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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



9244
Philo Of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.13


nanand, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

42 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.7, 11.19, 23.1-23.5, 23.7-23.8, 32.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 11.19. וְלִמַּדְתֶּם אֹתָם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לְדַבֵּר בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃ 23.1. לֹא־יִקַּח אִישׁ אֶת־אֵשֶׁת אָבִיו וְלֹא יְגַלֶּה כְּנַף אָבִיו׃ 23.1. כִּי־תֵצֵא מַחֲנֶה עַל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְנִשְׁמַרְתָּ מִכֹּל דָּבָר רָע׃ 23.2. לֹא־תַשִּׁיךְ לְאָחִיךָ נֶשֶׁךְ כֶּסֶף נֶשֶׁךְ אֹכֶל נֶשֶׁךְ כָּל־דָּבָר אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁךְ׃ 23.2. לֹא־יָבֹא פְצוּעַ־דַּכָּא וּכְרוּת שָׁפְכָה בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.3. לֹא־יָבֹא מַמְזֵר בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לוֹ בִּקְהַל יְהוָה׃ 23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃ 23.5. עַל־דְּבַר אֲשֶׁר לֹא־קִדְּמוּ אֶתְכֶם בַּלֶּחֶם וּבַמַּיִם בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם וַאֲשֶׁר שָׂכַר עָלֶיךָ אֶת־בִּלְעָם בֶּן־בְּעוֹר מִפְּתוֹר אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם לְקַלְלֶךָּ׃ 23.7. לֹא־תִדְרֹשׁ שְׁלֹמָם וְטֹבָתָם כָּל־יָמֶיךָ לְעוֹלָם׃ 23.8. לֹא־תְתַעֵב אֲדֹמִי כִּי אָחִיךָ הוּא לֹא־תְתַעֵב מִצְרִי כִּי־גֵר הָיִיתָ בְאַרְצוֹ׃ 32.46. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שִׂימוּ לְבַבְכֶם לְכָל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מֵעִיד בָּכֶם הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר תְּצַוֻּם אֶת־בְּנֵיכֶם לִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 11.19. And ye shall teach them your children, talking of them, when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up." 23.1. A man shall not take his father’s wife, and shall not uncover his father’s skirt." 23.2. He that is crushed or maimed in his privy parts shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.3. A bastard shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the assembly of the LORD." 23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;" 23.5. because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Balaam the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-naharaim, to curse thee." 23.7. Thou shalt not seek their peace nor their prosperity all thy days for ever." 23.8. Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a stranger in his land." 32.46. he said unto them: ‘Set your heart unto all the words wherewith I testify against you this day; that ye may charge your children therewith to observe to do all the words of this law."
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 18.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

18.19. כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצַוֶּה אֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט לְמַעַן הָבִיא יְהוָה עַל־אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלָיו׃ 18.19. For I have known him, to the end that he may command his children and his household after him, that they may keep the way of the LORD, to do righteousness and justice; to the end that the LORD may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken of him.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts."
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.2. כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃ 1.2. But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night."
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q251, 1.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 14.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14.49. and to deposit copies of them in the treasury, so that Simon and his sons might have them.
8. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 2.14-2.15 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

2.14. In the same way Judas also collected all the books that had been lost on account of the war which had come upon us, and they are in our possession.' 2.15. So if you have need of them, send people to get them for you.'
9. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 18.10-18.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

18.10. While he was still with you, he taught you the law and the prophets. 18.11. He read to you about Abel slain by Cain, and Isaac who was offered as a burnt offering, and of Joseph in prison. 18.12. He told you of the zeal of Phineas, and he taught you about Haiah, Azariah, and Mishael in the fire. 18.13. He praised Daniel in the den of the lions and blessed him. 18.14. He reminded you of the scripture of Isaiah, which says, `Even though you go through the fire, the flame shall not consume you.' 18.15. He sang to you songs of the psalmist David, who said, `Many are the afflictions of the righteous.' 18.16. He recounted to you Solomon's proverb, `There is a tree of life for those who do his will.' 18.17. He confirmed the saying of Ezekiel, `Shall these dry bones live?' 18.18. For he did not forget to teach you the song that Moses taught, which says 18.19. `I kill and I make alive: this is your life and the length of your days.'
10. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed.
11. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 40 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

12. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 69 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

69. for as the reptile with many feet and that with no feet at all, though they are exactly opposite to one another in the race of reptiles, are both pronounced unclean, so also the opinion which denies any God, and that which worships a multitude of Gods, though quite opposite in the soul, are both profane. And of proof of this is that the law banishes them both "from the sacred Assembly," forbidding the atheistical opinion, as a eunuch and mutilated person, to come into the assembly; and the polytheistic, inasmuch as it prohibits any one born of a harlot from either hearing or speaking in the assembly. For he who worships no God at all is barren, and he who worships a multitude is the son of a harlot, who is in a state of blindness as to his true father, and who on this account is figuratively spoken of as having many fathers, instead of one. XIII.
13. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 101-128, 89, 98-100 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

100. But seven alone, as I said before, neither produces nor is produced, on which account other philosophers liken this number to Victory, who had no mother, and to the virgin goddess, whom the fable asserts to have sprung from the head of Jupiter: and the Pythagoreans compare it to the Ruler of all things. For that which neither produces, nor is produced, remains immovable. For generation consists in motion, since that which is generated, cannot be so without motion, both to cause production, and to be produced. And the only thing which neither moves nor is moved, is the Elder, Ruler, and Lord of the universe, of whom the number seven may reasonably be called a likeness. And Philolaus gives his testimony to this doctrine of mine in the following Words:ù"for God," says he "is the ruler and Lord of all things, being one, eternal, lasting, immovable, himself like to himself, and different from all other beings." XXXIV.
14. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.325, 2.60-2.64, 4.192 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.325. Therefore, as it was aware that no inconsiderable number of wicked men are often mingled in these assemblies, and escape notice by reason of the crowds collected there, in order to prevent that from being the case in this instance, he previously excludes all who are unworthy from the sacred assembly, beginning in the first instance with those who are afflicted with the disease of effeminacy, men-women, who, having adulterated the coinage of nature, are willingly driven into the appearance and treatment of licentious women. He also banishes all those who have suffered any injury or mutilation in their most important members, and those who, seeking to preserve the flower of their beauty so that it may not speedily wither away, have altered the impression of their natural manly appearance into the resemblance of a woman. 2.60. Not that the law is the adviser of idleness, for it is always accustoming its followers to submit to hardships, and training them to labour, and it hates those who desire to be indolent and idle; at all events, it expressly commands us to labour diligently for six days, {9}{#ex 20:9.} but in order to give some remission from uninterrupted and incessant toil, it refreshes the body with seasons of moderate relaxation exactly measured out, so as to renew it again for fresh works. For those who take breath in this way, I am speaking not merely about private individuals but even about athletes, collect fresh strength, and with more vigorous power, without any shrinking and with great endurance, encounter everything that must be done. 2.61. And the works meant are those enjoined by precepts and doctrines in accordance with virtue. And in the day he exhorts us to apply ourselves to philosophy, improving our souls and the domit part of us, our mind. 2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy. 2.64. From which considerations it is plain that Moses does not leave those persons at any time idle who submit to be guided by his sacred admonitions; but since we are composed of both soul and body, he has allotted to the body such work as is suited to it, and to the soul also such tasks as are good for that. And he has taken care that the one shall succeed the other, so that while the body is labouring the soul may be at rest, and when the body is enjoying relaxation the soul may be labouring; and so the best lives with the contemplative and the active life, succeed to one another in regular alternations. The active life having received the number six, according to the service appointed for the body; and the contemplative life the number seven, as tending to knowledge and to the perfecting of the intellect.XVI. 4.192. and perhaps because the real genuine priest is at once also a prophet, having attained to the honour of being allowed to see the only true and living God, not more by reason of his birth than by reason of his virtue. And to a prophet there is nothing unknown, since he has within himself the sun of intelligence, and rays which are never overshadowed, in order to a most accurate comprehension of those things which are invisible to the outward senses, but intelligible to the intellect.XXXVII.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 31-37, 65, 75, 88, 30 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

30. Therefore, during six days, each of these individuals, retiring into solitude by himself, philosophises by himself in one of the places called monasteries, never going outside the threshold of the outer court, and indeed never even looking out. But on the seventh day they all come together as if to meet in a sacred assembly, and they sit down in order according to their ages with all becoming gravity, keeping their hands inside their garments, having their right hand between their chest and their dress, and the left hand down by their side, close to their flank;
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.21-2.22, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

2.21. For what man is there who does not honour that sacred seventh day, granting in consequence a relief and relaxation from labour, for himself and for all those who are near to him, and that not to free men only, but also to slaves, and even to beasts of burden; 2.22. for the holiday extends even to every description of animal, and to every beast whatever which performs service to man, like slaves obeying their natural master, and it affects even every species of plant and tree; for there is no shoot, and no branch, and no leaf even which it is allowed to cut or to pluck on that day, nor any fruit which it is lawful to gather; but everything is at liberty and in safety on that day, and enjoys, as it were, perfect freedom, no one ever touching them, in obedience to a universal proclamation. 2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
18. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.12, 11.2, 11.5 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

7.12. What then did he do on this sabbath day? he commanded all the people to assemble together in the same place, and sitting down with one another, to listen to the laws with order and reverence, in order that no one should be ignorant of anything that is contained in them;
19. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 123, 136-137, 4, 41, 45, 47-49, 51, 53, 122 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

122. And when they had spent the whole night in hymns and songs, they poured out through the gates at the earliest dawn, and hastened to the nearest point of the shore, for they had been deprived of their usual places for prayer, and standing in a clear and open space, they cried out
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156-157, 312, 155 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

155. How then did he look upon the great division of Rome which is on the other side of the river Tiber, which he was well aware was occupied and inhabited by the Jews? And they were mostly Roman citizens, having been emancipated; for, having been brought as captives into Italy, they were manumitted by those who had bought them for slaves, without ever having been compelled to alter any of their hereditary or national observances.
21. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.13-1.14 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

1.13. Again, the secretions are seven--tears, mucus from the nose, saliva, the generative fluid, the two excremental discharges, and the sweat that proceeds from every part of the body. Moreover, in diseases the seventh day is the most critical period--and in women the catamenial purifications extend to the seventh day. V. 1.14. And the power of this number has extended also to the most useful of the arts--namely, to grammar. At all events, in grammar, the most excellent of the elements, and those which have the most powers, are the seven vowels. And likewise in music, the lyre with seven strings is nearly the best of all instruments; because the euharmonic principle which is the most dignifiedof all the principles of melody, is especially perceived in connection with it. Again, it happens that the tones of the voice are seven--the acute, the grave, the contracted, the aspirate, the lene, the long and the short sound.
22. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 81-83, 85, 80 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

80. and leaving the logical part of philosophy, as in no respect necessary for the acquisition of virtue, to the word-catchers, and the natural part, as being too sublime for human nature to master, to those who love to converse about high objects (except indeed so far as such a study takes in the contemplation of the existence of God and of the creation of the universe), they devote all their attention to the moral part of philosophy, using as instructors the laws of their country which it would have been impossible for the human mind to devise without divine inspiration.
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 4.302-4.304, 14.215, 14.235, 14.260-14.261, 16.43, 16.164, 16.167-16.168, 20.115-20.116 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.302. 44. This was the form of political government which was left us by Moses. Moreover, he had already delivered laws in writing in the fortieth year [after they came out of Egypt], concerning which we will discourse in another book. But now on the following days (for he called them to assemble continually) he delivered blessings to them, and curses upon those that should not live according to the laws, but should transgress the duties that were determined for them to observe. 4.303. After this, he read to them a poetic song, which was composed in hexameter verse, and left it to them in the holy book: it contained a prediction of what was to come to pass afterward; agreeably whereto all things have happened all along, and do still happen to us; and wherein he has not at all deviated from the truth. 4.304. Accordingly, he delivered these books to the priest, with the ark; into which he also put the ten commandments, written on two tables. He delivered to them the tabernacle also, and exhorted the people, that when they had conquered the land, and were settled in it, they should not forget the injuries of the Amalekites, but make war against them, and inflict punishment upon them for what mischief they did them when they were in the wilderness; 14.215. for even Caius Caesar, our imperator and consul, in that decree wherein he forbade the Bacchanal rioters to meet in the city, did yet permit these Jews, and these only, both to bring in their contributions, and to make their common suppers. 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 16.43. nor do we conceal those injunctions of ours by which we govern our lives, they being memorials of piety, and of a friendly conversation among men. And the seventh day we set apart from labor; it is dedicated to the learning of our customs and laws, we thinking it proper to reflect on them, as well as on any [good] thing else, in order to our avoiding of sin. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans. 16.167. 4. Agrippa also did himself write after the manner following, on behalf of the Jews: “Agrippa, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Ephesians, sendeth greeting. I will that the care and custody of the sacred money that is carried to the temple at Jerusalem be left to the Jews of Asia, to do with it according to their ancient custom; 16.168. and that such as steal that sacred money of the Jews, and fly to a sanctuary, shall be taken thence and delivered to the Jews, by the same law that sacrilegious persons are taken thence. I have also written to Sylvanus the praetor, that no one compel the Jews to come before a judge on the Sabbath day.” 20.115. Now as this devastation was making, one of the soldiers seized the laws of Moses that lay in one of those villages, and brought them out before the eyes of all present, and tore them to pieces; and this was done with reproachful language, and much scurrility; 20.116. which things when the Jews heard of, they ran together, and that in great numbers, and came down to Caesarea, where Cumanus then was, and besought him that he would avenge, not themselves, but God himself, whose laws had been affronted; for that they could not bear to live any longer, if the laws of their forefathers must be affronted after this manner.
24. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.229-2.231, 2.291-2.292, 7.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.229. Upon this Cumanus sent men to go round about to the neighboring villages, and to bring their inhabitants to him bound, as laying it to their charge that they had not pursued after the thieves, and caught them. Now here it was that a certain soldier, finding the sacred book of the law, tore it to pieces, and threw it into the fire. 2.231. Accordingly, he, perceiving that the multitude would not be quiet unless they had a comfortable answer from him, gave order that the soldier should be brought, and drawn through those that required to have him punished, to execution, which being done, the Jews went their ways. 2.291. Hereupon Jucundus, the master of the horse, who was ordered to prevent the fight, came thither, and took away the earthen vessel, and endeavored to put a stop to the sedition; but when he was overcome by the violence of the people of Caesarea, the Jews caught up their books of the law, and retired to Narbata, which was a place to them belonging, distant from Caesarea sixty furlongs. 2.292. But John, and twelve of the principal men with him, went to Florus, to Sebaste, and made a lamentable complaint of their case, and besought him to help them; and with all possible decency, put him in mind of the eight talents they had given him; but he had the men seized upon and put in prison, and accused them for carrying the books of the law out of Caesarea. 7.44. for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; 7.44. So he sent out after him both horsemen and footmen, and easily overcame them, because they were unarmed men; of these many were slain in the fight, but some were taken alive, and brought to Catullus.
25. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.29, 1.209, 2.10, 2.175, 2.177 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.29. but now, as to our forefathers, that they took no less care about writing such records (for I will not say they took greater care than the others I spoke of), and that they committed that matter to their high priests and to their prophets, and that these records have been written all along down to our own times with the utmost accuracy; nay, if it be not too bold for me to say it, our history will be so written hereafter;—I shall endeavor briefly to inform you. /p 1.29. That Amenophis accordingly chose out two hundred and fifty thousand of those that were thus diseased, and cast them out of the country: that Moses and Joseph were scribes, and Joseph was a sacred scribe; that their names were Egyptian originally; that of Moses had been Tisithen, and that of Joseph, Peteseph: 1.209. “There are a people called Jews, who dwell in a city the strongest of all other cities, which the inhabitants call Jerusalem, and are accustomed to rest on every seventh day; on which times they make no use of their arms, nor meddle with husbandry, nor take care of any affairs of life, but spread out their hands in their holy places, and pray till the evening. 2.175. for he did not suffer the guilt of ignorance to go on without punishment, but demonstrated the law to be the best and the most necessary instruction of all others, permitting the people to leave off their other employments, and to assemble together for the hearing of the law, and learning it exactly, and this not once or twice, or oftener, but every week; which thing all the other legislators seem to have neglected. /p 2.177. Those also who are in the highest and principal posts of the government, confess they are not acquainted with those laws, and are obliged to take such persons for their assessors in public administrations as profess to have skill in those laws;
26. Josephus Flavius, Life, 277-282, 293, 295, 276 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

27. Mishnah, Berachot, 8.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.6. They do not bless over the candles or the spices of non-Jews; Or over the candles or the spices of the dead; Or over the candles or the spices of idolatry; And a blessing is not said over the light until they benefit from its light."
28. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. If Rosh Hodesh Adar falls on Shabbat the portion of shekalim is read [on that day]. If it falls in the middle of the week, it is read on the Shabbat before, and on the next Shabbat there is a break. On the second [of the special Shabbatot] they read “Zakhor;” On the third the portion of the red heifer; On the fourth “This month shall be for you;” On the fifth the regular order is resumed. They interrupt [the regular order] for anything: for Rosh Hodesh, for Hanukkah, for Purim, for fasts, for Ma’amadot, and for Yom HaKippurim."
29. Mishnah, Shabbat, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All sacred writings may be saved from a fire, whether we read from them or not [on Shabbat]. And even if they are written in any language, they must be stored. And why do we not read them? Because of the neglect of the study house. One may save the container of a scroll together with the scroll, and the container of tefillin together with the tefillin, even if it [also] contains money. And to where may one rescue them? Into a closed alley. Ben Batera says: even into an open one."
30. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.7-7.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.7. How were the benedictions of the high priest [performed]?The hazzan of the synagogue takes the Torah scroll and gives it to the president of the synagogue; the vice-president of the synagogue gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands, receives [the scroll] and reads [the following portions]: “After the death” (Leviticus 16:1-34), and “But on the tenth day” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he rolls the Torah (scroll), places it in his bosom and exclaims, “More than I have read before you is written here!” [The portion], “On the tenth day” (Numbers 29:7-11), which is in the book of Numbers, he reads by heart. And he blesses upon it eight benedictions: “For the Torah”, “For the Temple service”, “For thanksgiving”, “For the pardon of sin”, “For the Temple”, “For Israel”, “For the priests”, viii) and the rest of the prayer." 7.8. How was the procedure in connection with the portion read by the king?At the conclusion of the first day of the festival (Sukkot) in the eighth [year], at the end of the seventh year, they erect a wooden platform in the Temple court, and he sits upon it, as it is said, “At the end of seven years, in the set time” etc (Deuteronomy 31:10). The synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and hands it to the head of the synagogue, the head of the synagogue hands it to the deputy and he hands it to the high priest, and the high priest hands it to the king and the king stands and receives it, but reads it while sitting. King Agrippa stood and received it and read standing, and the sages praised him. When he reached, “You shall not place a foreigner over you” (ibid 17:15) his eyes ran with tears. They said to him, “Fear not, Agrippas, you are our brother, you are our brother!” [The king] reads from the beginning of “These are the words” (ibid 1:1) until the Shema ((ibid 6:4-9), and the Shema, and “It will come to pass if you hear” (ibid 11:13-21 the second part of the Shema), and “You shall surely tithe” (ibid 14:22-29), and “When you have finished tithing” (ibid 26:12-15) and the portion of the king (ibid 17:14-20) and the blessings and curses (ibid, until he finishes all the section. The blessings that the high priest recites, the king recites, except that he substitutes one for the festivals instead of one for the pardon of sin."
31. Mishnah, Yoma, 7.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.1. The high priest [then] came to read. If he wished to read in linen garments, he reads, and if not he reads in his own white cloak. The synagogue attendant would take a Torah scroll and give it to the head of the synagogue, and the head of the synagogue gives it to deputy high priest, and the deputy high priest gives it to the high priest, and the high priest stands and receives it, and reads, [section] beginning] “After the death …” (Leviticus 16:1-34) and “But on the tenth…” (Leviticus 23:26-32). Then he would roll up the Torah scroll and put it in his bosom and say, “More than what I have read out before you is written here.” And “On the tenth …” (Numbers 29:7-11) which is in the Book of Numbers he recites by heart. And he recites on it eight benedictions: “For the law”, “For the Temple service,” “For thanksgiving,” “For the forgiveness of sins” and “For the Temple” on its own, and “For Israel” on its own and “For Jerusalem” on its own, “For the priests” on their own and “For the rest of the prayer.”"
32. New Testament, 1 Timothy, 4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

4.14. Don't neglect the gift that is in you, which was given to you by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the elders.
33. New Testament, 2 Timothy, 3.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.15. From infancy, you have known the sacred writings which are able to make you wise for salvation through faith, which is in Christ Jesus.
34. New Testament, Acts, 6.6, 13.14-13.43, 14.23, 15.21, 16.1-16.3, 20.28 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.6. whom they set before the apostles. When they had prayed, they laid their hands on them. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak. 13.16. Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, "Men of Israel, and you who fear God, listen. 13.17. The God of this people Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they stayed as aliens in the land of Egypt , and with an uplifted arm, he led them out of it. 13.18. For about the time of forty years he put up with them in the wilderness. 13.19. When he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred fifty years. 13.20. After these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet. 13.21. Afterward they asked for a king, and God gave to them Saul the son of Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years. 13.22. When he had removed him, he raised up David to be their king, to whom he also testified, 'I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after my heart, who will do all my will.' 13.23. From this man's seed, God has brought salvation to Israel according to his promise 13.24. before his coming, when John had first preached the baptism of repentance to all the people of Israel. 13.25. As John was fulfilling his course, he said, 'What do you suppose that I am? I am not he. But behold, one comes after me the sandals of whose feet I am not worthy to untie.' 13.26. Brothers, children of the stock of Abraham, and those among you who fear God, the word of this salvation is sent out to you. 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.28. Though they found no cause for death, they still asked Pilate to have him killed. 13.29. When they had fulfilled all things that were written about him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a tomb. 13.30. But God raised him from the dead 13.31. and he was seen for many days by those who came up with him from Galilee to Jerusalem, who are his witnesses to the people. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 13.36. For David, after he had in his own generation served the counsel of God, fell asleep, and was laid with his fathers, and saw decay. 13.37. But he whom God raised up saw no decay. 13.38. Be it known to you therefore, brothers, that through this man is proclaimed to you remission of sins 13.39. and by him everyone who believes is justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 13.40. Beware therefore, lest that come on you which is spoken in the prophets: 13.41. 'Behold, you scoffers, and wonder, and perish; For I work a work in your days, A work which you will in no way believe, if one declares it to you.' 13.42. So when the Jews went out of the synagogue, the Gentiles begged that these words might be preached to them the next Sabbath. 13.43. Now when the synagogue broke up, many of the Jews and of the devout proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas; who, speaking to them, urged them to continue in the grace of God. 14.23. When they had appointed elders for them in every assembly, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed. 15.21. For Moses from generations of old has in every city those who preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. 16.1. He came to Derbe and Lystra: and behold, a certain disciple was there, named Timothy, the son of a Jewess who believed; but his father was a Greek. 16.2. The brothers who were at Lystra and Iconium gave a good testimony about him. 16.3. Paul wanted to have him go out with him, and he took and circumcised him because of the Jews who were in those parts; for they all knew that his father was a Greek. 20.28. Take heed, therefore, to yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the assembly of the Lord and God which he purchased with his own blood.
35. New Testament, John, 7.28, 8.20, 18.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.28. Jesus therefore cried out in the temple, teaching and saying, "You both know me, and know where I am from. I have not come of myself, but he who sent me is true, whom you don't know. 8.20. Jesus spoke these words in the treasury, as he taught in the temple. Yet no one arrested him, because his hour had not yet come. 18.20. Jesus answered him, "I spoke openly to the world. I always taught in synagogues, and in the temple, where the Jews always meet. I said nothing in secret.
36. New Testament, Luke, 2.46, 4.16-4.27, 13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.46. It happened after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written 4.18. The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord. 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing. 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son? 4.23. He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician, heal yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.' 4.24. He said, "Most assuredly I tell you, no prophet is acceptable in his hometown. 4.25. But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 4.26. Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 4.27. There were many lepers in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed, except Naaman, the Syrian. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!
37. New Testament, Mark, 6.1-6.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands?
38. New Testament, Matthew, 6.5-6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.5. When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most assuredly, I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.6. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner chamber, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. 6.7. In praying, don't use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. 6.8. Therefore don't be like them, for your Father knows what things you need, before you ask him. 6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
39. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

40. Tertullian, On The Veiling of Virgins, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Let us now see whether, as we have shown the arguments drawn from nature and the matter itself to be applicable to the virgin as well (as to other females), so likewise the precepts of ecclesiastical discipline concerning women have an eye to the virgin. It is not permitted to a woman to speak in the church; but neither (is it permitted her) to teach, nor to baptize, nor to offer, nor to claim to herself a lot in any manly function, not to say (in any) sacerdotal office. Let us inquire whether any of these be lawful to a virgin. If it is not lawful to a virgin, but she is subjected on the self-same terms (as the woman), and the necessity for humility is assigned her together with the woman, whence will this one thing be lawful to her which is not lawful to any and every female? If any is a virgin, and has proposed to sanctify her flesh, what prerogative does she (thereby) earn adverse to her own condition? Is the reason why it is granted her to dispense with the veil, that she may be notable and marked as she enters the church? That she may display the honour of sanctity in the liberty of her head? More worthy distinction could have been conferred on her by according her some prerogative of manly rank or office! I know plainly, that in a certain place a virgin of less than twenty years of age has been placed in the order of widows! Whereas if the bishop had been bound to accord her any relief, he might, of course, have done it in some other way without detriment to the respect due to discipline; that such a miracle, not to say monster, should not be pointed at in the church, a virgin-widow! the more portentous indeed, that not even as a widow did she veil her head; denying herself either way; both as virgin, in that she is counted a widow, and as widow, in that she is styled a virgin. But the authority which licenses her sitting in that seat uncovered is the same which allows her to sit there as a virgin: a seat to which (besides the sixty years not merely single-husbanded (women)- that is, married women- are at length elected, but mothers to boot, yes, and educators of children; in order, forsooth, that their experimental training in all the affections may, on the one hand, have rendered them capable of readily aiding all others with counsel and comfort, and that, on the other, they may none the less have travelled down the whole course of probation whereby a female can be tested. So true is it, that, on the ground of her position, nothing in the way of public honour is permitted to a virgin.
41. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24b. של חמשה ושל ששה ושל שמונה ושל שבעה לא יעשה אפי' של שאר מיני מתכות רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו מלכי בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראייה שפודין של ברזל היו וחיפום בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו העשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, יט) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא דמות ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם א"ר הונא בריה דרב אידי מפרקיה דאביי שמיעא לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והא תניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקודש ומלאכי השרת אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת כי תניא ההיא לעבדם,אי לעבדם אפילו שלשול קטן נמי אין ה"נ דתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בארץ לרבות הרים וגבעות ימים ונהרות אפיקים וגאיות מתחת לרבות שלשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם חותמו בולט הוה ומשום חשדא כדתניא טבעת חותמו בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמו שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא ההיא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דהוה ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי רב ושמואל ואבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו התם ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא ר"ג יחיד הוא כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה איבעית אימא דפרקים הוה,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד עבד וכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה שבאו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו שחרית במזרח 24b. a candelabrum bof five or of six or of eightlamps. bBut one may not fashiona candelabrum with bsevenlamps bevenif he constructs it bfrom other kinds of metalrather than gold, as in exigent circumstances the candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals. bRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Also, one may not fashiona candelabrum bof wood, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashionedit. When they first purified the Temple they had to prepare the candelabrum out of wood, as no other material was available. Since this candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The other Sages bsaid toRabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: bFrom thereyou seek to bring ba proof?There the branches of the candelabrum bwerecomprised of bspits [ ishippudin /i] of iron and they covered them with tin.Later, when bthey grew richerand could afford a candelabrum of higher-quality material, bthey fashioned them from silver.When bthey grew even richer, they fashioned them from gold.Still, Abaye proves from this ibaraitathat the prohibition against forming an image applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s forms were permitted.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is itreally bpermittedto form images of bthose attendantsconcerning bwhich it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat the verse: b“You shall not make with Megods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), comes to teach: bYou shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high.Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon. bAbaye said:This does not include the sun and the moon, as bthe Torah prohibited onlythe fashioning of ban image ofall bfour facesof the creatures of the Heavenly Chariot btogether(see Ezekiel, chapter 1). However, all other images, which are not the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bHowever, ifthat is bso, letthe fashioning of an image of ba human face [ ipartzuf] alone be permitted. Why,then, bis it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll faces are permittedfor ornamental purposes, bexcept for the face of a person? Rav Huna, son of Rav Idi, said: From a lecture of Abaye I heardthat there is a different reason why one may not form an image of a human face, as the verse states: b“You shall not make with Me [ iiti /i]”(Exodus 20:19). This can be read as: bYou shall not make Me [ ioti /i].Since man is created in the image of God, it is prohibited to form an image of a human being.,The Gemara asks: bAnd is it permittedto form images of bother attendants? Isn’t it taughtin another ibaraitathat the verse: b“You shall not make with Megods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), teaches that byou shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high, for example, iofanimand seraphim and the sacred iḥayyotand the ministering angels. Abaye said: The Torah prohibited onlythose battendants that arefound bin the upper Heaven,i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but not the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: bAnd is it permittedto form images of bthosebodies found bin the lower heaven? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:3). The phrase b“that is in heaven”comes bto includethe bsun,the bmoon,the bstars, andthe bconstellations.The term b“above”serves bto include the ministering angels.Apparently, it is prohibited to form an image even of the celestial bodies found in the lower Heaven. The Gemara answers: bWhen that ibaraita bis taught,it is in reference to the prohibition bagainst worshipping them.However, there is no prohibition against forming an image in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: bIfthat ibaraitais referring to bthe prohibition against worshipping them,then beven a tiny wormshould balsobe prohibited. The Gemara answers: bYes, it is indeed so, as it is taughtin the same ibaraitawith regard to the continuation of the verse, b“in the earth”comes bto include mountains and hills, seas and rivers, streams and valleys; “beneath”comes bto include a tiny worm.If so, it is indeed possible to explain that the entire ibaraitais referring to the prohibition against idol worship.,The Gemara raises yet another objection: bAnd is the mere fashioningof images of the celestial bodies bpermitted? Isn’t it taughtin another ibaraita /i: b“You shall not make with Megods of silver” (Exodus 20:19). This verse teaches that byou shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me, for examplethe bsun,the bmoon,the bstars andthe bconstellations.This is explicit proof that it is prohibited to form images of the sun and the moon; consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty with Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of bRabban Gamliel is different, as others,i.e., gentiles, bfashionedthose images bfor him,and it is prohibited only for a Jew to fashion such images; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession. The Gemara raises a difficulty: bButthere is the case of bRav Yehuda, as others fashioned for hima seal in the form of a human being, band Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda,who was his student: bSharp-witted one, blind this one’s eyes,i.e., disfigure the image, as it is prohibited even to have the image of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: bThere,in the case of Rav Yehuda, bhis was a protruding seal,i.e., the image projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it bdue tothe potential bsuspicionthat he had an object of idol worship in his hand. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to ba ring,if bits seal protrudes it is prohibited to place iton one’s finger, due to the suspicion of idol worship, bbut it is permitted to sealobjects bwith it.In this case, the act of sealing creates an image that is sunken below the surface, which is not prohibited. However, if bits seal is sunken, it is permitted to place iton one’s finger, bbut it is prohibited to sealobjects bwith it,as that creates a protruding image.,The Gemara asks: bAnd are we concerned aboutarousing bsuspicionin a case of this kind? bButwhat about that bcertain synagogue that had beendestroyed in Eretz Yisrael and its stones were brelocated andit was rebuilt so that it bsat in Neharde’a,and bthere was a statue [ iandarta /i]of the king bin it. Andnevertheless bRav and Shmuel and Shmuel’s father and Levi wouldall benter and pray there and they were not concerned aboutarousing bsuspicion.The Gemara answers: When bmanyJews are present it bis different,as a large group is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for purposes of ornamentation.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual?According to this reasoning, his images of the moon should have been prohibited, as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: bSince he is the iNasi /i,the head of the Great Sanhedrin, bmanypeople bwerealways bfound with him,and therefore there was no room for suspicion. The Gemara suggests an alternative answer: bIf you wish, saythat these images were not whole; rather, they bwereformed bfrom piecesof images that had to be put together. Only complete images are prohibited.,The Gemara suggests yet another answer: bIf you wish, say:Rabban Gamliel bdidthis bto teach himself,which is not prohibited, as bit is written: “You shall not learn to doafter the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9), which indicates: bHowever, you may learn to understand and to teach.In other words, it is permitted to do certain things for the sake of Torah study which would otherwise be prohibited., strongMISHNA: /strong There was ban incidentin bwhich twowitnesses bcameto testify about the new moon, band they said: We sawthe waning moon bin the morning in the east, /b
42. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 310

310. After the books had been read, the priests and the elders of the translators and the Jewish community and the leaders of the people stood up and said, that since so excellent and sacred and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was and no


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acanthus leaves Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
acmonia, julia severa inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
acts, synagogues, synagogues, asia minor Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
acts, synagogues, synagogues, sermons Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 630
aelia capitolina Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
agatharchides, jerusalem temple practice Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
alexandria Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 90, 91; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260
alexandrian jewry Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
am haaretz Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
antioch-of-pisidia, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
apocrypha Sigal, The Halakhah of Jesus of Nazareth According to the Gospel of Matthew (2007) 146
arana, arona, bet arona, aron Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
archisynagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
archon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
aristobulus Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 268
art, pagan Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
augustus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260
bahr g.j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
baumstark a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 196
benedictions and graces Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 187
bet am Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
bipartite (jewish) bible Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 244, 245
büchler a. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
caesarea maritima Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 277
chaeremon the stoic, on the egyptian priests Taylor and Hay, Philo of Alexandria: On the Contemplative Life: Introduction, Translation and Commentary (2020) 209
chora Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
churches, byzantine period Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
city-gate, forerunner of synagogue, functions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
congregational participation Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 196
donor, donation, individuals Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
egypt, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
egypt, sojourn in Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
egypt Brooten, Women Leaders in the Ancient Synagogue (1982) 90
elders, dura europos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
elders, early torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 156
elders and synagogue, and amidah, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 156
eschatology Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
essenes Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 277, 278
exegesis, in alexandria Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
exercises, student Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 213
finch r.g. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
goulder m. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
heinemann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179, 188
hellenism Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275
iconography of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 275, 277, 278
indigenous culture, resistance Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 213
instruction, school, education Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 156
instrumenta (holy objects) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
jeremias j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
jesus of nazareth Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
josephus Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275, 277, 278
judaizers Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
leadership, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 156
leadership, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137, 156
lords prayer Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179
luke, archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
manetho Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
mann j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
marcus agrippa Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
marriage, allegorical interpretation of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
marriage, types of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
midrash, and synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
mnaseas of patara Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
moses, origin of torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
naveh (hauran), arona Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
naveh (hauran), priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
nehardea Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
newman j. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
nicolaus of damascus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
pagan, pagans, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
passivity, of reason Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
perrot c. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 188
pharaoh, as body-loving Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
pharisees, proto-pharisees Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 174
pharisees Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
philo, intellectual and spiritual development of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
philo, of alexandria Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 277, 278
philo Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
philo of alexandria Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 244, 245
pilgrims, pilgrimage, jerusalem Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
prayer, diaspora synagogue/proseuche pre- Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 630
prayer, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 137, 156
prayer, language Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
prayer, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 137, 156
prayer, qumran Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
prayer, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
prayers Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 275, 278
preacher, preaching Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
priest, priests, donors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, dura europos Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, first-century c.e. Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, instruction Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89, 137, 156
priest, priests, qumran Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priest, priests, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
priests, and their influence Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 277, 278
prophets, as category of books Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 213
prophets, at city-gate Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
proseuche (prayer house), diaspora, egypt Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
purpose-built communal structures Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 275, 277, 278
qumran, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
qumran library Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 277
r. dosa b. hyrcanus Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
r. ishmael b. elazar Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
reading of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 277
reason, as female Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
reason, as passive Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
reputation Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
rome, therapeutae Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
rome Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
rosh knesset, as archisynagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
rosh knesset, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
sabbath, qumran (essenes) Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
sabbath, worship Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
sabbath Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
sabbath observance Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275, 277, 278
sanctity, synagogue/proseuche Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 630
sardis synagogue, priest Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
schools Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
specialists in physical philosophy Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
stobi synagogue, inscription Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
stobi synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
study, communal Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
sukenik e.l. Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 187
sunday, christian Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 196
susanna, feminist concerns in story of Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 143
susiya synagogue, priests Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
synagogues Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179; Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 260, 275, 277, 278
temple of Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 275
the body, love of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
theodotos inscription, leadership Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 137
theodotus inscription Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 277
therapeutae, sermon Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 89
therapeutae, study Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 156
therapeutae Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
tiberias Scales, Galilean Spaces of Identity: Judaism and Spatiality in Hasmonean and Herodian Galilee (2024) 278
tripartite (jewish) bible' Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (2004) 245
virtue, as active Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
virtue, maleness of Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
virtue, purification and Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
women, capacity for virtue Ashbrook Harvey et al., A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer (2015) 143
women, pauls missionary activity Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
women, synagogue attendance Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
word, ministry of Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 187, 188, 196
worship, daily and weekly Beckwith, Calendar, Chronology and Worship: Studies in Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity (2005) 179, 187, 188, 196
zion, mt. Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 28
νοῦς Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
φιλοσώματος Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
φυσικός Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239
ἀρετή Birnbaum and Dillon, Philo of Alexandria: On the Life of Abraham: Introduction, Translation, and Commentary (2020) 239