαῖς ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Πῶς δύναται Σατανᾶς Σατανᾶν ἐκβάλλειν; 3.24. καὶ ἐὰν βασιλεία ἐφʼ ἑαυτὴν μερισθῇ, οὐ δύναται σταθῆναι ἡ βασιλεία ἐκείνη· 3.25. καὶ ἐὰν οἰκία ἐφʼ ἑαυτὴν μερισθῇ, οὐ δυνήσεται ἡ οἰκία ἐκείνη στῆναι· 3.26. καὶ εἰ ὁ Σατανᾶς ἀνέστη ἐφʼ ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἐμερίσθη, οὐ δύναται στῆναι ἀλλὰ τέλος ἔχει. 3.27. ἀλλʼ οὐ δύναται οὐδεὶς εἰς τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ ἰσχυροῦ εἰσελθὼν τὰ σκεύη αὐτοῦ διαρπάσαι ἐὰν μὴ πρῶτον τὸν ἰσχυρὸν δήσῃ, καὶ τότε τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ διαρπάσει. 3.28. Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι πάντα ἀφεθήσεται τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, τὰ ἁμαρτήματα καὶ αἱ βλασφημίαι ὅσα ἐὰν βλασφημήσωσιν· 3.29. ὃς δʼ ἂν βλασφημήσῃ εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, οὐκ ἔχει ἄφεσιν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, ἀλλὰ ἔνοχός ἐστιν αἰωνίου ἁμαρτήματος. 3.30. ὅτι ἔλεγον Πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον ἔχει. 3.31. Καὶ ἔρχονται ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔξω στήκοντες ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν καλοῦντες αὐτόν. 3.32. καὶ ἐκάθητο περὶ αὐτὸν ὄχλος, καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ἰδοὺ ἡ μήτηρ σου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί σου ἔξω ζητοῦσίν σε. 3.33. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς αὐτοῖς λέγει Τίς ἐστιν ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί; 3.34. καὶ περιβλεψάμενος τοὺς περὶ αὐτὸν κύκλῳ καθημένους λέγει Ἴδε ἡ μήτηρ μου καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοί μου· 3.35. ὃς ἂν ποιήσῃ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ, οὗτος ἀδελφός μου καὶ ἀδελφὴ καὶ μήτηρ ἐστίν. 4.35. Καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ὀψίας γενομένης Διέλθωμεν εἰς τὸ πέραν. 4.36. καὶ ἀφέντες τὸν ὄχλον παραλαμβάνουσιν αὐτὸν ὡς ἦν ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ, καὶ ἄλλα πλοῖα ἦν μετʼ αὐτοῦ. 4.37. καὶ γίνεται λαῖλαψ μεγάλη ἀνέμου, καὶ τὰ κύματα ἐπέβαλλεν εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, ὥστε ἤδη γεμίζεσθαι τὸ πλοῖον. 4.38. καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἐν τῇ πρύμνῃ ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφάλαιον καθεύδων· καὶ ἐγείρουσιν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Διδάσκαλε, οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἀπολλύμεθα; 4.39. καὶ διεγερθεὶς ἐπετίμησεν τῷ ἀνέμῳ καὶ εἶπεν τῇ θαλάσσῃ Σιώπα, πεφίμωσο. καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος, καὶ ἐγένετο γαλήνη μεγάλη. 4.40. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τί δειλοί ἐστε; οὔπω ἔχετε πίστιν; 4.41. καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν φόβον μέγαν, καὶ ἔλεγον πρὸς ἀλλήλους Τίς ἄρα οὗτός ἐστιν ὅτι καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος καὶ ἡ θάλασσα ὑπακούει αὐτῷ; 5.1. Καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὸ πέραν τῆς θαλάσσης εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Γερασηνῶν. 5.2. καὶ ἐξελθόντος αὐτοῦ ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου [εὐθὺς] ὑπήντησεν αὐτῷ ἐκ τῶν μνημείων ἄνθρωπος ἐν πνεύματι ἀκαθάρτῳ, 5.3. ὃς τὴν κατοίκησιν εἶχεν ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν, καὶ οὐδὲ ἁλύσει οὐκέτι οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο αὐτὸν δῆσαι 5.4. διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν πολλάκις πέδαις καὶ ἁλύσεσι δεδέσθαι καὶ διεσπάσθαι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ τὰς ἁλύσεις καὶ τὰς πέδας συντετρίφθαι, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἴσχυεν αὐτὸν δαμάσαι· 5.5. καὶ διὰ παντὸς νυκτὸς καὶ ἡμέρας ἐν τοῖς μνήμασιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν ἦν κράζων καὶ κατακόπτων ἑαυτὸν λίθοις. 5.6. καὶ ἰδὼν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἔδραμεν καὶ προσεκύνησεν αὐτόν, 5.7. καὶ κράξας φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγει Τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ υἱὲ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ὑψίστου; ὁρκίζω δε τὸν θεόν, μή με βασανίσῃς. 5.8. ἔλεγεν γὰρ αὐτῷ Ἔξελθε τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἀκάθαρτον ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. 5.9. καὶ ἐπηρώτα αὐτόν Τί ὄνομά σοι; καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ Λεγιὼν ὄνομά μοι, ὅτι πολλοί ἐσμεν· 5.10. καὶ παρεκάλει αὐτὸν πολλὰ ἵνα μὴ αὐτὰ ἀποστείλῃ ἔξω τῆς χώρας. 5.14. Καὶ οἱ βόσκοντες αὐτοὺς ἔφυγον καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν εἰς τὴν πόλιν καὶ εἰς τοὺς ἀγρούς· καὶ ἦλθον ἰδεῖν τί ἐστιν τὸ γεγονός. 5.15. καὶ ἔρχονται πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ θεωροῦσιν τὸν δαιμονιζόμενον καθήμενον ἱματισμένον καὶ σωφρονοῦντα, τὸν ἐσχηκότα τὸν λεγιῶνα, καὶ ἐφοβήθησαν. 5.16. καὶ διηγήσαντο αὐτοῖς οἱ ἰδόντες πῶς ἐγένετο τῷ δαιμονιζομένῳ καὶ περὶ τῶν χοίρων. 5.17. καὶ ἤρξαντο παρακαλεῖν αὐτὸν ἀπελθεῖν ἀπὸ τῶν ὁρίων αὐτῶν. 5.18. Καὶ ἐμβαίνοντος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ πλοῖον παρεκάλει αὐτὸν ὁ δαιμονισθεὶς ἵνα μετʼ αὐτοῦ ᾖ. 5.19. καὶ οὐκ ἀφῆκεν αὐτόν, ἀλλὰ λέγει αὐτῷ Ὕπαγε εἰς τὸν οἶκόν σου πρὸς τοὺς σούς, καὶ ἀπάγγειλον αὐτοῖς ὅσα ὁ κύριός σοι πεποίηκεν καὶ ἠλέησέν σε. 5.20. καὶ ἀπῆλθεν καὶ ἤρξατο κηρύσσειν ἐν τῇ Δεκαπόλει ὅσα ἐποίησεν αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ πάντες ἐθαύμαζον. 6.1. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκεῖθεν, καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 6.2. Καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ· καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες Πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα τούτῳ, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι; 6.3. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ. 6.4. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τοῖς συγγενεῦσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 6.5. Καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο ἐκεῖ ποιῆσαι οὐδεμίαν δύναμιν, εἰ μὴ ὀλίγοις ἀρρώστοις ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας ἐθεράπευσεν· 6.6. καὶ ἐθαύμασεν διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν. Καὶ περιῆγεν τὰς κώμας κύκλῳ διδάσκων. 6.14. Καὶ ἤκουσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἡρῴδης, φανερὸν γὰρ ἐγένετο τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἰὼάνης ὁ βαπτίζων ἐγήγερται ἐκ νεκρῶν, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο ἐνεργοῦσιν αἱ δυνάμεις ἐν αὐτῷ· 6.15. ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἠλείας ἐστίν· ἄλλοι δὲ ἔλεγον ὅτι προφήτης ὡς εἷς τῶν προφητῶν. 6.16. ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἔλεγεν Ὃν ἐγὼ ἀπεκεφάλισα Ἰωάνην, οὗτος ἠγέρθη. 6.17. Αὐτὸς γὰρ ὁ Ἡρῴδης ἀποστείλας ἐκράτησεν τὸν Ἰωάνην καὶ ἔδησεν αὐτὸν ἐν φυλακῇ διὰ Ἡρῳδιάδα τὴν γυναῖκα Φιλίππου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι αὐτὴν ἐγάμησεν· 6.18. ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὁ Ἰωάνης τῷ Ἡρῴδῃ ὅτι Οὐκ ἔξεστίν σοι ἔχειν τὴν γυναῖκα τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ σου. 6.19. ἡ δὲ Ἡρῳδιὰς ἐνεῖχεν αὐτῷ καὶ ἤθελεν αὐτὸν ἀποκτεῖναι, καὶ οὐκ ἠδυνατο· 6.20. ὁ γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ἐφοβεῖτο τὸν Ἰωάνην, εἰδὼς αὐτὸν ἄνδρα δίκαιον καὶ ἅγιον, καὶ συνετήρει αὐτόν, καὶ ἀκούσας αὐτοῦ πολλὰ ἠπόρει, καὶ ἡδέως αὐτοῦ ἤκουεν. 6.21. Καὶ γενομένης ἡμέρας εὐκαίρου ὅτε Ἡρῴδης τοῖς γενεσίοις αὐτοῦ δεῖπνον ἐποίησεν τοῖς μεγιστᾶσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ τοῖς χιλιάρχοις καὶ τοῖς πρώτοις τῆς Γαλιλαίας, 6.22. καὶ εἰσελθούσης τῆς θυγατρὸς αὐτοῦ Ἡρῳδιάδος καὶ ὀρχησαμένης, ἤρεσεν τῷ Ἡρῴδῃ καὶ τοῖς συνανακειμένοις. ὁ δὲ βασιλεὺς εἶπεν τῷ κορασίῳ Αἴτησόν με ὃ ἐὰν θέλῃς, καὶ δώσω σοι· 6.23. καὶ ὤμοσεν αὐτῇ Ὅτι ἐάν με αἰτήσῃς δώσω σοι ἕως ἡμίσους τῆς βασιλείας μου. 6.24. καὶ ἐξελθοῦσα εἶπεν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς Τί αἰτήσωμαι; ἡ δὲ εἶπεν Τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἰωάνου τοῦ βαπτίζοντος. 6.25. καὶ εἰσελθοῦσα εὐθὺς μετὰ σπουδῆς πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα ᾐτήσατο λέγουσα Θέλω ἵνα ἐξαυτῆς δῷς μοι ἐπὶ πίνακι τὴν κεφαλὴν Ἰωάνου τοῦ βαπτιστοῦ. 6.26. καὶ περίλυπος γενόμενος ὁ βασιλεὺς διὰ τοὺς ὅρκους καὶ τοὺς ἀνακειμένους οὐκ ἠθέλησεν ἀθετῆσαι αὐτήν· 6.27. καὶ εὐθὺς ἀποστείλας ὁ βασιλεὺς σπεκουλάτορα ἐπέταξεν ἐνέγκαι τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ. καὶ ἀπελθὼν ἀπεκεφάλισεν αὐτὸν ἐν τῇ φυλακῇ 6.28. καὶ ἤνεγκεν τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ πίνακι καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῷ κορασίῳ, καὶ τὸ κοράσιον ἔδωκεν αὐτὴν τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς. 6.29. καὶ ἀκούσαντες οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἦλθαν καὶ ἦραν τὸ πτῶμα αὐτοῦ καὶ ἔθηκαν αὐτὸ ἐν μνημείῳ. 6.30. Καὶ συνάγονται οἱ ἀπόστολοι πρὸς τὸν Ἰησοῦν, καὶ ἀπήγγειλαν αὐτῷ πάντα ὅσα ἐποίησαν καὶ ὅσα ἐδίδαξαν. 6.31. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Δεῦτε ὑμεῖς αὐτοὶ κατʼ ἰδίαν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον καὶ ἀναπαύσασθε ὀλίγον. ἦσαν γὰρ οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες πολλοί, καὶ οὐδὲ φαγεῖν εὐκαίρουν. 6.32. καὶ ἀπῆλθον ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κατʼ ἰδίαν. 6.33. καὶ εἶδαν αὐτοὺς ὑπάγοντας καὶ ἔγνωσαν πολλοί, καὶ πεζῇ ἀπὸ πασῶν τῶν πόλεων συνέδραμον ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς. 6.34. Καὶ ἐξελθὼν εἶδεν πολὺν ὄχλον, καὶ ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ὅτι ἦσαν ὡς πρόβατα μὴ ἔχοντα ποιμένα, καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς πολλά. 6.35. Καὶ ἤδη ὥρας πολλῆς γενομένης προσελθόντες αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἔρημός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος, καὶ ἤδη ὥρα πολλή· 6.36. ἀπόλυσον αὐτούς, ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τοὺς κύκλῳ ἀγροὺς καὶ κώμας ἀγοράσωσιν ἑαυτοῖς τί φάγωσιν. 6.37. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Δότε αὐτοῖς ὑμεῖς φαγεῖν. καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ἀπελθόντες ἀγοράσωμεν δηναρίων διακοσίων ἄρτους καὶ δώσομεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν; 6.38. ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς Πόσους ἔχετε ἄρτους; ὑπάγετε ἴδετε. καὶ γνόντες λέγουσιν Πέντε, καὶ δύο ἰχθύας. 6.39. καὶ ἐπέταξεν αὐτοῖς ἀνακλιθῆναι πάντας συμπόσια συμπόσια ἐπὶ τῷ χλωρῷ χόρτῳ. 6.40. καὶ ἀνέπεσαν πρασιαὶ πρασιαὶ κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα. 6.41. καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εὐλόγησεν καὶ κατέκλασεν τοὺς ἄρτους καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν αὐτοῖς, καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἐμέρισεν πᾶσιν. 6.42. καὶ ἔφαγον πάντες καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν· 6.43. καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων. 6.44. καὶ ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες τοὺς ἄρτους πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες. 6.45. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἠνάγκασεν τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ ἐμβῆναι εἰς τὸ πλοῖον καὶ προάγειν εἰς τὸ πέραν πρὸς Βηθσαιδάν, ἕως αὐτὸς ἀπολύει τὸν ὄχλον. 6.46. καὶ ἀποταξάμενος αὐτοῖς ἀπῆλθεν εἰς τὸ ὄρος προσεύξασθαι. 6.47. καὶ ὀψίας γενομένης ἦν τὸ πλοῖον ἐν μέσῳ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ αὐτὸς μόνος ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς. 6.48. καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτοὺς βασανιζομένους ἐν τῷ ἐλαύνειν, ἦν γὰρ ὁ ἄνεμος ἐναντίος αὐτοῖς, περὶ τετάρτην φυλακὴν τῆς νυκτὸς ἔρχεται πρὸς αὐτοὺς περιπατῶν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης· καὶ ἤθελεν παρελθεῖν αὐτούς. 6.49. οἱ δὲ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῆς θαλάσσης περιπατοῦντα ἔδοξαν ὅτι φάντασμά ἐστιν καὶ ἀνέκραξαν, 6.50. πάντες γὰρ αὐτὸν εἶδαν καὶ ἐταράχθησαν. ὁ δὲ εὐθὺς ἐλάλησεν μετʼ αὐτῶν, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Θαρσεῖτε, ἐγώ εἰμι, μὴ φοβεῖσθε. 6.51. καὶ ἀνέβη πρὸς αὐτοὺς εἰς τὸ πλοῖον, καὶ ἐκόπασεν ὁ ἄνεμος. 6.52. καὶ λίαν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἐξίσταντο, οὐ γὰρ συνῆκαν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄρτοις, ἀλλʼ ἦν αὐτῶν ἡ καρδία πεπωρωμένη. 7.14. Καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος πάλιν τὸν ὄχλον ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ἀκούσατέ μου πάντες καὶ σύνετε. 7.15. οὐδὲν ἔστιν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς αὐτὸν ὃ δύναται κοινῶσαι αὐτόν· ἀλλὰ τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενά ἐστιν τὰ κοινοῦντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 7.17. Καὶ ὅτε εἰσῆλθεν εἰς οἶκον ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, ἐπηρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ τὴν παραβολήν. 7.18. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀσύνετοί ἐστε; οὐ νοεῖτε ὅτι πᾶν τὸ ἔξωθεν εἰσπορευόμενον εἰς τὸν ἄνθρωπον οὐ δύναται αὐτὸν κοινῶσαι, 7.19. ὅτι οὐκ εἰσπορεύεται αὐτοῦ εἰς τὴν καρδίαν ἀλλʼ εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν, καὶ εἰς τὸν ἀφεδρῶνα ἐκπορεύεται; —καθαρίζων πάντα τὰ βρώματα. 7.20. ἔλεγεν δὲ ὅτι Τὸ ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκπορευόμενον ἐκεῖνο κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον· 7.21. ἔσωθεν γὰρ ἐκ τῆς καρδίας τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ διαλογισμοὶ οἱ κακοὶ ἐκπορεύονται, πορνεῖαι, κλοπαί, φόνοι, 7.22. μοιχεῖαι, πλεονεξίαι, πονηρίαι, δόλος, ἀσέλγεια, ὀφθαλμὸς πονηρός, βλασφημία, ὑπερηφανία, ἀφροσύνη· 7.23. πάντα ταῦτα τὰ πονηρὰ ἔσωθεν ἐκπορεύεται καὶ κοινοῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 8.1. Ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις πάλιν πολλοῦ ὄχλου ὄντος καὶ μὴ ἐχόντων τί φάγωσιν, προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς λέγει αὐτοῖς 8.2. Σπλαγχνίζομαι ἐπὶ τὸν ὄχλον ὅτι ἤδη ἡμέραι τρεῖς προσμένουσίν μοι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν· 8.3. καὶ ἐὰν ἀπολύσω αὐτοὺς νήστεις εἰς οἶκον αὐτῶν, ἐκλυθήσονται ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ· καί τινες αὐτῶν ἀπὸ μακρόθεν εἰσίν. 8.4. καὶ ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ὅτι Πόθεν τούτους δυνήσεταί τις ὧδε χορτάσαι ἄρτων ἐπʼ ἐρημίας; 8.5. καὶ ἠρώτα αὐτούς Πόσους ἔχετε ἄρτους; οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Ἑπτά. 8.6. καὶ παραγγέλλει τῷ ὄχλῳ ἀναπεσεῖν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἄρτους εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν καὶ παρέθηκαν τῷ ὄχλῳ. 8.7. καὶ εἶχαν ἰχθύδια ὀλίγα· καὶ εὐλογήσας αὐτὰ εἶπεν καὶ ταῦτα παρατιθέναι. 8.8. καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν, καὶ ἦραν περισσεύματα κλασμάτων ἑπτὰ σφυρίδας. 8.9. ἦσαν δὲ ὡς τετρακισχίλιοι. καὶ ἀπέλυσεν αὐτούς. 8.10. Καὶ εὐθὺς ἐμβὰς εἰς τὸ πλοῖον μετὰ τῶν μαθητῶν αὐτοῦ ἦλθεν εἰς τὰ μέρη Δαλμανουθά. 8.11. Καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ Φαρισαῖοι καὶ ἤρξαντο συνζητεῖν αὐτῷ, ζητοῦντες παρʼ αὐτοῦ σημεῖον ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, πειράζοντες αὐτόν. 8.12. καὶ ἀναστενάξας τῷ πνεύματι αὐτοῦ λέγει Τί ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη ζητεῖ σημεῖον; ἀμὴν λέγω, εἰ δοθήσεται τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ σημεῖον. 8.20. ὅτε τοὺς ἑπτὰ εἰς τοὺς τετρακισχιλίους, πόσων σφυρίδων πληρώματα κλασμάτων ἤρατε; καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ἑπτά. 8.21. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Οὔπω συνίετε; 15.38. Καὶ τὸ καταπέτασμα τοῦ ναοῦ ἐσχίσθη εἰς δύο ἀπʼ ἄνωθεν ἕως κάτω. 15.42. Καὶ ἤδη ὀψίας γενομένης, ἐπεὶ ἦν παρασκευή, ὅ ἐστιν προσάββατον, 1.12. Immediately the Spirit drove him out into the wilderness. 2.1. When he entered again into Capernaum after some days, it was heard that he was in the house. 2.2. Immediately many were gathered together, so that there was no more room, not even around the door; and he spoke the word to them. 2.3. Four people came, carrying a paralytic to him. 2.4. When they could not come near to him for the crowd, they removed the roof where he was. When they had broken it up, they let down the mat that the paralytic was lying on. 2.5. Jesus, seeing their faith, said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven you." 2.6. But there were some of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts, 2.7. "Why does this man speak blasphemies like that? Who can forgive sins but God alone?" 2.8. Immediately Jesus, perceiving in his spirit that they so reasoned within themselves, said to them, "Why do you reason these things in your hearts? 2.9. Which is easier, to tell the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven;' or to say, 'Arise, and take up your bed, and walk?' 2.10. But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" -- he said to the paralytic -- 2.11. "I tell you, arise, take up your mat, and go to your house." 2.12. He arose, and immediately took up the mat, and went out in front of them all; so that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, "We never saw anything like this!" 2.13. He went out again by the seaside. All the multitude came to him, and he taught them. 2.14. As he passed by, he saw Levi, the son of Alphaeus, sitting at the tax office, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he arose and followed him. 2.15. It happened, that he was reclining at the table in his house, and many tax collectors and sinners sat down with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many, and they followed him. 2.16. The scribes and the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with the sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, "Why is it that he eats and drinks with tax collectors and sinners?" 2.17. When Jesus heard it, he said to them, "Those who are healthy have no need for a physician, but those who are sick. I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." 2.18. John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting, and they came and asked him, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples don't fast?" 2.19. Jesus said to them, "Can the groomsmen fast while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they can't fast. 2.20. But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day. 2.21. No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment, or else the patch shrinks and the new tears away from the old, and a worse hole is made. 2.22. No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine pours out, and the skins will be destroyed; but they put new wine into fresh wineskins." 2.23. It happened that he was going on the Sabbath day through the grain fields, and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of grain. 2.24. The Pharisees said to him, "Behold, why do they do that which is not lawful on the Sabbath day?" 2.25. He said to them, "Did you never read what David did, when he had need, and was hungry -- he, and they who were with him? 2.26. How he entered into the house of God when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the show bread, which it is not lawful to eat except for the priests, and gave also to those who were with him?" 2.27. He said to them, "The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath. 2.28. Therefore the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath." 3.1. He entered again into the synagogue, and there was a man there who had his hand withered. 3.2. They watched him, whether he would heal him on the Sabbath day, that they might accuse him. 3.3. He said to the man who had his hand withered, "Stand up." 3.4. He said to them, "Is it lawful on the Sabbath day to do good, or to do harm? To save a life, or to kill?" But they were silent. 3.5. When he had looked around at them with anger, being grieved at the hardening of their hearts, he said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored as healthy as the other. 3.6. The Pharisees went out, and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him. 3.7. Jesus withdrew to the sea with his disciples, and a great multitude followed him from Galilee, from Judea, 3.8. from Jerusalem, from Idumaea, beyond the Jordan, and those from around Tyre and Sidon. A great multitude, hearing what great things he did, came to him. 3.9. He spoke to his disciples that a little boat should stay near him because of the crowd, so that they wouldn't press on him. 3.20. The multitude came together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread. 3.21. When his friends heard it, they went out to seize him: for they said, "He is insane." 3.22. The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said, "He has Beelzebul," and, "By the prince of the demons he casts out the demons." 3.23. He summoned them, and said to them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? 3.24. If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. 3.25. If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. 3.26. If Satan has risen up against himself, and is divided, he can't stand, but has an end. 3.27. But no one can enter into the house of the strong man to plunder, unless he first binds the strong man; and then he will plunder his house. 3.28. Most assuredly I tell you, all of the sons of men's sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; 3.29. but whoever may blaspheme against the Holy Spirit never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin" 3.30. -- because they said, "He has an unclean spirit." 3.31. His mother and his brothers came, and standing outside, they sent to him, calling him. 3.32. A multitude was sitting around him, and they told him, "Behold, your mother, your brothers, and your sisters are outside looking for you." 3.33. He answered them, "Who are my mother and my brothers?" 3.34. Looking around at those who sat around him, he said, "Behold, my mother and my brothers! 3.35. For whoever does the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother." 4.35. On that day, when evening had come, he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side." 4.36. Leaving the multitude, they took him with them, even as he was, in the boat. Other small boats were also with him. 4.37. There arose a great wind storm, and the waves beat into the boat, so much that the boat was already filled. 4.38. He himself was in the stern, asleep on the cushion, and they woke him up, and told him, "Teacher, don't you care that we are dying?" 4.39. He awoke, and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace! Be still!" The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. 4.40. He said to them, "Why are you so afraid? How is it that you have no faith?" 4.41. They were greatly afraid, and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?" 5.1. They came to the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes. 5.2. When he had come out of the boat, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, 5.3. who had his dwelling in the tombs. Nobody could bind him any more, not even with chains, 5.4. because he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him, and the fetters broken in pieces. Nobody had the strength to tame him. 5.5. Always, night and day, in the tombs and in the mountains, he was crying out, and cutting himself with stones. 5.6. When he saw Jesus from afar, he ran and bowed down to him, 5.7. and crying out with a loud voice, he said, "What have I to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, don't torment me." 5.8. For he said to him, "Come out of the man, you unclean spirit!" 5.9. He asked him, "What is your name?"He said to him, "My name is Legion, for we are many." 5.10. He begged him much that he would not send them away out of the country. 5.14. Those who fed them fled, and told it in the city and in the country. The people came to see what it was that had happened. 5.15. They came to Jesus, and saw him who had been possessed by demons sitting, clothed, and in his right mind, even him who had the legion; and they were afraid. 5.16. Those who saw it declared to them how it happened to him who was possessed by demons, and about the pigs. 5.17. They began to beg him to depart from their region. 5.18. As he was entering into the boat, he who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. 5.19. He didn't allow him, but said to him, "Go to your house, to your friends, and tell them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how he had mercy on you." 5.20. He went his way, and began to proclaim in Decapolis how Jesus had done great things for him, and everyone marveled. 6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.3. Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him. 6.4. Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and among his own relatives, and in his own house." 6.5. He could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick folk, and healed them. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching. 6.14. King Herod heard this, for his name had become known, and he said, "John the Baptizer has risen from the dead, and therefore these powers are at work in him." 6.15. But others said, "It is Elijah." Others said, "It is the Prophet, or like one of the prophets." 6.16. But Herod, when he heard this, said, "This is John, whom I beheaded. He has risen from the dead." 6.17. For Herod himself had sent out and arrested John, and bound him in prison for the sake of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, for he had married her. 6.18. For John said to Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife." 6.19. Herodias set herself against him, and desired to kill him, but she couldn't, 6.20. for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and kept him safe. When he heard him, he did many things, and he heard him gladly. 6.21. Then a convenient day came, that Herod on his birthday made a supper for his nobles, the high officers, and the chief men of Galilee. 6.22. When the daughter of Herodias herself came in and danced, she pleased Herod and those sitting with him. The king said to the young lady, "Ask me whatever you want, and I will give it to you." 6.23. He swore to her, "Whatever you shall ask of me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom." 6.24. She went out, and said to her mother, "What shall I ask?"She said, "The head of John the Baptizer." 6.25. She came in immediately with haste to the king, and asked, "I want you to give me right now the head of John the Baptizer on a platter." 6.26. The king was exceedingly sorry, but for the sake of his oaths, and of his dinner guests, he didn't wish to refuse her. 6.27. Immediately the king sent out a soldier of his guard, and commanded to bring John's head, and he went and beheaded him in the prison, 6.28. and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the young lady; and the young lady gave it to her mother. 6.29. When his disciples heard this, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb. 6.30. The apostles gathered themselves together to Jesus, and they told him all things, whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught. 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat." 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat?" 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish." 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 6.45. Immediately he made his disciples get into the boat, and to go ahead to the other side, to Bethsaida, while he himself sent the multitude away. 6.46. After he had taken leave of them, he went up the mountain to pray. 6.47. When evening had come, the boat was in the midst of the sea, and he was alone on the land. 6.48. Seeing them distressed in rowing, for the wind was contrary to them, about the fourth watch of the night he came to them, walking on the sea, and he would have passed by them, 6.49. but they, when they saw him walking on the sea, supposed that it was a ghost, and cried out; 6.50. for they all saw him, and were troubled. But he immediately spoke with them, and said to them, "Cheer up! It is I! Don't be afraid." 6.51. He got into the boat with them; and the wind ceased, and they were very amazed among themselves, and marveled; 6.52. for they hadn't understood about the loaves, but their hearts were hardened. 7.14. He called all the multitude to himself, and said to them, "Hear me, all of you, and understand. 7.15. There is nothing from outside of the man, that going into him can defile him; but the things which proceed out of the man are those that defile the man. 7.17. When he had entered into a house away from the multitude, his disciples asked him about the parable. 7.18. He said to them, "Are you thus without understanding also? Don't you perceive that whatever goes into the man from outside can't defile him, 7.19. because it doesn't go into his heart, but into his stomach, then into the latrine, thus making all foods clean?" 7.20. He said, "That which proceeds out of the man, that defiles the man. 7.21. For from within, out of the hearts of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, sexual sins, murders, thefts, 7.22. covetings, wickedness, deceit, lustful desires, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, and foolishness. 7.23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man." 8.1. In those days, when there was a very great multitude, and they had nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples to himself, and said to them, 8.2. "I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.3. If I send them away fasting to their home, they will faint on the way, for some of them have come a long way." 8.4. His disciples answered him, "From where could one satisfy these people with bread here in a deserted place?" 8.5. He asked them, "How many loaves do you have?"They said, "Seven." 8.6. He commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground, and he took the seven loaves. Having given thanks, he broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve, and they served the multitude. 8.7. They had a few small fish. Having blessed them, he said to serve these also. 8.8. They ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 8.9. Those who had eaten were about four thousand. Then he sent them away. 8.10. Immediately he entered into the boat with his disciples, and came into the region of Dalmanutha. 8.11. The Pharisees came out and began to question him, seeking from him a sign from heaven, and testing him. 8.12. He sighed deeply in his spirit, and said, "Why does this generation seek a sign? Most assuredly I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation." 8.20. "When the seven loaves fed the four thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you take up?"They told him, "Seven." 8.21. He asked them, "Don't you understand, yet?" 15.38. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. 15.42. When evening had now come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath,
118. New Testament, Ephesians, 6.12, 6.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 318; van , t Westeinde (2021) 92
6.12. ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἡμῖν ἡ πάλη πρὸς αἷμα καὶ σάρκα, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὰς ἀρχάς, πρὸς τὰς ἐξουσίας, πρὸς τοὺς κοσμοκράτορας τοῦ σκότους τούτου, πρὸς τὰ πνευματικὰ τῆς πονηρίας ἐν τοῖς ἐπουρανίοις. 6.16. ἐν πᾶσιν ἀναλαβόντες τὸν θυρεὸν τῆς πίστεως, ἐν ᾧ δυνήσεσθε πάντα τὰ βέλη τοῦ πονηροῦ [τὰ] πεπυρωμένα σβέσαι· 6.12. For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world's rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places. 6.16. above all, taking up the shield of faith, with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the evil one.
119. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.30, 1.199 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 304
1.30. 7. For our forefathers did not only appoint the best of these priests, and those that attended upon the divine worship, for that design from the beginning, but made provision that the stock of the priests should continue unmixed and pure; 1.199. upon these there is a light that is never extinguished, neither by night nor by day. There is no image, nor any thing, nor any donations therein; nothing at all is there planted, neither grove, nor any thing of that sort. The priests abide therein both nights and days, performing certain purifications, and drinking not the least drop of wine while they are in the temple.”
120. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 4.2.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 209
121. Ptolemy, Syntaxis Mathematica, 5.1-5.3, 5.3.1-5.3.3 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79, 80
122. Anon., 2 Baruch, 5.7-6.4, 18.24, 29.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 125
123. Tosefta, Taanit, 2.5-2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonian rabbis, sages, approach to fasting of palestinian rabbis •bavli, portrayal of fasting for rainmaking •palestinian rabbis, sages, approach to fasting of babylonian rabbis and •fasting, fasts, participation in •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 266, 267; Kalmin (1998) 11
2.5. "אנשי משמר ואנשי מעמד אסורין לספר ולכבס בין משחרב הבית ובין עד שלא חרב הבית רבי יוסי אומר משחרב הבית מותרין מפני שאבל הוא להם יום שני וחמישי הוחדו לתענית צבור ובהן בתי דינים יושבין בעיירות ובהן נכנסין לבתי כנסיות וקורין ובהן [מפסיקין] למקרא מגילה.", 2.6. "מה בין תענית צבור לתענית יחיד [תענית צבור אוכלין ושותין מבעוד יום מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד] תענית צבור אסורין במלאכה ברחיצה ובסיכה ובנעילת הסנדל ובתשמיש המטה מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד תענית צבור נכנסין לבתי כנסיות מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד תענית צבור מוציאין את התיבה לרחובה של עיר מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד תענית צבור מתפללין עשרים וארבע ברכות מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד תענית צבור כהנים נושאים כפיהם ארבעה פעמים ביום משא\"כ בתענית יחיד תענית צבור אין מפסיקין לימים טובים הכתובים במגילה מה שאין כן בתענית יחיד מעשה וגזרו תענית בחנוכה בלוד [אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר וסיפר לרבי יהושע ורחץ אמר להם ר' יהושע] צאו והתענו על מה שהתעניתם כל זמן שהיה רבן גמליאל קיים היתה הלכה נוהגת כדבריו לאחר מיתתו של רבן גמליאל בקש רבי יהושע לבטל את דבריו עמד רבי יוחנן בן נורי על רגליו ואמר חזי אנא בתר רישא גופא אזיל כל זמן שהיה רבן גמליאל קיים היתה הלכה נוהגת כדבריו עכשיו שמת אתם מבקשים לבטל את דבריו אמר רבי יהושע אנו שומעין לך נקבעה הלכה כדברי רבן גמליאל ולא ערער אדם על דבריו.",
124. Tosefta, Sotah, 15.11-15.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
125. Tosefta, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
4.1. "לא יטעום אדם כלום עד שיברך שנאמר (תהילים כד) לה' הארץ ומלואה הנהנה מן העולם הזה בלא ברכה מעל עד שיתירו לו כל המצות לא ישתמש אדם בפניו ידיו ורגליו אלא לכבוד קונהו שנאמר (משלי טז) כל פעל ה' למענהו.", 4.1. "שאלו את בן זומא מפני מה בא להן יין בתוך המזון כל אחד ואחד מברך לעצמו אמר להם מפני שאין בית הבליעה פנוי הביאו לו אורז ויין מברך על האורז ופוטר את היין צנון ונובלות מברך על הצנון ופוטר את הנובלות מליח ופרוסה מברך על המליח ופוטר את הפרוסה ר' חנינא בן גמליאל אומר מליח הבא בתחלה לפני המזון ופת הבא עם המליח לאחר המזון טעונה ברכה לפניה ולאחריה רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר פרוסות סימן גדול לאורחין כל זמן שהאורחין רואין את הפרוסות יודעין שדבר אחר בא [אחריהם ככר שלם] יודעין שאין דבר אחר [בא להם] בסעודה אחריהם.",
126. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 1.66 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 213
127. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 4.2.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 209
128. Seneca The Younger, Letters, 11.11, 51.13, 83.18, 108.17-108.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 208; Stuckenbruck (2007) 715; Taylor and Hay (2020) 303; Wilson (2012) 274
129. Hermas, Mandates, 2.4-2.6, 8.10 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lampe (2003) 93
130. Anon., Acts of Philip, 142-143 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Huttner (2013) 369
131. Anon., Acts of Paul, 7 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 186
132. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.11.75-3.11.76 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 86; Wilson (2012) 104
133. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 37-38, 69, 77-78, 80-84, 76 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 123, 124
76. As, therefore, the birth of the Saviour released us from 'becoming' and from Fate, so also his baptism rescued us from fire, and his Passion rescued us from passion in order that we might in all things follow him. For he who was baptised unto God advanced toward God and has received 'power to walk upon scorpions and snakes,' the evil powers. And he commands the disciples 'When ye go about, preach and them that believe baptise in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,' in whom we are born again, becoming higher than all the other powers.
134. Anon., Acts of John, 46, 6, 85-86, 92-94, 7, 72 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: König (2012) 303; McGowan (1999) 186
72. Now on the next day John came, accompanied by Andronicus and the brethren, to the sepulchre at dawn, it being now the third day from Drusiana's death, that we might break bread there. And first, when they set out, the keys were sought for and could not be found; but John said to Andronicus: It is quite right that they should be lost, for Drusiana is not in the sepulchre; nevertheless, let us go, that thou mayest not be neglectful, and the doors shall be opened of themselves, even as the Lord hath done for us many such things.
135. Anon., Acts of Andrew, 53 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80
136. Clement of Alexandria, Extracts From The Prophets, 14, 25, 8, 84 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80
137. Lucian, Cynicus, 5 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 302
138. Justin, First Apology, 1.66 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Nuno et al (2021) 179
139. Tosefta, Tevulyom, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 192
140. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •trophonios (and trophonion), fasting before consultation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 627
141. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, 1.13 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 254
142. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.21.4, 5.8.3, 8.16, 10.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 86, 124; Lampe (2003) 381
10.26. ... From Haran, a city of Mesopotamia, (Abraham, by the command) of God, transfers his residence into the country which is now called Palestine and Judea, but then the region of Canaan. Now, concerning this territory, we have in part, but still not negligently, rendered an account in other discourses. From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years, and) when 100 years old he begot Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begot Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begot Levi; and Levi, at 40 years of age, begot; and Caath was four years of age when he went down with Jacob into Egypt. Therefore the entire period during which Abraham sojourned, and the entire family descended from him by Isaac, in the country then called Canaanitis, was 215 years. But the father of this Abraham is Thare, and of this Thare the father is Nachor, and of this Nachor the father is Serag, and of this Serag the father is Reu, and of this Reu the father is Peleg, and of this Peleg Genesis 11:16 the father is Heber. And so it comes to pass that the Jews are denominated by the name of Hebrews. In the time of Phaleg, however, arose the dispersion of nations. Now these nations were 72, corresponding with the number of Abraham's children. And the names of these nations we have likewise set down in other books, not even omitting this point in its own proper place. And the reason of our particularity is our desire to manifest to those who are of a studious disposition the love which we cherish towards the Divinity, and the indubitable knowledge respecting the Truth, which in the course of our labours we have acquired possession of. But of this Heber the father is Salah; and of this Salah the father is Caï; and of this Caï the father is Arphaxad, whose father is Shem; and of this Shem the father is Noah. And in Noah's time there occurred a flood throughout the entire world, which neither Egyptians, nor Chaldeans, nor Greeks recollect; for the inundations which took place in the age of Ogyges and Deucalion prevailed only in the localities where these dwelt. There are, then, in the case of these (patriarchs - that is, from Noah to Heber inclusive)- 5 generations, and 495 years. This Noah, inasmuch as he was a most religious and God-loving man, alone, with wife and children, and the three wives of these, escaped the flood that ensued. And he owed his preservation to an ark; and both the dimensions and relics of this ark are, as we have explained, shown to this day in the mountains called Ararat, which are situated in the direction of the country of the Adiabeni. It is then possible for those who are disposed to investigate the subject industriously, to perceive how clearly has been demonstrated the existence of a nation of worshippers of the true God, more ancient than all the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Greeks. What necessity, however, is there at present to specify those who, anterior to Noah, were both devout men, and permitted to hold converse with the true God, inasmuch as, so far as the subject taken in hand is concerned, this testimony in regard of the antiquity of the people of God is sufficient?
143. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 8.19, 10.25-10.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 168
10.25. But certain others, introducing as it were some novel tenet, appropriated parts of their system from all heresies, and procured a strange volume, which bore on the title page the name of one Elchasai. These, in like manner, acknowledge that the principles of the universe were originated by the Deity. They do not, however, confess that there is but one Christ, but that there is one that is superior to the rest, and that He is transfused into many bodies frequently, and was now in Jesus. And, in like manner, these heretics maintain that at one time Christ was begotten of God, and at another time became the Spirit, and at another time was born of a virgin, and at another time not so. And they affirm that likewise this Jesus afterwards was continually being transfused into bodies, and was manifested in many (different bodies) at different times. And they resort to incantations and baptisms in their confession of elements. And they occupy themselves with bustling activity in regard of astrological and mathematical science, and of the arts of sorcery. But also they allege themselves to have powers of prescience. 10.26. ... From Haran, a city of Mesopotamia, (Abraham, by the command) of God, transfers his residence into the country which is now called Palestine and Judea, but then the region of Canaan. Now, concerning this territory, we have in part, but still not negligently, rendered an account in other discourses. From the circumstance, then, (of this migration) is traceable the beginning of an increase (of population) in Judea, which obtained its name from Judah, fourth son of Jacob, whose name was also called Israel, from the fact that a race of kings would be descended from him. Abraham removes from Mesopotamia (when 75 years, and) when 100 years old he begot Isaac. But Isaac, when 60 years of age, begot Jacob. And Jacob, when 86 years old, begot Levi; and Levi, at 40 years of age, begot; and Caath was four years of age when he went down with Jacob into Egypt. Therefore the entire period during which Abraham sojourned, and the entire family descended from him by Isaac, in the country then called Canaanitis, was 215 years. But the father of this Abraham is Thare, and of this Thare the father is Nachor, and of this Nachor the father is Serag, and of this Serag the father is Reu, and of this Reu the father is Peleg, and of this Peleg Genesis 11:16 the father is Heber. And so it comes to pass that the Jews are denominated by the name of Hebrews. In the time of Phaleg, however, arose the dispersion of nations. Now these nations were 72, corresponding with the number of Abraham's children. And the names of these nations we have likewise set down in other books, not even omitting this point in its own proper place. And the reason of our particularity is our desire to manifest to those who are of a studious disposition the love which we cherish towards the Divinity, and the indubitable knowledge respecting the Truth, which in the course of our labours we have acquired possession of. But of this Heber the father is Salah; and of this Salah the father is Caï; and of this Caï the father is Arphaxad, whose father is Shem; and of this Shem the father is Noah. And in Noah's time there occurred a flood throughout the entire world, which neither Egyptians, nor Chaldeans, nor Greeks recollect; for the inundations which took place in the age of Ogyges and Deucalion prevailed only in the localities where these dwelt. There are, then, in the case of these (patriarchs - that is, from Noah to Heber inclusive)- 5 generations, and 495 years. This Noah, inasmuch as he was a most religious and God-loving man, alone, with wife and children, and the three wives of these, escaped the flood that ensued. And he owed his preservation to an ark; and both the dimensions and relics of this ark are, as we have explained, shown to this day in the mountains called Ararat, which are situated in the direction of the country of the Adiabeni. It is then possible for those who are disposed to investigate the subject industriously, to perceive how clearly has been demonstrated the existence of a nation of worshippers of the true God, more ancient than all the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Greeks. What necessity, however, is there at present to specify those who, anterior to Noah, were both devout men, and permitted to hold converse with the true God, inasmuch as, so far as the subject taken in hand is concerned, this testimony in regard of the antiquity of the people of God is sufficient?
144. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 15.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
15.5. מַה כְּתִיב לְמַעְלָה מִן הָעִנְיָן? אִשָּׁה כִּי תַזְרִיעַ וְיָלְדָה זָכָר, מַה כְּתִיב בַּתְרֵיהּ: אָדָם כִּי יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ, וְכִי מָה עִנְיַן זֶה לָזֶה, אָמַר רַבִּי תַּנְחוּם בְּרַבִּי חֲנִילָאי מָשָׁל לַחֲמוֹרָה שֶׁרָעֲתָה וְנִכְוֵית וְיָצָא בְּנָהּ כָּווּי, מִי גָרַם לַוָּלָד שֶׁיֵּצֵא כָּווּי שֶׁנִּכְוֵת אִמּוֹ, כָּךְ מִי גָרַם לַוָּלָד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְצֹרָע אִמּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא שִׁמְּרָה יְמֵי נִדָּתָהּ. אָמַר רַבִּי אָבִין מָשָׁל לְגִנַּת יָרָק שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן לְתוֹכָהּ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמַּעְיָן לְתוֹכָהּ הִיא עוֹשָׂה כְּרִיכִין, כָּךְ כָּל מִי שֶׁהוֹלֵךְ אֵצֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ נִדָּה עוֹשֶׂה בָּנִים מְצֹרָעִים. רַבִּי אָבִין קָרָא עֲלֵיהּ (ירמיה לא, כח): אָבוֹת אָכְלוּ בֹסֶר וְשִׁנֵּי בָנִים תִּקְהֶינָה, וְהֵן קוֹרְאִין עַל אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם (איכה ה, ז): אֲבֹתֵינוּ חָטְאוּ וְאֵינָם וַאֲנַחְנוּ עֲוֹנֹתֵיהֶם סָבָלְנוּ.
145. Hermas, Similitudes, 1.8-1.11, 2.5-2.8, 2.10, 5.1.1, 5.3.7, 9.20, 9.24.2, 9.30.4, 10.4.2-10.4.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lampe (2003) 93, 145; Wilson (2012) 273
146. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 46.6-46.7, 130.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lieu (2004) 133
147. Aristides of Athens, Apology, 2.2, 14.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 87, 192
148. Palestinian Talmud, Taanit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 119
149. Palestinian Talmud, Hagigah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 265
150. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 1.25-1.30 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 271
151. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 1.29.1, 2.20, 4.4, 4.12 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, fasting on sabbath •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 90; McGowan (1999) 165; Williams (2009) 296, 297
2.20. But these saucy cuttles (of heretics) under the figure of whom the law about things to be eaten Deuteronomy 14 prohibited this very kind of piscatory aliment, as soon as they find themselves confuted, eject the black venom of their blasphemy, and so spread about in all directions the object which (as is now plain) they severally have in view, when they put forth such assertions and protestations as shall obscure and tarnish the rekindled light of the Creator's bounty. We will, however, follow their wicked design, even through these black clouds, and drag to light their tricks of dark calumny, laying to the Creator's charge with special emphasis the fraud and theft of gold and silver which the Hebrews were commanded by Him to practise against the Egyptians. Come, unhappy heretic, I cite even you as a witness; first look at the case of the two nations, and then you will form a judgment of the Author of the command. The Egyptians put in a claim on the Hebrews for these gold and silver vessels. The Hebrews assert a counter claim, alleging that by the bond of their respective fathers, attested by the written engagement of both parties, there were due to them the arrears of that laborious slavery of theirs, for the bricks they had so painfully made, and the cities and palaces which they had built. What shall be your verdict, you discoverer of the most good God? That the Hebrews must admit the fraud, or the Egyptians the compensation? For they maintain that thus has the question been settled by the advocates on both sides, of the Egyptians demanding their vessels, and the Hebrews claiming the requital of their labours. But for all they say, the Egyptians justly renounced their restitution-claim then and there; while the Hebrews to this day, in spite of the Marcionites, re-assert their demand for even greater damages, insisting that, however large was their loan of the gold and silver, it would not be compensation enough, even if the labour of six hundred thousand men should be valued at only a farthing a day a piece. Which, however, were the more in number - those who claimed the vessel, or those who dwelt in the palaces and cities? Which, too, the greater - the grievance of the Egyptians against the Hebrews, or the favour which they displayed towards them? Were free men reduced to servile labour, in order that the Hebrews might simply proceed against the Egyptians by action at law for injuries; or in order that their officers might on their benches sit and exhibit their backs and shoulders shamefully mangled by the fierce application of the scourge? It was not by a few plates and cup - in all cases the property, no doubt, of still fewer rich men - that any one would pronounce that compensation should have been awarded to the Hebrews, but both by all the resources of these and by the contributions of all the people. If, therefore, the case of the Hebrews be a good one, the Creator's case must likewise be a good one; that is to say, his command, when He both made the Egyptians unconsciously grateful, and also gave His own people their discharge in full at the time of their migration by the scanty comfort of a tacit requital of their long servitude. It was plainly less than their due which He commanded to be exacted. The Egyptians ought to have given back their men-children also to the Hebrews. 4.4. We must follow, then, the clue of our discussion, meeting every effort of our opponents with reciprocal vigor. I say that my Gospel is the true one; Marcion, that his is. I affirm that Marcion's Gospel is adulterated; Marcion, that mine is. Now what is to settle the point for us, except it be that principle of time, which rules that the authority lies with that which shall be found to be more ancient; and assumes as an elemental truth, that corruption (of doctrine) belongs to the side which shall be convicted of comparative lateness in its origin. For, inasmuch as error is falsification of truth, it must needs be that truth therefore precede error. A thing must exist prior to its suffering any casualty; and an object must precede all rivalry to itself. Else how absurd it would be, that, when we have proved our position to be the older one, and Marcion's the later, ours should yet appear to be the false one, before it had even received from truth its objective existence; and Marcion's should also be supposed to have experienced rivalry at our hands, even before its publication; and, in fine, that that should be thought to be the truer position which is the later one - a century later than the publication of all the many and great facts and records of the Christian religion, which certainly could not have been published without, that is to say, before, the truth of the gospel. With regard, then, to the pending question, of Luke's Gospel (so far as its being the common property of ourselves and Marcion enables it to be decisive of the truth, ) that portion of it which we alone receive is so much older than Marcion, that Marcion himself once believed it, when in the first warmth of faith he contributed money to the Catholic church, which along with himself was afterwards rejected, when he fell away from our truth into his own heresy. What if the Marcionites have denied that he held the primitive faith among ourselves, in the face even of his own letter? What, if they do not acknowledge the letter? They, at any rate, receive his Antitheses; and more than that, they make ostentatious use of them. Proof out of these is enough for me. For if the Gospel, said to be Luke's which is current among us (we shall see whether it be also current with Marcion), is the very one which, as Marcion argues in his Antitheses, was interpolated by the defenders of Judaism, for the purpose of such a conglomeration with it of the law and the prophets as should enable them out of it to fashion their Christ, surely he could not have so argued about it, unless he had found it (in such a form). No one censures things before they exist, when he knows not whether they will come to pass. Emendation never precedes the fault. To be sure, an amender of that Gospel, which had been all topsy-turvy from the days of Tiberius to those of Antoninus, first presented himself in Marcion alone - so long looked for by Christ, who was all along regretting that he had been in so great a hurry to send out his apostles without the support of Marcion! But for all that, heresy, which is for ever mending the Gospels, and corrupting them in the act, is an affair of man's audacity, not of God's authority; and if Marcion be even a disciple, he is yet not above his master; Matthew 10:24 if Marcion be an apostle, still as Paul says, Whether it be I or they, so we preach; 1 Corinthians 15:11 if Marcion be a prophet, even the spirits of the prophets will be subject to the prophets, 1 Corinthians 14:32 for they are not the authors of confusion, but of peace; or if Marcion be actually an angel, he must rather be designated as anathema than as a preacher of the gospel, Galatians 1:8 because it is a strange gospel which he has preached. So that, while he amends, he only confirms both positions: both that our Gospel is the prior one, for he amends that which he has previously fallen in with; and that that is the later one, which, by putting it together out of the emendations of ours, he has made his own Gospel, and a novel one too. 4.12. Concerning the Sabbath also I have this to premise, that this question could not have arisen, if Christ did not publicly proclaim the Lord of the Sabbath. Nor could there be any discussion about His annulling the Sabbath, if He had a right to annul it. Moreover, He would have the right, if He belonged to the rival god; nor would it cause surprise to any one that He did what it was right for Him to do. Men's astonishment therefore arose from their opinion that it was improper for Him to proclaim the Creator to be God and yet to impugn His Sabbath. Now, that we may decide these several points first, lest we should be renewing them at every turn to meet each argument of our adversary which rests on some novel institution of Christ, let this stand as a settled point, that discussion concerning the novel character of each institution ensued on this account, because as nothing was as yet advanced by Christ touching any new deity, so discussion thereon was inadmissible; nor could it be retorted, that from the very novelty of each several institution another deity was clearly enough demonstrated by Christ, inasmuch as it was plain that novelty was not in itself a characteristic to be wondered at in Christ, because it had been foretold by the Creator. And it would have been, of course, but right that a new god should first be expounded, and his discipline be introduced afterwards; because it would be the god that would impart authority to the discipline, and not the discipline to the god; except that (to be sure) it has happened that Marcion acquired his very perverse opinions not from a master, but his master from his opinion! All other points respecting the Sabbath I thus rule. If Christ interfered with the Sabbath, He simply acted after the Creator's example; inasmuch as in the siege of the city of Jericho the carrying around the walls of the Ark of the Covet for eight days running, and therefore on a Sabbath day, actually annulled the Sabbath, by the Creator's command - according to the opinion of those who think this of Christ in this passage of St. Luke, in their ignorance that neither Christ nor the Creator violated the Sabbath, as we shall by and by show. And yet the Sabbath was actually then broken by Joshua, so that the present charge might be alleged also against Christ. But even if, as being not the Christ of the Jews, He displayed a hatred against the Jews' most solemn day, He was only professedly following the Creator, as being His Christ, in this very hatred of the Sabbath; for He exclaims by the mouth of Isaiah: Your new moons and your Sabbaths my soul hates. Isaiah 1:14 Now, in whatever sense these words were spoken, we know that an abrupt defense must, in a subject of this sort, be used in answer to an abrupt challenge. I shall now transfer the discussion to the very matter in which the teaching of Christ seemed to annul the Sabbath. The disciples had been hungry; on that the Sabbath day they had plucked some ears and rubbed them in their hands; by thus preparing their food, they had violated the holy day. Christ excuses them, and became their accomplice in breaking the Sabbath. The Pharisees bring the charge against Him. Marcion sophistically interprets the stages of the controversy (if I may call in the aid of the truth of my Lord to ridicule his arts), both in the scriptural record and in Christ's purpose. For from the Creator's Scripture, and from the purpose of Christ, there is derived a colorable precedent - as from the example of David, when he went into the temple on the Sabbath, and provided food by boldly breaking up the show-bread. Even he remembered that this privilege (I mean the dispensation from fasting) was allowed to the Sabbath from the very beginning, when the Sabbath day itself was instituted. For although the Creator had forbidden that the manna should be gathered for two days, He yet permitted it on the one occasion only of the day before the Sabbath, in order that the yesterday's provision of food might free from fasting the feast of the following Sabbath day. Good reason, therefore, had the Lord for pursuing the same principle in the annulling of the Sabbath (since that is the word which men will use); good reason, too, for expressing the Creator's will, when He bestowed the privilege of not fasting on the Sabbath day. In short, He would have then and there put an end to the Sabbath, nay, to the Creator Himself, if He had commanded His disciples to fast on the Sabbath day, contrary to the intention of the Scripture and of the Creator's will. But because He did not directly defend His disciples, but excuses them; because He interposes human want, as if deprecating censure; because He maintains the honour of the Sabbath as a day which is to be free from gloom rather than from work; because he puts David and his companions on a level with His own disciples in their fault and their extenuation; because He is pleased to endorse the Creator's indulgence: because He is Himself good according to His example - is He therefore alien from the Creator? Then the Pharisees watch whether He would heal on the Sabbath day, Luke 6:7 that they might accuse Him - surely as a violator of the Sabbath, not as the propounder of a new god; for perhaps I might be content with insisting on all occasions on this one point, that another Christ is nowhere proclaimed. The Pharisees, however, were in utter error concerning the law of the Sabbath, not observing that its terms were conditional, when it enjoined rest from labour, making certain distinctions of labour. For when it says of the Sabbath day, In it you shall not do any work of yours, Exodus 20:16 by the word yours it restricts the prohibition to human work - which every one performs in his own employment or business - and not to divine work. Now the work of healing or preserving is not proper to man, but to God. So again, in the law it says, You shall not do any manner of work in it, Exodus 12:16 except what is to be done for any soul, that is to say, in the matter of delivering the soul; because what is God's work may be done by human agency for the salvation of the soul. By God, however, would that be done which the man Christ was to do, for He was likewise God. Wishing, therefore, to initiate them into this meaning of the law by the restoration of the withered hand, He requires, Is it lawful on the Sabbath-days to do good, or not? To save life, or to destroy it? Luke 6:9 In order that He might, while allowing that amount of work which He was about to perform for a soul, remind them what works the law of the Sabbath forbade - even human works; and what it enjoined - even divine works, which might be done for the benefit of any soul, He was called Lord of the Sabbath, Luke 6:5 because He maintained the Sabbath as His own institution. Now, even if He had annulled the Sabbath, He would have had the right to do so, as being its Lord, (and) still more as He who instituted it. But He did not utterly destroy it, although its Lord, in order that it might henceforth be plain that the Sabbath was not broken by the Creator, even at the time when the ark was carried around Jericho. For that was really God's work, which He commanded Himself, and which He had ordered for the sake of the lives of His servants when exposed to the perils of war. Now, although He has in a certain place expressed an aversion of Sabbaths, by calling them your Sabbaths, Isaiah 1:13-14 reckoning them as men's Sabbaths, not His own, because they were celebrated without the fear of God by a people full of iniquities, and loving God with the lip, not the heart, Isaiah 29:13 He has yet put His own Sabbaths (those, that is, which were kept according to His prescription) in a different position; for by the same prophet, in a later passage, He declared them to be true, and delightful, and inviolable. Thus Christ did not at all rescind the Sabbath: He kept the law thereof, and both in the former case did a work which was beneficial to the life of His disciples, for He indulged them with the relief of food when they were hungry, and in the present instance cured the withered hand; in each case intimating by facts, I came not to destroy, the law, but to fulfil it, Matthew 5:17 although Marcion has gagged His mouth by this word. For even in the case before us He fulfilled the law, while interpreting its condition; moreover, He exhibits in a clear light the different kinds of work, while doing what the law excepts from the sacredness of the Sabbath and while imparting to the Sabbath day itself, which from the beginning had been consecrated by the benediction of the Father, an additional sanctity by His own beneficent action. For He furnished to this day divine safeguards, - a course which His adversary would have pursued for some other days, to avoid honouring the Creator's Sabbath, and restoring to the Sabbath the works which were proper for it. Since, in like manner, the prophet Elisha on this day restored to life the dead son of the Shunammite woman, you see, O Pharisee, and you too, O Marcion, how that it was proper employment for the Creator's Sabbaths of old to do good, to save life, not to destroy it; how that Christ introduced nothing new, which was not after the example, the gentleness, the mercy, and the prediction also of the Creator. For in this very example He fulfils the prophetic announcement of a specific healing: The weak hands are strengthened, as were also the feeble knees Isaiah 35:3 in the sick of the palsy.
152. Tertullian, Apology, 1.2, 9.13, 40.14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 78; Lynskey (2021) 286; McGowan (1999) 168
1.2. Quid hic deperit legibus in suo regno domitibus, si audiatur? An hoc magis gloriabitur potestas eorum, quo etiam auditam damnabunt veritatem? 9.13. 40.14. caelo: nos vero ieiuniis aridi et omni continentia expressi, ab omni vitae fruge dilati, in sacco et cinere volutantes invidia caelum tundimus, deum tangimus, et cum misericordiam extorserimus, Iupiter honoratur.
153. Tertullian, On The Soul, 48.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 625
154. Tertullian, On Baptism, 20 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80
20. They who are about to enter baptism ought to pray with repeated prayers, fasts, and bendings of the knee, and vigils all the night through, and with the confession of all by- gone sins, that they may express the meaning even of the baptism of John: They were baptized, says (the Scripture), confessing their own sins. To us it is matter for thankfulness if we do now publicly confess our iniquities or our turpitudes: for we do at the same time both make satisfaction for our former sins, by mortification of our flesh and spirit, and lay beforehand the foundation of defences against the temptations which will closely follow. Watch and pray, says (the Lord), lest you fall into temptation. Matthew 26:41 And the reason, I believe, why they were tempted was, that they fell asleep; so that they deserted the Lord when apprehended, and he who continued to stand by Him, and used the sword, even denied Him thrice: for withal the word had gone before, that no one untempted should attain the celestial kingdoms. The Lord Himself immediately after baptism temptations surrounded, when in forty days He had kept fast. Then, some one will say, it becomes us, too, rather to fast after baptism. Well, and who forbids you, unless it be the necessity for joy, and the thanksgiving for salvation? But so far as I, with my poor powers, understand, the Lord figuratively retorted upon Israel the reproach they had cast on the Lord. For the people, after crossing the sea, and being carried about in the desert during forty years, although they were there nourished with divine supplies, nevertheless were more mindful of their belly and their gullet than of God. Thereupon the Lord, driven apart into desert places after baptism, showed, by maintaining a fast of forty days, that the man of God lives not by bread alone, but by the word of God; Matthew 4:1-4 and that temptations incident to fullness or immoderation of appetite are shattered by abstinence. Therefore, blessed ones, whom the grace of God awaits, when you ascend from that most sacred font of your new birth, and spread your hands for the first time in the house of your mother, together with your brethren, ask from the Father, ask from the Lord, that His own specialties of grace and distributions of gifts 1 Corinthians 12:4-12 may be supplied you. Ask, says He, and you shall receive. Well, you have asked, and have received; you have knocked, and it has been opened to you. Only, I pray that, when you are asking, you be mindful likewise of Tertullian the sinner.
155. Tertullian, On The Crown, 4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 108
156. Tertullian, On The Apparel of Women, 1.1.1-1.1.3, 2.12.3, 2.13, 2.13.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 102, 108, 109
157. Tertullian, Exhortation To Chastity, 7.1-7.3, 10.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 41; Yates and Dupont (2020) 107
158. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •david, as fasting Found in books: Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 57
159. Tertullian, On Fasting, Against The Psychics, 14.1, 15.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 90; McGowan (1999) 165, 210
160. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, None (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 43; Parker (2005) 347; Renberg (2017) 625, 626
3.42. περὶ δὲ προγνώσεως λόγου αὐτοῖς ποτε ὄντος καὶ τοῦ ̓Απολλωνίου προσκειμένου τῇ σοφίᾳ ταύτῃ καὶ τὰς πλείους τῶν διαλέξεων ἐς τοῦτο ξυντείνοντος, ἐπαινῶν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Ιάρχας “οἱ μαντικῇ” ἔφη “χαίροντες, ὦ χρηστὲ ̓Απολλώνιε, θεῖοί τε ὑπ' αὐτῆς γίγνονται καὶ πρὸς σωτηρίαν ἀνθρώπων πράττουσι. τὸ γάρ, ἃ χρὴ ἐς θεοῦ ἀφικόμενον εὑρέσθαι, ταῦτα αὖ, ὦ χρηστέ, ἐφ' ἑαυτοῦ προιδέσθαι προειπεῖν τε ἑτέροις, ἃ μήπω ἴσασι, πανολβίου τινὸς ἡγοῦμαι καὶ ταὐτὸν ἰσχύοντος τῷ ̓Απόλλωνι τῷ Δελφικῷ. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἡ τέχνη τοὺς ἐς θεοῦ φοιτῶντας ἐπὶ τῷ χρήσασθαι καθαροὺς κελεύει βαδίζοντας φοιτᾶν, ἢ “ἔξιθι τοῦ νεὼ” πρὸς αὐτοὺς ἐρεῖ, δοκεῖ μοι καὶ τὸν προγνωσόμενον ἄνδρα ὑγιῶς ἑαυτοῦ ἔχειν καὶ μήτε κηλῖδα προσμεμάχθαι τῇ ψυχῇ μηδεμίαν μήτε οὐλὰς ἁμαρτημάτων ἐντετυπῶσθαι τῇ γνώμῃ, καθαρῶς δὲ αὐτὸν προφητεύειν ἑαυτοῦ καὶ τοῦ περὶ τῷ στέρνῳ τρίποδος συνιέντα. γεγωνότερον γὰρ οὕτω καὶ ἀληθέστερον τὰ λόγια ἐκδώσει: ὅθεν οὐ χρὴ θαυμάζειν, εἰ καὶ σὺ τὴν ἐπιστήμην ξυνείληφας τοσοῦτον ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ φέρων αἰθέρα.” 4.18. ἦν μὲν δὴ ̓Επιδαυρίων ἡμέρα. τὰ δὲ ̓Επιδαύρια μετὰ πρόρρησίν τε καὶ ἱερεῖα δεῦρο μυεῖν ̓Αθηναίοις πάτριον ἐπὶ θυσίᾳ δευτέρᾳ, τουτὶ δὲ ἐνόμισαν ̓Ασκληπιοῦ ἕνεκα, ὅτι δὴ ἐμύησαν αὐτὸν ἥκοντα ̓Επιδαυρόθεν ὀψὲ μυστηρίων. ἀμελήσαντες δὲ οἱ πολλοὶ τοῦ μυεῖσθαι περὶ τὸν ̓Απολλώνιον εἶχον καὶ τοῦτ' ἐσπούδαζον μᾶλλον ἢ τὸ ἀπελθεῖν τετελεσμένοι, ὁ δὲ ξυνέσεσθαι μὲν αὐτοῖς αὖθις ἔλεγεν, ἐκέλευσε δὲ πρὸς τοῖς ἱεροῖς τότε γίγνεσθαι, καὶ γὰρ αὐτὸς μυεῖσθαι. ὁ δὲ ἱεροφάντης οὐκ ἐβούλετο παρέχειν τὰ ἱερά, μὴ γὰρ ἄν ποτε μυῆσαι γόητα, μηδὲ τὴν ̓Ελευσῖνα ἀνοῖξαι ἀνθρώπῳ μὴ καθαρῷ τὰ δαιμόνια. ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος οὐδὲν ὑπὸ τούτων ἥττων αὑτοῦ γενόμενος “οὔπω” ἔφη “τὸ μέγιστον, ὧν ἐγὼ ἐγκληθείην ἄν, εἴρηκας, ὅτι περὶ τῆς τελετῆς πλείω ἢ σὺ γιγνώσκων ἐγὼ δὲ ὡς παρὰ σοφώτερον ἐμαυτοῦ μυησόμενος ἦλθον.” ἐπαινεσάντων δὲ τῶν παρόντων, ὡς ἐρρωμένως καὶ παραπλησίως αὑτῷ ἀπεκρίνατο, ὁ μὲν ἱεροφάντης, ἐπειδὴ ἐξείργων αὐτὸν οὐ φίλα τοῖς πολλοῖς ἐδόκει πράττειν, μετέβαλε τοῦ τόνου καὶ “μυοῦ”, ἔφη “σοφὸς γάρ τις ἥκειν ἔοικας”, ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος “μυήσομαι” ἔφη “αὖθις, μυήσει δέ με ὁ δεῖνα” προγνώσει χρώμενος ἐς τὸν μετ' ἐκεῖνον ἱεροφάντην, ὃς μετὰ τέτταρα ἔτη τοῦ ἱεροῦ προὔστη. 3.42. AS to the subject of foreknowledge, they presently had a talk about it, for Apollonius was devoted to this kind of lore, and turned most of their conversations on to it. For this Iarchas praised him and said: My good friend Apollonius, those who take pleasure in divination, are rendered divine thereby and contribute to the salvation of mankind. For here we have discoveries which we must go to a divine oracle in order to make; yet these, my good friend, we foresee of our unaided selves and foretell to others things which they know not yet. This I regard as the gift of one thoroughly blessed and endowed with the same mysterious power as the Delphic Apollo. Now the ritual insists that those who visit a shrine with a view to obtaining a response, must purify themselves first, otherwise they will be told to depart from the temple. Consequently I consider that one who would foresee events must be healthy in himself, and must not have his soul stained with any sort of defilement nor his character scarred with the wounds of any sins; so he will pronounce his predictions with purity, because he will understand himself and the sacred tripod in his breast, and with ever louder and clearer tone and truer import will he utter his oracles. Therefore you need not be surprised, if you comprehend the science, seeing that you carry in your soul so much ether. 4.18. It was then the day of the Epidaurian festival, at which it is still customary for the Athenians to hold the initiation at a second sacrifice after both proclamation and victims have been offered; and this custom was instituted in honor of Asclepius, because they still initiated him when on one occasion he arrived from Epidaurus too late for the mysteries. Now most people neglected the initiation and hung around Apollonius, and thought more of doing that than of being perfected in their religion before they went home; but Apollonius said that he would join them later on, and urged them to attend at once to the rites of the religion, for that he himself would be initiated. But the hierophant was not disposed to admit him to the rites, for he said that he would never initiate a wizard and charlatan, nor open the Eleusinian rite to a man who dabbled in impure rites. Thereupon Apollonius, fully equal to the occasion, said: You have not yet mentioned the chief of my offense, which is that knowing, as I do, more about the initiatory rite than you do yourself, I have nevertheless come for initiation to you, as if you were wiser than I am. The bystanders applauded these words, and deemed that he had answered with vigor and like himself; and thereupon the hierophant, since he saw that his exclusion of Apollonius was not by any means popular with the crowd, changed his tone and said: Be thou initiated, for thou seemest to be some wise man who has come here. But Apollonius replied: I will be initiated at another time, and it is so and so, mentioning a name, who will initiate me. Herein he showed his gift of prevision, for he glanced at the hierophant who succeeded the one he addressed, and presided over the sanctuary four years later.
161. Tertullian, On Repentance, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
9. The narrower, then, the sphere of action of this second and only (remaining) repentance, the more laborious is its probation; in order that it may not be exhibited in the conscience alone, but may likewise be carried out in some (external) act. This act, which is more usually expressed and commonly spoken of under a Greek name, is ἐξομολόγησις, whereby we confess our sins to the Lord, not indeed as if He were ignorant of them, but inasmuch as by confession satisfaction is settled, of confession repentance is born; by repentance God is appeased. And thus exomologesis is a discipline for man's prostration and humiliation, enjoining a demeanor calculated to move mercy. With regard also to the very dress and food, it commands (the penitent) to lie in sackcloth and ashes, to cover his body in mourning, to lay his spirit low in sorrows, to exchange for severe treatment the sins which he has committed; moreover, to know no food and drink but such as is plain - not for the stomach's sake, to wit, but the soul's; for the most part, however, to feed prayers on fastings, to groan, to weep and make outcries unto the Lord your God; to bow before the feet of the presbyters, and kneel to God's dear ones; to enjoin on all the brethren to be ambassadors to bear his deprecatory supplication (before God). All this exomologesis (does), that it may enhance repentance; may honour God by its fear of the (incurred) danger; may, by itself pronouncing against the sinner, stand in the stead of God's indignation, and by temporal mortification (I will not say frustrate, but) expunge eternal punishments. Therefore, while it abases the man, it raises him; while it covers him with squalor, it renders him more clean; while it accuses, it excuses; while it condemns, it absolves. The less quarter you give yourself, the more (believe me) will God give you.
162. Tertullian, On Modesty, 9.16, 12.4-12.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 78; Yates and Dupont (2020) 107
163. Tertullian, Antidote For The Scorpion'S Sting, 5.7, 7.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 102
164. Tertullian, On The Games, 3.1-3.5 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 107, 108
3.1. hic quoque non sit aliena vox a spectaculorum interdictione. Si enim pauculos tunc Iudaeos impiorum concilium vocavit, quanto magis tantum conventum ethnici populi? Minus impii ethnici, minus peccatores, minus hostes Christi quam tunc Iudaei? Quid quod et cetera congruunt. Nam apud spectacula et in cathedra sedetur et in via statur; vias enim et cardines vocant balteorum per ambitum et discrimina popularium per proclivum; cathedra quoque nominatur ipse in anfractu ad consessum situs. Itaque e contrario "infelix qui in quodcumque concilium impiorum abierit et in quacumque via peccatorum steterit et in quacumque cathedra pestium sederit." Generaliter dictum intellegamus, cum quid1 aliud, etiam specialiter interpretari capit. Nam et specialiter quaedam pronuntiata generaliter sapiunt. Cum deus Israhelitas admonet disciplinae vel obiurgat, utique ad omnes habet; cum Aegypto et Aethiopiae exitium comminatur, utique in omnem gentem peccatricem praeiudicat. Sic omnis gens peccatrix Aegyptus et Aethiopia a specie ad genus, quemadmodum etiam omne spectaculum concilium impiorum a genere ad speciem.
165. Tertullian, On The Veiling of Virgins, 16.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 102
166. Aelius Aristides, Orations, 47.40-47.41 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 62
167. Palestinian Talmud, Terumot, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 70
168. Tertullian, On Monogamy, 6.2, 6.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 107
169. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 2.15, 5.51-5.52, 6.6.48, 7.33.1, 7.109.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80, 86, 90, 122, 192; Wilson (2012) 273, 274
170. Lucian, Hercules, 531, 533-534, 532 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
171. Anon., The Acts of John, 46, 6, 85-86, 92-94, 7, 72 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: König (2012) 303; McGowan (1999) 186
72. Now on the next day John came, accompanied by Andronicus and the brethren, to the sepulchre at dawn, it being now the third day from Drusiana's death, that we might break bread there. And first, when they set out, the keys were sought for and could not be found; but John said to Andronicus: It is quite right that they should be lost, for Drusiana is not in the sepulchre; nevertheless, let us go, that thou mayest not be neglectful, and the doors shall be opened of themselves, even as the Lord hath done for us many such things.
172. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 1.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
173. Anon., Didascalia Apostolorum, 19, 21, 23-24, 26, 6, 15 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
174. Anon., Genesis Rabba, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
175. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 133, 145, 152, 158, 20, 27-29, 36-37, 49-51, 90, 96-97, 139 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
139. And Ouazanes (Iuzanes, P; Vizan, Syr.) the son of Misdaeus came unto the soldiers and said: Give me him that I may speak with him until the king cometh. And they gave him up, and he brought him in where the king gave judgement. And Iuzanes saith: Knowest thou not that I am the son of Misdaeus the king, and I have power to say unto the king what I will, and he will suffer thee to live? tell me then, who is thy God, and what power dost thou claim and glory in it? for if it be some power or art of magic, tell it me and teach me, and I will let thee go. Judas saith unto him: Thou art the son of Misdacus the king who is king for a time, but I am the servant of Jesus Christ the eternal king, and thou hast power to say to thy father to save whom thou wilt in the temporal life wherein men continue not, which thou and thy father grant, but I beseech my Lord and intercede for men, and he giveth them a new life which is altogether enduring. And thou boastest thyself of possessions and servants and robes and luxury and unclean chamberings, but I boast myself of poverty and philosophy and humility and lasting and prayer and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost and of my brethren that are worthy of God: and I boast myself of eternal life. And thou reliest on (hast taken refuge with) a man like unto thyself and not able to save his own soul from judgement and death, but I rely upon the living God, upon the saviour of kings and princes, who is the judge of all men. And ye indeed to-day perchance are, and to-morrow are no more, but I have taken refuge with him that abideth for ever and knoweth all our seasons and times. And if thou wilt become the servant of this God thou shalt soon do so; but show that thou wilt be a servant worthy of him hereby: first by holiness (purity), which is the head of all good things, and then by fellowship with this God whom I preach, and philosophy and simplicity and love and faith and [GOOD hope] in him, and unity of pure food (simplicity of pure i e, Syr.).
176. Anon., Marytrdom of Polycarp, 17 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •apocryphal acts of the apostles, representations of fasting and asceticism Found in books: König (2012) 299
177. Galen, That The Qualities of The Mind Depend On The Temperament of The Body, 71 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •diet, fasting Found in books: Champion (2022) 57, 60, 61, 62
178. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 108.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013) 304
179. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 3.13, 16.68, 24.106, 30.186, 31.187 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Renberg (2017) 626; Sorabji (2000) 271; Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
180. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
60b. זיל האידנא ותא למחר בליליא שדר קצייה לההוא דידיה,למחר אתא לקמיה א"ל זיל קוץ א"ל הא מר נמי אית ליה א"ל זיל חזי אי קוץ דידי קוץ דידך אי לא קוץ דידי לא תקוץ את,מעיקרא מאי סבר ולבסוף מאי סבר מעיקרא סבר ניחא להו לבני רה"ר דיתבי בטוליה כיון דחזא דקא מעכבי שדר קצייה ולימא ליה זיל קוץ דידך והדר אקוץ דידי משום דריש לקיש דאמר (צפניה ב, א) התקוששו וקושו קשוט עצמך ואח"כ קשוט אחרים:,אבל אם רצה כונס לתוך שלו ומוציא: איבעיא להו כנס ולא הוציא מהו שיחזור ויוציא ר' יוחנן אמר כנס מוציא וריש לקיש אמר כנס אינו מוציא,א"ל רבי יעקב לר' ירמיה בר תחליפא אסברה לך להוציא כ"ע לא פליגי דמוציא כי פליגי להחזיר כתלים למקומן ואיפכא איתמר ר' יוחנן אמר אינו מחזיר וריש לקיש אמר מחזיר,ר' יוחנן אמר אינו מחזיר משום דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מצר שהחזיקו בו רבים אסור לקלקלו וריש לקיש אמר מחזיר הני מילי היכא דליכא רווחא הכא הא איכא רווחא:,לקח חצר ובה זיזין וגזוזטראות הרי היא בחזקתה: אמר רב הונא נפלה חוזר ובונה אותה,מיתיבי אין מסיידין ואין מכיירין ואין מפייחין בזמן הזה לקח חצר מסוידת מכוירת מפויחת הרי זו בחזקתה נפלה אינו חוזר ובונה אותה,איסורא שאני,תנו רבנן לא יסוד אדם את ביתו בסיד ואם עירב בו חול או תבן מותר ר"י אומר עירב בו חול הרי זה טרכסיד ואסור תבן מותר,תנו רבנן כשחרב הבית בשניה רבו פרושין בישראל שלא לאכול בשר ושלא לשתות יין נטפל להן ר' יהושע אמר להן בני מפני מה אי אתם אוכלין בשר ואין אתם שותין יין אמרו לו נאכל בשר שממנו מקריבין על גבי מזבח ועכשיו בטל נשתה יין שמנסכין על גבי המזבח ועכשיו בטל,אמר להם א"כ לחם לא נאכל שכבר בטלו מנחות אפשר בפירות פירות לא נאכל שכבר בטלו בכורים אפשר בפירות אחרים מים לא נשתה שכבר בטל ניסוך המים שתקו,אמר להן בני בואו ואומר לכם שלא להתאבל כל עיקר אי אפשר שכבר נגזרה גזרה ולהתאבל יותר מדאי אי אפשר שאין גוזרין גזירה על הצבור אא"כ רוב צבור יכולין לעמוד בה דכתיב (מלאכי ג, ט) במארה אתם נארים ואותי אתם קובעים הגוי כולו,אלא כך אמרו חכמים סד אדם את ביתו בסיד ומשייר בו דבר מועט וכמה אמר רב יוסף אמה על אמה אמר רב חסדא כנגד הפתח,עושה אדם כל צרכי סעודה ומשייר דבר מועט מאי היא אמר רב פפא כסא דהרסנא,עושה אשה כל תכשיטיה ומשיירת דבר מועט מאי היא אמר רב בת צדעא שנאמר (תהלים קלז, ה) אם אשכחך ירושלים תשכח ימיני תדבק לשוני לחכי וגו',מאי על ראש שמחתי אמר רב יצחק זה אפר מקלה שבראש חתנים א"ל רב פפא לאביי היכא מנח לה במקום תפילין שנאמר (ישעיהו סא, ג) לשום לאבלי ציון לתת להם פאר תחת אפר,וכל המתאבל על ירושלים זוכה ורואה בשמחתה שנאמר (ישעיהו סו, י) שמחו את ירושלים וגו',תניא אמר ר' ישמעאל בן אלישע מיום שחרב בית המקדש דין הוא שנגזור על עצמנו שלא לאכול בשר ולא לשתות יין אלא אין גוזרין גזרה על הצבור אא"כ רוב צבור יכולין לעמוד בה,ומיום שפשטה מלכות הרשעה שגוזרת עלינו גזירות רעות וקשות ומבטלת ממנו תורה ומצות ואין מנחת אותנו ליכנס לשבוע הבן ואמרי לה לישוע הבן דין הוא שנגזור על עצמנו שלא לישא אשה ולהוליד בנים ונמצא זרעו של אברהם אבינו כלה מאליו,אלא הנח להם לישראל מוטב שיהיו שוגגין ואל יהיו מזידין: , br br big strongהדרן עלך חזקת הבתים: /strong /big br br
181. Papyri, Papyri Graecae Magicae, 4.538 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 271
182. Origen, Homilies On Joshua, 1.7 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
183. Origen, Homilies On Luke, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365
184. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 10.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79, 80
185. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, 104, 12, 14, 5, 53, 6, 27 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80; Lieu (2004) 133
186. Origen, Homilies On Numbers, 25.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
187. Origen, Fragments On 1 Corinthians, 24 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
188. Origen, Against Celsus, 5.59-5.65, 8.30-8.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lampe (2003) 381; McGowan (1999) 191
5.59. Celsus then continues: The Jews accordingly, and these (clearly meaning the Christians), have the same God; and as if advancing a proposition which would not be conceded, he proceeds to make the following assertion: It is certain, indeed, that the members of the great Church admit this, and adopt as true the accounts regarding the creation of the world which are current among the Jews, viz., concerning the six days and the seventh; on which day, as the Scripture says, God ceased from His works, retiring into the contemplation of Himself, but on which, as Celsus says (who does not abide by the letter of the history, and who does not understand its meaning), God rested, - a term which is not found in the record. With respect, however, to the creation of the world, and the rest which is reserved after it for the people of God, the subject is extensive, and mystical, and profound, and difficult of explanation. In the next place, as it appears to me, from a desire to fill up his book, and to give it an appearance of importance, he recklessly adds certain statements, such as the following, relating to the first man, of whom he says: We give the same account as do the Jews, and deduce the same genealogy from him as they do. However, as regards the conspiracies of brothers against one another, we know of none such, save that Cain conspired against Abel, and Esau against Jacob; but not Abel against Cain, nor Jacob against Esau: for if this had been the case, Celsus would have been correct in saying that we give the same accounts as do the Jews of the conspiracies of brothers against one another. Let it be granted, however, that we speak of the same descent into Egypt as they, and of their return thence, which was not a flight, as Celsus considers it to have been, what does that avail towards founding an accusation against us or against the Jews? Here, indeed, he thought to cast ridicule upon us, when, in speaking of the Hebrew people, he termed their exodus a flight; but when it was his business to investigate the account of the punishments inflicted by God upon Egypt, that topic he purposely passed by in silence. 5.60. If, however, it be necessary to express ourselves with precision in our answer to Celsus, who thinks that we hold the same opinions on the matters in question as do the Jews, we would say that we both agree that the books (of Scripture) were written by the Spirit of God, but that we do not agree about the meaning of their contents; for we do not regulate our lives like the Jews, because we are of opinion that the literal acceptation of the laws is not that which conveys the meaning of the legislation. And we maintain, that when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart, because the meaning of the law of Moses has been concealed from those who have not welcomed the way which is by Jesus Christ. But we know that if one turn to the Lord (for the Lord is that Spirit), the veil being taken away, he beholds, as in a mirror with unveiled face, the glory of the Lord in those thoughts which are concealed in their literal expression, and to his own glory becomes a participator of the divine glory; the term face being used figuratively for the understanding, as one would call it without a figure, in which is the face of the inner man, filled with light and glory, flowing from the true comprehension of the contents of the law. 5.61. After the above remarks he proceeds as follows: Let no one suppose that I am ignorant that some of them will concede that their God is the same as that of the Jews, while others will maintain that he is a different one, to whom the latter is in opposition, and that it was from the former that the Son came. Now, if he imagine that the existence of numerous heresies among the Christians is a ground of accusation against Christianity, why, in a similar way, should it not be a ground of accusation against philosophy, that the various sects of philosophers differ from each other, not on small and indifferent points, but upon those of the highest importance? Nay, medicine also ought to be a subject of attack, on account of its many conflicting schools. Let it be admitted, then, that there are among us some who deny that our God is the same as that of the Jews: nevertheless, on that account those are not to be blamed who prove from the same Scriptures that one and the same Deity is the God of the Jews and of the Gentiles alike, as Paul, too, distinctly says, who was a convert from Judaism to Christianity, I thank my God, whom I serve from my forefathers with a pure conscience. And let it be admitted also, that there is a third class who call certain persons carnal, and others spiritual,- I think he here means the followers of Valentinus - yet what does this avail against us, who belong to the Church, and who make it an accusation against such as hold that certain natures are saved, and that others perish in consequence of their natural constitution? And let it be admitted further, that there are some who give themselves out as Gnostics, in the same way as those Epicureans who call themselves philosophers: yet neither will they who annihilate the doctrine of providence be deemed true philosophers, nor those true Christians who introduce monstrous inventions, which are disapproved of by those who are the disciples of Jesus. Let it be admitted, moreover, that there are some who accept Jesus, and who boast on that account of being Christians, and yet would regulate their lives, like the Jewish multitude, in accordance with the Jewish law - and these are the twofold sect of Ebionites, who either acknowledge with us that Jesus was born of a virgin, or deny this, and maintain that He was begotten like other human beings - what does that avail by way of charge against such as belong to the Church, and whom Celsus has styled those of the multitude? He adds, also, that certain of the Christians are believers in the Sibyl, having probably misunderstood some who blamed such as believed in the existence of a prophetic Sibyl, and termed those who held this belief Sibyllists. 5.62. He next pours down upon us a heap of names, saying that he knows of the existence of certain Simonians who worship Helene, or Helenus, as their teacher, and are called Helenians. But it has escaped the notice of Celsus that the Simonians do not at all acknowledge Jesus to be the Son of God, but term Simon the power of God, regarding whom they relate certain marvellous stories, saying that he imagined that if he could become possessed of similar powers to those with which be believed Jesus to be endowed, he too would become as powerful among men as Jesus was among the multitude. But neither Celsus nor Simon could comprehend how Jesus, like a good husbandman of the word of God, was able to sow the greater part of Greece, and of barbarian lands, with His doctrine, and to fill these countries with words which transform the soul from all that is evil, and bring it back to the Creator of all things. Celsus knows, moreover, certain Marcellians, so called from Marcellina, and Harpocratians from Salome, and others who derive their name from Mariamme, and others again from Martha. We, however, who from a love of learning examine to the utmost of our ability not only the contents of Scripture, and the differences to which they give rise, but have also, from love to the truth, investigated as far as we could the opinions of philosophers, have never at any time met with these sects. He makes mention also of the Marcionites, whose leader was Marcion. 5.63. In the next place, that he may have the appearance of knowing still more than he has yet mentioned, he says, agreeably to his usual custom, that there are others who have wickedly invented some being as their teacher and demon, and who wallow about in a great darkness, more unholy and accursed than that of the companions of the Egyptian Antinous. And he seems to me, indeed, in touching on these matters, to say with a certain degree of truth, that there are certain others who have wickedly invented another demon, and who have found him to be their lord, as they wallow about in the great darkness of their ignorance. With respect, however, to Antinous, who is compared with our Jesus, we shall not repeat what we have already said in the preceding pages. Moreover, he continues, these persons utter against one another dreadful blasphemies, saying all manner of things shameful to be spoken; nor will they yield in the slightest point for the sake of harmony, hating each other with a perfect hatred. Now, in answer to this, we have already said that in philosophy and medicine sects are to be found warring against sects. We, however, who are followers of the word of Jesus, and have exercised ourselves in thinking, and saying, and doing what is in harmony with His words, when reviled, bless; being persecuted, we suffer it; being defamed, we entreat; and we would not utter all manner of things shameful to be spoken against those who have adopted different opinions from ours, but, if possible, use every exertion to raise them to a better condition through adherence to the Creator alone, and lead them to perform every act as those who will (one day) be judged. And if those who hold different opinions will not be convinced, we observe the injunction laid down for the treatment of such: A man that is a heretic, after the first and second admonition, reject, knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sins, being condemned of himself. Moreover, we who know the maxim, Blessed are the peacemakers, and this also, Blessed are the meek, would not regard with hatred the corrupters of Christianity, nor term those who had fallen into error Circes and flattering deceivers. 5.64. Celsus appears to me to have misunderstood the statement of the apostle, which declares that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils; speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their conscience seared with a hot iron; forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God has created to be received with thanksgiving of them who believe; and to have misunderstood also those who employed these declarations of the apostle against such as had corrupted the doctrines of Christianity. And it is owing to this cause that Celsus has said that certain among the Christians are called 'cauterized in the ears;' and also that some are termed enigmas, - a term which we have never met. The expression stumbling-block is, indeed, of frequent occurrence in these writings - an appellation which we are accustomed to apply to those who turn away simple persons, and those who are easily deceived, from sound doctrine. But neither we, nor, I imagine, any other, whether Christian or heretic, know of any who are styled Sirens, who betray and deceive, and stop their ears, and change into swine those whom they delude. And yet this man, who affects to know everything, uses such language as the following: You may hear, he says, all those who differ so widely, and who assail each other in their disputes with the most shameless language, uttering the words, 'The world is crucified to me, and I unto the world.' And this is the only phrase which, it appears, Celsus could remember out of Paul's writings; and yet why should we not also employ innumerable other quotations from the Scriptures, such as, For though we do walk in the flesh, we do not war after the flesh; (for the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds,) casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God? 5.65. But since he asserts that you may hear all those who differ so widely saying, 'The world is crucified to me, and I unto the world,' we shall show the falsity of such a statement. For there are certain heretical sects which do not receive the Epistles of the Apostle Paul, as the two sects of Ebionites, and those who are termed Encratites. Those, then, who do not regard the apostle as a holy and wise man, will not adopt his language, and say, The world is crucified to me, and I unto the world. And consequently in this point, too, Celsus is guilty of falsehood. He continues, moreover, to linger over the accusations which he brings against the diversity of sects which exist, but does not appear to me to be accurate in the language which he employs, nor to have carefully observed or understood how it is that those Christians who have made progress in their studies say that they are possessed of greater knowledge than the Jews; and also, whether they acknowledge the same Scriptures, but interpret them differently, or whether they do not recognise these books as divine. For we find both of these views prevailing among the sects. He then continues: Although they have no foundation for the doctrine, let us examine the system itself; and, in the first place, let us mention the corruptions which they have made through ignorance and misunderstanding, when in the discussion of elementary principles they express their opinions in the most absurd manner on things which they do not understand, such as the following. And then, to certain expressions which are continually in the mouths of the believers in Christianity, he opposes certain others from the writings of the philosophers, with the object of making it appear that the noble sentiments which Celsus supposes to be used by Christians have been expressed in better and clearer language by the philosophers, in order that he might drag away to the study of philosophy those who are caught by opinions which at once evidence their noble and religious character. We shall, however, here terminate the fifth book, and begin the sixth with what follows. 8.30. For that which is offered to idols is sacrificed to demons, and a man of God must not join the table of demons. As to things strangled, we are forbidden by Scripture to partake of them, because the blood is still in them; and blood, especially the odour arising from blood, is said to be the food of demons. Perhaps, then, if we were to eat of strangled animals, we might have such spirits feeding along with us. And the reason which forbids the use of strangled animals for food is also applicable to the use of blood. And it may not be amiss, as bearing on this point, to recall a beautiful saying in the writings of Sextus, which is known to most Christians: The eating of animals, says he, is a matter of indifference; but to abstain from them is more agreeable to reason. It is not, therefore, simply an account of some traditions of our fathers that we refrain from eating victims offered to those called gods or heroes or demons, but for other reasons, some of which I have here mentioned. It is not to be supposed, however, that we are to abstain from the flesh of animals in the same way as we are bound to abstain from all race and wickedness: we are indeed to abstain not only from the flesh of animals, but from all other kinds of food, if we cannot partake of them without incurring evil, and the consequences of evil. For we are to avoid eating for gluttony, or for the mere gratification of the appetite, without regard to the health and sustece of the body. We do not believe that souls pass from one body to another, and that they may descend so low as to enter the bodies of the brutes. If we abstain at times from eating the flesh of animals, it is evidently, therefore, not for the same reason as Pythagoras; for it is the reasonable soul alone that we honour, and we commit its bodily organs with due honours to the grave. For it is not right that the dwelling-place of the rational soul should be cast aside anywhere without honour, like the carcasses of brute beasts; and so much the more when we believe that the respect paid to the body redounds to the honour of the person who received from God a soul which has nobly employed the organs of the body in which it resided. In regard to the question, How are the dead raised up, and with what body do they come? we have already answered it briefly, as our purpose required. 8.31. Celsus afterwards states what is adduced by Jews and Christians alike in defense of abstinence from idol sacrifices, namely, that it is wrong for those who have dedicated themselves to the Most High God to eat with demons. What he brings forward against this view, we have already seen. In our opinion, a man can only be said to eat and drink with demons when he eats the flesh of what are called sacred victims, and when he drinks the wine poured out to the honour of the demons. But Celsus thinks that we cannot eat bread or drink wine in any way whatever, or taste fruits, or even take a draught of water, without eating and drinking with demons. He adds also, that the air which we breathe is received from demons, and that not an animal can breathe without receiving the air from the demons who are set over the air. If any one wishes to defend this statement of Celsus, let him show that it is not the divine angels of god, but demons, the whole race of whom are bad, that have been appointed to communicate all those blessings which have been mentioned. We indeed also maintain with regard not only to the fruits of the earth, but to every flowing stream and every breath of air that the ground brings forth those things which are said to grow up naturally - that the water springs in fountains, and refreshes the earth with running streams - that the air is kept pure, and supports the life of those who breathe it, only in consequence of the agency and control of certain beings whom we may call invisible husbandmen and guardians; but we deny that those invisible agents are demons. And if we might speak boldly, we would say that if demons have any share at all in these things, to them belong famine, blasting of the vine and fruit trees, pestilence among men and beasts: all these are the proper occupations of demons, who in the capacity of public executioners receive power at certain times to carry out the divine judgments, for the restoration of those who have plunged headlong into wickedness, or for the trial and discipline of the souls of the wise. For those who through all their afflictions preserve their piety pure and unimpaired, show their true character to all spectators, whether visible or invisible, who behold them; while those who are otherwise minded, yet conceal their wickedness, when they have their true character exposed by misfortunes, become manifest to themselves as well as to those whom we may also call spectators.
189. Origen, Commentary On Matthew, 11.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 187
11.12. And He called to Him the multitude and said to them, Hear and understand, etc. Matthew 15:10 We are clearly taught in these words by the Saviour that, when we read in Leviticus and Deuteronomy the precepts about meat clean and unclean, for the transgression of which we are accused by the material Jews and by the Ebionites who differ little from them, we are not to think that the scope of the Scripture is found in any superficial understanding of them. For if not that which enters into the mouth defiles the man, but that which proceeds out of the mouth, Matthew 15:11 and especially when, according to Mark, the Saviour said these things making all meats clean, Mark 7:19 manifestly we are not defiled when we eat those things which the Jews who desire to be in bondage to the letter of the law declare to be unclean, but we are then defiled when, whereas our lips ought to be bound with perception and we ought to make for them what we call a balance and weight, Sirach 28:25 we speak offhand and discuss matters we ought not, from which there comes to us the spring of sins. And it is indeed becoming to the law of God to forbid those things which arise from wickedness, and to enjoin those things which tend to virtue, but as for things which are in their own nature indifferent to leave them in their own place, as they may, according to our choice and the reason which is in us, be done ill if we sin in them, but if rightly directed by us be done well. And any one who has carefully thought on these matters will see that, even in those things which are thought to be good, it is possible for a man to sin who has taken them up in an evil way and under the impulse of passion, and that these things called impure may be considered pure, if used by us in accordance with reason. As, then, when the Jew sins his circumcision shall be reckoned for uncircumcision, but when one of the Gentiles acts uprightly his uncircumcision shall be reckoned for circumcision, Romans 2:25-26 so those things which are thought to be pure shall be reckoned for impure in the case of him who does not use them fittingly, nor when one ought, nor as far as he ought, nor for what reason he ought. But as for the things which are called impure, All things become pure to the pure, for, To them that are defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure, since both their minds and their conscience are defiled. Titus 1:15 And when these are defiled, they make all things whatsoever they touch defiled; as again on the contrary the pure mind and the pure conscience make all things pure, even though they may seem to be impure; for not from intemperance, nor from love of pleasure, nor with doubting which draws a man both ways, do the righteous use meats or drinks, mindful of the precept, Whether you eat or drink or whatsoever other thing ye do, do all to the glory of God. 1 Corinthians 10:31 And if it be necessary to delineate the foods which are unclean according to the Gospel, we will say that they are such as are supplied by covetousness, and are the result of base love of gain, and are taken up from love of pleasure, and from deifying the belly which is treated with honour, when it, with its appetites, and not reason, rules our souls. But as for us who know that some things are used by demons, or if we do not know, but suspect, and are in doubt about it, if we use such things, we have used them not to the glory of God, nor in the name of Christ; for not only does the suspicion that things have been sacrificed to idols condemn him who eats, but even the doubt concerning this; for he that doubts, according to the Apostle, is condemned if he eat, because he eats not of faith; and whatsoever is not of faith is sin. Romans 14:23 He then eats in faith who believes that that which is eaten has not been sacrificed in the temples of idols, and that it is not strangled nor blood; but he eats not of faith who is in doubt about any of these things. And the man who knowing that they have been sacrificed to demons nevertheless uses them, becomes a communicant with demons, while at the same time, his imagination is polluted with reference to demons participating in the sacrifice. And the Apostle, however, knowing that it is not the nature of meats which is the cause of injury to him who uses them or of advantage to him who refrains from their use, but opinions and the reason which is in them, said, But meat commends us not to God, for neither if we eat are we the better, nor if we eat not are we the worse. 1 Corinthians 8:8 And since he knew that those who have a loftier conception of what things are pure and what impure according to the law, turning aside from the distinction about the use of things pure and impure, and superstition, I think, in respect of things being different, become indifferent to the use of meats, and on this account are condemned by the Jews as transgressors of law, he said therefore, somewhere, Let no man therefore judge you in meat or in drink, etc., Colossians 2:16 teaching us that the things according to the letter are a shadow, but that the true thoughts of the law which are stored up in them are the good things to come, in which one may find what are the pure spiritual meats of the soul, and what are the impure foods in false and contradictory words which injure the man who is nourished in them, For the law had a shadow of the good things to come. Hebrews 10:1
190. Origen, Commentary On Genesis, 20.7.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
191. Origen, Adnotationes In Numeros, 25.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 79
192. Athanasius, Life of Anthony, 17.7, 67.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 80
193. Nag Hammadi, The Sentences of Sextus, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80
194. Nag Hammadi, The Hypostasis of The Archons, 86.26-86.27 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013) 304
195. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 6.9, 7.110-7.111 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 302, 304
6.9. To the youth who was posing fantastically as an artist's model he put this question, Tell me, if the bronze could speak, on what, think you, would it pride itself most? On its beauty, was the reply. Then, said he, are you not ashamed of delighting in the very same quality as an iimate object? When a young man from Pontus promised to treat him with great consideration as soon as his boat with its freight of salt fish should arrive, he took him and an empty wallet to a flour-dealer's, got it filled, and was going away. When the woman asked for the money, The young man will pay, said he, when his boatload of salt fish arrives.Antisthenes is held responsible for the exile of Anytus and the execution of Meletus. 7.110. And in things intermediate also there are duties; as that boys should obey the attendants who have charge of them.According to the Stoics there is an eight-fold division of the soul: the five senses, the faculty of speech, the intellectual faculty, which is the mind itself, and the generative faculty, being all parts of the soul. Now from falsehood there results perversion, which extends to the mind; and from this perversion arise many passions or emotions, which are causes of instability. Passion, or emotion, is defined by Zeno as an irrational and unnatural movement in the soul, or again as impulse in excess.The main, or most universal, emotions, according to Hecato in his treatise On the Passions, book ii., and Zeno in his treatise with the same title, constitute four great classes, grief, fear, desire or craving, pleasure. 7.111. They hold the emotions to be judgements, as is stated by Chrysippus in his treatise On the Passions: avarice being a supposition that money is a good, while the case is similar with drunkenness and profligacy and all the other emotions.And grief or pain they hold to be an irrational mental contraction. Its species are pity, envy, jealousy, rivalry, heaviness, annoyance, distress, anguish, distraction. Pity is grief felt at undeserved suffering; envy, grief at others' prosperity; jealousy, grief at the possession by another of that which one desires for oneself; rivalry, pain at the possession by another of what one has oneself.
196. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 56.26-57.22, 64.22, 64.23, 64.24, 64.25, 64.26, 64.27, 64.28, 64.29, 64.30, 64.31 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013) 189
197. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 68
10a. כל פרשה שהיתה חביבה על דוד פתח בה באשרי וסיים בה באשרי פתח באשרי דכתיב (תהלים א, א) אשרי האיש וסיים באשרי דכתיב (תהלים ב, יב) אשרי כל חוסי בו:,הנהו בריוני דהוו בשבבותיה דר"מ והוו קא מצערו ליה טובא הוה קא בעי ר' מאיר רחמי עלויהו כי היכי דלימותו אמרה לי' ברוריא דביתהו מאי דעתך משום דכתיב (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מי כתיב חוטאים חטאים כתיב,ועוד שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ורשעים עוד אינם כיון דיתמו חטאים ורשעים עוד אינם אלא בעי רחמי עלויהו דלהדרו בתשובה ורשעים עוד אינם,בעא רחמי עלויהו והדרו בתשובה:,אמר לה ההוא צדוקי לברוריא כתיב (ישעיהו נד, א) רני עקרה לא ילדה משום דלא ילדה רני,אמרה ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב כי רבים בני שוממה מבני בעולה אמר ה',אלא מאי עקרה לא ילדה רני כנסת ישראל שדומה לאשה עקרה שלא ילדה בנים לגיהנם כותייכו:,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לר' אבהו כתיב (תהלים ג, א) מזמור לדוד בברחו מפני אבשלום בנו וכתיב (תהלים נז, א) לדוד מכתם בברחו מפני שאול במערה הי מעשה הוה ברישא מכדי מעשה שאול הוה ברישא לכתוב ברישא,אמר ליה אתון דלא דרשיתון סמוכין קשיא לכו אנן דדרשינן סמוכים לא קשיא לן,דא"ר יוחנן סמוכין מן התורה מנין שנא' (תהלים קיא, ח) סמוכים לעד לעולם עשוים באמת וישר,למה נסמכה פרשת אבשלום לפרשת גוג ומגוג שאם יאמר לך אדם כלום יש עבד שמורד ברבו אף אתה אמור לו כלום יש בן שמורד באביו אלא הוה הכא נמי הוה:,אמר ר' יוחנן משום רבי שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי לא, כו) פיה פתחה בחכמה ותורת חסד על לשונה כנגד מי אמר שלמה מקרא זה לא אמרו אלא כנגד דוד אביו שדר בחמשה עולמים ואמר שירה,דר במעי אמו ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו,יצא לאויר העולם ונסתכל בכוכבים ומזלות ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, כ) ברכו ה' מלאכיו גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו ברכו ה' כל צבאיו וגו',ינק משדי אמו ונסתכל בדדיה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קג, ב) ברכי נפשי את ה' ואל תשכחי כל גמוליו,מאי כל גמוליו אמר ר' אבהו שעשה לה דדים במקום בינה,טעמא מאי אמר (רבי) יהודה כדי שלא יסתכל במקום ערוה רב מתנא אמר כדי שלא יינק ממקום הטנופת,ראה במפלתן של רשעים ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, לה) יתמו חטאים מן הארץ ורשעים עוד אינם ברכי נפשי את ה' הללויה,נסתכל ביום המיתה ואמר שירה שנאמר (תהלים קד, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' ה' אלהי גדלת מאד הוד והדר לבשת,מאי משמע דעל יום המיתה נאמר אמר רבה בר רב שילא מסיפא דעניינא דכתיב (תהלים קד, כט) תסתיר פניך יבהלון תוסף רוחם יגועון וגו',רב שימי בר עוקבא ואמרי לה מר עוקבא הוה שכיח קמיה דר' שמעון בן פזי והוה מסדר אגדתא קמיה דר' יהושע בן לוי אמר ליה מאי דכתיב (תהלים קג, א) ברכי נפשי את ה' וכל קרבי את שם קדשו אמר ליה בא וראה שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם צר צורה על גבי הכותל ואינו יכול להטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והקב"ה אינו כן צר צורה בתוך צורה ומטיל בה רוח ונשמה קרבים ובני מעים והיינו דאמרה חנה (שמואל א ב, ב) אין קדוש כה' כי אין בלתך ואין צור כאלהינו.,מאי אין צור כאלהינו אין צייר כאלהינו,מאי כי אין בלתך אמר ר' יהודה בר מנסיא אל תקרי כי אין בלתך אלא אין לבלותך שלא כמדת הקדוש ברוך הוא מדת בשר ודם מדת בשר ודם מעשה ידיו מבלין אותו והקב"ה מבלה מעשיו,א"ל אנא הכי קא אמינא לך הני חמשה ברכי נפשי כנגד מי אמרן דוד לא אמרן אלא כנגד הקב"ה וכנגד נשמה,מה הקב"ה מלא כל העולם אף נשמה מלאה את כל הגוף מה הקדוש ברוך הוא רואה ואינו נראה אף נשמה רואה ואינה נראית מה הקב"ה זן את כל העולם כלו אף נשמה זנה את כל הגוף מה הקב"ה טהור אף נשמה טהורה מה הקב"ה יושב בחדרי חדרים אף נשמה יושבת בחדרי חדרים יבא מי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו וישבח למי שיש בו חמשה דברים הללו:,אמר רב המנונא מאי דכתיב (קהלת ח, א) מי כהחכם ומי יודע פשר דבר מי כהקדוש ברוך הוא שיודע לעשות פשרה בין שני צדיקים בין חזקיהו לישעיהו חזקיהו אמר ליתי ישעיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן באליהו דאזל לגבי אחאב (שנאמר (מלכים א יח, ב) וילך אליהו להראות אל אחאב) ישעיהו אמר ליתי חזקיהו גבאי דהכי אשכחן ביהורם בן אחאב דאזל לגבי אלישע,מה עשה הקב"ה הביא יסורים על חזקיהו ואמר לו לישעיהו לך ובקר את החולה שנאמר (מלכים ב כ, א) בימים ההם חלה חזקיהו למות ויבא אליו ישעיהו בן אמוץ הנביא ויאמר אליו כה אמר ה' (צבאות) צו לביתך כי מת אתה ולא תחיה וגו' מאי כי מת אתה ולא תחיה מת אתה בעולם הזה ולא תחיה לעולם הבא,אמר ליה מאי כולי האי אמר ליה משום דלא עסקת בפריה ורביה א"ל משום דחזאי לי ברוח הקדש דנפקי מינאי בנין דלא מעלו,א"ל בהדי כבשי דרחמנא למה לך מאי דמפקדת איבעי לך למעבד ומה דניחא קמיה קודשא בריך הוא לעביד,אמר ליה השתא הב לי ברתך אפשר דגרמא זכותא דידי ודידך ונפקי מנאי בנין דמעלו א"ל כבר נגזרה עליך גזירה א"ל בן אמוץ כלה נבואתך וצא,כך מקובלני מבית אבי אבא אפי' חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים,אתמר נמי רבי יוחנן ורבי (אליעזר) דאמרי תרוייהו אפילו חרב חדה מונחת על צוארו של אדם אל ימנע עצמו מן הרחמים שנא' (איוב יג, טו) הן יקטלני לו איחל 10a. b Every chapter that was dear to David, he began with “happy is” and concluded with “happy is.” He opened with “happy is,” as it is written: “Happy is the man /b who has not walked in the counsel of the wicked or stood in the way of sinners or sat in the dwelling place of the scornful” (Psalms 1:1). b And he concluded with “happy,” as it is written /b at the end of the chapter: “Pay homage in purity, lest He be angry, and you perish on the way when His anger is kindled suddenly. b Happy are those who take refuge in Him” /b (Psalms 2:12). We see that these two chapters actually constitute a single chapter.,With regard to the statement of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, that David did not say i Halleluya /i until he saw the downfall of the wicked, the Gemara relates: b There were these hooligans in Rabbi Meir’s neighborhood who caused him a great deal of anguish. Rabbi Meir prayed for /b God to have b mercy on them, that they should die. Rabbi Meir’s wife, Berurya, said to him: What is your thinking? /b On what basis do you pray for the death of these hooligans? Do you base yourself on the verse, b as it is written: “Let sins cease from the land” /b (Psalms 104:35), which you interpret to mean that the world would be better if the wicked were destroyed? But b is it written, /b let b sinners /b cease?” Let b sins /b cease, b is written. /b One should pray for an end to their transgressions, not for the demise of the transgressors themselves., b Moreover, go to the end of the verse, /b where it says: b “And the wicked will be no more.” /b If, as you suggest, b transgressions shall cease /b refers to the demise of the evildoers, how is it possible that b the wicked will be no more, /b i.e., that they will no longer be evil? b Rather, pray for /b God to have b mercy on them, that they should repent, /b as if they repent, then the wicked will be no more, as they will have repented.,Rabbi Meir saw that Berurya was correct b and he prayed for /b God to have b mercy on them, and they repented. /b ,The Gemara relates an additional example of Berurya’s incisive insight: b A certain heretic said to Berurya: It is written: “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth, /b open forth in song and cry, you did not travail, for more are the children of the desolate than the children of the married wife, said the Lord” (Isaiah 54:1). b Because she has not given birth, /b she should b sing /b and rejoice?,Berurya responded to this heretic’s mockery and b said: Fool! Go to the end of the verse, where it is written: “For the children of the desolate shall be more numerous than the children of the married wife, said the Lord.” /b , b Rather, what /b is the meaning of: b “Sing, barren woman who has not given birth”? /b It means: b Sing congregation of Israel, which is like a barren woman who did not give birth to children who are /b destined b for Gehenna like you. /b ,In explaining passages from Psalms, the Gemara relates another instance of a response to the question of a heretic: b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Abbahu, it is written: “A Psalm of David, when he fled from his son, Absalom” /b (Psalms 3:1), b and /b similarly b it is said: /b “To the chief musician, i al tashḥet /i , b a i mikhtam /i of David when fleeing from Saul into the cave” /b (Psalms 57:1). b Which event was first? Since the event with Saul was first, /b it would have been appropriate b to write it first. /b ,Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: /b For b you, who do /b not employ the b homiletic /b method b of juxtaposition /b of verses, b it is difficult. /b But for b us, who /b employ the b homiletic /b method b of juxtaposition /b of verses, b it is not difficult, /b as the Sages commonly homiletically infer laws and moral lessons from the juxtaposition of two verses.,Regarding the juxtaposition of verses, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: From where /b in the Bible is it derived that one may draw homiletical inferences from the b juxtaposition /b of verses? b As it is said: /b “The works of His hands in truth and justice, all His commandments are sure. b Adjoined forever and ever, made in truth and uprightness” /b (Psalms 111:7–8). Conclude from here that it is appropriate to draw inferences from the juxtaposition of God’s commandments. Accordingly, David’s fleeing from Absalom is situated where it is in order to juxtapose it to the next chapter, which mentions the war of Gog and Magog; the second chapter of Psalms opens: “Why are the nations in an uproar?”, b Why was the chapter of Absalom juxtaposed with the chapter of Gog and Magog? /b They are juxtaposed b so /b that b if a person should say to you, /b expressing doubt with regard to the prophecy of the war of Gog and Magog “against the Lord and against His anointed”: b Is there a slave who rebels against his master? /b Is there someone capable of rebelling against God? b You too say to him: Is there a son who rebels against his father /b and severs the relationship with the one who brought him into the world and raised him? b Yet, /b nevertheless, b there was /b such a son, Absalom, and b so too there /b can b be /b a situation where people will seek to rebel against God., b Rabbi Yoḥa said /b explanations of other verses b in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “She opens her mouth with wisdom, and the teaching of loving-kindness is on her tongue” /b (Proverbs 31:26)? The Sages explain that this chapter discusses the wisdom of Torah and those who engage in its study, so b with reference to whom did Solomon say this verse? He said this /b verse b about none other than his father, David, /b who was the clearest example of one who opens his mouth in wisdom, and b who resided in five worlds /b or stages of life b and /b his soul b said a song /b of praise corresponding to each of them. Five times David said: “Bless the Lord, O my soul,” each corresponding to a different stage of life., b He resided in his mother’s womb, /b his first world, b and said a song /b of praise of the pregcy, b as it is stated: /b “of David. b Bless the Lord, O my soul and all that is within me bless His holy name” /b (Psalms 103:1), in which he thanks God for creating all that is within his mother, i.e., her womb., b He emerged into the atmosphere of the world, /b his second world, b looked upon the stars and constellations and said a song /b of praise of God for the entirety of creation, b as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, His angels, mighty in strength, that fulfill His word, listening to the voice of His word. Bless the Lord, all His hosts, /b His servants, that do His will. Bless the Lord, all His works, in all places of His kingship, bless my soul, Lord” (Psalms 103:20–23). David saw the grandeur of all creation and recognized that they are mere servants, carrying out the will of their Creator ( i Ma’ayan HaBerakhot /i )., b He nursed from his mother’s breast, /b his third world, b and he looked upon her bosom and said a song /b of praise, b as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul, and do not forget all His benefits [ i gemulav /i ]” /b (Psalms 103:2). The etymological association is between i gemulav /i and i gemulei meḥalav /i , which means weaned from milk (Isaiah 28:9).,We still must understand, however, b what is /b meant by b all His benefits? /b What in particular is praiseworthy in what God provided, beyond merely providing for the infant? b Rabbi Abbahu said: /b In contrast with most other animals, God b placed her breasts /b near her heart, b the place /b that is the source b of understanding. /b , b What is the reason /b that God did this? b Rav Yehuda said: So that /b the nursing child b would not look upon the place of /b his mother’s b nakedness. Rav Mattana said: So that /b the child b would not nurse from a place of uncleanliness. /b , b He witnessed /b in both vision and reality b the downfall of the wicked and he said a song /b of praise, b as it is stated: “Let sinners cease from the earth, and let the wicked be no more. Bless the Lord, O my soul, i Halleluya /i ” /b (Psalms 104:35).,The fifth world was when David b looked upon the day of death and said a song /b of praise, b as it is stated: “Bless the Lord, O my soul. Lord my God, You are very great; You are clothed in glory and majesty” /b (Psalms 104:1); for even death is a time of transcendence for the righteous.,The connection between this final praise and the day of death is unclear. The Gemara asks: b From where is it inferred /b that b this /b verse b was stated with regard to the day of death? /b Rabba bar Rav Sheila says: We can derive this b from /b the verses at b the end of the matter, /b where b it is written: “You hide Your face, they vanish; You gather Your breath, they perish /b and return to the dust” (Psalms 104:29).,Other interpretations of this verse exist. The Gemara relates how b Rav Shimi bar Ukva, and some say Mar Ukva, would regularly /b study b before Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, /b who was well versed in i aggada /i and b would arrange the i aggada /i before Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. /b br Once, Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi b said to him: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written: “Bless the Lord, my soul, and all that is within me bless His Holy name”? /b br Rav Shimi bar Ukva b said to /b Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi: b Come and see that the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood, /b as this verse praises the formation of man in his mother’s womb. b The attribute of flesh and blood is /b such that he b shapes a form on the wall /b for all to see, yet b he cannot instill it with a spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. /b While b the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not so, /b as God b shapes one form within another form, /b a child in its mother’s womb, b and instills it with spirit and soul, bowels and intestines. And this is /b the explanation of b what Hannah said /b with regard to the birth of Samuel: b “There is none holy like the Lord, for there is none like You, and there is no Rock like our God” /b (I Samuel 2:2)., b What is /b the meaning of b there is no rock [ i tzur /i ] like our God? There is no artist [ i tzayyar /i ] like our God. /b ,The Gemara continues to interpret the rest of that verse homiletically: b What is /b the meaning of b “there is none like You”? Rabbi Yehuda ben Menasya said: Do not read /b the verse to mean b “there is none like You [ i biltekha /i ]”; rather, read /b it to mean b “none can outlast You [ i levalotkha /i ],” as the attribute of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is not like the attribute of flesh and blood: The attribute of flesh and blood is /b such b that his creations outlast him, /b but b the Holy One, Blessed be He, outlasts His actions. /b ,This did not satisfy Rav Shimi bar Ukva, who b said to /b Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi: b I /b meant to b say to you as follows: Corresponding to whom did David say these five /b instance of b “Bless /b the Lord, b O my soul”? /b He answered him: b He said them about none other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, and corresponding to the soul, /b as the verse refers to the relationship between man’s soul and God. The five instances of “Bless the Lord, O my soul” correspond to the five parallels between the soul in man’s body and God’s power in His world., b Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, fills the entire world, so too the soul fills the entire body. /b br b Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sees but is not seen, so too does the soul see, but is not seen. /b br b Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, sustains the entire world, so too the soul sustains the entire body. /b br b Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, is pure, so too is the soul pure. /b br b Just as the Holy One, Blessed be He, resides in a chamber within a chamber, /b in His inner sanctum, b so too the soul resides in a chamber within a chamber, /b in the innermost recesses of the body. br Therefore, b that which has these five characteristics, /b the soul, b should come and praise He Who has these five characteristics. /b ,With regard to redemption and prayer, the Gemara tells the story of Hezekiah’s illness, his prayer to God, and subsequent recuperation. b Rav Hamnuna said: What is /b the meaning of b that which is written /b praising the Holy One, Blessed be He: b “Who is like the wise man, and who knows the interpretation [ i pesher /i ] of the matter” /b (Ecclesiastes 8:1)? This verse means: b Who is like the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who knows how to effect compromise [ i peshara /i ] between two righteous individuals, between Hezekiah, /b the king of Judea, b and Isaiah /b the prophet. They disagreed over which of them should visit the other. b Hezekiah said: Let Isaiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Elijah /b the prophet, b who went to Ahab, /b the king of Israel, b as it is stated: “And Elijah went to appear to Ahab” /b (I Kings 18:2). This proves that it is the prophet who must seek out the king. b And Isaiah said: Let Hezekiah come to me, as that is what we find with regard to Yehoram ben Ahab, /b king of Israel, b who went to Elisha /b the prophet, as it is stated: “So the king of Israel, Jehosaphat and the king of Edom went down to him” (II Kings 3:12)., b What did the Holy One, Blessed be He, do /b to effect compromise between Hezekiah and Isaiah? b He brought the suffering /b of illness b upon Hezekiah and told Isaiah: Go and visit the sick. /b Isaiah did as God instructed, b as it is stated: “In those days Hezekiah became deathly ill, and Isaiah ben Amoz the prophet came and said to him: Thus says the Lord of Hosts: Set your house in order, for you will die and you will not live” /b (Isaiah 38:1). This seems redundant; b what is /b the meaning of b you will die and you will not live? /b This repetition means: b You will die in this world, and you will not live, /b you will have no share, b in the World-to-Come. /b ,Hezekiah b said to him: What is all of this? /b For what transgression am I being punished? br Isaiah b said to him: Because you did not /b marry and b engage in procreation. /b br Hezekiah apologized and b said: /b I had no children b because I envisaged through divine inspiration that the children that emerge from me will not be virtuous. /b Hezekiah meant that he had seen that his children were destined to be evil. In fact, his son Menashe sinned extensively, and he thought it preferable to have no children at all.,Isaiah b said to him: Why do you /b involve b yourself with the secrets of the Holy One, Blessed be He? That which you have been commanded, /b the mitzva of procreation, b you are required to perform, and that which is acceptable /b in the eyes of b the Holy One, Blessed be He, let Him perform, /b as He has so decided.,Hezekiah b said to /b Isaiah: b Now give me your daughter /b as my wife; b perhaps my merit and your merit will cause virtuous children to emerge from me. /b br Isaiah b said to him: The decree has already been decreed against you /b and this judgment cannot be changed. br Hezekiah b said to him: Son of Amoz, cease your prophecy and leave. /b As long as the prophet spoke as God’s emissary, Hezekiah was obligated to listen to him. He was not, however, obligated to accept Isaiah’s personal opinion that there was no possibility for mercy and healing.,Hezekiah continued: b I have received a tradition from the house of my father’s father, /b from King David, the founding father of the dynasty of kings of Judea: b Even /b if b a sharp sword rests upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from /b praying for b mercy. /b One may still hold out hope that his prayers will be answered, as was David himself when he saw the Angel of Destruction, but nonetheless prayed for mercy and his prayers were answered.,With regard to the fact that one should not despair of God’s mercy, the Gemara cites that b it was also said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Eliezer both said: Even if a sharp sword is resting upon a person’s neck, he should not prevent himself from /b praying for b mercy, as it is stated /b in the words of Job: b “Though He slay me, I will trust in Him” /b (Job 13:15). Even though God is about to take his life, he still prays for God’s mercy.
198. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 68
101a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big הדלת שבמוקצה וחדקים שבפרצה ומחצלות אין נועלין בהן אלא אם כן גבוהים מן הארץ:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת ואין צריך לומר ביום טוב,אמר אביי בשיש להם ציר רבא אמר בשהיה להן ציר,מיתיבי דלת הנגררת ומחצלת הנגררת וקנקן הנגרר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין וגבוהים מן הארץ אפילו מלא נימא נועלין בהן ואם לאו אין נועלין בהן,אביי מתרץ לטעמיה ורבא מתרץ לטעמיה אביי מתרץ לטעמיה או שיש להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ רבא מתרץ לטעמיה כשהיה להן ציר או שגבוהין מן הארץ,ת"ר סוכי קוצים וחבילין שהתקינן לפירצה שבחצר בזמן שקשורין ותלויין נועלין בהן בשבת וא"צ לומר ביו"ט,תני ר' חייא דלת אלמנה הנגררת אין נועלין בה היכי דמי דלת אלמנה איכא דאמרי דחד שיפא ואיכא דאמרי דלית ליה גשמה,אמר רב יהודה האי מדורתא ממעלה למטה שרי ממטה למעלה אסיר,וכן ביעתא וכן קידרא וכן פוריא וכן חביתא,א"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהושע בן חנניה חדקאה דכתיב בכו (מיכה ז, ד) טובם כחדק אמר ליה שטיא שפיל לסיפיה דקרא דכתיב ישר ממסוכה ואלא מאי טובם כחדק כשם שחדקים הללו מגינין על הפירצה כך טובים שבנו מגינים עלינו דבר אחר טובם כחדק שמהדקין את הרשעים לגיהנם שנאמר (מיכה ד, יג) קומי ודושי בת ציון כי קרנך אשים ברזל ופרסותיך אשים נחושה והדיקות עמים רבים וגו':, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big לא יעמוד אדם ברשות היחיד ויפתח ברשות הרבים ברשות הרבים ויפתח ברשות היחיד אא"כ עשה מחיצה גבוה עשרה טפחים דברי ר' מאיר,אמרו לו מעשה בשוק של פטמים שהיה בירושלים שהיו נועלין ומניחין את המפתח בחלון שעל גבי הפתח רבי יוסי אומר שוק של צמרים הוה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורבנן אמר רבי מאיר רשות הרבים ומהדרו אינהו כרמלית דאמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ירושלים אלמלא דלתותיה ננעלות בלילה חייבין עליה משום רשות הרבים,אמר רב פפא כאן קודם שנפרצו בה פרצות כאן לאחר שנפרצו בה פרצות,רבא אמר סיפא אתאן לשערי גינה והכי קאמר וכן לא יעמוד ברשות היחיד ויפתח בכרמלית בכרמלית ויפתח ברשות היחיד 101a. strong MISHNA: /strong With regard to b the door to a rear court, /b i.e., a door that opens from a house to the courtyard situated behind it, which is typically not a proper door but merely a wooden board without hinges that closes off the doorway; b and /b likewise b bundles of thorns /b that seal b a breach; and /b reed b mats, one /b may b not close /b an opening b with them /b on Shabbat. This would be considered building or completing a building, b unless they /b remain b above the ground /b even when they are open., strong GEMARA: /strong b And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i : With regard to b a door, or a mat, or a lattice [ i kankan /i ] that drag /b along the ground and are used for closing up openings, b when they are tied and suspended /b in place b one /b may b close /b an opening b with them on Shabbat; and needless to say /b this is permitted b on a Festival. /b According to the i baraita /i , the critical factor is apparently that they must be tied and suspended, not that they have to be held up above the ground., b Abaye said: /b The i baraita /i is referring b to /b ones b that have a hinge. /b As they are considered proper doors, closing them does not appear like building. b Rava said: /b The i baraita /i is referring even b to /b doors b that /b once b had a hinge, /b even though they no longer have one. These partitions also bear the clear form of a door, and therefore one’s action does not have the appearance of building.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b from another i baraita /i : With regard to b a door, or a mat, or a lattice that drag /b along the ground, b when they are tied and suspended /b in place b and /b they are held b above the ground even by /b as little as b a hairbreadth, one /b may b close /b an opening b with them. However, if /b they are b not /b raised in this manner, b one /b may b not close /b an opening b with them. /b Clearly, these doors must indeed be raised above the ground as well.,The Gemara answers: b Abaye reconciles /b the objection b in accordance with his reasoning, and Rava reconciles /b the objection b in accordance with his reasoning. /b The Gemara elaborates: b Abaye reconciles /b the objection b in accordance with his reasoning /b by adding to the i baraita /i : They must b either have a hinge or /b be held b above the ground. Rava /b likewise b reconciles /b the objection b in accordance with his reasoning, /b as he reads: They must b have had a hinge or /b else be held b above the ground. /b , b The Sages taught /b a i baraita /i : With regard to b branches of thorn bushes or bundles /b of wood b that were arranged /b so that they sealed off b a breach in a courtyard, when they are tied and suspended /b in place, b one /b may b close /b an opening b with them on Shabbat; and needless to say, /b this is permitted b on a Festival. /b , b Rabbi Ḥiyya taught /b a i baraita /i : With regard to b a widowed door that drags /b along the ground, b one /b may b not close /b an opening b with it. /b The Gemara asks: b What are the circumstances /b of b a widowed door? Some say /b it refers to a door built b from a single plank, /b which does not look like a door, b and others say /b it is b a door that does not have a lower doorsill /b ( i ge’onim /i ) and that touches the ground when closed.,With regard to activities that are prohibited because of their similarity to building, the Gemara cites a teaching that b Rav Yehuda said: /b When arranging a pile of wood for b a fire /b on a Festival, if the logs are arranged b from the top down, /b i.e., the upper logs are temporarily suspended in the air while the lower logs are inserted below them, b it is permitted. /b However, if the wood is placed from b the bottom up, it is prohibited, /b as the arrangement of wood in the regular manner is a form of building., b And the same /b applies to b eggs /b that are to be arranged in a pile, b and the same /b applies to b a cauldron /b that is to be set down on a fire by means of supports, b and the same /b applies to a b bed /b that will be placed on its frame, b and the same /b applies to b barrels /b arranged in a cellar. In all these cases, the part that goes on top must be temporarily suspended in the air while the lower section is inserted beneath it.,With regard to bundles of thorns used to seal a breach, the Gemara cites a related incident: b A certain heretic /b once b said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Man of thorns! For it says about you: “The best of them is as a brier” /b (Micah 7:4), which indicates that even Israel’s best are merely thorns. b He said to him: Fool, go down to the end of the verse: “The most upright is worse than a thorn hedge,” /b a derogatory expression meant as praise. b Rather, what is /b the meaning of b the best of them is as a brier? /b It means that b just as these thorns protect a breach, so the best among us protect us. Alternatively: The best of them is as a brier [ i ḥedek /i ] /b means b that they grind [ i mehaddekin /i ] the nations of the world into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Arise and thresh, O daughter of Zion, for I will make your horn iron, and I will make your hoofs brass, and you shall beat in pieces [ i vahadikot /i ] many peoples; /b and you shall devote their gain to God, and their substance to the God of the whole earth” (Micah 4:13)., strong MISHNA: /strong b A person /b may b not stand in the private domain and open /b a door located b in the public domain /b with a key, lest he inadvertently transfer the key from one domain to the other. Likewise, one may not stand b in the public domain and open /b a door b in the private domain /b with a key, b unless /b in the latter case b he erected a partition ten handbreadths high /b around the door and stands inside it. This is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. /b ,The Rabbis b said to him: /b There was b an incident at the poultry dealers’ market in Jerusalem, /b where they would fatten fowl for slaughter (Rabbeinu Ḥael), b and they would lock /b the doors to their shops b and place the key in the window that was over the door, /b which was more than ten handbreadths off the ground, and nobody was concerned about the possible violation of any prohibition. b Rabbi Yosei says: /b That place b was a market of wool dealers. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: b And /b those b Rabbis, /b who cited the case of the poultry dealers of Jerusalem to rebut Rabbi Meir’s opinion, b Rabbi Meir spoke /b to them about unlocking a door in a private domain while standing b in the public domain, and they responded /b with an incident involving b a i karmelit /i . As Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: /b With regard to b Jerusalem, were it not /b for the fact that b its doors are locked at night, one would be liable for /b carrying in b it /b on Shabbat, b because /b its thoroughfares have the status of b the public domain. /b However, since Jerusalem’s doors are typically locked, it is considered one large i karmelit /i , which is subject to rabbinic prohibitions. How, then, could a proof be cited from the markets of Jerusalem with regard to the transfer of objects between a public domain and a private domain, which is prohibited by Torah law?, b Rav Pappa said: Here, /b in the statement of Rabbi Yoha, Jerusalem was considered a i karmelit /i during the period b before breaches were made in its /b walls. Its doors did not turn it into a public domain, as they were locked. Whereas b there, /b the Rabbis in the mishna are referring to the time b after breaches had been made in /b the walls, and it therefore acquired the status of a public domain., b Rava said: In the latter clause /b of the mishna b we came to /b a different issue, i.e., the final section of the mishna is not designed to counter Rabbi Meir’s statement with regard to the public domain. Rather, it refers b to /b the b gates of a garden /b with an area greater than two i beit se’a /i in size, whose legal status is that of a i karmelit /i . Consequently, the mishna b is saying as follows: And likewise, /b one may b not stand in the private domain and open /b a door b in a i karmelit /i ; /b neither may one stand b in a i karmelit /i and open /b a door b in the private domain, /b
199. Iamblichus, Concerning The Mysteries, 3.11, 3.11.124 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 119; Harkins and Maier (2022) 42
200. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, fasts, participation in •fasting, fasts, required number of prayer leaders for Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 119
122a. אליבא דמאן,אי אליבא דר' ישמעאל האמר לא מבטל עור ואי אליבא דר"ע פשיטא האמר מבטל עור,לעולם אליבא דרבי ישמעאל וכי אמר רבי ישמעאל לא מבטל עור ה"מ שפלטתו חיה אבל פלטתו סכין בטיל,ת"ש ר' יהודה אומר האלל המכונס אם יש כזית במקום אחד חייבין עליו ואמר רב הונא והוא שכנסו,אי אמרת בשלמא פלטתו סכין לרבי ישמעאל נמי לא בטיל רב הונא דאמר כרבי ישמעאל,אלא אי אמרת פלטתו סכין לר' ישמעאל בטיל רב הונא דאמר כמאן,אלא לעולם פלטתו סכין לר' ישמעאל לא בטיל ורב הונא דאמר כר"ע,פשיטא מהו דתימא כי קאמר ר"ע ה"מ פלטתו סכין אבל פלטתו חיה לא בטיל,קמ"ל טעמא דר"ע מפני שהעור מבטלן ל"ש פלט חיה ול"ש פלט סכין כדקתני סיפא מפני מה ר"ע מטהר בעור מפני שהעור מבטלן:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אלו שעורותיהן כבשרן עור האדם ועור חזיר של ישוב ר' יהודה אומר אף עור חזיר הבר,ועור חטרת של גמל הרכה ועור הראש של עגל הרך ועור הפרסות ועור בית הבושת ועור השליל ועור של תחת האליה ועור האנקה והכח והלטאה והחומט ר' יהודה אומר הלטאה כחולדה,וכולן שעבדן או שהילך בהן כדי עבודה טהורין חוץ מעור האדם ר' יוחנן בן נורי אומר שמונה שרצים יש להן עורות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר עולא דבר תורה עור אדם טהור ומה טעם אמרו טמא גזירה שמא יעשה אדם עורות אביו ואמו שטיחין,ואיכא דמתני לה אסיפא וכולן שעיבדן או שהילך בהן כדי עבודה טהורין חוץ מעור אדם אמר עולא דבר תורה עור אדם שעבדו טהור ומה טעם אמרו טמא גזירה שמא יעשה אדם עורות אביו ואמו שטיחין,מאן דמתני לה ארישא כ"ש אסיפא ומאן דמתני אסיפא אבל ארישא טומאה דאורייתא:,ועור חזיר [וכו']: במאי קמיפלגי מר סבר האי אשון והאי רכיך ומר סבר האי נמי רכיך:,עור חטרת של גמל הרכה: וכמה גמל הרכה אמר עולא א"ר יהושע בן לוי כל זמן שלא טענה,בעי ר' ירמיה הגיע זמנה לטעון ולא טענה מהו בעי אביי לא הגיע זמנה לטעון וטענה מהו תיקו,יתיב ר"ל וקמיבעיא ליה כמה גמל הרכה א"ל רבי ישמעאל בר אבא הכי א"ר יהושע בן לוי כל זמן שלא טענה א"ל תיב לקבלי,יתיב רבי זירא וקמיבעיא ליה כמה גמל הרכה א"ל רבין בר חיננא הכי אמר עולא א"ר יהושע בן לוי כל זמן שלא טענה הוה קתני לה א"ל חדא הויא לך אמרת,תא חזי מה בין תקיפי ארעא דישראל לחסידי דבבל:,ועור הראש וכו': וכמה עגל הרך עולא אמר בן שנתו ר' יוחנן אמר כל זמן שיונק איבעיא להו היכי קאמר עולא בן שנתו והוא שיונק 122a. The Gemara asks: b In accordance with whose /b opinion is the statement of Rav Huna? It is taught in the mishna (124a) that in a case where the hide of an unslaughtered carcass was attached to two half olive-bulks of flesh, Rabbi Yishmael says that the hide imparts the impurity of an unslaughtered carcass by means of carrying but not by means of contact with the flesh, because one touches them separately whereas one carries them together. Rabbi Akiva says: One contracts impurity neither by means of contact with the hide nor by means of carrying it., b If /b one maintains that Rav Huna’s statement is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yishmael, didn’t /b Rabbi Yishmael b say /b that the b hide does not nullify /b the attached flesh and therefore the one who carries it becomes impure with the impurity of a carcass? b And if /b one maintains that Rav Huna’s statement is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Akiva, /b then it is b obvious, /b as b didn’t /b Rabbi Akiva b say /b that b the hide nullifies /b the flesh and therefore one who carries it does not become impure?,The Gemara answers: b Actually, /b the statement of Rav Huna is b in accordance with /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yishmael. And when Rabbi Yishmael said /b that b the hide does not nullify /b the flesh, b that statement /b applies to a case b where an animal severed /b the hide. b But /b in a case where a person used b a knife /b to b flay /b the hide, the hide b nullifies /b the attached flesh.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a refutation to this explanation of the statement of Rav Huna from that which is taught in the mishna: b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b With regard to b the meat residue /b attached to the hide after flaying b that was collected, if there is an olive-bulk /b of it b in one place /b it imparts impurity of an animal carcass, and one who contracts impurity from it and eats consecrated foods or enters the Temple b is liable /b to receive i karet /i b for it. And Rav Huna says /b in explanation of this statement of Rabbi Yehuda: This i halakha /i b is /b applicable only when a halakhically competent person b collected /b the meat residue in one place, but not if the meat residue was collected by a child or without human intervention.,Since Rav Huna interprets the statement of Rabbi Yehuda as referring to a case where a halakhically competent person collected the pieces of flesh, the mishna must be discussing a case where such a person flayed the hide with a knife in multiple places and then collected the pieces of flesh attached to the hide. Evidently, the hide does not nullify the flesh because if the hide did nullify the flesh, that flesh would not impart the impurity of a carcass even if it were later collected. Therefore, the Gemara challenges: b Granted, if you say /b that b according to Rabbi Yishmael, even /b in a case where a person used b a knife /b to b flay /b the hide, the hide b does not nullify /b the flesh, accordingly, b Rav Huna said /b his statement b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yishmael /b that a hide flayed by a knife does not nullify the flesh, and therefore the flesh imparts the impurity of a carcass if a person collected the pieces., b But if you say /b that b according to Rabbi Yishmael, /b in a case where a person used b a knife /b to b flay /b the hide, the hide b nullifies /b the flesh and therefore the flesh does not impart the impurity of a carcass even if a halakhically competent person collected the pieces, then b in accordance with whose /b opinion b did Rav Huna say /b that the hide does not nullify the flesh and that the pieces of flesh that one collected impart the impurity of a carcass?,The Gemara responds: b Rather, /b it is necessary to explain the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael differently. b Actually, according to Rabbi Yishmael /b even a hide b flayed by a knife does not nullify /b the attached flesh. b And Rav Huna said /b his statement that the hide nullifies attached pieces of flesh b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva. /b ,The Gemara asks: Isn’t it b obvious /b that the hide nullifies the flesh according to Rabbi Akiva? Rav Huna’s statement is unnecessary. The Gemara answers: Rav Huna’s statement is necessary b lest you say: When Rabbi Akiva said /b that the hide nullifies the attached pieces of flesh, b that statement /b applies only to a case where a person used b a knife /b to b flay /b the animal. b But /b if b an animal severed /b the hide, the hide b does not nullify /b the flesh.,Therefore, Rav Huna b teaches us /b that b the reason /b for the opinion b of Rabbi Akiva /b is b because the hide nullifies /b the flesh, and there b is no difference /b whether b an animal severed /b the hide, b and /b there b is no difference /b whether a person used b a knife /b to b flay /b the hide. This statement of Rav Huna is therefore b in accordance with that which the latter clause /b of that mishna b teaches: For what /b reason b does Rabbi Akiva deem /b one ritually b pure in /b a case where he moved both half olive-bulks with b the hide? /b It is b because the hide /b separates between them and b nullifies them. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b These /b are the entities b whose skin /b has the same halakhic status b as their flesh: The skin of /b a dead b person, /b which imparts impurity like his flesh; b and the skin of a domesticated pig, /b which is soft and eaten by gentiles, and imparts the impurity of an animal carcass like its flesh. b Rabbi Yehuda says: Even the skin of a wild boar /b has the same status., b And /b the halakhic status of the skin of all of the following animals is also like that of their flesh: b The skin of the hump of a young camel /b that did not yet toughen; b and the skin of the head of a young calf; and the hide of the hooves; and the skin of the womb; and the skin of /b an animal b fetus /b in the womb of a slaughtered animal; b and the skin beneath the tail /b of a ewe; b and the skin of the gecko [ i anaka /i ], and the desert monitor [ i ko’aḥ /i ], and the lizard [ i leta’a /i ], and the skink [ i ḥomet /i ], /b four of the eight creeping animals that impart ritual impurity after death. b Rabbi Yehuda says: /b The halakhic status of the skin of b the lizard /b is b like /b that of the skin of b the weasel /b and is not like that of its flesh., b And /b with regard to b all of /b these skins, in a case b where one tanned them or /b spread them on the ground and b trod upon them for the period of time required for tanning, /b they are no longer classified as flesh and are b ritually pure, except for the skin of a person, /b which maintains the status of flesh. b Rabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri says: /b All b eight creeping animals /b enumerated in the Torah b have skins /b whose halakhic status is not that of flesh., strong GEMARA: /strong The first clause of the mishna teaches that the skin of a dead person imparts impurity like his flesh. With regard to this, b Ulla says: The skin of /b a dead b person is pure by Torah law; and what /b is the b reason /b that the Sages b said /b that it is b impure? /b It is a rabbinic b decree lest a person fashion mats /b from b the skins of his /b deceased b father and mother. /b , b And there are those who teach /b this statement of Ulla b with regard to the latter clause /b of the mishna: b And /b with regard to b all of /b these skins, in a case b where one tanned them or /b spread them on the ground and b trod upon them for the period of time required for tanning, /b they are no longer classified as flesh and are b ritually pure, except for the skin of a person, /b which maintains the status of flesh. With regard to that clause, b Ulla says: The skin of /b a dead b person that one tanned is pure by Torah law; and what /b is the b reason /b that the Sages b said /b that it is b impure? /b It is a rabbinic b decree lest a person fashion mats /b from b the skins of his /b deceased b father and mother. /b ,The Gemara comments: b The one who teaches /b the statement of Ulla that the skin of a corpse is pure by Torah law b with regard to the first clause /b of the mishna, which discusses a softer hide that is not tanned, b all the more so /b would teach it b with regard to the latter clause /b of the mishna. b But the one who teaches /b this statement b with regard to the latter clause /b of the mishna holds that only the tanned skin of a corpse is pure by Torah law, b but /b does not teach it b with regard to the first clause /b of the mishna because he holds that the b impurity /b of the skin of a corpse that is not tanned is b by Torah law. /b ,§The mishna teaches that according to the first i tanna /i , b the skin of /b a domesticated b pig /b imparts impurity of an animal carcass like its flesh, indicates that the skin of a wild boar does not impart impurity of a carcass. Rabbi Yehuda disagrees and holds that even the skin of a wild boar has the same status as its flesh. The Gemara asks: b With regard to what do /b the first i tanna /i and Rabbi Yehuda b disagree? /b The Gemara answers: One b Sage, /b the first i tanna /i , b holds /b that b this /b skin of a wild boar b is tough /b and therefore its status is not that of flesh, b but that /b skin of a domesticated pig b is soft /b and therefore its status is that of flesh. b And /b one b Sage, /b Rabbi Yehuda, b holds /b that b this /b skin of a wild boar b is also soft /b and therefore its status is that of flesh.,§The mishna teaches that the b skin of the hump of a young camel /b that did not yet toughen imparts impurity of a carcass like its flesh. The Gemara asks: b And for how long is a camel /b considered b young /b and the status of the skin considered like that of the flesh? b Ulla says /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: As long as /b the camel b has not carried /b a burden., b Rabbi Yirmeya raises a dilemma: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to the skin of a camel b whose time, /b i.e., age, b to carry /b a burden b has arrived, but it has not /b yet b carried /b one? b Abaye raises a dilemma: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard to the skin of a camel b whose time to carry /b a burden b has not arrived, but it has /b nevertheless b carried /b one? The Gemara answers: These dilemmas b shall stand /b unresolved., b Reish Lakish sat and raised a dilemma: /b For b how long is a camel /b considered b young? Rabbi Yishmael bar Abba said to him: This is what Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: As long as /b the camel b has not carried /b a burden. In response to his answer, Reish Lakish honored him and b said to him: Sit opposite me. /b , b Rabbi Zeira sat and raised a dilemma: /b For b how long is a camel /b considered b young? Ravin bar Ḥina said to him: This is what Ulla said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: As long as /b the camel b has not carried /b a burden. Ravin bar Ḥina then b repeated /b his answer to Rabbi Zeira. Rabbi Zeira b said to him: Do you have /b only b one /b i halakha /i to b say, /b and that is why you are repeating it?,The Gemara points out: b Come /b and b see what /b the difference is b between the harsh /b scholars b of Eretz Yisrael, /b such as Reish Lakish, b and the saintly ones of Babylonia, /b such as Rabbi Zeira. Although Reish Lakish was known for his harsh nature, he was the one who honored the Sage who resolved his dilemma, whereas Rabbi Zeira responded sharply to the one who taught him this i halakha /i .,§The mishna teaches: b And the skin of the head /b of a young calf has the same halakhic status as the flesh with regard to impurity. The Gemara asks: b And /b for b how long is a calf /b considered b young? Ulla says: /b It is considered young in b its /b first b year of age. Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b For b as long as /b the calf is b suckling. A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: With regard to b what /b case b is Ulla speaking? /b Is he referring to a calf that is in b its /b first b year of age and is /b still b suckling, /b
201. Cyprian, Letters, 63.15-63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 210
202. Cyprian, Letters, 63.15-63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 210
203. Cyprian, Letters, 63.15-63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 210
204. Cyprian, Letters, 63.15-63.16 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 210
205. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.54.2-1.54.5 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean Found in books: Williams (2009) 39
206. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Homilies, 2.24, 3.24, 3.73, 6.8, 7.8, 8.15, 8.16, 8.17, 8.19, 9.9, 9.9-19, 9.10, 9.11, 9.12, 9.13, 9.14, 9.15, 10.12, 10.13, 11.26, 11.27, 11.28.4, 11.35, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 19.22, 23 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80, 192
207. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Epistle of Clement To James, 9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 192
208. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 271
209. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 1.32, 2.42, 4.6-4.7, 4.6.8-4.6.9, 4.12 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 291; McGowan (1999) 191; Sorabji (2000) 271; Taylor and Hay (2020) 204, 302, 303
1.32. 32.But this departure [from sense, imagination, and irrationality,] may be effected by violence, and also by persuasion and by reason, through the wasting away, and, as it may be said, oblivion and death of the passions; which, indeed, is the best kind of departure, since it is accomplished without oppressing that from which we are divulsed. For, in sensibles, a divulsion by force is not effected without either a laceration of a part, or a vestige of avulsion. But this separation is introduced by a continual negligence of the passions. And this negligence is produced by an abstinence from those sensible perceptions which excite the passions, and by a persevering attention to intelligibles. And among these passions or perturbations, those which arise from food are to be enumerated. SPAN 2.42. 42.For they are full of every kind of imagination, and are sufficiently qualified to deceive, through effects of a prodigious nature; and through these, unhappy men procure philtres, and amatory allurements. For all intemperance, and hope of possessing wealth and renown, and especially deception, exist through these, since falsehood is allied to these malevolent beings; for they wish to he considered as Gods, and the power which presides over them is ambitious to appear to be the greatest God. These are they that rejoice in libations, and the savour of sacrifices, through which their pneumatic vehicle is fattened; for this vehicle lives through vapours and exhalations, and the life of it is various through various exhalations. It is likewise corroborated by the savour of blood and flesh. SPAN 4.6. 6.Chaeremon the Stoic, therefore, in his narration of the Egyptian priests, who, he says, were considered by the Egyptians as philosophers, informs us, that they chose temples, as the places in which they might philosophize. For to dwell with the statues of the Gods is a thing allied to the whole desire, by which the soul tends to the contemplation of their divinities. And from the divine veneration indeed, which was paid to them through dwelling in temples, they obtained security, all men honouring these philosophers, as if they were certain sacred animals. They also led a solitary life, as they only mingled with other men in solemn sacrifices and festivals. But at other times the priests were almost inaccessible to any one who wished to converse with them. For it was requisite that he who approached to them should be first purified, and abstain from many things; and this is as it were a common sacred law respecting the Egyptian priests. But these [philosophic priests], |116 having relinquished every other employment, and human labours,7 gave up the whole of their life to the contemplation and worship of divine natures and to divine inspiration; through the latter, indeed, procuring for themselves, honour, security, and piety; but through contemplation, science; and through both, a certain occult exercise of manners, worthy of antiquity8. For to be always conversant with divine knowledge and inspiration, removes those who are so from all avarice, suppresses the passions, and excites to an intellectual life. But they were studious of frugality in their diet and apparel, and also of continence and endurance, and in all things were attentive to justice and equity. They likewise were rendered venerable, through rarely mingling with other men. For during the time of what are called purifications, they scarcely mingled with their nearest kindred, and those of their own order, nor were they to be seen by anyone, unless it was requisite for the necessary purposes of purification. For the sanctuary was inaccessible to those who were not purified, and they dwelt in holy places for the purpose of performing divine works; but at all other times they associated more freely with those who lived like themselves. They did not, however, associate with any one who was not a religious character. But they were always seen near to the Gods, or the statues of the Gods, the latter of which they were beheld either carrying, or preceding in a sacred procession, or disposing in an orderly manner, with modesty and gravity; each of which operations was not the effect of pride, but an indication of some physical reason. Their venerable gravity also was apparent from their manners. For their walking was orderly, and their aspect sedate; and they were so studious of preserving this gravity of countece, that they did not even wink, when at any time they were unwilling to do so; and they seldom laughed, and when they did, their laughter proceeded no farther than to a smile. But they always kept their hands within their garments. Each likewise bore about him a symbol indicative of the order which he was allotted in sacred concerns; for there were many orders of priests. Their diet also was slender and simple. For, with respect to wine, some of them did not at all drink it, but others drank very little of it, on account of its being injurious to the |117 nerves, oppressive to the head, an impediment to invention, and an incentive to venereal desires. In many other things also they conducted themselves with caution; neither using bread at all in purifications, and at those times in which they were not employed in purifying themselves, they were accustomed to eat bread with hyssop, cut into small pieces. For it is said, that hyssop very much purifies the power of bread. But they, for the most part, abstained from oil, the greater number of them entirely; and if at any time they used it with pot-herbs, they took very little of it, and only as much as was sufficient to mitigate the taste of the herbs. SPAN 4.7. 7.It was not lawful for them therefore to meddle with the esculent and potable substances, which were produced out of Egypt, and this contributed much to the exclusion of luxury from these priests. But they abstained from all the fish that was caught in Egypt, and from such quadrupeds as had solid, or many-fissured hoofs, and from such as were not horned; and likewise from all such birds as were carnivorous. Many of them, however, entirely abstained from all animals; and in purifications this abstinence was adopted by all of them, for then they did not even eat an egg. Moreover, they also rejected other things, without being calumniated for so doing. Thus, for instance, of oxen, they rejected the females, and also such of the males as were twins, or were speckled, or of a different colour, or alternately varied in their form, or which were now tamed, as having been already consecrated to labours, and resembled animals that are honoured, or which were the images of any thing [that is divine], or those that had but one eye, or those that verged to a similitude of the human form. There are also innumerable other observations pertaining to the art of those who are called mosxofragistai, or who stamp calves with a seal, and of which books have been composed. But these observations are still more curious respecting birds; as, for instance, that a turtle should not be eaten; for it is said that a hawk frequently dismisses this bird after he has seized it, and preserves its life, as a reward for having had connexion with it. The Egyptian priests, therefore, that they might not ignorantly meddle with a turtle of this kind, avoided the whole species of those birds. And these indeed were certain common religious ceremonies; but there were different ceremonies, which varied according to the class of the priests that used them, and were adapted to the several divinities. But chastity and purifications were common to all the priests. When also the time arrived in which they were to perform something pertaining to the sacred rites of religion, they spent some days in preparatory ceremonies, some indeed forty-two, but others a greater, and |118 others a less number of days; yet never less than seven days; and during this time they abstained from all animals, and likewise from all pot-herbs and leguminous substances, and, above all, from a venereal connexion with women; for they never at any time had connexion with males. They likewise washed themselves with cold water thrice every day; viz. when they rose from their bed, before dinner, and when they betook themselves to sleep. But if they happened to be polluted in their sleep by the emission of the seed, they immediately purified their body in a bath. They also used cold bathing at other times, but not so frequently as on the above occasion. Their bed was woven from the branches of the palm tree, which they call bais; and their bolster was a smooth semi-cylindric piece of wood. But they exercised themselves in the endurance of hunger and thirst, and were accustomed to paucity of food through the whole of their life. SPAN 4.12. 12.Moreover, they are peculiarly pious to divinity. For before the sun rises they speak nothing profane, but they pour forth certain prayers to him which they had received from their ancestors, as if beseeching him to rise. Afterwards, they are sent by their curators to the exercise of the several arts in which they are skilled, and having till the fifth hour strenuously laboured in these arts, they are afterwards collected together in one place; and there, being begirt with linen teguments, they wash their bodies with cold water. After this purification, they enter into their own proper habitation, into which no heterodox person is permitted to enter. But they being pure, betake themselves to the dining room, as into a certain sacred fane. In this place, when all of them are seated in silence, the baker places the bread in order, and the cook distributes to each of them one vessel containing one kind of eatables. Prior, however, to their taking the food which is pure and sacred, a priest prays, and it is unlawful for any one prior to the prayer to taste of the food. After dinner, likewise, the priest again prays; so that both when they begin, and when they cease to eat, they venerate divinity. Afterwards, divesting themselves of these garments as sacred, they again betake themselves to their work till the evening; and, returning from thence, they eat and drink in the same manner as before, strangers sitting with them, if they should happen at that time to be present. No clamour or tumult ever defiles the house in which they dwell; but their conversation with each other is performed in an orderly manner; and to those that are out of the house, the silence of those within it appears as if it was some terrific mystery. The cause, however, of this quietness is their constant sobriety, and that with them their meat and drink is measured by what is sufficient [to the wants of nature]. But those who are very desirous of belonging to their sect, are not immediately admitted into it, but they must remain out of it for a year, adopting the same diet, the Essenes giving them a rake, a girdle, and a white garment. And if, during that time, they have given a sufficient proof of their continence, they proceed to a still greater conformity to the institutes of the sect, and use purer water for the purpose of sanctity; though they are not yet permitted to live with the Essenes. For after this exhibition of endurance, their manners are tried for two years more, and he who |124 after this period appears to deserve to associate with them, is admitted into their society. SPAN
210. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
12b. את הארץ למה לי להקדים שמים לארץ והארץ היתה תהו ובהו מכדי בשמים אתחיל ברישא מאי שנא דקא חשיב מעשה ארץ תנא דבי ר' ישמעאל משל למלך בשר ודם שאמר לעבדיו השכימו לפתחי השכים ומצא נשים ואנשים למי משבח למי שאין דרכו להשכים והשכים,תניא ר' יוסי אומר אוי להם לבריות שרואות ואינן יודעות מה רואות עומדות ואין יודעות על מה הן עומדות הארץ על מה עומדת על העמודים שנאמר (איוב ט, ו) המרגיז ארץ ממקומה ועמודיה יתפלצון עמודים על המים שנאמר (תהלים קלו, ו) לרוקע הארץ על המים מים על ההרים שנאמר על הרים יעמדו מים הרים ברוח שנאמר (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח רוח בסערה שנאמר (תהלים קמח, ח) רוח סערה עושה דברו סערה תלויה בזרועו של הקב"ה שנאמר (דברים לג, כז) ומתחת זרועות עולם,וחכ"א על י"ב עמודים עומדת שנאמר (דברים לב, ח) יצב גבולות עמים למספר בני ישראל וי"א ז' עמודים שנאמר (משלי ט, א) חצבה עמודיה שבעה ר"א בן שמוע אומר על עמוד אחד וצדיק שמו שנאמר (משלי י, כה) וצדיק יסוד עולם,א"ר יהודה שני רקיעים הן שנאמר (דברים י, יד) הן לה' אלהיך השמים ושמי השמים,ר"ל אמר שבעה ואלו הן וילון רקיע שחקים זבול מעון מכון ערבות וילון אינו משמש כלום אלא נכנס שחרית ויוצא ערבית ומחדש בכל יום מעשה בראשית שנאמר (ישעיהו מ, כב) הנוטה כדוק שמים וימתחם כאהל לשבת רקיע שבו חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות קבועין שנאמר (בראשית א, יז) ויתן אותם אלהים ברקיע השמים שחקים שבו רחיים עומדות וטוחנות מן לצדיקים שנאמר (תהלים עח, כג) ויצו שחקים ממעל ודלתי שמים פתח וימטר עליהם מן לאכול וגו',זבול שבו ירושלים ובית המקדש ומזבח בנוי ומיכאל השר הגדול עומד ומקריב עליו קרבן שנאמר (מלכים א ח, יג) בנה בניתי בית זבול לך מכון לשבתך עולמים ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (ישעיהו סג, טו) הבט משמים וראה מזבול קדשך ותפארתך,מעון שבו כיתות של מלאכי השרת שאומרות שירה בלילה וחשות ביום מפני כבודן של ישראל שנאמר (תהלים מב, ט) יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בלילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד ביום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ומה טעם יומם יצוה ה' חסדו משום ובלילה שירה עמי ואיכא דאמרי אמר ר"ל כל העוסק בתורה בעוה"ז שהוא דומה ללילה הקב"ה מושך עליו חוט של חסד לעוה"ב שהוא דומה ליום שנאמר יומם יצוה ה' חסדו ובלילה שירה עמי,א"ר לוי כל הפוסק מדברי תורה ועוסק בדברי שיחה מאכילין אותו גחלי רתמים שנאמר (איוב ל, ד) הקוטפים מלוח עלי שיח ושרש רתמים לחמם ומנלן דאיקרי שמים שנאמר (דברים כו, טו) השקיפה ממעון קדשך מן השמים,מכון שבו אוצרות שלג ואוצרות ברד ועליית טללים רעים ועליית אגלים וחדרה של סופה [וסערה] ומערה של קיטור ודלתותיהן אש שנאמר (דברים כח, יב) יפתח ה' לך את אוצרו הטוב,הני ברקיעא איתנהו הני בארעא איתנהו דכתיב (תהלים קמח, ז) הללו את ה' מן הארץ תנינים וכל תהומות אש וברד שלג וקיטור רוח סערה עושה דברו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב דוד ביקש עליהם רחמים והורידן לארץ אמר לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ה, ה) לא אל חפץ רשע אתה לא יגורך (במגורך) רע צדיק אתה ה' לא יגור במגורך רע ומנלן דאיקרי שמים דכתיב (מלכים א ח, לט) ואתה תשמע השמים מכון שבתך,ערבות שבו צדק משפט וצדקה גנזי חיים וגנזי שלום וגנזי ברכה ונשמתן של צדיקים ורוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים צדק ומשפט דכתיב (תהלים פט, טו) צדק ומשפט מכון כסאך צדקה דכתיב (ישעיהו נט, יז) וילבש צדקה כשרין גנזי חיים דכתיב (תהלים לו, י) כי עמך מקור חיים וגנזי שלום דכתיב (שופטים ו, כד) ויקרא לו ה' שלום וגנזי ברכה דכתיב (תהלים כד, ה) ישא ברכה מאת ה',נשמתן של צדיקים דכתיב (שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים את ה' אלהיך רוחות ונשמות שעתיד להיבראות דכתיב (ישעיהו נז, טז) כי רוח מלפני יעטוף ונשמות אני עשיתי וטל שעתיד הקב"ה להחיות בו מתים דכתיב (תהלים סח, י) גשם נדבות תניף אלהים נחלתך ונלאה אתה כוננתה,שם אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת וכסא הכבוד מלך אל חי רם ונשא שוכן עליהם בערבות שנאמר (תהלים סח, ה) סולו לרוכב בערבות ביה שמו ומנלן דאיקרי שמים אתיא רכיבה רכיבה כתיב הכא סולו לרוכב בערבות וכתיב התם (דברים לג, כו) רוכב שמים בעזרך,וחשך וענן וערפל מקיפין אותו שנאמר (תהלים יח, יב) ישת חשך סתרו סביבותיו סוכתו חשכת מים עבי שחקים ומי איכא חשוכא קמי שמיא והכתיב [דניאל ב, כב] הוא (גלי) עמיקתא ומסתרתא ידע מה בחשוכא ונהורא עמיה שרי לא קשיא הא 12b. b Why do I /b need b “and the earth” [ i et ha’aretz /i ]? To /b teach that b heaven preceded earth /b in the order of Creation. The next verse states: b “And the earth was unformed and void” /b (Genesis 1:2). The Gemara asks: b After all, /b the Bible b began with heaven first; what is different /b about the second verse? Why does the Bible b recount the creation of earth /b first in the second verse? b The Sage of the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b This can be explained by b a parable of a flesh-and-blood king who said to his servants: Rise early /b and come b to my entrance. He arose and found women and men /b waiting for him. b Whom does he praise? Those who are unaccustomed to rising early but /b yet b rose early, /b the women. The same applies to the earth: Since it is a lowly, physical sphere, we would not have expected it to be created together with heaven. Therefore, it is fitting to discuss it at greater length.,§ b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yosei says: Woe to them, the creations, who see and know not what they see; /b who b stand and know not upon what they stand. /b He clarifies: b Upon what does the earth stand? Upon pillars, as it is stated: “Who shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble” /b (Job 9:6). These b pillars /b are positioned b upon water, as it is stated: “To Him Who spread forth the earth over the waters” /b (Psalms 136:6). These b waters /b stand b upon mountains, as it is stated: “The waters stood above the mountains” /b (Psalms 104:6). The b mountains /b are upon the b wind, as it is stated: “For behold He forms the mountains and creates the wind” /b (Amos 4:13). The b wind /b is b upon a storm, as it is stated: “Stormy wind, fulfilling His word” /b (Psalms 148:8). The b storm hangs upon the arm of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “And underneath are the everlasting arms” /b (Deuteronomy 33:27), which demonstrates that the entire world rests upon the arms of the Holy One, Blessed be He.,And the Rabbis say: The earth b stands on twelve pillars, as it is stated: “He set the borders of the nations according to the number of the children of Israel” /b (Deuteronomy 32:8). Just as the children of Israel, i.e., the sons of Jacob, are twelve in number, so does the world rest on twelve pillars. b And some say: /b There are b seven pillars, as it is stated: “She has hewn out her seven pillars” /b (Proverbs 9:1). b Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua says: /b The earth rests b on one pillar and a righteous person is its name, as it is stated: “But a righteous person is the foundation of the world” /b (Proverbs 10:25).,§ b Rabbi Yehuda said: There are two firmaments, as it is stated: “Behold, to the Lord your God belongs the heaven and the heaven of heavens” /b (Deuteronomy 10:14), indicating that there is a heaven above our heaven., b Reish Lakish said: /b There are b seven /b firmaments, b and they are as follows: i Vilon /i , i Rakia /i , i Sheḥakim /i , i Zevul /i , i Ma’on /i , i Makhon /i , /b and b i Aravot /i . /b The Gemara proceeds to explain the role of each firmament: b i Vilon /i , /b curtain, is the firmament that b does not contain anything, but enters at morning and departs /b in the b evening, and renews the act of Creation daily, as it is stated: “Who stretches out the heavens as a curtain [ i Vilon /i ], and spreads them out as a tent to dwell in” /b (Isaiah 40:22). b i Rakia /i , /b firmament, is the one b in which /b the b sun, moon, stars, and zodiac signs are fixed, as it is stated: “And God set them in the firmament [ i Rakia /i ] of the heaven” /b (Genesis 1:17). b i Sheḥakim /i , /b heights, is the one b in which mills stand and grind manna for the righteous, as it is stated: “And He commanded the heights [ i Shehakim /i ] above, and opened the doors of heaven; and He caused manna to rain upon them for food, /b and gave them of the corn of heaven” (Psalms 78:23–24)., b i Zevul /i , /b abode, b is /b the location b of /b the heavenly b Jerusalem and /b the heavenly b Temple, and /b there the heavenly b altar is built, and /b the angel b Michael, the great minister, stands and sacrifices an offering upon it, as it is stated: “I have surely built a house of i Zevul /i for You, a place for You to dwell forever” /b (I Kings 8:13). b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Zevul /i b is called heaven? As it is written: “Look down from heaven and see, from Your holy and glorious abode [ i Zevul /i ]” /b (Isaiah 63:15)., b i Ma’on /i , /b habitation, b is where /b there are b groups of ministering angels who recite song at night and are silent during the day out of respect for Israel, /b in order not to compete with their songs, b as it is stated: “By day the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me” /b (Psalms 42:9), indicating that the song of the angels is with God only at night.,With regard to the aforementioned verse, b Reish Lakish said: Whoever occupies /b himself b with Torah at night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him by day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness,” and what is the reason /b that b “by day, the Lord will command His kindness”? Because “and in the night His song,” /b i.e., the song of Torah, b “is with me.” And some say /b that b Reish Lakish said: Whoever occupies himself with Torah in this world, which is comparable to night, the Holy One, Blessed be He, extends a thread of kindness over him in the World-to-Come, which is comparable to day, as it is stated: “By day, the Lord will command His kindness, and in the night His song is with me.” /b ,With regard to the same matter, b Rabbi Levi said: Anyone who pauses from words of Torah to occupy himself with mundane conversation will be fed with the coals of the broom tree, as it is stated: “They pluck saltwort [ i maluaḥ /i ] with wormwood [ i alei siaḥ /i ], and the roots of the broom tree [ i retamim /i ] are their food” /b (Job 30:4). The exposition is as follows: Those who pluck, i.e., pause, from learning Torah, which was given upon two tablets, i luḥot /i , which sounds similar to i maluaḥ /i , for the purpose of i siaḥ /i , idle chatter, are punished by having to eat coals made from “the roots of the broom tree.” b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Ma’on /i b is called heaven? As it is stated: “Look forth from Your holy i Ma’on /i , from heaven” /b (Deuteronomy 26:15)., b i Makhon /i , /b dwelling place, b is where there are storehouses of snow and storehouses of hail, and the upper chamber of harmful dews, and the upper chamber of drops, and the room of tempests and storms, and the cave of mist. And the doors /b of all these are made of b fire. /b How do we know that there are storehouses for evil things? b For it is stated: “The Lord will open for you His good storehouse, /b the heavens” (Deuteronomy 28:12), which indicates the existence of a storehouse that contains the opposite of good.,The Gemara asks a question: With regard to b these /b things listed above, are they b located in heaven? /b It is obvious that b they /b are b located on the earth. As it is written: “Praise the Lord from the earth, sea monsters and all depths, fire and hail, snow and mist, stormy wind, fulfilling His word” /b (Psalms 148:7–8). The verse seems to indicate that all these things are found on the earth. b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: David requested mercy with regard to them, /b that they should not remain in heaven, b and He brought them down to earth. He said before Him: Master of the Universe, “You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness, evil shall not sojourn with You” /b (Psalms 5:5). In other words, b You are righteous, O Lord. /b Nothing b evil should sojourn in Your vicinity. /b Rather, it is better that they remain close to us. b And from where do we /b derive b that /b this place b is called “heaven”? As it is written: “And You shall hear /b in b heaven, the i Makhon /i of Your dwelling” /b (I Kings 8:39)., b i Aravot /i , /b skies, is the firmament b that contains righteousness; justice; righteousness, /b i.e., charity; b the treasuries of life; the treasuries of peace; the treasuries of blessing; the souls of the righteous; the spirits and souls that are to be created; and the dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead. /b The Gemara proves this statement: b Righteousness and justice /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne” /b (Psalms 89:15); b righteousness, as it is written: “And He donned righteousness as armor” /b (Isaiah 59:17); b the treasuries of life, as it is written: “For with You is the source of life” /b (Psalms 36:10). b And the treasuries of peace /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “And he called Him the Lord of peace” /b (Judges 6:24), implying that peace is God’s name and is therefore found close to Him. b And the treasuries of blessing, as it is written: “He shall receive a blessing from the Lord” /b (Psalms 24:5)., b The souls of the righteous /b are found in heaven, b as it is written: “And the soul of my master shall be bound in the bundle of life with the Lord, your God” /b (I Samuel 25:29). b Spirits and souls that are to be created /b are found there, b as it is written: “For the spirit that enwraps itself is from Me, and the souls that I have made” /b (Isaiah 57:16), which indicates that the spirit to be released into the world, wrapped around a body, is located close to God. b The dew that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will use to revive the dead /b is found in heaven, b as it is written: “A bountiful rain You will pour down, God; when Your inheritance was weary, You confirmed it” /b (Psalms 68:10)., b There, /b in the firmaments, are the b i ofanim /i , /b the b seraphim, /b the b holy divine creatures, and the ministering angels, and the Throne of Glory. The King, God, /b the b living, lofty, exalted One dwells above them in i Aravot /i , as it is stated: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ i Aravot /i ], Whose name is God” /b (Psalms 68:5). b And from where do we /b derive b that /b i Aravot /i b is called “heaven”? /b This is b learned /b by using a verbal analogy between two instances of b “rides” /b and b “rides”: Here, it is written: “Extol Him Who rides upon the skies [ i Aravot /i ],” and there, it is written: “Who rides upon the heaven as your help” /b (Deuteronomy 33:26)., b And darkness and clouds and fog surround Him, as it is stated: “He made darkness His hiding place, His pavilion round about Him; darkness of waters, thick clouds of the skies” /b (Psalms 18:12). The Gemara asks: b And is there darkness before Heaven, /b i.e., before God? b But isn’t it written: “He reveals deep and secret things, He knows what is in the darkness, and the light dwells with Him” /b (Daniel 2:22), demonstrating that only light, not darkness, is found with God? The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult. This /b verse, which states that only light dwells with Him, is referring
211. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
75b. לחם ששאלו כהוגן ניתן להם כהוגן מכאן למדה תורה דרך ארץ שלא יאכל אדם בשר אלא בלילה והאמר אביי האי מאן דאית ליה סעודתא לא לאכלי' אלא ביממא כעין יממא קא אמרינן אמר רב אחא בר יעקב בתחלה היו ישראל דומין כתרנגולים שמנקרין באשפה עד שבא משה וקבע להם זמן סעודה,(במדבר יא, לג) הבשר עודנו בין שיניהם וכתיב (במדבר יא, כ) עד חדש ימים הא כיצד בינונים לאלתר מתו רשעים מצטערין והולכין עד חדש ימים,וישטחו אמר ריש לקיש אל תקרי וישטחו אלא וישחטו מלמד שנתחייבו שונאיהן של ישראל שחיטה שטוח תנא משמיה דרבי יהושע בן קרחה אל תיקרי שטוח אלא שחוט מלמד שירד להם לישראל עם המן דבר שטעון שחיטה אמר רבי וכי מכאן אתה למד והלא כבר נאמר (תהלים עח, כז) וימטר עליהם כעפר שאר וכחול (הים) עוף כנף,ותניא רבי אומר (דברים יב, כא) וזבחת כאשר צויתיך מלמד שנצטוה משה על הושט ועל הקנה על רוב אחד בעוף ועל רוב שנים בבהמה אלא מה תלמוד לומר שטוח מלמד שירד להם משטיחין משטיחין,כתיב לחם וכתיב שמן וכתיב (שמות טז, לא) דבש אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא לנערים לחם לזקנים שמן לתינוקות דבש,כתיב שליו וקרינן סליו אמר רבי חנינא צדיקים אוכלין אותו בשלוה רשעים אוכלין אותו ודומה להן כסילוין,א"ר חנן בר רבא ד' מיני סליו הן ואלו הן שיכלי וקיבלי ופסיוני ושליו מעליא דכולהו שיכלי גריעא דכולהו שליו והוי כציפורתא ומותבינן לה בתנורא ותפח והוה מלי תנורא ומסקינן ליה אתליסר ריפי ואחרונה אינה נאכלת אלא ע"י תערובת,רב יהודה משתכח ליה בי דני רב חסדא משתכח ליה בי ציבי רבא מייתי ליה אריסיה כל יומא יומא חד לא אייתי אמר מאי האי סליק לאיגרא שמעיה לינוקא דקאמר (חבקוק ג, טז) שמעתי ותרגז בטני אמר שמע מניה נח נפשיה דרב חסדא ובדיל רבה אכיל תלמידא,כתיב (שמות טז, יד) ותעל שכבת הטל וכתיב (במדבר יא, ט) וברדת הטל אמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא טל מלמעלה וטל מלמטה ודומה כמו שמונח בקופסא,דק מחוספס אמר ר"ל דבר שנימוח על פיסת היד רבי יוחנן אמר דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים מחוספס טובא הוי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מחספס כתיב,תנו רבנן (תהלים עח, כה) לחם אבירים אכל איש לחם שמלאכי השרת אוכלין אותו דברי ר"ע וכשנאמרו דברים לפני רבי ישמעאל אמר להם צאו ואמרו לו לעקיבא עקיבא טעית וכי מלאכי השרת אוכלין לחם והלא כבר נאמר (דברים ט, ט) לחם לא אכלתי ומים לא שתיתי אלא מה אני מקיים אבירים לחם שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה אברים,אלא מה אני מקיים (דברים כג, יד) ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך (ויצאת שמה חוץ) דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין אותן להם,ר"א בן פרטא אומר אף דברים שתגרי אומות העולם מוכרין להן מן מפיגן אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך לאחר שסרחו אמר הקב"ה אני אמרתי יהיו כמלאכי השרת עכשיו אני מטריח אותם שלש פרסאות,דכתיב (במדבר לג, מט) ויחנו על הירדן מבית הישימות עד אבל השטים ואמר רבה בר בר חנה לדידי חזי לי ההוא אתרא והויא תלתא פרסי ותנא כשנפנין אין נפנין לא לפניהן ולא לצדדיהן אלא לאחוריהן,(במדבר יא, ו) ועתה נפשנו יבשה אין כל אמרו עתיד מן זה שתיפח במעיהם כלום יש ילוד אשה שמכניס ואינו מוציא,וכשנאמרו דברים לפני ר' ישמעאל אמר להם אל תקרי אבירים אלא איברים דבר שנבלע במאתים וארבעים ושמונה איברים אלא מה אני מקיים ויתד תהיה לך על אזניך בדברים שבאין להם ממדינת הים,דבר אחר לחם אבירים אכל איש 75b. However, b bread, /b which is essential, b they asked for appropriately. /b Therefore, it b was given to them appropriately, /b in the morning, when there was time to prepare it. The Gemara comments: b From here, the Torah teaches etiquette, that /b it is proper b to eat meat only at night, /b as Moses said to the children of Israel: “This shall be, when the Lord will give you in the evening meat to eat” (Exodus 16:8). The Gemara asks: b But didn’t Abaye say /b that b someone who has a meal should eat it only in the day? /b The Gemara answers: b We mean to say: Like day. /b It is not necessary to eat the food in the daytime, as long as one can see what he eats. b Rabbi Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: At the beginning, the Jewish people were like chickens pecking at the garbage; /b any time there was food they grabbed it and ate it, b until Moses came and set specific times to eat, /b as the verse implies. He set mealtimes for them in the morning and in the evening.,It was stated with regard to the quail: b “While the meat was yet between their teeth, /b before it was chewed, the anger of the Lord was kindled against the people” (Numbers 11:33), which means that they died immediately. However, it also states: “You shall not eat it for only one day…but for b an entire month /b until it comes out of your nostrils and becomes loathsome to you” (Numbers 11:19–20). b How /b can b these /b texts be reconciled? b The average people died immediately, /b but b the wicked continued to suffer /b in pain b for a month /b and then died.,The verse states: b “And they spread them [ i vayishteḥu /i ] /b out for themselves round about the camp” (Numbers 11:32). b Reish Lakish said: Do not read it /b as b i vayishteḥu /i . Rather, /b read it as b i vayishḥatu /i . /b This b teaches that /b the b enemies of the Jewish people, /b a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, b were liable to /b receive the punishment of b slaughter /b due to their demand. The verse states: b “Spread out [ i shato’aḥ /i ]” /b (Numbers 11:32). A i tanna /i b taught in the name of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa: Do not read it /b as b i shato’aḥ /i but /b as b i shaḥot /i . /b This b teaches that /b other food b fell for the Jewish people /b along b with the manna. /b The food was something b that requires ritual slaughtering [ i sheḥita /i ], /b referring to birds. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said: And do you learn /b this b from here? /b Do we need to alter the word for this purpose? b Isn’t it already stated /b explicitly: b “And he rained meat upon them like dust, and winged birds like the sand of the seas” /b (Psalms 78:27)?, b And it was taught /b in a related i baraita /i : b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: /b The verse states: b “Then you shall slaughter /b of your herd and of your flock which the Lord has given you, b as I have commanded you” /b (Deuteronomy 12:21). b This teaches that Moses was commanded in /b the laws of ritual slaughter to cut the b gullet and the windpipe /b in the neck. b And with a bird /b one must cut through b the majority /b of b one /b pipe, b and with an animal /b one must cut through b the majority of /b both pipes. Moses was commanded these laws along with the other details of slaughtering. According to Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the word i shatoaḥ /i does not teach us about ritual slaughter. b Rather, what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: i Shatoaḥ /i ? /b It b teaches that /b the manna b fell in layers [ i mashtiḥin /i ] /b in a straight row.,With regard to the manna, b it is written “bread” /b (Exodus 16:4), b and it is written “oil” /b (Numbers 11:8), b and it is written “honey” /b (Exodus 16:31). How can we reconcile these verses? b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: For the youth /b it was like b bread, for the elderly /b it was like b oil, /b and b for the children /b it was like b honey. /b Each received what was appropriate.,The Gemara comments further: The word quail b is written i shlav /i , /b with the letter i shin /i , b but we read /b it as b i slav /i , /b with the letter i samekh /i . What does this teach us? b Rabbi Ḥanina said: The righteous eat it in peace [ i shalva /i ], /b based on the written form of the word; whereas b the wicked eat it, and it seems to them like thorns [ i silvin /i ], /b based on the way the word is read.,Furthermore, with regard to the quail: b Rav Ḥa bar Rava said: There are four types of quail and these are they: i Sikhli /i , and i kivli /i , and i pasyoni /i , and i slav /i . The best /b tasting b of all /b is the b i sikhli /i . The worst of all /b is the b i slav /i . /b The Gemara relates how tasty even the quail was that the Jews ate in the desert: b It was /b as small b as a sparrow, and they would place it in the oven /b to roast, b and it expanded until it filled the /b entire b oven. They would place it upon thirteen loaves /b of bread, and even the b last /b loaf on the bottom b could be eaten only /b when b mixed with other food, /b due to all the fat it had absorbed from the quail.,It is told that b Rav Yehuda found /b quail b among his barrels of wine, /b and b Rav Ḥisda found /b quail b among logs of wood /b in his storeroom. b Every day Rava’s sharecropper brought him /b a quail that he found in his fields. b One day, he did not bring /b him one because he failed to find any. Rava b said /b to himself: b What is this, /b why is today different? b He went up to the roof /b to think about it. b He heard a child say /b the verse: b “When I heard, my innards trembled, /b my lips quivered at the voice, rottenness enters into my bones, and I tremble where I stand; that I should wait for the day of trouble when he comes up against the people that he invades” (Habakkuk 3:16). Rava b said: Learn from this that Rav Ḥisda has died. /b I am therefore not worthy to receive the quail anymore, since it is on b account of the teacher /b that b the student eats. /b When Rav Ḥisda was alive, Rava received the quail due to Rav Ḥisda’s merit; now that he had died, Rava was not worthy to receive the quail.,§ Furthermore, with regard to the manna b it is written: “And when the layer of dew lifted, /b behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a fine flaky substance, as fine as frost on the ground” (Exodus 16:14), indicating that the dew covered the manna. b And it is written: /b “ b And when the dew fell /b upon the camp in the night, the manna fell upon it” (Numbers 11:9), meaning that the manna fell on top of the dew. How can these verses be reconciled? b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: /b There was b dew above and dew below, /b with the manna in between, b and /b the manna b appeared as if /b it were b placed in a box [ i kufsa /i ] /b of dew.,The verse describes the manna as b “a fine flaky [ i meḥuspas /i ] /b substance” (Exodus 16:14). b Reish Lakish said: /b i Meḥuspas /i means it was b a substance that dissolved [ /b i maḥ /i b ] on the palm [ /b i pas /i b ] of the hand. /b Since it was so fine, it dissolved upon contact. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: It was a substance that was absorbed in /b all b 248 limbs, /b the numerical equivalent of the word i meḥuspas /i . The Gemara expresses surprise at this: If one calculates the value of the letters in the word b i meḥuspas /i , /b it b is more, /b totaling 254. b Rabbi Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: i Meḥuspas /i is written /b in the Torah without the letter i vav /i . Therefore, the total is exactly 248., b The Sages taught: /b The Torah states: “And He caused manna to rain upon them for food, and He gave them of the grain of heaven. b Man did eat the bread of the mighty [ i abirim /i ]” /b (Psalms 78:24–25). “Bread of the mighty” is b bread that the ministering angels eat; /b this is the b statement of Rabbi Akiva. When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them /b to b go and tell Akiva: Akiva you have erred. Do the ministering angels eat bread? It is already stated /b about Moses, when he ascended on high: b “Bread I did not eat and water I did not drink” /b (Deuteronomy 9:9). If even a man who ascends on high does not need to eat, certainly the ministering angels do not need to eat. b Rather, how do I establish /b the meaning of the word b i abirim /i ? /b It can be explained as b bread that was absorbed into /b all b 248 limbs [ i eivarim /i ], /b so that there was no waste.,The Gemara asks: b But /b if so, b how do I establish /b the verses: b “And you shall have a spade among your weapons, /b and it shall be that when you relieve yourself outside, you shall dig with it, and shall turn back and cover your excrement” (Deuteronomy 23:14) and “You shall have a place also outside the camp b where you can relieve yourself /b ” (Deuteronomy 23:13). From here we learn that there was waste in their bowels, as they had to leave the camp to relieve themselves. The Gemara explains: This waste was not a byproduct of the manna; it was from food b items that the gentile merchants sold them. /b , b Rabbi Elazar ben Perata /b disagrees and b says: The manna caused even items that the gentile merchants sold them to be /b completely b digested, /b so that even other food that they ate produced no waste. b But /b then b how do I establish /b the verse: b “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? After they sinned, /b the manna was not as effective. b The Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I /b initially b said /b that b they would be like ministering angels /b who do not produce waste; b now I will trouble them to walk three parasangs /b to leave the camp in order to relieve themselves.,How do we know that the Israelite camp was three parasangs? b As it is written: “And they camped by the Jordan from Beth-Jeshimoth to Abel-shittim” /b (Numbers 33:49), b and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said: I saw that site and it was three parasangs /b in length. b And /b a i baraita /i b taught: When /b the Jews b relieved themselves /b in the desert, b they did not relieve /b themselves b ahead of themselves, /b i.e., in the direction of their travel, b nor to the side /b of the camp, b but behind /b the camp, in a place that they had already traveled. Consequently, those near the front of the camp had to walk a distance of three parasangs from their homes to leave the camp.,Furthermore, with regard to the manna, the verse states Israel’s complaint: b “But now our soul is dry, there is nothing at all; /b we have nothing beside this manna to look to” (Numbers 11:6). b They said: This manna will eventually swell in our stomachs /b and kill us; b is there /b anyone b born of a woman who ingests /b food b but does not expel /b waste? This supports the Gemara’s claim that the manna did not create waste., b When these words were said before Rabbi Yishmael, he said to them: Do not read /b it as b i abirim /i . Rather, /b read it as b i eivarim /i , /b limbs. The manna was b something that was absorbed by 248 limbs. But, how do I establish “And you shall have a spade among your weapons”? From the /b food b items that came to them from overseas lands. /b Rabbi Yishmael disagrees with Rabbi Elazar ben Perata with regard to the effect the manna had on the digestion of other foods., b Alternatively, “Man [ i ish /i ] did eat the bread of the mighty” /b (Psalms 78:25);
212. Anon., The Acts of Paul And Thecla, 13, 23, 25, 34-35, 5, 8, 33 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: König (2012) 303
213. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 11, 119
21b. ביום אחד או בארבעה ימים אין זה דבר,דרוקרת עיר המוציאה חמש מאות רגלי הוה ויצאו ממנה שלשה מתים ביום אחד גזר רב נחמן בר רב חסדא תעניתא אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק כמאן כר"מ,דאמר ריחק נגיחותיו חייב קירב נגיחותיו לא כ"ש,א"ל רב נחמן בר רב חסדא לרב נחמן בר יצחק ליקום מר ליתי לגבן א"ל תנינא רבי יוסי אומר לא מקומו של אדם מכבדו אלא אדם מכבד את מקומו שכן מצינו בהר סיני שכל זמן שהשכינה שרויה עליו אמרה תורה (שמות לד, ג) גם הצאן והבקר אל ירעו אל מול ההר ההוא נסתלקה שכינה ממנו אמרה תורה (שמות יט, יג) במשוך היובל המה יעלו בהר,וכן מצינו באהל מועד שבמדבר שכל זמן שהוא נטוי אמרה תורה (במדבר ה, ב) וישלחו מן המחנה כל צרוע הוגללו הפרוכת הותרו זבין והמצורעים ליכנס שם,אמר ליה אי הכי ניקום אנא לגבי מר אמר ליה מוטב יבא מנה בן פרס אצל מנה בן מנה ואל יבא מנה בן מנה אצל מנה בן פרס,בסורא הוות דברתא בשיבבותיה דרב לא הוות דברתא סברו מיניה משום זכותיה דרב דנפיש איתחזי להו בחילמא רב דנפישא זכותיה טובא הא מילתא זוטרא ליה לרב אלא משום ההוא גברא דשייל מרא וזבילא לקבורה,בדרוקרת הוות דליקתא ובשיבבותיה דרב הונא לא הוות דליקתא סבור מינה בזכותא דרב הונא דנפיש איתחזי להו בחילמא האי זוטרא ליה לרב הונא אלא משום ההיא איתתא דמחממת תנורא ומשיילי לשיבבותיה,אמרו ליה לרב יהודה אתו קמצי גזר תעניתא אמרו ליה לא קא מפסדן אמר להו זוודא אייתו בהדייהו,אמרו ליה לרב יהודה איכא מותנא בחזירי גזר תעניתא נימא קסבר רב יהודה מכה משולחת ממין אחד משולחת מכל המינין לא שאני חזירי דדמיין מעייהו לבני אינשי,אמרו ליה לשמואל איכא מותנא בי חוזאי גזר תעניתא א"ל והא מרחק אמר ליכא מעברא הכא דפסיק ליה,אמרו ליה לרב נחמן איכא מותנא בארעא דישראל גזר תעניתא אמר אם גבירה לוקה שפחה לא כל שכן,טעמא דגבירה ושפחה הא שפחה ושפחה לא והא אמרו ליה לשמואל איכא מותנא בי חוזאי גזר תעניתא שאני התם כיון דאיכא שיירתא דלווי ואתיא בהדיה,אבא אומנא הוה אתי ליה שלמא ממתיבתא דרקיעא כל יומא ולאביי כל מעלי יומא דשבתא לרבא כל מעלי יומא דכיפורי הוה קא חלשא דעתיה דאביי משום דאבא אומנא אמרו ליה לא מצית למיעבד כעובדיה,ומאי הוו עובדיה דאבא אומנא דכי הוה עביד מילתא הוה מחית גברי לחוד ונשי לחוד ואית ליה לבושא דאית ביה קרנא דהוות בזיעא כי כוסילתא כי הוות אתיא ליה איתתא הוה מלביש לה כי היכי דלא ניסתכל בה ואית ליה דוכתא דצניעא דשדי ביה פשיטי דשקיל דאית ליה שדי ביה דלית ליה לא מיכסיף,כי הוה אתרמי ליה צורבא מרבנן אגרא מיניה לא שקיל ובתר דקאי יהיב ליה פשיטי ואמר ליה זיל בריא נפשך יומא חד שדר אביי זוגא דרבנן למיבדקיה אותבינהו ואכלינהו ואשקינהו ומך להו ביסתרקי בליליא 21b. If all three died b on one day or over four days, /b this is not a plague of b pestilence. /b ,In explanation of the counterintuitive ruling that many deaths in one day is not indicative of a plague, the Gemara relates: b Drokart /b was a city that b sent out five hundred infantrymen, and three dead were removed from it on one day. Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda decreed a fast /b on account of the plague. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: In accordance with whose opinion /b did you declare this fast? It must be b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Meir. /b ,This is related to the definition of a forewarned ox, an animal that has gored enough times to be considered a dangerous beast that requires careful supervision, b as /b Rabbi Meir b said: /b The owner of an ox is b liable /b to pay full damages if b its /b acts of b goring were separated, /b i.e., if it gored three times on three consecutive days, as claimed by the Rabbis. If b its /b acts of b goring were near /b each other, performed on a single day, is it b not all the more so /b that this animal should be classified as a forewarned ox? However, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak continued, this represents a minority opinion. Just as Rabbi Meir’s reasoning is rejected for i halakha /i in the case of an ox, so too it is rejected with regard to a plague.,Upon hearing this impressive argument, b Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda said to Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: Let the Master arise and come /b to live b with us /b as our community leader. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak b said to him: We /b already b learned /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yosei says: /b It is b not the place of a person /b that b honors him; rather, /b the b person honors his place, as we found with regard to Mount Sinai, that as long as the Divine Presence rested upon it, the Torah said: “Neither let the flocks nor the herds feed before that mount” /b (Exodus 34:3). Once b the Divine Presence departed from /b the mountain, b the Torah said: “When the i shofar /i sounds long they shall come up to the mount” /b (Exodus 19:13). This indicates that the sanctity was not inherent to the place but was due to the Divine Presence resting there., b And we likewise found with regard to the Tent of Meeting that was in the wilderness, that whenever it was erected, the Torah said: “That they put out of the camp every leper” /b (Numbers 5:2). Once b the curtain was rolled up /b and the Tent of Meeting was prepared for travel, b i zavim /i and lepers were permitted to enter /b the place where it had stood. The place itself had no intrinsic sanctity; rather, it was sacred only because the Divine Presence was there. Accordingly, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak maintained that there is no reason for him to move places to receive honor.,Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda b said to /b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak: b If so, let me arise /b and come b to the Master, /b to learn Torah from you. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak b said to him: /b It is b better /b that b one hundred dinars /b that is the b son of a i peras /i , /b fifty dinars, b should come to one hundred dinars /b that is the b son of one hundred dinars; but one hundred dinars /b that is the b son of one hundred dinars, should not come to one hundred dinars /b that is the b son of a i peras /i . /b In other words, although Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was a learned scholar, comparable to one hundred dinars, it was nevertheless more appropriate for him to come to Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda. Whereas Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak was the son of a i peras /i , an ordinary man, Rav Naḥman bar Rav Ḥisda was the son of a scholar.,The Gemara relates another story involving a plague: Once b there was /b a plague of b pestilence in Sura, /b but b in the neighborhood of Rav there was no pestilence. /b The people b therefore thought /b that this was b due to Rav’s great merit. /b However, b it was revealed to them in a dream /b that b Rav’s merit was too great /b and b this matter too small for /b the merit of b Rav /b to be involved. b Rather, /b his neighborhood was spared b due to /b the acts of kindness of b a certain man, who /b would b lend his hoe [ i mara /i ] and shovel [ i zevila /i ] /b to prepare sites b for burial. /b ,The Gemara relates a similar incident. b In Drokart there was a fire, but in the neighborhood of Rav Huna there was no fire. /b The people b therefore thought /b that this was b due to Rav Huna’s great merit. It was revealed to them in a dream /b that b this /b matter was b too small for /b the merit of b Rav Huna /b to have played a role. b Rather, /b it was b due to a certain woman who heats her oven and lends it, /b i.e., the use of her oven, b to her neighbors. /b , b They said to Rav Yehuda: Locusts have come /b to our region. Rav Yehuda b decreed a fast. They said to him: They are not destroying /b anything, as they are eating only a little. b He said to them: Have they brought provisions with them, /b that they have something else to eat? Even if they are not damaging your crops now, they will certainly eat them soon.,On another occasion, b they said to Rav Yehuda: There is pestilence among the pigs. Rav Yehuda decreed a fast. /b The Gemara asks: b Let us say /b that b Rav Yehuda maintains /b that b a plague affecting one species /b will come to b affect all species, /b and that is why he decreed a fast. The Gemara answers: b No, /b in other cases there is no cause for concern. However, b pigs are different, as their intestines are similar to /b those of b humans. /b Consequently, their disease might spread to people., b They said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in /b the region of b Bei Ḥozai, /b which is quite a distance from Babylonia. Shmuel b decreed a fast. They said to him: But it is far /b from here. b He said: There is no crossing here that will stop /b the pestilence, and therefore there is cause for concern that it will reach us., b They said to Rav Naḥman: There is pestilence in Eretz Yisrael. Rav Naḥman decreed a fast /b in Babylonia, b saying: If the lady /b of the house, i.e., Eretz Yisrael, b is afflicted, /b is it b not all the more so /b that b the maidservant, /b Babylonia, will be afflicted?,The Gemara asks: The b reason /b for this ruling is apparently only because Eretz Yisrael is b a lady /b in comparison to the Diaspora, which is likened to b a maidservant. /b It may be inferred from this that in a case involving b a maidservant and a maidservant, /b i.e., two places in the Diaspora, there is no reason to fast. b But /b in the previous story, when b they said to Shmuel: There is pestilence in /b the region of b Bei Ḥozai, he decreed a fast /b in Neharde’a, despite the fact that Neharde’a is not considered a lady with respect to Bei Ḥozai. The Gemara answers: It b is different there. Since there are caravans /b that regularly travel from Bei Ḥozai to Neharde’a, the pestilence b will join and accompany /b them b in /b the caravans.,§ Apropos the above stories that deal with the merits of ordinary people, the Gemara relates: b Abba the Bloodletter would receive greetings from the yeshiva on High every day, and Abaye would receive /b these greetings b every Shabbat eve, and Rava would receive /b greetings only once a year b on Yom Kippur eve. /b Abaye b was distressed due to Abba the Bloodletter, /b as he did not understand why Abba received greater honor than he did. b They said to him: You are unable to perform what he does, /b and therefore you do not merit the same honor.,The Gemara asks: b And what were these /b righteous b deeds of Abba the Bloodletter? /b The Gemara explains b that when he would perform a matter /b of bloodletting, b he would bring in men separately from women, /b for reasons of modesty. b And he had /b a special b garment /b that b had a slit in the place of the incision [ i kusilta /i ] /b where the bloodletting instrument was inserted. b When a woman came to him, he would /b have b her dress in that garment, so that he would not see her /b exposed. b And /b furthermore, b he had a hidden place /b where he worked, b where /b customers b would place the coins [ i peshitei /i ] that he would take /b as his fee. In this manner, b one who had /b money b would throw /b it b there, /b while b one who did not have money was not embarrassed. /b , b When a Torah scholar came to him /b for bloodletting, b he would take no pay from him, and after /b the scholar b arose, /b Abba b would give him money and say to him: Go /b and purchase food with this money b to heal yourself, /b as it is important to eat healthy food after bloodletting. b One day, Abaye sent a pair of Sages to investigate /b the extent of Abba the Bloodletter’s righteousness. Abba the Bloodletter b sat them down, and gave them /b food b to eat, and gave them /b something b to drink. And at night he spread out mats [ i bistarkei /i ] for them /b to sleep on.
214. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 4.11.2, 4.17.2, 4.22.5, 5.3.4, 5.13.4, 5.15, 5.20, 5.24, 5.24.12, 6.43 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, fasting on sabbath •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance •fasting dosithean •fasting dosithean, samaritan •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 92; Lampe (2003) 381, 385, 407; Williams (2009) 38, 39, 296, 297
4.11.2. These words are found in the third book of the work Against Heresies. And again in the first book he speaks as follows concerning Cerdon: A certain Cerdon, who had taken his system from the followers of Simon, and had come to Rome under Hyginus, the ninth in the episcopal succession from the apostles, taught that the God proclaimed by the law and prophets was not the father of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the former was known, but the latter unknown; and the former was just, but the latter good. Marcion of Pontus succeeded Cerdon and developed his doctrine, uttering shameless blasphemies. 4.17.2. He writes thus: A certain woman lived with a dissolute husband; she herself, too, having formerly been of the same character. But when she came to the knowledge of the teachings of Christ, she became temperate, and endeavored to persuade her husband likewise to be temperate, repeating the teachings, and declaring the punishment in eternal fire which shall come upon those who do not live temperately and conformably to right reason. 4.22.5. But Thebuthis, because he was not made bishop, began to corrupt it. He also was sprung from the seven sects among the people, like Simon, from whom came the Simonians, and Cleobius, from whom came the Cleobians, and Dositheus, from whom came the Dositheans, and Gorthaeus, from whom came the Goratheni, and Masbotheus, from whom came the Masbothaeans. From them sprang the Medrianists, and Marcionists, and Carpocratians, and Valentinians, and Basilidians, and Saturnilians. Each introduced privately and separately his own peculiar opinion. From them came false Christs, false prophets, false apostles, who divided the unity of the Church by corrupt doctrines uttered against God and against his Christ. 5.3.4. The followers of Montanus, Alcibiades and Theodotus in Phrygia were now first giving wide circulation to their assumption in regard to prophecy — for the many other miracles that, through the gift of God, were still wrought in the different churches caused their prophesying to be readily credited by many — and as dissension arose concerning them, the brethren in Gaul set forth their own prudent and most orthodox judgment in the matter, and published also several epistles from the witnesses that had been put to death among them. These they sent, while they were still in prison, to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia, and also to Eleutherus, who was then bishop of Rome, negotiating for the peace of the churches. 5.13.4. These following the wolf of Pontus, and, like him, unable to fathom the division of things, became reckless, and without giving any proof asserted two principles. Others, again, drifting into a worse error, consider that there are not only two, but three natures. of these, Syneros is the leader and chief, as those who defend his teaching say. 5.24.12. For the controversy is not only concerning the day, but also concerning the very manner of the fast. For some think that they should fast one day, others two, yet others more; some, moreover, count their day as consisting of forty hours day and night.
215. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 91
43a. (ויקרא כד, כג) ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה' את משה,אלא מעתה (ויקרא כד, כג) וירגמו אותו אבן מאי עבדי ליה ההוא מבעי ליה לכדתניא וירגמו אותו באבן אותו ולא בכסותו אבן שאם מת באבן אחת יצא,ואצטריך למיכתב אבן ואיצטריך למיכתב אבנים דאי כתב רחמנא אבן הוה אמינא היכא דלא מת בחדא לא ניתי אחריתי ומיקטליה כתב רחמנא אבנים ואי כתב רחמנא אבנים הוה אמינא מעיקרא נייתי תרתי כתב רחמנא אבן,והא האי תנא נאמר קאמר אילו לא נאמר קאמר וה"ק אילו לא נאמר קרא הייתי אומר גזירה שוה עכשיו שנאמר קרא גזירה שוה לא צריך,רב אשי אמר משה היכא הוה יתיב במחנה לוייה ואמר ליה רחמנא הוצא את המקלל חוץ למחנה לוייה אל מחוץ למחנה חוץ למחנה ישראל ויוציאו את המקלל לעשייה,עשייה בהדיא כתיב בהו ובני ישראל עשו כאשר צוה ה' את משה ההוא מיבעי ליה חד לסמיכה וחד לדחייה,אמרו ליה רבנן לרב אשי לדידך כל הני הוציא דכתיבי בפרים הנשרפים מאי דרשת בהו קשיא:,אחד עומד כו': אמר רב הונא פשיטא לי אחד אבן שנסקל בה ואחד עץ שנתלה בו ואחד סייף שנהרג בו ואחד סודר שנחנק בו כולן משל צבור מ"ט דמדידיה לא אמרינן ליה זיל וליתיה וליקטול נפשיה,בעי רב הונא סודר שמניפין בו וסוס שרץ ומעמידן משל מי הוא כיון דהצלה דידיה מדידיה הוא או דילמא כיון דבי דינא מחייבין למעבד בה הצלה מדידהו,ותו הא דאמר ר' חייא בר רב אשי אמר רב חסדא היוצא ליהרג משקין אותו קורט של לבונה בכוס של יין כדי שתטרף דעתו שנאמר (משלי לא, ו) תנו שכר לאובד ויין למרי נפש ותניא נשים יקרות שבירושלים היו מתנדבות ומביאות אותן לא התנדבו נשים יקרות משל מי הא ודאי מסתברא משל צבור כיון דכתיב תנו מדידהו,בעא מיניה רב אחא בר הונא מרב ששת אמר אחד מן התלמידים יש לי ללמד עליו זכות ונשתתק מהו מנפח רב ששת בידיה נשתתק אפילו אחד בסוף העולם נמי התם לא קאמר הכא קאמר מאי,תא שמע דאמר רבי יוסי בר חנינא אחד מן התלמידים שזיכה ומת רואין אותו כאילו חי ועומד במקומו זיכה אין לא זיכה לא,זיכה פשיטא לי אמר תיבעי לך:,אפילו הוא כו': ואפילו פעם ראשונה ושניה והתניא פעם ראשונה ושניה בין שיש ממש בדבריו בין שאין ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו מכאן ואילך אם יש ממש בדבריו מחזירין אותו אין ממש בדבריו אין מחזירין אותו,אמר רב פפא תרגומה מפעם שניה ואילך,מנא ידעי אמר אביי דמסרינן ליה זוגא דרבנן אי איכא ממש בדבריו אין אי לא לא,ולימסר ליה מעיקרא אגב דבעית לא מצי אמר כל מאי דאית ליה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מצאו לו זכות פטרוהו ואם לאו יצא ליסקל וכרוז יוצא לפניו איש פלוני בן פלוני יוצא ליסקל על שעבר עבירה פלונית ופלוני ופלוני עדיו כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר אביי וצריך למימר ביום פלוני ובשעה פלונית ובמקום פלוני דילמא איכא דידעי ואתו ומזים להו:,וכרוז יוצא לפניו לפניו אין מעיקרא לא והתניא בערב הפסח תלאוהו לישו והכרוז יוצא לפניו מ' יום ישו יוצא ליסקל על שכישף והסית והדיח את ישראל כל מי שיודע לו זכות יבא וילמד עליו ולא מצאו לו זכות ותלאוהו בערב הפסח,אמר עולא ותסברא בר הפוכי זכות הוא מסית הוא ורחמנא אמר (דברים יג, ט) לא תחמול ולא תכסה עליו אלא שאני ישו דקרוב למלכות הוה,ת"ר חמשה תלמידים היו לו לישו מתאי נקאי נצר ובוני ותודה אתיוהו למתי אמר להו מתי יהרג הכתיב (תהלים מב, ג) מתי אבוא ואראה פני אלהים אמרו לו אין מתי יהרג דכתיב (שם מא, ו) מתי ימות ואבד שמו,אתיוהו לנקאי אמר להו נקאי יהרג הכתיב (שמות כג, ז) ונקי וצדיק אל תהרוג אמרו לו אין נקאי יהרג דכתיב (תהלים י, ח) במסתרים יהרג נקי,אתיוהו לנצר אמר נצר יהרג הכתיב (ישעיה יא, א) ונצר משרשיו יפרה אמרו לו אין נצר יהרג דכתיב (שם יד, יט) ואתה השלכת מקברך כנצר נתעב,אתיוהו לבוני אמר אמר בוני יהרג הכתיב (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל אמרו לי' אין בוני יהרג דכתיב (שם, כג) הנה אנכי הורג את בנך בכורך,אתיוהו לתודה אמר תודה יהרג הכתיב (תהלים ק, א) מזמור לתודה אמרו לו אין תודה יהרג דכתיב (שם נ, כג) זובח תודה יכבדנני 43a. b “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.” /b ,The Gemara asks: b If that is so, what do they do with /b the words in the verse: b “And they stoned him with a stone”? /b These words appear to be superfluous, as even without them we would know that God’s instructions to stone the blasphemer were implemented. What then do they serve to teach? The Gemara answers: b That /b phrase is b necessary for that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And they stoned him with a stone.” /b The word b “him” /b teaches that they stoned him alone, while he was naked, b but not /b while he was b in his clothing. /b The verse uses the singular term b “stone [ i aven /i ]” /b rather than the plural term stones [ i avanim /i ] to teach b that if /b the condemned man b died /b after being struck b with one stone, /b the court has b fulfilled /b its obligation.,The Gemara notes: b And /b it b was necessary to write /b with regard to the blasphemer that “they stoned him with b a stone,” /b in the singular, b and /b it b was necessary to write /b with regard to the man who gathered sticks on Shabbat that “they stoned him with b stones” /b (Numbers 15:36), in the plural. b As, had the Merciful One written /b only b “stone,” I would say /b that b where /b the condemned man b did not die /b after being struck b with one /b stone, b they do not bring other /b stones b and kill him /b with them. Therefore, b the Merciful One writes “stones.” And had the Merciful One written /b only b “stones,” I would say /b that b from the outset they should bring two /b or more stones. Therefore, b the Merciful One writes “stone.” /b ,The Gemara raises an objection to Rav Pappa’s derivation: b But this i tanna /i /b of the i baraita /i cited above b said: It is stated /b here and it is stated elsewhere, thereby basing his derivation on a verbal analogy between the verse concerning the blasphemer and the verse concerning the bulls brought as sin-offerings that are burned. How, then, can Rav Pappa, an i amora /i , disagree and derive the i halakha /i directly from the verse dealing with the blasphemer? The Gemara answers: According to Rav Pappa, the i tanna /i of the i baraita /i b said: Had it not been stated, and this /b is what he b is saying: Had a verse not been stated /b from which it can be directly derived that the condemned man is stoned outside all three camps, b I would have said /b that this can be learned by way of b a verbal analogy. /b But b now that /b such b a verse has been stated, /b the b verbal analogy is not needed. /b , b Rav Ashi said: /b The location of the place of stoning can be directly derived from the verse discussing the blasphemer but in a slightly different manner. b Where was Moses sitting /b when the matter of the blasphemer was brought before him? b In the Levite camp. And the Merciful One said to him: “Take out him who has cursed” /b (Leviticus 24:14), indicating that he should be taken b outside the Levite camp /b into the Israelite camp. And God continued in that verse: b “Outside the camp,” /b which is an additional command that he should be removed even further, to b outside the Israelite camp. /b And the later verse, which says: b “And they brought him that had cursed /b out of the camp…and the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses” (Leviticus 24:23), teaches us b about the implementation /b of God’s instructions, i.e., that the children of Israel did in fact carry out His command.,The Gemara raises an objection: b The implementation /b of God’s instructions is b written explicitly in this /b context, as it is stated in the continuation of the verse: b “And the children of Israel did as the Lord commanded Moses.” /b The Gemara answers: b That /b verse b is necessary /b to teach us that not only was the condemned man taken outside the three camps and stoned, but the rest of God’s instructions were also fulfilled. These instructions relate b to the placing /b of the witnesses’ b hands /b upon the head of the condemned man, as it is stated: “And let all that heard him place their hands upon his head” (Leviticus 24:14), b and to the /b witnesses’ b pushing /b of the condemned man from a platform the height of two stories., b The Sages said to Rav Ashi: According to you, /b that the expression “take out” by itself means outside the camp, and “outside the camp” means outside an additional camp, b what do you learn from all those /b instances of b “take out” that are written with regard to the bulls /b brought as sin-offerings b that are burned? /b According to your explanation, there are many superfluous phrases in the verses. The Gemara comments: Indeed, this is b difficult /b with regard to the opinion of Rav Ashi.,§ The mishna teaches that b one /b man b stands /b at the entrance to the court, with cloths in his hand, ready to signal to the court agents leading the condemned man to his execution that some doubt has been raised with respect to the latter’s guilt. b Rav Huna says: /b It is b obvious to me /b that b the stone with which /b the condemned man b is stoned and the tree on which /b his corpse b is hung /b after his execution, b or the sword with which he is killed, or the scarf with which he is strangled, all of these /b come b from /b the property of b the community. What is the reason /b for this? b We do not tell /b the condemned man to b go and bring /b these items b from his own /b property b and /b effectively b kill himself. /b , b Rav Huna raised /b a dilemma: With regard to b the cloth that is waved and the horse that races /b off after the court agents b to stop /b the latter from carrying out the execution, b from whose /b property b do they come, /b that of the condemned man or that of the community? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: b Since /b they are needed to b save /b the man being led to his execution, these items should be taken b from his /b property. b Or perhaps, since the court is obligated to /b take all possible measures to b save him /b from death, they should be taken b from them, /b i.e., the community., b And furthermore, /b another question is raised along similar lines: With regard to b that which Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi says /b that b Rav Ḥisda says: /b The court b gives one who is being led out to be killed a grain [ i koret /i ] of frankincense in a cup of wine in order to confuse his mind /b and thereby minimize his suffering from the fear of his impending death, b as it is stated: “Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to the bitter in soul” /b (Proverbs 31:6). b And it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The prominent women of Jerusalem would donate /b this drink b and bring /b it to those being led out to be killed. The question is: If b these prominent women did not donate /b this drink, b from whom /b is it taken? The Gemara answers: With regard to b this /b question, it b is certainly reasonable /b that this drink should be taken b from the community, as it is written: “Give [ i tenu /i ] /b strong drink,” in the plural, indicating that it should come b from them, /b the community.,§ b Rav Aḥa bar Huna asked Rav Sheshet: /b If b one of the students /b sitting before the judges b said: I can teach /b a reason to b acquit him, and he became mute /b and cannot explain himself, b what is /b the i halakha /i in such a case? Does the court take heed of his words, or do they disregard him? b Rav Sheshet waved his hands /b in scorn and said: If the student b became mute, /b the court certainly does not pay attention to him, as were the court to concern themselves with what he said, they would have to be concerned b even /b that perhaps there is b someone at the end of the world /b who can propose an argument in the condemned man’s favor. The Gemara rejects this argument: The cases are not similar. b There, no one said /b that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. b Here, /b the student already b said /b that he had a reason to acquit the condemned man. The question, therefore, is appropriate. b What /b is the i halakha /i in such a case?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b an answer: b As Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: /b In a case where there was b one of the students who /b argued to b acquit /b the defendant b and /b then b died, /b the court b views him as if /b he were b alive and standing in his place /b and voting to acquit the defendant. The implication is that if b he /b argued to b acquit /b the defendant and explained his reasoning, b yes, /b the court counts his vote as if he were still alive. But if b he did not /b actually argue to b acquit /b the defendant, but only said that he wished to propose such an argument, his vote is b not /b counted as though he were still alive.,The Gemara rejects this proof: If the student b argued /b to b acquit /b the defendant, it is b obvious to me /b that he should be counted among those favoring acquittal. But if he only b says /b that he wishes to propose such an argument, b let the dilemma be raised /b whether or not he should be regarded as having presented a convincing argument in favor of acquittal. The question is left unresolved.,The mishna teaches: And b even /b if b he, /b the condemned man himself, says: I can teach a reason to acquit myself, he is returned to the courthouse even four or five times, provided that there is substance to his words. The Gemara asks: b And /b is the i halakha /i that there must be substance to his words b even the first and second time /b that the condemned man says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself? b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The first and second times /b that he says that he can teach a reason to acquit himself, b they return him /b to the courthouse and consider b whether there is substance to his statement or there is no substance to his statement. From this /b point b forward, if there is substance to his statement they return him /b to the courthouse, but if b there is no substance to his statement, they do not return him. /b This appears to contradict the mishna., b Rav Pappa said: Explain /b that the mishna’s ruling applies only b from /b after b the second time forward, /b that from that point on we examine whether there is substance to his words.,The Gemara asks: b How do we know /b whether or not there is substance to his words? b Abaye said: /b If the condemned man has already been returned twice to the courthouse, b we send a pair of rabbis with him /b to evaluate his claim. b If /b they find that b there is substance to his statement, yes, /b he is returned once again to the courthouse; b if not, /b he is b not /b returned.,The Gemara asks: b But /b why not b send /b a pair of rabbis b with him from the outset, /b even the first time, and have them make an initial assessment of his claim? The Gemara answers: b Since /b a man facing execution b is frightened /b by the thought of his impending death, b he is not able to say all that he has /b to say, and perhaps out of fear he will be confused and not provide a substantial reason to overturn his verdict. Therefore, the first two times he is returned to the courthouse without an initial examination of his arguments. Once he has already been returned on two occasions, the court allows for no further delay, and they send two rabbis to evaluate his claim before returning him a third time., strong MISHNA: /strong If, after the condemned man is returned to the courthouse, the judges b find /b a reason to b acquit him, they /b acquit him and b release him /b immediately. b But if /b they do b not /b find a reason to acquit him, b he goes out to be stoned. And a crier goes out before him /b and publicly proclaims: b So-and-so, son of so-and-so, is going out to be stoned because he committed such and such a transgression. And so-and-so and so-and-so are his witnesses. Anyone who knows /b of a reason to b acquit him should come /b forward b and teach /b it b on his behalf. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Abaye says: And /b the crier b must /b also publicly b proclaim /b that the transgression was committed b on such and such a day, at such and such an hour, and at such and such a place, /b as b perhaps there are those who know /b that the witnesses could not have been in that place at that time, b and they will come /b forward b and render /b the witnesses b conspiring witnesses. /b ,The mishna teaches that b a crier goes out before /b the condemned man. This indicates that it is only b before him, /b i.e., while he is being led to his execution, that b yes, /b the crier goes out, but b from the outset, /b before the accused is convicted, he does b not /b go out. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b On Passover Eve they hung /b the corpse of b Jesus the Nazarene /b after they killed him by way of stoning. b And a crier went out before him /b for b forty days, /b publicly proclaiming: b Jesus the Nazarene is going out to be stoned because he practiced sorcery, incited /b people to idol worship, b and led the Jewish people astray. Anyone who knows /b of a reason to b acquit him should come /b forward b and teach /b it b on his behalf. And /b the court b did not find /b a reason to b acquit him, and /b so b they /b stoned him and b hung his /b corpse b on Passover eve. /b , b Ulla said: And /b how can b you understand /b this proof? Was b Jesus the Nazarene worthy of /b conducting b a search /b for a reason to b acquit /b him? b He /b was b an inciter /b to idol worship, b and the Merciful One states /b with regard to an inciter to idol worship: b “Neither shall you spare, neither shall you conceal him” /b (Deuteronomy 13:9). b Rather, Jesus was different, as he /b had b close /b ties b with the government, /b and the gentile authorities were interested in his acquittal. Consequently, the court gave him every opportunity to clear himself, so that it could not be claimed that he was falsely convicted.,Apropos the trial of Jesus, the Gemara cites another i baraita /i , where b the Sages taught: Jesus the Nazarene had five disciples: Mattai, Nakai, Netzer, Buni, and Toda. They brought Mattai in /b to stand trial. Mattai b said to /b the judges: b Shall Mattai be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “When [ i matai /i ] shall I come and appear before God?” /b (Psalms 42:3). Mattai claimed that this verse alludes to the fact he is righteous. b They said to him: Yes, Mattai shall be executed, as it is written: “When [ i matai /i ] shall he die, and his name perish?” /b (Psalms 41:6).,Then b they brought Nakai in /b to stand trial. Nakai b said /b to the judges: b Shall Nakai be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “And the innocent [ i naki /i ] and righteous you shall not slay” /b (Exodus 23:7)? b They said to him: Yes, Nakai shall be executed, as it is written: “In secret places he kills the innocent [ i naki /i ]” /b (Psalms 10:8).,Then b they brought Netzer in /b to stand trial. b He said /b to the judges: b Shall Netzer be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “And a branch [ i netzer /i ] shall grow out of his roots” /b (Isaiah 11:1)? b They said to him: Yes, Netzer shall be executed, as it is written: “But you are cast out of your grave like an abhorred branch [ i netzer /i ]” /b (Isaiah 14:19).,Then b they brought Buni in /b to stand trial. Buni b said /b to the judges: b Shall Buni be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “My firstborn son [ i beni /i ] is Israel” /b (Exodus 4:22)? b They said to him: Yes, Buni shall be executed, as it is written: “Behold, I shall kill your firstborn son [ i binkha /i ]” /b (Exodus 4:23).,Then b they brought Toda in /b to stand trial. Toda b said /b to the judges: b Shall Toda be executed? /b But b isn’t it written: “A psalm of thanksgiving [ i toda /i ]” /b (Psalms 100:1)? b They said to him: Yes, Toda shall be executed, as it is written: “Whoever slaughters a thanks-offering [ i toda /i ] honors Me” /b (Psalms 50:23).
216. Babylonian Talmud, Menachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 68, 69, 70
87a. b the flour- /b like white scum that floats on the surface, b nor from /b the wine at b bottom of /b the cask b due to the sediment /b that collects there. b Rather, one brings from /b the wine in b its middle third. /b , b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b the wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? b The treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. When he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum b [ i hagir /i ], he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed., b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine b in which there is flour- /b like white scum is b unfit /b for libations, b as it is stated /b with regard to animal offerings: b “Unblemished they shall be for you…and their meal offering /b shall be fine flour mixed with b oil…unblemished they shall be for you, and their libations” /b (Numbers 28:19–20, 31). This indicates that animal offerings, meal offerings, and libations must all be brought from flawless products. Therefore, the presence of flour-like white scum in wine renders it unfit., strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b libations from b sweet /b wine, b nor /b from b boiled /b wine, b nor /b from wine produced from b smoked /b grapes, b and if one did bring /b a libation from such wine, it is b not valid. /b The Gemara asks: b But doesn’t the first clause teach: One may not bring libations from sweet wine made from sun-dried grapes, but if one did bring /b a libation from such wine it is b valid? /b How can one clause teach that a libation of one type of sweet wine is valid, and the other clause teach that a libation of another type of sweet wine is not valid?, b Ravina said: /b The text of the mishna is corrupt. To correct it, b combine /b the two clauses into one b and teach /b with regard to all the wines mentioned that they are unfit to be used for libations. b Rav Ashi said: /b The text of the mishna is correct. The reason for the difference between the two wines is that b the sweetness /b of grapes sweetended b by the sun is not objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are valid, while b sweetness /b that results from the sugars b of the fruit /b itself b is objectionable, /b so libations of wine made from such grapes are not valid.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine b aged /b for one year; this is b the statement of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b but the Rabbis deem it valid. /b The Gemara provides the source for Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s ruling. b Rabbi Ḥizkiyya said: What is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi? b The verse states /b with regard to the libations that accompany the New Moon offering: “And their libations: Half a i hin /i for a bull, a third of a i hin /i for a ram, and a quarter of a i hin /i b for a lamb, of wine” /b (Numbers 28:14). The juxtaposition of the terms lamb and wine teaches that b just as a lamb /b is fit to be used as an offering only if brought b in its /b first b year, so too wine /b is fit to be used as a libation only if it is b in its /b first b year. /b ,The Gemara ask: b If /b so, take the analogy further and conclude that b just as /b if one offers b a lamb in /b its b second year, /b it is b not valid, so too /b a libation of b wine in /b its b second year /b is b not valid. And if you would say /b that this is b indeed /b the i halakha /i , that is difficult: b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b wine in /b its b second year may not be brought /b i ab initio /i , but b if one did bring it /b as a libation, it is b valid? /b That i baraita /i certainly expresses the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, as b whom did you hear who said /b that aged wine b may not be brought? /b Only b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, who explicitly states this opinion in the mishna. b And yet he says /b in the i baraita /i : b If one did bring /b a libation of aged wine, it is b valid. /b According to Rabbi Ḥizkiyya’s explanation of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s opinion, such an opinion is illogical., b Rather, Rava said: This is the reasoning of Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b As it is written /b in the verse exhorting a person not to be enticed by fine wines: b “Look not upon the wine when it is red” /b (Proverbs 23:31). Evidently, the redness of wine is indicative of its quality. After a year, wine begins to lose its redness and so it should not be used, i ab initio /i . Nevertheless, it is still of a sufficient quality to be acceptable, after the fact.,§ The mishna teaches: b One may not bring /b wine produced from b grapes suspended /b on stakes or trees; rather, one brings wine produced from grapes at foot height and from vineyards that are cultivated. The definition of vineyards that are cultivated is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: Vineyards that are cultivated twice a year. /b This is done by hoeing the earth underneath the vines.,The Gemara relates the efficacy of cultivating the land twice a year: b Rav Yosef had a tract /b of land b that was /b used b an orchard [ i depardeisa /i ] /b to b which he /b used to b give an extra hoeing, and /b consequently b it produced wine /b of such superior quality that when preparing the wine for drinking it required b a dilution using twice /b the amount b of water /b than that which is usually used to dilute wine.,§ The mishna teaches: When people produced wine for libations b they would not collect /b the wine b into large barrels, /b as it causes the wine to spoil; rather, it would be placed in small casks. The Sages b taught /b in a i baraita /i : The b casks /b referred to by the mishna are b flasks /b that are made in b Lod and /b that b are medium-sized. /b ,The Gemara adds another i halakha /i : When storing casks containing wine for libations, b they should not be placed in twos, /b i.e., one atop the other, but b rather singly, /b i.e., each one should be placed separately.,§ The mishna teaches: b How does /b the Temple treasurer b inspect /b wine to determine that it is from the middle of the cask? The b treasurer sits /b alongside the cask b and /b has b the /b measuring b reed in his hand. /b The spigot is opened and the wine begins to flow. If he sees that the wine emerging b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, b he /b immediately b knocks with the reed /b to indicate that the spigot should be closed. The precise point at which he knocks is clarified in a i baraita /i that b taught: /b If the wine b draws /b with it b chalk /b -like scum, which comes b from the sediment, he knocks with the reed. /b ,The Gemara challenges: Why does the treasurer knock with the reed; b let him /b simply b speak. /b The Gemara explains: This b supports /b the opinion b of Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa said: Just as speech is beneficial to the /b incense b spices, so is speech detrimental to wine, /b and so the treasurer avoids speaking.,§ The mishna teaches: b Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Yehuda, says: /b Wine in which there is flour-like white scum is unfit for libations. b Rabbi Yoḥa raises a dilemma /b concerning such wine: If b one consecrated it /b to be used as a libation, b what is /b the i halakha /i with regard to whether b he should be flogged for /b consecrating b it due to /b the prohibition against consecrating b a flawed /b item as an offering? Does one say that b since it /b is b unfit, it is comparable to a blemished /b animal? b Or perhaps, /b the prohibition to consecrate b a flawed /b item b applies only to an animal. /b The Gemara concludes: The dilemma b shall stand /b unresolved.,§ Having discussed which flours, oils, and wine are fit to be offered in the Temple, the Gemara considers which animals are of sufficient quality to be used as offerings. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The choicest b rams /b are those b from Moab; /b the choicest b lambs /b are those b from Hebron; /b the choicest b calves /b are those b from Sharon; /b and the choicest b fledglings, /b i.e., doves and pigeons, are those b from the King’s Mountain. /b , b Rabbi Yehuda says: One should bring lambs whose height is like their width, /b i.e., they are so robust that they are as wide as they are tall. b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: What is the reason of Rabbi Yehuda? As it is written: /b “And He will give the rain for your seed, with which you sow the ground, and bread of the produce of the ground, and it shall be fat and bountiful; b your cattle shall graze in wide pastures [ i kar nirḥav /i ] on that day” /b (Isaiah 30:23). The word “ i kar /i ” can also mean a lamb, and “ i nirḥav /i ” means wide. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehuda interprets this verse, on a homiletical level, to be alluding to robust sheep.,The chapter concludes by quoting an additional prophecy of Isaiah concerning the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael: It b is written: “I have set watchmen upon your walls, Jerusalem; they shall never be silent day nor night; those who remind the Lord, take no rest” /b (Isaiah 62:6). This is referring to the angels appointed by God to bring the redemption. The Gemara asks: b What /b do these watchmen b say /b to remind the Lord? b This /b is what b Rava bar Rav Sheila said: /b They recite the verse: b “You will arise and have compassion upon Zion; /b for it is time to be gracious to her, for the appointed time has come” (Psalms 102:14)., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: /b They recite the verse: b “The Lord builds up Jerusalem, /b He gathers together the dispersed of Israel” (Psalms 147:2). The Gemara asks: b And initially, /b when the Temple still stood and the Jewish people were gathered together in Eretz Yisrael, b what would /b the watchmen b say? Rava bar Rav Sheila says: /b They would say: b “For the Lord has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His habitation. /b This is My resting place forever; here will I dwell for I have desired it” (Psalms 132:13–14).,, strong MISHNA: /strong b Two /b sizes of b measuring vessels for dry /b substances b were /b used b in the Temple /b for measuring flour for the meal offerings. One held b a tenth /b of an ephah b and /b the other held b one-half of a tenth /b of an ephah. b Rabbi Meir says: /b There were three measuring vessels; one that held b a tenth /b of an ephah, another one that also held b a tenth /b of an ephah, b and /b a third one that held b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah., b What /b purpose b did /b the b tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b flour b for all the meal offerings. One would not measure /b the flour by using a measuring vessel of a size that held the entire volume of flour required at once, i.e., b neither with /b a vessel of b three- /b tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a bull, nor with /b a vessel of b two /b -tenths of an ephah b for /b the meal offering accompanying the sacrifice of b a ram. Rather, one measures /b the flour for b them /b by repeatedly using the tenth of an ephah measuring vessel to measure the required number of b tenths. /b , b What /b purpose b did /b the b one /b - b half of a tenth /b of an ephah measuring vessel b serve? /b It was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour for the b High Priest’s griddle-cake /b offering. A tenth of an ephah was required each day; he sacrificed b half /b of it b in the morning and /b the other b half /b of it b in the afternoon. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a i baraita /i that clarifies Rabbi Meir’s opinion. It b is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say: What /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “A tenth, a tenth, for every lamb” /b (Numbers 28:29)? The fact the word “tenth” appears twice b teaches that there were two /b measuring vessels that each held b a tenth /b of an ephah b in the Temple. One /b of them held that volume when it was b heaped, and /b the other b one /b was slightly larger and held that same volume when the flour was b leveled /b with the rim.,The one that held a tenth of an ephah when b heaped /b was the vessel b with which one would measure /b the flour b for all the meal offerings. /b
217. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •babylonian rabbis, sages, approach to fasting of palestinian rabbis •bavli, portrayal of fasting for rainmaking •palestinian rabbis, sages, approach to fasting of babylonian rabbis and •fasting, fasts, participation in Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 11
49b. כמאן מצלינן על קצירי ועל מריעי [כמאן כר' יוסי] מדאמר קצירי ומריעי שמע מינה קצירי קצירי ממש מריעי רבנן:,ומותר בעבה: מתני' דלא כבבלאי דאמר ר' זירא בבלאי טפשאי דאכלי לחמא בלחמא,א"ר חסדא דמשאיל להון להלין נקדני דהוצל הדין דייסא היכין מעלי למיכלה דחיטי בלחמא דחיטי ודשערי בלחמא דשערי או דלמא דחיטי בדשערי ודשערי בדחיטי,רבא אכליה בחסיסי רבה בר רב הונא אשכחי' לרב הונא דקאכיל דייסא באצבעתיה אמ' ליה אמאי קאכיל מר בידיה א"ל הכי אמר רב דייסא באצבעתא בסים וכל דכן בתרתין וכל דכן בתלת,אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן אמר ליה רב הונא לרבה בריה מזמנים לך למיכל דייסא עד פרסה למיכל בישרא דתורא עד תלתא פרסין אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן א"ל רב הונא לרבה בריה כל מידעם לא תפלוט קמיה רבך לבר מן קרא ודייסא שהן דומין לפתילתא של אבר ואפילו קמי שבור מלכא פלוט,רבי יוסי ורבי יהודה חד אכיל דייסא באצבעתיה וחד אכיל בהוצא א"ל דאכיל בהוצא לדאכיל באצבעתיה עד מתי אתה מאכילני צואתך אמר ליה דאכיל באצבעתיה לדאכיל בהוצא עד מתי אתה מאכילני רוקך,רבי יהודה ורבי שמעון אייתו לקמייהו בלוספיין רבי יהודה אכל ר' שמעון לא אכל א"ל רבי יהודה מאי טעמא לא אכיל מר אמר ליה ר' שמעון אלו אין יוצאין מבני מעים כל עיקר אמר ליה רבי יהודה כ"ש שנסמוך עליהן למחר,רבי יהודה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' טרפון אמר ליה רבי טרפון היום פניך צהובין אמר ליה אמש יצאו עבדיך לשדה והביאו לנו תרדין ואכלנום בלא מלח ואם אכלנום במלח כל שכן שהיו פנינו צהובין,אמרה ההיא מטרוניתא לרבי יהודה מורה ורוי אמר לה הימנותא בידא דההיא איתתא אי טעימנא אלא קידושא ואבדלתא וארבעה כסי דפסחא וחוגרני צידעי מן הפסח עד העצרת אלא (קהלת ח, א) חכמת אדם תאיר פניו,אמר לי' ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהודה פניך דומין אי כמלוי רבית אי כמגדלי חזירין א"ל ביהודאי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא אית לי מן ביתא עד בי מדרשא וכל שעה ושעה אני נכנס לכל אחד ואחד,ר' יהודה כד אזיל לבי מדרשא שקיל גולפא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה רבי שמעון שקיל צנא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה,דביתהו דרבי יהודה נפקת נקטת עמרא עבדה גלימא דהוטבי כד נפקת לשוקא מיכסיא ביה וכד נפיק רבי יהודה לצלויי הוה מיכסי ומצלי וכד מיכסי ביה הוה מברך ברוך שעטני מעיל,זימנא חדא גזר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל תעניתא ר' יהודה לא אתא לבי תעניתא אמרין ליה לא אית ליה כסויא שדר ליה גלימא ולא קביל 49b. b In accordance with whose /b opinion b do we pray /b every day b for the sick and for the suffering? In accordance with whose /b opinion? b In accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yosei, /b who holds that one is judged every day, not only on Rosh HaShana, and therefore it is appropriate to pray for people every day. b From /b the fact b that he said: The sick and the suffering, /b one can b learn from /b his statement that the term: b The sick, /b is referring to b actual sick /b people, while the term: b The suffering, /b is referring to b the Sages, /b who typically are physically frail.,§ It is stated in the mishna that one who vowed that loose cooked food is forbidden to him is b permitted to /b taste b a thick /b cooked food. The Gemara comments: b The mishna is not in accordance with the /b custom of the b Babylonians, as Rabbi Zeira said: Babylonians are foolish, as they eat bread with bread. /b They eat thick porridge with their bread, which is essentially eating one kind of bread with another. According to their custom, one who vows that cooked foods are forbidden to him is prohibited from eating even a thick cooked food.,In that context, b Rav Ḥisda said that those fastidious /b resi-dents b of Huzal, /b Babylonia b were asked: How is it best to eat this porridge? /b Should b wheat /b porridge be eaten b with wheat bread and barley /b porridge b with barley bread, or perhaps wheat /b porridge should be eaten b with barley /b bread b and barley /b porridge b with wheat /b bread?,The Gemara relates: b Rava would eat /b his bread b with i ḥasisei /i , /b a porridge made of toasted barley grains. b Rabba, son of Rav Huna, found Rav Huna eating porridge with his fingers. He said to him: Why is the Master eating with his hands? /b Rav Huna b said to him: This /b is what b Rav said: Porridge /b eaten b with a finger is tasty, and all the more so /b if it is eaten b with two /b fingers, b and all the more so with three. /b It is more enjoyable to eat porridge with your hands., b Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba: /b If b you are invited to eat porridge, /b for such a meal you should travel b up to /b the distance of b a parasang [ i parsa /i ]. /b If you are invited b to eat ox meat, /b you should travel b up to three parasangs. Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba: You should not spit out anything before your teacher, /b as this is disrespectful, b apart from gourd and porridge, as they are like /b a burning b lead wick /b in the intestines when they cannot be digested, b and /b therefore b spit /b them b out even before King Shapur, /b due to the danger involved.,The Gemara relates more incidents: b Rabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yehuda /b dined together. b One /b of them b ate porridge with his fingers, and /b the other b one ate with a fork [ i hutza /i ]. /b The one b who was eating with a fork said to /b the one b who was eating with his fingers: For how long will you /b keep b feeding me your filth? /b Must I keep eating off of your dirty fingernails? The one b who was eating with his fingers said to /b the one b who was eating with a fork: For how long will you /b keep b feeding me your spittle, /b as you eat with a fork which you then put back in the common bowl., b i Belospayin /i , /b a type of figs, b were brought before Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda ate /b them, but b Rabbi Shimon did not eat /b them. b Rabbi Yehuda said to him: What is the reason /b that the b Master is not eating? Rabbi Shimon said to him: These do not leave the intestines at all. /b They remain undigested. b Rabbi Yehuda said to him: /b If so, b all the more that one can rely on them /b to feel full b tomorrow. /b , b Rabbi Yehuda was sitting before Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Your face today is ruddy, /b i.e., a rosy, healthy color. Rabbi Yehuda b said to him: Last night your servants, /b i.e., we students, b went out to the field, and beets were brought to us, and we ate them without salt. /b This is the reason for our healthy complexion. b And had we eaten them with salt, all the more so would our faces have been ruddy. /b ,The Gemara cites related incidents: b A certain /b gentile b lady [ i matronita /i ] said to Rabbi Yehuda, /b whose face was ruddy: How can one b teach /b the Jews b and /b be b a drunk /b at the same time? b He said to her: /b I place my b integrity in the hands of this woman /b and should no longer be deemed credible b if I /b ever b taste /b any wine b except /b for that of b i kiddush /i , i havdala /i , and the four cups of Passover. And /b after I drink those four cups b I tie my temples from Passover to i Shavuot /i , /b as wine gives me a headache. b Rather, /b my complexion is explained by the verse b “A man’s wisdom makes his face to shine” /b (Ecclesiastes 8:1)., b A certain heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda: Your face is similar either to usurers or to pig breeders. /b These people would earn a good living without expending much energy, which gave them plump, healthy complexions. Rabbi Yehuda b said to him: Both /b of these occupations b are prohibited to Jews. Rather, /b my face is ruddy because b I have twenty-four bathrooms /b on the way b from my home to the study hall, and all the time I enter each and every one /b of them. He did not suffer from constipation, which had a beneficial effect on his complexion.,§ The Gemara relates: b When Rabbi Yehuda would go to the study hall he would carry a pitcher [ i gulefa /i ] on his shoulder /b to sit on, b saying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborer /b who performs b it. /b It brought him honor by enabling him to avoid sitting on the floor of the study hall. Similarly, b Rabbi Shimon would carry a basket on his shoulder, saying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborer /b who performs b it. /b ,The Gemara further relates: b Rabbi Yehuda’s wife went out /b to the market, b collected wool, /b and b made a thick [ i hutevei /i ] cloak. When she would go out to the market she would cover herself with it, and when Rabbi Yehuda would go out to pray he would cover himself /b with the cloak b and pray. And when he /b would b cover himself with it he would recite the blessing: Blessed is He who wrapped me in a coat, /b as he took much pleasure in it.,On b one occasion Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, /b the i Nasi /i , b decreed a fast. Rabbi Yehuda did not come to the house of the fast, /b where everyone gathered. The people b said to /b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Rabbi Yehuda b does not have /b a dignified garment to b cover /b himself with, and therefore he shies away from public events. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel b sent him a cloak /b of his own, b but /b Rabbi Yehuda b did not accept /b this gift.
218. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, fasts, participation in •fasting, fasts, required number of prayer leaders for Found in books: Kalmin (1998) 119
18b. דאמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ר"ש חסידא מאי דכתיב (זכריה ח, יט) כה אמר ה' צבאות צום הרביעי וצום החמישי וצום השביעי וצום העשירי יהיה לבית יהודה לששון ולשמחה קרי להו צום וקרי להו ששון ושמחה בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה אין שלום צום,אמר רב פפא הכי קאמר בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה יש גזרת המלכות צום אין גזרת המלכות ואין שלום רצו מתענין רצו אין מתענין,אי הכי ט"ב נמי אמר רב פפא שאני ט' באב הואיל והוכפלו בו צרות דאמר מר בט' באב חרב הבית בראשונה ובשניה ונלכדה ביתר ונחרשה העיר,תניא אמר ר"ש ארבעה דברים היה ר"ע דורש ואני אין דורש כמותו צום הרביעי זה ט' בתמוז שבו הובקעה העיר שנאמר (ירמיהו נב, ו) (ברביעי) בתשעה לחדש ויחזק הרעב בעיר ולא היה לחם לעם הארץ ותבקע העיר ואמאי קרי ליה רביעי רביעי לחדשים,צום החמישי זה תשעה באב שבו נשרף בית אלהינו ואמאי קרי ליה חמישי חמישי לחדשים צום השביעי זה ג' בתשרי שבו נהרג גדליה בן אחיקם ומי הרגו ישמעאל בן נתניה הרגו ללמדך ששקולה מיתתן של צדיקים כשריפת בית אלהינו ואמאי קרי ליה שביעי שביעי לחדשים,צום העשירי זה עשרה בטבת שבו סמך מלך בבל על ירושלים שנאמר (יחזקאל כד, א) ויהי דבר ה' אלי בשנה התשיעית בחדש העשירי בעשור לחדש לאמר בן אדם כתב לך את שם היום את עצם היום הזה סמך מלך בבל אל ירושלם ואמאי קרי ליה עשירי עשירי לחדשים והלא היה ראוי זה לכתוב ראשון ולמה נכתב כאן כדי להסדיר חדשים כתיקנן,ואני איני אומר כן אלא צום העשירי זה חמשה בטבת שבו באת שמועה לגולה שהוכתה העיר שנאמר (יחזקאל לג, כא) ויהי בשתי עשרה שנה בעשירי בחמשה לחדש לגלותנו בא אלי הפליט מירושלם לאמר הוכתה העיר ועשו יום שמועה כיום שריפה,ונראין דברי מדבריו שאני אומר על ראשון ראשון ועל אחרון אחרון והוא אומר על ראשון אחרון ועל אחרון ראשון אלא שהוא מונה לסדר חדשים ואני מונה לסדר פורעניות,איתמר רב ורבי חנינא אמרי בטלה מגילת תענית רבי יוחנן וריב"ל אמרי לא בטלה מגילת תענית,רב ורבי חנינא אמרי בטלה מגילת תענית הכי קאמר בזמן שיש שלום יהיו לששון ולשמחה אין שלום צום והנך נמי כי הני,רבי יוחנן ורבי יהושע בן לוי אמרי לא בטלה מגילת תענית הני הוא דתלינהו רחמנא בבנין בהמ"ק אבל הנך כדקיימי קיימי,מתיב רב כהנא מעשה וגזרו תענית בחנוכה בלוד וירד ר"א ורחץ ורבי יהושע וסיפר ואמרו להם צאו והתענו על מה שהתעניתם,א"ר יוסף שאני חנוכה דאיכא מצוה א"ל אביי ותיבטיל איהי ותיבטל מצותה,אלא אמר רב יוסף שאני חנוכה דמיפרסם ניסא,מותיב רב אחא בר הונא בתלתא בתשרי בטילת אדכרתא מן שטרייא שגזרה מלכות יון גזרה שלא להזכיר שם שמים על פיהם וכשגברה מלכות חשמונאי ונצחום התקינו שיהו מזכירין שם שמים אפילו בשטרות וכך היו כותבים בשנת כך וכך ליוחנן כהן גדול לאל עליון,וכששמעו חכמים בדבר אמרו למחר זה פורע את חובו ונמצא שטר מוטל באשפה וביטלום ואותו היום עשאוהו יו"ט ואי סלקא דעתך בטלה מגילת תענית קמייתא בטול אחרנייתא מוסיפין,הכא במאי עסקינן בזמן שבית המקדש קיים 18b. b As Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: What is /b the meaning of that b which is written: “Thus said the Lord of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall become times of joy and gladness, /b and cheerful seasons, b to the house of Judah” /b (Zechariah 8:19). b It calls them /b days of b “fast” and it calls them /b “times of b joy and gladness.” /b How so? b When there is peace /b in the world, b they will be /b times of b joy and gladness, /b on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when b there is no peace, /b they are days of b fasting. /b In a time when there is no peace, why are messengers not sent out also for the fourth and tenth months, so that people can know when to observe the fasts?, b Rav Pappa said /b that b this is what it is saying: When there is peace /b in the world and the Temple is standing, these days b will be /b times of b joy and gladness; /b when b there is persecution /b and troubles for the Jewish people, they are days of b fasting; /b and when b there is no persecution but /b still b no peace, /b neither particular troubles nor consolation for Israel, the i halakha /i is as follows: If people b wish, they fast, /b and if b they wish, they do not fast. /b Since there is no absolute obligation to fast, messengers are not sent out for these months.,The Gemara asks: b If so, the Ninth of Av /b should b also /b be like the other fast days, that sometimes it is observed and sometimes not, depending upon the wishes of the community at the time. Why does the mishna state that messengers go out for the month of Av? b Rav Pappa said: The Ninth of Av is different, since the calamities /b that occurred on that day b were multiplied. As the Master said: On the Ninth of Av the Temple was destroyed, /b both b the first /b one b and the second /b one; on this day the city of b Beitar was captured; /b and on this day b the city /b of Jerusalem b was plowed /b over by the enemies of the Jewish people, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt. Consequently, the fast of the Ninth of Av is obligatory, and not optional like the other fasts. Messengers are consequently sent out so that people will know when to fast.,§ The Sages disagreed about the fasts alluded to in the words of the prophet, as b it is taught /b in a i baraita /i . b Rabbi Shimon said: Rabbi Akiva would expound four verses, but I would not expound /b the texts b as he did. /b One of the disputes relates to the fasts mentioned by Zechariah. Rabbi Akiva would expound the verse as follows: b “The fast of the fourth,” this is the ninth of Tammuz, on which the city /b of Jerusalem b was breached, as it is stated: “And in the fourth month, on the ninth day of the month, the famine was severe in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land. Then the city was breached” /b (Jeremiah 52:6–7). b And why does /b the prophet b call it /b the fast of the b fourth? /b Because it is in Tammuz, b the fourth of the months /b when counting from Nisan., b “The fast of the fifth,” this is the Ninth of Av, on which the Temple of our Lord was burnt. And why does he call it /b the fast of the b fifth? /b Because it falls in the b fifth of the months. “The fast of the seventh,” this is the third of Tishrei, on which Gedaliah, son of Ahikam, was killed. And who killed him? Ishmael, son of Nethaniah, killed him /b (see II Kings 25:25; Jeremiah, chapter 41). The Sages established a fast to commemorate Gedaliah’s death b to teach you that the death of the righteous is equivalent to the burning of the Temple of our Lord. And why did /b the prophet b call it /b the fast of the b seventh? /b Because Tishrei is the b seventh of the months. /b , b “The fast of the tenth,” This is the tenth of Tevet, on which the king of Babylonia laid siege to Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And in the ninth year, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, the word of the Lord came to me, saying: Son of man, write the name of the day, of this same day: The king of Babylonia has laid siege to Jerusalem on this very day” /b (Ezekiel 24:1–2). b And why did he call it /b the fast of the b tenth? /b Because it is in Tevet, which is b the tenth of the months. Wouldn’t it have been fitting to write /b this fast b first, /b as the series of events began with the laying of the siege. b Why was /b it b written here /b at the end of the list? This was done b in order to list the months in /b their b proper /b order, as the prophet began with the fourth month and ended with the tenth month. This is the statement of Rabbi Akiva.,Rabbi Shimon disagreed and said: b I do not say this, but rather /b I expound the verse as follows: b “The fast of the tenth,” this is the fifth of Tevet, on which the report reached the Diaspora that the city had been smitten, as it is stated: “And it came to pass in the twelfth year of our exile, in the tenth month, on the fifth day of the month, that one that had escaped out of Jerusalem came to me, saying: The city is smitten” /b (Ezekiel 33:21); b and they made the day of the report /b of the destruction b like the day of the /b actual b burning /b and decreed a fast on that day.,And Rabbi Shimon added: b And my statement seems /b more convincing b than his statement, as I say about the first /b fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place b first, and about the last /b fast that it marks the event that took place b last. /b According to Rabbi Shimon, the fasts are listed in accordance with the chronological order of the events. b But he, /b Rabbi Akiva, b says about the first /b fast mentioned by the prophet that it marks the event that took place b last, and about the last /b fast mentioned that it marks the event that took place b first, only that he lists /b the fasts b in the order of the months, whereas I list /b them also b in the order of the calamities /b that they mark.,§ b It was stated /b that the Sages disagreed about the following matter: b Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina /b both b say: i Megillat Ta’anit /i , /b a listing of days on which fasting and eulogizing are forbidden, b has been nullified, /b as in the present period of exile there is no reason to celebrate the joyous events that these days commemorate. b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say: i Megillat Ta’anit /i has not been nullified. /b ,The Gemara explains: b Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina say /b that b i Megillat Ta’anit /i has been nullified. This is what /b the prophet b is saying: At a time when there is peace /b in the world, the dates listed b will be /b times of b joy and gladness, /b on which eulogies and fasting are forbidden; but when b there is no peace, /b they are days of b fasting. And those /b days mentioned in i Megillat Ta’anit /i b are also like these /b days of fasting, that is to say, the days of joy listed in i Megillat Ta’anit /i are also nullified when there is no peace., b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi say /b that b i Megillat Ta’anit /i has not been nullified, /b and they reason as follows: b It was those /b fast days mentioned in the Bible b that the Merciful One makes contingent on the building of the Temple, but these /b festive days listed in i Megillat Ta’anit /i b remain as they were /b and have not been nullified., b Rav Kahana raised an objection /b against Rav and Rabbi Ḥanina from a i baraita /i : b There was an incident and /b the Sages b decreed a fast on Hanukkah in Lod, and Rabbi Eliezer went down /b on that day b and bathed /b in the bathhouse b and Rabbi Yehoshua went down and cut /b his hair to show that they did not accept the fast. Furthermore, these two Sages b said to /b the others: b Go out and fast /b another fast as an act of penitence b for what you have /b already b fasted, /b as the days of Hanukkah are days of joy, on which fasting is forbidden. Hanukkah is one of the Festivals listed in i Megillat Ta’anit /i . Even after the destruction of the Temple Hanukkah is celebrated, demonstrating that i Megillat Ta’anit /i has not been nullified., b Rav Yosef said: Hanukkah is different, as there is the mitzva /b of lighting candles, and so, unlike the other days listed in i Megillat Ta’anit /i , the festival of Hanukkah was not nullified. b Abaye said to him: /b What is this argument? b Let /b Hanukkah b itself be nullified, and let its mitzva /b of lighting candles b be nullified /b with it., b Rather, Rav Yosef /b retracted his previous explanation and b said: Hanukkah is different, as its miracle is well known, /b and it has become so widely accepted by all the Jewish people that it would be inappropriate to nullify it., b Rav Aḥa bar Huna raised an objection: /b It is stated in i Megillat Ta’anit /i : b On the third of Tishrei the /b ordice requiring the b mention /b of God’s name b in /b legal b documents was abolished, /b and on that day fasting is forbidden. b For the kingdom of Greece had issued a decree /b against the Jews b forbidding them to mention the name of Heaven on their lips. When the Hasmonean kingdom became strong and defeated /b the Greeks, b they instituted that people should mention the name of Heaven even in their /b legal b documents. And therefore they would write: In year such and such of Yoḥa the High Priest of the God Most High. /b , b And when the Sages heard about this they said: Tomorrow this one, /b the borrower, b will repay his debt, /b the lender will no longer need to save the loan document, b the document will be cast on a dunghill, /b and the name of Heaven written there will come to disgrace. b And /b so b they annulled /b the ordice to mention God’s name in documents, b and they made that day into a Festival. And if it enters your mind /b to say that b i Megillat Ta’anit /i has been nullified, /b can you say that b the first /b prohibitions against fasting b they annulled, and /b then b later /b ones b were added? /b ,The Gemara answers: b With what are we dealing here? /b This is referring to a time b when the Temple was standing /b and all the days listed in i Megillat Ta’anit /i were in force. From time to time new days of commemoration were added. When the i amora’im /i stated that i Megillat Ta’anit /i was nullified they were referring to the time after the destruction of the Temple.
219. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 68
52b. רע כל היום אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש יצרו של אדם מתגבר עליו בכל יום ומבקש להמיתו שנאמר (תהלים לז, לב) צופה רשע לצדיק ומבקש להמיתו ואלמלא הקב"ה שעוזר לו אינו יכול לו שנאמ' (תהלים לז, לג) ה' לא יעזבנו בידו ולא ירשיענו בהשפטו,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל אם פגע בך מנוול זה משכהו לבית המדרש אם אבן הוא נימוח אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ אם אבן הוא נימוח דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים וכתיב (איוב יד, יט) אבנים שחקו מים אם ברזל הוא מתפוצץ דכתיב (ירמיהו כג, כט) הלא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפוצץ סלע,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן יצר הרע מסיתו לאדם בעוה"ז ומעיד עליו לעולם הבא שנאמר (משלי כט, כא) מפנק מנוער עבדו ואחריתו יהיה מנון שכן באטב"ח של ר' חייא קורין לסהדה מנון,רב הונא רמי כתיב (הושע ד, יב) כי רוח זנונים התעה וכתיב (הושע ה, ד) בקרבם בתחלה התעם ולבסוף בקרבם,אמר רבא בתחלה קראו הלך ולבסוף קראו אורח ולבסוף קראו איש שנאמר (שמואל ב יב, ד) ויבא הלך לאיש העשיר ויחמול לקחת מצאנו ומבקרו לעשות לאורח וכתיב ויקח את כבשת האיש הרש ויעשה לאיש הבא אליו,אמר רבי יוחנן אבר קטן יש לו לאדם מרעיבו שבע משביעו רעב שנאמר (הושע יג, ו) כמרעיתם וישבעו וגו',אמר רב חנא בר אחא אמרי בי רב ארבעה מתחרט עליהן הקב"ה שבראם ואלו הן גלות כשדים וישמעאלים ויצר הרע גלות דכתיב (ישעיהו נב, ה) ועתה מה לי פה נאם ה' כי לקח עמי חנם וגו' כשדים דכתיב (ישעיהו כג, יג) הן ארץ כשדים זה העם לא היה,ישמעאלים דכתיב (איוב יב, ו) ישליו אהלים לשודדים ובטוחות למרגיזי אל לאשר הביא אלוה בידו יצר הרע דכתיב (מיכה ד, ו) ואשר הרעתי,אמר רבי יוחנן אלמלא שלש מקראות הללו נתמוטטו רגליהם של שונאיהן של ישראל חד דכתיב ואשר הרעתי וחד דכתיב (ירמיהו יח, ו) הנה כחומר ביד היוצר כן אתם וגו' ואידך (יחזקאל לו, כו) והסרתי את לב האבן מבשרכם ונתתי לכם לב בשר,רב פפא אמר אף מהאי נמי (יחזקאל לו, כז) ואת רוחי אתן בקרבכם וגו',(זכריה ב, ג) ויראני ה' ארבעה חרשים מאן נינהו ארבעה חרשים אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר רבי שמעון חסידא משיח בן דוד ומשיח בן יוסף ואליהו וכהן צדק מתיב רב ששת אי הכי היינו דכתיב (זכריה ב, ד) ויאמר אלי אלה הקרנות אשר זרו את יהודה הני לשובה אתו,א"ל שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ויבואו אלה להחריד אותם לידות את קרנות הגוים הנושאים קרן אל ארץ יהודה לזרותה וגו' א"ל בהדי חנא באגדתא למה לי,(מיכה ה, ד) והיה זה שלום אשור כי יבא בארצנו וכי ידרוך בארמנותינו והקמנו עליו שבעה רועים ושמנה נסיכי אדם מאן נינהו שבעה רועים דוד באמצע אדם שת ומתושלח מימינו אברהם יעקב ומשה בשמאלו ומאן נינהו שמנה נסיכי אדם ישי ושאול ושמואל עמוס וצפניה צדקיה ומשיח ואליהו:,ארבעה סולמות כו': תנא גובהה של מנורה חמשים אמה (כו'): וארבעה ילדים של פרחי כהונה ובידיהם כדי שמן של מאה ועשרים לוג: איבעיא להו מאה ועשרים לוג כולהו או דלמא לכל חד וחד תא שמע ובידיהם כדי שמן של שלשים שלשים לוג שהם כולם מאה ועשרים לוג,תנא והן משובחין היו יותר מבנה של מרתא בת בייתוס אמרו על בנה של מרתא בת בייתוס שהיה נוטל שתי יריכות של שור הגדול שלקוח באלף זוז ומהלך עקב בצד גודל ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים לעשות כן משום (משלי יד, כח) ברב עם הדרת מלך,מאי משובחים אילימא משום יוקרא הני יקירי טפי אלא התם כבש ומרובע ולא זקיף הכא סולמות וזקיף טובא:,ולא היה חצר בירושלים: תנא 52b. b evil all day” /b (Genesis 6:5). All day long his thoughts and desires are for evil. b Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: A person’s /b evil b inclination overcomes him each day and seeks to kill him, as it stated: “The wicked watches the righteous and seeks to kill him” /b (Psalms 37:32); the wicked here is referring to the wickedness inside one’s heart. b And if not for the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who assists /b him with the good inclination, b he would not overcome it, as it is stated: “The Lord will not leave him in his hand, nor suffer him to be condemned when he is judged” /b (Psalms 37:33)., b The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: If this scoundrel, /b the evil inclination, b accosted you, /b seeking to tempt you to sin, b drag it to the study hall /b and study Torah. b If it is /b like b a stone, it will be dissolved /b by the Torah. b If it is /b like b iron, it will be shattered. /b The Gemara elaborates: b If it is /b like b stone, it will be dissolved, as it is written: “Ho, everyone who is thirsty, come you for the water” /b (Isaiah 55:1), water in this context meaning Torah; b and it is written: “Stones were worn by water” /b (Job 14:19). b If it is /b like b iron, it will be shattered, as it is written: “Is not My word like fire, says the Lord; and like a hammer that shatters rock” /b (Jeremiah 23:29)., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The evil inclination incites a person /b to sin b in this world, and /b then b testifies against him in the next world, as it is stated: “He that delicately brings up his servant from a child shall have him become a master [ i manon /i ] at the last” /b (Proverbs 29:21). Initially, in one’s youth, the evil inclination, which should have been enslaved to him, takes control of him and causes him to sin. Then, ultimately, that same evil inclination becomes his i manon /i . i Manon /i means witness, b as in Rabbi Ḥiyya’s /b coded alphabet in which b i alef /i /b and b i tet /i /b and b i beit /i /b and b i ḥet /i , /b etc., are interchanged. b Witness /b [ b i sahada /i /b ] b is called i manon /i . /b The letters i mem /i and i samekh /i , i nun /i and i heh /i , and i vav /i and i dalet /i are interchanged with other letters., b Rav Huna raised a contradiction /b between two verses. b It is written: “For the spirit of harlotry caused /b them b to err” /b (Hosea 4:12), indicating that this spirit was a temporary phenomenon and not an integral part of their persona. b And it is /b also b written: /b “For the spirit of harlotry b is within them” /b (Hosea 5:4), indicating that it is an integral part of their persona. The Gemara explains: b Initially, it causes them to err /b from without, b and ultimately, /b it is from b within them. /b , b Rava said: Initially, /b the verse b called /b the evil inclination b a traveler /b coming from afar. b Subsequently, /b the verse b calls it a guest, /b as one welcomes it. b Ultimately, /b the verse b calls it man, /b indicating significance, as it became the homeowner. b As it is stated /b in the parable of the poor man’s lamb that Nathan the prophet said to David: b “And there came a traveler to the rich man, and he was reluctant to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to prepare for the guest” /b (II Samuel 12:4). b And it is written /b in the same verse: b “And he took the poor man’s lamb, and prepared it for the man that was come to him.” /b In other words, the evil inclination that began as a traveler gradually rose in prominence., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: A man has a small organ /b used in sexual relations. b If he starves /b the organ, and does not overindulge, it b is satiated; /b however, b if he satiates /b the organ and overindulges in sexual relations, it b is starving, /b and desires more, b as it is stated: “When they were fed, they became full, /b they were filled, and their heart was exalted; therefore have they forgotten Me” (Hosea 13:6)., b Rav Ḥana bar Aḥa said /b that the Sages b in the school of Rav say: /b There are b four /b creations that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b created, yet He, as it were, b regrets that He created them, /b as they do more harm than good. b And these are they: Exile, Chaldeans, and Ishmaelites, and the evil inclination. Exile, as it is written: “Now therefore, for what am I here, says the Lord, seeing that My people is taken away for naught” /b (Isaiah 52:5). God Himself is asking: For what am I here? b Chaldeans, as it is written: “Behold the land of the Chaldeans, this is the people that was not” /b (Isaiah 23:13), meaning, if only they never were., b Ishmaelites, as it is written: “The tents of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure, in whatsoever God brings with His hand” /b (Job 12:6). God brought upon Himself these Arabs that dwell in the deserts in tents. b The evil inclination, as it is written: /b “On that day, says the Lord, will I assemble her that is lame, and I will gather her that is driven away, b and her that I corrupted” /b (Micah 4:6). God is saying that He created the evil inclination that led the people to sin and to be cast into exile., b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Were it not for these three verses /b that follow that indicate that God controls people’s hearts, b the legs of the enemies of /b the b Jewish people, /b a euphemism for the Jewish people themselves, b would have collapsed, /b unable to withstand the repercussions of their sins. b One, as it is written: “And her that I corrupted,” /b indicating God’s regret for doing so. b And one, as it is written: “Behold, as the clay in the potter’s hand, so are you /b in My hand, O house of Israel” (Jeremiah 18:6). b And the other /b verse: b “And I will take away the heart of stone out of your flesh, and I will give you a heart of flesh” /b (Ezekiel 36:26), indicating that the matter is not solely in human hands, but in the hands of God as well., b Rav Pappa said: /b It is derived b from this /b verse b as well: “And I will put My spirit within you, /b and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you shall keep My ordices, and do them” (Ezekiel 36:27).,§ Apropos the end of days, the Gemara cites another verse and interprets it homiletically. It is stated: b “The Lord then showed me four craftsmen” /b (Zechariah 2:3). b Who are these four craftsmen? Rav Ḥana bar Bizna said /b that b Rabbi Shimon Ḥasida said: /b They are b Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Yosef, Elijah, and the righteous /b High b Priest, /b who will serve in the Messianic era. b Rav Sheshet raised an objection: If so, /b if that is the identity of the four craftsmen, then b that which is written /b in the previous verse: b “And he said to me: These are the horns that scattered Judea” /b (Zechariah 2:4), is difficult; b these /b four in the first verse b are coming for their enemies, /b and are not redeemers.,Rav Ḥana b said to /b Rav Sheshet: b Go to the end of the verse: “These then are come to frighten them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up /b their b horn against the land of Judah to scatter it.” /b This indicates that the horns refer to the nations that exiled the Jewish people and that the four craftsmen will hurl those horns aside. Rav Sheshet b said to him: Why /b should b I /b disagree b with /b Rav b Ḥana in /b matters of b i aggada /i , /b where he is more expert than I, and I cannot prevail?,The Gemara continues homiletically interpreting verses that relate to the end of days. It is stated: b “And this shall be peace: When the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds, and eight princes among men” /b (Micah 5:4). The Gemara asks: b Who are these seven shepherds? /b The Gemara explains: b David /b is b in the middle; Adam, Seth, and Methuselah are to his right; Abraham, Jacob, and Moses are to his left. And who are the eight princes among men? /b They are b Yishai, Saul, Samuel, Amos, Zephania, Zedekiah, Messiah, and Elijah. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b And there were four ladders /b for each pole. One of the Sages b taught: The height of the candelabrum /b upon the pole b is fifty cubits. And /b there were b four children from the priesthood trainees /b holding b and in their hands jugs of oil /b with a capacity b of 120 i log /i /b of oil. b A dilemma was raised: /b Was it b 120 i log /i altogether, or perhaps each and every /b child carried that amount? b Come /b and b hear /b proof from this i baraita /i : b And in their hands /b were b jugs of oil, each /b with a capacity b of thirty i log /i , that were all /b together b 120 i log /i . /b ,One of the Sages b taught: And these /b young priests who held the pitchers b were superior /b in strength b to the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, /b who was a priest renowned for his might. b They said about the son of Marta, daughter of Baitos, that he would take two thighs of a large bull /b that was so large b that /b it would be b purchased for one thousand i zuz /i , and walk /b up the ramp in small steps, b heel to toe, /b without hurrying, due to his strength. However, b his brethren the priests would not allow him do so, due to /b the principle: b “In the multitude of people is the King’s glory” /b (Proverbs 14:28). The more priests engaged in the Temple service, the greater glory for God. Therefore, it is preferable for the thighs to be carried to the altar by multiple priests.,The Gemara asks: In b what /b sense were these young priests b superior? If we say it is due to the weight /b of the pitchers that they carried, b these /b two b thighs are heavier /b than the thirty i log /i of oil. The Gemara answers: b Rather, /b the difference is that b there, /b in the case of the son of Marta, he walked on a b ramp /b that was wide, b and /b with a moderate gradient of only one cubit every b four /b cubits of length, b and /b it is b not steep; here /b they climbed b ladders, and /b those are b very steep. /b ,§ The mishna continues: b And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem /b that was not illuminated from the light of the Place of the Drawing of the Water. One of the Sages b taught: /b
220. Evagrius Ponticus, Praktikos, 16-17, 19-20, 22, 24, 27-28, 40, 44-45, 47, 49, 71, 91, 15 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 366
221. Anon., Apophthegmata Patrum, Cyrus, 185 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
222. Anon., Alphabetical Collection, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 370
223. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitions, 1.39, 1.54.2-1.54.5, 1.69, 2.71-2.72, 3.67, 4.16-4.19, 4.32, 5.18, 6.9-6.10, 6.15, 7.29, 7.34-7.37, 9.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting dosithean Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80, 124, 187, 192; Williams (2009) 39
1.39. But when the time began to draw near that what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions should be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet should appear, of whom he had foretold that He should warn them by the mercy of God to cease from sacrificing; lest haply they might suppose that on the cessation of sacrifice there was no remission of sins for them, He instituted baptism by water among them, in which they might be absolved from all their sins on the invocation of His name, and for the future, following a perfect life, might abide in immortality, being purified not by the blood of beasts, but by the purification of the Wisdom of God. Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, is baptized in His name, shall be kept unhurt from the destruction of war which impends over the unbelieving nation, and the place itself; but that those who do not believe shall be made exiles from their place and kingdom, that even against their will they may understand and obey the will of God. 1.69. To him our James began to show, that whatsoever things the prophets say they have taken from the law, and what they have spoken is in accordance with the law. He also made some statements respecting the books of the Kings, in what way, and when, and by whom they were written, and how they ought to be used. And when he had discussed most fully concerning the law, and had, by a most clear exposition, brought into light whatever things are in it concerning Christ, he showed by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ, and that in Him are fulfilled all the prophecies which related to His humble advent. For he showed that two advents of Him are foretold: one in humiliation, which He has accomplished; the other in glory, which is hoped for to be accomplished, when He shall come to give the kingdom to those who believe in Him, and who observe all things which He has commanded. And when he had plainly taught the people concerning these things, he added this also: That unless a man be baptized in water, in the name of the threefold blessedness, as the true Prophet taught, he can neither receive remission of sins nor enter into the kingdom of heaven; and he declared that this is the prescription of the unbegotten God. To which he added this also: 'Do not think that we speak of two unbegotten Gods, or that one is divided into two, or that the same is made male and female. But we speak of the only-begotten Son of God, not sprung from another source, but ineffably self-originated; and in like manner we speak of the Paraclete.' But when he had spoken some things also concerning baptism, through seven successive days he persuaded all the people and the high priest that they should hasten straightway to receive baptism. 2.71. But Peter, most benigtly regarding me, lest haply that separation might cause me sorrow, says to me: It is not from pride, O Clement, that I do not eat with those who have not yet been purified; but I fear lest perhaps I should injure myself, and do no good to them. For this I would have you know for certain, that every one who has at any time worshipped idols, and has adored those whom the pagans call gods, or has eaten of the things sacrificed to them, is not without an unclean spirit; for he has become a of demons, and has been partaker with that demon of which he has formed the image in his mind, either through fear or love. 1 Corinthians 10:20 And by these means he is not free from an unclean spirit, and therefore needs the purification of baptism, that the unclean spirit may go out of him, which has made its abode in the inmost affections of his soul, and what is worse, gives no indication that it lurks within, for fear it should be exposed and expelled. 2.72. For these unclean spirits love to dwell in the bodies of men, that they may fulfil their own desires by their service, and, inclining the motions of their souls to those things which they themselves desire, may compel them to obey their own lusts, that they may become wholly vessels of demons. One of whom is this Simon, who is seized with such disease, and cannot now be healed, because he is sick in his will and purpose. Nor does the demon dwell in him against his will; and therefore, if any one would drive it out of him, since it is inseparable from himself, and, so to speak, has now become his very soul, he should seem rather to kill him, and to incur the guilt of manslaughter. Let no one of you therefore be saddened at being separated from eating with us, for every one ought to observe that it is for just so long a time as he pleases. For he who wishes soon to be baptized is separated but for a little time, but he for a longer who wishes to be baptized later. Every one therefore has it in his own power to demand a shorter or a longer time for his repentance; and therefore it lies with you, when you wish it, to come to our table; and not with us, who are not permitted to take food with any one who has not been baptized. It is rather you, therefore, who hinder us from eating with you, if you interpose delays in the way of your purification, and defer your baptism. Having said thus, and having blessed, he took food. And afterwards, when he had given thanks to God, he went into the house and went to bed; and we all did the like, for it was now night. 3.67. When he had given them these and such like precepts, he made proclamation to the people, saying: Since I have resolved to stay three months with you, if any one desires it, let him be baptized; that, stripped of his former evils, he may for the future, in consequence of his own conduct, become heir of heavenly blessings, as a reward for his good actions. Whosoever will, then, let him come to Zacch us and give his name to him, and let him hear from him the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. Let him attend to frequent fastings, and approve himself in all things, that at the end of these three months he may be baptized on the day of the festival. But every one of you shall be baptized in ever flowing waters, the name of the Trine Beatitude being invoked over him; he being first anointed with oil sanctified by prayer, that so at length, being consecrated by these things, he may attain a perception of holy things. 4.16. Now that the demons are desirous of occupying the bodies of men, this is the reason. They are spirits having their purpose turned to wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, but only those who entertain the purpose of sinning, who, while they seem simply desirous of satisfying the necessary cravings of nature, give opportunity to the demons to enter into them, because through excess they do not maintain moderation. For as long as the measure of nature is kept, and legitimate moderation is preserved, the mercy of God does not give them liberty to enter into men. But when either the mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with immoderate meat or drink, then, as if invited by the will and purpose of those who thus neglect themselves, they receive power as against those who have broken the law imposed by God. 4.17. You see, then, how important is the acknowledgment of God, and the observance of the divine religion, which not only protects those who believe from the assaults of the demon, but also gives them command over those who rule over others. And therefore it is necessary for you, who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves to God, and to keep yourselves from all uncleanness, that the demons may be expelled, and God may dwell in you. And at the same time, by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and call for His aid against the impudence of the demons; for 'whatever things ye ask, believing, you shall receive.' Matthew 21:22 But even the demons themselves, in proportion as they see faith grow in a man, in that proportion they depart from him, residing only in that part in which something of infidelity still remains; but from those who believe with full faith, they depart without any delay. For when a soul has come to the faith of God, it obtains the virtue of heavenly water, by which it extinguishes the demon like a spark of fire. 4.18. There is therefore a measure of faith, which, if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly from the soul; but if it has any defect, something on the part of the demon still remains in the portion of infidelity; and it is the greatest difficulty for the soul to understand when or how, whether fully or less fully, the demon has been expelled from it. For if he remains in any quarter, when he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts to men's hearts; and they, not knowing whence they come, believe the suggestions of the demons, as if they were the perceptions of their own souls. Thus they suggest to some to follow pleasure by occasion of bodily necessity; they excuse the passionateness of others by excess of gall; they color over the madness of others by the vehemence of melancholy; and even extenuate the folly of some as the result of abundance of phlegm. But even if this were so, still none of these could be hurtful to the body, except from the excess of meats and drinks; because, when these are taken in excessive quantities, their abundance, which the natural warmth is not sufficient to digest, curdles into a sort of poison, and it, flowing through the bowels and all the veins like a common sewer, renders the motions of the body unhealthy and base. Wherefore moderation is to be attained in all things, that neither may place be given to demons, nor the soul, being possessed by them, be delivered along with them to be tormented in eternal fires. 4.19. There is also another error of the demons, which they suggest to the senses of men, that they should think that those things which they suffer, they suffer from such as are called gods, in order that thereby, offering sacrifices and gifts, as if to propitiate them, they may strengthen the worship of false religion, and avoid us who are interested in their salvation, that they may be freed from error; but this they do, as I have said, not knowing that these things are suggested to them by demons, for fear they should be saved. It is therefore in the power of every one, since man has been made possessed of free-will, whether he shall hear us to life, or the demons to destruction. Also to some, the demons, appearing visibly under various figures, sometimes throw out threats, sometimes promise relief from sufferings, that they may instil into those whom they deceive the opinion of their being gods, and that it may not be known that they are demons. But they are not concealed from us, who know the mysteries of the creation, and for what reason it is permitted to the demons to do those things in the present world; how it is allowed them to transform themselves into what figures they please, and to suggest evil thoughts, and to convey themselves, by means of meats and of drink consecrated to them, into the minds or bodies of those who partake of it, and to concoct vain dreams to further the worship of some idol. 4.32. Wherefore begin now with better understanding to resist yourselves in those things which you do not rightly desire; if so be that you can in any way repair and restore in yourselves that purity of religion and innocence of life which at first were bestowed upon man by God, that thereby also the hope of immortal blessings may be restored to you. And give thanks to the bountiful Father of all, by Him whom He has constituted King of peace, and the treasury of unspeakable honours, that even at the present time your sins may be washed away with the water of the fountain, or river, or even sea: the threefold name of blessedness being called over you, that by it not only evil spirits may be driven out, if any dwell in you, but also that, when you have forsaken your sins, and have with entire faith and entire purity of mind believed in God, you may drive out wicked spirits and demons from others also, and may be able to set others free from sufferings and sicknesses. For the demons themselves know and acknowledge those who have given themselves up to God, and sometimes they are driven out by the mere presence of such, as you saw a little while ago, how, when we had only addressed to you the word of salutation, straightway the demons, on account of their respect for our religion, began to cry out, and could not bear our presence even for a little. 5.18. And first of all he suggests to men's thoughts not to hear the words of truth, by which they might put to flight the ignorance of those things which are evils. And this he does, as by the presentation of another knowledge, making a show of that opinion which very many hold, to think that they shall not be held guilty if they have been in ignorance, and that they shall not be called to account for what they have not heard; and thereby he persuades them to turn aside from hearing the word. But I tell you, in opposition to this, that ignorance is in itself a most deadly poison, which is sufficient to ruin the soul without any aid from without. And therefore there is no one who is ignorant who shall escape through his ignorance, but it is certain that he shall perish. For the power of sin naturally destroys the sinner. But since the judgment shall be according to reason, the cause and origin of ignorance shall be inquired into, as well as of every sin. For he who is unwilling to know how he may attain to life, and prefers to be in ignorance lest he thereby be made guilty, from this very fact is judged as if he knew and had knowledge. For he knew what it was that he was unwilling to hear; and the cunning obtained by the artifice of the serpent will avail him nothing for an excuse, for he will have to do with Him to whom the heart is open. But that you may know that ignorance of itself brings destruction, I assure you that when the soul departs from the body, if it leave it in ignorance of Him by whom it was created, and from whom in this world it obtained all things that were necessary for its uses, it is driven forth from the light of His kingdom as ungrateful and unfaithful. 6.9. But you will perhaps say, What does the baptism of water contribute towards the worship of God? In the first place, because that which has pleased God is fulfilled. In the second place, because, when you are regenerated and born again of water and of God, the frailty of your former birth, which you have through men, is cut off, and so at length you shall be able to attain salvation; but otherwise it is impossible. For thus has the true prophet testified to us with an oath: 'Verily I say to you, That unless a man is born again of water, he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.' Therefore make haste; for there is in these waters a certain power of mercy which was borne upon them at the beginning, and acknowledges those who are baptized under the name of the threefold sacrament, and rescues them from future punishments, presenting as a gift to God the souls that are consecrated by baptism. Betake yourselves therefore to these waters, for they alone can quench the violence of the future fire; and he who delays to approach to them, it is evident that the idol of unbelief remains in him, and by it he is prevented from hastening to the waters which confer salvation. For whether you be righteous or unrighteous, baptism is necessary for you in every respect: for the righteous, that perfection may be accomplished in him, and he may be born again to God; for the unrighteous, that pardon may be vouchsafed him of the sins which he has committed in ignorance. Therefore all should hasten to be born again to God without delay, because the end of every one's life is uncertain. 6.10. But when you have been regenerated by water, show by good works the likeness in you of that Father who has begotten you. Now you know God, honour Him as a father; and His honour is, that you live according to His will. And His will is, that you so live as to know nothing of murder or adultery, to flee from hatred and covetousness, to put away anger, pride, and boasting, to abhor envy, and to count all such things entirely unsuitable to you. There is truly a certain peculiar observance of our religion, which is not so much imposed upon men, as it is sought out by every worshipper of God by reason of its purity. By reason of chastity, I say, of which there are many kinds, but first, that every one be careful that he 'come not near a menstruous woman;' for this the law of God regards as detestable. But though the law had given no admonition concerning these things, should we willingly, like beetles, roll ourselves in filth? For we ought to have something more than the animals, as reasonable men, and capable of heavenly senses, whose chief study it ought to be to guard the conscience from every defilement of the heart. 6.15. When he had said these things, and others to the same effect, he dismissed the crowds; and having, according to his custom, supped with his friends, he went to sleep. And while in this manner he was teaching the word of God for three whole months, and converting multitudes to the faith, at the last he ordered me to fast; and after the fast he conferred on me the baptism of ever-flowing water, in the fountains which adjoin the sea. And when, for the grace of regeneration divinely conferred upon me, we had joyfully kept holiday with our brethren, Peter ordered those who had been appointed to go before him, to proceed to Antioch, and there to wait three months more. And they having gone, he himself led down to the fountains, which, I have said, are near the sea, those who had fully received the faith of the Lord, and baptized them; and celebrating the Eucharist with them, he appointed, as bishop over them, Maro, who had entertained him in his house, and who was now perfect in all things; and with him he ordained twelve presbyters and deacons at the same time. He also instituted the order of widows, and arranged all the services of the Church; and charged them all to obey Maro their bishop in all things that he should command them. And thus all things being suitably arranged, when the three months were fulfilled, we bade farewell to those who were at Tripolis, and set out for Antioch. 7.29. Therefore, when our mother had risen from her sleep, Peter began to address her, saying: I wish you to know, O woman, an observance of our religion. We worship one God, who made the world, and we keep His law, in which He commands us first of all to worship Him, and to reverence His name, to honour our parents, and to preserve chastity and uprightness. But this also we observe, not to have a common table with Gentiles, unless when they believe, and on the reception of the truth are baptized, and consecrated by a certain threefold invocation of the blessed name; and then we eat with them. Otherwise, even if it were a father or a mother, or wife, or sons, or brothers, we cannot have a common table with them. Since, therefore, we do this for the special cause of religion, let it not seem hard to you that your son cannot eat with you, until you have the same judgment of the faith that he has. 7.34. When Niceta had spoken thus, our mother fell down at Peter's feet, entreating and beseeching him that both herself and her hostess might be baptized without delay; that, said she, I may not even for a single day suffer the loss of the company and society of my sons. In like manner, we her sons also entreated Peter. But he said: What! Do you think that I alone am unpitiful, and that I do not wish you to enjoy your mother's society at meals? But she must fast at least one day first, and so be baptized; and this because I have heard from her a certain declaration, by which her faith has been made manifest to me, and which has given evidence of her belief; otherwise she must have been instructed and taught many days before she could have been baptized. 7.35. Then said I: I pray you, my lord Peter, tell us what is that declaration which you say afforded you evidence of her faith? Then Peter: It is her asking that her hostess, whose kindnesses she wishes to requite, may be baptized along with her. Now she would not ask that this grace be bestowed upon her whom she loves, unless she believed that there is some great boon in baptism. Whence, also, I find fault with very many, who, when they are themselves baptized and believe, yet do nothing worthy of faith with those whom they love, such as wives, or children, or friends, whom they do not exhort to that which they themselves have attained, as they would do if indeed they believed that eternal life is thereby bestowed. In short, if they see them to be sick, or to be subject to any danger bodily, they grieve and mourn, because they are sure that in this destruction threatens them. So, then, if they were sure of this, that the punishment of eternal fire awaits those who do not worship God, when would they cease warning and exhorting? Or, if they refused, how would they not mourn and bewail them, being sure that eternal torments awaited them? Now, therefore, we shall send for that woman at once, and see if she loves the faith of our religion; and as we find, so shall we act. But since your mother has judged so faithfully concerning baptism, let her fast only one day before baptism. 7.36. But she declared with an oath, in presence of my lord Peter's wife, that from the time she recognised her son, she had been unable to take any food from excess of joy, excepting only that yesterday she drank a cup of water. Peter's wife also bore witness, saying that it was even so. Then Aquila said: What, then, hinders her being baptized? Then Peter, smiling, said: But this is not the fast of baptism, for it was not done in order to baptism. Then Niceta said: But perhaps God, wishing that our mother, on our recognition, should not be separated even for one day from participation of our table, pre-ordained this fasting. For as in her ignorance she preserved her chastity, that it might profit her in order to the grace of baptism; so she fasted before she knew the reason of fasting, that it might profit her in order to baptism, and that immediately, from the beginning of our acquaintance, she might enjoy communion of the table with us. 7.37. Then said Peter: Let not the wicked one prevail against us, taking occasion from a mother's love; but let you, and me with you, fast this day along with her, and tomorrow she shall be baptized: for it is not right that the precepts of truth be relaxed and weakened in favour of any person or friendship. Let us not shrink, then, from suffering along with her, for it is a sin to transgress any commandment. But let us teach our bodily senses, which are without us, to be in subjection to our inner senses; and not compel our inner senses, which savour the things that be of God, to follow the outer senses, which savour the things that be of the flesh. For to this end also the Lord commanded, saying: 'Whosoever shall look upon a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart.' And to this He added: 'If your right eye offend you, pluck it out, and cast it from you: for it is profitable for you that one of your members perish, rather than your whole body be cast into hell-fire.' Matthew 5:28-29 He does not say, has offended you, that you should then cast away the cause of sin after you have sinned; but if it offend you, that is, that before you sin you should cut off the cause of the sin that provokes and irritates you. But let none of you think, brethren, that the Lord commended the cutting off of the members. His meaning is, that the purpose should be cut off, not the members, and the causes which allure to sin, in order that our thought, borne up on the chariot of sight, may push towards the love of God, supported by the bodily senses; and not give loose reins to the eyes of the flesh as to wanton horses, eager to turn their running outside the way of the commandments, but may subject the bodily sight to the judgment of the mind, and not suffer those eyes of ours, which God intended to be viewers and witnesses of His work, to become panders of evil desire. And therefore let the bodily senses as well as the internal thought be subject to the law of God, and let them serve His will, whose work they acknowledge themselves to be. 9.10. But what, it is said, of the fact that some who in their childhood are free from any bodily defect, yet in process of time fall into those evils, so that some are even violently hurried on to death? Concerning these also the account is at hand, and is almost the same: for those powers which we have said to be contrary to the human race, are in some way invited into the heart of every one by many and diverse lusts, and find a way of entrance; and they have in them such influence and power as can only encourage and incite, but cannot compel or accomplish. If, therefore, any one consents to them, so as to do those things which he wickedly desires, his consent and deed shall find the reward of destruction and the worst kind of death. But if, thinking of the future judgment, he be checked by fear, and reclaim himself, so that he do not accomplish in action what he has conceived in his evil thought, he shall not only escape present destruction, but also future punishments. For every cause of sin seems to be like tow smeared over with pitch, which immediately breaks into flame as soon as it receives the heat of fire; and the kindling of this fire is understood to be the work of demons. If, therefore, any one be found smeared with sins and lusts as with pitch, the fire easily gets the mastery of him. But if the tow be not steeped in the pitch of sin, but in the water of purification and regeneration, the fire of the demons shall not be able to be kindled in it.
224. Evagrius, On Discrimination In Respect of Passions And Thoughts, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 366
225. John Chrysostom, Homilies On Acts, 30.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
226. Anon., Numbers Rabba, None (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
227. Prudentius, Cathemerina., 11.239-11.246 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 243
228. Prudentius, On The Crown of Martyrdom, 10.49 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 230
229. Evagrius Ponticus, On Evil Thoughts, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365
230. Theodoret of Cyrus, Religious History, 3.3, 4.5, 9.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
231. Philastrius of Brescia, Diversarum Hereseon Liber, 45.3 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Williams (2009) 296
232. Paulinus of Nola, Carmina, 17.129-17.132, 22.105-22.108, 24.195-24.200 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 222, 223, 224
233. John Chrysostom, Homilies On Matthew, 68.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
234. Anon., Apostolic Constitutions, 5.18, 6.6.3, 6.8.1, 7.23.1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting dosithean, jewish •fasting dosithean Found in books: McGowan (1999) 217; Williams (2009) 39, 43
235. Ambrose, On Virginity, 3.4.17 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
236. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.15-30.16 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 187
237. Cassian, Institutiones, 5.8-5.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
5.8. How food should be taken with regard to the aim at perfect continence. And so it is a very true and most excellent saying of the Fathers that the right method of fasting and abstinence lies in the measure of moderation and bodily chastening; and that this is the aim of perfect virtue for all alike, viz.: that though we are still forced to desire it, yet we should exercise self-restraint in the matter of the food, which we are obliged to take owing to the necessity of supporting the body. For even if one is weak in body, he can attain to a perfect virtue and one equal to that of those who are thoroughly strong and healthy, if with firmness of mind he keeps a check upon the desires and lusts which are not due to weakness of the flesh. For the Apostle says: And take not care for the flesh in its lusts. Romans 13:14 He does not forbid care for it in every respect: but says that care is not to be taken in regard to its desires and lusts. He cuts away the luxurious fondness for the flesh: he does not exclude the control necessary for life: he does the former, lest through pampering the flesh we should be involved in dangerous entanglements of the desires; the latter lest the body should be injured by our fault and unable to fulfil its spiritual and necessary duties. 5.9. of the measure of the chastisement to be undertaken, and the remedy of fasting. The perfection then of abstinence is not to be gathered from calculations of time alone, nor only from the quality of the food; but beyond everything from the judgment of conscience. For each one should impose such a sparing diet on himself as the battle of his bodily struggle may require. The canonical observance of fasts is indeed valuable and by all means to be kept. But unless this is followed by a temperate partaking of food, one will not be able to arrive at the goal of perfection. For the abstinence of prolonged fasts- where repletion of body follows - produces weariness for a time rather than purity and chastity. Perfection of mind indeed depends upon the abstinence of the belly. He has no lasting purity and chastity, who is not contented always to keep to a well-balanced and temperate diet. Fasting, although severe, yet if unnecessary relaxation follows, is rendered useless, and presently leads to the vice of gluttony. A reasonable supply of food partaken of daily with moderation, is better than a severe and long fast at intervals. Excessive fasting has been known not only to undermine the constancy of the mind, but also to weaken the power of prayers through sheer weariness of body.
238. Cassian, Conferences, 1.12, 2.17, 5.6, 5.18, 21.22, 23.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Cain (2016) 80, 229, 258; Sorabji (2000) 365
239. Augustine, The City of God, 14.20 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 411
14.20. It is this which those canine or cynic philosophers have overlooked, when they have, in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs, viz., that as the matrimonial act is legitimate, no one should be ashamed to perform it openly, in the street or in any public place. Instinctive shame has overborne this wild fancy. For though it is related that Diogenes once dared to put his opinion in practice, under the impression that his sect would be all the more famous if his egregious shamelessness were deeply graven in the memory of mankind, yet this example was not afterwards followed. Shame had more influence with them, to make them blush before men, than error to make them affect a resemblance to dogs. And possibly, even in the case of Diogenes, and those who did imitate him, there was but an appearance and pretence of copulation, and not the reality. Even at this day there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen; for these are Cynics who are not content with being clad in the pallium, but also carry a club; yet no one of them dares to do this that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man's first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin - that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God's grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God's justice.
240. Leo I Pope, Sermons, 1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
241. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 12.17.34 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365
242. Augustine, Against Julian, 4.43-4.44, 5.5.22 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 410, 411
243. Augustine, Confessions, 1.6-1.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 410
1.6. 7. Still suffer me to speak before Your mercy - me, dust and ashes. Genesis 18:27 Allow me to speak, for, behold, it is Your mercy I address, and not derisive man. Yet perhaps even You deride me; but when You are turned to me You will have compassion on me. Jeremiah 12:15 For what do I wish to say, O Lord my God, but that I know not whence I came hither into this - shall I call it dying life or living death? Yet, as I have heard from my parents, from whose substance You formed me - for I myself cannot remember it - Your merciful comforts sustained me. Thus it was that the comforts of a woman's milk entertained me; for neither my mother nor my nurses filled their own breasts, but You by them gave me the nourishment of infancy according to Your ordice and that bounty of Yours which underlies all things. For You caused me not to want more than You gave, and those who nourished me willingly to give me what You gave them. For they, by an instinctive affection, were anxious to give me what You had abundantly supplied. It was, in truth, good for them that my good should come from them, though, indeed, it was not from them, but by them; for from You, O God, are all good things, and from my God is all my safety. Proverbs 21:31 This is what I have since discovered, as You have declared Yourself to me by the blessings both within me and without me which You have bestowed upon me. For at that time I knew how to suck, to be satisfied when comfortable, and to cry when in pain - nothing beyond. 8. Afterwards I began to laugh - at first in sleep, then when waking. For this I have heard mentioned of myself, and I believe it (though I cannot remember it), for we see the same in other infants. And now little by little I realized where I was, and wished to tell my wishes to those who might satisfy them, but I could not; for my wants were within me, while they were without, and could not by any faculty of theirs enter into my soul. So I cast about limbs and voice, making the few and feeble signs I could, like, though indeed not much like, unto what I wished; and when I was not satisfied - either not being understood, or because it would have been injurious to me - I grew indigt that my elders were not subject unto me, and that those on whom I had no claim did not wait on me, and avenged myself on them by tears. That infants are such I have been able to learn by watching them; and they, though unknowing, have better shown me that I was such an one than my nurses who knew it. 9. And, behold, my infancy died long ago, and I live. But You, O Lord, who ever livest, and in whom nothing dies (since before the world was, and indeed before all that can be called before, You exist, and are the God and Lord of all Your creatures; and with You fixedly abide the causes of all unstable things, the unchanging sources of all things changeable, and the eternal reasons of all things unreasoning and temporal), tell me, Your suppliant, O God; tell, O merciful One, Your miserable servant - tell me whether my infancy succeeded another age of mine which had at that time perished. Was it that which I passed in my mother's womb? For of that something has been made known to me, and I have myself seen women with child. And what, O God, my joy, preceded that life? Was I, indeed, anywhere, or anybody? For no one can tell me these things, neither father nor mother, nor the experience of others, nor my own memory. Do you laugh at me for asking such things, and command me to praise and confess You for what I know? 10. I give thanks to You, Lord of heaven and earth, giving praise to You for that my first being and infancy, of which I have no memory; for You have granted to man that from others he should come to conclusions as to himself, and that he should believe many things concerning himself on the authority of feeble women. Even then I had life and being; and as my infancy closed I was already seeking for signs by which my feelings might be made known to others. Whence could such a creature come but from You, O Lord? Or shall any man be skilful enough to fashion himself? Or is there any other vein by which being and life runs into us save this, that You, O Lord, hast made us, with whom being and life are one, because You Yourself art being and life in the highest? You are the highest, You change not, Malachi 3:6 neither in You does this present day come to an end, though it does end in You, since in You all such things are; for they would have no way of passing away unless You sustained them. And since Your years shall have no end, Your years are an ever present day. And how many of ours and our fathers' days have passed through this Your day, and received from it their measure and fashion of being, and others yet to come shall so receive and pass away! But You are the same; and all the things of tomorrow and the days yet to come, and all of yesterday and the days that are past, You will do today, You have done today. What is it to me if any understand not? Let him still rejoice and say, What is this? Let him rejoice even so, and rather love to discover in failing to discover, than in discovering not to discover You. 1.7. 11. Hearken, O God! Alas for the sins of men! Man says this, and You have compassion on him; for You created him, but did not create the sin that is in him. Who brings to my remembrance the sin of my infancy? For before You none is free from sin, not even the infant which has lived but a day upon the earth. Who brings this to my remembrance? Does not each little one, in whom I behold that which I do not remember of myself? In what, then, did I sin? Is it that I cried for the breast? If I should now so cry - not indeed for the breast, but for the food suitable to my years - I should be most justly laughed at and rebuked. What I then did deserved rebuke; but as I could not understand those who rebuked me, neither custom nor reason suffered me to be rebuked. For as we grow we root out and cast from us such habits. I have not seen any one who is wise, when purging John 15:2 anything cast away the good. Or was it good, even for a time, to strive to get by crying that which, if given, would be hurtful - to be bitterly indigt that those who were free and its elders, and those to whom it owed its being, besides many others wiser than it, who would not give way to the nod of its good pleasure, were not subject unto it - to endeavour to harm, by struggling as much as it could, because those commands were not obeyed which only could have been obeyed to its hurt? Then, in the weakness of the infant's limbs, and not in its will, lies its innocency. I myself have seen and known an infant to be jealous though it could not speak. It became pale, and cast bitter looks on its foster-brother. Who is ignorant of this? Mothers and nurses tell us that they appease these things by I know not what remedies; and may this be taken for innocence, that when the fountain of milk is flowing fresh and abundant, one who has need should not be allowed to share it, though needing that nourishment to sustain life? Yet we look leniently on these things, not because they are not faults, nor because the faults are small, but because they will vanish as age increases. For although you may allow these things now, you could not bear them with equanimity if found in an older person. 12. You, therefore, O Lord my God, who gave life to the infant, and a frame which, as we see, You have endowed with senses, compacted with limbs, beautified with form, and, for its general good and safety, hast introduced all vital energies - You command me to praise You for these things, to give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praise unto Your name, O Most High; for You are a God omnipotent and good, though You had done nought but these things, which none other can do but You, who alone made all things, O You most fair, who made all things fair, and orders all according to Your law. This period, then, of my life, O Lord, of which I have no remembrance, which I believe in the word of others, and which I guess from other infants, it chagrins me - true though the guess be - to reckon in this life of mine which I lead in this world; inasmuch as, in the darkness of my forgetfulness, it is like to that which I passed in my mother's womb. But if I was shapen in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me, where, I pray you, O my God, where, Lord, or when was I, Your servant, innocent? But behold, I pass by that time, for what have I to do with that, the memories of which I cannot recall?
244. Anon., Bundahishn, 3.5.15-3.5.16 (5th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
245. Stobaeus, Anthology, 3.18.23-3.18.24 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Wilson (2012) 274
246. Jerome, Commentary On Ezekiel, 18.6 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
247. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 411
248. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 411
249. Jerome, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2016) 229; Griffiths (1975) 291; Sorabji (2000) 411; van , t Westeinde (2021) 92, 93, 105, 129, 141
250. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 9 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
251. Quran, Quran, 25.67, 34.13, 38.17, 38.21 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •david, as fasting Found in books: Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 50, 51, 52
25.67. وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا 34.13. يَعْمَلُونَ لَهُ مَا يَشَاءُ مِنْ مَحَارِيبَ وَتَمَاثِيلَ وَجِفَانٍ كَالْجَوَابِ وَقُدُورٍ رَاسِيَاتٍ اعْمَلُوا آلَ دَاوُودَ شُكْرًا وَقَلِيلٌ مِنْ عِبَادِيَ الشَّكُورُ 38.17. اصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ 38.21. وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ نَبَأُ الْخَصْمِ إِذْ تَسَوَّرُوا الْمِحْرَابَ
252. Augustine, Letters, 220.11 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
253. Papyri, P.Kellis I Gr., 67  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Brand (2022) 206
254. Cratinus, Trophonios; Fragments Collected In Kassel-Austin, Pcg Iv, Pp. 239-244, 233  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •trophonios (and trophonion), fasting before consultation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 627
255. Epigraphy, Rc, 9  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 296
259. Jerome, Haer., 294  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lampe (2003) 381
260. Pseudo‐Nilus =Evagrius, Sentences To The Monks, None  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 366
262. Vergil, Aeneis, 2.630-2.631, 5.458-5.459, 7.142-7.143, 7.280-7.281, 7.764, 9.585, 11.571, 12.609-12.611, 12.885, 12.925, 12.945-12.946  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •christ, fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 210, 221, 225, 226, 227, 230
2.630. whom chilling winter shelters underground, 2.631. till, fresh and strong, he sheds his annual scales 5.458. “Your gifts, my gallant youths, remain secure. 5.459. None can re-judge the prize. But to console 7.142. Soon, all things else devoured, their hunger turned 7.143. to taste the scanty bread, which they attacked 7.280. boast Jove to be their sire, and our true King 7.281. is of Olympian seed. To thine abode 7.764. be spurned upon the threshold?” Then drew near 9.585. for both the slain.” Then with a sword unsheathed 11.571. from Diomed in Arpi , our allies 12.609. of all Ausonia saw: a chill of fear 12.610. hot through each soldier's marrow; in their van 12.611. Juturna knew full well the dreadful sound, 12.885. to crush the strongholds of all Italy , 12.925. a mountain-boulder by a whirlwind flung 12.945. Like Athos ' crest he loomed, or soaring top 12.946. of Eryx , when the nodding oaks resound,
263. Vergil, Eclogues, 2.65  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fasting, moderation Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 248
264. Vergil, Georgics, 3.444, 3.464-3.467, 4.469  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: O, Daly (2012) 211, 242
3.444. sudor et hirsuti secuerunt corpora vepres. 3.464. Quam procul aut molli succedere saepius umbrae 3.465. videris aut summas carpentem ignavius herbas 3.466. extremamque sequi aut medio procumbere campo 3.467. pascentem et serae solam decedere nocti: 4.469. ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum
265. Pseudo‐Nilus =Evagrius, Sentences To The Virgins, None  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365, 370
267. Dead Sea Scrolls, 1Qap, 20.1-20.8  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •rabbis, on fasting Found in books: Gera (2014) 267
268. Anon., Martyrdom of Pionius, 13.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 78
270. Anon., Sar Torah, 300, 299  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 185
271. Theodoret of Cyrus, Commentary On Col., Pg 82, 613  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, Found in books: Huttner (2013) 128
272. Anon., Testament of Adam, 1.10  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 65
273. Anon., Tchacos 3 Gospel of Judas, 40.7-40.16  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance •fasting dosithean, gnostic repudiation Found in books: Williams (2009) 95, 284
274. Papyri, P. Giss.3, 680.37  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 347
275. Epigraphy, Ngsl2, 7  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •trophonios (and trophonion), fasting before consultation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 627
276. Epigraphy, Ilafr, 225  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting •trophonios (and trophonion), fasting before consultation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 626, 627
277. Apol., Met., 11.23.2-11.23.3  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Nuno et al (2021) 179
278. Epigraphy, I.Pergamon 2, 264  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 625
279. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q402, 4.7  Tagged with subjects: •cybele, and rebirth, and nine days fasting •fasting, origins of Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 291
280. Pseudo-Tertullian, Adversus Omnes Haereses, 1.1, 6.1-6.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, jewish •fasting dosithean, samaritan •sabbath, fasting on sabbath •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance Found in books: Williams (2009) 38, 43, 296, 297
281. Anon., 3 Baruch, 11.1-11.9, 18.9  Tagged with subjects: •fasting •fast, fasting Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 115; Putthoff (2016) 65
282. Epigraphy, Lscg, 65.22-65.23  Tagged with subjects: •cultic ritual practice, fasting Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 16
283. Dead Sea Scrolls, Iqsa, 17-18, 22, 25, 28-30, 5-6, 8  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: McGowan (1999) 188
284. Anon., 4 Ezra, a b c d\n0 5.19 5.19 5 19 \n1 1.20 1.20 1 20 \n2 5.13 5.13 5 13 \n3 1.17 1.17 1 17 \n4 1.24 1.24 1 24 \n5 1.22 1.22 1 22 \n6 1.16 1.16 1 16 \n7 5.21 5.21 5 21 \n8 1.19 1.19 1 19 \n9 1.15 1.15 1 15 \n10 1.13 1.13 1 13 \n11 5.14 5.14 5 14 \n12 5.22 5.22 5 22 \n13 5.20 5.20 5 20 \n14 1.27 1.27 1 27 \n15 1.18 1.18 1 18 \n16 10.29; 10.29; 10 29;\n17 1.14 1.14 1 14 \n18 1.21 1.21 1 21 \n19 6.35 6.35 6 35 \n20 1.23 1.23 1 23 \n21 5.15 5.15 5 15 \n22 1.26 1.26 1 26 \n23 1.25 1.25 1 25 \n24 9.24 9.24 9 24 \n25 9.23 9.23 9 23 \n26 9.25 9.25 9 25 \n27 14.3 14.3 14 3  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Dobroruka (2014) 124
5.19. Then I said to him, "Depart from me and do not come near me for seven days, and then you may come to me." He heard what I said and left me.
285. Cleitarchus, Sententiae, 116 (missingth cent. CE - Unknownth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Wilson (2012) 274
286. Tyconius, Liber Regularum, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.16, 4.17, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 6.9, 6.10, 6.11, 6.12, 9.16, 9.17, 9.18, 9.19, 9.20, 9.21, 9.22, 9.23, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.12, 10.25, 10.26, 11.12, 11.13, 11.14, 11.15, 11.16, 11.17, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21, 14.27, 14.28, 14.29, 26.5, 26.6, 30.5, 30.6, 30.7, 30.8, 30.11, 30.12, 30.15, 30.18, 30.19, 30.20, 30.21, 30.22, 30.23, 30.24, 30.25, 30.27, 31.1, 31.2, 31.10, 31.11, 31.12, 31.13, 31.14, 31.15, 33.29, 33.30, 34.9, 34.10, 34.11, 34.15, 34.16, 34.17, 34.18, 34.19, 34.20, 34.21, 35.7, 35.8, 35.9, 35.10, 35.11, 35.12, 35.13, 35.14, 35.15, 35.16, 35.17, 35.18, 35.19, 35.20, 35.21, 35.22, 35.23, 35.24, 35.25, 35.26-36.11, 36.21, 36.22, 36.23, 37.1, 37.2, 37.3, 37.23-38.11, 38.23, 39.25, 39.26, 39.27, 39.28, 40.12, 40.13, 40.14, 40.15, 40.16, 41.22, 41.23, 41.27, 42.10, 43.1, 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, 45.13, 46.13, 46.21, 46.22, 46.23, 46.26, 46.27, 46.28, 48.20-49.15, 49.16, 50.2, 50.3, 50.4, 50.5, 50.10, 50.11, 50.12, 52.9, 52.10, 52.11, 52.12, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 53.4, 53.5, 53.6, 53.7, 53.8, 53.9, 53.10, 54.13, 54.14, 54.15, 54.16, 54.17, 54.20, 54.21, 54.22, 54.23, 55.6-56.6, 55.7, 56.2, 56.3, 56.4, 56.15, 56.19, 60.17, 60.18, 61.5, 61.6, 61.7, 61.8, 61.9, 61.10, 61.11, 61.12, 61.13, 61.14, 61.15, 61.16, 61.17, 61.18, 61.19, 62.1-64.6, 64.15, 64.16, 64.22, 64.23, 64.24, 64.25, 64.26, 64.27, 64.28, 64.30-65.8, 64.30-65.1, 64.30-65.21, 65.2, 65.3, 65.4, 65.5, 65.6, 65.8, 65.13, 65.14, 65.19, 65.20, 65.21, 66.3, 66.4, 66.5, 66.9, 67.7, 67.8, 67.9, 67.10, 68.20, 73.1, 73.2, 73.3, 73.4, 73.20, 74.16, 74.17, 74.18, 74.19, 74.20, 74.21, 74.22, 74.23, 74.24, 74.25, 80.6, 80.33, 80.34, 84.6, 84.7, 84.8, 84.9, 84.10, 84.11, 84.12  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 283
287. Dorotheus of Gaza, Ep., 1, 180.4-9  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Champion (2022) 205
288. Galen, Aff. Pec. Dig., 10, 5-9, 4  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Champion (2022) 57
289. Palladius of Aspuna, Lausiac History, 2.2, 11.4, 18.14, 35.13-35.15  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
290. Epigraphy, Judeich 1898, 24  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, Found in books: Huttner (2013) 370
291. Epigraphy, Tabbernee 1997, 83  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, Found in books: Huttner (2013) 370
292. Strabo, Geography, 14.1.44  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 296, 625
14.1.44. On the road between the Tralleians and Nysa is a village of the Nysaeans, not far from the city Acharaca, where is the Plutonion, with a luxurious grove and a temple of Pluto and Kore, and also the Charonium, a cave that lies above the sacred precinct, by nature wonderful; for they say that those who are diseased and give heed to the cures prescribed by these gods resort thither and live in the village near the cave among experienced priests, who on their behalf sleep in the cave and through dreams prescribe the cures. These are also the men who invoke the healing power of the gods. And they often bring the sick into the cave and leave them there, to remain in quiet, like animals in their lurking-holes, without food for many days. And sometimes the sick give heed also to their own dreams, but still they use those other men, as priests, to initiate them into the mysteries and to counsel them. To all others the place is forbidden and deadly. A festival is celebrated every year at Acharaca; and at that time in particular those who celebrate the festival can see and hear concerning all these things; and at the festival, too, about noon, the boys and young men of the gymnasium, nude and anointed with oil, take up a bull and with haste carry him up into the cave; and, when let loose, the bull goes forward a short distance, falls, and breathes out his life.
293. Hebrew Bible, Judith, 10.5, 12.2, 15.12-15.13  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting •meals, fasting rituals Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303, 333
294. Eznik of Kolb, On God, 407  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: McGowan (1999) 165
295. Diodorus Sicilus, History, 1.82.1-1.82.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Jouanna (2012) 11
296. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 4.23-4.26  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 722
4.23. and after he had plundered them he issued a decree that if any of them should be found observing the ancestral law they should die. 4.24. When, by means of his decrees, he had not been able in any way to put an end to the people's observance of the law, but saw that all his threats and punishments were being disregarded, 4.25. even to the point that women, because they had circumcised their sons, were thrown headlong from heights along with their infants, though they had known beforehand that they would suffer this -- 4.26. when, then, his decrees were despised by the people, he himself, through torture, tried to compel everyone in the nation to eat defiling foods and to renounce Judaism.
297. Anon., Psalms Rabba, 137.6  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, food and fasting Found in books: Taylor and Hay (2020) 303
298. Anon., The Acts of Xanthippe And Polyxena (Under The Author Onesimus), 12-14, 22, 21  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: König (2012) 301
299. Ezekiel The Tragedian, 5 Ezra, 1.19  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
300. Anon., Latin Vision of Ezra, 59  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
301. Anon., Lexicon Artis Grammaticae (E Cod. Coislin. 345), 15.5  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
302. Gregory The Great, Pope, Moralia, None  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 370
303. John Climacus, Ladder, 22.1, 29.10  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 370
304. Anon., Epicurea, Ed.Usener, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 410
305. Epigraphy, Ricis, 202/0164  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 296
306. Photius, Bibliotheca (Library, Bibl.), None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 271
307. Stobaeus, Eclogues, 2.88.18-2.88.21  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365
308. Epigraphy, Die Inschriften Von Pergamon, 161  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 625, 626
309. Julianus The Theurgist, Oracula Chaldaica, 2.37  Tagged with subjects: •cybele, and rebirth, and nine days fasting •fasting, origins of Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 291
310. Anon., Hekhalot Zutarti, 424  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 183, 185
311. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q471A, 73  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
312. Anon., Midrash Psalms (Midrash Tehillim), 22.8  Tagged with subjects: •david, as fasting Found in books: Zawanowska and Wilk (2022) 57
313. Anon., Berlin Codex 8502, 45.1  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013) 304
314. Nag Hammadi, Apocryphon of John (Nhc Ii), 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 2.25, 13.13, 13.18, 13.19, 13.20, 13.21, 21.16-22.16, 21.27, 25, 26, 27, 28  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Iricinschi et al. (2013) 304
315. Anon., History of The Monks In Egypt, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
316. Anon., Epistle To Diognetus, 4.1-2, 6.4  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
317. Papyri, P.Kellis V Copt., 32  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Brand (2022) 205
318. Papyri, P.Kellis Vii Copt., 73  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Brand (2022) 206
319. Anon., Berlin Kephalaia, 109, 193, 81, 79  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Brand (2022) 205
320. Jerome, Vita Paulae, 13  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean Found in books: Williams (2009) 39
321. Tertullian, De Resurrectione Mortuorum, 2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance Found in books: Williams (2009) 297
322. Tertullian, De Praescriptione Hereticorum, 41.1-41.2  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, fasting on sabbath •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance Found in books: Williams (2009) 296
323. Anon., Ginza, 136.12-136.13  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, gnostic repudiation Found in books: Williams (2009) 95
324. Nag Hammadi, Testimony of The Truth, 45.23-48.26  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, gnostic repudiation Found in books: Williams (2009) 95
325. Origen, Commentariorum In Matthaeum Series, 23.23  Tagged with subjects: •fasting dosithean, jewish Found in books: Williams (2009) 43
326. Hippolytus, Refutatio Omnium Haereseon, 7.30.3-7.30.4, 7.31.1-7.31.2, 9.28.5, 10.19.1-10.19.2  Tagged with subjects: •sabbath, fasting on sabbath •fasting dosithean, gnostic observance •fasting dosithean, jewish Found in books: Williams (2009) 43, 296
327. Anon., Apocalypse of Abraham, 9.7-9.10, 12.1-12.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 714
328. Aristophanes, Amphiaraos; Fragments Collected In Kassel-Austin, 23  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 626
329. Tertullian, On The Incarnation, 2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 147
330. Council of Laodicea [Between Ca.343-381], Can., 35, 49-50, 52, 51  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Huttner (2013) 369
331. Anon., Scholium On Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 410
332. Anon., Geoponica, 2.35.8  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 626
333. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 10.1-10.3, 10.5, 10.8-10.9, 10.12-10.13, 10.15-10.17, 15.14, 16.8-16.11  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Putthoff (2016) 40, 65
334. Pseuod-Aristotle, Ath. Pol., 4.2-4.3  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 122
335. Sophocles, Stobaeus, 11  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
336. Tacitus, Tibullus, 22  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 191
337. Marcus Aurelius, Marguerite Porete, 6.6  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 69
338. Anon., History of The Rechabites, 13.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Stuckenbruck (2007) 723
339. John Chrysostom, Orig., 34  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, of the eyes Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 429
340. Gallican Council of Narbonne, Canons, 13  Tagged with subjects: •fasting, of the eyes Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 429
341. Anon., Totenbuch, 125  Tagged with subjects: •cybele, and rebirth, and nine days fasting •fasting, origins of Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 291
342. Tyconius, Expositio Apocalypseos, 1.2.7-1.2.8, 1.2.35, 1.13.11-1.13.14, 1.27.69-1.27.71, 1.36.2-1.36.9, 2.12.3-2.12.4, 2.19.2-2.19.3, 2.34.7-2.34.9, 2.35.6-2.35.7, 2.35.15-2.35.16, 2.43.73-2.43.74, 2.44.22-2.44.24, 2.44.32-2.44.33, 3.10.6-3.10.8, 3.59.5-3.59.7, 4.11.4-4.11.8, 4.15.22-4.15.30, 5.47.13-5.47.15  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Lynskey (2021) 291, 318, 319
343. Asterius, Pg, None  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 69
344. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, 27, 14  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Blidstein (2017) 80
345. Tertullian, De Jejunio Adversus Psychicos, 3.4, 6.5-6.6, 9.1-9.6, 17.6-17.7  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020) 102, 107, 108, 109
347. Aquinas, Thomas, Summa Theologiae, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 410
348. Epigraphy, Amph.-Orop. 3), 60.1333  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation •incubation (greek), fasting and dietary abstention •oropos amphiareion, fasting Found in books: Renberg (2017) 625
349. Epigraphy, Ig Xi,4, 1235  Tagged with subjects: •akaraka charonion and ploutonion, fasting before incubation Found in books: Renberg (2017) 296
350. Julianus Pomerius, De Vita Contemplativa Libri Tres, 2.22.1  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Cain (2016) 229
351. Isaiah The Solitary, On Guarding The Intellect, None  Tagged with subjects: •evagrius, desert father, role of vigil and fasting •fasting and eating disorders Found in books: Sorabji (2000) 365
352. Dorotheus of Gaza, Instructions, 2.28-2.29, 2.28.1-2.28.14, 2.38.1-2.38.3, 2.39.2-2.39.3, 3.42, 4.52, 4.58, 4.58.1-4.58.9, 5.65, 6.69, 6.76.3, 6.78.23-6.78.25, 7.84, 7.84.6-7.84.8, 8.94-8.95, 8.95.1-8.95.9, 9.98, 10.113, 11.119.1-11.119.5, 12.126, 12.126.4-12.126.7, 12.130-12.131, 12.130.1, 12.134.1-12.134.8, 12.135, 12.135.1-12.135.15, 12.136.1-12.136.19, 15.159, 15.159.15-15.159.16, 15.164  Tagged with subjects: •diet, fasting Found in books: Champion (2022) 57, 60, 61, 204, 205, 207, 208
353. Epigraphy, Ig Ii, 2501.4-2501.9  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Parker (2005) 347
354. Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 19.2  Tagged with subjects: •fasting Found in books: Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 69