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Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.12

nanIn earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days."
2. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 3.38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.38. וְהַחֹנִים לִפְנֵי הַמִּשְׁכָּן קֵדְמָה לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל־מוֹעֵד מִזְרָחָה מֹשֶׁה וְאַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו שֹׁמְרִים מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּקְדָּשׁ לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃ 3.38. And those that were to pitch before the tabernacle eastward, before the tent of meeting toward the sunrising, were Moses, and Aaron and his sons, keeping the charge of the sanctuary, even the charge for the children of Israel; and the common man that drew nigh was to be put to death."
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.21. בְּרֹאשׁ הֹמִיּוֹת תִּקְרָא בְּפִתְחֵי שְׁעָרִים בָּעִיר אֲמָרֶיהָ תֹאמֵר׃ 1.21. She calleth at the head of the noisy streets, at the entrances of the gates, in the city, she uttereth her words:"
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 114-118, 113 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 10.5-10.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.' 10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.' 10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.' 10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year.
6. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.244-3.247, 13.372 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

3.244. 4. Upon the fifteenth day of the same month, when the season of the year is changing for winter, the law enjoins us to pitch tabernacles in every one of our houses, so that we preserve ourselves from the cold of that time of the year; 3.245. as also that when we should arrive at our own country, and come to that city which we should have then for our metropolis, because of the temple therein to be built, and keep a festival for eight days, and offer burnt-offerings, and sacrifice thank-offerings, that we should then carry in our hands a branch of myrtle, and willow, and a bough of the palm-tree, with the addition of the pome citron: 3.246. That the burnt-offering on the first of those days was to be a sacrifice of thirteen bulls, and fourteen lambs, and fifteen rams, with the addition of a kid of the goats, as an expiation for sins; and on the following days the same number of lambs, and of rams, with the kids of the goats; but abating one of the bulls every day till they amounted to seven only. 3.247. On the eighth day all work was laid aside, and then, as we said before, they sacrificed to God a bullock, a ram, and seven lambs, with a kid of the goats, for an expiation of sins. And this is the accustomed solemnity of the Hebrews, when they pitch their tabernacles. 13.372. 5. As to Alexander, his own people were seditious against him; for at a festival which was then celebrated, when he stood upon the altar, and was going to sacrifice, the nation rose upon him, and pelted him with citrons [which they then had in their hands, because] the law of the Jews required that at the feast of tabernacles every one should have branches of the palm tree and citron tree; which thing we have elsewhere related. They also reviled him, as derived from a captive, and so unworthy of his dignity and of sacrificing.
7. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.2. [The produce of] a vineyard in its fourth year was brought up to Jerusalem within a distance of one day’s journey on each side. And what is the border [of a day’s journey on each side]? Eilat to the south, Akrabat on the north, Lod to the west, and the Jordan [river] to the east. When produce increased, it was decreed that it can be redeemed even if the vineyard was close to the wall. And there was a stipulation on this matter, that whenever it was so desired, the arrangement would be restored as it had been before. Rabbi Yose says: this was the stipulation after the Temple was destroyed, and the stipulation was that when the Temple should be rebuilt the arrangement would be restored as it had been before."
8. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.5. After the omer was offered they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce]; This was without the approval of the rabbis, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: it was with the approval of the rabbis. After the omer was offered the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: is it not so forbidden by the law of the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” Why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday? Because they know that the court would not be negligent with it."
9. Mishnah, Moed Qatan, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. Rabbi Eliezer says: From the time the Temple was destroyed, Atzeret (Shavuot) is like Shabbat. Rabban Gamaliel says: Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are like festivals. The sages say: [the rule is] not according to the words of this one nor that one, rather Atzeret is like the festivals and Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are like Shabbat."
10. Mishnah, Nazir, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.4. If one vowed to be a nazirite and went to bring his animal [for the sacrifice] and found that it had been stolen: If he had taken the nazirite vow before his animal was stolen, he is [still] a nazirite. But if he had taken the nazirite vow after his animal was stolen, he is not a nazirite. It was this mistake that Nahum the Mede made. When nazirites arrived [in Jerusalem] from the Diaspora and found the Temple destroyed, Nahum the Mede said to them, “Had you known that the Temple would be destroyed, would you have become nazirites?” They answered, no, and Nahum the Mede released them [from their vow]. When the matter came before the sages they said to him: whoever vowed a nazirite vow before the destruction of the Temple is a nazirite, but if after the destruction of the temple, he is not a nazirite."
11. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 1.3-1.4, 4.1-4.4, 4.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. There are six months [at the beginning of which] messengers go out.On Nisan because of Pesah; On Av because of the fast. On Elul because of Rosh Hashanah. On Tishri because of the setting of the festivals. On Kislev because of Hanukah. And on Adar because of Purim. When the Temple stood, they used also to go out to report Iyar because of Pesah Katan (Pesah Sheni)." 1.4. On account of two months they profane Shabbat: on account of Nissan and Tishri, for on those months messengers go forth to Syria and in them the dates of the festivals are fixed. When the Temple stood they used to profane Shabbat for all the months, in order that the sacrifice might be offered on the right day." 4.1. If Yom Tov of Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbat, they would blow the shofar in the Temple but not in the country. After the destruction of the Temple, Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed that it should be blown [on Shabbat] in every place where there was a court. Rabbi Eliezer said: Rabban Yoha ben Zakai decreed for Yavneh only. They said to him: both Yavneh and any place where there is a court." 4.2. There was another way in which Jerusalem was greater than Yavneh, that in every city which could see [Jerusalem] and hear and was near and could get to Jerusalem, they used to blow [on Shabbat], whereas in Yavneh they used to blow in the court only." 4.3. In earlier times the lulav was taken for seven days in the Temple, and in the provinces for one day only. When the temple was destroyed, Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that the lulav should be taken in the provinces for seven days in memory of the Temple, [He also decreed] that on the whole of the day of waving it be forbidden [to eat the new produce]." 4.4. Originally they used to accept testimony with regard to the new moon during the whole day. On one occasion the witnesses were late in arriving, and the Levites went wrong in the daily hymn. They therefore decreed that testimony should be accepted only until the afternoon [sacrifice]. If witnesses came after the afternoon sacrifice that day should be kept as holy and also the next day. After the destruction of the temple Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that testimony with regard to the new moon should be received during the whole day. Rabbi Joshua ben Korha said: this further did Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decree, that not matter where the head of the court might be, the witnesses should have to go only to the place of the assembly." 4.7. The one who passes before the ark on the festival of Rosh Hashanah: the second one blows the shofar. On days when Hallel is said, the first one recites the Hallel."
12. Mishnah, Sotah, 3.4, 9.12, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.4. She had barely finished drinking when her face turns yellow, her eyes protrude and her veins swell. And [those who see her] exclaim, “Remove her! Remove her, so that the temple-court should not be defiled”. If she had merit, it [causes the water] to suspend its effect upon her. Some merit suspends the effect for one year, some merit suspends the effects for two years, and some merit suspends the effect for three years. Hence Ben Azzai said: a person must teach his daughter Torah, so that if she has to drink [the water of bitterness], she should know that the merit suspends its effect. Rabbi Eliezer says: whoever teaches his daughter Torah teaches her lasciviousness. Rabbi Joshua says: a woman prefers one kav (of food) and sexual indulgence to nine kav and sexual separation. He used to say, a foolish pietist, a cunning wicked person, a female separatist, and the blows of separatists bring destruction upon the world." 9.12. When the former prophets died, the Urim and Thummim ceased. When Temple was destroyed, the shamir and nopheth zufim ceased. And people of faith ceased, as it says, “Help, O Lord, for the faithful are no more” (Psalms 12:2). Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel in the name of Rabbi Joshua: from the day the Temple was destroyed, there is no day without a curse, the dew has not descended for a blessing, and the flavor has departed from produce. Rabbi Yose says: the fatness was also removed from produce." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
13. Mishnah, Sukkah, 3.9, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.9. And where [in the service] do they wave [the lulav]? At “Give thanks to the Lord” (Psalm, at the beginning and at the end, and at “O Lord, deliver us” (118:25), the words of Bet Hillel. Bet Shammai say: also at “O Lord, let us prosper.” Rabbi Akiva says: I was watching Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua, and while all the people were waving their lulavs [at “O Lord, let us prosper”] they waved them only at “O Lord deliver us.” One who was on a journey and had no lulav to take, when he enters his house he should take it [even if he is] at his table. If he did not take the lulav in the morning, he should take it at any time before dusk, since the whole day is valid for [taking] the lulav." 4.4. The mitzvah of the lulav how was it carried out? If the first day of the festival fell on Shabbat, they brought their lulavim to the Temple Mount, and the attendants would receive them and arrange them on top of the portico, and the elders laid theirs in the chamber. And they would teach the people to say, “Whoever gets my lulav in his hand, let it be his as a gift.” The next day they got up early, and came [to the Temple Mount] and the attendants threw down [their lulavim] before them, and they snatched at them, and so they used to come to blows with one another. When the court saw that they reached a state of danger, they instituted that each man should take [his lulav] in his own home."
14. Mishnah, Taanit, 4.4, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.4. On any day when there is Hallel there was no maamad at Shaharit; [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne'ilah. [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah, the words of Rabbi Akiva. Ben Azzai said to him: Thus did Rabbi Joshua learn: [On the day when] there is a Musaf-offering, there was no [maamad] at Minhah; [On the day of] the wood-offering, there was no [maamad] at Ne’ilah. Rabbi Akiva retracted and learned like Ben Azzai." 4.6. There were five events that happened to our ancestors on the seventeenth of Tammuz and five on the ninth of Av.On the seventeenth of Tammuz: The tablets were shattered; The tamid (daily) offering was cancelled; The [walls] of the city were breached; And Apostomos burned the Torah, and placed an idol in the Temple. On the ninth of Av It was decreed that our ancestors should not enter the land, The Temple was destroyed the first And the second time, Betar was captured, And the city was plowed up. When Av enters, they limit their rejoicing."
15. Mishnah, Tamid, 7.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.4. The following are the psalms that were chanted in the Temple.On the first day they used to say, “The earth is the Lord's and the fullness thereof, the world and they that dwell therein” (Psalms. On the second day they used to say: “Great is the Lord and highly to be praised, in the city of our God. His holy mountain” (Psalms. On the third day they used to say: “God stands in the congregation of God, in the midst of the judges he judges” (Psalms. On the fourth day they used to say: “O Lord, God to whom vengeance belongs. God to whom vengeance belongs, shine forth” (Psalms. On the fifth day they used to say: “Sing aloud unto God our strength, shout unto the God of Jacob” (Psalms. On the sixth day they used to say: “The lord reigns, he is clothed in majesty, the Lord is clothed, He has girded himself with strength” (Psalms. On Shabbat they used to say: “A psalm, a song for the Sabbath day” (Psalms. A psalm, a song for the time to come, for the day that will be all Shabbat and rest for everlasting life. Congratulations! We have finished Tractate Tamid! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. Tamid may have been one of the more unusual tractates that we have ever learned. Instead of disputes between sages, heaps of logic and laws, we get an intricate description of the Temple service. Indeed, although the language is clearly rabbinic Hebrew, its descriptive style is more characteristic of the Bible than of rabbinic literature. It is likely that these descriptions, or at least parts thereof, come from Temple times. They were preserved because the rabbis fervently hoped that the Temple would be rebuilt during their own lifetimes. While we may or may not share in this wish, I think we can all appreciate the respect in which they held this ceremony. Despite the fact that it was performed each and every day, twice every day, they don’t seem to have lost their sense of wonder at the intimate connection that they received with God through the sacrificial process. I hope you have enjoyed Tamid. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Middot (the last tractate in Seder Kodashim!)."
16. Mishnah, Yoma, 5, 2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

17. New Testament, John, 12.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.13. they took the branches of the palm trees, and went out to meet him, and cried out, "Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord, the King of Israel!
18. New Testament, Mark, 11.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.11. Jesus entered into the temple in Jerusalem. When he had looked around at everything, it being now evening, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.
19. Tosefta, Megillah, 3.22 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

20. Tosefta, Pesahim, 10.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

22. Tosefta, Sotah, 6.2-6.3, 15.10-15.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

23. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.2. The [beat of the willow] is a tradition from Moses at Sinai, and Abba Sha'ul deduced it from Scripture, as it is says, “Willows of the brook”, the plural denoting two, one for the lulav, and one for the altar. Rabbi Elieser ben Yacov said, Thus were they saying, \"To Him and to thee, O altar, to Him and to thee, O altar!\" Eighteen days and one night (in the year) the entire Hallel is repeated. These are: the eight days of sukkot, the eight days of Hanukkah, the first day of Passover, the night of the first day of Passover, and the first day of Shavuot."
24. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31b. ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא ליבנה ומיבנה לאושא ומאושא לשפרעם ומשפרעם לבית שערים ומבית שערים לצפורי ומצפורי לטבריא וטבריא עמוקה מכולן שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, ד) ושפלת מארץ תדברי,רבי אלעזר אומר שש גלות שנאמר (ישעיהו כו, ה) כי השח יושבי מרום קריה נשגבה ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ יגיענה עד עפר א"ר יוחנן ומשם עתידין ליגאל שנאמר (ישעיהו נב, ב) התנערי מעפר קומי שבי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה ועוד זאת התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שאפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ההיא איתתא דאזמנוה לדינא קמיה דאמימר בנהרדעי אזל אמימר למחוזא ולא אזלה בתריה כתב פתיחא עילווה אמר ליה רב אשי לאמימר והא אנן תנן אפילו ראש בית דין בכל מקום שלא יהו העדים הולכין אלא למקום הוועד,א"ל הנ"מ לענין עדות החדש דא"כ נמצאת מכשילן לעתיד לבא אבל הכא (משלי כב, ז) עבד לוה לאיש מלוה,ת"ר אין כהנים רשאין לעלות בסנדליהן לדוכן וזו אחד מתשע תקנות שהתקין ריב"ז שית דהאי פירקא וחדא דפירקא קמא,ואידך דתני' גר שנתגייר בזמן הזה צריך שיפריש רובע לקינו אמר רשב"א כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנן וביטלה מפני התקלה,ואידך פלוגתא דרב פפא ורב נחמן בר יצחק רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית,רב פפא אמר כרם רבעי (דתניא) כרם רבעי היה עולה לירושלים מהלך יום לכל צד וזו היא תחומה אילת מן (הצפון) ועקרבת מן (הדרום) לוד מן המערב וירדן מן המזרח,ואמר עולא ואיתימא רבה בר עולא א"ר יוחנן מה טעם כדי לעטר שוקי ירושלים בפירות,ותניא כרם רבעי היה לו לרבי אליעזר במזרח לוד בצד כפר טבי וביקש ר' אליעזר להפקירו לעניים,אמרו לו תלמידיו רבי כבר נמנו חבריך עליו והתירוהו מאן חבריך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי,רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לשון של זהורית דתניא בראשונה היו קושרין לשון של זהורית על פתח אולם מבחוץ הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו על פתח אולם מבפנים,ועדיין היו מציצין ורואין הלבין היו שמחין לא הלבין היו עצבין התקינו שיהו קושרין אותו חציו בסלע וחציו בין קרניו של שעיר המשתלח,רב נחמן בר יצחק מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב פפא אמר לך אי סלקא דעתך רבן יוחנן בן זכאי חבריו דרבי אליעזר מי הוה רבו הוה ואידך כיון דתלמידים הוו לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבך,ורב פפא מאי טעמא לא אמר כרב נחמן בר יצחק אמר לך אי ס"ד רבן יוחנן בן זכאי בימי רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מי הוה לשון של זהורית והתניא כל שנותיו של רבן יוחנן בן זכאי מאה ועשרים שנה מ' שנה עסק בפרקמטיא מ' שנה למד מ' שנה לימד,ותניא מ' שנה קודם שנחרב הבית לא היה לשון של זהורית מלבין אלא מאדים ותנן משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי ואידך אותם ארבעים שנה דלמד תלמיד יושב לפני רבו הוה ואמר מילתא ואסתבר טעמיה 31b. band from Yavne to Usha; and from Ushait returned bto Yavne; and from Yavneit went back bto Usha; and from Usha to Shefaram; and from Shefaram to Beit She’arim; and from Beit She’arim to Tzippori; and from Tzippori to Tiberias. And Tiberias is lower than all of them,as it is in the Jordan Valley. A verse alludes to these movements, bas it is stated: “And brought down, you shall speak out of the ground”(Isaiah 29:4)., bRabbi Elazar says:There are bsix exiles,if you count only the places, not the number of journeys, and a different verse alludes to this, bas it is stated: “For He has brought down those who dwell high, the lofty city laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it to the dust”(Isaiah 26:5). This verse mentions six expressions of lowering: Brought down, laying it low, laying it low, to the ground, bringing it, and to the dust. bRabbi Yoḥa said: And from there,i.e., from their lowest place of descent, bthey are destined to be redeemedin the future, bas it is stated: “Shake yourself from the dust, arise, sit,Jerusalem” (Isaiah 52:2)., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: And this, too, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted, that evenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace,not where the Great Sanhedrin is in session, bthe witnesses shouldnevertheless bgo only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathersto deliver testimony to determine the start of the month. Although the date of the month is dependent on the head of the Great Sanhedrin, as it is he who declares that the month is sanctified (see 24a), nevertheless, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted that the members of the Great Sanhedrin may sanctify the month in the absence of the head of the court., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara relates: There was ba certain woman who was called to judgment before Ameimar in Neharde’a. Ameimartemporarily bwent to Meḥoza, and she did not follow himto be judged there. bHe wrote a document of excommunication [ ipetiḥa /i] concerning her,for disobeying the court. bRav Ashi said to Ameimar: Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bEvenif bthe head of the courtof seventy-one bis in anyother bplace, the witnesses should go only to the placewhere the Great Sanhedrin bgathers?This shows that one must appear in the court itself, rather than follow the head of the court.,Ameimar bsaid to him: This applies only to testimonyto determine the start bof the month,for which it is necessary to have a fixed place. The reason is bthat if so,if the witnesses come to court when the head of the court is absent and they will have to go to another place, bconsequently you will be obstructing them for futureoccasions, as they will consider it too much trouble and perhaps they will not come the next time. Therefore, the Sages said that these witnesses should go to the regular place where the Great Sanhedrin meets. bHowever, here,with regard to monetary claims, the verse states: b“The borrower is servant to the lender”(Proverbs 22:7), i.e., the defendant must act as is convenient to the claimant and the court.,§ bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bPriests are not allowed to ascend with their sandals to the platformto recite the Priestly Blessing in the synagogue. bAnd this is one of the nine ordices that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted. Sixare mentioned bin this chapter:Sounding the ishofaron Shabbat in Yavne, taking the ilulavall seven days, the prohibition against eating new grain the entire day of waving, accepting testimony to determine the start of the month all day, having the witnesses to the New Moon go to the place of meeting, and reciting the Priestly Blessing without sandals. bAnd oneis stated bin the first chapter,that the witnesses to the New Moon may desecrate Shabbat only for the months of Tishrei and Nisan., bAnd the other, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA convert who converts nowadays is required to set aside a quarter /b-shekel bfor his nest,i.e., his pair of doves. By Torah law a convert must bring two burnt-offerings of birds, in addition to his immersion and circumcision. After the destruction, it was instituted that he must set aside the value of two young pigeons in anticipation of the rebuilding of the Temple. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥaben Zakkai balreadyassembled a majority who bvoted and rescindedthe ordice bdue toa potential bmishap.If a convert is obligated to set aside money, someone might unwittingly use this money, thereby violating the prohibition against misuse of consecrated property., bAnd the otherordice, the ninth, bisthe subject of ba dispute between Rav Pappa and Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak. Rav Pappa said:The ordice concerned the fruit of a bfourth-year grapevine. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:It was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool.,The Gemara elaborates: bRav Pappa saidthat the ordice is referring to the fruit of ba fourth-year grapevine, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iBeitza5a): The fruit of ba fourth-year grapevinehas the status of second-tithe fruits, and therefore their owner bwould ascend to Jerusalemand eat the grapes there. If he is unable to do so, due to the distance involved or the weight of the load, he may redeem the fruits with money where he is, and later redeem that money for other fruits in Jerusalem. However, the Sages decreed that fruit from the environs of Jerusalem should not be redeemed; rather, the owners should bring the fruit itself to Jerusalem. The environs of Jerusalem for this purpose were defined as ba day’s walk in each direction. And this is its boundary: Eilat to the north, Akrabat to the south, Lod to the west, and the Jordanriver bto the east. /b, bAnd Ulla said, and some say Rabba bar Ullasaid that bRabbi Yoḥa said:For bwhat reasondid the Sages institute this ordice, that one who lives near Jerusalem must bring his fruit there? bIn order to adorn the markets of Jerusalem with fruit,as this decree ensures that there is always an abundance of fruit in Jerusalem., bAnd it wasfurther btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezerben Hyrcanus, a student of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, bhad a fourth-year grapevinelocated between Lod and Jerusalem, bto the eastof bLod alongside the village of Tavi.The vine was within the boundaries of Jerusalem for the purpose of this ihalakha /i. Rabbi Eliezer could not bring the fruit to the Temple, as the Temple had been destroyed, band Rabbi Eliezer sought to renderthe fruit bownerlessin favor bof the poor,for whom it would be worth the effort to bring the fruit to Jerusalem., bHis students said to him:Our bteacher,there is no need to do so, as byour colleagues have already voted onthe matter band permitted it,as after the destruction of the Temple there is no need to adorn the markets of Jerusalem. The Gemara explains: bWho are: Your colleagues?This is referring to bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai. /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:The ordice was with regard to bthe strip of crimsonwool used on Yom Kippur. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAt first they would tie a strip of crimsonwool bto the opening of the Entrance Hallof the Temple bon the outside.If, after the sacrificing of the offerings and the sending of the scapegoat, the strip bturned white,the people bwould rejoice,as this indicated that their sins had been atoned for. If bit did not turn white they would be sad.When the Sages saw that people were overly distressed on Yom Kippur, bthey instituted that they should tiethe strip of crimson wool bto the opening of the Entrance Hall on the inside,where only a few could enter to see it., bButpeople bwould still peek and seeit, and once again, if bit turned white they would rejoice,and if bit did not turn white they would be sad.Therefore, the Sages binstituted that they should tie half ofthe strip bto a rocknear the place where the one who sent the scapegoat stood band half of it between the horns of the scapegoat,so that the people would not know what happened to the strip until after the conclusion of Yom Kippur. This ordice was instituted by Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai.,The Gemara explains this dispute: bWhat is the reasonthat bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak did not statehis opinion with regard to the ordice bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Pappa? Hecould have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkairescinded the ordice of the fruit of fourth-year grapevines, bwas heone of bRabbi Eliezer’s colleagues,that the students would have referred to him in this manner? bHe was his teacher.Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa cannot be the one who instituted this ordice. bAnd the other,Rav Pappa, what would he respond to this? He would say that bsince they wereRabbi Eliezer’s bstudentsit is bnot proper conductfor one bto say to his teacher: Your teacher.Therefore, they referred to Rabbi Yoḥa as Rabbi Eliezer’s colleague.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is the reasonthat bRav Pappa did not statehis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak?Rav Pappa could have bsaid to you: If it enters your mindto say that this ordice for Yom Kippur was instituted by bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai, in the days of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was therein fact ba strip of crimsonwool? bIsn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bAll the years of Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai’slife were b120 years: Forty years he was involved in businessso that he could achieve ficial independence and study Torah, bforty years he studiedTorah, and bforty years he taughtTorah., bAnd it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: During bthe forty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed the strip of crimsonwool bwould not turn white; rather,it would bturna deeper shade of bred. And we learnedin the mishna: bWhen the Temple was destroyed Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedhis ordices. This shows that Rabban Yoḥa lived and taught Torah after the destruction. Therefore the ordice of the crimson wool must have been made while Rabban Yoḥa was still studying Torah, before he instituted any ordices. The Gemara asks: bAnd the otherSage, Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak, what would he answer? According to him, that ordice was instituted during bthose forty years that he studiedTorah. He bwasthen ba student sitting before his teacher, and he said a matter,i.e., he suggested this ordice, band his reasoning made senseto the Sages
25. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

34b. כחנייתן עברו לדברי רבי אלעזר בר' שמעון בזה אחר זה עברו,וחד אמר בין מר ובין מר כחנייתן עברו מר סבר אדם קל ומר סבר מים קלים,(במדבר יג, ב) שלח לך אנשים אמר ריש לקיש שלח לך מדעתך וכי אדם זה בורר חלק רע לעצמו והיינו דכתיב (דברים א, כג) וייטב בעיני הדבר אמר ריש לקיש בעיני ולא בעיניו של מקום,(דברים א, כב) ויחפרו לנו את הארץ אמר ר' חייא בר אבא מרגלים לא נתכוונו אלא לבושתה של ארץ ישראל כתיב הכא ויחפרו לנו את הארץ וכתיב התם (ישעיהו כד, כג) וחפרה הלבנה ובושה החמה וגו',(במדבר יג, ד) ואלה שמותם למטה ראובן שמוע בן זכור אמר רבי יצחק דבר זה מסורת בידינו מאבותינו מרגלים על שם מעשיהם נקראו ואנו לא עלתה בידינו אלא אחד (במדבר יג, יג) סתור בן מיכאל סתור שסתר מעשיו של הקב"ה מיכאל שעשה עצמו מך,אמר רבי יוחנן אף אנו נאמר נחבי בן ופסי נחבי שהחביא דבריו של הקב"ה ופסי שפיסע על מדותיו של הקב"ה,(במדבר יג, כב) ויעלו בנגב ויבא עד חברון ויבאו מבעי ליה אמר רבא מלמד שפירש כלב מעצת מרגלים והלך ונשתטח על קברי אבות אמר להן אבותי בקשו עלי רחמים שאנצל מעצת מרגלים,יהושע כבר בקש משה עליו רחמים שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע יה יושיעך מעצת מרגלים והיינו דכתיב (במדבר יד, כד) ועבדי כלב עקב היתה רוח אחרת עמו וגו',ושם אחימן ששי ותלמי וגו' אחימן מיומן שבאחיו ששי שמשים את הארץ כשחתות תלמי שמשים את הארץ תלמים תלמים,ד"א אחימן בנה ענת ששי בנה אלש תלמי בנה תלבוש ילידי הענק שמעניקין חמה בקומתן,(במדבר יג, כב) וחברון שבע שנים נבנתה [מאי נבנתה] אילימא נבנתה ממש אפשר אדם בונה בית לבנו קטן קודם לבנו גדול דכתיב (בראשית י, ו) ובני חם כוש ומצרים וגו',אלא שהיתה מבונה על אחד משבעה בצוען ואין לך טרשים בכל א"י יתר מחברון (משום) דקברי בה שיכבי ואין לך מעולה בכל הארצות יתר מארץ מצרים שנאמר (בראשית יג, י) כגן ה' כארץ מצרים ואין לך מעולה בכל ארץ מצרים יתר מצוען דכתיב (ישעיהו ל, ד) כי היו בצוען שריו ואפילו הכי חברון מבונה אחד משבעה בצוען,וחברון טרשים הוי והא כתיב (שמואל ב טו, ז) ויהי מקץ ארבעים שנה ויאמר אבשלום אל המלך אלכה נא וגו' ואמר רב אויא ואיתימא רבה בר בר חנן שהלך להביא כבשים מחברון ותניא אילים ממואב כבשים מחברון מינה איידי דקלישא ארעא עבדה רעיא ושמן קניינא,(במדבר יג, כה) וישובו מתור הארץ 34b. the Jewish people bcrossedin the same formation bas they camped.It was necessary for the water to stand only twelve imilhigh to allow for the entire encampment to pass through the Jordan. bAccording to the statement of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon,who said the water stood at a height of over three hundred imil /i, the water had to reach these heights to allow for enough time for everyone to cross the Jordan, as bthey crossed one after the other. /b, bAnd one says:According to bboththis bSage andthat bSage, they crossedin the same formation bas they camped.However, one bSage,Rabbi Yehuda, bholdsthat ba personmoves bfasterthan water, bandone bSage,Rabbi Elazar son of Rabbi Shimon, bholdsthat bwatermoves bfasterthan a person does.,§ Since the Gemara mentioned the cluster of grapes that the spies brought back from Eretz Yisrael, it continues discussing the story of the spies. It is stated in the Torah that God told Moses: b“Send youmen” (Numbers 13:2). bReish Lakish says: “Send you”means that you should send them bat your own discretionand not as a divine command. As, if it were a divine command, bdoes a person choose a bad portion for himself?Since God knew the nature of these spies and that they would ultimately slander the land, He certainly would not have sent them Himself. bAnd this isthe meaning of bthat which is writtenin the passage where Moses retold the story of the spies: b“And it was good in my eyes”(Deuteronomy 1:23), and bReish Lakish says:The implication of these words is that it seemed good b“in my eyes,” but not in the eyes of the Omnipresent. /b,The Torah relates that the people asked Moses to send spies so b“that they may search the land for us”(Deuteronomy 1:22). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says:When the Jewish people asked to send bspies, their intention was only to shame Eretz Yisrael. It is written here: “That they may search [ iveyaḥperu /i] the land for us,” and it is written there: “Then the moon will be embarrassed [ iveḥafera /i], and the sun will be ashamed”(Isaiah 24:23).,The Torah states with regard to the spies: b“And these were their names: of the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur”(Numbers 13:4). bRabbi Yitzḥak says: This statementthat follows bis a tradition of oursthat was passed down to us bfrom our ancestors:The bspies were named after their actions, but we have obtainedthe interpretation of bonly onename, the name of b“Sethur the son of Michael”(Numbers 13:13). He is called bSethur, as he hid [ isatar /i] the actions of the Holy One, Blessed be He.In other words, he ignored the miracles that God performed for the Jewish people in Egypt and in the wilderness. He is called bMichael, as he made Him,God, appear bweak [ imakh /i]by saying that there was not enough food in the land for everyone., bRabbi Yoḥa says: We can also sayan interpretation of the name: b“Nahbi the son of Vophsi”(Numbers 13:14): He is called bNahbi, as he concealed [ iheḥbi /i] the statement of the Holy One, Blessed be He,that the land is good, by delivering a distorted description of it. He is called bVophsi, as he stomped [ ipisse’a /i] on the attributes of the Holy One, Blessed be He,i.e., he did not believe in His promise to give Eretz Yisrael to the Jewish people.,It is also stated with regard to the spies: b“And they went up into the south, and he came to Hebron”(Numbers 13:22). Why is the phrase “and he came” written in the singular form? The verse bshould havesaid: bAnd they came. Rava says:This bteaches that Caleb separated himself from the counsel ofthe other bspies and went and prostrated himself on the graves of the forefathersin Hebron. bHe said to them: My forefathers, pray for mercy for me so that I will be saved from the counsel of the spies. /b,The Gemara explains: bJoshuadid not go to the graves of the forefathers because bMoses had already prayed for mercy for him, as it is stated: “And Moses called Hoshea son of Nun Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16), meaning: bGod will save you [ iYa yoshiakha /i] from the counsel of the spies. And this isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “But My servant Caleb, because he had another spirit with him,and has followed Me fully, him will I bring into the land where into he went” (Numbers 14:24), which implies that Caleb changed his mind over time. Joshua, however, was opposed to the intentions of the other spies from the outset.,The verse continues to state about Hebron: b“And Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai,the children of Anak, were there” (Numbers 13:22). bAhimanwas called by this name because he was the most bskilled [ imeyumman /i] among his brothers. Sheshaiwas called by his name bbecause he would turn the landthat he treaded upon binto ditches [ isheḥatot /i]due to his large dimensions. bTalmaiwas called this bbecause he would turn the landthat he treaded upon binto furrowsupon bfurrows [ itelamim /i]due to his weight., bAlternatively,their names signify another matter: bAhimanis the one who bbuiltthe city of bAnat. Sheshai builtthe city of bAlush. Talmai builtthe city of bTalbush.The verse describes them as b“the children of Anak”because they were so tall and large that it appeared basif bthey were wearing [ ima’anikin /i] the sunas a necklace bdue to their height. /b,The continuation of the verse states: b“Now Hebron was built seven years [ ishanim /i]before Zoan of Egypt [ iMitzrayim /i]” (Numbers 13:22). The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the phrase b“was built”? If we saythat bit was actually builtseven years before Zoan, bwould a person build a house for his younger son beforehe builds one bfor his older son?Canaan was the youngest son of Ham, bas it is written: “And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim,and Put, and Canaan” (Genesis 10:6). How then could Hebron, a city in the land of Canaan, have been built before Zoan, a city in the land of Egypt, occupied by the descendants of Mizraim?, bRather,the meaning of the verse is bthatHebron bwas seven times more fruitful [ imevunna /i] than Zoan. And there is no stonier land in Eretz Yisrael than Hebron.This is evident bbecause they would bury the dead there,just as the forefathers were buried there. This was done only in land that was not suitable for agriculture. bAnd of all the lands, there is none of a higher quality than the land of Egypt, as it is stated: “Like the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt”(Genesis 13:10). bAnd there was no higher-qualityland bin all of the land of Egypt than Zoan, as it is writtenwith regard to Pharaoh’s ministers, who would certainly have lived on the finest land in the country: b“For his princes are in Zoan”(Isaiah 30:4). bAnd even so, Hebron was seven times more fruitful than Zoan. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut isthe land in bHebronin fact bstony? But isn’t it written: “And it came to pass at the end of forty years, that Absalom said to the king: I pray, let me goand pay my vow, which I have vowed to the Lord, in Hebron” (II Samuel 15:7)? bAnd Rav Avya says, and some saythat it was bRabba bar bar Ḥa:This means bthatAbsalom bwent to bring sheepspecifically bfrom Hebron. And it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iMenaḥot9:3): One must bring the choicest animals to the Temple as offerings. bRamsare brought bfrom Moab,and bsheepare brought bfrom Hebron.This indicates that Hebron has rich land where fat and healthy sheep are raised. The Gemara answers: bFrom thisvery source it can be proven that Hebron is not suitable for agriculture. bSince the earththere bis thin, it producesonly grass for bgrazing and fattens the livestock. /b,The verse states: b“And they returned from spying out the landat the end of forty days.
26. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

35b. כאן קודם חזרה כאן לאחר חזרה ומשנה לא זזה ממקומה,רב מלכיא משמיה דרב אדא בר אהבה אמר מפני שמחליקין פניה בשומן חזיר רב חסדא אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בחומץ רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר מפני שמעמידין אותה בשרף הערלה,כמאן כי האי תנא (דתניא) ר"א אומר המעמיד בשרף הערלה אסור מפני שהוא פירי,אפי' תימא ר' יהושע עד כאן לא פליג ר' יהושע עליה דר"א אלא בקטפא דגוזא אבל בקטפא דפירא מודי,והיינו דתנן א"ר יהושע שמעתי בפירוש שהמעמיד בשרף העלין ובשרף העיקרין מותר בשרף הפגין אסור מפני שהוא פירי,בין לרב חסדא בין לרב נחמן בר יצחק תתסר בהנאה קשיא,דרש רב נחמן בריה דרב חסדא מאי דכתיב (שיר השירים א, ג) לריח שמניך טובים למה ת"ח דומה לצלוחית של פלייטין מגולה ריחה נודף מכוסה אין ריחה נודף,ולא עוד אלא דברים שמכוסין ממנו מתגלין לו שנאמר (שיר השירים א, ג) עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה עלומות ולא עוד אלא שמלאך המות אוהבו שנא' עלמות אהבוך קרי ביה על מות ולא עוד אלא שנוחל שני עולמות אחד העוה"ז ואחד העוה"ב שנא' עלמות קרי ביה עולמות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואלו דברים של עובדי כוכבים אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה חלב שחלבו עובד כוכבים ואין ישראל רואהו והפת והשמן שלהן רבי ובית דינו התירו השמן,והשלקות וכבשין שדרכן לתת לתוכן יין וחומץ וטרית טרופה וציר שאין בה דגה כלבית שוטטת בו והחילק וקורט של חלתית ומלח שלקונדית הרי אלו אסורין ואין איסורן איסור הנאה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big חלב למאי ניחוש לה אי משום איחלופי טהור חיור טמא ירוק ואי משום איערובי ניקום דאמר מר חלב טהור עומד חלב טמא אינו עומד,אי דקא בעי לגבינה ה"נ הכא במאי עסקינן דקא בעי ליה לכמכא,ונשקול מיניה קלי וניקום כיון דבטהור נמי איכא נסיובי דלא קיימי ליכא למיקם עלה דמילתא,ואב"א אפי' תימא דקבעי לה לגבינה איכא דקאי ביני אטפי:,והפת: א"ר כהנא א"ר יוחנן פת לא הותרה בב"ד מכלל דאיכא מאן דשרי,אין דכי אתא רב דימי אמר פעם אחת יצא רבי לשדה והביא עובד כוכבים לפניו פת פורני מאפה סאה אמר רבי כמה נאה פת זו מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה מה ראו חכמים משום חתנות,אלא מה ראו חכמים לאוסרה בשדה כסבורין העם התיר רבי הפת ולא היא רבי לא התיר את הפת,רב יוסף ואיתימא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר לא כך היה מעשה אלא אמרו פעם אחת הלך רבי למקום אחד וראה פת דחוק לתלמידים אמר רבי אין כאן פלטר כסבורין העם לומר פלטר עובד כוכבים והוא לא אמר אלא פלטר ישראל,א"ר חלבו אפילו למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים לא אמרן אלא דליכא פלטר ישראל אבל במקום דאיכא פלטר ישראל לא ורבי יוחנן אמר אפי' למ"ד פלטר עובד כוכבים ה"מ בשדה אבל בעיר לא משום חתנות,איבו הוה מנכית ואכיל פת אבי מצרי אמר להו רבא ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תשתעו בהדיה דאיבו דקאכיל לחמא דארמאי:,והשמן שלהן: שמן רב אמר דניאל גזר עליו ושמואל אמר 35b. bHere,with regard to the mishna in iḤullin /i, Shmuel’s comment reflects the explanation of Rabbi Yehoshua bbeforeRabbi Yehoshua’s bretractionof the assertion that it is prohibited to derive benefit from the stomach contents of an animal carcass. bThere,with regard to the mishna in iAvoda Zara /i, Shmuel’s statement is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehoshua bafterhis bretractionof that claim. bAndalthough this indicates that the mishna in iḤullinpresents an outdated ruling that was later rescinded, ba mishna does not move from its place.In other words, once it has been taught in a certain manner, the itannawill not change the text of a mishna in order to reflect a change of opinion, so as to avoid confusion.,The Gemara suggests additional reasons for the decree of the Sages. bRav Malkiyya says in the name of Rav Adda bar Ahava:The cheese is prohibited bbecausegentiles bsmooth its surface with pig fat. Rav Ḥisda says:It is bbecause they curdle it with vinegarproduced from their wine, from which it is prohibited to derive benefit. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says:It is bbecause they curdle it with sapthat is subject to the prohibition against consuming bthe fruit of a tree during the first three years after its planting [ iorla /i]. /b,Parenthetically, the Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion is Rav Naḥman’s claim that the cheese of gentiles is prohibited because it is curdled in the sap of iorla /i? The Gemara answers: It is bin accordance with the opinion of this itanna /i, as it is taughtin a mishna ( iOrla1:7): bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of iorla /i,the cheese is bprohibited, becausethe sap bisconsidered to be bfruitof the tree.,The Gemara comments: bYoumay beven saythat the statement is in accordance with the opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua,who disagrees with the opinion of Rabbi Eliezer, as bRabbi Yehoshua disagrees with Rabbi Eliezer only with regard to the sap of a branch, but with regard to the sap of a fruitRabbi Yehoshua bconcedesthat it is prohibited as iorla /i. Rav Naḥman’s statement can be understood as referring specifically to the sap of the fruit, which would mean that it is in accordance with the opinions of both Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua.,The Gemara adds: bAnd this isin accordance with bthatwhich bwe learnedin the continuation of that mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua said: I heard explicitly thatwith regard to bone who curdlescheese bwith the sap of the leaves and the sap of the rootsof an iorlatree, the cheese bis permitted.But if it is curdled bwith the sap of unripe figs it is prohibited, becausethat sap bisconsidered to be bfruit. /b,The Gemara raises a difficulty against the last two suggested reasons for the decree of the Sages. bAccording to both Rav Ḥisda,who holds that the cheese is prohibited because it is curdled with vinegar made from wine of gentiles, band Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak,who maintains that it is prohibited because it is curdled with the sap of iorla /i, bone should be prohibited fromderiving bbenefitfrom the cheese, as one may not derive benefit from either the wine of gentiles or iorla /i. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, this is bdifficult. /b,§ bRav Naḥman, son of Rav Ḥisda, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Your ointments have a goodly fragrance”(Song of Songs 1:3)? This is a metaphor for a Torah scholar: bTo what is a Torah scholar comparable? To a flask of ipelaitin /i:When it is bexposed, its scent diffuses;when it is bcovered, its scent does not diffuse. /b,The Gemara remarks: bAnd moreover,when a Torah scholar spreads his knowledge, bmatters that aregenerally bhidden from him are revealed to him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You”(Song of Songs 1:3), and one may bread intothe verse: bThe hidden [ ialumot /i]. And moreover, the Angel of Death loves him, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i] love You,”and one may bread intothe verse: The one appointed bover death [ ial mot /i]loves you. bAnd moreover,a Torah scholar binherits two worlds: Oneis bthis world, andthe other boneis bthe World-to-Come, as it is stated: “Maidens [ ialamot /i]love You,” and one may bread intothe verse: bWorlds [ iolamot /i]. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna lists items belonging to gentiles which it is prohibited to consume, but from which it is permitted to derive benefit. bAnd these are itemsthat belong bto gentilesand are bprohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of ban item from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited: Milk that was milked by a gentile and a Jew did not see himperforming this action, band their bread and oil.The mishna notes that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi band his court permitted the oilof gentiles entirely.,The mishna resumes its list: bAnd boiled and pickledvegetables, bwhoseusual bmannerof preparation involves badding wine and vinegar to them, and minced itarit /ifish, band brine that does not have a ikilbitfish floating in it, and iḥilak /i, and a sliver of iḥiltit /i, and isalkonditsalt(see 39b); all bthese are prohibited, but their prohibition is notthat of bitem from whichderiving bbenefit is prohibited. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: Concerning bmilk, with regard to whatneed bwe be concerned?Why is the milk prohibited? bIfit is bdue tothe concern that a gentile might bexchangethe milk of a kosher animal with the milk of a non-kosher animal, this concern is unfounded, as bkoshermilk is bwhitewhereas bnon-koshermilk has ba greentinge to it, and therefore they are easily distinguishable. bAnd ifit is prohibited bdue tothe concern that it might be bmixedwith non-kosher milk, let the Jew bcurdlethe milk obtained from the gentile, bas the Master said: Milkfrom ba kosheranimal bcurdles,but milk from ba non-kosheranimal bdoes not curdle. /b,The Gemara answers: bIf one desires toeat it as bcheese, indeed,one can simply curdle it, as the milk of non-kosher animals does not curdle. bWhat are we dealing with here?We are dealing with a case bwhere one desires touse the milk in ikamkha /i,also known as ikutaḥ /i, a food item that contains milk.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: bButin that case, blet him take a bit ofmilk band curdleit, to test whether or not it has been mixed with the milk of a non-kosher animal: If it curdles completely, it is kosher; if some milk is left over, it is not. The Gemara explains: bSince there is also whey in kosher milk, which does not curdle, there is noway bto establishthe halakhic bmatter with regard to it.Even kosher milk will not curdle completely, and therefore this is not a reliable method to determine the halakhic status of the milk.,The Gemara presents an alternative suggestion: bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that byoumay beven saythat the concern applies bwhere he intendsto use the milk btomake bcheese,as bthere ismilk bthat remains between the crevicesof curdled cheese, and therefore there is a concern that drops of non-kosher milk might be mixed with it.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd breadbelonging to gentiles is prohibited for consumption. bRav Kahana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:Unlike oil, bbread was not permitted by a court.The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat Rabbi Yoḥa states that bread was not permitted in court, can it be inferred bthat there isa different opinion bthatclaims that a court bdid permitit?,The Gemara answers: bYes, as when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, he bsaid: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent out to the field, and a gentile brought before him a ise’aof bread baked in a large baker’s oven [ ipurnei /i]. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: How exquisite is thisloaf of bbread! What did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibit it?The Gemara asks, incredulously: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them to prohibit it? It was prohibited bdue tothe concern that Jews might befriend gentiles while breaking bread with them, which could lead to bmarriagewith gentiles.,The Gemara explains that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was not asking why bread was prohibited in general. bRather,he asked: bWhat did the Sages seethat caused them bto prohibitbread even bin the field,where this concern does not apply? The Gemara notes that upon hearing of this incident bthe people thoughtthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bpermitted the breadof gentiles. bButthat bis not so; RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdid notactually bpermitsuch bbread.This is why Rabbi Yoḥa emphasized that the bread of gentiles was never permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s court.,The Gemara records an alternate version of this episode. bRav Yosef, and some say Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda, says:The bincident did not occurin bthismanner. bRather, they said: Once RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwent to a certain place and sawthat bbreadwas bscarce for the studentsin the study hall. bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Is there no baker [ ipalter /i] herewho can prepare bread? Upon hearing of this incident, bthe people thought to saythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker,which would indicate that bread baked by a professional baker is permitted, even if he is a gentile. bButin reality, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bstatedhis question bonlyin reference to ba Jewish baker. /b,The Gemara cites two qualifications of the leniency that people inferred from the above incident. bRabbi Ḥelbo said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, we saidthat the bread is permitted bonly where there is no Jewish baker, but in a place where there is a Jewish baker,the leniency would certainly bnotapply. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Even according to the one whothought to bsaythat Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was referring to ba gentile baker, that statementapplies only bin the field, but in the cityit would bnotapply, and the bread would still be prohibited bdue tothe possibility of bmarriagewith a gentile.,The Gemara relates: bAivu would bite and eat breadof gentiles bat the boundariesof the fields. bRava said tothe students in the study hall, band some saythat it was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said to them: bDo not speak with Aivu, as he eats bread of Arameansin deliberate violation of a rabbinic decree.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd their oilwas originally prohibited but later permitted by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi and his court. The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the origin of the prohibition of boil. Rav says: Daniel decreedthat oil is prohibited, band Shmuel says: /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham Rubenstein(1995) 182
albeck,h. Rubenstein(1995) 183
allon,g. Rubenstein(1995) 183
altar Rubenstein(1995) 182
arbel,synagogue orientation Levine (2005) 199
authority,rabbinic,and stories,etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
boethusians Cohn (2013) 169
boyarin,daniel,border lines Cohn (2013) 169
calendar Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
case stories,stories,etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
change,legal Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
destruction Putthoff (2016) 151
diaspora Rubenstein(1995) 183
drink Putthoff (2016) 151
epstein,j.n. Rubenstein(1995) 183
ethrog Levine (2005) 199
fertility Rubenstein(1995) 182
fox,h. Rubenstein(1995) 198
halakhah/halakhot,and aggadah; law and narrative Fraade (2011) 251
hallel Rubenstein(1995) 198
hekhalot Putthoff (2016) 151
horvat anim Levine (2005) 199
horvat rimmon Levine (2005) 199
horvat sumaqa Levine (2005) 199
interpretation—see also midrash Fraade (2011) 251
israel Putthoff (2016) 151
jesus Rubenstein(1995) 182
josephus Rubenstein(1995) 182, 183
joy,rejoicing Rubenstein(1995) 182
jubilees Rubenstein(1995) 182
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011) 251
lulav Rubenstein(1995) 182, 183, 198
maon (judaea) Levine (2005) 199
maoz hayyim Levine (2005) 199
mishnah,destruction in Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
mishnah,laws not practiced in Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
mishnah,laws of temple in Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
mishnah,use and meaning of history in Neusner (2004) 239
mourning Putthoff (2016) 151
passover,hallel Levine (2005) 554
patriarchs,texts Fraade (2011) 251
philo Rubenstein(1995) 183
post-destruction period,lulav ritual Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
prayer,communal,public Levine (2005) 554
prayer Fraade (2011) 251
priest,priests,synagogue ritual Levine (2005) 199
priests,gifts to Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
purity Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
qumran/qumran community Fraade (2011) 251
r. elazar (son of r.yosi the galilean) Levine (2005) 554
r. yohanan Levine (2005) 554
r. yohanan b. zakkai Levine (2005) 199
r.yosi Levine (2005) 554
rabbis,the Fraade (2011) 251
rain Rubenstein(1995) 182
revolt,hadrianic Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
rosh hashanah Levine (2005) 199, 554
safrai,s. Rubenstein(1995) 183
sanctity of,doors,doorways Levine (2005) 199
sanctuary Levine (2005) 199
sepphoris synagogue,orientation Levine (2005) 199
shavuot (pentecost) Levine (2005) 554
sheliah tzibbur,prayer leader Levine (2005) 554
shema,reciting antiphonally Levine (2005) 554
shofar Levine (2005) 199, 554
song of the sea Levine (2005) 554
sons of bathyra Levine (2005) 199
structure Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
sukka Rubenstein(1995) 182, 183
sukkot,shofar,lulav,ethrog Levine (2005) 199, 554
symbol Rubenstein(1995) 182
taqqanot,stories,etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
teacher' Levine (2005) 554
temple,discussed by tannaim Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
temple,responses to destruction of Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
temple,rituals related to Rosen-Zvi (2012) 246
temple Putthoff (2016) 151; Rubenstein(1995) 182, 183
torah Fraade (2011) 251
yohanan ben zakkai,r.,lulav ritual Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
zion Putthoff (2016) 151