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Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4

nanThe following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

40 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 28, 32, 27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 31.16-31.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

31.16. וְשָׁמְרוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַשַּׁבָּת לְדֹרֹתָם בְּרִית עוֹלָם׃ 31.17. בֵּינִי וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹת הִוא לְעֹלָם כִּי־שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת־הָאָרֶץ וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי שָׁבַת וַיִּנָּפַשׁ׃ 31.16. Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covet." 31.17. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day He ceased from work and rested.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 26.31 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.31. וְנָתַתִּי אֶת־עָרֵיכֶם חָרְבָּה וַהֲשִׁמּוֹתִי אֶת־מִקְדְּשֵׁיכֶם וְלֹא אָרִיחַ בְּרֵיחַ נִיחֹחֲכֶם׃ 26.31. And I will make your cities a waste, and will bring your sanctuaries unto desolation, and I will not smell the savour of your sweet odours."
4. Hebrew Bible, Micah, 5.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. וְהָיָה שְׁאֵרִית יַעֲקֹב בְּקֶרֶב עַמִּים רַבִּים כְּטַל מֵאֵת יְהוָה כִּרְבִיבִים עֲלֵי־עֵשֶׂב אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְקַוֶּה לְאִישׁ וְלֹא יְיַחֵל לִבְנֵי אָדָם׃ 5.6. And the remt of Jacob shall be in the midst of many peoples, As dew from the LORD, as showers upon the grass, That are not looked for from man, Nor awaited at the hands of the sons of men."
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 29 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 92.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

92.1. כִּי הִנֵּה אֹיְבֶיךָ יְהוָה כִּי־הִנֵּה אֹיְבֶיךָ יֹאבֵדוּ יִתְפָּרְדוּ כָּל־פֹּעֲלֵי אָוֶן׃ 92.1. מִזְמוֹר שִׁיר לְיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת׃ 92.1. A Psalm, a Song. For the sabbath day."
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 58.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

58.13. אִם־תָּשִׁיב מִשַּׁבָּת רַגְלֶךָ עֲשׂוֹת חֲפָצֶיךָ בְּיוֹם קָדְשִׁי וְקָרָאתָ לַשַּׁבָּת עֹנֶג לִקְדוֹשׁ יְהוָה מְכֻבָּד וְכִבַּדְתּוֹ מֵעֲשׂוֹת דְּרָכֶיךָ מִמְּצוֹא חֶפְצְךָ וְדַבֵּר דָּבָר׃ 58.13. If thou turn away thy foot because of the sabbath, From pursuing thy business on My holy day; And call the sabbath a delight, And the holy of the LORD honourable; And shalt honour it, not doing thy wonted ways, Nor pursuing thy business, nor speaking thereof;"
8. Hebrew Bible, Lamentations, 3.56 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

3.56. קוֹלִי שָׁמָעְתָּ אַל־תַּעְלֵם אָזְנְךָ לְרַוְחָתִי לְשַׁוְעָתִי׃ 3.56. Thou heardest my voice; hide not Thine ear at my sighing, at my cry."
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 5.12 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.12. וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְשֹׁרֲרִים לְכֻלָּם לְאָסָף לְהֵימָן לִידֻתוּן וְלִבְנֵיהֶם וְלַאֲחֵיהֶם מְלֻבָּשִׁים בּוּץ בִּמְצִלְתַּיִם וּבִנְבָלִים וְכִנֹּרוֹת עֹמְדִים מִזְרָח לַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְעִמָּהֶם כֹּהֲנִים לְמֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים מחצררים [מַחְצְרִים] בַּחֲצֹצְרוֹת׃ 5.12. also the Levites who were the singers, all of them, even Asaph, Heman, Jeduthun, and their sons and their brethren, arrayed in fine linen, with cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them a hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets—"
10. Anon., 1 Enoch, 38.2, 39.4-39.5, 45.3, 102.4 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

38.2. And when the Righteous One shall appear before the eyes of the righteous, Whose elect works hang upon the Lord of Spirits, And light shall appear to the righteous and the elect who dwell on the earth,Where then will be the dwelling of the sinners,And where the resting-place of those who have denied the Lord of Spirits It had been good for them if they had not been born. 39.4. And there I saw another vision, the dwelling-places of the holy, And the resting-places of the righteous. 39.5. Here mine eyes saw their dwellings with His righteous angels, And their resting-places with the holy.And they petitioned and interceded and prayed for the children of men, And righteousness flowed before them as water,And mercy like dew upon the earth: Thus it is amongst them for ever and ever. 45.3. On that day Mine Elect One shall sit on the throne of glory And shall try their works, And their places of rest shall be innumerable.And their souls shall grow strong within them when they see Mine Elect Ones, And those who have called upon My glorious name: 102.4. Fear ye not, ye souls of the righteous, And be hopeful ye that have died in righteousness.
11. Anon., Testament of Isaac, 2.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

12. Anon., Testament of Levi, 18.9 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.9. And in his priesthood the Gentiles shall be multiplied in knowledge upon the earth, And enlightened through the grace of the Lord: In his priesthood shall sin come to an end, And the lawless shall cease to do evil. [And the just shall rest in him.]
13. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 50 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

14. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 3.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

3.1. But the souls of the righteous are in the hand of God,and no torment will ever touch them.
15. Anon., 2 Baruch, 73.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

16. Clement of Rome, 2 Clement, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.5. καὶ γινώσκετε, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι ἡ ἐπιδημία ἡ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ τούτῳ τῆς σαρκὸς ταύτης μικρά ἐστιν καὶ ὀλιγοχρόνιος, ἡ δὲ ἐπαγγελία τοῦ Χριστοῦ μεγάλη καὶ θαυμαστή ἐστιν, καὶ ἀνάπαυσις τῆς μελλούσης βασιλείας καὶ ζωῆς αἰωνίου.
17. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.297, 14.65 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.297. 1. When Eliashib the high priest was dead, his son Judas succeeded in the high priesthood; and when he was dead, his son John took that dignity; on whose account it was also that Bagoses, the general of another Artaxerxes’s army, polluted the temple, and imposed tributes on the Jews, that out of the public stock, before they offered the daily sacrifices, they should pay for every lamb fifty shekels. 14.65. And any one may hence learn how very great piety we exercise towards God, and the observance of his laws, since the priests were not at all hindered from their sacred ministrations by their fear during this siege, but did still twice a day, in the morning and about the ninth hour, offer their sacrifices on the altar; nor did they omit those sacrifices, if any melancholy accident happened by the stones that were thrown among them;
18. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.32, 2.197 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.32. 7. Hereupon Herod was very angry at him, and was going to fight against Macheras as his enemy; but he restrained his indignation, and marched to Antony to accuse Macheras of mal-administration. But Macheras was made sensible of his offenses, and followed after the king immediately, and earnestly begged and obtained that he would be reconciled to him. 1.32. who fled to Antiochus, and besought him to make use of them for his leaders, and to make an expedition into Judea. The king being thereto disposed beforehand, complied with them, and came upon the Jews with a great army, and took their city by force, and slew a great multitude of those that favored Ptolemy, and sent out his soldiers to plunder them without mercy. He also spoiled the temple, and put a stop to the constant practice of offering a daily sacrifice of expiation for three years and six months. 2.197. The Jews said, “We offer sacrifices twice every day for Caesar, and for the Roman people;” but that if he would place the images among them, he must first sacrifice the whole Jewish nation; and that they were ready to expose themselves, together with their children and wives, to be slain.
19. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.77 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.77. we also offer perpetual sacrifices for them; nor do we only offer them every day at the common expenses of all the Jews, but although we offer no other such sacrifices out of our common expenses, no, not for our own children, yet do we this as a peculiar honor to the emperors, and to them alone, while we do the same to no other person whomsoever.
20. Mishnah, Arakhin, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. There were never less than twelve levites standing on the platform and their number could be increased into infinity. No minor could enter the court of the sanctuary to take part in the service except when the Levites stood up to sing. Nor did they join in the singing with harp and lyre, but with the mouth alone, to add flavor to the music. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: they did not count in the required number, nor did they stand on the platform. Rather they would stand on the ground, so that their heads were between the feet of the levites. And they were called the youth of the Levites."
21. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.5. One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”"
22. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.2, 5.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. [The produce of] a vineyard in its fourth year was brought up to Jerusalem within a distance of one day’s journey on each side. And what is the border [of a day’s journey on each side]? Eilat to the south, Akrabat on the north, Lod to the west, and the Jordan [river] to the east. When produce increased, it was decreed that it can be redeemed even if the vineyard was close to the wall. And there was a stipulation on this matter, that whenever it was so desired, the arrangement would be restored as it had been before. Rabbi Yose says: this was the stipulation after the Temple was destroyed, and the stipulation was that when the Temple should be rebuilt the arrangement would be restored as it had been before." 5.15. Yoha the high priest stopped [the recitation] of the confession of the tithes. He also abolished the “wakers” and the “strikers.” Until his days the hammer used to beat in Jerusalem. And in his days one did not have to ask about demai."
23. Mishnah, Megillah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. Rabbi Judah said further: a synagogue that has fallen into ruins, they may not eulogize in it, nor twist ropes, nor to spread nets [to trap animals], nor to lay out produce on its roof [to dry], nor to use it as a short cut, as it says, “And I will desolate your holy places” (Leviticus 26:3 their holiness remains even when they are desolate. If grass comes up in it, it should not be plucked, [in order to elicit] melancholy."
24. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.5. After the omer was offered they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce]; This was without the approval of the rabbis, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: it was with the approval of the rabbis. After the omer was offered the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: is it not so forbidden by the law of the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” Why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday? Because they know that the court would not be negligent with it."
25. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.5. The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor."
26. Mishnah, Nazir, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. If one vowed to be a nazirite and went to bring his animal [for the sacrifice] and found that it had been stolen: If he had taken the nazirite vow before his animal was stolen, he is [still] a nazirite. But if he had taken the nazirite vow after his animal was stolen, he is not a nazirite. It was this mistake that Nahum the Mede made. When nazirites arrived [in Jerusalem] from the Diaspora and found the Temple destroyed, Nahum the Mede said to them, “Had you known that the Temple would be destroyed, would you have become nazirites?” They answered, no, and Nahum the Mede released them [from their vow]. When the matter came before the sages they said to him: whoever vowed a nazirite vow before the destruction of the Temple is a nazirite, but if after the destruction of the temple, he is not a nazirite."
27. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.6, 4.1, 4.3-4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. It happened that more than forty pairs of witnesses were on their way [to Jerusalem] and Rabbi Akiva detained them in Lod. Rabban Gamaliel sent to him saying: if you prevent the multitude [from coming to provide testimony] it will turn out that you cause them to stumble in the future." 4.1. If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court." 4.3. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.4. Originally they used to accept testimony with regard to the new moon during the whole day. On one occasion the witnesses were late in arriving, and the Levites went wrong in the daily hymn. They therefore decreed that testimony should be accepted only until the afternoon [sacrifice]. If witnesses came after the afternoon sacrifice that day should be kept as holy and also the next day. After the destruction of the temple Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that testimony with regard to the new moon should be received during the whole day. Rabbi Joshua ben Korha said: this further did Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decree, that not matter where the head of the court might be, the witnesses should have to go only to the place of the assembly."
28. Mishnah, Sotah, 9.10, 9.12, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.10. Yoha the high priest brought to an end the confession made at the presentation of the tithe. He also discontinued the wakers and the knockers Up to his days the hammer used to strike in Jerusalem, And in his days there was no need to inquire about doubtfully tithed produce." 9.12. When the former prophets died, the Urim and Thummim ceased. When Temple was destroyed, the shamir and nopheth zufim ceased. And people of faith ceased, as it says, “Help, O Lord, for the faithful are no more” (Psalms 12:2). Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel in the name of Rabbi Joshua: from the day the Temple was destroyed, there is no day without a curse, the dew has not descended for a blessing, and the flavor has departed from produce. Rabbi Yose says: the fatness was also removed from produce." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
29. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.12, 5.1-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.12. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 5.1. The flute was for five or six days. This refers to the flute at the Bet Hashoevah [the place of the water-drawing] which does not override Shabbat or the festival day. They said: he who has not seen the Simchat Bet Hashoevah has never seen rejoicing in his life." 5.2. At the conclusion of the first festival day of Sukkot they descended to the Women’s Court (Ezrat Nashim) and they would make there a great enactment. And golden candlesticks were there, and four golden bowls on the top of each of them and four ladders to each, and four youths drawn from the young priests, and in their hands there were jars of oil containing one hundred and twenty logs which they poured into the bowls." 5.3. From the worn-out pants and belts of the priests they made wicks and with them they kindled the lamps. And there was not a courtyard in Jerusalem that was not illuminated by the light of the Bet Hashoevah." 5.4. Men of piety and good deeds used to dance before them with lighted torches in their hands, and they would sing songs and praises. And Levites with innumerable harps, lyres, cymbals and trumpets and other musical instruments stood upon the fifteen steps leading down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, corresponding to the fifteen songs of ascents in the Psalms, and it was on these [steps] that the Levites stood with their musical instruments and sang their songs. Two priests stood by the upper gate which leads down from the Court of the Israelites to the Court of the Women, with two trumpets in their hands. When the cock crowed they sounded a teki'ah [drawn-out blast], a teru'ah [staccato note] and again a teki'ah. When they reached the tenth step they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. When they reached the Court [of the Women] they sounded a teki'ah, a teru'ah and again a teki'ah. They would sound their trumpets and proceed until they reached the gate which leads out to the east. When they reached the gate which leads out to the east, they turned their faces from east to west and said, “Our fathers who were in this place ‘their backs were toward the Temple of the Lord, and their faces toward the east, and they worshipped the sun toward the east’, but as for us, our eyes are turned to the Lord.” Rabbi Judah said: they used to repeat [the last words] and say “We are the Lord’s and our eyes are turned to the Lord.”"
30. Mishnah, Tamid, 3.8, 5.1-5.2, 7.2-7.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 5.2. He said to them: those who are new to the incense come and draw lots, and who ever won, won. He then said: new and old, come and draw lots to see who shall take up the limbs from the ascent to the altar. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: the one who brought the limbs on to the ascent also takes them up to the altar." 7.2. They went and stood on the steps of the Sanctuary. The first ones stood at the south side of their fellow priests with five vessels in their hands: one held the teni, the second the kuz, the third the firepan, the fourth the dish, and the fifth the spoon and its covering. They blessed the people with a single blessing, except in the country they recited it as three blessings, in the Temple as one. In the Temple they pronounced the divine name as it is written, but in the country by its substitute. In the country the priests raised their hands as high as their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest, who did not raise his hands above the diadem. Rabbi Judah says: the high priest also raised his hands above the diadem, since it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 7.3. If the high priest wished to burn the offerings [himself], he would go up the ascent with the deputy high priest at his right. When he reached the middle of the ascent the deputy took hold of his right hand and helped him up. The first [of the other priests] then handed to him the head and the foot and he laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then handed to the first the two fore legs. And he handed them to the high priest who laid his hands on them and threw them [onto the altar]. The second then went away. In the same way all the other limbs were handed to him and he laid his hands on them and threw them [on to the altar fire]. If he wanted, he could lay his hands and let others throw [them] on the fire. He then went around the altar. From where did he begin? From the southeastern corner; from there he went to the northeastern, then to the northwestern and then to the southwestern. They there handed him the wine for libation. The deputy high priest stood on the corner/horn of the altar with the flags in his hand, and two priests on the table of the fats with two trumpets in their hands. They blew a teki’ah, a teru’ah and a teki’ah. They then went and stood by Ben Arza, one on his right hand and one on his left. When he bent down to make the libation the deputy high priest waved the flags and Ben Arza struck the cymbals and the Levites sang the psalm. When they came to a pause they blew a teki’ah, and the public bowed down. At every pause there was a teki’ah and at every teki’ah a bowing down. This was the order of the regular daily sacrifice for the service of our Lord. May it be His will that it be rebuilt speedily in our days, Amen."
31. Mishnah, Shekalim, 5.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.1. These were the officers in the Temple:Yoha the son of Pinchas was over the seals. Ahiyah over the libations. Mattityah the son of Shmuel over the lots. Petahiah over the bird-offering. (Petahiah was Mordecai. Why was his name called Petahiah? Because he ‘opened’ matters and expounded them, and he understood the seventy tongues). The son of Ahijah over the sickness of the bowels. Nehuniah, the digger of ditches. Gevini, the crier. The son of Gever over the locking of the gates. The son of Bevai over the strips [for lighting the menorah]. The son of Arza over the cymbal. Hugras the son of Levi over the song. The house of Garmu over the making of the showbread. The house of Avtinas over the preparing of the frankincense. Elazar over the curtains. And Pinchas over the priestly vestments."
32. New Testament, Matthew, 11.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.29. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am humble and lowly in heart; and you will find rest for your souls.
33. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 333, 41, 315 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

34. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 4.16.1, 5.30.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

35. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays inthe evening prayer btwo iAmidaprayers bon Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday iAmidaprayers in the evening prayer bat the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites ihavdala[ /bthe prayer of bdistinction]between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the iAmida,which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, bin the firstprayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, bbut he does not recite ihavdalain the secondprayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, bif he recited ihavdalain the secondprayer band did not recite ihavdalain the first, the second prayer fulfilled hisobligation, the bfirst one did not fulfill hisobligation.,The Gemara comments: bIs that to saythat bsince he did not recite ihavdalain the firstprayer, he is bas one who did not pray and we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite ihavdalain the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara braises a contradictionto the above conclusion from the iTosefta /i: bOne who erred and did not mention the might of the rains:He makes the wind blow and rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing on bthe revival of the dead, andone who erred and failed to recite bthe requestfor rain binthe ninth blessing of the iAmida /i, bthe blessing of the years, we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite ihavdalainthe blessing: bWho graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, bas he can recite ihavdala bover the cupof wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains bdifficult. /b,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. bIt was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; bprayers were instituted by the Patriarchs.However, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat the bprayers were instituted based on the daily offeringssacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara elaborates: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is statedwhen Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b“And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), bandfrom the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb bstandingmeans bnothing other than prayer,as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayedand the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., bIsaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ ilasuaḥ /i] in the field toward evening”(Genesis 24:63), band conversationmeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ isiḥo /i] before the Lord”(Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., bJacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ ivayifga /i] the place and he slept therefor the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word bencountermeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is statedwhen God spoke to Jeremiah: b“And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ itifga /i] Mefor I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levithat the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: bWhy didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon? Because,although the bdaily morning offeringis typically brought early in the morning, it may be bsacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says:My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursinto the day, is bbecause the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon because,according to his opinion, bthe daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b, bAnd why did they saythat bthe evening prayer is not fixed? Becausethe burning of the blimbs and fatsof the offerings that were bnot consumedby the fire on the altar buntil the evening.They remained on the altar and were boffered continuouslythroughout bthe entire night. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day? Because the additional offering is broughtthroughout bthe entire day.However, bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe additional prayermay be recited buntil the seventh hourof the day, bbecause the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b,The ibaraitacontinues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i] and lesser, later iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: bWhich is iminḥa gedola /i? From six-and-a-half hoursafter sunrise band on,which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. bWhich is iminḥa ketana /i? From nine-and-a-half hours and on,which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, ba dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda,who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does bhe say the midpoint of the first iminḥa /i, iminḥa gedola /i? bOr,does bhe say the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i? Come and hearan explicit resolution to this dilemma: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bRabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i, and that is eleven hours minus a quarterof an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this ibaraitathe ihalakhotof prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,could have bsaid to you: Actually, I will say to youthat bthe Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages basedthe times and characteristics of prayer bon the Temple offerings,even though they do not stem from the same source. bAs, if you do not say so,that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, bthen, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer?It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. bRather,even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bthe prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based themon the laws of the bofferings. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says:The morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursof the day. bA dilemma was raised beforethe yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says buntil,does he mean buntil and includingthe fourth hour, bor, perhapswhen he says b“until”he means buntil and not including,in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. bRabbi Yehuda says:The afternoon prayer may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon.Now, bgranted, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and not including, then there isa difference bbetweenthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda andthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and including,then the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda /b
36. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שאני התם דשירה דיומיה היא,תניא רבי יהודה אומר משום ר"ע בראשון מה היו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה על שם שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו,בשני מה היו אומרים (תהלים מח, ב) גדול ה' ומהולל מאד על שם שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהן,בשלישי היו אומרים (תהלים פב, א) אלהים נצב בעדת אל על שם שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו ברביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צד, א) אל נקמות ה' על שם שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן,בחמישי היו אומרים (תהלים פא, ב) הרנינו לאלהים עוזנו על שם שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי היו אומרים (תהלים צג, א) ה' מלך גאות לבש על שם שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהן בשביעי היו אומרים (תהלים צב, א) מזמור שיר ליום השבת ליום שכולו שבת,א"ר נחמיה מה ראו חכמים לחלק בין הפרקים הללו אלא בראשון שקנה והקנה ושליט בעולמו בשני שחילק מעשיו ומלך עליהם בשלישי שגילה ארץ בחכמתו והכין תבל לעדתו,ברביעי שברא חמה ולבנה ועתיד ליפרע מעובדיהן בחמישי שברא עופות ודגים לשבח לשמו בששי שגמר מלאכתו ומלך עליהם בשביעי על שם ששבת,וקמיפלגי בדרב קטינא דאמר רב קטינא שיתא אלפי שני הוה עלמא וחד חרוב שנאמר (ישעיהו ב, יא) ונשגב יי' לבדו ביום ההוא (אמר אביי) תרי חרוב שנאמ' (הושע ו, ב) יחיינו מיומים,במוספי דשבתא מה היו אומרים אמר רב ענן בר רבא אמר רב הזי"ו ל"ך,ואמר רב חנן בר רבא אמר רב כדרך שחלוקים כאן כך חלוקין בבית הכנסת,במנחת' דשבתא מה היו אומרי' אמר רבי יוחנן אז ישיר ומי כמוך ואז ישיר,איבעי' להו הני כולהו בחד שבתא אמרי להו או דלמא כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד תא שמע דתניא א"ר יוסי עד שהראשונה אומרת אחת שניה חוזרת שתים שמע מינה כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד שמע מינה,אמר רב יהודה בר אידי א"ר יוחנן עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא,עשר מסעות נסעה שכינה מקראי מכפרת לכרוב ומכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן וממפתן לחצר ומחצר למזבח וממזבח לגג ומגג לחומה ומחומה לעיר ומעיר להר ומהר למדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה שנאמר (הושע ה, טו) אלך אשובה אל מקומי,מכפורת לכרוב מכרוב לכרוב ומכרוב למפתן דכתיב (שמות כה, כב) ונועדתי [לך שם ודברתי] אתך מעל הכפורת וכתיב וירכב על כרוב ויעף וכתיב (יחזקאל ט, ג) וכבוד אלהי ישראל נעלה מעל הכרוב אשר היה עליו אל מפתן הבית,וממפתן לחצר דכתיב (יחזקאל י, ד) וימלא הבית את הענן והחצר מלאה את נגה כבוד ה' מחצר למזבח דכתיב ראיתי את ה' נצב על המזבח וממזבח לגג דכתיב (משלי כא, ט) טוב לשבת על פנת גג מגג לחומה דכתיב והנה ה' נצב על חומת אנך מחומה לעיר דכתיב (מיכה ו, ט) קול ה' לעיר יקרא,ומעיר להר דכתיב ויעל כבוד ה' מעל תוך העיר ויעמד על ההר אשר מקדם לעיר ומהר למדבר דכתיב (משלי כא, יט) טוב שבת בארץ מדבר וממדבר עלתה וישבה במקומה דכתיב אלך אשובה אל מקומי וגו',א"ר יוחנן ששה חדשים נתעכבה שכינה לישראל במדבר שמא יחזרו בתשובה כיון שלא חזרו אמר תיפח עצמן שנאמר (איוב יא, כ) ועיני רשעים תכלינה ומנוס אבד מנהם ותקותם מפח נפש,וכנגדן גלתה סנהדרין מגמרא מלשכת הגזית לחנות ומחנות לירושלים ומירושלים ליבנה 31a. The Gemara rejects this argument. bIt is different there, asin any case “Sing aloud” bis the psalm of the day,either because it was an ordinary Thursday or because it was Rosh HaShana. However, there is no proof from here that in all uncertain cases they would recite the psalm for an ordinary weekday, as it is possible that they did not recite any psalm at all.,§ The Gemara expands on the topic of the daily psalms recited by the Levites. bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yehuda said in the name of Rabbi Akiva: On the firstday of the week, Sunday, bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm beginning with the phrase: b“The earth is the Lord’s, and its fullness”(Psalms 24:1), in commemoration of the first day of Creation, bbecauseon that day bHe acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world,as the angels were not created until the second day., bOn the secondday of the week bwhatpsalm bwouldthe Levites brecite?The psalm that begins: b“Great is the Lord, and highly to be praisedin the city of our God, His sacred mountain” (Psalms 48:2). This is bbecauseon the second day of Creation bHe separated His works,dividing between the upper waters and the lower waters, band ruled over themas King; and this psalm speaks of Jerusalem as “The city of a great King” (Psalms 48:3)., bOn the thirdday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“God stands in the congregation of God”(Psalms 82:1), bbecauseon the third day of Creation bHe revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assemblythat could now live on the dry land. bOn the fourthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“O Lord God, to Whom vengeance belongs”(Psalms 94:1), bbecauseon the fourth day of Creation bHe created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punishand take vengeance upon bthose who worship them. /b, bOn the fifthday of the week the Levites bwould recitethe psalm beginning: b“Sing aloud to God our strength”(Psalms 81:2), bbecauseon the fifth day of Creation bHe created birds and fish to praise His name. On the sixthday of the week bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“The Lord reigns, He is clothed with majesty”(Psalms 93:1), bbecauseon that day bHe completed His labor and ruled overall of creation in full glory. bOn the seventhday of the week, Shabbat, bthey would recitethe psalm beginning: b“A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat”(Psalms 92:1), basthe future world will be ba day that is all Shabbat. /b, bRabbi Neḥemya said: What did the Sages seethat led them bto distinguish between these chapters,as they interpret the psalms recited on the six weekdays as referring to the past, whereas the psalm recited on Shabbat is referring to the future. bRather,all of the psalms refer to the past. The first six are as explained above: bOn the firstday, the reason is bthat He acquiredthe world band transferredit to man, bandHe bwasthe only bruler in His world; on the secondday, the reason is bthat He separated His works and ruled over themas King; bon the thirdday, the reason is bthat He revealed the land in His wisdom andthereby bprepared the world for His assembly. /b, bOn the fourthday, the reason is bthat He created the sun and the moon, and in the future He will punish those who worship them; on the fifthday, the reason is bthat He created birds and fish to praise His name; on the sixthday, the reason is bthat He completed His labor and ruled overall of creation. However, bon the seventhday, the reason is bthat He restedfrom His work, as the phrase “A psalm, a song for the day of Shabbat” is referring to the first Shabbat of Creation.,The Gemara comments: bAndthese itanna’im bdisagree withregard to a statement bof Rav Ketina, as Rav Ketina said: The world will exist for six thousand years, andfor bonethousand years it will be bdestroyed, as it is stated: “And the Lord alone shall be exalted on that day”(Isaiah 2:11), and one day for God is a thousand years, as indicated in the verse: “For a thousand years in Your sight are but as yesterday when it is past” (Psalms 90:4). Rav Ketina’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva. Conversely, bAbaye said:The world will be bdestroyedfor btwothousand years, bas it is stated: “After two days He will revive us”(Hosea 6:2). According to the opinion of Abaye that the destruction will be for two days, there is no connection between the future world and the day of Shabbat, which is only one day.,§ The Gemara further asks: When it came bto the additional offerings of Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rav A bar Rava saidthat bRav said:They would recite in accordance with the mnemonic ihei /i, izayin /i, iyod /i, ivav /i, ilamed /i, ikaf /i.They would divide the song of iHa’azinuinto six sections, each of which began with a letter of the mnemonic: “Give ear [ iha’azinu /i], you heavens” (Deuteronomy 32:1); “Remember [ izekhor /i] the days of old” (Deuteronomy 32:7); “He made him ride [ iyarkivehu /i] on the high places of the earth” (Deuteronomy 32:13); “The Lord saw it [ ivayar /i] and spurned” (Deuteronomy 32:19); “Were it not [ ilulei /i] that I dread the enemy’s provocation” (Deuteronomy 32:27); “For i[ki]the Lord will judge His people” (Deuteronomy 32:36)., bAnd Rav Ḥa bar Rava saidthat bRav said: In the manner thatthe verses of the song of iHa’azinu bare divided herefor the recitation of the additional offerings of Shabbat in the Temple, bso too are they dividedwhen they are read bin the synagogueon Shabbat.,The Gemara asks another question: When it came bto thedaily bafternoon offering on Shabbat, what wouldthe Levites brecite? Rabbi Yoḥa said: “Then sangMoses” (Exodus 15:1), band: “Who is like You”(Exodus 15:11), the two halves of the Song of the Sea, band: “Then Israel sangthis song” (Numbers 21:17), the entire Song of the Well., bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: Does bone recite all thesesections of the song of iHa’azinu bon each Shabbat, or perhaps on each and every Shabbatthey would brecite onesection? The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhear, as it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yosei said: Bythe time bthatthose who recite bthe firstset, i.e., the verses for the additional offerings brought on Shabbat, breciteit bonce,those who recite bthe secondset, for the daily afternoon offering, would brepeattheir cycle btwice,as the first set was comprised of six sections, whereas the second set included only three sections. bLearn from herethat beach and every Shabbat they would reciteonly bonesection. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from herethat this is correct.,§ bRav Yehuda bar Idi saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: The Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,i.e., it left the Temple and Eretz Yisrael in ten stages at the time of the destruction of the First Temple, as derived bfrom verses. And corresponding to them the Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition. /b,The Gemara elaborates. bThe Divine Presence traveled ten journeys,as derived bfrom verses.The ten journeys are: bFrom the Ark cover to the cherub; and fromone bcherub tothe other bcherub; and fromthe second bcherub to the thresholdof the Sanctuary; band from the threshold to the courtyard; and from the courtyard to the altar; and from the altar to the roof; and from the roof to the wallof the Temple Mount; band from the wall to the city; and from the city to a mountainclose to Jerusalem; band fromthat bmountain to the wilderness; and from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, isolated from humanity, bas it is stated: “I will go and return to My place”(Hosea 5:15).,The Gemara cites the sources for each of these stages: bFrom the Ark coverthe Divine Presence traveled bto the cherub,and bfromone bcherub tothe other bcherub, and from thesecond bcherub to the threshold, as it is writtenwith regard to Moses in the Tabernacle: b“And there I will meet with you, and I will speak to you from above the Ark cover,from between the two cherubs” (Exodus 25:22). bAnd it is written: “And He rode upon a cherub, and flew”(II Samuel 22:11), which indicates that the glory of the Divine Presence can rest upon one cherub. bAnd it is written: “And the glory of the God of Israel had ascended from the cherub, on which it was, to the threshold of the House”(Ezekiel 9:3), i.e., the Divine Presence moved from the cherub to the threshold., bAnd from the thresholdof the Sanctuary the Divine Presence went bto the courtyard, as it is written: “And the House was filled with the cloud and the courtyard was full of the brightness of the Lord’s glory”(Ezekiel 10:4). bFrom the courtyard to the altar, as it is written: “I saw the Lord standing on the altar”(Amos 9:1). bAnd from the altar to the roof, as it is written: “It is better to dwell in a corner of the roofthan in a house together with a contentious woman” (Proverbs 21:9). bFrom the roof to the wall, as it is written: “And behold, the Lord stood upon a wall made by a plumb line”(Amos 7:7). bFrom the wall to the city, as it is written: “The Lord’s voice cries to the city”(Micah 6:9)., bAnd from the citythe Divine Presence arose bto the mountainnearest the Sanctuary, i.e., the Mount of Olives, bas it is written: “And the glory of the Lord went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain, which is on the east side of the city”(Ezekiel 11:23). bAnd from the mountain to the wilderness, as it is written: “It is better to live in the wildernessthan with a contentious and fretful woman” (Proverbs 21:19). bAnd from the wilderness it ascended and rested in its placein Heaven, bas it is written: “I will go and return to My placeuntil they acknowledge their guilt” (Hosea 5:15)., bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bsix months the Divine Presence lingered in the wilderness,waiting bfor the Jewish people,hoping that bperhaps they would repentand it would be able to return to its place. bWhen they did not repent,the Divine Presence bsaid: Let themdespair and bbe lost, as it is stated: “But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall have no way to flee, and their hope shall be the drooping of the soul”(Job 11:20). This concludes the discussion of the ten stages of the exile of the Divine Presence from the Holy of Holies., bAnd corresponding tothese ten stages, bthe Sanhedrin was exiledin ten stages at the end of the Second Temple period and after the destruction of the Temple, and this is known bfrom tradition: From the Chamber of Hewn Stone,its fixed seat in the Temple, bto iḤanut /i,literally, shop, a designated spot on the Temple Mount outside the Temple proper; band from iḤanutto Jerusalem; and from Jerusalem to Yavne; /b
37. Anon., 4 Ezra, 4.35, 7.36, 7.38, 7.85, 7.91, 7.95, 7.99, 8.52

4.35. Did not the souls of the righteous in their chambers ask about these matters, saying, `How long are we to remain here? And when will come the harvest of our reward? 7.36. Then the pit of torment shall appear, and opposite it shall be the place of rest; and the furnace of hell shall be disclosed, and opposite it the paradise of delight. 7.38. Look on this side and on that; here are delight and rest, and there are fire and torments!' Thus he will speak to them on the day of judgment -- 7.85. The fifth way, they shall see how the habitations of the others are guarded by angels in profound quiet. 7.91. First of all, they shall see with great joy the glory of him who receives them, for they shall have rest in seven orders. 7.95. The fourth order, they understand the rest which they now enjoy, being gathered into their chambers and guarded by angels in profound quiet, and the glory which awaits them in the last days. 7.99. This is the order of the souls of the righteous, as henceforth is announced; and the aforesaid are the ways of torment which those who would not give heed shall suffer hereafter. 8.52. because it is for you that paradise is opened, the tree of life is planted, the age to come is prepared, plenty is provided, a city is built, rest is appointed, goodness is established and wisdom perfected beforehand.
38. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 24.19

39. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 8.9, 15.7

40. Anon., Soferim, 18.1

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abimelech/ebed-melech,sleep of Allison (2018) 253
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison (2018) 253
albeck,h. Rubenstein(1995) 132
atonement,corporate israel and Neusner (2001) 141
bible Reif (2006) 90
choirs,ephrems use of Lieber (2014) 63
choirs,in rabbinic period Lieber (2014) 63
choirs,refrains and Lieber (2014) 63
congregation,role of in performance of piyyutim Lieber (2014) 63
dance Rubenstein(1995) 132
exilarch,installation of Lieber (2014) 63
flute Rubenstein(1995) 132
fox,h. Rubenstein(1995) 132
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011) 251
high priest Trudinger (2004) 17
interpretation,rabbinic Brooke et al (2008) 232
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011) 251
intertexts Lieber (2014) 42
israel,atonement of Neusner (2001) 141
joy,rejoicing Rubenstein(1995) 132
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011) 251
life after death Allison (2018) 253
line (in piyyut),defined Lieber (2014) 42
liturgy,prayers at tamid Trudinger (2004) 27
lordship of yahweh Trudinger (2004) 27
menahot Neusner (2001) 141
midrash Brooke et al (2008) 232
mishnah,accuracy Trudinger (2004) 47
moses,art Brooke et al (2008) 232
musaf service Lieber (2014) 271
music and musical instruments Trudinger (2004) 27, 47, 150
mysticism and pietism Reif (2006) 90
nathan ha-kohen ha-bavli Lieber (2014) 63
new year Reif (2006) 90
patriarchs,texts Fraade (2011) 251
piyyut,piyyutim,exegetical nature of Lieber (2014) 42
piyyut,piyyutim,manuscripts of Lieber (2014) 63
piyyut,piyyutim,performative dimension of Lieber (2014) 63
piyyut,piyyutim,poetic features of Lieber (2014) 42
piyyut,piyyutim,structure of Lieber (2014) 42
piyyut,piyyutim,terminology for elements of Lieber (2014) 42
poetry,line,stich,and strophe defined Lieber (2014) 42
prayer Fraade (2011) 251
prayer for dew (tefillat tal) Lieber (2014) 271
psalms Rubenstein(1995) 132
psalter,formation Trudinger (2004) 47
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011) 251
rabbis,the Fraade (2011) 251
refrains Lieber (2014) 63
rest (eschatological) Allison (2018) 253
revelation,law Brooke et al (2008) 232
revelation Brooke et al (2008) 232
righteousness/the righteous/the just Allison (2018) 253
romanos the melodist Lieber (2014) 63
sabbath Lieber (2014) 271; Reif (2006) 90; Rubenstein(1995) 132
sacrifices,jerusalem temple Levine (2005) 200
safrai,s. Rubenstein(1995) 132
sanctity,synagogue/proseuche Levine (2005) 200
sanctity,temple Levine (2005) 200
sanctuary Levine (2005) 200
satan Reif (2006) 90
shekhina Brooke et al (2008) 232
shivata for dew (qallir),composed for a sabbath that fell on passover Lieber (2014) 271
shivata for dew (qallir) Lieber (2014) 271
simhat beit hashoeva Rubenstein(1995) 132
simon the high priest Trudinger (2004) 150
sinai Brooke et al (2008) 232
song of songs,christian reception of Lieber (2014) 42
song of songs,pre-classical hebrew poetry and Lieber (2014) 42
song of songs piyyutim,intertextuality in Lieber (2014) 42
song of songs piyyutim,refrains in Lieber (2014) 63
song of songs piyyutim,shabbat piyyutim and,contrasted Lieber (2014) 42
stich (in piyyut),defined Lieber (2014) 42
strophe (in piyyut),defined Lieber (2014) 42
superscriptions,alterations to Trudinger (2004) 47
superscriptions,in lxx Trudinger (2004) 27
superscriptions,in mt Trudinger (2004) 40
tabernacle,music in Lieber (2014) 63
tamid Neusner (2001) 141
tamid psalms,identification Trudinger (2004) 17, 40, 47
tamid service,alterations to Trudinger (2004) 47
tamid service,as ritual complex Trudinger (2004) 47
tamid service,components Trudinger (2004) 17
tamid service,description Trudinger (2004) 17
tamid service,levites,role of Trudinger (2004) 17
tamid service,name Trudinger (2004) 40
tamid service,prayers in Trudinger (2004) 27
tamid service,psalms at Trudinger (2004) 17, 27
tamid tractate,accuracy of Trudinger (2004) 27
tamid tractate,gaps in Trudinger (2004) 17
tamid tractate,in mishnah Trudinger (2004) 17
temple,recapitulates creation Neusner (2001) 141
temple Reif (2006) 90; Rubenstein(1995) 132
torah,righteousness Brooke et al (2008) 232
torah,study Brooke et al (2008) 232
torah Fraade (2011) 251
verse-by-verse exegesis,in piyyut' Lieber (2014) 42
verse by verse,in piyyutim Lieber (2014) 42
yoma Neusner (2001) 141
yose ben yose,shofar service piyyutim of Lieber (2014) 63
yose ben yose,use of refrains by Lieber (2014) 63
yose ben yose Lieber (2014) 42
zebahim Neusner (2001) 141