The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Index Database
Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Mishnah, Niddah, 8.1

nanIf a woman observed a bloodstain on her body: If it was opposite her genital area she is unclean; But if it was not near the genital are she remains clean. If it was on her heel or on the tip of her large toe, she is unclean. On her thigh or on her feet: If on the inner side, she is unclean; If on their outer side, she remains clean. And if on the front and back sides she remains clean. If she observed it on her garment: Below the belt, she is unclean, But if above the belt, she remains clean. If she observed it on the sleeve of her shirt: If it can reach as low as her genital area, she is unclean, But if it cannot, she remains clean. If she takes it off and covers herself with it in the night, she is unclean wherever the stain is found, since it can turn about. And the same law applies to a pallium."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 21.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.5. וְנִגְּשׁוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי כִּי בָם בָּחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְבָרֵךְ בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וְעַל־פִּיהֶם יִהְיֶה כָּל־רִיב וְכָל־נָגַע׃ 21.5. And the priests the sons of Levi shall come near—for them the LORD thy God hath chosen to minister unto Him, and to bless in the name of the LORD; and according to their word shall every controversy and every stroke be."
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 13.1-13.3, 15.16, 18.19, 20.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

13.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר׃ 13.1. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה שְׂאֵת־לְבָנָה בָּעוֹר וְהִיא הָפְכָה שֵׂעָר לָבָן וּמִחְיַת בָּשָׂר חַי בַּשְׂאֵת׃ 13.2. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֶהָ שָׁפָל מִן־הָעוֹר וּשְׂעָרָהּ הָפַךְ לָבָן וְטִמְּאוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶגַע־צָרַעַת הִוא בַּשְּׁחִין פָּרָחָה׃ 13.2. אָדָם כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ שְׂאֵת אוֹ־סַפַּחַת אוֹ בַהֶרֶת וְהָיָה בְעוֹר־בְּשָׂרוֹ לְנֶגַע צָרָעַת וְהוּבָא אֶל־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן אוֹ אֶל־אַחַד מִבָּנָיו הַכֹּהֲנִים׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע וְהִנֵּה מַרְאֵהוּ עָמֹק מִן־הָעוֹר וּבוֹ שֵׂעָר צָהֹב דָּק וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן נֶתֶק הוּא צָרַעַת הָרֹאשׁ אוֹ הַזָּקָן הוּא׃ 13.3. וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַנֶּגַע בְּעוֹר־הַבָּשָׂר וְשֵׂעָר בַּנֶּגַע הָפַךְ לָבָן וּמַרְאֵה הַנֶּגַע עָמֹק מֵעוֹר בְּשָׂרוֹ נֶגַע צָרַעַת הוּא וְרָאָהוּ הַכֹּהֵן וְטִמֵּא אֹתוֹ׃ 15.16. וְאִישׁ כִּי־תֵצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ שִׁכְבַת־זָרַע וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם אֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרוֹ וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃ 18.19. וְאֶל־אִשָּׁה בְּנִדַּת טֻמְאָתָהּ לֹא תִקְרַב לְגַלּוֹת עֶרְוָתָהּ׃ 20.18. וְאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁכַּב אֶת־אִשָּׁה דָּוָה וְגִלָּה אֶת־עֶרְוָתָהּ אֶת־מְקֹרָהּ הֶעֱרָה וְהִיא גִּלְּתָה אֶת־מְקוֹר דָּמֶיהָ וְנִכְרְתוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם מִקֶּרֶב עַמָּם׃ 13.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying:" 13.2. When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, or a scab, or a bright spot, and it become in the skin of his flesh the plague of leprosy, then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests." 13.3. And the priest shall look upon the plague in the skin of the flesh; and if the hair in the plague be turned white, and the appearance of the plague be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is the plague of leprosy; and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean." 15.16. And if the flow of seed go out from a man, then he shall bathe all his flesh in water, and be unclean until the even." 18.19. And thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is impure by her uncleanness." 20.18. And if a man shall lie with a woman having her sickness, and shall uncover her nakedness—he hath made naked her fountain, and she hath uncovered the fountain of her blood—both of them shall be cut off from among their people."
3. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.3. If he emitted thick drops from his member, he is unclean, the words of Rabbi Elazar Hisma. If one had sexual dreams in the night and arose and found his flesh heated, he is unclean. If a woman discharged semen on the third day, she is clean, the words of Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah. Rabbi Ishmael says: sometimes there are four time periods, and sometimes five, and sometimes six. Rabbi Akiva says: there are always five."
4. Mishnah, Niddah, 2.1, 4.2, 8.2-8.3, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. Every hand that makes frequent examination: In the case of women is praiseworthy, But in the case of men it ought to be cut off. In the case of a deaf, an person not of sound senses, a blind or an insane woman, if other women of sound senses are available they attend to her, and they may eat terumah. It is the custom of the daughters of Israel to have intercourse using two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself. Virtuous women prepare also a third rag to prepare the \"house\" [before intercourse]." 4.2. The daughters of the Sadducees, so long as they are accustomed to walking in the paths of their fathers, are to be regarded as Samaritan women. If they left those paths to walk in the paths of Israel, they are to be regarded as Israelite women. Rabbi Yose says: they are always regarded as Israelite women unless they leave the paths of Israel to walk in the paths of their fathers." 8.2. [A woman] may attribute [a bloodstain] to any [external] cause to which she can possibly attribute it. If [for instance] she had slaughtered a beast, a wild animal or a bird, Or if she was handling bloodstains or if she sat beside those who handled them. Or if she killed a louse, she may attribute the bloodstain to it. How large a stain may be attributed to a louse? Rabbi Hanina ben Antigonus says: one up to the size of a split bean; And even if she did not kill it. She may also attribute it to her son or to her husband. If she herself had a wound that could open again and bleed she may attribute it to it." 8.3. It happened that a woman came in front of Rabbi Akiva and said. She said to him: I have seen a bloodstain. He said to her: Perhaps you had a wound? She said to him: Yes, but it has healed. He said to her: Perhaps it could have opened again and let out some blood.\" She said to him: Yes. And Rabbi Akiva declared her clean. He saw his disciples looked at each other in astonishment. He said to them: Why do you find this difficult, for the sages did not say this rule in order to be stringent but rather to be lenient, for it is said, \"And if a woman have issue, and her issue in her flesh be blood\" blood but not a bloodstain." 9.3. If she lent her shirt to a non-Jewish woman or to a menstruant she may attribute a stain to either. If three women had worn the same shirt or had sat on the same wooden bench and subsequently blood was found on it, all are regarded as unclean. If they had sat on a stone bench or on the projection within the colonnade of a bath House: Rabbi Nehemiah says that they are clean, for Rabbi Nehemiah says: anything that is not susceptible to uncleanness is not susceptible to stains."
5. Mishnah, Oholot, 16.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

16.1. All movable things convey uncleanness when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad. Rabbi Tarfon said: May I [see the] demise of my sons if this is [not] a demised halakhah which someone heard and misunderstood. For a farmer was passing by and over his shoulder was an ox-goad, and one end overshadowed a grave. He was declared unclean on account of vessels that were overshadowing a corpse. Rabbi Akiva said: I can fix [the halakhah] so that the words of the sages can exist [as they are]: All movable things convey uncleanness to come upon a person carrying them, when they are of the thickness of an ox-goad; Upon themselves when they are of whatever thickness; And upon other men or vessels [which they overshadow] when they are one handbreadth wide."
6. Mishnah, Toharot, 5.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.9. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" but he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"You have become unclean,\" and he says, \"I have not become unclean,\" Rabbi Meir says: he is unclean. But the sages say: he may be believed on his own evidence. If one witness says, \"You have become unclean,\" and two witnesses say, \"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as clean. If two witnesses say, \"He has become unclean’, and one witness says, ‘\"He has not become unclean,\" whether in a private domain or in a public domain, he is regarded as unclean. If one witness says, \"He has become unclean,\" and another says, \"He has not become unclean,\" or if one woman says, \"He has become unclean’, and another woman says, \"He has not become unclean,\" he is regarded as unclean if in the private domain, but if in a public domain he is regarded as clean."
7. Tosefta, Oholot, 15.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

8. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

4a. בניהו בן יהוידע זה סנהדרין ואביתר אלו אורים ותומים,וכן הוא אומר (שמואל ב כ, כג) ובניהו בן יהוידע על הכרתי ועל הפלתי ולמה נקרא שמם כרתי ופלתי כרתי שכורתים דבריהם פלתי שמופלאים בדבריהם ואח"כ שר צבא למלך יואב,אמר רב יצחק בר אדא ואמרי לה אמר רב יצחק בריה דרב אידי מאי קרא (תהלים נז, ט) עורה כבודי עורה הנבל וכנור אעירה שחר.,רבי זירא אמר משה לעולם הוה ידע ודוד נמי הוה ידע,וכיון דדוד הוה ידע כנור למה ליה לאתעורי משנתיה,וכיון דמשה הוה ידע למה ליה למימר כחצות משה קסבר שמא יטעו אצטגניני פרעה ויאמרו משה בדאי הוא דאמר מר למד לשונך לומר איני יודע שמא תתבדה ותאחז,רב אשי אמר בפלגא אורתא דתליסר נגהי ארבסר הוה קאי והכי קאמר משה לישראל אמר הקב"ה למחר כחצות הלילה כי האידנא אני יוצא בתוך מצרים:,(תהלים פו, ב) לדוד שמרה נפשי כי חסיד אני לוי ור' יצחק חד אמר כך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לא חסיד אני שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב ישנים עד שלש שעות ואני (תהלים קיט, סב) חצות לילה אקום להודות לך,ואידך כך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבונו של עולם לא חסיד אני שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב יושבים אגודות אגודות בכבודם ואני ידי מלוכלכות בדם ובשפיר ובשליא כדי לטהר אשה לבעלה ולא עוד אלא כל מה שאני עושה אני נמלך במפיבשת רבי ואומר לו מפיבשת רבי יפה דנתי יפה חייבתי יפה זכיתי יפה טהרתי יפה טמאתי ולא בושתי,א"ר יהושע בריה דרב אידי מאי קרא (תהלים קיט, מו) ואדברה בעדותיך נגד מלכים ולא אבוש,תנא לא מפיבשת שמו אלא איש בשת שמו ולמה נקרא שמו מפיבשת שהיה מבייש פני דוד בהלכה לפיכך זכה דוד ויצא ממנו כלאב,וא"ר יוחנן לא כלאב שמו אלא דניאל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו כלאב שהיה מכלים פני מפיבשת בהלכה,ועליו אמר שלמה בחכמתו (משלי כג, טו) בני אם חכם לבך ישמח לבי גם אני ואומר (משלי כז, יא) חכם בני ושמח לבי ואשיבה חורפי דבר.,ודוד מי קרי לנפשיה חסיד והכתיב (תהלים כז, יג) לולא האמנתי לראות בטוב ה' בארץ חיים ותנא משמיה דרבי יוסי למה נקוד על לולא אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מובטח אני בך שאתה משלם שכר טוב לצדיקים לעתיד לבוא אבל איני יודע אם יש לי חלק ביניהם אם לאו,שמא יגרום החטא,כדר' יעקב בר אידי דר' יעקב בר אידי רמי כתיב (בראשית כח, טו) והנה אנכי עמך ושמרתיך בכל אשר תלך וכתיב (בראשית לב, ח) ויירא יעקב מאד אמר שמא יגרום החטא,כדתניא (שמות טו, טז) עד יעבור עמך ה' עד יעבור עם זו קנית,עד יעבור עמך ה' זו ביאה ראשונה עד יעבור עם זו קנית זו ביאה שנייה מכאן אמרו חכמים ראוים היו ישראל ליעשות להם נס בימי עזרא כדרך שנעשה להם בימי יהושע בן נון אלא שגרם החטא:,וחכ"א עד חצות: חכמים כמאן סבירא להו אי כרבי אליעזר סבירא להו לימרו כרבי אליעזר 4a. bBenayahu ben Yehoyadacorresponds to bthe Sanhedrin,since he was the head of the Sanhedrin, and bEvyatarcorresponds to bthe iUrim VeTummim /i,as Evyatar ben Ahimelekh the priest would oversee inquiries directed to the iUrim VeTummim(see I Samuel 23:9)., bAnd so it saysregarding Benayahu ben Yehoyada’s position as head of the Sanhedrin: b“And Benayahu ben Yehoyada was over the iKeretiand over the iPeleti /i”(II Samuel 20:23). bAnd why wasthe Sanhedrin bcalled iKereti UPeleti /i?It was called iKereti /ibecause bthey were decisive [ ikoretim /i] in their pronouncements.It was called iPeleti /ibecause btheir pronouncementsand wisdom bwere wondrous [ imufla’im /i] /b. The head of the iKereti UPeletiwas the head of the Sanhedrin. According to the order of the verse, upon being instructed by King David to go to war, the Sages first consulted with Ahitophel, then with the Sanhedrin, then they would ask the iUrim VeTummim /i, bandonly bthereafterwas bthe general of the king’s army, Yoav,given the command to ready the military for battle., bRav Yitzḥak bar Adda, and some say Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Idi, said:From bwhat verseis it derived that David’s lyre would wake him at midnight? b“Awake, my glory; awake, harp and lyre; I will wake the dawn”(Psalms 57:9). This means that the playing lyre has already woken, and now I must engage in Torah study until dawn., bRabbi Zeiraoffered a different solution to the question of whether Moses and David knew exactly when it was midnight and bsaid:Moses bcertainly knewwhen it was midnight, band David also knew. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf David knew,then bwhy did he need the lyre?The Gemara answers: He needed the lyre bto wake him from his sleep. /b,Similarly with regard to Moses, bsince Moses knewthe precise moment of midnight, bwhy did he say: About midnight,instead of: At midnight? Moses did so because he bmaintained: Lest Pharaoh’s astrologers errand believe midnight to be earlier. Since no disaster would have occurred, bthey would say: Moses is a liar.Moses spoke in accordance with the principle barticulated by the Master: Accustom your tongue to say: I do not know, lest you become entangled ina web of bdeceit. /b, bRav Ashi said:This question is unfounded, as Moses bwas standing at midnight of the thirteenth, leading into the fourteenth,when he pronounced his prophecy, band Moses told Israelthat bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, saidthat btomorrow,at the exact time blike midnight tonight, I will go out into the midst of Egypt.This indicates that the passage should not be understood to mean about midnight, an approximation; but rather, like midnight, as a comparison, likening midnight tomorrow to midnight tonight.,The Gemara further explores King David’s character. It is said: “A prayer bof David…Keep my soul, for I am pious”(Psalms 86:1–2). Levi and Rabbi Yitzḥak debated the meaning of this verse and how David’s piety is manifest in the fact that he went beyond his fundamental obligations. bOne said:David’s declaration of piety referred to his awakening during the night to pray, and bso said David before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? As all of the kings of the East and the West sleep until the third hourof the day, bbutalthough I am a king like them, b“At midnight I rise to give thanks”(Psalms 119:62)., bAnd the otherSage said: bDavid said the following before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, am I not pious? For all of the kings of the East and the West sit in groupsbefitting btheir honoredstatus, but I sit as a judge who issues rulings for the people. Women come with questions of ritual impurity and bmy hands become soiled withtheir bbloodas I labor to determine whether or not it is blood of impurity and she has menstruating woman status, bandwith ba fetus that miscarriedat a stage of development before it was clear whether or not it is considered a birth, bandwith bplacenta,which women sometimes discharge unrelated to the birth of a child (see Leviticus 15:19–30 with regard to blood, and 12:1–8 with regard to miscarriage and placenta). King David went to all this trouble bin order to render a woman ritually pureand consequently permitted bto her husband.If, after examination, a Sage declares the woman ritually pure, she is permitted to be with her husband, which leads to increased love and affection, and ultimately to procreation (Rabbi Yoshiyahu Pinto). bAnd not onlydo I engage in activity considered to be beneath the station of a king, bbut I consult my teacher, Mefivoshet,son of King Saul’s son, Jonathan, with regard to beverything that I do. I say to him: Mefivoshet, my teacher, did I decide properly? Did I convict properly? Did I acquit properly? Did I ruleritually bpure properly? Did I ruleritually bimpure properly? And I was not embarrassed.Forgoing royal dignity should make me worthy to be called pious., bRav Yehoshua, son of Rav Idi, said: What versealludes to this? b“And I speak Your testimonies before kings and I will not be ashamed”(Psalms 119:46). This verse alludes both to David’s commitment to Torah, in contrast to the kings of the East and the West, as well as to the fact that he was not ashamed to discuss matters of Torah with Mefivoshet, a descendant of kings. David was not afraid to have his mistakes corrected by Mefivoshet., bIt was taughtin a iToseftafrom a tannaitic tradition: bHis name was not Mefivoshet, but rather Ish Boshet was his name. Why wasIsh Boshet breferred to as Mefivoshet? Because he would embarrass [ imevayesh /i] David in matters of ihalakha/b. According to this approach, Mefivoshet is an abbreviation of iboshet panim /i, embarrassment. bBecauseDavid was not embarrassed to admit his errors, bhe merited that Kilav,who, according to tradition, was exceedingly wise, bwould descend from him. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: His name was not Kilav; rather, his name was Daniel,as it appears in a different list of David’s descendants. bWhy was he called Kilav? Because he would embarrass [ imakhlim /i] Mefivoshet,the teacher or authority figure [av] bin matters of ihalakha./b, bIn hisbook of bwisdom, Solomon saidabout this wise son: b“My son, if your heart is wise, my heart will be glad, even mine”(Proverbs 23:15), as David enjoyed witnessing his son Kilav develop into a Torah luminary to the extent that Kilav was able to respond to Mefivoshet. bAndSolomon bsaysabout Kilav: b“Be wise, my son, and make my heart glad, that I may respond to those who taunt me”(Proverbs 27:11).,With regard to David’s statement, “Keep my soul, for I am pious,” the Gemara asks: bDid David call himself pious? Isn’t it written: “If I had not [ iluleh/b] bbelieved to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living”(Psalms 27:13). The dots that appear over the word ilulehin the text indicate doubt and uncertainty of his piety, and whether he was deserving of a place in the land of the living (see iAvot DeRabbi Natan34). bIn the name of Rabbi Yosei, it was taughtin a iTosefta /i: bWhydo bdotsappear bover the word iluleh /i,as if there are some reservations? Because bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. Ihave every bconfidence in You that You grant an excellent reward to the righteous in the World-to-Comesince God’s ultimate goodness is manifest in the land of eternal life, bbutI still harbor uncertainty with regard to myself, and bI do not know whether or not Idefinitely bhave a portion among them.In any case, apparently David was uncertain whether or not he deserved to receive a portion of God’s reward for the righteous; how, then, could he characterize himself as pious?,The Gemara responds: His concern does not prove anything, as King David knew that he was pious. He was simply concerned blest a transgressionthat he might commit in the future bwill causehim to lose his opportunity to look upon the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living.,The Gemara cites a proof that there is room for one to fear lest he commit a transgression in the future bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Ya’akov bar Idi, as Rabbi Ya’akov bar Idi raised a contradictionbetween two verses. bIt is writtenthat God told Jacob in his vision of the ladder: b“Behold, I am with you and I guard you wherever you go”(Genesis 28:15), yet when Jacob returned to Canaan and realized that Esau was coming to greet him, bit is written: “And Jacob became very afraid,and he was pained” (Genesis 32:8). Why did Jacob not rely on God’s promise? Jacob had concerns and bsaidto himself: bLest a transgressionthat I might have committed after God made His promise to me bwill causeGod to revoke His promise of protection.,Apparently, at times, transgression does cause God’s promise to go unfulfilled, bas it was taughtexplicitly in a ibaraitawith regard to the ostensibly redundant language in a verse in the Song of the Sea: b“Until Your people will cross, Lord, until the people You have acquired will cross.You bring them in and plant them in the mountain of Your inheritance, the place, Lord, which You made for Your dwelling” (Exodus 15:16–17).,The Gemara interprets homiletically that buntil Your people will crossrefers to the bfirst entryinto Eretz Yisrael during the time of Joshua, while buntil the people You have acquired pass overrefers to the bsecond entryfollowing the exile in Babylonia. bBased onthe juxtaposition of these two entries in this single verse, bthe Sages said: Israel was worthy of having a miracle performed on itsbehalf bin the time of Ezrathe scribe, just basone bwas performed on theirbehalf bin the time of Joshua bin Nun. However, transgression causedthe absence of a miracle.,The Gemara returns to explain what we learned in the mishna: bAnd the Rabbis say:The time for the recitation of the evening iShemais buntil midnight.The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion bdo they holdin explaining the verse: “When you lie down”? bIfthey explain this verse bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,who says that “when you lie down” is the time when people customarily go to sleep, then bletthe Rabbis also bsaythat the time for the recitation of iShemaextends, bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Eliezer,until the end of the first watch.
9. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20a. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big נדר בחרם ואמר לא נדרתי אלא בחרמו של ים בקרבן ואמר לא נדרתי אלא בקרבנות של מלכים,הרי עצמי קרבן ואמר לא נדרתי אלא בעצם שהנחתי לי להיות נודר בו: קונם אשתי נהנית לי ואמר לא נדרתי אלא באשתי הראשונה שגירשתי,על כולן אין נשאלין להם ואם נשאלו עונשין אותן ומחמירין עליהן דברי רבי מאיר,וחכמים אומרים פותחין להן פתח ממקום אחר ומלמדין אותן כדי שלא ינהגו קלות ראש בנדרים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הא גופא קשיא אמרת אין נשאלין להן והדר תני אם נשאלו עונשין אותן ומחמירין עליהן,אמר רב יהודה הכי קתני וכולן אין צריכין שאלה במה דברים אמורים בתלמיד חכם אבל בעם הארץ שבא לישאל עונשין אותו ומחמירין עליו,בשלמא מחמירין דלא פתחינן ליה בחרטה אלא עונשין היכי דמי,כדתניא מי שנזר ועבר על נזירותו אין נזקקין לו עד שינהוג בו איסור כימים שנהג בהן היתר דברי רבי יהודה אמר רבי יוסי במה דברים אמורים בנזירות מועטת אבל בנזירות מרובה דיו שלושים יום,אמר רב יוסף הואיל ואמרי רבנן אין נזקקים לו בי דינא דמזדקקי לא עביד שפיר רב אחא בר יעקב אומר משמתינן ליה:,וחכמים אומרים פותחין לו פתח כו': תנא לעולם אל תהי רגיל בנדרים שסופך למעול בשבועות ואל תהי רגיל אצל עם הארץ שסופך להאכילך טבלים אל תהי רגיל אצל כהן עם הארץ שסופך להאכילך תרומה ואל תרבה שיחה עם האשה שסופך לבוא לידי ניאוף,רבי אחא ברבי יאשיה אומר כל הצופה בנשים סופו בא לידי עבירה וכל המסתכל בעקבה של אשה הויין לו בנים שאינן מהוגנין אמר רב יוסף ובאשתו נדה אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש עקבה דקתני במקום הטינופת שהוא מכוון כנגד העקב,תניא בעבור תהיה יראתו על פניכם זו בושה לבלתי תחטאו מלמד שהבושה מביאה לידי יראת חטא מיכן אמרו סימן יפה באדם שהוא ביישן אחרים אומרים כל אדם המתבייש לא במהרה הוא חוטא ומי שאין לו בושת פנים בידוע שלא עמדו אבותיו על הר סיני,אמר רבי יוחנן בן דהבאי ארבעה דברים סחו לי מלאכי השרת חיגרין מפני מה הויין מפני שהופכים את שולחנם אילמים מפני מה הויין מפני שמנשקים על אותו מקום חרשים מפני מה הויין מפני שמספרים בשעת תשמיש סומין מפני מה הויין מפני שמסתכלים באותו מקום,ורמינהו שאלו את אימא שלום מפני מה 20a. strongMISHNA: /strong One who btook a vowby associating an item bwith a dedication [ iḥerem /i],saying: This item is hereby forbidden to me like an item dedicated to the Temple, bandthen bsaid: I took a vow only withthe intention that it would be like ba sea net [ iḥermo shel yam /i]that is used to catch fish; or one who took a vow by associating an item bwith an offering, andthen bsaid: I took a vow only withreference to bofferings to kings,i.e., a gift for a king, not an offering to God.,Or one who said: bI am hereby an offering myself [ iatzmi /i], andthen bsaid: I took a vow only withreference to ba bone [ ietzem /i] that I set aside for myself to vow with,as iatzmimeans both myself and my bone, i.e., he set aside a bone so as to pretend to take a vow upon himself; or one who said: bDeriving benefit from me is ikonamfor my wife, andthen bsaid: I took a vow only with regard to my first wife whom I divorced,not with regard to my current wife., bFor allof the above vows, those who took them bdo notneed to brequestof a halakhic authority to dissolve bthem,as the speaker interpreted the vows in a manner that caused them not to take effect at all. bHowever, if they requesteddissolution, apparently due to their being uncertain of their explanations, the court bpunishes them and treats them stringentlyand the vows are not dissolved. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. /b, bAnd the Rabbis say:These vows are not treated stringently. Rather, dissolution bis broached with them bysuggesting ba different extenuation,i.e., the halakhic authority suggests extenuating circumstances that undermine the vow but do not pertain to its wording. bAnd we teach themthat they should not take this kind of vow in the future, bin order that they will not take vows lightly. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThismatter bis itself difficult.On the one hand, byou said they do notneed to brequestto dissolve bthem, and then it is taughtthat bif they requesteddissolution, the court bpunishes them and treats them stringently,i.e., the vows took effect and the vows are not dissolved., bRav Yehuda saidthat bthis is whatthe mishna bis teaching: All of thesevows bdo not need a request.However, bin whatcase bis this statement said? Inthe case of ba Torah scholar,who knows that these vows do not take effect, and he obviously did not intend for them to take effect in the first place. bHow-ever,in the case of ban ignoramus who comes to requestdissolution of the vow, the court bpunishes him and treats him stringently. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,the court btreatshim bstringentlyin bthatthe halakhic authorities bdo not broachdissolution bwith himmerely bby means of regret;rather, extenuating circumstances must be found. bHowever, what are the circumstancesin which the court bpunisheshim?,The Gemara answers that the circumstances are bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: With regard to bone who vowed to be a nazirite and violated his naziriteship,the halakhic authority bdoes not attend to himto dissolve his vow buntil he observesthe bprohibitionsof naziriteship bfor the samenumber of bdays in which he behaved with permissivenessconcerning the restrictions of a nazirite. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei said: In whatcase bis this statement,that he must observe naziriteship for a period of time corresponding to his vow, bsaid?It is said binthe case of ba shortterm of bnaziriteship,which is not longer than the minimum thirty days. bHowever, inthe case of a blongterm of bnaziriteship it is enough for himto observe it for bthirty days,even if he violated it for a greater number of days. This explains the punishment mentioned in the mishna: An ignoramus who requests the dissolution of his vow must first observe the vow for a certain period of time., bRav Yosef said: Since the Sages saythat the halakhic authority bdoes not attend to him, a court that does attendto him and dissolves his vow immediately bis not acting properly. Rav Aḥa bar Yaakov says:A halakhic authority who dissolves the vow prematurely bis excommunicated. /b,§ It is stated in the mishna that bthe Rabbis say:Dissolution bis broached with himby suggesting a different bextenuation,and he is taught not to take this kind of vow so that he will not take vows lightly. It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bNever be accustomed totaking bvows, because ultimately you willdisregard them, and you will even babuse oaths,which are more grave. bAnd do not regularly be around an ignoramus, because ultimately he will feed you untithed produce,as he is not careful to tithe. bDo not regularly be by an ignorant priest, because ultimately he will feed you iteruma /idue to his close relationship with you, and iterumais forbidden to a non-priest. bAnd do not talk extensively with a woman, because ultimately you will come to adultery. /b, bRabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Yoshiya, says: Anyone who watches women will ultimately come to sin, and anyone who looks at the heel of a woman will have indecent childrenas a punishment. bRav Yosef said: Andthis brelates toall women, including bhis wifewhen she has the status of ba menstruating woman. Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said: The heelof a woman bthat is mentionedis not the heel of the foot, but bthe place of uncleanliness,i.e., the genitalia, and it is called a heel as a euphemism, bas it is situated opposite the heel. /b,§ bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“That His fear may be upon your faces”(Exodus 20:17); bthisis referring to bshame,as shame causes one to blush. b“That you not sin”(Exodus 20:17) bteaches that shame leads to fear of sin. From herethe Sages bsaid: It is a good sign in a person that he is one who experiences shame. Others say: Any person who experiences shame will not quickly sin, andconversely, bone who does not havethe capacity to be bshamefaced, it is known that his forefathers did not stand at Mount Sinai. /b,§ bRabbi Yoḥa ben Dehavai said: The ministering angels told me four matters: For whatreason bdo lame people come into existence?It is bbecausetheir fathers boverturn their tables,i.e., they engage in sexual intercourse in an atypical way. bFor whatreason bdo mute people come into existence?It is bbecausetheir fathers bkiss that placeof nakedness. bFor whatreason bdo deaf people come into existence?It is bbecausetheir parents bconverse while engaging in sexual intercourse. For whatreason bdo blind people come into existence?It is bbecausetheir fathers bstare at that place. /b, bAndthe Gemara braises a contradiction: Imma Shalom,the wife of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, bwas asked: For whatreason
10. Babylonian Talmud, Niddah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

13a. מתני׳ big strongכל /strong /big היד המרבה לבדוק בנשים משובחת ובאנשים תקצץ, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מ"ש נשים ומאי שנא אנשים נשים לאו בנות הרגשה נינהו משובחות אנשים דבני הרגשה נינהו תקצץ,אי הכי מאי איריא מרבה כי לא מרבה נמי כי קתני מרבה אנשים,תנא בד"א לענין שכבת זרע אבל לענין זוב אף הוא משובח כנשים,ואפי' לענין שכבת זרע אם בא לבדוק בצרור או בחרס בודק,ובמטלית לא והתניא בודק עצמו במטלית ובכל דבר שרוצה כדאמר אביי במטלית עבה הכא נמי במטלית עבה,והיכא איתמר דאביי אהא דתנן היה אוכל בתרומה והרגיש שנזדעזעו איבריו אוחז באמתו ובולע את התרומה,אוחז והתניא רבי אליעזר אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמר אביי במטלית עבה,רבא אמר אפילו תימא במטלית רכה כיון דעקר עקר ואביי חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי ורבא לא חייש דלמא אתי לאוסופי, ולא והתניא הא למה זה דומה לנותן אצבע בעין שכל זמן שאצבע בעין עין מדמעת וחוזרת ומדמעת,ורבא כל אחמומי והדר אחמומי בשעתיה לא שכיח,גופא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמה ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם אמרו לו לרבי אליעזר והלא נצוצות נתזין על רגליו ונראה ככרות שפכה ונמצא מוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים,אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו שהן ממזרים ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,תניא אידך אמר להן רבי אליעזר לחכמים אפשר יעמוד אדם במקום גבוה וישתין או ישתין בעפר תיחוח ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,הי אמר להו ברישא אילימא קמייתא אמר להו ברישא בתר דאמר להו איסורא הדר אמר להו תקנתא,אלא הא אמר להו ברישא ואמרו ליה אין לו מקום גבוה ועפר תיחוח מאי אמר להן מוטב שיוציא לעז על בניו ואל יעשה עצמו רשע שעה אחת לפני המקום,וכל כך למה מפני שמוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה דא"ר יוחנן כל המוציא שכבת זרע לבטלה חייב מיתה שנאמר (בראשית לח, י) וירע בעיני ה' (את) אשר עשה וימת גם אותו,רבי יצחק ורבי אמי אמרי כאילו שופך דמים שנאמר (ישעיהו נז, ה) הנחמים באלים תחת כל עץ רענן שוחטי הילדים בנחלים תחת סעיפי הסלעים אל תקרי שוחטי אלא סוחטי,רב אסי אמר כאילו עובד עבודת כוכבים כתיב הכא תחת כל עץ רענן וכתיב התם (דברים יב, ב) על ההרים הרמים ותחת כל עץ רענן,רב יהודה ושמואל הוו קיימי אאיגרא דבי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא אמר ליה רב יהודה לשמואל צריך אני להשתין א"ל שיננא אחוז באמתך והשתן לחוץ,היכי עביד הכי והתניא ר"א אומר כל האוחז באמתו ומשתין כאילו מביא מבול לעולם,אמר אביי עשאו כבולשת דתנן בולשת שנכנס לעיר בשעת שלום חביות פתוחות אסורות סתומות מותרות בשעת מלחמה אלו ואלו מותרות לפי שאין להן פנאי לנסך אלמא דכיון דבעיתי לא אתי לנסוכי הכא נמי כיון דבעיתי לא אתי להרהורי,והכא מאי ביעתותא איכא איבעית אימא ביעתותא דליליא ודאיגרא ואיבעית אימא ביעתותא דרביה ואב"א ביעתותא דשכינה ואיבעית אימא אימתא דמריה עליה דקרי שמואל עליה אין זה ילוד אשה,ואיבעית אימא נשוי הוה דאמר רב נחמן אם היה נשוי מותר,ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דתני אבא בריה דרבי בנימין בר חייא אבל מסייע בביצים מלמטה ואיבעית אימא כי הא אורי ליה דאמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי יוחנן גבול יש לו מעטרה ולמטה מותר 13a. strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to bany hand that is diligent to examinebodily emissions to ascertain ritual impurity, bamong womensuch a hand bis praiseworthy. But among mensuch a hand bshould be severed,as this action is apt to lead to a seminal emission for naught., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bwomen and what is differentabout bmen,that women are praised for examining for bodily emissions while men are castigated for the same? The Gemara answers: bWomen are not susceptible tosexual barousalby this action, and therefore when a woman is diligent to examine herself she is considered bpraiseworthy;whereas bmen, who are susceptible tosexual barousaland may experience a seminal emission as a result of this contact, may not do so, and the hand of a man who conducts frequent examinations for emissions bshould be severed. /b,The Gemara asks: bIf so, whydoes the mishna state bspecificallyamong men that only the hand that is bdiligentto examine, i.e., that does so often, should be severed? Even bwhena man bis not diligentto examine, but does so occasionally, this action is balsoapt to cause a seminal emission. The Gemara answers: bWhenthe mishna bteaches:Any hand that is bdiligentto examine, it states this only bwith regard to women,as men should not examine even occasionally.,The Gemara continues to discuss the examination of men for seminal emissions. It is btaughtin a ibaraita /i: bIn whatcase bis this statement,that men should not examine themselves, bsaid?It is said bwith regard toan examination for bsemen. But with regard toa man who examines himself for gonorrhea-like bdischarge [ izov /i], he too is praiseworthyfor examining diligently, bas womenare. The reason is that a man who experiences two such discharges is ritually impure but is not obligated to bring an offering, whereas one who experiences three such emissions must bring an offering as a izav /i. Therefore, it is important for a man who experiences a gonorrhea-like discharge to examine and count his emissions carefully.,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd even with regard to semen, if one wants to examinehimself bwith a rock or witha piece of bearthenware,which are hard and will not warm the body, bhe may examinehimself in this manner.,The Gemara asks: bAndmay a man bnotexamine himself bwitha linen bcloth? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: A man bmay examine himself with a cloth,to see if he has emitted semen, bor with anysimilar bitem that he wants?The Gemara answers: Just bas Abaye said,with regard to a different issue, that it is referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not warm one’s body, bhere too,the ibaraitais referring bto a coarse cloth,which will not lead to a seminal emission.,The Gemara asks: bAnd where wasthis statement bof Abaye stated?It was stated bwith regard to that which we learnedin a mishna (40a): If a priest bwas eating iterumaand he sensed that his limbs quaked,indicating that a seminal emission was imminent, he should firmly bhold his penisto prevent the emission from leaving his body, band swallow the iteruma /iwhile ritually pure.,A difficulty was raised with regard to this mishna: May he actually bholdhis penis? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world,as masturbation was one of the sins that led to the flood ( iSanhedrin108b)? bAbaye saysin resolution of this difficulty that the mishna is referring to one who holds his penis bwith a coarse cloth. /b, bRava sayswith regard to that mishna: bYoumay beven saythat it is referring to a priest who holds his penis bwith a soft cloth,and the reason it is permitted is that boncethe semen bhasalready been buprootedfrom his body, it is buprooted,and his subsequent holding of the penis, even with a soft cloth, does not increase the emission of semen. bAnd Abayeprohibits the use of a soft cloth even here, as he is bconcernedthat bperhapsdue to the contact of this cloth one might bcome to increasethe emission of semen. bBut Rava is not concernedthat bperhapsone might bcome to increasethe emission.,The Gemara asks: bAndis Rava bnotconcerned for this possibility? bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bTo what is thisrepeated examination of a man bcomparable? Toone who bplaces a finger inhis beye, for as long asthe bfingeris bin the eye,the beye will tear and continue to tear.Here too, the priest’s action will lead to an increased emission of semen.,The Gemara answers: bAnd Ravawould claim that if the priest’s limbs were not quaking and the semen was coming out in drops, there is indeed a concern that an examination might increase the emission. But when he feels his limbs quaking, this concern does not apply. The reason is that with regard to bany warmingof the body that leads to a seminal emission bandthat is bthenfollowed by another bwarming at the timewhen the semen is being uprooted, it is buncommonfor the latter warming to increase the emission. Consequently, in this case the priest may hold his penis even with a soft cloth.,The Gemara discusses bthematter bitself. Rabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holdshis bpenis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world.The Rabbis bsaid to Rabbi Eliezer: Butif one does not hold his penis, bsmall drops are sprayed on his legs, and he appears as one whose penis has been severed.A man with that affliction is incapable of fathering children. People who see urine on his legs might suspect that he is suffering from that condition band as a resultthey will bcast aspersions about his childrenand say bthat they are children born from a forbidden relationship [ imamzerim /i]. /b,Rabbi Eliezer bsaid to them: It is preferable thatpeople bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,With regard to the same issue, it bis taughtin banother ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said tothe other bRabbisin response: It is bpossiblefor one to avoid spraying urine on his legs. How so? bLet a person stand on an elevated place and urinatedownward, bor urinate intoan area where there is bloose soil,which absorbs the urine, so that it does not ricochet upward, band he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhichof these replies bdidRabbi Eliezer bsay tothe Rabbis bfirst? If we saythat it was the bfirststatement, i.e., that one should not hold his penis even if people might cast aspersions about his children, that he bsaid tothe Rabbis bfirst,and subsequently he told them that there was a way to avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, this is difficult; bafter saying to themthat it is ba prohibition, would he then say to thema practical bremedy?By saying that one can avoid urine being sprayed on his legs, Rabbi Eliezer indicated that if one cannot do so he may hold his penis, which contradicts his other statement., bRather,clearly bhe said thispractical solution btothe Rabbis bfirst, and theythen bsaid to him:If bone does not have an elevated place or loose earthupon which he can urinate, bwhatshould he do? In response to this question, bhe said to them: It is preferablethat people bcast aspersions about his children that they are imamzerim /i, and he should not render himself wickedeven bone moment before the Omnipresent. /b,The Gemara asks: bAndwhy must one refrain bto that extentfrom holding his penis? bBecauseas the result of holding his penis bhemight bemit semen for naught. As Rabbi Yoḥa says: Anyone who emits semen for naught is liableto receive the punishment of bdeathat the hand of Heaven, bas it is statedwith regard to O, son of Judah: “And it came to pass, when he engaged in intercourse with his brother’s wife, that he spilled it on the ground, lest he should give seed to his brother. bAnd the thing that he did was evil in the eyes of the Lord, and He slew him also”(Genesis 38:9–10)., bRabbi Yitzḥak and Rabbi Ami say:One who emits semen for naught is considered bas though he sheds blood, as it is stated:“But draw near here, you sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer and the harlot…Are you not children of transgression, a seed of falsehood, byou that inflame yourselves among the terebinths, under every leafy tree, that slay [ ishoḥatei /i] the children in the valleys, under the clefts of the rocks?”(Isaiah 57:3–5). bDo not readthis word as ishoḥatei /i; rather,read it as isoḥatei /i,i.e., one who squeezes out [ isoḥet /i] semen is considered to have shed the blood of the children who could have been born from that seed., bRav Asi says:It is considered bas though he worships idols,as bit is written here: “Under every leafy tree,” and it is written there,with regard to the mitzva of eradicating idols from Eretz Yisrael: “You shall destroy all the places, where the nations that you are to dispossess worshipped their gods, bupon the high mountains,and upon the hills, band under every leafy tree”(Deuteronomy 12:2).,§ With regard to the issue of holding one’s penis for the purpose of urinating, the Gemara relates that bRav Yehuda and Shmuel were standing on the roof of the synagogue that was destroyed and rebuilt in Neharde’a. Rav Yehuda said to Shmuel:What can I do? bI need to urinate.Shmuel bsaid to him: iShina /i, hold your penis,so that the water does not fall onto the synagogue roof, band urinate outward,away from the synagogue.,The Gemara asks: bHow couldRav Yehuda bdo so? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer says:With regard to banyone who holds his penis and urinates,it is considered bas though he is bringing a flood to the world? /b, bAbaye says:The Sages brenderedthe halakhic status of this situation blikethat of ba troop of marauders, as we learnedin a mishna ( iAvoda Zara70b): With regard to ba troop of marauders that entered a town,if they did so bin a time of peace, open casksof wine bare forbidden,in case the marauders used the wine for libations in idol worship, whereas bsealedcasks bare permitted. In a time of war,both bthese and those are permitted, becausethe marauders bdo not have leisure to pour libations. Evidently, sincethese marauders bare afraid, they will not come to pour libations. Here too,in this incident involving Rav Yehuda, bsince he is afraid he will not come to havesexual bthoughts. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd what fear is there here,in the case of Rav Yehuda? The Gemara explains: bIf you wish, saythat there is bthe fear of the night and of the roof,i.e., that he might fall. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his teacher,Shmuel, is upon him. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of the Divine Presencethat dwells in the synagogue is upon Rav Yehuda. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthe awe of his Master,God, is upon him. Rav Yehuda was renowned for his fear of Heaven, bas Shmuel declared abouthim: bThis one is not born of a woman,but is like an angel., bAnd if you wish, saya different answer, that Rav Yehuda was allowed to hold his penis while urinating because he bwas married; as Rav Naḥman said: If one is married,it is bpermittedfor him to hold his penis while urinating, as his improper sexual urges are not as strong., bAnd if you wish, saythat Shmuel bruled forRav Yehuda bin accordance with this ibaraita /i, bwhich Abba, son of Rabbi Binyamin bar Ḥiyya, teaches:One may not hold the penis itself while urinating, bbuta man who wishes to urinate bmay assistthe process bbyholding the btesticles from below.Shmuel instructed Rav Yehuda to act in this manner. bAnd if you wish, saythat bShmuel ruledfor Rav Yehuda bin accordance with that which Rabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: There isa clear bdemarcationin the prohibition against holding one’s penis while urinating: bFrom the corona and below,toward the tip of the penis, it is bpermittedto hold, as this will not lead to arousal.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aha bar r. josiah Kosman (2012) 47
akev-panim Kosman (2012) 47
authority Libson (2018) 74
blood Libson (2018) 74, 87
bones Balberg (2014) 232
brandes,yehudah Kosman (2012) 47
dasha-dush-dishah Kosman (2012) 47
daughter of ben kalba sabua Kosman (2012) 47
degenerate children Kosman (2012) 47
demsky,aaron Kosman (2012) 47
door-socket Kosman (2012) 47
eilberg-schwartz,howard Kosman (2012) 47
epstein,daniel Kosman (2012) 47
halberstam,chaya Hayes (2015) 220
heel,and sexual allusion Kosman (2012) 47
heel,and vagina Kosman (2012) 47
heel,as leitmotiv Kosman (2012) 47
impurity Libson (2018) 87
krauss,samuel Kosman (2012) 47
kutscher,edward yechezkel Kosman (2012) 47
levinas,emmanuel Kosman (2012) 47
lewin,b. m. Kosman (2012) 47
menstrual impurity Hayes (2015) 220, 222; Libson (2018) 74, 87
menstrual purity Libson (2018) 87
menstruation Libson (2018) 74
mockery,in rabbinic literature Hayes (2015) 222
nacht,jacob Kosman (2012) 47
nathan ben jehiel Kosman (2012) 47
nominalism,legal,in rabbinic sources Hayes (2015) 220, 222
nominalism,legal,mockery of Hayes (2015) 222
presumption,legal Hayes (2015) 220, 222
rashi (shlomo yitzhaki) Kosman (2012) 47
realism,legal,in rabbinic sources' Hayes (2015) 222
realism,legal,in rabbinic sources Hayes (2015) 220
resh lakish (simeon ben lakish,amora) Kosman (2012) 47
satlow,michael l. Kosman (2012) 47
schwartz,daniel Hayes (2015) 222
self-sacrifice Kosman (2012) 47
seminal emissions Balberg (2014) 232
sensation Libson (2018) 87
sokoloff,michael Kosman (2012) 47
thought (mahshava),role of in purity system Balberg (2014) 232
torahs deviation from Hayes (2015) 220, 222
toref Kosman (2012) 47
tzinora de-dasha Kosman (2012) 47
vagina Kosman (2012) 47
visibility,implications of for im/purity Balberg (2014) 232
wordplay Kosman (2012) 47