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Mishnah, Shekalim, 1.1

nanOn the first of Adar they make a public announcement about the shekels and concerning kilayim. On the fifteenth: they read the Megillah [Esther] in walled cities, and they fix the roads and the streets and the ritual water baths, and they perform all public duties, and they mark the graves, and [messengers] go forth also concerning kilayim."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

16 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 22.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

22.9. לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃ 22.9. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 30.11-30.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

30.11. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 30.12. כִּי תִשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְקֻדֵיהֶם וְנָתְנוּ אִישׁ כֹּפֶר נַפְשׁוֹ לַיהוָה בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה בָהֶם נֶגֶף בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם׃ 30.13. זֶה יִתְּנוּ כָּל־הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה׃ 30.14. כֹּל הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה יִתֵּן תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה׃ 30.15. הֶעָשִׁיר לֹא־יַרְבֶּה וְהַדַּל לֹא יַמְעִיט מִמַּחֲצִית הַשָּׁקֶל לָתֵת אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 30.16. וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־כֶּסֶף הַכִּפֻּרִים מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָתַתָּ אֹתוֹ עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהָיָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְזִכָּרוֹן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם׃ 30.11. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 30.12. ’When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel, according to their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them." 30.13. This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary—the shekel is twenty gerahs—half a shekel for an offering to the LORD." 30.14. Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the offering of the LORD." 30.15. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, than the half shekel, when they give the offering of the LORD, to make atonement for your souls." 30.16. And thou shalt take the atonement money from the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting, that it may be a memorial for the children of Israel before the LORD, to make atonement for your souls.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃ 19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together."
4. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 10.32-10.34 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

10.32. וְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ הַמְבִיאִים אֶת־הַמַּקָּחוֹת וְכָל־שֶׁבֶר בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת לִמְכּוֹר לֹא־נִקַּח מֵהֶם בַּשַּׁבָּת וּבְיוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וְנִטֹּשׁ אֶת־הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִית וּמַשָּׁא כָל־יָד׃ 10.33. וְהֶעֱמַדְנוּ עָלֵינוּ מִצְוֺת לָתֵת עָלֵינוּ שְׁלִשִׁית הַשֶּׁקֶל בַּשָּׁנָה לַעֲבֹדַת בֵּית אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 10.34. לְלֶחֶם הַמַּעֲרֶכֶת וּמִנְחַת הַתָּמִיד וּלְעוֹלַת הַתָּמִיד הַשַּׁבָּתוֹת הֶחֳדָשִׁים לַמּוֹעֲדִים וְלַקֳּדָשִׁים וְלַחַטָּאוֹת לְכַפֵּר עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכֹל מְלֶאכֶת בֵּית־אֱלֹהֵינוּ׃ 10.32. and if the peoples of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy of them on the sabbath, or on a holy day; and that we would forego the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt." 10.33. Also we made ordices for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God;" 10.34. for the showbread, and for the continual meal-offering, and for the continual burnt-offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the appointed seasons, and for the holy things, and for the sin-offerings to make atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God."
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.77-1.78 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.77. For it is commanded that all men shall every year bring their first fruits to the temple, from twenty years old and upwards; and this contribution is called their ransom. On which account they bring in the first fruits with exceeding cheerfulness, being joyful and delighted, inasmuch as simultaneously with their making the offering they are sure to find either a relaxation from slavery, or a relief from disease, and to receive in all respects a most sure freedom and safety for the future. 1.78. And since the nation is the most numerous of all peoples, it follows naturally that the first fruits contributed by them must also be most abundant. Accordingly there is in almost every city a storehouse for the sacred things to which it is customary for the people to come and there to deposit their first fruits, and at certain seasons there are sacred ambassadors selected on account of their virtue, who convey the offerings to the temple. And the most eminent men of each tribe are elected to this office, that they may conduct the hopes of each individual safe to their destination; for in the lawful offering of the first fruits are the hopes of the pious.XV.
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 281 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

281. Concerning the holy city I must now say what is necessary. It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus. And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 14.110, 18.312-18.313 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

18.312. There was also the city Nisibis, situate on the same current of the river. For which reason the Jews, depending on the natural strength of these places, deposited in them that half shekel which every one, by the custom of our country, offers unto God, as well as they did other things devoted to him; for they made use of these cities as a treasury 18.313. whence, at a proper time, they were transmitted to Jerusalem; and many ten thousand men undertook the carriage of those donations, out of fear of the ravages of the Parthians, to whom the Babylonians were then subject.
8. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 7.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

7.218. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever they were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachmae every year into the Capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at this time.
9. Mishnah, Shekalim, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.3. On the fifteenth of [Adar] they would set up tables [of money changers] in the provinces. On the twenty-fifth they set them up in the Temple. When [the tables] were set up in the Temple, they began to exact pledges [from those who had not paid]. From whom did they exact pledges? From Levites and Israelites, converts and freed slaves, but not women or slaves or minors. Any minor on whose behalf his father has begun to pay the shekel, may not discontinue it again. But they did not exact pledges from the priests, because of the ways of peace."
10. New Testament, Matthew, 17.24-17.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

17.24. When they had come to Capernaum, those who collected the didrachmas came to Peter, and said, "Doesn't your teacher pay the didrachma? 17.25. He said, "Yes."When he came into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, "What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth receive toll or tribute? From their sons, or from strangers? 17.26. Peter said to him, "From strangers."Jesus said to him, "Therefore the sons are exempt. 17.27. But, lest we cause them to stumble, go to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the first fish that comes up. When you have opened its mouth, you will find a stater. Take that, and give it to them for me and you.
11. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: bBut when Rabbi Avin camefrom Eretz Yisrael he said that bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bboth a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundarywith another field, the owner of the tree bbringsthe first fruits of the tree band recitesthe accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, basit was bon this conditionthat bJoshua apportioned EretzYisrael bto the Jewish people.This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: bRather, whois the one who btaughtthe ibaraitathat deals with the bten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,an iamora /i. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another iamora /i, can disagree with it. bRav Geviha from Bei Katil teachesthis bexplicitlyin his version of the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is thatelder? It is bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b,§ The Sages taught that bEzrathe Scribe binstituted ten ordices:He instituted bthatcommunities breadthe Torah bon Shabbat in the afternoon; and theyalso breadthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday; andthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. AndEzra further instituted bthat a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she wants to bake; band that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath after being ritually impure; band that peddlersof cosmetics and perfumes bshould travel around throughall bthe towns. AndEzra further binstitutedthe requirement of bimmersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is bthatcommunities bshall readthe Torah bon Shabbat afternoon.This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted bdue to those who sitidly on street bcorners,who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: bAnd that they should readthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara asks: bDid Ezra institutethis practice? bBut it was instituted from the beginning,i.e., long before his time. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; band they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water”(Exodus 15:22). bThose who interpret versesmetaphorically bsaidthat bwaterhere is referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is statedmetaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1).,The ibaraitacontinues: The verse means that bsincethe Jews btraveled for three days withouthearing any bTorah they became weary,and therefore the bprophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should readfrom the Torah each bShabbat, and pauseon bSunday, and readagain on bMonday, and pauseon bTuesday and Wednesday, and readagain on bThursday, and pauseon bShabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days withouthearing the bTorah.Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: bInitially they institutedthat bone manread bthree verses;or balternatively,that bthree menread bthree verses.Either way, the number three bcorresponds tothe three types of Jews: bPriests, Levites, and Israelites.Ezra later bcameand binstitutedthat bthree menalways read, bandthat bten versesaltogether be read by them, bcorresponding to the ten idlersin a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: bAndthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is bthatmany people are bfoundin a city on these days, bas they comefrom the countryside bfor the reading of theholy bbook,the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The ibaraitateaches: bAnd that one should do laundry on Thursday.This was instituted bdue tothe need to have clean garments in bdeference to Shabbat. /b,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: bAnd that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve.This is bdue tothe fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for bconjugal relations. As it is writtenconcerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, bwho brings forth his fruit in his season”(Psalms 1:3); band Rabbi Yehuda says, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman, and some sayit was bRav Kahana, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bThisis referring to bone who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat bfive matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warmsthe body; bit causesone’s bcountece to shine; it increasesone’s bsperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some saythat it also binstills loveinto those who eat it band removes jealousyfrom them.,The next ordice is: bAnd that a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted bso that bread should be available for poor people,who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The ibaraitafurther teaches: bAnd that a woman should don a breechcloth [ isinar /i].This ordice was instituted bdue toreasons of bmodesty. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: bThis isrequired bby Torah law,Ezra did not institute this., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b“And he shall bathe his flesh [ iet besaro /i] in water”(Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches bthat no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water.When the verse states this in the expanded form of b“ iethis flesh,”using the term “ iet /i,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with bthat which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that?It is one’s bhair.Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages bsayin response: bBy Torah lawone is required bto inspecthis or her hair before immersion, as bperhapssome hairs are bknottedtogether, preventing contact with water at that spot, borperhaps there is some brepulsive substancein his hair. One must perform this inspection bbecausethese would constitute ban interposition. /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26a. אקמטרא ככלי בתוך כלי דמי. אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי ס"ת צריך לעשות לו מחיצה עשרה מר זוטרא איקלע לבי רב אשי חזייה לדוכתיה דמר בר רב אשי דמנח ביה ספר תורה ועביד ליה מחיצה עשרה אמר ליה כמאן כרבי יהושע בן לוי אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי דלית ליה ביתא אחרינא מר הא אית ליה ביתא אחרינא אמר ליה לאו אדעתאי:,כמה ירחיק מהן ומן הצואה ארבע אמות: אמר רבא אמר רב סחורה אמר רב הונא לא שנו אלא לאחוריו אבל לפניו מרחיק מלא עיניו וכן לתפלה,איני והא אמר רפרם בר פפא אמר רב חסדא עומד אדם כנגד בית הכסא ומתפלל הכא במאי עסקינן בבית הכסא שאין בו צואה,איני והאמר רב יוסף בר חנינא בית הכסא שאמרו אע"פ שאין בו צואה ובית המרחץ שאמרו אע"פ שאין בו אדם אלא הכא במאי עסקינן בחדתי,והא מיבעי ליה לרבינא הזמינו לבית הכסא מהו יש זימון או אין זימון כי קא מיבעי ליה לרבינא למיקם עליה לצלויי בגויה אבל כנגדו לא,אמר רבא הני בתי כסאי דפרסאי אע"ג דאית בהו צואה כסתומין דמו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big זב שראה קרי ונדה שפלטה שכבת זרע והמשמשת שראתה נדה צריכין טבילה ורבי יהודה פוטר:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איבעיא להו בעל קרי שראה זיבה לר' יהודה מהו כי פטר רבי יהודה התם בזב שראה קרי דמעיקרא לאו בר טבילה הוא אבל בעל קרי שראה זיבה דמעיקרא בר טבילה הוא מחייב או דילמא לא שנא,תא שמע המשמשת וראתה נדה צריכה טבילה ורבי יהודה פוטר והא משמשת וראתה נדה כבעל קרי שראה זיבה דמיא וקא פטר רבי יהודה ש"מ תני רבי חייא בהדיא בעל קרי שראה זיבה צריך טבילה ורבי יהודה פוטר:, br br big strongהדרן עלך מי שמתו /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongתפלת /strong /big השחר עד חצות ר' יהודה אומר עד ד' שעות תפלת המנחה עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה,תפלת הערב אין לה קבע ושל מוספים כל היום (ר' יהודה אומר עד ז' שעות):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ורמינהו מצותה עם הנץ החמה כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה ונמצא מתפלל ביום,כי תניא ההיא לותיקין דא"ר יוחנן ותיקין היו גומרים אותה עם הנץ החמה,וכ"ע עד חצות ותו לא והאמר רב מרי בריה דרב הונא בריה דר' ירמיה בר אבא אמר רבי יוחנן טעה ולא התפלל ערבית מתפלל בשחרית שתים שחרית מתפלל במנחה שתים,כולי יומא מצלי ואזיל עד חצות יהבי ליה שכר תפלה בזמנה מכאן ואילך שכר תפלה יהבי ליה שכר תפלה בזמנה לא יהבי ליה,איבעיא להו טעה ולא התפלל מנחה מהו שיתפלל ערבית ב' את"ל טעה ולא התפלל ערבית מתפלל שחרית ב' משום דחד יומא הוא דכתיב (בראשית א, ה) ויהי ערב ויהי בקר יום אחד אבל הכא תפלה במקום קרבן היא וכיון דעבר יומו בטל קרבנו או דילמא כיון דצלותא רחמי היא כל אימת דבעי מצלי ואזיל,ת"ש דאמר רב הונא בר יהודה א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה מתפלל ערבית ב' ואין בזה משום דעבר יומו בטל קרבנו,מיתיבי (קהלת א, טו) מעות לא יוכל לתקון וחסרון לא יוכל להמנות מעות לא יוכל לתקון זה שבטל ק"ש של ערבית וק"ש של שחרית או תפלה של ערבית או תפלה של שחרית וחסרון לא יוכל להמנות זה שנמנו חביריו לדבר מצוה ולא נמנה עמהם,א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן הכא במאי עסקינן שבטל במזיד,אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי דקתני בטל ולא קתני טעה ש"מ: 26a. batop a chest is like a vessel within a vessel.On a similar note, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:One who wishes to engage in marital relations in a room in which there is ba Torah scroll, must erect a partition tenhandbreadths high. The Gemara relates: bMar Zutra happenedto come bto the house of Rav Ashiand bhe sawthat bin thebed bchamber ofhis son bMar bar Rav Ashi, there was a Torah scroll, and a partition of tenhandbreadths bhad been erected for it. He said to him: In accordance with whoseopinion did you do this? Is it bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi? Saythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthis only as a makeshift solution in exigent situations, when bhe has no other roomin which to place it, but bdon’tyou, bMaster, have another roomwhere you could place the Torah scroll? bHe said to him:Indeed, bthatdid bnotenter bmy mind. /b,We learned in the mishna: bAnd, how far must one distance himself from urine and from fecesin order to recite iShema /i? bFour cubits. Rava saidthat bRav Seḥora saidthat bRav Huna said: They only taughtthat it is sufficient to distance oneself four cubits when the feces are bbehind him, butif they are bbefore him he must distance himselfto the point that it is bno longer within his range of vision;and the ihalakha bis the samefor bprayer. /b,The Gemara challenges this: bIs that so? Didn’t Rafram bar Pappa saythat bRav Ḥisda said: One may stand opposite a bathroom and pray.The Gemara resolves this contradiction: bWith what are we dealing here? With a bathroom that has no feces,and therefore there is no need to distance himself to that extent.,The Gemara asks again: bIs that so? Didn’t Rav Yosef bar Ḥanina say: The bathroom to whichthe Sages breferredin all of the ihalakhotof distancing oneself was bevenone bin which there were no feces, and the bathhouse to whichthe Sages breferredin all of the ihalakhotof uttering sacred matters, was bevenone bin which there was nonaked bperson. Rather, with what are we dealing here?We are dealing bwith a newstructure, built as a bathroom but not yet used for that purpose.,The Gemara asks: bWasn’t thisalready braised as a dilemmaby bRavina: One who designatedthe structure for use bas a bathroom, what is itslegal status? Is bdesignationeffective bor is designation noteffective? The Gemara replies: bWhen Ravina raised the dilemma,it was whether or not one may bstand and pray inside it, buthe had bnodilemma whether or bnot one may pray opposite it. /b, bRava said: These Persian bathrooms, even though they contain feces, they are considered as sealed,as they are constructed on an incline so the feces will roll out of the bathroom underground., strongMISHNA: /strong Continuing the earlier discussion of the ihalakhotof immersion for Torah study and prayer for one who experienced a seminal emission, the mishna discusses a case where individuals who were already impure with a severe form of ritual impurity are exposed to the impurity of a seminal emission as well. They are required to immerse themselves and purify themselves of the impurity of the seminal emission even though they remain impure due to the more severe impurity. Consequently, even a izav /i,whose impurity lasts at least seven days, bwho experienced a seminal emission,for which, were he not a izav /i, he would be impure for only one day; ba menstruating woman who discharged semen,despite the fact that she is already impure with a severe impurity unaffected by her immersion; banda woman bwho engaged in conjugal relationswith her husband bandlater bsaw menstrual blood,all brequire immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exemptsthem from immersion., strongGEMARA: /strong bA dilemma was raised beforethe students of the yeshiva: bOne who experienced a seminal emissionand was therefore required to immerse himself, who later bsaw a dischargethat rendered him a izav /i; according to Rabbi Yehuda, what is his legal status?The Gemara explains the sides of the dilemma: bWhen,in our mishna, bRabbi Yehuda exempted a izavwho saw a seminal emissionfrom immersion, that bwas because from the outset he was not fit for immersion,as the immersion would not be effective in purifying him from the impurity of a izav /i; bhowever, one who experienced a seminal emission,who later bsaw a dischargethat rendered him a izav /i,who bwas fit for immersionand only later became impure with the severe impurity of a izav /i, would Rabbi Yehuda brequireimmersion? bOr perhaps there is no differenceand he is exempt from immersion in both cases?,In order to resolve this dilemma, bcomeand bhearthe last case of the mishna: A woman bwho engaged in conjugal relationswith her husband bandlater bsaw menstrual blood requires immersion. And Rabbi Yehuda exemptsthem from immersion. bIsn’t thewoman bwho engaged in conjugal relationswith her husband bandlater bsaw menstrual blood like one who experienced a seminal emission,who later bsaw a dischargethat rendered him a izav /i,as in both cases there is a less severe ritual impurity followed by a more severe impurity; bandnevertheless, bRabbi Yehuda exempts. Conclude from thisthat Rabbi Yehuda does not distinguish between the cases. And indeed, bRabbi Ḥiyya explicitly taught: One who experienced a seminal emissionwho later bsaw a dischargethat rendered him a izavrequires immersion, and Rabbi Yehuda exempts. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong This mishna determines the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited. According to the Rabbis, bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon. Rabbi Yehuda says:It may be recited only buntil four hoursafter sunrise. According to the Rabbis, bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening. Rabbi Yehuda says:It may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon [ ipelag haminḥa /i],i.e., the midpoint of the period that begins with the sacrifice of the daily afternoon offering and ends at nightfall, which is the end of the afternoon., bThe evening prayermay be recited throughout the night and bis not fixedto a specific hour. According to the Rabbis, bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day. Rabbi Yehuda says:It may be recited only buntil seven hoursafter sunrise., strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that the morning prayer may be recited only until a few hours into the day. The Gemara braises a contradictionbased on what was taught in a ibaraita /i: bThe mitzvais to recite the morning iShema bwith sunriseso that bhe will juxtapose redemption,which is mentioned in the blessings following iShema /i, btothe iAmida bprayer,which is recited immediately after sunrise, and bfindhimself bpraying in the daytime.Clearly, the time to recite the morning prayer is immediately after sunrise.,The Gemara responds: This ibaraitadoes not establish a binding ihalakha /i. Rather, it btaught thatrule specifically bwith regard to those who are scrupulous in fulfillment of mitzvot [ ivatikin /i]. As Rabbi Yoḥa said: iVatikinwould finishreciting the morning iShema bwith sunrise,but those who are not ivatikinmay recite their prayers later.,The Gemara asks: bDoes everyonehold that one may recite the morning prayer only buntil noon and no later? Didn’t Rav Mari, son of Rav Huna, son of Rabbi Yirmeya bar Abba, saythat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who erred and did not recite the evening prayer, prays in the morning prayer two iAmidaprayers; one who erred and did not recite bthe morning prayer, prays in the afternoon prayer two iAmidaprayers? Apparently, the morning prayer may be recited until the evening, at least in the event that he forgot to recite it in the morning.,The Gemara answers: Indeed, bone may continue praying for the entire day.However, if he prayed buntil noon, they give him a reward forreciting the bprayer at itsappointed btime.If he prayed bfrom there on, they give him a reward forreciting the bprayer. They do not give him a reward forreciting the bprayer at itsappointed btime. /b,On the topic of one who forgot to pray and seeks to compensate for the prayer that he missed, ba dilemma was raised before themin the study hall: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, what isthe ruling? May he brecitein bthe evening prayer two iAmidaprayers? The Gemara articulates the sides of the dilemma: bIf you saythat bone who erred and did not pray the evening prayer prays in the morning prayer two iAmidaprayers, perhaps that is bbecausethe evening and the morning are both part of bone day, as it is written: “And there was evening and there was morning, one day”(Genesis 1:5); the evening and the following morning constitute a single unit. bBut here,in the case under discussion, perhaps bprayer is in place of sacrifice.Since in the case of sacrifice we say, bsince its day passed, its sacrifice is invalidand there is no way to compensate for the missed opportunity, the same should be true for prayer. bOr, perhaps, since prayer is supplication, any time that one wishes, he may continue to pray? /b, bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma from that bwhich Rav Huna bar Yehuda saidthat bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer, prays in the evening prayer two iAmidaprayers band there is no element of: Its day passed, its sacrifice is invalid. /b,With regard to the possibility to compensate for a prayer that he failed to recite at its appointed time, the Gemara braises an objectionbased on what was taught in a ibaraita /i. The meaning of the verse: b“That which is crooked cannot be made straight; and that which is wanting cannot be numbered”(Ecclesiastes 1:15), is as follows: bThat which is crooked cannot be made straightrefers to bone who omitted the evening iShemaand the morning iShema,or the evening prayer, or the morning prayer. And that which is wanting cannot be numbered [ ilehimanot /i]refers to bone whose friends reached a consensus [ inimnu /i]to perform ba mitzva and he was not part of their consensus [ inimnu /i]and, consequently, he missed his opportunity to join them in performance of the mitzva. This ibaraitaclearly states that there is no way to compensate for a missed prayer.,To resolve this difficulty, bRabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: With what are we dealing herein this ibaraita /i? We are dealing with a case where one bintentionally failedto recite the prayer. Only then he has no remedy. However, one who failed to pray due to error can compensate for the missed prayer by reciting the next prayer twice., bRav Ashi said:The language of the ibaraita bis also precise as it teaches omitted and did not teach erred.This indicates that the ihalakhais different in the case of error. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, blearn from this. /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

45a. ורב ענן ברייתא לא שמיע ליה,ואי מדשמואל ממאי דאינה מכורה ומעות חוזרין דילמא אינה מכורה ומעות מתנה נינהו מידי דהוה אמקדש את אחותו דאיתמר המקדש את אחותו רב אמר מעות חוזרין ושמואל אמר מעות מתנה,אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף מאי חזית דקנסינן ללוקח נקנסיה למוכר א"ל לאו עכברא גנב אלא חורא גנב א"ל אי לאו עכברא חורא מנא ליה,מסתברא היכא דאיכא איסורא התם קנסינן:,ההוא עבדא דערק מחוצה לארץ לארץ אזל מריה אבתריה אתא לקמיה דרבי אמי אמר ליה נכתוב לך שטרא אדמיה וכתוב ליה גיטא דחירותא ואי לא מפקנא ליה מינך מדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה,דתניא (שמות כג, לג) לא ישבו בארצך פן יחטיאו אותך לי וגו' יכול בעובד כוכבים שקיבל עליו שלא לעבוד עבודת כוכבים הכתוב מדבר ת"ל (דברים כג, טז) לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו אשר ינצל אליך מעם אדוניו מאי תקנתו עמך ישב בקרבך וגו',וקשיא ליה לר' יאשיה האי מעם אדוניו מעם אביו מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי יאשיה במוכר עבדו לחוצה לארץ הכתוב מדבר,וקשיא ליה לרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה האי אשר ינצל אליך אשר ינצל מעמך מיבעי ליה אלא אמר רבי אחי בר' יאשיה בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ הכתוב מדבר,תניא אידך לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו רבי אומר בלוקח עבד ע"מ לשחררו הכתוב מדבר היכי דמי אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק דכתב ליה הכי לכשאקחך הרי עצמך קנוי לך מעכשיו,רב חסדא ערק ליה עבדא לבי כותאי שלח להו הדרוה ניהלי שלחו ליה לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו (שלח להו (דברים כב, ג) וכן תעשה לחמורו וכן תעשה לשמלתו וכן תעשה לכל אבידת אחיך שלחו ליה והכתיב לא תסגיר עבד אל אדוניו) שלח להו ההוא בעבד שברח מחו"ל לארץ וכדרבי אחי ברבי יאשיה,ומאי שנא דשלח להו כדר' אחי בר' יאשיה משום דמשמע להו קראי,אביי אירכס ליה חמרא בי כותאי שלח להו שדרוה לי שלחו ליה שלח סימנא שלח להו דחיוורא כריסיה שלחו ליה אי לאו דנחמני את לא הוה משדרנא ליה ניהלך אטו כולי חמרי לאו כריסייהו חיוורין נינהו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אין פודין את השבויין יתר על כדי דמיהן מפני תיקון העולם ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת השבויין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big איבעיא להו האי מפני תיקון העולם משום דוחקא דצבורא הוא או דילמא משום דלא לגרבו ולייתו טפי,ת"ש דלוי בר דרגא פרקא לברתיה בתליסר אלפי דינרי זהב,אמר אביי ומאן לימא לן דברצון חכמים עבד דילמא שלא ברצון חכמים עבד:,ואין מבריחין את השבויין מפני תיקון העולם רשב"ג אומר מפני תקנת שבויין: מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו דליכא אלא חד:,בנתיה דרב נחמן בחשן קדרא בידייהו קשיא ליה לרב עיליש כתיב (קהלת ז, כח) אדם אחד מאלף מצאתי ואשה בכל אלה לא מצאתי הא איכא בנתיה דרב נחמן גרמא להו מילתא ואשתביין ואישתבאי איהו נמי בהדייהו,יומא חד הוה יתיב גביה ההוא גברא דהוה ידע בלישנא דציפורי אתא עורבא וקא קרי ליה אמר ליה מאי קאמר אמר ליה עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר עורבא שיקרא הוא ולא סמיכנא עליה,אדהכי אתא יונה וקא קריא אמר ליה מאי קאמרה א"ל עיליש ברח עיליש ברח אמר כנסת ישראל כיונה מתילא ש"מ מתרחיש לי ניסא אמר איזיל אחזי בנתיה דרב נחמן אי קיימן בהימנותייהו אהדרינהו,אמר נשי כל מילי דאית להו סדרן להדדי בבית הכסא שמעינהו דקאמרן עדי גוברין ונהרדעי גוברין לימא להו לשבוייהו דלירחקינהו מהכא דלא ליתו אינשין ולישמעי וליפרקינן,קם ערק אתא איהו וההוא גברא לדידיה איתרחיש ליה ניסא עבר במברא וההוא גברא אשכחוה וקטלוה כי הדרן ואתן אמר הוו קא בחשן קידרא בכשפים:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ואין לוקחין ספרים תפילין ומזוזות מן העובדי כוכבים יותר על כדי דמיהן 45a. The Gemara says: bAndas for bRav A,who could not determine in which case the money of the sale is returned, bthe ibaraitawas not known to him,so he was not able to use it in order to resolve his dilemma., bAnd ifRav A would attempt to resolve his dilemma bfromthe statement bof Shmuel,who said that the sale does not take effect at all, this should mean that the money used in the sale is returned, it is possible to say: bFrom wherecan you assume bthat it is not sold, andtherefore bthe money is returned? Perhaps it is not sold and the money isconsidered to be ba gift, just as it isaccording to the opinion of Shmuel binthe case of bone who betroths his sister. Asit bwas statedwith regard to bone who betroths his sister, Rav said: The moneyhe gave for the betrothal bis returned,since the betrothal does not take effect; band Shmuel said:This bmoneyis ba gift,meaning that he wished to give a gift to his sister and he did so in this manner. Therefore, Rav A remained uncertain as to when Shmuel required the money to be returned.,With regard to the ihalakhathat if one sells his slave to a Jew outside of Eretz Yisrael it is the purchaser who loses his money, bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: What did you seeto cause you to say bthat we apply the penalty to the purchaser,in that he is required to emancipate the slave and loses his money; bwe should apply the penalty to the seller,and he should be required to return the money. Rav Yosef answered Abaye with a parable and bsaid to him:It is bnot the mousethat bsteals, but the holethat bsteals.In other words, a mouse cannot steal anything unless he has a hole for hiding the stolen items. Here too, the slave would not have been sold without the help of the purchaser. The Gemara questions this logic: But bif notfor bthe mouse, from wherewould bthe holehave the stolen item; since they both contribute to the prohibited act, each of them is deserving of being penalized.,Rav Yosef responded to him: bIt stands to reasonthat banywhere that the forbiddenitem, i.e., the slave, bis,in this case, with the purchaser, bthere weshould bpenalize. /b,§ The Gemara relates: There was ba certain slave who fledfrom his master bfrom outside of EretzYisrael bto EretzYisrael. bHis master followed himto Eretz Yisrael and bcame before Rabbi Ami.Rabbi Ami bsaid tothe master: bWe will write apromissory bnote for his value for you, and youshould bwrite a bill of manumission for him. And ifyou do bnotdo this, bI will remove him from youentirely, since he does not have to return to outside of Eretz Yisrael, bbased onthe statement bof Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya. /b, bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse states with regard to the residents of the Land of Canaan: b“They shall not dwell in your land lest they make you to sin against Me,for you will serve their gods; for they will be a snare to you” (Exodus 23:33). One bmighthave thought that bthe verse isalso bspeaking of a gentile who accepted upon himself not toengage in bidol worship,and is teaching that such a gentile may not dwell in Eretz Yisrael as well; therefore bthe verse states: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave who escaped to you from his master”(Deuteronomy 23:16). The ibaraitaunderstands that the verse is speaking in metaphoric terms about a gentile who has come to Eretz Yisrael, escaping his idolatrous past. The ibaraitacontinues: bWhatis this gentile’s bremedy? “He shall dwell with you in your midst”(Deuteronomy 23:17). This teaches that as long as he accepts upon himself not to engage in idol worship, he may remain in Eretz Yisrael., bAndthe explanation of the verse in the ibaraitais bdifficult for Rabbi Yoshiya: Thisexpression employed in the verse: b“From his master,”is imprecise if it is speaking about a gentile who abandons idol worship, as bit should havestated: bFrom his father,as a father is a more apt metaphor for the religion in which one was raised. bRather, Rabbi Yoshiyaexplains differently and bsays: The verse is speaking of one who sells his slave toa Jew who lives boutside of EretzYisrael, and the continuation of the verse: “He shall dwell with you,” means that he does not go to his new master outside of Eretz Yisrael, but is emancipated and remains in Eretz Yisrael., bAndthe explanation of Rabbi Yoshiya is bdifficult for Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya:If it is referring to a slave who is sold to one outside of Eretz Yisrael, then bthisexpression: b“Who escaped to you,”is not accurate, as he is leaving from Eretz Yisrael, not escaping to Eretz Yisrael. According to Rabbi Yoshiya’s explanation, bit should havestated: bWho escaped from you. Rather, Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, said: The verse is speaking of a slave who escaped from outside of EretzYisrael bto EretzYisrael, which indicates that in such a case he may dwell there and is not returned to his master. Based on this statement of Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, Rabbi Ami told the master that the slave will in any case be emancipated.,It bis taughtin banother ibaraita /i: The verse states: b“You shall not deliver to his master a slave”(Deuteronomy 23:16); bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: The verse is speaking of one who acquires a slave in order to emancipate him.The court may not deliver him to this master, because he is not his slave and he may not treat him as such. The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesof this case? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said:For example, bwhen he wrote tothe slave blike this: When I will purchase you, you are hereby acquired to yourself from now.The new master does not take possession of the slave, as he is emancipated immediately upon being purchased.,The Gemara relates that bRav Ḥisda’s slave escaped to Bei Kutai,a place where Samaritans lived. bHe senta request btothe residents of that place: bReturn him to me. They senta response bto him:The verse states: b“You shall not deliver to his master a slave,”so we will not return this slave to you. bHe senta response bto them:The verse also states with regard to lost items: “And you shall restore it to him… band so you shall do for his donkey and so you shall do for his garment and so you shall do for anything your brother has lost”(Deuteronomy 22:2–3). bThey senta response bto himagain: bBut isn’t it written: “You shall not deliver to his master a slave”?Rav Ḥisda bsenta response bto them: Thatverse is referring bto a slave who escaped from outside of EretzYisrael bto EretzYisrael, band in accordance withthe explanation bof Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya,and my slave escaped from one location outside of Eretz Yisrael to another location outside of Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what is differentabout this case bthatled him to bsenda response bto themspecifically bin accordance withthe explanation bof Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya,and not in accordance with any other interpretation of the verse? The Gemara answers: bBecause that ishow the Samaritans would bunderstand the verse.Samaritans did not generally accept the explanations of the Sages, and this explanation accords with the straightforward reading of the verse, while the other explanations do not.,The Gemara relates that bAbaye lost a donkeyamong the Samaritans in bBei Kutai. He senta request bto them: Send it to me. They senta response bto him: Send a distinguishing markand we will return it to you. bHe sentthe following distinguishing mark bto them: That its belly is white. They senta response bto him: If notfor the fact bthat you are Naḥmani,meaning that we know that you are a trustworthy man, bwe would not send it to you. Is that to saythat bbellies of all donkeys aren’t white?Therefore, it is not a true distinguishing mark., strongMISHNA: /strong bThe captives are not redeemedfor bmore than theiractual monetary bvalue, for the betterment of the world; and one may not aid the captivesin their attempt to bescapefrom their captors bfor the betterment of the world,so that kidnappers will not be more restrictive with their captives to prevent them from escaping. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment of the captives,so that kidnappers will not avenge the escape of the captives by treating other captives with cruelty., strongGEMARA: /strong bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: With regard to bthisexpression: bFor the betterment of the world,is bit due to theficial bpressure of the community?Is the concern that the increase in price will lead to the community assuming ficial pressures it will not be able to manage? bOr perhapsit is bbecausethe result of this will be bthat they will not seize and bring additionalcaptives, as they will see that it is not worthwhile for them to take Jews captive?,The Gemara suggests: bComeand bhearan answer based on the fact bthat Levi bar Darga redeemed his daughterwho was taken captive bwith thirteen thousand gold dinars.This indicates that private citizens may pay excessive sums to redeem a captive if they so choose. Therefore, it must be that the reason for the ordice was to avoid an excessive burden being placed upon the community. If the ordice was instituted to remove the incentive for kidnappers to capture Jews, a private citizen would also not be permitted to pay an excessive sum., bAbaye said: And who told us that he acted in accordance with the wishes of the Sages? Perhaps he acted against the wishes of the Sages,and this anecdote cannot serve as a proof.,The mishna taught: bAnd one may not aid the captivesin their attempt to bescapefrom their captors, bfor the betterment of the world. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: For the betterment ofthe bcaptives.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe difference bbetweenthe two reasons given? The Gemara answers: bThere isa difference bbetween them when there is only onecaptive. If this ordice was instituted for the benefit of the other captives, so that the kidnappers should not avenge a captive’s escape by treating the others with cruelty, then if there is only one captive to begin with, one may help him to escape. If it was instituted so that kidnappers in general will not act restrictively with their captives, it would be prohibited in this case as well.,§ The Gemara relates that bRav Naḥman’s daughters would stir aboiling bpot with theirbare bhands,and people thought that the heat did not harm them due to their righteousness. bRav Ilish had a difficultywith a verse, as it bis written: “A man one of a thousand I have found, and a woman among all those have I not found”(Ecclesiastes 7:28). bAren’t there Rav Naḥman’s daughters,who were exceptionally righteous? bThese words caused them to be taken captive,due to the evil eye, bandRav Ilish bwas also taken captive with them. /b, bOne day a certain man was sitting with himin captivity bwho knew the language of birds. A raven came and called toRav Ilish. Rav Ilish bsaid tothe man: bWhat isthe raven bsaying? He said to himthat it is saying: bIlish, escape; Ilish, escape.Rav Ilish bsaid: It is a lying raven, and I do not rely on it. /b, bIn the meantime, a dove came and was callingout. Rav Ilish bsaid tothe man: bWhat is it saying? He said to himthat the dove said: bIlish, escape; Ilish, escape.Ilish bsaid: The Congregation of Israel is compared to a dove;I bconclude fromthe dove’s words that ba miracle will happen for me,and I can attempt to escape. Rav Ilish bsaid:Before I leave, bI will goand bI will see Rav Naḥman’s daughters. If they remainedsteadfast bin their faithand are acting appropriately, then I will take them with me and bI will return themto their home., bHe said: Women tell all of theirsecret bmatters to each other in the bathroom,so he went there to eavesdrop on them. bHe heard them saying: Thesecaptors are now bour husbands, and the men of Neharde’ato whom we are married are bour husbands. We should tell our captors to distance us from here so that our husbands should not cometo this area band hearthat we are here, band redeem us,and take us home. They preferred to remain with their captors.,Upon hearing this Rav Ilish baroseand bescaped. He and that manwho knew the language of the birds bcameto a river crossing. bA miracle happened for himand bhe crossedthe river bon a ferry, andthe captors bfound that man and killed him. WhenRav Naḥman’s daughters bwere returned and they cameback from their captivity, Rav Ilish bsaid: They would stir the pot with witchcraft,and that is why they were not burned by the boiling pot, but it was not due to their righteousness., strongMISHNA: /strong bAndTorah bscrolls, phylacteries, or imezuzotare not purchased from the gentileswhen they acquire these objects, if they request bmore than theiractual monetary bvalue, /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

110a. מצוה באפי נפשה הוא,לא יעשה צרכיו תרי אמאי נמלך הוא אמר אביי הכי קאמר לא יאכל תרי וישתה תרי ולא יעשה צרכיו אפילו פעם אחת דילמא חליש ומיתרע,ת"ר שותה כפלים דמו בראשו אמר רב יהודה אימתי בזמן שלא ראה פני השוק אבל ראה פני השוק הרשות בידו אמר רב אשי חזינא ליה לרב חנניא בר ביבי דאכל כסא הוה נפיק וחזי אפי שוקא,ולא אמרן אלא לצאת לדרך אבל בביתו לא אמר ר' זירא ולישן כלצאת לדרך דמי אמר רב פפא ולצאת לבית הכסא כלצאת לדרך דמי ובביתו לא והא רבא מני כשורי,ואביי כי שתי חד כסא מנקיט ליה אימיה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה ורב נחמן בר יצחק כי הוה שתי תרי כסי מנקיט ליה שמעיה חד כסא חד כסא מנקיט ליה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה אדם חשוב שאני,אמר עולא עשרה כוסות אין בהם משום זוגות עולא לטעמיה דאמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה כוסות תיקנו חכמים בבית האבל ואי ס"ד עשרה כוסות יש בהן משום זוגות היכי קיימי רבנן ותקנו מילתא דאתי לידי סכנה אבל תמניא יש בהן משום זוגות,רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא דאמרי תרוייהו שלום לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל שיתא יש בהן משום זוגות,רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו ויחונך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל ארבעה יש בהן משום זוגות,אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו וישמרך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף,ואזדא רבא לטעמיה דרבא אפקינהו לרבנן בארבעה כוסות אע"ג דאיתזק רבא בר ליואי לא חש לה למילתא דאמר ההוא משום דאותבן בפירקא הוה,אמר רב יוסף אמר לי יוסף שידא אשמדאי מלכא דשידי ממונה הוא אכולהו זוגי ומלכא לא איקרי מזיק איכא דאמרי לה להאי גיסא אדרבה מלכא [רתחנא הוא] מאי דבעי עביד שהמלך פורץ גדר לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,אמר רב פפא אמר לי יוסף שידא בתרי קטלינן בארבעה לא קטלינן בארבעה מזקינן בתרי בין בשוגג בין במזיד בארבעה במזיד אין בשוגג לא,ואי אישתלי ואיקרי ונפק מאי תקנתיה לינקוט זקפא דידיה דימיניה בידא דשמאליה וזקפא דשמאליה בידא דימיניה ונימא הכי אתון ואנא הא תלתא ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא ארבעה נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא חמשה ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא שיתא נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא שבעה הוה עובדא עד מאה וחד ופקע שידא,אמר אמימר אמרה לי רישתינהי דנשים כשפניות האי מאן דפגע בהו בנשים כשפניות נימא הכי חרי חמימי בדיקולא בזייא לפומייכו נשי דחרשייא קרח קרחייכי פרח פרחייכי 110a. bis a distinct mitzvain its own right. In other words, each cup is treated separately and one is not considered to be drinking in pairs.,The ibaraitataught that boneshould bnot attend to hissexual bneeds in pairs.The Gemara asks: bWhyshould one be concerned for this; bhe has changed his mind?One does not plan in advance to engage in marital relations twice, and therefore the two acts should not combine to form a dangerous pair. bAbaye said: This iswhat the itanna bis saying,i.e., the ibaraitashould be understood in the following manner: bOneshould bnot eat in pairs nor drink in pairs, andif he does so bheshould bnot attend to hissexual bneedsright afterward beven once, lest he is weakenedby the act band will be harmedfor having eaten or drunk in pairs., bThe Sages taughtin another ibaraita /i: If one bdrinks in pairs his blood is upon his head,i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. bRav Yehuda said: Whenis that the case? bWhen one did notleave the house and bview the marketplacebetween cups. bHowever, if he saw the marketplaceafter the first cup, bhe has permissionto drink another cup without concern. Likewise, bRav Ashi said: I saw Rav Ḥaya bar Beivaifollow this policy: bUpondrinking beach cup, he would leavethe house band view the marketplace. /b, bAnd we saidthat there is concern for the safety of one who drinks in pairs bonlywhen he intends bto set out on the roadafter drinking, bbutif he intends to remain bin his homethere is bnoneed for concern. bRabbi Zeira said: Andone who plans bto sleep is comparable toone who is bsetting out on the road.He should be concerned that he might be harmed. bRav Pappa said: And going to the bathroom is comparable to setting out on the road.The Gemara asks: bAndif one intends to remain bin his home,is there bnocause for concern? bBut Rava would count the beamsof the house to keep track of the number of cups he had drunk so as to ensure that he would not consume an even number., bAndlikewise bAbaye, when he would drink one cup, his mother wouldimmediately bplace two cups in his two handsso that he would not inadvertently drink only one more cup and thereby expose himself to the danger of drinking in pairs. bAndsimilarly, bwhen Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would drink two cups, his attendant wouldimmediately bplace onemore bcup in his hand,and if he would drink bone cup,the attendant would bplace two cups in his two hands.These reports indicate that one should be concerned for his safety after drinking an even number of cups, even when he remains at home. The Gemara answers: bAn important person is different.The demons focus their attention on him, and he must therefore be more careful than the average person., bUlla said: Ten cups contain no element ofthe danger associated with bpairs. Ullarules here bin accordance with his reasoningstated elsewhere, bas Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a ibaraita /i: The Sages institutedthat one must drink bten cupsof wine bin the house of a mournerduring the meal of comfort. bAnd if it could enter your mindthat bten cups do contain the element ofdanger associated with bpairs, how could the Sages arise and institute something thatmight bbring a person toa state of bdanger? However, eight cups do contain the element ofdanger associated with bpairs. /b, bRav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both saythat eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word ishalom /i, combineswith the previous cups bfor the goodbut bdoes not combine for the bad.The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countece upon you and give you peace [ ishalom /i]” (Numbers 6:26). The word ishalom /i, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. bHowever, six cups do contain the element ofdanger associated with bpairs. /b, bRabba and Rav Yosef both saythat even drinking six cups is not dangerous. The reason is that the fifth cup, represented by the word iviḥuneka /iin the second verse of the priestly benediction: “The Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you [ iviḥuneka /i]” (Numbers 6:25), bcombineswith the previous cups bfor the goodbut bdoes not combine for the bad. However, four cups do contain the element ofdanger associated with bpairs. /b, bAbaye and Rava both saythat even the number four is not dangerous, as iveyishmerekha /i,the third word in the first verse of the priestly benediction, reads: “The Lord bless you and keep you [ iveyishmerekha /i]” (Numbers 6:24). bIt combines for the goodbut bdoes not combine for the bad. /b, bAnd Rava follows hisstandard line of breasoningin this regard, bas Ravaallowed bthe Sages to leaveafter having drunk bfour cupsand was not concerned for their safety. bAlthough Rava bar Livai was injuredon one such occasion, Rava bwas not concernedthat bthe matterhad been caused by his consumption of an even number of cups, bas he said: Thatinjury occurred bbecauseRava bar Livai bchallenged me during thepublic blecture.It is improper for a student to raise difficulties against his rabbi during a public lecture, lest the rabbi be embarrassed by his inability to answer., bRav Yosef said: Yosef the Demon said to me: Ashmedai, the king of the demons, is appointed over allwho perform actions in bpairs, and a king is not called a harmful spirit.A king would not cause harm. Consequently, there is no reason to fear the harm of demons for having performed an action in pairs. bSome saythis statement bin this manner: On the contrary, he is an angry kingwho bdoes what he wants,as the ihalakhais bthat a kingmay bbreach the fenceof an individual bin order to form a path for himself, and nonemay bprotest hisaction. Similarly, the king of demons has full license to harm people who perform actions in pairs., bRav Pappa said: Yosef the Demon said to me:If one drinks btwocups, bwedemons bkillhim; if he drinks bfour, we do not killhim. But this person who drank bfour, we harmhim. There is another difference between two and four: bWithregard to one who drinks btwo, whetherhe did so bunwittingly or intentionally,we harm him. bWithregard to one who drinks bfour,if he does so bintentionally, yes,he is harmed; if he does so bunwittingly, no,he will not be harmed.,The Gemara asks: bAnd if one forgets and it happens that he goes outsideafter having drunk an even number of cups, bwhat is his solution?The Gemara answers: He should btake his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say as follows: You,my thumbs, band I are three,which is not a pair. bAnd if he hearsa voice bthat says: You and I are four,which makes a pair, he should bsay to it: You and I are five. And if he hears it say: You and I are six,he should bsay to it: You and I are seven.The Gemara relates that bthere was an incidentin which someone kept counting after the demon buntilhe reached ba hundred and one, and the demon burstin anger., bAmeimar said: The chief of witches said to me: One who encounters witchesshould bsay thisincantation: bHot feces in torn date baskets in your mouth, witches; may your hairs fall outbecause you use them for witchcraft; byour crumbs,which you use for witchcraft, bshould scatterin the wind;
15. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

72a. והאידנא הוא דליוה פרסאי אמר ליה אביי לרב יוסף להא גיסא דפרת עד היכא אמר ליה מאי דעתיך משום בירם מייחסי דפומבדיתא מבירם נסבי,אמר רב פפא כמחלוקת ליוחסין כך מחלוקת לענין גיטין ורב יוסף אמר מחלוקת ליוחסין אבל לגיטין דברי הכל עד ארבא תניינא דגישרא,אמר רמי בר אבא חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא תכילתא דחביל ימא רבינא אמר אף ציצורא תניא נמי הכי חנן בן פנחס אומר חביל ימא תכילתא דבבל שוניא וגוביא וציצורא תכילתא דחביל ימא אמר רב פפא והאידנא איערבי בהו כותאי ולא היא איתתא הוא דבעא מינייהו ולא יהבו ליה מאי חביל ימא אמר רב פפא זו פרת דבורסי,ההוא גברא דאמר להו אנא מן שוט מישוט עמד רבי יצחק נפחא על רגליו ואמר שוט מישוט בין הנהרות עומדת וכי בין הנהרות עומדת מאי הוי אמר אביי אמר ר' חמא בר עוקבא אמר רבי יוסי בר' חנינא בין הנהרות הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין והיכא קיימא אמר ר' יוחנן מאיהי דקירא ולעיל והא אמר רבי יוחנן עד מעברתא דגיזמא אמר אביי רצועה נפקא,אמר רב איקא בר אבין אמר רב חננאל אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין א"ל אביי לא תציתו ליה יבמה היא דנפלה ליה התם א"ל אטו דידי היא דרב חננאל היא אזיל שיילוה לרב חננאל אמר להו הכי אמר רב חלזון ניהוונד הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין,ופליגא דר' אבא בר כהנא דאמר ר' אבא בר כהנא מאי דכתיב (מלכים ב יח, יא) וינחם בחלח ובחבור נהר גוזן וערי מדי חלח זו חלזון חבור זו הדייב נהר גוזן זו גינזק ערי מדי זו חמדן וחברותיה ואמרי לה זו נהוונד וחברותיה,מאי חברותיה אמר שמואל כרך מושכי חוסקי ורומקי אמר רבי יוחנן וכולם לפסול קסלקא דעתא מושכי היינו מושכני והאמר ר' חייא בר אבין אמר שמואל מושכני הרי היא כגולה ליוחסין אלא מושכי לחוד ומושכני לחוד,(דניאל ז, ה) ותלת עלעין בפומה בין שיניה אמר רבי יוחנן זו חלזון הדייב ונציבין שפעמים בולעתן ופעמים פולטתן,(דניאל ז, ה) וארו חיוא אחרי תנינא דמיה לדוב תני רב יוסף אלו פרסיים שאוכלין ושותין כדוב ומסורבלין כדוב ומגדלין שער כדוב ואין להם מנוחה כדוב ר' אמי כי הוה חזי פרסא דרכיב אמר היינו דובא ניידא,א"ל רבי ללוי הראני פרסיים אמר ליה דומים לחיילות של בית דוד הראני חברין דומין למלאכי חבלה הראני ישמעאלים דומין לשעירים של בית הכסא הראני תלמידי חכמים שבבבל דומים למלאכי השרת,כי הוה ניחא נפשיה דרבי אמר הומניא איכא בבבל כולה עמונאי היא מסגריא איכא בבבל כולה דממזירא היא בירקא איכא בבבל שני אחים יש שמחליפים נשותיהם זה לזה בירתא דסטיא איכא בבבל היום סרו מאחרי המקום דאקפי פירא בכוורי בשבתא ואזיל וצדו בהו בשבתא ושמתינהו ר' אחי ברבי יאשיה ואישתמוד אקרא דאגמא איכא בבבל אדא בר אהבה יש בה 72a. bAnd it isonly bnowthat bthe Persians movedthe bridge further bupnorthward. bAbaye said to Rav Yosef: Until where doesthe border extend bon thiswestern bside of the Euphrates? Rav Yosef said to him: What are you thinking?Why do you ask? Is it bdue tothe town of bBiram?Even bthose ofpure blineagewho live in bPumbedita marrywomen bfrom Biram,which demonstrates that the residents of Biram are presumed to have unflawed lineage., bRav Pappa says: Just asthere is ba disputebetween Rav and Shmuel as to the northern border of Babylonia with regard bto lineage, sois there ba dispute with regard to bills of divorce.An agent bringing a bill of divorce from a country overseas to Eretz Yisrael must state that it was written and signed in his presence. If he brought it from Babylonia, there is no requirement for him to state this. Rav Pappa is teaching that the borders that define Babylonia with regard to this issue are the same as the borders with regard to lineage. bAnd Rav Yosef says:This bdisputeis bwith regard to lineage, but with regard to bills of divorce, everyone agreesthat it is considered Babylonia bup to the second lake of the bridgethat Shmuel mentioned., bRami bar Abba said:The province of bḤaveil Yamma is the glory of Babyloniawith regard to lineage; bShunya and Guvyaare bthe glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Ravina said:The town of bTzitzorais balsolike Shunya and Guvya. bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bḤa ben Pineḥas says: Ḥaveil Yamma is the glory of Babylonia; Shunya and Guvya and Tzitzoraare bthe glory of Ḥaveil Yamma. Rav Pappa says: And nowadays, Samaritans have assimilated with them,and their lineage is problematic. The Gemara comments: bAndthat bis not so.Rather, one Samaritan brequestedto marry ba woman from them and they would not giveher bto him,which led to the rumor that Samaritans had assimilated with them. The Gemara asks: bWhatis this region called bḤaveil Yamma? Rav Pappa said: Thisis the area near the bEuphratesadjacent bto Bursi. /b,The Gemara relates: There was ba certain man who said tothe Sages: bI am froma place called bShot Mishot. Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa stood on his feet and said: Shot Mishot is located between theTigris and Euphrates bRivers.The Gemara asks: bAnd if it is located between the rivers, what of it?What ihalakhais this relevant for? bAbaye saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ukva saysthat bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says:The area bbetween the rivers is like the exile,meaning Pumbedita, bwith regard to lineage.The Gemara inquires: bAnd where isthe area between the rivers blocatedfor the purpose of this ihalakha /i? bRabbi Yoḥa said: From Ihi Dekira and upward,i.e., northward. The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Until the crossing at Gizmabut no further? bAbaye said: A strip extendsfrom that region past Ihi Dekira., bRav Ika bar Avin saysthat bRav Ḥael saysthat bRav says: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. Abaye said to them: Do not listen toRav Ika bar Avin about this, as bit was a iyevama /iwho bfell before himfrom bthereto perform levirate marriage, and he said that its lineage was unflawed because he wished to marry her. Rav Ika bar Avin bsaid to him: Is that to saythat this ihalakha bis mine? It is Rav Ḥael’s,and it is not reasonable to say that I was influenced by my own interests in stating it. bThey went and asked Rav Ḥael. He said to them: Rav said as follows: Ḥillazon Nihavnad is like the exile with regard to lineage. /b,The Gemara comments: bAndthis bdisagreeswith the statement bof Rabbi Abba bar Kahana, as Rabbi Abba bar Kahana says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is writtenwith regard to the exile of the ten tribes of the kingdom of Israel: b“And he put them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes”(II Kings 18:11)? bHalah is Ḥillazon; Habor is Hadyav; the river of Gozan is Ginzak; the cities of the Medes are Ḥamadan and its neighboring towns, and some say: This is Nihavnad and its neighboring towns.Since the ten tribes assimilated with the gentiles, the lineage of Jews from those places is flawed, unlike that which was taught before.,The Gemara asks: bWhatare the bneighboring townsof Nihavnad? bShmuel said:The bcityof bMushekhei, Ḥosekei, and Rumekei. Rabbi Yoḥa says: Andall of these are the same with regard bto flawedlineage. bIt was assumedthat bMushekhei isthe same as bMushekanei.The Gemara therefore asks: bBut doesn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Avin saythat bShmuel says: Mushekanei is like the exile with regard to lineage? Rather,it must be that bMushekhei is discrete, and Mushekanei is discrete. /b,In connection to the aforementioned places, the Gemara analyzes the following verse, describing a vision of a bear-like animal: b“And it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth”(Daniel 7:5). bRabbi Yoḥa says: This is Ḥillazon, Hadyav, and Netzivin, whichthe Persian government bsometimes swallows and sometimes discharges.In other words, control over these places passed from the Persians to the Romans and back again several times.,The first part of that verse stated: b“And behold a second beast, similar to a bear”(Daniel 7:5). bRav Yosef taught: These are Persians, who eat and drinkcopious amounts blike a bear, and are corpulent like a bear, and grow hair like a bear, and have no rest like a bear,which is constantly on the move from one place to another. bWhen Rabbi Ami saw a Persian riding, he would say: This is a bear on the move. /b, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to Levi: Show me Persians,i.e., describe a typical Persian to me. Levi bsaid to him:They bare similar to the legions of the house of David.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Ḥabbarin,Persian priests. Levi said to him: They bare similar to angels of destruction.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Ishmaelites.Levi said to him: They bare similar to demons of an outhouse.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bShow me Torah scholars of Babylonia.Levi said to him: They bare similar to ministering angels. /b, bWhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas dying, he saidprophetically: bThere isa place called bHomanya in Babylonia,and ball itspeople are the sons bof Ammon. There isa place called bMasgariya in Babylonia,and ball itspeople are imamzerim /i. There isa place called bBireka in Babylonia,and bthere are two brothersthere bwho exchange wives with each other,and their children are therefore imamzerim /i. bThere isa place called bBireta DeSatya in Babylonia. Today they turned away from the Omnipresent.What did they do? bA ditch with fish overflowed, and they went and trappedthe fish bon Shabbat. Rabbi Aḥai, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, excommunicated them, and theyall bbecame apostates. There isa place called bAkra DeAgma in Babylonia. There isa man named bAdda bar Ahava there. /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

19a. ואין עשה דוחה לא תעשה ועשה אלא מן האירוסין אמאי יבא עשה וידחה לא תעשה,גזירה ביאה ראשונה אטו ביאה שניה,תניא נמי הכי אם קדמו ובעלו ביאה ראשונה קנו ואסור לקיימן בביאה שניה:,מת לו מת כו': ת"ר (ויקרא כא, יב) ומן המקדש לא יצא לא יצא עמהן אבל יוצא הוא אחריהן כיצד הן נכסין והוא נגלה הן ניגלין והוא נכסה:,ויוצא עד פתח כו': שפיר קאמר ר' יהודה,אמר לך רבי מאיר אי הכי לביתו נמי לא אלא ה"ק מן המקדש לא יצא מקדושתו לא יצא וכיון דאית ליה הכירא לא אתי למינגע,ורבי יהודה אגב מרריה דילמא מקרי ואתי ונגע:,כשהוא מנחם: ת"ר כשהוא עובר בשורה לנחם את אחרים סגן ומשוח שעבר בימינו וראש בית אב ואבלים וכל העם משמאלו וכשהוא עומד בשורה ומתנחם מאחרים סגן מימינו וראש בית אב וכל העם משמאלו,אבל משוח שעבר לא אתי גביה מ"ט חלשא דעתיה סבר קא חדי בי א"ר פפא ש"מ מהא מתניתא תלת שמע מינה היינו סגן היינו ממונה ושמע מינה אבלים עומדין וכל העם עוברין ושמע מינה אבלים לשמאל המנחמין הן עומדין,ת"ר בראשונה היו אבלים עומדין וכל העם עוברין והיו ב' משפחות בירושלים מתגרות זו בזו זאת אומרת אני עוברת תחלה וזאת אומרת אני עוברת תחלה התקינו שיהא העם עומדין ואבלים עוברין:,(חזר והלך וסיפר סימן):,אמר רמי בר אבא החזיר רבי יוסי את הדבר ליושנו בציפורי שיהיו אבלים עומדין וכל העם עוברין ואמר רמי בר אבא התקין רבי יוסי בציפורי שלא תהא אשה מהלכת בשוק ובנה אחריה משום מעשה שהיה ואמר רמי בר אבא התקין ר' יוסי בציפורי שיהיו נשים מספרות בבית הכסא משום ייחוד,אמר רב מנשיא בר עות שאילית את רבי יאשיה רבה בבית עלמין דהוצל ואמר לי אין שורה פחותה מעשרה בני אדם ואין אבלים מן המנין בין שאבלים עומדין וכל העם עוברין בין שאבלים עוברין וכל העם עומדין:,כשהוא מתנחם כו': איבעיא להו כי מנחם הוא אחריני היכי אמר להו ת"ש והוא אומר תתנחמו היכי דמי אילימא כי מנחמי אחריני לדידיה אמר להו איהו תתנחמו נחשא קא רמי להו אלא כי מנחם לאחריני אמר להו תתנחמו ש"מ:,מלך לא דן כו': אמר רב יוסף לא שנו אלא מלכי ישראל אבל מלכי בית דוד דן ודנין אותן דכתיב (ירמיהו כא, יב) בית דוד כה אמר ה' דינו לבקר משפט ואי לא דיינינן ליה אינהו היכי דייני והכתיב (צפניה ב, א) התקוששו וקושו ואמר ר"ל קשט עצמך ואחר כך קשט אחרים,אלא מלכי ישראל מ"ט לא משום מעשה שהיה דעבדיה דינאי מלכא קטל נפשא אמר להו שמעון בן שטח לחכמים תנו עיניכם בו ונדוננו שלחו ליה עבדך קטל נפשא שדריה להו שלחו לי' תא אנת נמי להכא (שמות כא, כט) והועד בבעליו אמרה תורה יבא בעל השור ויעמוד על שורו,אתא ויתיב א"ל שמעון בן שטח ינאי המלך עמוד על רגליך ויעידו בך ולא לפנינו אתה עומד אלא לפני מי שאמר והיה העולם אתה עומד שנאמר (דברים יט, יז) ועמדו שני האנשים אשר להם הריב וגו' אמר לו לא כשתאמר אתה אלא כמה שיאמרו חבריך 19a. bandthere is a principle that ba positive mitzvaby itself bdoes not overrideboth ba prohibition and a positive mitzva. Butas for the ruling that he does not consummate levirate marriage with a widow bfrom betrothal, whynot? The bpositive mitzvato consummate levirate marriage should bcome and override the prohibition. /b,The Gemara answers: The bfirstact of bintercourseis prohibited by rabbinic bdecree due tothe likelihood of ba secondact of bintercourse.Although the first act of intercourse would fulfill the positive mitzva of consummating levirate marriage, which would override the prohibition against a High Priest’s engaging in intercourse with a widow, any further intercourse would not be in fulfillment of a mitzva, and would not override the prohibition. Therefore, due to the possibility that the High Priest and the iyevamawould engage in intercourse a second time, the Sages decreed that even the first act is forbidden.,The Gemara comments: bThis is also taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIfthe High Priest or one whose iyevamais forbidden to him bwent ahead and engaged in a firstact of bintercoursewith her, bhe acquiredher as a wife, bbut it is prohibited to retainthat woman as a wife bfor a secondact of bintercourse. /b,§ The mishna teaches with regard to the High Priest that if a relative bof his died,he does not follow the bier carrying the corpse. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: The verse concerning the High Priest, which states: b“And from the Temple he shall not emerge”(Leviticus 21:12), means: bHe shall not emerge with themas they escort the bier, bbut he emerges after them. How so?Once bthey are concealedfrom sight by turning onto another street, bhe is revealedon the street they departed, and when bthey are revealed,then bhe is concealed. /b,The mishna teaches Rabbi Meir’s opinion, that in the manner just described to escort the deceased, the High Priest bemerges with them until the entranceof the gate of the city, which is contrasted with Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion that he does not leave the Temple at all. The Gemara comments: bRabbi Yehuda is saying well,and his statement is consistent with the straightforward meaning of the verse: “And from the Temple he shall not emerge” (Leviticus 21:12).,The Gemara responds: bRabbi Meircould have bsaid to you: If so,that you understand the verse so narrowly, he should bnotgo out bto his house as wellbut should be required to stay in the Temple. bRather, thisis what bit is saying: “And from the Temple [ ihamikdash /i] he shall not emerge”means: bFrom his sanctity [ imikedushato /i] he shall not emergeby contracting ritual impurity, band since he has a distinctive indicatorin that he does not walk together with those accompanying the bier, bhe will not come to touchthe bier and contract impurity.,The Gemara asks: bAndhow would bRabbi Yehudarespond? The Gemara explains: There is still cause for concern that bon account of his bitternessdue to the death of his loved one, bperhaps it will happen that he comes and touchesthe bier. Therefore, a more restrictive regimen of separation is necessary.,The mishna teaches: And bwhen he consolesothers in their mourning when they return from burial, the way of all the people is that they pass by one after another and the mourners stand in a line and are consoled, and the appointed person stands in the middle, between him and the people. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta4:1) in a more detailed manner: bWhenthe High Priest bpasses by in the line to console others, the deputyHigh Priest bandthe bformer anointedHigh Priest, who had served temporarily and then stepped down, are bon his right. And the head of the patrilineal familyappointed over the priestly watch performing the sacrificial rites that day in the Temple; band the mourners; and all the peopleare bon his left. And when he is standing in the lineamong the other mourners band is consoled by others, the deputyHigh Priest is bon his right, and the head of the patrilineal family and all the peopleare bon his left. /b,The Gemara infers: bButthe bpreviously anointed one does not come before him. What is the reason?The High Priest bwill become distraught. He will think: He is happy about mein my bereaved state. bRav Pappa said: Learn from it, from this ibaraita /i, threematters. bLearn from itthat bthe deputyHigh Priest bisthe same as the bappointedperson, as the ibaraitais referring to the deputy High Priest in the same function described by the mishna as the appointed one. bAnd learn from itthat the way of consoling in a line is that bthe mourners stand and all the people pass byand console them. bAnd learn from itthat the custom is that the bmourners stand to the left of the consolers. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bInitially the mourners would stand, and all the people would pass byone after another and console them. bAnd there were two families in Jerusalem who would fight with each other,as bthisone bwould say: We pass by firstbecause we are more distinguished and important, band thatone bwould say: We pass by first.Consequently, bthey decreed that the people should stand andthe bmourners pass by,and disputes would be avoided.,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the following discussion: bReturned; and walk; and converse. /b, bRami bar Abba says: Rabbi Yosei returned the matter to its formercustom bin Tzipporihis city, bthat the mourners would stand and all the people would pass. And Rami bar Abba says: Rabbi Yosei institutedan ordice bin Tzippori that a woman should not walk in the market andhave bher sonfollowing bbehind her;rather, he should walk in front of her, bbecause of an incident that happenedin which bandits abducted a child and assaulted the mother when she came searching for him in his place of captivity. bAnd Rami bar Abba says: Rabbi Yosei institutedan ordice bin Tzippori that women should converse in the bathroom, because ofthe restrictions on women being bsecludedwith men. Since the public bathrooms there were outside the city a man might enter to take advantage of a woman, but he would be warded off by the women’s conversation., bRav Menashya bar Ute says: I askeda question of bRabbi Yoshiya the Great in the cemetery of Huzal, and he saidthis ihalakha bto me: There is no linefor consoling mourners with bfewer than ten people, andthe bmourners are notincluded in the bcount.This minimum number of consolers applies bwhether the mourners stand and all the people pass by, or the mourners pass by and all the people stand. /b,§ The mishna teaches: And bwhen he is consoledby others in his mourning, all the people say to him: We are your atonement. And he says to them: May you be blessed from Heaven. bA dilemma was raised beforethe Sages: bWhenthe High Priest bconsoles others, whatshould bhe say to them? Comeand bhearan answer from a ibaraita /i: bAnd he says: May you be consoled.The Gemara asks: bWhat are the circumstancesin which he says this? bIf we say that when others console himin his mourning bhe says to them: May you be consoled,this does not make sense, because bhewould be bthrowing a curse at themby saying that they too will need to be consoled. bRather,it must mean: bWhen he consoles others, he says to them: May you be consoled. Learn fromthe ibaraitathat this is what he says to console others.,§ The mishna teaches: bA king does not judgeand is not judged. bRav Yosef says: They taughtthis ihalakha bonlywith regard to bthe kings of Israel,who were violent and disobedient of Torah laws, bbutwith regard to bthe kings of the house of David,the king bjudges and is judged, as it is written: “O house of David, so says the Lord: Execute justice in the morning”(Jeremiah 21:12). bIf they do not judge him, how can he judge? But isn’t it written: “Gather yourselves together, yea, gather together [ ihitkosheshu vakoshu /i]”(Zephaniah 2:1), band Reish Lakish says:This verse teaches a moral principle: bAdorn [ ikashet /i] yourselffirst, band then adorn others,i.e., one who is not subject to judgment may not judge others. Since it is understood from the verse in Jeremiah that kings from the Davidic dynasty can judge others, it is implicit that they can also be judged.,The Gemara asks: bBut what is the reasonthat others bdo notjudge bthe kings of Israel?It is bbecause of an incident that happened, as the slave of Yannai the king killed a person. Shimon ben Shataḥ said to the Sages: Put your eyes on him and let us judge him. They sentword btoYannai: bYour slave killed a person.Yannai bsentthe slave bto them. They sentword btoYannai: bYou also come here,as the verse states with regard to an ox that gored a person to death: b“He should be testified against with his owner”(Exodus 21:29). bThe Torah stated: The owner of the ox should come and stand over his ox. /b,The Gemara continues to narrate the incident: Yannai bcame and sat down. Shimon ben Shataḥ said to him: Yannai the king, stand on your feet andwitnesses bwill testify against you. Andit is bnot before usthat byou are standing,to give us honor, bbutit is bbefore the One Who spoke and the world came into beingthat byou are standing, as it is stated: “Then both the people, between whom the controversy is, shall standbefore the Lord, before the priests and the judges that shall be in those days” (Deuteronomy 19:17). Yannai the king bsaid to him:I will bnotstand bwhen youalone bsaythis to me, bbut according to what your colleagues say,and if the whole court tells me, I will stand.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abot,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
babylon,babylonian Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
bar-kokhba (revolt) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
bible/biblical Piotrkowski (2019) 430
cult/cultic Piotrkowski (2019) 430
cultic literature Neusner (2004) 151
customs Piotrkowski (2019) 430
diaspora,revolt Piotrkowski (2019) 430
diaspora Piotrkowski (2019) 430
festival Piotrkowski (2019) 430
health Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
homeland Piotrkowski (2019) 430
jerusalem temple Piotrkowski (2019) 430
loyal/loyalty Piotrkowski (2019) 430
metropolis (mother-city) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
mikdash adam (temple of man) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
military Piotrkowski (2019) 430
mishnah,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
palestine Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
rabbi,rabbinic Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
rabbinic Piotrkowski (2019) 430
religion/religious Piotrkowski (2019) 430
sacrifices/sacrificial,daily (tamid) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
sacrifices/sacrificial Piotrkowski (2019) 430
sepphoris Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 79
service (temple/divine) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
sifra,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
sifre to deuteronomy,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
sifré to numbers,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
temple (worship) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
temple tax (half-shekel) Piotrkowski (2019) 430
tosefta,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 151
worship' Piotrkowski (2019) 430