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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Mishnah, Makkot, 3.12

nanHow do they lash him? His two hands are tied to a pillar on either side of it and the minister of the synagogue grabs his clothing, if they are torn, they are torn; if they are ripped open, they are ripped open, until he exposes the offender’s chest. And a stone is placed behind the offender, the minister of the synagogue stands on it, a strap of cowhide in his hands, doubled over into two, and redoubled, and two straps that rise and fall attached to it."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

21 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 16.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

16.18. שֹׁפְטִים וְשֹׁטְרִים תִּתֶּן־לְךָ בְּכָל־שְׁעָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לִשְׁבָטֶיךָ וְשָׁפְטוּ אֶת־הָעָם מִשְׁפַּט־צֶדֶק׃ 16.18. Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, tribe by tribe; and they shall judge the people with righteous judgment."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

21.1. וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם׃ 21.1. אִם־אַחֶרֶת יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁאֵרָהּ כְּסוּתָהּ וְעֹנָתָהּ לֹא יִגְרָע׃ 21.1. Now these are the ordices which thou shalt set before them."
3. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 3.26-3.27 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

3.26. Two young men also appeared to him, remarkably strong, gloriously beautiful and splendidly dressed, who stood on each side of him and scourged him continuously, inflicting many blows on him.' 3.27. When he suddenly fell to the ground and deep darkness came over him, his men took him up and put him on a stretcher'
4. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.231, 3.191, 6.19, 11.77, 12.55, 14.235, 14.259-14.261, 18.15, 18.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.231. but so that he will receive thy soul with prayers and holy offices of religion, and will place thee near to himself, and thou wilt there be to me a succorer and supporter in my old age; on which account I principally brought thee up, and thou wilt thereby procure me God for my Comforter instead of thyself.” 3.191. So that he is to put on the vestments which are consecrated to God; he is to have the care of the altars, and to make provision for the sacrifices; and he it is that must put up prayers for you to God, who will readily hear them, not only because he is himself solicitous for your nation, but also because he will receive them as offered by one that he hath himself chosen to this office.” 6.19. So David ran, and stood upon his adversary as he lay down, and cut off his head with his own sword; for he had no sword himself. 6.19. 1. Now while the city of Kirjathjearim had the ark with them, the whole body of the people betook themselves all that time to offer prayers and sacrifices to God, and appeared greatly concerned and zealous about his worship. So Samuel the prophet, seeing how ready they were to do their duty, thought this a proper time to speak to them, while they were in this good disposition, about the recovery of their liberty, and of the blessings that accompanied the same. Accordingly he used such words to them as he thought were most likely to excite that inclination, and to persuade them to attempt it: 11.77. They also celebrated the feast of tabernacles at that time, as the legislator had ordained concerning it; and after they offered sacrifices, and what were called the daily sacrifices, and the oblations proper for the Sabbaths, and for all the holy festivals. Those also that had made vows performed them, and offered their sacrifices from the first day of the seventh month. 12.55. We immediately, therefore, offered sacrifices for thee and thy sister, with thy children and friends; and the multitude made prayers, that thy affairs may be to thy mind, and that thy kingdom may be preserved in peace, and that the translation of our law may come to the conclusion thou desirest, and be for thy advantage. 14.235. 17. “Lucius Antonius, the son of Marcus, vice-quaestor, and vice-praetor, to the magistrates, senate, and people of the Sardians, sendeth greeting. Those Jews that are our fellowcitizens of Rome came to me, and demonstrated that they had an assembly of their own, according to the laws of their forefathers, and this from the beginning, as also a place of their own, wherein they determined their suits and controversies with one another. Upon their petition therefore to me, that these might be lawful for them, I gave order that these their privileges be preserved, and they be permitted to do accordingly.” 14.259. 24. The decree of the Sardians. “This decree was made by the senate and people, upon the representation of the praetors: Whereas those Jews who are fellowcitizens, and live with us in this city, have ever had great benefits heaped upon them by the people, and have come now into the senate 14.261. Now the senate and people have decreed to permit them to assemble together on the days formerly appointed, and to act according to their own laws; and that such a place be set apart for them by the praetors, for the building and inhabiting the same, as they shall esteem fit for that purpose; and that those that take care of the provision for the city, shall take care that such sorts of food as they esteem fit for their eating may be imported into the city.” 18.15. on account of which doctrines they are able greatly to persuade the body of the people; and whatsoever they do about divine worship, prayers, and sacrifices, they perform them according to their direction; insomuch that the cities give great attestations to them on account of their entire virtuous conduct, both in the actions of their lives and their discourses also. 18.15. Yet did not Herod long continue in that resolution of supporting him, though even that support was not sufficient for him; for as once they were at a feast at Tyre, and in their cups, and reproaches were cast upon one another, Agrippa thought that was not to be borne, while Herod hit him in the teeth with his poverty, and with his owing his necessary food to him. So he went to Flaccus, one that had been consul, and had been a very great friend to him at Rome formerly, and was now president of Syria. 18.17. but this doctrine is received but by a few, yet by those still of the greatest dignity. But they are able to do almost nothing of themselves; for when they become magistrates, as they are unwillingly and by force sometimes obliged to be, they addict themselves to the notions of the Pharisees, because the multitude would not otherwise bear them. 18.17. for he did not admit ambassadors quickly, and no successors were despatched away to governors or procurators of the provinces that had been formerly sent, unless they were dead; whence it was that he was so negligent in hearing the causes of prisoners;
5. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.313, 7.128, 7.155 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.313. Now she dwelt then at Jerusalem, in order to perform a vow which she had made to God; for it is usual with those that had been either afflicted with a distemper, or with any other distresses, to make vows; and for thirty days before they are to offer their sacrifices, to abstain from wine, and to shave the hair of their head. 7.128. And when everybody entirely held their peace, he stood up, and covering the greatest part of his head with his cloak, he put up the accustomed solemn prayers; the like prayers did Titus put up also; 7.155. Accordingly, when it was related that there was an end of him, and all the people had sent up a shout for joy, they then began to offer those sacrifices which they had consecrated, in the prayers used in such solemnities; which when they had finished, they went away to the palace.
6. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9.7. How does one tithe animals? He brings them to a shed and makes for them a small opening so that two cannot go out at the same time. And he counts them with a rod: one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine. And the one that comes out tenth he marks with red chalk and he says: “Behold, this is [the tithe].” If he did not mark it, or if he did not count them with a rod, or if he counted them while they were crouching or standing, they are still considered tithed. If he had one hundred [lambs] and he took ten or if he had ten and he took one [without counting], this is not [a valid] tithe. Rabbi Yose bar Judah says: this is a [valid] tithe. If one [of the lambs] already counted jumped back into the flock [in the shed] they are all exempt. If one of the lambs that was a tithe jumped back into the flock [in the shed], they all go to pasture until they become unfit for sacrifice, and the owners may eat them in their unfit state."
7. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 7.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. These leave [their marriage] without their ketubah: A wife who transgresses the law of Moses or Jewish law. And what is the law of Moses? Feeding her husband with untithed food, having intercourse with him while in the period of her menstruation, not separating dough offering, or making vows and not fulfilling them. And what is Jewish practice? Going out with her head uncovered, spinning wool in the marketplace or conversing with every man. Abba Shaul says: also one who curses her husband’s parents in his presence. Rabbi Tarfon says: also one who has a loud voice. And who is regarded as one who has a loud voice? A woman whose voice can be heard by her neighbors when she speaks inside her house."
8. Mishnah, Nazir, 3.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. If one vows a long naziriteship of and completes his naziriteship and afterwards comes to the land [of Israel]: Beth Shammai says that he is a nazirite for thirty days, But Beth Hillel says that his naziriteship begins again. It happened that Queen Helena, when her son went to war, said: “If my son returns in peace from the war, I shall be a nazirite for seven years.” Her son returned from the war, and she was a nazirite for seven years. At the end of the seven years, she went up to the land [of Israel] and Beth Hillel instructed her to be a nazirite for a further seven years. Towards the end of this seven years, she contracted ritual defilement, and so altogether she was a nazirite for twenty-one years. Rabbi Judah said: she was a nazirite only for fourteen years."
9. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 3.6-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.6. How do they check the witnesses? They bring them in and warn them, and then they take them out and leave behind the most important of [the witnesses]. And they would say to him: “State [for us], how do you know that this one is in debt to this one?” If he said, “He said to me, ‘I am in debt to him’, or ‘So-and-so said to me that he was in debt to him’”, he has said nothing. He must be able to say, “In our presence he acknowledged to the other one that he owed him 200 zuz.” Afterward they bring in the second witness and check him. If their words were found to agree, the judges discuss the matter. If two say, “He is not guilty” and one says, “He is guilty”, he is not guilty. If two say, “He is guilty” and one says, “He is not guilty”, he is guilty. If one says, “He is not guilty”, and one says, “He is guilty”, and even if two declared him not guilty or declared him guilty while one said, “I do not know”, they must add more judges." 3.7. When the judges reached their decision they would bring in the litigants. The chief among the judges says: “You, so-and-so are not obligated”, or “You, so-and-so are obligated”. And from where do we know that after one of the judges has gone out that he may not say, “I declared him not obligated and my colleagues declared him obligated, so what can I do since they outvoted me?” of such a one it says, “Do not go about as a talebearer amongst your people” (Lev. 19:16) and it also says, “He that goes about as a talebearer reveals secrets” (Proverbs 11:13)."
10. Mishnah, Taanit, 2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

11. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. [Concerning] public and private hatats: (These are the public hatats: the goats of new moons and festivals) They are slaughtered in the north, and their blood is received in ministering vessels in the north, and their blood requires four applications on the four corners [of the altar]. How was it done? He went up the ascent, turned to the surrounding walkway, and came to the south-east corner, then the north-east, then the north-west, and then the south-west. He would pour the residue of the blood out at the southern base. They were eaten within the hangings [of the Tabernacle], by male priests, prepared in any fashion, the same day and night, until midnight."
12. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 11.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13. New Testament, Acts, 21.23-21.26, 22.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

21.23. Therefore do what we tell you. We have four men who have a vow on them. 21.24. Take them, and purify yourself with them, and pay their expenses for them, that they may shave their heads. Then all will know that there is no truth in the things that they have been informed about you, but that you yourself also walk keeping the law. 21.25. But concerning the Gentiles who believe, we have written our decision that they should observe no such thing, except that they should keep themselves from food offered to idols, from blood, from strangled things, and from sexual immorality. 21.26. Then Paul took the men, and the next day, purified himself and went with them into the temple, declaring the fulfillment of the days of purification, until the offering was offered for every one of them. 22.19. I said, 'Lord, they themselves know that I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue those who believed in you.
14. New Testament, Luke, 12.11, 21.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

12.11. When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 21.12. But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute you, delivering you up to synagogues and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake.
15. New Testament, Mark, 13.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

13.9. But watch yourselves, for they will deliver you up to councils. You will be beaten in synagogues. You will stand before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them.
16. New Testament, Matthew, 10.7, 10.17-10.18, 23.2, 23.16-23.19, 23.21-23.22, 23.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.7. As you go, preach, saying, 'The Kingdom of Heaven is at hand!' 10.17. But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to councils, and in their synagogues they will scourge you. 10.18. Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony to them and to the Gentiles. 23.2. saying, "The scribes and the Pharisees sat on Moses' seat. 23.16. Woe to you, you blind guides, who say, 'Whoever swears by the temple, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gold of the temple, he is obligated.' 23.17. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifies the gold? 23.18. 'Whoever swears by the altar, it is nothing; but whoever swears by the gift that is on it, he is a obligated.' 23.19. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifies the gift? 23.21. He who swears by the temple, swears by it, and by him who is living in it. 23.22. He who swears by heaven, swears by the throne of God, and by him who sits on it. 23.34. Therefore, behold, I send to you prophets, wise men, and scribes. Some of them you will kill and crucify; and some of them you will scourge in your synagogues, and persecute from city to city;
17. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

35b. כאן לאחר ברכה,א"ר חנינא בר פפא כל הנהנה מן העוה"ז בלא ברכה כאילו גוזל להקב"ה וכנסת ישראל שנא' (משלי כח, כד) גוזל אביו ואמו ואומר אין פשע חבר הוא לאיש משחית ואין אביו אלא הקב"ה שנא' (דברים לב, ו) הלא הוא אביך קנך ואין אמו אלא כנסת ישראל שנא' (משלי א, ח) שמע בני מוסר אביך ואל תטוש תורת אמך,מאי חבר הוא לאיש משחית א"ר חנינא בר פפא חבר הוא לירבעם בן נבט שהשחית את ישראל לאביהם שבשמים:,ר' חנינא בר פפא רמי כתיב (הושע ב, יא) ולקחתי דגני בעתו וגו' וכתיב (דברים יא, יד) ואספת דגנך וגו',ל"ק כאן בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום כאן בזמן שאין ישראל עושין רצונו של מקום,ת"ר ואספת דגנך מה ת"ל לפי שנא' (יהושע א, ח) לא ימוש ספר התורה הזה מפיך יכול דברים ככתבן ת"ל ואספת דגנך הנהג בהן מנהג דרך ארץ דברי ר' ישמעאל,ר"ש בן יוחי אומר אפשר אדם חורש בשעת חרישה וזורע בשעת זריעה וקוצר בשעת קצירה ודש בשעת דישה וזורה בשעת הרוח תורה מה תהא עליה אלא בזמן שישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י אחרים שנא' (ישעיהו סא, ה) ועמדו זרים ורעו צאנכם וגו' ובזמן שאין ישראל עושין רצונו של מקום מלאכתן נעשית ע"י עצמן שנא' (דברים יא, יד) ואספת דגנך ולא עוד אלא שמלאכת אחרים נעשית על ידן שנא' (דברים כח, מח) ועבדת את אויביך וגו',אמר אביי הרבה עשו כרבי ישמעאל ועלתה בידן כר' שמעון בן יוחי ולא עלתה בידן,א"ל רבא לרבנן במטותא מינייכו ביומי ניסן וביומי תשרי לא תתחזו קמאי כי היכי דלא תטרדו במזונייכו כולא שתא:,אמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן משום רבי יהודה בר' אלעאי בא וראה שלא כדורות הראשונים דורות האחרונים דורות הראשונים עשו תורתן קבע ומלאכתן עראי זו וזו נתקיימה בידן דורות האחרונים שעשו מלאכתן קבע ותורתן עראי זו וזו לא נתקיימה בידן,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה אר"י משום ר"י בר' אלעאי בא וראה שלא כדורות הראשונים דורות האחרונים דורות הראשונים היו מכניסין פירותיהן דרך טרקסמון כדי לחייבן במעשר דורות האחרונים מכניסין פירותיהן דרך גגות דרך חצרות דרך קרפיפות כדי לפטרן מן המעשר דא"ר ינאי אין הטבל מתחייב במעשר עד שיראה פני הבית שנא' (דברים כו, יג) בערתי הקדש מן הבית,ור' יוחנן אמר אפי' חצר קובעת שנא' (דברים כו, יב) ואכלו בשעריך ושבעו:,חוץ מן היין וכו': מאי שנא יין אילימא משום דאשתני לעלויא אשתני לברכה והרי שמן דאשתני לעלויא ולא אשתני לברכה דאמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן שמן זית מברכין עליו בפה"ע,אמרי התם משום דלא אפשר היכי נבריך נבריך בורא פרי הזית פירא גופיה זית אקרי,ונבריך עליה בורא פרי עץ זית אלא אמר מר זוטרא חמרא זיין משחא לא זיין,ומשחא לא זיין והתנן הנודר מן המזון מותר במים ובמלח והוינן בה מים ומלח הוא דלא אקרי מזון הא כל מילי אקרי מזון,נימא תיהוי תיובתא דרב ושמואל דאמרי אין מברכין בורא מיני מזונות אלא בה' המינין בלבד וא"ר הונא באומר כל הזן עלי,אלמא משחא זיין אלא חמרא סעיד ומשחא לא סעיד וחמרא מי סעיד והא רבא הוה שתי חמרי כל מעלי יומא דפסחא כי היכי דנגרריה ללביה וניכול מצה טפי טובא גריר פורתא סעיד,ומי סעיד כלל והכתיב (תהלים קד, טו) ויין ישמח לבב אנוש ולחם לבב אנוש יסעד וגו' נהמא הוא דסעיד חמרא לא סעיד אלא חמרא אית ביה תרתי סעיד ומשמח נהמא מסעד סעיד שמוחי לא משמח,אי הכי נבריך עליה שלש ברכות לא קבעי אינשי סעודתייהו עלויה,א"ל רב נחמן בר יצחק לרבא אי קבע עלויה סעודתיה מאי א"ל לכשיבא אליהו ויאמר אי הויא קביעותא השתא מיהא בטלה דעתו אצל כל אדם:,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל וכן א"ר יצחק א"ר יוחנן שמן זית מברכין עליו בורא פרי העץ היכי דמי אילימא דקא שתי ליה (משתה) אוזוקי מזיק ליה דתניא השותה שמן של תרומה משלם את הקרן ואינו משלם את החומש הסך שמן של תרומה משלם את הקרן ומשלם את החומש,אלא דקא אכיל ליה על ידי פת אי הכי הויא ליה פת עיקר והוא טפל ותנן זה הכלל כל שהוא עיקר ועמו טפלה מברך על העיקר ופוטר את הטפלה אלא דקא שתי ליה ע"י אניגרון דאמר רבה בר שמואל אניגרון מיא דסלקא אנסיגרון מיא 35b. and bhere,where it says that He gave the earth to mankind refers to bafter a blessingis recited., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Anyone who derives benefit from this world without a blessing, it is as if he stole from God and the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Whoever robs his father and his mother and says: It is no transgression, he is the companion of a destroyer”(Proverbs 28:24). The phrase, bhis father, refers to none other than God, as it is stated: “Is He not your Father Who created you,Who made you and established you” (Deuteronomy 32:6). The phrase bhis mother refers to none other than the community of Israel, as it is stated: “Hear, my son, the discipline of your father, and do not forsake the Torah of your mother”(Proverbs 1:8). The mention of the Torah as emanating from the mouth of the mother, apparently means that your mother is the community of Israel., bWhatis the meaning of the continuation of the verse: bHe is the companion of a destroyer? Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said:He is ba companion of Jeroboam ben Nevat, who corrupted Israel before their Father in heavenby sinning and causing others to sin.,On a similar note, the Gemara cites that bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa raised a contradiction: It is written, “I will take back My grain at its timeand wine in its season” (Hosea 2:11), band it is written: “And you shall gather your grain,your wine and your oil” (Deuteronomy 11:14). To whom does the grain belong: To God, or to the people?,The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. Here,where God promises Israel that they will gather their grain, the verse refers to ba time when they perform God’s will. Here,where the verse indicates that the grain belongs to God, it refers to ba time when they do not perform God’s will,as then He will take back the grain, demonstrating that it belongs to Him., bThe Sages taught: Whatis the meaning of that which bthe verse states: “And you shall gather your grain”? Because it is stated: “This Torah shall not depart from your mouths,and you shall contemplate in it day and night” (Joshua 1:8), bI mighthave thought bthat these matters areto be understood bas they are written;one is to literally spend his days immersed exclusively in Torah study. Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall gather your grain,your wine and your oil,” bassume in theirregard, bthe way of the world;set aside time not only for Torah, but also for work. This is bthe statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: Is it possible that a person plows in the plowing season and sows in the sowing season and harvests in the harvest season and threshes in the threshing season and winnows in the windy season,as grain is separated from the chaff by means of the wind, and is constantly busy; bwhat will become of Torah? Rather,one must dedicate himself exclusively to Torah at the expense of other endeavors; as bwhen Israel performs God’s will, their work is performed by others, as it is stated: “And strangers will stand and feed your flocks,and foreigners will be your plowmen and your vinedressers” (Isaiah 61:5). bWhen Israel does not perform God’s will, their work is performed by themthemselves, as it is stated: b“And you shall gather your grain.” Moreover,if Israel fails to perform God’s will, bothers’ work will be performed by them, as it is stated: “You shall serve your enemywhom God shall send against you, in hunger, in thirst, in nakedness and in want of all things” (Deuteronomy 28:48).,Summing up this dispute, bAbaye said:Although there is room for both opinions, bmany have acted in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yishmael,and combined working for a living and learning Torah, bandalthough they engaged in activities other than the study of Torah, bwere successfulin their Torah study. bMany have acted in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai and were not successfulin their Torah study. They were ultimately forced to abandon their Torah study altogether.,Similarly, bRava said to the Sageswho would attend his study hall: bI implore you; duringthe months of bNisan and Tishrei,the crucial agricultural periods, bdo not appear before me.Engage in your agricultural work then bso that you will not be preoccupied with your sustece all year. /b,Summarizing these statements, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name ofthe itanna bRabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations;rather they are their inferiors. bThe earlier generations made their Torah permanent and their work occasional,and bthis,Torah study, band that,their work, bwere successful for them.However, bthe latter generations who made their work permanent and their Torah occasional, neither this nor that was successful for them. /b,Along these lines, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Yehuda, son of Rabbi El’ai: Come and see that the latter generations are not like the earlier generations.In the bearlier generations,people bwould bring their fruits into their courtyards through the main gate in order to obligate them in tithes.However, bthe latter generations bring their fruits through roofs, through courtyards and through enclosed courtyards,avoiding the main gate bin order to exempt them fromthe mitzva of btithing. As Rabbi Yannai said: Untithed produce is not obligated inthe mitzva of btithing until it sees the front of the housethrough which people enter and exit, and it is brought into the house that way bas it is statedin the formula of the confession of the tithes: b“I have removed the consecrated from the house”(Deuteronomy 26:13), as the obligation to tithe produce whose purpose has not yet been designated takes effect only when it is brought into the house., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: Evenbringing it into the bcourtyard determinesits status as having completed the production process and obligates the produce to be tithed, bas it is writtenin the confession of the tithes: “And I have given to the Levite, the stranger, the orphan and the widow, band they shall eat in your gates and be satisfied”(Deuteronomy 26:12).,We learned in our mishna: Over fruits that grow on a tree one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree, bwith the exception of winethat even though it originates from fruit of the tree, a separate blessing was established for it: Who creates the fruit of the vine. The Gemara asks: bWhat is differentabout bwine,that a separate blessing was established for it? bIf you say that because the fruit changed for the betterinto wine, therefore, bthe blessing changed.Olive boil changed for the better andnevertheless, bits blessing did not change. As Rabbi Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Over olive oil, one recites: Who creates fruit of the tree,just as he does over the fruit itself.,The Sages bsaid: There,in the case of oil, bit is because it is impossibleto find an appropriate blessing, as bhow shall we recite the blessing?If bwe recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive, the fruit itself is called oliveand that is what was created. The oil is a man-made product of that fruit, rendering that formula inappropriate. Similarly, reciting a formula parallel to the blessing on wine: Who creates the fruit of the vine, is inappropriate as the grapes themselves are the fruit that was created, as opposed to oil which was not.,The Gemara challenges: Nevertheless, it is still possible to formulate a blessing, bas we may recite the blessing: Who creates fruit of the olive tree,which would be parallel to the blessing recited over wine. bRather, Mar Zutra offereda different rationale: The reason that no separate blessing was established over oil is because, as opposed to bwinethat bnourishes, oil does not nourish. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd oil does not nourish? Didn’t we learnin a mishna: bOne who vows that nourishmentis forbidden to him bis permittedto eat bwater and salt,as they are not considered nourishment. bAnd we discussed this ihalakha /i: By inference, bwater and salt are not considered nourishment, but allother edible bitems are considered nourishment. /b, bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation of Rav and Shmuel, who said: One only recites: Who creates various kinds of nourishment, over the five speciesof grain balone,as they alone are considered nourishing. bAnd Rav Huna saidas a solution that this mishna referred to a case bwherehe vows band says: Anything that nourishesis prohibited bto me.That formula includes anything that is at all nourishing and therefore only water and salt are excluded. Olive oil is not excluded., bApparently, oil nourishes. Rather,there is another distinction between wine and oil: bWine satisfies, oil does not satisfy.Wine not only nourishes, but it is also filling. The Gemara asks: bAnd does wine satisfy? Wouldn’t Rava drink wine allday on bthe eve of Passover in order to stimulate his heart,i.e., whet his appetite bso that he might eat more imatza /iat the seder? Wine does not satisfy, it whets the appetite. The Gemara answers: bA lotof wine bstimulates, a little satisfies. /b,Again, the Gemara asks: bDoeswine bsatisfy at all? Isn’t it written: “Wine gladdens the heart of man,making the face brighter than oil, band bread fills man’s heart”(Psalms 104:15); bbread is that which satisfies, wine does not satisfy. Rather,this verse is not a proof; bwine has twoadvantages, bit satisfies and gladdens. Bread,however, bsatisfies but does not gladden. /b,Since wine possesses all of these virtues, the Gemara asks: bIf so, let us recitethe bthree blessingsof Grace after Meals bover itafter drinking, just as we do after eating bread. The Gemara answers: bPeople do not base their meals onwine., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said to Rava: If one based his meal on it, what is theruling? Must he recite the Grace after Meals as he does after bread? He replied: bWhen Elijah comes and says whetheror not bit can serve as the basisfor a meal, this will be resolved. bNevertheless, now,until then, bhis intention isrendered birrelevant bythe opinions of ball other menand he is not required to recite the complete Grace after Meals.,Previously, the Gemara cited the ihalakhathat one recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oil. The Gemara discusses bthe matter itself. Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said, and so too Rabbi Yitzḥak saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: One recites the blessing: Who creates fruit of the tree, over olive oiljust as he does over the fruit itself. bWhat are the circumstances? If you say that he drank itplain, bit causes damage tothe drinker. bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who drinks oil of iteruma /i,while unaware that it was iteruma /i, bpays the principal and does not paythe additional bfifthwhich is the typical penalty for unintentional misuse of consecrated property, as in that case the individual is considered to have only damaged consecrated property without deriving benefit from it. bOne who anointshis body bwith the oil of iterumapays the principal and pays the fifth,as he derived benefit from it. Apparently, one who drinks oil derives no benefit and it even causes him damage., bRather,it is referring to a case where bhe eatsthe oil bbydipping bbreadinto it. bIf so,the bbread is primary andthe oil bsecondary, and we learnedin a mishna: bThis is the principle: Anyfood bthat is primary, andis eaten bwithfood that is bsecondary, one recites a blessing over the primaryfood, and that blessing bexempts the secondaryfrom the requirement to recite a blessing before eating it. A blessing need only be recited over the bread, not over the oil. bRather,it is referring to a case bwhere he is drinking it by means of an ianigeron /i, as Rabba bar Shmuel said: iAnigeron /iis bwaterin which a bbeetwas boiled, iansigeron /iis bthe water /b
18. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

22b. ממעט על אביו ועל אמו ממעט,על כל המתים כולן רצה חולץ רצה אינו חולץ על אביו ועל אמו חולץ,ומעשה בגדול הדור אחד שמת אביו וביקש לחלוץ וביקש גדול הדור אחר שעמו לחלוץ ונמנע ולא חלץ,אמר אביי גדול הדור רבי גדול הדור שעמו ר' יעקב בר אחא ואיכא דאמרי גדול הדור ר' יעקב בר אחא גדול הדור שעמו רבי,בשלמא למ"ד גדול הדור שעמו רבי היינו דנמנע ולא חלץ,אלא למ"ד רבי יעקב בר אחא אמאי נמנע ולא חלץ רשב"ג נשיא הוה וכולי עלמא מיחייבי למיחלץ קשיא,על כל המתים כולן מסתפר לאחר ל' יום על אביו ועל אמו עד שיגערו בו חבריו על כל המתים כולן נכנס לבית השמחה לאחר ל' יום על אביו ועל אמו לאחר י"ב חדש,אמר רבה בר בר חנה ולשמחת מריעות מיתיבי ולשמחה ולמריעות ל' יום קשיא,אמימר מתני הכי אמר רבה בר בר חנה ולשמחת מריעות מותר ליכנס לאלתר והא תניא לשמחה שלשים ולמריעות שלשים,ל"ק הא באריסותא הא בפורענותא,על כל המתים כולן קורע טפח על אביו ועל אמו עד שיגלה את לבו א"ר אבהו מאי קרא (שמואל ב א, יא) ויחזק דוד בבגדיו ויקרעם ואין אחיזה פחות מטפח,על כל המתים כולן אפילו לבוש עשרה חלוקין אינו קורע אלא עליון על אביו ועל אמו קורע את כולן ואפיקרסותו אינה מעכבת,אחד האיש ואחד אשה ר"ש בן אלעזר אומר האשה קורעת את התחתון ומחזירתו לאחוריה וחוזרת וקורעת את העליון,על כל המתים כולן רצה מבדיל קמי שפה שלו רצה אינו מבדיל על אביו ועל אמו מבדיל,רבי יהודה אומר כל קריעה שאינו מבדיל קמי שפה שלו אינו אלא קרע של תיפלות אמר רבי אבהו מ"ט דר' יהודה דכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יב) ויחזק בבגדיו ויקרעם לשנים קרעים ממשמע שנאמר ויקרעם איני יודע שהן לשנים אלא שנראין קרועים כשנים,על כל המתים כולן שולל לאחר שבעה ומאחה לאחר שלשים על אביו ועל אמו שולל לאחר ל' ואינו מאחה לעולם והאשה שוללתו לאלתר מפני כבודה,כי אתא רבין א"ר יוחנן על כל המתים רצה קורע ביד רצה קורע בכלי על אביו ועל אמו ביד,וא"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן על כל המתים כולן מבפנים על אביו ועל אמו קורע מבחוץ אמר רב חסדא וכן לנשיא,מיתיבי לא הושוו לאביו ולאמו אלא לאיחוי בלבד,מאי לאו אפילו לנשיא לא לבר מנשיא,נשיאה שכיב א"ל רב חסדא (לרב חנן בר רבא) כפי אסיתא וקום עלה ואחוי קריעה לעלמא,על חכם חולץ מימין על אב ב"ד משמאל על נשיא מכאן ומכאן,ת"ר חכם שמת בית מדרשו בטל אב ב"ד שמת כל בתי מדרשות שבעירו בטילין ונכנסין לביהכ"נ ומשנין את מקומן היושבין בצפון יושבין בדרום היושבין בדרום יושבין בצפון נשיא שמת בתי מדרשות כולן בטילין ובני הכנסת נכנסין לבית הכנסת 22b. breduceit. bInthe case of bhis father or mother,he must always breducehis business., bWith regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, if the mourner bwishes, he may removehis garment from one of his shoulders, and if bhe wishesnot to remove it, bhe need not removeit. However, binthe case of bhis father or mother, hemust always bremovehis garment from one of his shoulders.,There was ban incident when the father of a leading authority ofhis bgeneration died, andthe authority bwished to removehis garment from one shoulder. bAnother leading authority of the generationalso bwished to removehis own garment together bwith him,in order to join him in his mourning, bbutdue to this the first person brefrained and did not removehis garment, so that his colleague would not remove his garment as well., bAbaye said: The leading authority of the generationmentioned here is bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bthe leading authority of the generationwho was bwith himwas bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa. And some say: The leading authority of the generationwas bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa,and bthe leading authority of the generationwho was bwith himwas bRabbiYehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara examines this issue: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat bthe leading authority of the generationwho was bwith him was RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthis isthe reason that bhe refrained and did not removehis garment from his shoulder. That is to say, Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa refrained from doing so because he did not wish to cause the iNasito remove his own garment., bBut according to the one who saidthat it is bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥawho was the leader of the generation with him, bwhy didRabbi Yehuda HaNasi brefrain and not removehis garment from his shoulder? bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel,the father of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, was also bthe iNasi /i, and everyone is required to removehis garment from his shoulder for him, as was the accepted practice. Therefore, Rabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa would also have been required to bare his shoulder. Why, then, did Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi prevent him from doing so? The Gemara concludes: Indeed bthisis bdifficult. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the continuation of the ibaraita /i: bWith regard to all deceasedrelatives except for parents, bone may cut his hair after thirty days. Inthe case of bone’s father or mother,one may not cut his hair buntil his colleagues have rebuked himfor his hair being too long. bWith regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, bhe may enter a placewhere ba joyouscelebration is taking place bafter thirty days; inthe case of bhis father or mother,he may enter such a place only bafter twelve months. /b, bRabba bar bar Ḥana said:The ruling that a mourner may enter a house of joy after thirty days applies specifically bto a joyous social gathering,that is to say, to the joyous meals that a group of friends would eat together, each taking a turn hosting. But this ruling does not apply to a large joyous occasion, such as a wedding feast. The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitawhich adds: bAndalso bfor joyous social gatherings, thirty days.This implies that when the ibaraitaspeaks of joyous celebrations without further specification, it is not referring to joyous social gatherings, but even to weddings and other joyous occasions. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, bitis bdifficult. /b, bAmeimar taughtthe previous discussion bas follows: Rabba bar bar Ḥana saidan alternative version of the discussion: bFor a joyous social gathering one is permitted to enter immediately.The Gemara poses a question: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFor joyous celebrations and for joyous social gatherings,one must wait bthirtydays?,The Gemara answers: bThis is not difficult. Thisruling, of the ibaraita /i, is referring bto an initialgathering, when the mourner is the first in the group of friends to host. The ibaraitateaches that in such a situation the mourner is required to wait thirty days before doing so. bThatruling, of Rabba bar bar Ḥana, is referring bto a reciprocalgathering. The mourner’s friends have already hosted these gatherings, and now it is his turn to host. Since he is required to host such a gathering for his colleagues, he need not postpone it. Rather, he may host the group immediately.,The ibaraitacontinues: bWith regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, bone rendshis garment the length bof a handbreadth,and that suffices. bInthe case of bhis father or mother,he must rend his garment buntil he reveals his heart. Rabbi Abbahu said: What is the versethat teaches that the rent must be a handbreadth? b“And David took hold of his clothes and rent them”(II Samuel 1:11), band taking hold cannotbe done for a garment bless than a handbreadth. /b,The ibaraitateaches further: bWith regard to allother deceased relatives, beven if he is wearing ten garments,one on top of the other, bhe rends onlyhis boutergarment. But binthe case of bhis father or mother, he must rend them all.Failure to rend bhis undergarment,however, bdoes not invalidatethe fulfillment of the mitzva., bBoth a man and a womanare required to rend their garments. bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: A womanfirst brendsher binnergarment band turnsit baround,so that the tear is bon her back. Andonly bafterwarddoes bshe rendher boutergarment, so that she does not expose her chest., bWith regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, if bone wishes he may rip aparthis garment bon the hem,rather than merely expanding the neck hole, so that the tear stands out distinctly from the opening of the garment. If he bwishesnot to do this, bhe does not rip apartthe hem in this manner. That is to say, one may simply enlarge the neck hole, although rending a garment in this way makes the tear less prominent. bInthe case of bone’s father or mother,however, bhe mustalways brip apartthe hem., bRabbi Yehuda says: Any rending that does not rip aparthis garment bon the hemof the garment bis nothing other than a frivolous rentof no significance, as it must be evident that one has rent his garment in mourning and that the rent is not merely an imperfection in the garment. bRabbi Abbahu said: What is the reasonfor bRabbi Yehuda’sopinion? bAs it is written: “And he took hold of his own clothes and he rent them in two pieces”(II Kings 2:12). bFrom that which is stated: “And he rent,” do I not know thathe rent them bin two? Rather,these words teach bthatthe rent clothes must bappear as if they were torn into twopieces, i.e., the tear must be obvious and visible.,The ibaraitacontinues: bWith regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, bone may tackthe tear with rough stitches bafter seven days, and one may jointhe edges more carefully bafter thirtydays. But binthe case of bone’s father or mother, he may tackthe tear only bafter thirty days, and he may neveragain bjointhe edges more carefully. bA woman,however, bmay tackthe tear bimmediately, due to her honor,for it would be dishonorable for her to be seen with torn garments., bWhen Ravin camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia, bhe said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: With regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, bif one wishes, he may rendhis garment bwithhis bhand;and if bhe wishes, he may rendit bwith a utensilin a way that will preserve it. But binthe case of bhis father or mother,he must rend his garment bwith his handin a manner that will utterly ruin it., bAnd Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said that Rabbi Yoḥa said: With regard to allother bdeceasedrelatives, one rends his garment bon the inside,meaning, he rends his inner garment and not necessarily his outermost garment. bInthe case of bone’s father or mother,however, bhe must rendthe garment bon the outside,i.e., the outermost garment. bRav Ḥisda said: And likewise, over a iNasi /i,one is required to rend his garment as he does over his father.,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraitain which it was taught: The ihalakhotof rending for the death of other people referred to in the ibaraita /i, e.g., a iNasi /i, a president of the court, or one’s teacher, bwere likened tothe ihalakhotof rending for bone’s father or mother only with regard tothe issue of carefully brejoiningthe edges of the rent, as in all of these cases it is prohibited to mend one’s garment with precise stitches., bWhat, isthis ibaraita bnotalso referring bevento one who rends his garment bfor the iNasi /i?The Gemara rejects this: bNo,the ibaraitais referring to the other people, basidefrom one who rends his garment for the iNasi /i, as rending for the iNasiis the same as rending for one’s father with regard to all aspects of the rending.,It was related that the iNasidied,and bRav Ḥisda said to Rav Ḥa bar Rava: Turn the mortar over and stand on it, and showthe brent to everyone.Everyone will then rend his garment in this manner, as everyone is required to rend his garment over the death of the iNasi /i.,§ It was further taught: bFormourning ba Sage, one removeshis garment bfrom the rightshoulder. bForthe bpresident of the courthe removes his garment bfrom the leftshoulder. bForthe iNasi /ihe removes his garment bfrom here and from here,from both shoulders., bThe Sages taughtthe following ibaraita /i: When ba Sage dies, his study hall ceasesits regular study as a sign of mourning over him. When bthe president of the court dies, all of the study halls in his city ceasetheir regular study, and everyone benters the synagogue and changes their placesthere as a sign of mourning over him. bThose whoordinarily bsit in the northshould bsit in the south, and those whoordinarily bsit in the southshould bsit in the north.When ba iNasidies, all study halls ceasetheir regular study. On Shabbat, bthe members of the synagogue enter the synagoguefor public Torah reading, which requires a congregation of ten
19. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. ומה נחש שממית ומרבה טומאה טהור שרץ שאינו ממית ומרבה טומאה אינו דין שיהא טהור ולא היא מידי דהוה אקוץ בעלמא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כל עיר שאין בה שנים לדבר ואחד לשמוע אין מושיבין בה סנהדרי ובביתר הוו שלשה וביבנה ארבעה רבי אליעזר ורבי יהושע ור"ע ושמעון התימני דן לפניהם בקרקע,מיתיבי שלישית חכמה רביעית אין למעלה הימנה הוא דאמר כי האי תנא דתניא שניה חכמה שלישית אין למעלה הימנה,למידין לפני חכמים לוי מרבי דנין לפני חכמים שמעון בן עזאי ושמעון בן זומא וחנן המצרי וחנניא בן חכינאי רב נחמן בר יצחק מתני חמשה שמעון שמעון ושמעון חנן וחנניה,רבותינו שבבבל רב ושמואל רבותינו שבארץ ישראל רבי אבא דייני גולה קרנא דייני דארץ ישראל רבי אמי ורבי אסי דייני דפומבדיתא רב פפא בר שמואל דייני דנהרדעא רב אדא בר מניומי סבי דסורא רב הונא ורב חסדא סבי דפומבדיתא רב יהודה ורב עינא חריפי דפומבדיתא עיפה ואבימי בני רחבה אמוראי דפומבדיתא רבה ורב יוסף אמוראי דנהרדעי רב חמא,נהרבלאי מתנו רמי בר ברבי אמרי בי רב רב הונא והאמר רב הונא אמרי בי רב אלא רב המנונא אמרי במערבא רבי ירמיה שלחו מתם ר' יוסי בר חנינא מחכו עלה במערבא ר' אלעזר,והא שלחו מתם לדברי רבי יוסי בר חנינא אלא איפוך שלחו מתם ר' אלעזר מחכו עלה במערבא רבי יוסי בר חנינא:,וכמה יהא בעיר ויהא ראויה לסנהדרין מאה ועשרים וכו': מאה ועשרים מאי עבידתייהו עשרים ושלשה כנגד סנהדרי קטנה ושלש שורות של עשרים ושלשה הרי תשעים ותרתי ועשרה בטלנין של בית הכנסת הרי מאה ותרי,ושני סופרים ושני חזנין ושני בעלי דינין ושני עדים ושני זוממין ושני זוממי זוממין הרי מאה וארביסר,ותניא כל עיר שאין בה עשרה דברים הללו אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לדור בתוכה בית דין מכין ועונשין וקופה של צדקה נגבית בשנים ומתחלקת בשלשה ובית הכנסת ובית המרחץ וביהכ"ס רופא ואומן ולבלר (וטבח) ומלמד תינוקות משום ר' עקיבא אמרו אף מיני פירא מפני שמיני פירא מאירין את העינים:,ר' נחמיה אומר וכו': תניא רבי אומר 17b. bIf a snake, which killsother creatures whose carcasses are impure bandthereby bincreases impurityin the world, is itself nevertheless bpure,as it is not included in the list of impure creeping animals, then concerning ba creeping animal that does not kill anddoes not bincrease impurity, isn’t it logical that it should be pure?This argument is rejected: bBut it is not so;the logic of the ihalakhaof a creeping animal is bjust as it isconcerning the ihalakha bwith regard to an ordinary thorn,which can injure people or animals and can even kill and thereby increase impurity, but is nevertheless pure. It is therefore apparent that this consideration is not relevant to the ihalakhotof impurity.,§ bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:With regard to bany city that does not haveamong its residents btwomen who are able bto speakall seventy languages band oneadditional man who is able bto listento and understand statements made in all the languages, even if he cannot speak all of them, bthey do not placea lesser bSanhedrinthere. The members of the Sanhedrin do not all need to know all of the languages, but there must be at least this minimum number. bAnd in Beitar there were threeindividuals who were able to speak all seventy languages, band in Yavnethere were bfour,and they were: bRabbi Eliezer, and Rabbi Yehoshua, and Rabbi Akiva, and Shimon HaTimni,who was not an ordained Sage, and he would therefore bdeliberate beforethe other judges while seated bon the ground,not among the rows of Sages.,The Gemara braises an objectionto this from a ibaraita /i: bA third,i.e., a Sanhedrin that has three individuals who can speak all seventy languages, is ba wiseSanhedrin, and if it also has ba fourthsuch person, bthere is nocourt babove it,meaning that there is no need for additional language experts. Apparently the minimum requirement is three people who can speak the languages, not two. The Gemara answers: Rav bstateshis opinion bin accordance withthe opinion of bthe following itanna /i, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: A Sanhedrin that has ba secondlanguage expert bis wise;and if it also has ba third, there is nocourt babove it. /b,§ Since the ibaraitastated that Shimon HaTimni would deliberate before them on the ground, the Gemara now lists various standard formulations used to introduce the statements of various Sages throughout the generations. If a source says: bIt was learned from the Sages,the intention is that this was a statement made by the Sage bLeviwho sat before and learned bfrom RabbiYehuda HaNasi. If it says: They bdeliberated before the Sages,this is referring to bShimon ben Azzai, and Shimon ben Zoma, and Ḥa the Egyptian, and Ḥaya ben Ḥakhinai. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwould bteach fivenames for this list: bShimonben Azzai, bShimonben Zoma, band ShimonHaTimni, bḤathe Egyptian, band Ḥayaben Ḥakhinai.,The expression: bOur Rabbis that are in Babylonia,is referring to bRav and Shmuel.The expression: bOur Rabbis that are in Eretz Yisrael,is referring to bRabbi Abba.The expression: bThe judges of the Diaspora,is a reference to the Sage bKarna.The phrase: bThe judges of Eretz Yisrael,is a reference to bRabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi.The phrase: bThe judges of Pumbedita,is referring to bRav Pappa bar Shmuel,who was the head of the court there, and: bThe judges of Neharde’a,is a reference to the court headed by bRav Adda bar Minyumi.The term: bThe Elders of Sura,is referring to bRav Huna and Rav Ḥisda,and: bThe Elders of Pumbedita,is referring to bRav Yehuda and Rav Eina. The sharp ones of Pumbeditaare bEifa and Avimi, the sons of Raḥava.The expression: bThe iamora’imof Pumbedita,is referring to bRabba and Rav Yosef,and the phrase: bThe iamora’imof Neharde’a,is referring to bRav Ḥama. /b,If it says: The Sages bof Neharbela taught,this is referring to bRami bar Berabi,and the statement: bThey sayin bthe school of Rav,is a reference to bRav Huna.The Gemara asks: bBut doesn’t Rav Hunasometimes bsaywith regard to a given ihalakha /i: bThey sayin bthe school of Rav?From this, it is apparent that a statement introduced by that formula cannot be made by Rav Huna himself, as Rav Huna quotes someone else with that introduction. The Gemara responds: bRather,the expression: They say in the school of Rav, must be referring to bRav Hamnuna.The formula: bThey say in the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, is referring to bRabbi Yirmeya;the expression: bThey senta message bfrom there,meaning from Eretz Yisrael, is referring to bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina;and the statement: bThey laughed at it in the West,means that bRabbi Elazardid not accept a particular opinion.,The Gemara asks: bButin one instance it is reported that: bThey senta message bfrom therethat began: bAccording to the statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina.This indicates that the expression: They sent from there, is not itself a reference to a statement of Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina. The Gemara answers: bRather, reversethe statements. The phrase: bThey sent from there,is a reference to bRabbi Elazar,and: bThey laughed at it in the West,means that bRabbi Yosei bar Ḥaninadid not accept a particular opinion.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd how manymen must bbe in the city forit bto be eligible fora lesser bSanhedrin?The opinion of the first itannais that there must be b120men. The Gemara asks: bWhat is the relevance ofthe number b120?The Gemara explains that b23are needed to bcorrespond tothe number of members of the blesser Sanhedrin, andit is necessary for there to be bthree rows of 23students who sit before the lesser Sanhedrin to learn and also to advise them; that bisa total of b92people. bAndsince there also need to be b10 idlers of the synagogue,people who are free from urgent work and are always sitting in the synagogue to take care of its repair and the other needs of the public, that bwould be 102. /b, bAndin addition there are btwo scribesrequired for the Sanhedrin, band two bailiffs, and two litigantswho will come to be judged. bAndthere are btwo witnessesfor one side, band twowitnesses who could render those witnesses bconspiringwitnesses by testifying that they were elsewhere at the time of the alleged incident, band twoadditional witnesses could testify against the witnesses who rendered the first witnesses bconspiringwitnesses, rendering the second pair bconspiringwitnesses. All of these are necessary in order for a trial to take place, as is described in Deuteronomy 19:15–21. Therefore, bthere areso far a total of b114men who must be in the city., bAndit bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA Torah scholar is not permitted to reside in any city that does not have these ten things: A court thathas the authority to bflog and punishtransgressors; banda charity bfundfor which monies bare collected by twopeople band distributed by three,as required by ihalakha /i. This leads to a requirement for another three people in the city. bAnd a synagogue; and a bathhouse; anda public bbathroom; a doctor; and a bloodletter; and a scribe[ivelavlar/b] to write sacred scrolls and necessary documents; banda ritual bslaughterer; and a teacher of young children.With these additional requirements there are a minimum of 120 men who must be residents of the city. bThey said in the name of Rabbi Akiva:The city must balsohave bvarieties of fruit, because varieties of fruit illuminate the eyes. /b,The mishna teaches that bRabbi Neḥemya says:There must be 230 men in the city in order for it to be eligible for a lesser Sanhedrin, corresponding to the ministers of tens appointed in the wilderness by Moses at the suggestion of his father-in-law, Yitro (see Exodus 18:21). Each member of the Sanhedrin can be viewed as a judge with responsibility for ten men. It bis taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: /b
20. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56a. בני שמואל חטאו אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א ח, ג) ויהי (כי זקן שמואל ובניו לא הלכו) בדרכיו בדרכיו הוא דלא הלכו מיחטא נמי לא חטאו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל א ח, ג) ויטו אחרי הבצע שלא עשו כמעשה אביהם שהיה שמואל הצדיק מחזר בכל מקומות ישראל ודן אותם בעריהם שנאמר (שמואל א ז, טז) והלך מדי שנה בשנה וסבב בית אל והגלגל והמצפה ושפט את ישראל והם לא עשו כן אלא ישבו בעריהם כדי להרבות שכר לחזניהן ולסופריהן,כתנאי ויטו אחרי הבצע ר' מאיר אומר חלקם שאלו בפיהם רבי יהודה אומר מלאי הטילו על בעלי בתים ר' עקיבא אומר קופה יתירה של מעשר נטלו בזרוע ר' יוסי אומר מתנות נטלו בזרוע:,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני אמר ר' יונתן כל האומר דוד חטא אינו אלא טועה שנאמר (שמואל א יח, יד) ויהי דוד לכל דרכיו משכיל וה' עמו וגו' אפשר חטא בא לידו ושכינה עמו,אלא מה אני מקיים (שמואל ב יב, ט) מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,אמר רב רבי דאתי מדוד מהפך ודריש בזכותיה דדוד מדוע בזית את דבר ה' לעשות הרע רבי אומר משונה רעה זו מכל רעות שבתורה שכל רעות שבתורה כתיב בהו ויעש וכאן כתיב לעשות שביקש לעשות ולא עשה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) את אוריה החתי הכית בחרב שהיה לך לדונו בסנהדרין ולא דנת ואת אשתו לקחת לך לאשה ליקוחין יש לך בה,דא"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן כל היוצא למלחמת בית דוד כותב גט כריתות לאשתו שנאמר (שמואל א יז, יח) ואת עשרת חריצי החלב האלה תביא לשר האלף ואת אחיך תפקוד לשלום ואת ערובתם תקח,מאי ערובתם תני רב יוסף דברים המעורבים בינו לבינה,(שמואל ב יב, ט) ואותו הרגת בחרב בני עמון מה חרב בני עמון אי אתה נענש עליו אף אוריה החתי אי אתה נענש עליו,מאי טעמא מורד במלכות הוה דאמר ליה (שמואל ב יא, יא) ואדוני יואב ועבדי אדוני על פני השדה חונים,אמר רב כי מעיינת ביה בדוד לא משכחת ביה בר מדאוריה דכתיב (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אביי קשישא רמי דרב אדרב מי אמר רב הכי והאמר רב קיבל דוד לשון הרע קשיא,גופא רב אמר קיבל דוד לשון הרע דכתיב (שמואל ב ט, ד) ויאמר לו המלך איפוא הוא ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה הוא בית מכיר בן עמיאל (בלא) דבר וכתיב וישלח המלך ויקחהו מבית מכיר בן עמיאל (מלא) דבר,מכדי חזייה דשקרא הוא כי הדר אלשין עילויה מ"ט קיבלה מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך (אל ציבא איה) בן אדוניך ויאמר ציבא אל המלך הנה (הוא) יושב בירושלים וגו' ומנא לן דקיבל מיניה דכתיב (שמואל ב טז, ב) ויאמר המלך הנה לך כל אשר למפיבושת ויאמר ציבא השתחויתי אמצא חן (בעיני) המלך,ושמואל אמר לא קיבל דוד לשון הרע דברים הניכרים חזא ביה דכתיב (שמואל ב יט, כה) ומפיבושת בן שאול ירד (לפני) המלך ולא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו ואת בגדיו לא כיבס וגו' וכתיב ויהי כי בא ירושלים לקראת המלך ויאמר לו המלך למה לא הלכת עמי מפיבושת ויאמר אדוני המלך עבדי רמני כי אמר עבדך אחבשה לי החמור וארכב עליה ואלך את המלך כי פסח 56a. bthat the sons of Samuel sinned is nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And it came to pass, when Samuel was oldthat he made his sons judges over Israel… bAnd his sons walked not in his waysbut sought after unjust gain, and took bribes, and perverted justice” (I Samuel 8:1–3). By inference: bIn his ways they did not walk,however, bthey did not sin either.They were not the equals of their father, but they were not sinners., bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the verse: b“And they sought after unjust gain,”indicating that they were sinners? It means bthat they did not conductthemselves bin accordance with the actions of their father. As Samuel the righteous would travel to all placeswhere the people of bIsraelwere located bandsit in bjudgment in their towns, as it is stated: “And he went from year to year in circuit from Beth-El, and Gilgal, and Mitzpa, and judged Israelin all those places” (I Samuel 7:16). bAnd,however, bthey did not do soand travel from place to place. bRather, they sat in theirown bcities in order to enhance the feescollected bby their attendants and scribes.Therefore, the verse ascribes to them liability as if they sinned by seeking ill-gotten gains and bribes.,The Gemara notes that this matter is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i.As it was taught in a ibaraitathat the verse states: b“And they sought after unjust gain.” Rabbi Meir says:This means that bthey vocally demanded their portionsof the tithe due them as Levites, abusing their position to the detriment of other Levites. bRabbi Yehuda says: They imposedupon local bhomeownersto sell their bmerchandiseand support them. bRabbi Akiva says: They took an extra basket of tithes,beyond that which was their due, bby force. Rabbi Yosei says: They tookonly bthe giftsdue them; however, they took them bby force.They acted improperly, as a Levite is required to wait until he is given his gifts and may not take them., bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who says that David sinnedwith Bathsheba bis nothing other than mistaken, as it is stated: “And David succeeded in all his ways; and the Lord was with him”(I Samuel 18:14). bIs it possible that sin came to his hand andnevertheless bthe Divine Presence was with him? /b, bHowever, howthen bdo I establishthe meaning of the rebuke of the prophet Nathan: b“Why have you despised the word of the Lord, to do that which is evilin My sight? Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword, and his wife you have taken to be your wife, and him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon” (II Samuel 12:9), indicating that David sinned? The Gemara answers: David bsought to doevil and have relations with Bathsheba while she was still married to Uriah bbut did not doso., bRav said: RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bwho descends fromthe house of bDavid, seeks to teachthe verse bin favor of David.With regard to that which is written: b“Why have you despised the commandment of the Lord to do evil,” RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: This evilmentioned with regard to David bis different from allother bevils in the Torah; as with regard to allother bevils in the Torah, it is written: And he didevil, band here it is written: To do evil.This unique phrase indicates that David bsought to doevil bbut did notactually bdoso. His intentions were improper; however, his actions were proper.,That which is written: b“Uriah the Hittite you have smitten with the sword,”means bthat you could have judged him before the Sanhedrinas one guilty of treason against the throne, band you did not judgehim in that manner. Instead, you had him executed in a manner that deviated from the generally accepted principles of judgment. With regard to that which is written: b“And his wife you have taken to be your wife”;it means that byou haverights of bmarriage with her,as by law Bathsheba was already divorced from Uriah., bAs Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: Anyone who goes to a warwaged by the royal bhouse of David writes aconditional bbill of divorce to his wife.That was done to prevent a situation in which the soldier’s wife would be unable to remarry because the soldier did not return from battle and there were no witnesses to his fate. The conditional bill of divorce accorded her the status of a divorcee and freed her to remarry. bAs it is stated: “And carry these ten cheeses to the captain of their thousand, and to your brothers bring greetings and take their pledge [ iarubatam /i] /b” (I Samuel 17:18)., bWhat isthe meaning of iarubatam /i? Rav Yosef taught:It refers to bmatters that are shared [ ihame’oravim /i] between him,the husband, band her,the wife, i.e., marriage. The verse should be read: Take the bill of divorce that determines the status of the relationship between husband and wife. As, apparently, it was customary for men at war to send their wives a conditional divorce, since Uriah later died, Bathsheba retroactively assumed divorced status from the time that he set out to war. She was not forbidden to David.,With regard to that which is written: b“And him you have slain with the sword of the children of Ammon,”it means: bJust as you are not punished forsoldiers killed by bthe sword of the children of Ammonin the course of the war, bso too you are not punished forthe death of bUriah the Hittite. /b, bWhat is the reasonthat David was not liable for the death of Uriah? Because Uriah bwas a traitor against the throne. As he said toDavid: b“And my lord Joab and the servants of my lord are encamped in the open fields”(II Samuel 11:11). In the presence of the king, one may not refer to another as his lord. Doing so is treason., bRav said: When you analyzethe matter of bDavid, nosin that he committed bis found in hislifetime, bexcept for thatinvolving bUriah. As it is written /b: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from any thing that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only in the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5)., bAbaye the Elder raised a contradiction betweenone statement bof Rav andanother statement bof Rav: Did Ravactually bsay this? Didn’t Rav say: David accepted aslanderous breport?Just as it is prohibited to relate a slanderous report, it is similarly prohibited to accept it. This contradiction remains unresolved, and it is bdifficult. /b,The Gemara now examines bthe matter itselfwith regard to Rav’s statement cited in the course of the previous discussion. bRav said: David accepted a slanderous report, as it is writtenwith regard to David’s search for a surviving son of Jonathan: b“And the king said to him,to Ziba, Saul’s slave: bWhere is he? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is in the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, in Lo-Devar [ ibelo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:4). Ziba indicated to David that Jonathan’s son was inconsequential, lacking any matter [ ilo devar /i] of Torah. bAnd it is written: “Then KingDavid bsent, and fetched him out of the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, from Lo-Devar [ imilo devar /i]”(II Samuel 9:5). That verse can be read that after sending for him, David found him filled with matters [ imelo devar /i] of Torah., bNow, afterDavid bsaw thatZiba bwas a liar, whenZiba bonce again slanderedJonathan’s son, Mephibosheth, bwhy did David accepthis report? bAs it is writtenthat when David fled from Absalom, he met Ziba: b“And the king said: And where is your master’s son? And Ziba said to the king: Behold, he is staying in Jerusalem,as he said: Today shall the house of Israel restore to me the kingdom of my father” (II Samuel 16:3). bAnd from where do wederive bthat David acceptedZiba’s slanderous report? bAs it is written: “Then said the kingto Ziba: bBehold, all that belongs to Mephibosheth is yours. And Ziba said: I humbly beseech you that I may find favor in your sight,my lord, bO king /b” (II Samuel 16:4)., bAnd Shmuel said: David did not acceptZiba’s bslanderous reportwithout substantiation. Rather, bhehimself bsaw conspicuous matters inMephibosheth that indicated that Ziba was right. bAs it is written: “And Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, came down to meet the king, and he had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothesfrom the day the king departed until the day he came back in peace” (II Samuel 19:25). David thought that he was mourning the fact that he had returned in peace. bAnd it is written: “And it came to pass, when he came to Jerusalem to meet the king, and the king said to him: Why did you not go with me, Mephibosheth? And he answered: My lord, O king, my servant deceived me; for your servant said: I will saddle me a donkey, and I will ride on it, and go to the king; because lame is /b
21. Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.11 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
acts,synagogues,synagogues,jerusalem Levine (2005) 143
adjudication,patriarchal Levine (2005) 395
adjudication,sardis Levine (2005) 395
adjudication,synagogue Levine (2005) 143, 395, 442
ancient synagogue,pharisees/rabbis as leaders of,passages indicative of,in josephus Cohen (2010) 274
ancient synagogue,pharisees/rabbis as leaders of,passages indicative of,in matthew Cohen (2010) 274
breuer,yochanan Cohn (2013) 136
epstein,j. n. Cohn (2013) 136
eukhai Cohen (2010) 274
evidence,rules of Rosen-Zvi (2012) 166
flogging,in synagogue Levine (2005) 143, 395, 442
hazzan,communal functionary Levine (2005) 395
humiliation Rosen-Zvi (2012) 166
instruction,school,education Levine (2005) 442
judge Levine (2005) 395, 442
kinnuy Rosen-Zvi (2012) 166
leadership,synagogue,leadership,town,communal Levine (2005) 442
leadership,synagogue Levine (2005) 442
maradata synagogue Levine (2005) 395
mark,synagogue Levine (2005) 143
matthew,synagogue Levine (2005) 143
mourning Rosen-Zvi (2012) 72
nudity Rosen-Zvi (2012) 72
patriarch,patriarchate,palestine Levine (2005) 395
paul,flogging in synagogue Levine (2005) 143
paul,jerusalem Levine (2005) 143
proseuche (prayer house),diaspora,black sea region Levine (2005) 143
proseuche (prayer house),diaspora,sardis Levine (2005) 395
r. abbahu Levine (2005) 395
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 445
sardis,adjudication Levine (2005) 395
sardis,edicts Levine (2005) 395
scribe Levine (2005) 143
septuagint,synagogue,septuagint,susannah Levine (2005) 143
shame Rosen-Zvi (2012) 72
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 445
simonias Levine (2005) 442
sofer Levine (2005) 442
sotah,guilt and innocence of Rosen-Zvi (2012) 166
susannah (book) Levine (2005) 143
synagogue Rosen-Zvi (2012) 72
teacher' Levine (2005) 442
temple Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 445; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 239
testimony Rosen-Zvi (2012) 166