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Mishnah, Tamid, 2.1

nanWhen his fellow priests saw that he had descended, they came running and hastened to wash their hands and feet in the laver. They then took the shovels and the forks and went up to the top of the altar. The limbs and pieces of fat that had not been consumed since the evening they pushed to the sides of the altar. If there was not room on the sides they arranged them on the surround or on the ascent."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

12 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 27.20, 30.7-30.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.7. וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבוֹ אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה׃ 30.8. וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם׃ 27.20. And thou shalt command the children of Israel, that they bring unto thee pure olive oil beaten for the light, to cause a lamp to burn continually." 30.7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of sweet spices; every morning, when he dresseth the lamps, he shall burn it." 30.8. And when Aaron lighteth the lamps at dusk, he shall burn it, a perpetual incense before the LORD throughout your generations."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 6.2-6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.2. צַו אֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו לֵאמֹר זֹאת תּוֹרַת הָעֹלָה הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כָּל־הַלַּיְלָה עַד־הַבֹּקֶר וְאֵשׁ הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד בּוֹ׃ 6.2. כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִגַּע בִּבְשָׂרָהּ יִקְדָּשׁ וַאֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה מִדָּמָהּ עַל־הַבֶּגֶד אֲשֶׁר יִזֶּה עָלֶיהָ תְּכַבֵּס בְּמָקוֹם קָדֹשׁ׃ 6.3. וְלָבַשׁ הַכֹּהֵן מִדּוֹ בַד וּמִכְנְסֵי־בַד יִלְבַּשׁ עַל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְהֵרִים אֶת־הַדֶּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכַל הָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעֹלָה עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְשָׂמוֹ אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ׃ 6.4. וּפָשַׁט אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְלָבַשׁ בְּגָדִים אֲחֵרִים וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַדֶּשֶׁן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקוֹם טָהוֹר׃ 6.5. וְהָאֵשׁ עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ תּוּקַד־בּוֹ לֹא תִכְבֶּה וּבִעֵר עָלֶיהָ הַכֹּהֵן עֵצִים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר וְעָרַךְ עָלֶיהָ הָעֹלָה וְהִקְטִיר עָלֶיהָ חֶלְבֵי הַשְּׁלָמִים׃ 6.6. אֵשׁ תָּמִיד תּוּקַד עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא תִכְבֶה׃ 6.2. Command Aaron and his sons, saying: This is the law of the burnt-offering: it is that which goeth up on its firewood upon the altar all night unto the morning; and the fire of the altar shall be kept burning thereby." 6.3. And the priest shall put on his linen garment, and his linen breeches shall he put upon his flesh; and he shall take up the ashes whereto the fire hath consumed the burnt-offering on the altar, and he shall put them beside the altar." 6.4. And he shall put off his garments, and put on other garments, and carry forth the ashes without the camp unto a clean place." 6.5. And the fire upon the altar shall be kept burning thereby, it shall not go out; and the priest shall kindle wood on it every morning; and he shall lay the burnt-offering in order upon it, and shall make smoke thereon the fat of the peace-offerings." 6.6. Fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually; it shall not go out."
3. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders."
4. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. On three occasions during the year, on fast days, on ma’amadot, and on Yom Kippur the priests lift up their hands to bless [the people] four times during the day--at Shaharit, at Mussaf, at Minhah and at Neilah."
5. Mishnah, Tamid, 1.2-1.4, 2.2, 2.5, 3.1-3.2, 3.4, 3.7-3.8, 4.1, 5.1-5.2, 6.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.2. Anyone who desired to remove the ashes from the altar used to rise early and bathe before the superintendent came. At what time did the superintendent come? He did not always come at the same time; sometimes he came just at cock-crow, sometimes a little before or a little after. The superintendent would come and knock and they would open for him, and he would say to them, let all who have bathed come and draw lots. So they drew lots, and whoever was successful." 1.3. He took the key and opened the small door, and went from the fire chamber into the Temple courtyard, and the priests went in after him carrying two lighted torches. They divided into two groups, one of which went along the portico to the east, while the other went along it to the west. They went along inspecting until they came to the place where the griddle-cakes were made. There the two groups met and said, Is all well (shalom)? All is well (shalom)! They then appointed they that made the griddle-cakes to make griddle-cakes." 1.4. The one who had merited to clear the ashes, would get ready to clear the ashes. They said to him: “Be careful not to touch any vessel until you have washed your hands and feet from the laver. See, the fire-pan is in the corner between the ascent and the altar on the west of the ascent.” No one entered with him, nor did he carry any light. Rather, he walked by the light of the altar fire. No-one saw him or heard a sound from him until they heard the noise of the wooden wheel which Ben Katin made for hauling up the laver, when they said, “The time has come.” He washed his hands and feet from the laver, then took the silver fire-pan and went up to the top of the altar and cleared away the cinders on either side and scooped up the ashes in the centre. He then descended and when he reached the floor he turned his face to the north and went along the east side of the ascent for about ten cubits, and he then made a heap of the cinders on the pavement three handbreadths away from the ascent, in the place where they used to put the crop of the birds and the ashes from the inner altar and the ash from the menorah." 2.2. They then began to throw the ashes on to the heap (tapuah). This heap was in the middle of the altar, and sometimes there was as much as three hundred kor on it. On festivals they did not use to clear away the ash because it was reckoned an ornament to the altar. It never happened that the priest was neglectful in taking out the ashes." 2.5. They picked out from there some good fig-tree branches to make a second fire for the incense near the south-western corner some four cubits to the north of it, using as much wood as he judged sufficient to form five seahs of coals, and on the Shabbat as much as he thought would make eight seahs of coals, because from there they used to take fire for the two dishes of frankincense for the showbread. The limbs and the pieces of fat which had not been consumed over night were put back on the wood. They then kindled the two fires and descended and went to the chamber of hewn stone." 3.1. The superintendent then said to them: come and cast lots, to see who is to slaughter, and who is to sprinkle the blood, and who is to clear the ashes from the inner altar, and who is to clear the ash from the candlestick, and who is to lift the limbs on to the ascent: the head, the right leg, the two forelegs, the tailbone, the left leg, the breast and the neck and the two flanks, the entrails, the fine flour, the griddle cakes and the wine. They cast lots and whoever won, won." 3.2. He then said to them: Go out and see if it is yet time for the slaughter. If the time had come, the one who saw would say, “There are flashes.” Matya ben Samuel says: [He used to say] Has the whole of the east [of the sky] lit up. as far as Hebron? And he [the observer] would answer yes." 3.4. They went into the chamber of the vessels and they took out ninety-three vessels of silver and gold. They gave the animal for the daily sacrifice a drink from a cup of gold. Although it had been examined on the previous evening it was now examined again by torchlight." 3.7. He then came to the small opening on the north. The great gate had two small openings, one on the north and one on the south. No one ever went in by the openings on the south, about which it is stated explicitly in Ezekiel, “And the Lord said to me, ‘This gate shall be closed, it shall not be opened, and no man shall enter by it, for the Lord God of Israel has entered by it” (Ezekiel 44:2). He took the key and opened the small opening and went in to the cell and from the cell to the Sanctuary, until he reached the great gate. When he reached the great gate he drew back the bolt and the latches and opened it. The slaughterer did not slaughter till he heard the sound of the great gate being opened." 3.8. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the great gate being opened. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the magrephah. From Jericho they could hear the noise of the wooden pulley which Ben Katin made for the laver. From Jericho they could hear the voice of Gevini the herald. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the pipes. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the cymbals. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the singing [of the Levites]. From Jericho they could hear the sound of the shofar. Some say also of the high priest when he pronounced the divine name on Yom Kippur. From Jericho they could smell the odor of the compounding of incense. Rabbi Elazar ben Diglai said: my father had some goats in Har Michvar, and they would sneeze from the smell of the incense." 4.1. They would not tie up the lamb but rather they would string its legs together. Those who merited [to bring up] the limbs took hold of it. Thus it was strung up: its head was to the south while its face was turned to the west. The slaughterer stood to the east of it, facing the west. The morning tamid was killed by the north-western corner of the altar at the second ring. The evening tamid was killed by the north-eastern corner at the second ring. While one slaughtered another received the blood. He then proceeded to the north-eastern corner and cast the blood on the eastern and northern sides; he then proceeded to the southwestern corner and cast the blood on the western and southern sides. The remt of the blood he poured out at the southern base of the altar." 5.1. The superintendent said to them: Bless one blessing! And they blessed. They then read the Ten Commandments, the Shema, the “And it will be if you hearken” (the second paragraph of Shema) and Vayomer (the third paragraph of Shema), and they blessed the people with three blessings: Emet veYatziv, and Avodah, and the priestly benediction. On Shabbat they added a blessing to be said by the watch which was leaving." 5.2. He said to them: those who are new to the incense come and draw lots, and who ever won, won. He then said: new and old, come and draw lots to see who shall take up the limbs from the ascent to the altar. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: the one who brought the limbs on to the ascent also takes them up to the altar." 6.3. The one who had won the right to the incense took the dish from the middle of the spoon and gave it to his friend or his relative. If some of it spilled into the spoon, he would put it into his hands. They used to instruct him: Be careful not to begin immediately in front of you or else you may burn yourself. He then began to scatter the incense and [after finishing] went out. The one who burned the incense did not do so until the superintendent said to him: burn the incense. If it was the high priest who burned: he would say to him: Sir, high priest, burn the incense. Everyone left and he burned the incense and bowed down and went out."
6. Mishnah, Yoma, 2.1-2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. Originally anyone who wished to remove [the ashes from] the altar did so. When they were many, they would run up the ramp [of the altar] and he that came first within four cubits won the privilege. If two were even, the officer would say to them [all:] raise the finger! And how many did they put out? One or two but one does not put out a thumb in the Temple." 2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count." 2.3. The second count:who slaughters [the daily regular offering], who sprinkles [the blood], who removes the ashes from the inner altar, who removes the ashes from the candlestick, 5-10) Who takes the limbs [of the offering up to the ramp], the head and the [right] hind-leg, the two forelegs, the tail and the [left] hind-leg, the breast and the throat, the two flanks, the innards, the fine flour, the cakes and the wine. Altogether thirteen priests merited a task. Ben Azzai said before Rabbi Akiba in the name of Rabbi Joshua: [the daily offering] was offered up in the way it walks. 2.4. The third count: “New [priests] come up and submit to the count for the incense.” The fourth count: “New and old priests, who will take up the limbs from the ramp to the altar.”"
7. Tosefta, Kippurim, 1.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 39 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

9. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that bthe pit that is nearest to the irrigation channelthat supplies water to several pits or fields bis filled first on account of the ways of peace.They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., bAnimals, birds, or fishthat were caught in btrapsare not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,Similarly, ba lost itemfound by ba deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minoris not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him bis considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b,If ba poor person gleansolives bat the top of an olive treeand olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives bthat are beneath it isconsidered brobbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says:This is bfull-fledged robbery. /b, bOne does not protest against poor gentileswho come to take bgleanings, forgottensheaves, band the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ ipe’a /i],although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, bon account of the ways of peace. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: bFrom where are these mattersderived? What is the source of this ihalakhain the Torah? bRav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi”(Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi?Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? bRather,the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first ba priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is written: b“And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near”(Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather,the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that bfirst a priestreads from the Torah, band afterhim ba Levite. /b, bRav Ashi saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy”(I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat this ihalakhais derived bfrom here,as it is stated with regard to a priest: b“And you shall sanctify him”(Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity.And with regard to this verse, a Sage from bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,”giving a priest priority bfor every matter of sanctity: To openthe discussion in the study hall bfirst, to recite the blessingof Grace after Meals bfirst, and to take a fine portionat a meal bfirst,meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., bAbaye said to Rav Yosef:According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah bon account of the ways of peace,indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not bby Torah lawthat he reads first? Rav Yosef bsaid toAbaye: Indeed, it is bby Torah law, butthe reason that the priest reads first is bon account of the ways of peace. /b,Abaye objected: Aren’t the ihalakhotof bthe entire Torah alsogiven bon account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace”(Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this ihalakhais no different from the other ihalakhotin the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., bRather, Abaye said:The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace bis in accordance withwhat was said by bmy master,Rabba. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iBerakhot5:3): When btwo peopleare eating together bfrom a single dish,they must bwait for each other,but if there are bthree,each eats when he wishes and they do bnotneed to bwaitfor each other. Generally, bthe one who breaks bread extends his handto take food bfirst, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greaterthan he and allow him to take first, bhe has permissionto do so., bAnd the Master,Rabba, bsaid with regard tothis ibaraita /i: bThey taughtthis bwith regard to a meal,that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. bBut in the synagogue,one may bnotshow another honor, because the congregants are liable to bcome to quarrelabout who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., bRav Mattana said:With regard to bthismatter bthat you stated,that bin the synagoguea priest is bnotpermitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, bwe saidthis bonly concerning iShabbatotand Festivals, when many people are presentfor the services, bbut not on Mondays and Thursdays,when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so?Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? bBut didn’t Rav Huna,who was not a priest, breadthe Torah section ordinarily reserved bfor priests,even bon iShabbatotand Festivals?The Gemara answers: bRav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to hisjurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ bAbaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no priest therein the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, bthe bundle is separated,i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. bAnd Abaye saidthat bwe have a traditionthat if bthere is no Levite therein the synagogue, ba priest readsin his place.,The Gemara asks: bIs that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say:One bpriest should not read afteranother bpriest, becausepeople might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to ba flawthat was found binthe status of bthe firstone, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one bLevite should not read afteranother bLevite, becausepeople might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them.If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: bWhen we saidthat when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking bof the same priestwho had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bWhat is differentthat in the case where one bLevitereads from the Torah bafteranother bLevite,Rabbi Yoḥa says bthat there isconcern that people might mistakenly think that there is ba flaw in both of them?It must be that he is concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a Levite.If so, in the case where one bpriestreads from the Torah bafteranother bpriest,he should balsobe concerned that people might bsaythat bone of them,either the first or the second, biscertainly bnot a priest.Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case bwhere we have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a priest. /b,The Gemara asks: If so, bhere too,in the case of the Levites let us say that bwe have a presumption concerning the father of the secondone, bthat he is a Levite. Rather,the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might bsaythat perhaps the father bmarried a imamzeret /i,a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, bor a Gibeonite woman, andthereby bdisqualified his children,so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then bhere too,in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might bsaythat perhaps the priest’s father bmarried a divorced woman or a iyevamawho underwent iḥalitza[ iḥalutza /i] andthereby bdisqualified his childrenfrom the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: bUltimately, is he a Levite?If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: bAnd about whomis there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? bIfyou say that the concern is bfor those sittingin the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as bthey seethat he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. bRather,the concern is bfor those who leavebefore the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., bThe people of the Galilee senta question bto Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them,the priest and the Levite
10. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
11. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

40a. בנעילה דיומא דכיפורי מאי אמר אמר מר זוטרא ואמרי לה במתניתא (תהלים קכח, ד) הנה כי כן יברך גבר ירא ה' יברכך ה' מציון וראה בטוב ירושלים כל ימי חייך וראה בנים לבניך שלום על ישראל,היכן אומרן רב יוסף אמר בין כל ברכה וברכה ורב ששת אמר בהזכרת השם,פליגי בה רב מרי ורב זביד חד אמר פסוקא לקבל פסוקא וחד אמר אכל פסוקא אמר להו לכולהו,א"ר חייא בר אבא כל האומרן בגבולין אינו אלא טועה אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא תדע דבמקדש נמי לא מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש לך עבד שמברכין אותו ואינו מאזין,א"ר אחא בר חנינא תדע דבגבולין נמי מיבעי למימרינהו כלום יש עבד שמברכין אותו ואין מסביר פנים א"ר אבהו מריש הוה אמינא להו כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דלא אמר להו אנא נמי לא אמינא להו,ואמר רבי אבהו מריש הוה אמינא עינותנא אנא כיון דחזינא ליה לרבי אבא דמן עכו דאמר איהו חד טעמא ואמר אמוריה חד טעמא ולא קפיד אמינא לאו עינותנא אנא,ומאי עינוותנותיה דרבי אבהו דאמרה לה דביתהו דאמוריה דרבי אבהו לדביתיה דרבי אבהו הא דידן לא צריך ליה לדידך והאי דגחין וזקיף עליה יקרא בעלמא הוא דעביד ליה אזלא דביתהו ואמרה ליה לרבי אבהו אמר לה ומאי נפקא ליך מינה מיני ומיניה יתקלס עילאה,ותו רבי אבהו אימנו רבנן עליה לממנייה ברישא כיון דחזיה לר' אבא דמן עכו דנפישי ליה בעלי חובות אמר להו איכא רבה,ר' אבהו ור' חייא בר אבא איקלעו לההוא אתרא רבי אבהו דרש באגדתא רבי חייא בר אבא דרש בשמעתא שבקוה כולי עלמא לרבי חייא בר אבא ואזול לגביה דר' אבהו חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אמשל לך משל למה הדבר דומה לשני בני אדם אחד מוכר אבנים טובות ואחד מוכר מיני סידקית על מי קופצין לא על זה שמוכר מיני סידקית,כל יומא הוה מלוה רבי חייא בר אבא לרבי אבהו עד אושפיזיה משום יקרא דבי קיסר ההוא יומא אלויה רבי אבהו לרבי חייא בר אבא עד אושפיזיה ואפילו הכי לא איתותב דעתיה מיניה,בזמן ששליח צבור אומר מודים העם מה הם אומרים אמר רב מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו על שאנו מודים לך ושמואל אמר אלהי כל בשר על שאנו מודים לך רבי סימאי אומר יוצרנו יוצר בראשית על שאנו מודים לך נהרדעי אמרי משמיה דרבי סימאי ברכות והודאות לשמך הגדול על שהחייתנו וקיימתנו על שאנו מודים לך רב אחא בר יעקב מסיים בה הכי כן תחיינו ותחננו ותקבצנו ותאסוף גליותינו לחצרות קדשך לשמור חוקיך ולעשות רצונך בלבב שלם על שאנו מודים לך,אמר רב פפא הילכך נימרינהו לכולהו,אמר ר' יצחק לעולם תהא אימת צבור עליך שהרי כהנים פניהם כלפי העם ואחוריהם כלפי שכינה,רב נחמן אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כח, ב) ויקם המלך דוד על רגליו ויאמר שמעוני אחי ועמי אם אחי למה עמי ואם עמי למה אחי אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם דוד לישראל אם אתם שומעין לי אחי אתם ואם לאו עמי אתם ואני רודה אתכם במקל,רבנן אמרי מהכא דאין הכהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזהו אחת מתשע תקנות שהתקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאי טעמא לאו משום כבוד צבור אמר רב אשי לא התם שמא נפסקה לו רצועה בסנדלו והדר אזיל למיקטריה ואמרי בן גרושה או בן חלוצה הוא,ובמקדש ברכה אחת כו' 40a. bDuring the closing prayer [ ine’ila /i] of Yom Kippur,which also includes the Priestly Benediction, bwhat dothe people bsay? Mar Zutra says, and some saythat this was taught bin a ibaraita /i: “Behold, surely thus shall the man who fears the Lord be blessed”(Psalms 128:4), b“The Lord shall bless you out of Zion, and you shall see the good of Jerusalem all the days of your life”(Psalms 128:5), and b“And see your children’s children. Peace be upon Israel”(Psalms 128:6).,The Gemara asks: bWhere doesthe congregation bsaythese verses during the Priestly Benediction? bRav Yosef says:They are said bbetween each and every blessing. And Rav Sheshet says:They are said bduring the mention of the nameof God in each of the three blessings., bRav Mari and Rav Zevid disagree aboutthis matter. bOne says:The congregation recites one bverseat a time, bcorresponding tothe bversethat the priests recite. bAnd one says: For everysingle bversethat the priests recite, the congregation bsays allthree verses., bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says: Anyone who recitesthese verses bin the outlying areas,i.e., outside the Temple, bis nothing other than mistakenin his practice. bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:You should bknow that in the Temple alsopeople bshould not recitethese verses. bDo you have a servant who is being blessed and does not listento the blessing, but rather speaks at the same time?,Conversely, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina says:You should bknow that in the outlying areas one is also required to saythese verses. bIs there a servant who is being blessed and his face does not brighten?Therefore, one must recite these verses to give thanks for receiving the Priestly Benediction. bRabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would recitethese verses, but bsince I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko does not say them, I also do not recite themanymore., bAnd Rabbi Abbahu says: At first, I would sayto myself that bI was humble. Since I saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko himself stated one reasonfor a matter, band his interpreter stated oneother breasonof his own rather than delivering the reason that Rabbi Abba stated, bandyet Rabbi Abba bdid not mind, I sayto myself that bI am not humble. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what was the humility of Rabbi Abbahu?The Gemara relates bthat Rabbi Abbahu’s interpreter’s wife said to Rabbi Abbahu’s wife: This one of ours,i.e., my husband, bhas no need for yourhusband Rabbi Abbahu, as he could teach everything on his own. bAndthe fact bthat he bends overto listen to Rabbi Abbahu, bandthen bstands up above him,and repeats his words to the congregants bis merely to show respect for him.Rabbi Abbahu’s bwife went and toldthis bto Rabbi Abbahu. He said to her: And what difference does it make to you? Through me and through him the One above will be exalted,and it does not matter which one of us is teaching., bAnd furthermore,in another example of his humility, bthe Sages were countedand reached a decision bto appoint Rabbi Abbahu to be the headof the yeshiva. bSince he saw that Rabbi Abba of Akko had many creditorsand was impoverished, he attempted to get him out of debt. bHe said to them: There isa man who is bgreaterthan me, Rabbi Abba.,The Gemara relates another example of his humility: bRabbi Abbahu and Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba happenedto come bto a certain place. Rabbi Abbahu taughtmatters of iaggada /i,and at the same time bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba taught ihalakha /i. Everyone left Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and went to Rabbi Abbahu,and Rabbi Ḥiyya bwas offended.Rabbi Abbahu bsaid to him,to appease him: bI will tell you a parable: To what is this matter comparable?It is comparable bto two people, onewho bsells precious stones and onewho bsells small items [ isidkit /i]. Upon whom dothe customers bspring? Don’tthey spring bupon the one who sells small items?Similarly, you teach lofty and important matters that do not attract many people. Everyone comes to me because I teach minor matters.,The Gemara relates that bevery day Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba would escort Rabbi Abbahu to his lodging place [ iushpizei /i] out of respect for the house of the emperor,with which Rabbi Abbahu was associated. On bthat day, Rabbi Abbahu escorted Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba to his lodging place, and even so,Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba’s bmind was not at ease withRabbi Abbahu and he felt insulted.,§ The Gemara returns to discuss the response of the congregants to certain parts of the prayer service. bWhile the prayer leader is recitingthe blessing of: bWe give thanks, what do the people say? Rav saysthat they say: bWe give thanks to You, Lord our God, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. And Shmuel saysthat one should say: bGod of allliving bflesh, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You. Rabbi Simai saysthat one should say: bOur Creator, Who createdeverything bin the beginning, forthe merit of bgiving thanks to You.The Sages bof Neharde’a say in the name of Rabbi Simaithat one should say: We offer bblessings and praises to Your great name, for You have given us life and sustained us, for giving thanks to You. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akovwould bfinishthe blessing bas follows: So may You give us life, and show us favor, and collect us, and gather our exiles into Your sacred courtyards, in order to observe Your laws and to fulfill Your will wholeheartedly, for giving thanks to You. /b, bRav Pappa said:These Sages each added a different element to the prayer. bTherefore, we shouldcombine them together and brecite all of them. /b,§ bRabbi Yitzḥak says: The awe of the public should always be upon you,i.e., one must always treat the public courteously. bAswhen the bpriestsbless the people they bface the people and their backs are toward the Divine Presence,out of respect for the congregation., bRav Naḥman saidthat this principle is derived bfrom here: “Then King David stood up upon his feet, and said: Hear me, my brethren, and my people”(I Chronicles 28:2). Evidently, King David stood up to address the people rather than remain seated. bIfhe said b“my brethren,” whydid he say b“my people”? And ifhe said b“my people” whydid he say b“my brethren”? Rabbi Elazar says: David said to the Jewish people: If you listen to me, you are my brethren. And ifyou do bnotlisten to me willingly, byou are my peopleand I am your king, band I will rule over youby force bwith a staff.This shows that if the nation acted properly, David would relate to them respectfully., bThe Sages saythat the importance of showing respect for the congregation is derived bfrom here:The ihalakhais bthat the priests are not permitted to ascend the platformto recite the benediction bin their sandals,as is taught in a ibaraita /i. bAnd this ihalakha bis one of nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. What is the reasonfor this ordice? bIs it not out of respect for the congregation,as it would be disrespectful for the priests to display their dirty sandals in front of the congregants? bRav Ashi said: No,this is not the reason. bThere,in the ibaraita /i, the reason is a concern blest a strap of his sandal break, and hewill therefore breturnto his place bto go tie itand not ascend the platform in time for the benediction, bandpeople will bsaythat he was removed from the platform because he is disqualified from the priesthood, as he bis the son ofa priest and ba divorced woman or the son ofa priest and ba iḥalutza /i. /b,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd in the Temple,the priests recite the three verses as bone blessing. /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22a. מתני׳ big strongבראשונה /strong /big כל מי שרוצה לתרום את המזבח תורם ובזמן שהן מרובין רצין ועולין בכבש כל הקודם את חבירו בארבע אמות זכה ואם היו שניהן שוין הממונה אומר להן הצביעו,ומה הן מוציאין אחת או שתים ואין מוציאין אגודל במקדש,מעשה שהיו שניהם שוין ורצין ועולין בכבש ודחף אחד מהן את חבירו ונפל ונשברה רגלו וכיון שראו בית דין שבאין לידי סכנה התקינו שלא יהו תורמין את המזבח אלא בפייס ארבע פייסות היו שם וזה הפייס הראשון, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big והא מעיקרא מאי טעמא לא תקינו לה רבנן פייסא מעיקרא סבור כיון דעבודת לילה היא לא חשיבא להו ולא אתו כיון דחזו דקאתו ואתו לידי סכנה תקינו לה פייסא,והרי איברים ופדרים דעבודת לילה היא ותקינו לה רבנן פייסא סוף עבודה דיממא היא,האי נמי תחלת עבודה דיממא היא דאמר ר' יוחנן קידש ידיו לתרומת הדשן למחר אין צריך לקדש שכבר קידש מתחילת עבודה,אימא שכבר קידש מתחילה לעבודה,איכא דאמרי מעיקרא סבור כיון דאיכא אונס שינה לא אתו כיון דחזו דאתו וקאתו נמי לידי סכנה תקינו לה רבנן פייסא והרי איברים ופדרים דאיכא אונס שינה ותקינו לה רבנן פייסא שאני מיגנא ממיקם,ותקנתא להך גיסא הואי תקנתא להאי גיסא הואי דתניא מי שזכה בתרומת הדשן (יזכה) בסידור מערכה ובשני גזירי עצים,אמר רב אשי שתי תקנות הוו מעיקרא סבור לא אתו כיון דחזו דקאתו ואתו נמי לידי סכנה תקינו לה פייסא כיון דתקינו לה פייסא לא אתו אמרי מי יימר דמתרמי לן הדר תקינו להו מי שזכה בתרומת הדשן יזכה בסידור מערכה ובשני גזירי עצים כי היכי דניתו וניפייסו,ובזמן שהן מרובין וכו' אמר רב פפא פשיטא לי ארבע אמות דארעא לא רצין ועולין בכבש תנן קמייתא נמי לא רצין ועולין בכבש תנן והדר כל הקודם את חבירו,דביני ביני נמי לא דלא מסיימא מילתא פשיטא לי דגבי מזבח תנן,בעי רב פפא ארבע אמות שאמרו בהדיה אמה יסוד ואמה סובב 22a. strongMISHNA: /strong bInitially,the practice among the priests was that bwhoever wishes to removethe ashes from bthe altar removes them. And when there are manypriests who wish to perform that task, the privilege to do so is determined by a race: The priests brun and ascend on the rampleading to the top of the altar. bAnypriest bwho precedes anotherand reaches within bfour cubitsof the top of the altar first bis privilegedto remove the ashes. bAnd if both of them were equaland neither preceded the other, bthe appointedpriest says to all the priests: bExtendyour bfingers,and a lottery was performed, as will be explained., bAnd whatfingers bdo they extendfor the lottery? They may extend bone or twofingers, bandthe priests bdo not extend a thumb in the Temple.The reason is that the lottery was conducted by the appointee choosing a number and counting the extended fingers of the priests standing in a circle. As the count progressed, a priest could calculate and manipulate the result in his favor by surreptitiously extending his thumb and an additional finger. Since there is separation between the thumb and the forefinger it could appear as though they belonged to two different priests, skewing the results of the lottery.,Initially, that was the procedure; however, ban incidentoccurred bwhere both of them were equalas they were brunning and ascending on the ramp, and one of them shoved another and he fell and his leg was broken. And once the court saw thatpeople bwere coming topotential bdanger, they instituted thatpriests bwould removeashes from bthe altar onlyby means bof a lottery. There were four lotteries there,in the Temple, on a daily basis to determine the priests privileged to perform the various services, band this,determining which priest would remove the ashes, was bthe first lottery. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara questions the original practice of holding a race to determine which priest would remove the ashes: bAnd what is the reason that the Sages did not initially institute a lottery forthe removal of the ashes as they did for other parts of the service? The Gemara answers: bInitiallythey bthought:Since it is ba serviceperformed bat night it would not be important tothe priests, and bnotmany of them would bcometo perform it, so a lottery would be unnecessary. Then, bwhen they saw thatmany priests bdidindeed bcome andthat bthey were coming to dangerby racing up the altar’s ramp, bthey instituted a lottery. /b,The Gemara poses a question against the assertion that nighttime Temple services did not normally require a lottery: bBut there isthe burning of the blimbsof burnt-offerings band the fatsof other offerings, bwhich is a servicethat is performed at bnight, andnevertheless bthe Sages instituted a lotteryfor that from the outset. The Gemara answers: The burning of those parts is not considered a nighttime service but bthe end of a daytime service,as the main part of the sacrificial service, the slaughtering and the sprinkling of blood, took place during the day.,The Gemara asks: If so, it could be argued that bthisservice of removing the ashes is balsonot a nighttime service but bthe start of a daytime service, as Rabbi Yoḥa said:If a priest has bsanctified his handsat night by washing them bfor the removal of the ashes, the next day,i.e., after daybreak, if he remained in the confines of the Temple, bhe need not sanctifyhis hands again, bbecause he already sanctifiedthem bat the start of the service.Apparently, the removal of the ashes, though performed at night, is considered the start of the next day’s service.,The Gemara responds by emending Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bSaythe following version of the end of Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: bBecause he had already sanctifiedthem bat the outset for service.According to this formulation, Rabbi Yoḥa did not say that the removal of the ashes is considered the start of the following day’s service. Rather, he said that although the removal of the ashes is a nighttime service, since the priest sanctified his hands before performing that service, the sanctification remains in effect for the services performed after daybreak as well, since there is no interruption between the two activities., bSome saythat the original practice should be explained as follows: bInitially,the Sages bthoughtthat bsince there isa likelihood of being bovercome by sleepat that time of night, bnotmany priests bwould come. When they saw that they didindeed bcome andthat bthey were also coming to danger, the Sages instituted a lotteryfor this task. The Gemara asks: bBut there isthe burning of the blimbsof burnt-offerings band the fatsof other offerings, a service for bwhich there isthe same likelihood of being bovercome by sleep,and nevertheless bthe Sages instituted a lotteryfor that from the outset. The Gemara answers: bLying downto go to sleep late bis different from risingin the middle of the night. It is not as difficult to stay up late in order to burn limbs on the altar as it is to rise before dawn to remove the ashes from the altar.,The Gemara addresses the substance of the mishna’s claim: bBut was the ordiceto assign the removal of ashes by means of a lottery bdue to that reasoncited in the mishna, the matter of the dangerous incident? bThe ordicewas instituted bdue to this reason:There were other important tasks associated with the removal of the ashes that required a lottery in their own right, bas it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: The priest bwho was privileged toperform bthe removal of the ashes wasalso bprivileged with laying out the arrangement of woodon the altar and with placing bthe two logsthat were placed on the altar each morning. Since these were inherently important tasks, the only way to assign them was through a lottery, which would also determine who removed the ashes.,The Gemara answers: bRav Ashi said: There were twoseparate bordicesinstituted. bInitially,the Sages bthoughtthat priests bwould notcome forward to perform the task of removing the ashes. bOnce they saw thatmany priests bdid come andthat bthey were also coming to danger,the Sages binstituted a lotteryfor this task. bOnce they established a lotteryfor removing the ashes, the priests bdid not comeanymore. bThey said: Who saysthe lottery bwill fall in our favor?Therefore, they did not bother to come. bThenthe Sages binstituted forthe priests that bwhoever was privileged withperforming bthe removal of the ashes wouldalso bbe privileged with laying out the arrangement of woodon the altar and with placing the btwo logs, so thatthe importance of all these tasks combined would ensure that the priests bwould come and participate in the lottery. /b,§ It was taught in the mishna that before the lottery was instituted, bwhen there were manypriests who sought to perform the removal of the ashes, the first priest to reach within four cubits of the top of the altar was privileged with performing the removal of the ashes. bRav Pappa said:It is bobvious to methat the bfour cubitsthe mishna is referring to are not the four cubits adjacent to the ramp bon the ground,because bwe learnedin the mishna that the priests brun and ascend on the ramp,and not adjacent to the ramp. It is balso notreferring to the bfirstfour cubits from the foot of the ramp, because bwe learnedthat the priests brun and ascend on the ramp, and only afterwardit says: bAnypriest bwho precedes anotherand reaches within four cubits of the altar first, indicating that the competition begins only once they have ascended the ramp to some extent.,It is balso notreferring to four cubits somewhere in the bmiddle,between the four on the bottom and the top of the altar, because bthe matter is not definedand there is no clear indication which four cubits on the ramp are the determining cubits. In light of all this, it is bobvious to methat the four cubits bwe learnedin the mishna are referring to the four cubits bthat are adjacent to the altaritself. The priest who reaches those four cubits first is the one privileged to remove the ashes.,Rav Pappa braised a dilemmabased on the above clarification: Are the bfour cubits that they stated,which are the four cubits adjacent to the altar, calculated bincluding the cubit of the baseof the altar band the cubit ofits bledge,as the ramp continues and overlaps these two cubits at the top of the altar

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aliyah (to torah) Levine (2005) 526
altar,altar,murder at Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
altar,cleaning race Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
asham. see reparation offering ashes' Balberg (2017) 193
asham. see reparation offering ashes Balberg (2017) 192
case stories,stories,etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
competition Balberg (2017) 192
cover,robert Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
destruction,crisis narratives Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
high priest Trudinger (2004) 15
idealization,of religiosity Balberg (2017) 192
incense Balberg (2017) 192, 193
law and narrative,in conflict Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
levites,torah reading ceremony Levine (2005) 526
lottery (pais) Balberg (2017) 192
new moon witnesses,temple Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
priest,priests,synagogue ritual Levine (2005) 526
priests,alacrity of Balberg (2017) 192
priests,altar Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
prophets (books of) Levine (2005) 526
r. yohanan b. zakkai Levine (2005) 526
sacrifices,jerusalem temple Levine (2005) 526
sectarians,calendar Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
sheliah tzibbur,prayer leader Levine (2005) 526
shema,and amidah Levine (2005) 526
stages of sacrificial process Balberg (2017) 193
stories,didactic,crisis narratives Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
structure,violence narratives Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
study,communal,tamid (daily) sacrifice Levine (2005) 526
tamid service,components Trudinger (2004) 15
tamid service,description Trudinger (2004) 15
tamid service,priests,role of Trudinger (2004) 15
tamid tractate,in mishnah Trudinger (2004) 15
taqqanot,crisis narratives Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
taqqanot,law and narrative Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
taqqanot,stories,etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 205
violence,narrative Simon-Shushan (2012) 205