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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



8003
Mishnah, Bikkurim, 1.5


רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, אִשָּׁה בַת גֵּרִים לֹא תִנָּשֵׂא לַכְּהֻנָּה, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמָּהּ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אֶחָד גֵּרִים וְאֶחָד עֲבָדִים מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַד עֲשָׂרָה דוֹרוֹת, עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא אִמָּן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. הָאַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס וְהַשָּׁלִיחַ וְהָעֶבֶד וְהָאִשָּׁה וְטֻמְטוּם וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, מְבִיאִין וְלֹא קוֹרִין, שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לוֹמַר (דברים כ״ו:י׳) אֲשֶׁר נָתַתָּה לִּי ה':Rabbi Eliezer ben Yaakov says: a woman who is a daughter of a convert may not marry a priest unless her mother was herself an Israelite. [This law applies equally to the offspring] whether of proselytes or freed slaves, even to ten generations, unless their mother is an Israelite. A guardian, an agent, a slave, a woman, one of doubtful sex, or a hermaphrodite bring the bikkurim, but do not recite, since they cannot say: “Which you, O Lord, have given to me” (Deuteronomy 26:10).


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

8 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 26.3, 31.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃ 31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃ 26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’" 31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’"
2. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 15.419 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

15.419. but the temple further inward in that gate was not allowed to the women; but still more inward was there a third [court of the] temple, whereinto it was not lawful for any but the priests alone to enter. The temple itself was within this; and before that temple was the altar, upon which we offer our sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God.
3. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.198-5.199 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.198. whence there were other steps, each of five cubits a piece, that led to the gates, which gates on the north and south sides were eight, on each of those sides four, and of necessity two on the east. For since there was a partition built for the women on that side, as the proper place wherein they were to worship, there was a necessity for a second gate for them: this gate was cut out of its wall, over against the first gate. 5.199. There was also on the other sides one southern and one northern gate, through which was a passage into the court of the women; for as to the other gates, the women were not allowed to pass through them; nor when they went through their own gate could they go beyond their own wall. This place was allotted to the women of our own country, and of other countries, provided they were of the same nation, and that equally.
4. Mishnah, Bikkurim, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. These bring [bikkurim] but do not read the declaration:The convert, since he cannot say: “Which the Lord has sworn to our fathers, to give to us” (Deuteronomy 26:3). If his mother was an Israelite, then he brings bikkurim and recites. When he prays privately, he says: “God of the fathers of Israel,” but when he is in the synagogue, he should say: “The God of your fathers.” But if his mother was an Israelite, he says: “The God of our fathers’."
5. Mishnah, Keritot, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.7. If a woman had five doubtful genital discharges or five doubtful births, she needs to bring only one offering, and she may eat sacrifices [immediately], and she is not liable to bring the other [offerings]. If a woman had five certain births, or five certain genital discharges, she brings one offering and may then eat sacrifices [immediately], and she is liable to bring the other offerings. It once happened in Jerusalem that the price of a pair of doves rose to a golden denar. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel said: By this sanctuary, I shall not go to sleep tonight before they cost but a [silver] denar! Then he entered the court and taught: if a woman had five certain births or five certain genital discharges she needs to bring only one offering, and she may then eat sacrifices, and she is not liable to bring the other [offerings]. Thereupon the price of a pair of birds stood at a quarter of a [silver] denar each."
6. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. מורד במלכות הוא ולא צריך למידייניה אמרה לו עדיין שאול קיים ולא יצא טבעך בעולם אמר לה (שמואל א כה, לג) ברוך טעמך וברוכה את אשר כליתני [היום הזה] מבא בדמים,דמים תרתי משמע אלא מלמד שגילתה את שוקה והלך לאורה ג' פרסאות אמר לה השמיעי לי אמרה לו (שמואל א כה, לא) לא תהיה זאת לך לפוקה זאת מכלל דאיכא אחריתי ומאי ניהו מעשה דבת שבע ומסקנא הכי הואי,(שמואל א כה, כט) והיתה נפש אדוני צרורה בצרור החיים כי הוות מיפטרא מיניה אמרה ליה (שמואל א כה, לא) והטיב ה' לאדוני וזכרת את אמתך,אמר רב נחמן היינו דאמרי אינשי איתתא בהדי שותא פילכא איכא דאמרי שפיל ואזיל בר אווזא ועינוהי מיטייפי,חולדה דכתיב (מלכים ב כב, יד) וילך חלקיהו הכהן ואחיקם ועכבור וגו' ובמקום דקאי ירמיה היכי מתנביא איהי אמרי בי רב משמיה דרב חולדה קרובת ירמיה היתה ולא הוה מקפיד עליה,ויאשיה גופיה היכי שביק ירמיה ומשדר לגבה אמרי דבי רבי שילא מפני שהנשים רחמניות הן,ר' יוחנן אמר ירמיה לא הוה התם שהלך להחזיר עשרת השבטים ומנלן דאהדור דכתיב (יחזקאל ז, יג) כי המוכר אל הממכר לא ישוב אפשר יובל בטל ונביא מתנבא עליו שיבטל אלא מלמד שירמיה החזירן,ויאשיהו בן אמון מלך עליהן דכתיב (מלכים ב כג, יז) ויאמר מה הציון הלז אשר אני רואה ויאמרו אליו אנשי העיר הקבר איש האלהים אשר בא מיהודה ויקרא את הדברים האלה אשר עשית על המזבח בבית אל וכי מה טיבו של יאשיהו על המזבח בבית אל אלא מלמד שיאשיהו מלך עליהן רב נחמן אמר מהכא (הושע ו, יא) גם יהודה שת קציר לך בשובי שבות עמי,אסתר דכתיב (אסתר ה, א) ויהי ביום השלישי ותלבש אסתר מלכות בגדי מלכות מיבעי ליה אלא שלבשתה רוח הקדש כתיב הכא ותלבש וכתיב התם (דברי הימים א יב, יט) ורוח לבשה את עמשי וגו',אמר רב נחמן לא יאה יהירותא לנשי תרתי נשי יהירן הויין וסניין שמייהו חדא שמה זיבורתא וחדא שמה כרכושתא זיבורתא כתיב בה (שופטים ד, ו) ותשלח ותקרא לברק ואילו איהי לא אזלה לגביה כרכושתא כתיב בה (מלכים ב כב, טו) אמרו לאיש ולא אמרה אמרו למלך,אמר רב נחמן חולדה מבני בניו של יהושע היתה כתיב הכא (מלכים ב כב, יד) בן חרחס וכתיב התם (שופטים ב,ט) בתמנת חרס,איתיביה רב עינא סבא לרב נחמן שמונה נביאים והם כהנים יצאו מרחב הזונה ואלו הן נריה ברוך ושריה מחסיה ירמיה חלקיה חנמאל ושלום רבי יהודה אומר אף חולדה הנביאה מבני בניה של רחב הזונה היתה כתיב הכא בן תקוה (מלכים ב כב, יד) וכתיב התם (יהושע ב, יח) את תקות חוט השני,אמר ליה עינא סבא ואמרי לה פתיא אוכמא מיני ומינך תסתיים שמעתא דאיגיירא ונסבה יהושע ומי הוו ליה זרעא ליהושע והכתיב (דברי הימים א ז, כז) נון בנו יהושע בנו בני לא הוו ליה בנתן הוו ליה 14b. Nabal, your husband, bis a rebel against the throne,as David had already been anointed as king by the prophet Samuel, and Nabal refused his orders. bAndtherefore bthere is no need to try him,as a rebel is not accorded the ordinary prescriptions governing judicial proceedings. Abigail bsaid to him:You lack the authority to act in this manner, as bSaul is still alive.He is the king in actual practice, and byour seal [ itivakha /i] has notyet bspread across the world,i.e., your kingship is not yet known to all. Therefore, you are not authorized to try someone for rebelling against the monarchy. David accepted her words and bsaid to her:“And bblessed be your discretion and blessed be you who have kept me this day from coming to bloodguiltiness [ idamim /i]”(I Samuel 25:33).,The Gemara asks: The plural term idamim /i,literally, bloods, bindicates two.Why did David not use the singular term idam /i? bRather, this teaches thatAbigail brevealed her thigh,and he lusted after her, band he went three parasangs by the fireof his desire for her, and bsaid to her: Listen to me,i.e., listen to me and allow me to be intimate with you. Abigail then bsaid to him: “Let this not be a stumbling block for you”(I Samuel 25:31). bBy inference,from the word b“this,”it can be understood that bthere is someone elsewho will in fact be a stumbling block for him, band what isthis referring to? bThe incident involving Bathsheba. And in the end this is what was,as indeed he stumbled with Bathsheba. This demonstrates that Abigail was a prophetess, as she knew that this would occur. This also explains why David blessed Abigail for keeping him from being responsible for two incidents involving blood that day: Abigail’s menstrual blood and the shedding of Nabal’s blood.,Apropos Abigail, the Gemara explains additional details in the story. Abigail said to David: b“Yet the soul of my lord shall be bound in the bond of lifewith the Lord your God” (I Samuel 25:29), and bwhen she parted from him she said to him: “And when the Lord shall have dealt well with my lord, and you shall remember your handmaid”(I Samuel 25:31)., bRav Naḥman saidthat bthisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: While a woman is engaged in conversationshe also holds bthe spindle,i.e., while a woman is engaged in one activity she is already taking steps with regard to another. Abigail came to David in order to save her husband Nabal, but at the same time she indicates that if her husband dies, David should remember her and marry her. And indeed, after Nabal’s death David took Abigail for his wife. bSome saythat Rav Naḥman referred to a different saying: bThe goose stoopsits head bas it goesalong, bbut its eyes look on from afarto find what it is looking for. So too, Abigail acted in similar fashion., bHuldahwas a prophetess, bas it is written: “So Hilkiah the priest and Ahikam and Achborand Shaphan and Asaiah went to Huldah the prophetess” (II Kings 22:14) as emissaries of King Josiah. The Gemara asks: bBut if Jeremiah was found there, how could she prophesy?Out of respect for Jeremiah, who was her superior, it would have been fitting that she not prophesy in his presence. The Sages of bthe school of Rav say in the name of Rav: Huldah was aclose brelative of Jeremiah, and he did not object to herprophesying in his presence.,The Gemara asks: bBut how could Josiah himself ignore Jeremiah and sendemissaries btoHuldah? The Sages of bthe school of Rabbi Sheila say: Because women aremore bcompassionate,and he hoped that what she would tell them would not be overly harsh., bRabbi Yoḥa saida different answer: bJeremiah was not thereat the time, because bhe went to bring back the ten tribesfrom their exile. bAnd from where do we derive that he brought them back? As it is written: “For the seller shall not return to that which he has sold”(Ezekiel 7:13), i.e., Ezekiel prophesied that in the future the Jubilee Year would no longer be in effect. Now bis it possible that the Jubilee hadalready been bannulled?The ihalakhotof the Jubilee Year apply only when all of the tribes of Israel are settled in their respective places, which could not have happened since the exile of the ten tribes more than a century earlier, bbut the prophet is prophesying that it will ceaseonly in the future. bRather, this teaches that Jeremiah brought backthe ten tribes from their exile., bAnd Josiah the son of Amon ruled over theten tribes, bas it is written: “Then he said: What monument is that which I see? And the men of the city told him, It is the tomb of the man of God who came from Judah and proclaimed these things that you have done against the altar of Bethel”(II Kings 23:17). bNow what connection did Josiah,king of Judea, bhave with the altar at Bethel,a city in the kingdom of Israel? bRather, this teaches that Josiah ruled over theten tribes of Israel. bRav Naḥman said:Proof that the tribes returned may be adduced bfromthe verse bhere: “Also, O Judah, there is a harvest appointed for you, when I would return the captivity of My people”(Hosea 6:11), which indicates that they returned to their places., bEstherwas also a prophetess, bas it is written: “And it came to pass on the third day that Esther clothed herself in royalty”(Esther 5:1). bIt should have said:Esther clothed herself in broyal garments. Rather,this alludes to the fact bthat she clothed herself with a divinespirit of binspiration. It is written here: “And she clothed herself,” and it is written elsewhere: “And the spirit clothed Amasai”(I Chronicles 12:19). Just as there the reference is to being enclothed by a spirit, so too Esther was enclothed by a spirit of divine inspiration.,An additional point is mentioned with regard to the prophetesses. bRav Naḥman said: Haughtiness is not befitting a woman.And a proof to this is that bthere were two haughty women, whose names wereidentical to the names of bloathsomecreatures. bOne,Deborah, bwas called a hornet,as her Hebrew name, Devorah, means hornet; band one,Huldah, bwas called a marten,as her name is the Hebrew term for that creature. From where is it known that they were haughty? bWith regard toDeborah, bthe hornet, it is written: “And she sent and called Barak”(Judges 4:6), bbut she herself did not go to him.And bwith regard toHuldah, bthe marten, it is written: “Say to the manthat sent you to me” (II Kings 22:15), bbut she did not say: Say to the king. /b,Furthermore, bRav Naḥman said: Huldah was a descendant of Joshua.An allusion to this bis written here:“Huldah the prophetess, the wife of Shallum, the son of Tikvah, bthe son of Harhas [ iḥarḥas /i]”(II Kings 22:14), band it says elsewherewith regard to Joshua: “And they buried him in the border of his inheritance bin Timnath-heres [ iḥeres /i]”(Judges 2:9), therefore intimating that there is a certain connection between them., bRav Eina the Elder raised an objectionfrom a ibaraita bto Rav Naḥman’steaching. The ibaraitaindicates that Huldah was in fact a descendant of Rahab, and seemingly not of Joshua: bEight prophets, who werealso bpriests, descended from Rahab the prostitute, and they are: Neriah;his son bBaruch; Seraiah; Mahseiah; Jeremiah;his father, bHilkiah;Jeremiah’s cousin bHanamel; andHanamel’s father, bShallum. Rabbi Yehuda said: So too, Huldah the prophetess was a descendant of Rahab the prostitute,as bit is written herewith regard to Huldah: b“The son of Tikvah,” and it is written elsewherein reference to Rahab’s escape from the destruction of Jericho: b“This cord of [ itikvat /i] scarlet thread”(Joshua 2:18).,Rav Naḥman responded to Eina the Elder and bsaid to him: Eina the Elder, and some saythat he said to him: bBlackened pot,i.e., my colleague in Torah, who has toiled and blackened his face in Torah study, bfrom me and from you the matter may be concluded,i.e., the explanation lies in a combination of our two statements. bForRahab bconverted and married Joshua,and therefore Huldah descended from both Joshua and Rahab. The Gemara raises a difficulty: bBut did Joshua have any descendants? But isn’t it writtenin the genealogical list of the tribe of Ephraim: b“Nun his son, Joshua his son”(I Chronicles 7:27)? The listing does not continue any further, implying that Joshua had no sons. The Gemara answers: Indeed, bhe did not have sons,but bhe did have daughters. /b
7. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

70b. אין שואלין בשלום אשה על ידי בעלה אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל אין שואלין בשלום אשה כלל שלחה ליה דביתהו שרי ליה תגריה דלא נישוויך כשאר עם הארץ,א"ל מאי שיאטיה דמר הכא אמר ליה טסקא דהזמנותא שדר מר אבתראי אמר ליה השתא שותא דמר לא גמירנא טסקא דהזמנותא משדרנא למר אפיק דיסקא דהזמנותא מבי חדיה ואחזי ליה אמר ליה הא גברא והא דסקא אמר ליה הואיל ואתא מר להכא לישתעי מיליה כי היכי דלא לימרו מחנפי רבנן אהדדי,אמר ליה מאי טעמא שמתיה מר לההוא גברא ציער שליחא דרבנן ונגדיה מר דרב מנגיד על מאן דמצער שלוחא דרבנן דעדיף מיניה עבדי ליה,מאי טעמא אכריז מר עליה דעבדא הוא אמר ליה דרגיל דקרי אינשי עבדי ותני כל הפוסל פסול ואינו מדבר בשבחא לעולם ואמר שמואל במומו פוסל אימר דאמר שמואל למיחש ליה לאכרוזי עליה מי אמר,אדהכי והכי (אתא ההוא בר דיניה מנהרדעי) א"ל ההוא בר דיניה לרב יהודה לדידי קרית לי עבדא דאתינא מבית חשמונאי מלכא אמר ליה הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי קאתינא עבדא הוא,א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר אבא אמר רב הונא אמר רב כל ת"ח שמורה הלכה ובא אם קודם מעשה אמרה שומעין לו ואם לאו אין שומעין לו אמר ליה הא איכא רב מתנה דקאי כוותי,רב מתנה לא חזייה לנהרדעא תליסר שני ההוא יומא אתא אמר ליה דכיר מר מאי אמר שמואל כי קאי חדא כרעא אגודא וחדא כרעא במברא א"ל הכי אמר שמואל כל דאמר מדבית חשמונאי מלכא קאתינא עבדא הוא דלא אישתיור מינייהו אלא ההיא רביתא דסלקא לאיגרא ורמיא קלא ואמרה כל דאמר מבית חשמונאי אנא עבדא הוא,נפלה מאיגרא ומיתה אכרוז עליה דעבדא הוא,ההוא יומא אקרען כמה כתובתא בנהרדעא כי קא נפיק נפקי אבתריה למירגמיה אמר להו אי שתיקו שתיקו ואי לא מגלינא עלייכו הא דאמר שמואל תרתי זרעייתא איכא בנהרדעא חדא מיקריא דבי יונה וחדא מיקריא דבי עורבתי וסימניך טמא טמא טהור טהור שדיוה לההוא ריגמא מידייהו וקם אטמא בנהר מלכא,מכריז רב יהודה בפומבדיתא אדא ויונתן עבדי יהודה בר פפא ממזירא בטי בר טוביה ברמות רוחא לא שקיל גיטא דחירותא מכריז רבא במחוזא בלאי דנאי טלאי מלאי זגאי כולם לפסול אמר רב יהודה גובאי גבעונאי דורנוניתא דראי נתינאי אמר רב יוסף האי בי כובי דפומבדיתא כולם דעבדי,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל ארבע מאות עבדים ואמרי לה ארבעת אלפים עבדים היו לו לפשחור בן אימר וכולם נטמעו בכהונה וכל כהן שיש בו עזות פנים אינו אלא מהם אמר אביי כולהו יתבן בשורא דבנהרדעא ופליגא דרבי אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אם ראית כהן בעזות מצח אל תהרהר אחריו שנא' (הושע ד, ד) ועמך כמריבי כהן,אמר רבי אבין בר רב אדא אמר רב כל הנושא אשה שאינה הוגנת לו כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו מעיד על כל השבטים ואין מעיד עליו שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ד) שבטי יה עדות לישראל אימתי הוי עדות לישראל בזמן שהשבטים שבטי יה,אמר ר' חמא ברבי חנינא כשהקב"ה משרה שכינתו אין משרה אלא על משפחות מיוחסות שבישראל שנא' (ירמיהו לא, א) בעת ההיא נאם ה' אהיה לאלהים לכל משפחות ישראל לכל ישראל לא נאמר אלא לכל משפחות,[והמה] יהיו לי לעם אמר רבה בר רב הונא זו מעלה יתירה יש בין ישראל לגרים דאילו בישראל כתיב בהו (יחזקאל לז, כז) והייתי להם לאלהים [והמה] יהיו לי לעם ואילו בגרים כתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) מי הוא זה ערב את לבו לגשת אלי נאם ה' והייתם לי לעם ואנכי אהיה לכם לאלהים,אמר רבי חלבו קשים גרים לישראל כספחת שנאמר (ישעיהו יד, א) ונלוה הגר עליהם ונספחו על בית יעקב כתיב הכא ונספחו וכתיב התם (ויקרא יד, נו) לשאת ולספחת,אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כשהקדוש ברוך הוא 70b. bOne may not send greetings to a womaneven with a messenger, as this may cause the messenger and the woman to relate to each other inappropriately. Rav Naḥman countered by suggesting that he send his greetings bwith her husband,which would remove all concerns. Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: One may not send greetings to a woman at all.Yalta, bhis wife,who overheard that Rav Yehuda was getting the better of the exchange, bsenta message bto him: Release himand conclude your business with him, bso that he not equate you with another ignoramus. /b,Desiring to release Rav Yehuda, Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master is here?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: The Master sent me a summons.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Nowthat bI have noteven blearned the Master’sform of bspeech,as you have demonstrated your superiority to me by reproving me even over such matters, bcould Ihave bsent a summons to the Master?Rav Yehuda bremoved the summons from his bosom and showed it to him.While doing so, Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: Here is the man and here is the document.Rav Naḥman bsaid to him: Since the Master has come here, let him present his statement, in order thatpeople bshould not say: The Sages flatter one anotherand do not judge each other according to the letter of the law.,Rav Naḥman commenced the deliberation, and bsaid to him: What is the reasonthat bthe Master excommunicated that man?Rav Yehuda replied: bHe caused discomfort to an agentof one bof the Sages,and therefore he deserved the punishment of one who causes discomfort to a Torah scholar. Rav Naḥman challenged this answer: If so, blet the Master flog him, as Rav would flog one who causes discomfort to an agent of the Sages.Rav Yehuda responded: bIpunished bhim more severely than that.Rabbi Yehuda held that excommunication is a more severe punishment than flogging.,Rav Naḥman further inquired: bWhat is the reasonthat bthe Master proclaimed about him that he is a slave?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Because he bis in the habit of calling people slaves, andit bis taught: Anyone who disqualifiesothers by stating that their lineage is flawed, that is a sign that he himself bisof bflawedlineage. Another indication of his lineage being flawed is that bhe never speaks in praiseof others. bAnd Shmuel said: He disqualifies with hisown bflaw.Rav Naḥman retorted: You can bsay that Shmuel saidthis ihalakhaonly btothe degree that one should bsuspect himof being of flawed lineage. But bdid heactually bsaythis btothe extent that one could bproclaim about himthat he is of flawed lineage?,The Gemara continues the story: bMeanwhile, that litigant arrived from Neharde’a. That litigant said to Rav Yehuda: You call me a slave? I, who come from the house of the Hasmonean kings?Rav Yehuda bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel says: Anyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.As will be explained, only slaves remained of their descendants.,Rav Naḥman, who heard this exchange, bsaid toRav Yehuda: bDoes the Master not hold in accordance with this ihalakha bthat Rabbi Abba saysthat bRav Huna saysthat bRav says:With regard to bany Torah scholar who proceeds to teacha ruling of ihalakha /iwith regard to a particular issue, bif he said it before an actionthat concerns himself occurred, btheyshould blisten to him,and his ruling is accepted. bBut if not,if he quoted the ihalakhaonly after he was involved in an incident related to the ihalakhahe is quoting, bthey do not listen to him,due to his personal involvement? Your testimony with regard to what Shmuel ruled should be ignored, as you stated it only after the incident. Rav Yehuda bsaid toRav Naḥman: bThere is Rav Mattana, who stands by myreport, since he has also heard this ruling of Shmuel.,The Gemara continues: bRav Mattana had not seenthe city of bNeharde’afor bthirteen years. Thatvery bday he arrived.Rav Yehuda bsaid to him:Does bthe Master remember what Shmuel said when he was standingwith bone foot on the bank and one foot on the ferry?Rav Mattana bsaid to him: This is what Shmuel saidat that time: bAnyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave, as none remained of them except for that young girl who ascended to the roof and raised her voice and said:From now on, banyone who says: I come from the house of the Hasmoneankings, bis a slave.Other than this girl, the only members of the family who remained were descendants of Herod, and he was an Edomite slave.,The girl then bfell from the roof and died,leaving only slaves from the Hasmoneans. With the confirmation of the report of the statement of Shmuel, btheyalso bpublicizedin Neharde’a babout him,i.e., that man who claimed to come from the Hasmonean kings, bthat he was a slave. /b,The Gemara relates: On bthat day, several marriage contracts were torn up in Neharde’a,as many had their marriages annulled after having discovered that they had married slaves. bWhenRav Yehuda bwas leavingNeharde’a, bthey pursued him,seeking bto stone him,as because of him it was publicized that their lineage was flawed. Rav Yehuda bsaid to them: If you are silent,remain bsilent. And ifyou will bnotremain silent, bI will reveal about you thisstatement bthat Shmuel said: There are twolines of boffspring in Neharde’a. One is called the dove’s house, and one is called the raven’s house. And your mnemonicwith regard to lineage is: The bimpurebird, the raven, is bimpure,meaning flawed, and the bpureone, the dove, is bpure,meaning unflawed. Upon hearing this, bthey threwall bthosestones that they were intending bto stone himwith bfrom their hands,as they did not want him to reveal who had a flawed lineage. bAndas a result of all of the stones thrown into the river, ba dam arose in the Malka River. /b,§ The Gemara continues the discussion of those with a flawed lineage: bRav Yehuda proclaimed in Pumbedita: Adda and Yonatan,known residents of that town, are bslaves; Yehuda bar Pappais a imamzer /i; Bati bar Tuviyya, in his arrogance, did not accept a bill of manumissionand is still a slave. bRava proclaimed inhis city of bMeḥoza: Balla’ai, Danna’ai, Talla’ai, Malla’ai, Zagga’ai: Allthese families bareof bflawedlineage. bRav Yehudalikewise bsays: Gova’ai,the inhabitants of a place called Gova, are in fact bGibeonites,and their name has been corrupted. Similarly, those people known as bDorenunitaare from bthe village of Gibeonites,and they may not marry Jews with unflawed lineage. bRav Yosef says:With regard to bthisplace called bBei Kuvei of Pumbedita,its residents bare alldescendants bof slaves. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says: Four hundred slaves, and some say four thousand slaves, were owned by Pashḥur ben Immer,a priest in the time of Jeremiah, banddue to their greatness bthey were assimilated into the priesthoodand became known as priests. bAnd any priest who hasthe trait of binsolence is only from them. Abaye said: They all sit in the rowsof honor bthat are inthe city of bNeharde’a.The Gemara comments: And this statement bdisagrees withthe statement bof Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: If you see an insolent priest, do not speculate about himthat he may be of flawed lineage, bsince it is stated: “For your people are as those who strive with a priest”(Hosea 4:4), which indicates that priests had a reputation for being cantankerous.,§ The Gemara discusses an idea raised earlier. bRabbi Avin bar Rav Adda saysthat bRav says:Concerning banyone who marries a woman who is not suited for himto marry, bwhen the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presenceupon the Jewish people, bHe testifies with regard to all the tribesthat they are His people, bbut He does not testify with regard to hewho married improperly, bas it is stated: “The tribes of the Lord, as a testimony to Israel”(Psalms 122:4). bWhen is it a testimony to Israel? When the tribes are the tribes of the Lord,but not when their lineage is flawed., bRabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, rests His Divine Presence, He rests it only upon families ofunflawed lineage bamong Israel, as it is stated: “At that time, says the Lord, will I be the God of all the families of Israel”(Jeremiah 30:25). bof all Israel, is not stated, but “of all the families,”which includes only those of unflawed lineage, the renowned families of Israel.,The verse from Jeremiah ends with the words b“And they shall be my people.” Rabba bar Rav Huna says: This is a higher standardthat differentiates bbetweenthose born as bJews and converts, as with regard tothose born as bJews it is written about them: “And I will be their God, and they shall be My people”(Ezekiel 37:27), bwhereas with regard to converts it is written: “For who is he that has pledged his heart to approach unto Me? says the Lord. And you shall be My people, and I will be your God”(Jeremiah 30:21–22). This teaches that converts are not drawn close to God, as indicated by the words “And I will be your God,” until they first draw themselves near to God, as indicated by the subsequent phrase “And you shall be my people.”, bRabbi Ḥelbo says: Converts areas bdifficult for the Jewish people as a scab.The proof is bthat it is stated: “And the convert shall join himself with them, and they shall cleave [ ivenispeḥu /i] to the house of Jacob”(Isaiah 14:1). bIt is written here “ ivenispeḥu /i,” and it is written there,among the types of leprosy: b“And for a sore and for a scab [ isappaḥat /i]”(Leviticus 14:56). The use of a term with a similar root indicates that converts are like a scab for the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina says: When the Holy One, Blessed be He, /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

31a. שהמרו זה את זה אמרו כל מי שילך ויקניט את הלל יטול ד' מאות זוז אמר אחד מהם אני אקניטנו אותו היום ע"ש היה והלל חפף את ראשו הלך ועבר על פתח ביתו אמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה ראשיהן של בבליים סגלגלות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שאין להם חיות פקחות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו אמר לו בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה עיניהן של תרמודיין תרוטות אמר לו בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין החולות,הלך והמתין שעה אחת חזר ואמר מי כאן הלל מי כאן הלל נתעטף ויצא לקראתו א"ל בני מה אתה מבקש א"ל שאלה יש לי לשאול א"ל שאל בני שאל מפני מה רגליהם של אפרקיים רחבות א"ל בני שאלה גדולה שאלת מפני שדרין בין בצעי המים,אמר לו שאלות הרבה יש לי לשאול ומתירא אני שמא תכעוס נתעטף וישב לפניו א"ל כל שאלות שיש לך לשאול שאל א"ל אתה הוא הלל שקורין אותך נשיא ישראל א"ל הן א"ל אם אתה הוא לא ירבו כמותך בישראל א"ל בני מפני מה א"ל מפני שאבדתי על ידך ד' מאות זוז א"ל הוי זהיר ברוחך כדי הוא הלל שתאבד על ידו ד' מאות זוז וד' מאות זוז והלל לא יקפיד:,ת"ר מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי אמר לו כמה תורות יש לכם אמר לו שתים תורה שבכתב ותורה שבעל פה א"ל שבכתב אני מאמינך ושבעל פה איני מאמינך גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני תורה שבכתב גער בו והוציאו בנזיפה בא לפני הלל גייריה יומא קמא א"ל א"ב ג"ד למחר אפיך ליה א"ל והא אתמול לא אמרת לי הכי א"ל לאו עלי דידי קא סמכת דעל פה נמי סמוך עלי:,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שבא לפני שמאי א"ל גיירני ע"מ שתלמדני כל התורה כולה כשאני עומד על רגל אחת דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה אמר לו דעלך סני לחברך לא תעביד זו היא כל התורה כולה ואידך פירושה הוא זיל גמור.,שוב מעשה בנכרי אחד שהיה עובר אחורי בית המדרש ושמע קול סופר שהיה אומר (שמות כח, ד) ואלה הבגדים אשר יעשו חושן ואפוד אמר הללו למי אמרו לו לכהן גדול אמר אותו נכרי בעצמו אלך ואתגייר בשביל שישימוני כהן גדול בא לפני שמאי אמר ליה גיירני על מנת שתשימני כהן גדול דחפו באמת הבנין שבידו בא לפני הלל גייריה,א"ל כלום מעמידין מלך אלא מי שיודע טכסיסי מלכות לך למוד טכסיסי מלכות הלך וקרא כיון שהגיע (במדבר א, נא) והזר הקרב יומת אמר ליה מקרא זה על מי נאמר א"ל אפי' על דוד מלך ישראל נשא אותו גר קל וחומר בעצמו ומה ישראל שנקראו בנים למקום ומתוך אהבה שאהבם קרא להם (שמות ד, כב) בני בכורי ישראל כתיב עליהם והזר הקרב יומת גר הקל שבא במקלו ובתרמילו על אחת כמה וכמה,בא לפני שמאי א"ל כלום ראוי אני להיות כהן גדול והלא כתיב בתורה והזר הקרב יומת בא לפני הלל א"ל ענוותן הלל ינוחו לך ברכות על ראשך שהקרבתני תחת כנפי השכינה לימים נזדווגו שלשתן למקום אחד אמרו קפדנותו של שמאי בקשה לטורדנו מן העולם ענוותנותו של הלל קרבנו תחת כנפי השכינה:,אמר ר"ל מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו לג, ו) והיה אמונת עתיך חוסן ישועות חכמת ודעת וגו' אמונת זה סדר זרעים עתיך זה סדר מועד חוסן זה סדר נשים ישועות זה סדר נזיקין חכמת זה סדר קדשים ודעת זה סדר טהרות ואפ"ה (ישעיהו לג, ו) יראת ה' היא אוצרו,אמר רבא בשעה שמכניסין אדם לדין אומרים לו נשאת ונתת באמונה קבעת עתים לתורה עסקת בפו"ר צפית לישועה פלפלת בחכמה הבנת דבר מתוך דבר ואפ"ה אי יראת ה' היא אוצרו אין אי לא לא משל לאדם שאמר לשלוחו העלה לי כור חיטין לעלייה הלך והעלה לו א"ל עירבת לי בהן קב חומטון א"ל לאו א"ל מוטב אם לא העליתה,תנא דבי ר"י מערב אדם קב חומטון בכור של תבואה ואינו חושש:,אמר רבה בר רב הונא כל אדם שיש בו תורה ואין בו 31a. bwho wagered with each otherand bsaid: Anyone who will go and aggravate Hillelto the point that he reprimands him, bwill take four-hundred izuz /i. bOne of them said: I will aggravate him. That daythat he chose to bother Hillel bwas Shabbat eve, and Hillel was washingthe hair on bhis head. He went and passed the entrance toHillel’s bhouseand in a demeaning manner bsaid: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Hillel bwrapped himselfin a dignified garment band went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask.Hillel bsaid to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked him: bWhy are the heads of Babylonians oval?He was alluding to and attempting to insult Hillel, who was Babylonian. bHe said to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they do not have clever midwives.They do not know how to shape the child’s head at birth.,That man bwent and waited one hour,a short while, breturnedto look for Hillel, band said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, Hillel bwrapped himself and went out to greet him.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, what do you seek?The man bsaid to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy are the eyes of the residents of Tadmor bleary [ iterutot /i]?Hillel bsaid to him: My son, you have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live among the sandsand the sand gets into their eyes.,Once again the man bwent, waited one hour, returned, and said: Who here is Hillel, who here is Hillel?Again, bhe,Hillel, bwrapped himself and went out to greet him. He said to him: My son, what do you seek? He said to him: I have a question to ask. He said to him: Ask, my son, ask.The man asked: bWhy do Africans have wide feet?Hillel bsaid to him: You have asked a significant question.The reason is bbecause they live in marshlandsand their feet widened to enable them to walk through those swampy areas.,That man bsaid to him: I have manymore bquestions to ask, but I am afraid lest you get angry.Hillel bwrapped himself and sat before him,and bhe said to him: All ofthe bquestions that you have to ask, askthem. The man got angry and bsaid to him: Are you Hillel whom they callthe iNasiof Israel? He said to him: Yes. He said to him: Ifit bis you,then bmay there not be many like you in Israel.Hillel bsaid to him: My son, for whatreason do you say this? The man bsaid to him: Because I lost four hundred izuzbecause of you.Hillel bsaid to him: Be vigilant of your spiritand avoid situations of this sort. bHillel is worthy of having you lose four hundred izuzandanother bfour hundred izuzon his account, and Hillel will not get upset. /b, bThe Sages taught:There was ban incident involving one gentile who came before Shammai.The gentile bsaid to Shammai: How many Torahs do you have? He said to him: Two, the Written Torah and the Oral Torah.The gentile bsaid to him:With regard to bthe WrittenTorah, bI believe you, butwith regard to bthe OralTorah, bI do not believe you. Convert me on condition that you will teach meonly the bWritten Torah.Shammai bscolded him and cast him out with reprimand.The same gentile bcame before Hillel,who bconverted himand began teaching him Torah. bOn the first day, heshowed him the letters of the alphabet and bsaid to him: iAlef /i, ibet /i, igimmel /i, idalet /i. The next day he reversedthe order of the letters and told him that an ialefis a itavand so on. The convert bsaid to him: But yesterday you did not tell me that.Hillel bsaid to him:You see that it is impossible to learn what is written without relying on an oral tradition. bDidn’t you rely on me?Therefore, you should balso rely on mewith regard to the matter bof the OralTorah, and accept the interpretations that it contains.,There was banother incident involving one gentile who came before Shammaiand bsaid toShammai: bConvert me on condition that you teach me the entire Torah while I am standing on one foot.Shammai bpushed himaway bwith the builder’s cubit in his hand.This was a common measuring stick and Shammai was a builder by trade. The same gentile bcame before Hillel. He converted himand bsaid to him:That bwhich is hateful to you do not do to another; that is the entire Torah, and the rest is its interpretation. Go study. /b,There was banother incident involving one gentile who was passing behind the study halland bheard the voice of a teacher who wasteaching Torah to his students and bsayingthe verse: b“And these are the garments which they shall make: A breastplate, and an iefod, /iand a robe, and a tunic of checkered work, a mitre, and a girdle” (Exodus 28:4). bThe gentile said: Thesegarments, bfor whom are theydesignated? The students bsaid to him: For the High Priest. The gentile said to himself: I will go and convert so that they will install me as High Priest. He came before Shammaiand bsaid to him: Convert me on condition that you install meas High Priest. Shammai bpushed him with the builder’s cubit in his hand. He came before Hillel; he converted him. /b,Hillel bsaid to him,to the convert: bIs it notthe way of the world that bonly one who knows the protocols [ itakhsisei /i]of royalty bis appointed king? Goand blearn the royal protocolsby engaging in Torah study. bHe went and readthe Bible. bWhen he reachedthe verse which says: b“And the common man that draws near shall be put to death”(Numbers 1:51), the convert bsaid toHillel: bWith regard to whom is the verse speaking?Hillel bsaid to him: Even with regard to David, king of Israel. The convert reasoned an ia fortioriinference himself: If the Jewish people are called God’s children, and due to the love that God loved them he called them: “Israel is My son, My firstborn”(Exodus 4:22), and nevertheless bit is written about them: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death; a mere convert who camewithout merit, bwithnothing more than bhis staff and traveling bag, all the more sothat this applies to him, as well.,The convert bcame before Shammaiand btold himthat he retracts his demand to appoint him High Priest, saying: bAm I at all worthy to be High Priest? Is it not written in the Torah: And the common man that draws near shall be put to death? He came before Hilleland bsaid to him: Hillel the patient, may blessings rest upon your head as you brought me under the wings of the Divine Presence.The Gemara relates: bEventually, the threeconverts bgathered togetherin bone place,and bthey said: Shammai’s impatience sought to drive us from the world; Hillel’s patience brought us beneath the wings of the Divine Presence. /b,The Gemara continues discussing the conduct of the Sages, citing that bReish Lakish said: Whatis the meaning of bthat which is written: “And the faith of your times shall be a strength of salvation, wisdom, and knowledge,the fear of the Lord is his treasure” (Isaiah 33:6)? bFaith; that is the order of iZera /i’ iim /i, Seeds,in the Mishna, because a person has faith in God and plants his seeds (Jerusalem Talmud). bYour times; that is the order of iMoed /i, Festival,which deals with the various occasions and Festivals that occur throughout the year. bStrength; that is the order of iNashim /i, Women. Salvations; that is the order of iNezikin /i, Damages,as one who is being pursued is rescued from the hands of his pursuer. bWisdom; that is the order of iKodashim /i, Consecrated Items. And knowledge; that is the order of iTeharot /i, Purity,which is particularly difficult to master. bAnd evenif a person studies and masters all of these, b“the fear of the Lord is his treasure,”it is preeminent.,With regard to the same verse, bRava said:After departing from this world, bwhen a person is brought to judgmentfor the life he lived in this world, bthey say to himin the order of that verse: Did byou conduct business faithfully?Did byou designate times for Torahstudy? Did byou engage in procreation? Did you await salvation? Did you engagein the dialectics of bwisdomor understand bone matter from another? And, nevertheless,beyond all these, bif the fear of the Lord is his treasure, yes,he is worthy, and bif not, no,none of these accomplishments have any value. There is ba parablethat illustrates this. bA person who said to his emissary: Bring a ikorof wheat up to the attic for meto store there. The messenger bwent and brought it up for him. He said to the emissary:Did byou mix a ikavof iḥomton /i,a preservative to keep away worms, binto it for me? He said to him: No. He said to him:If so, it would have been bpreferable had you not brought it up.of what use is worm-infested wheat? Likewise, Torah and mitzvot without the fear of God are of no value.,On a related note, the Gemara cites a ihalakhathat was btaughtin bthe schoolof bRabbi Yishmael: A personwho sells wheat bmay, iab initio /i, bmix a ikavof iḥomtoninto a ikorof grain and need not be concernedthat by selling it all at the price of grain he will be guilty of theft, as the ikavof iḥomtonis essential for the preservation of the wheat., bRabba bar Rav Huna said: Any person who has Torah in him but does not have /b


Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
achior Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
aquila Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
babylonian agenda, genealogical exclusion of converts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
babylonian agenda, silencing the possibility of marriage to converts Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
berekhiah Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
birth and renewal Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
cohen, shaye j. d. Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
conversion as legal nominalism Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
david Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
fiction, legal, and conversion Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
fiction, legal Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
firstfruits Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
forgetting Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 64
helbo Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
hillel and shammai Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
history, of israel Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 64
identity, in contemporary debate Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 64
identity, jewish, and conversion as legal fiction Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
imagery, scab Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
land, the Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 64
mixed/separate, of men and women Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
nominalism, legal, in rabbinic sources Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
rahab Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130
realism, legal, in rabbinic sources' Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
sacrifices, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
sapahat Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
separation of men and women, pagan and christian settings Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
separation of men and women, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
silencing Lieu, Christian Identity in the Jewish and Graeco-Roman World (2004) 64
skin, lesions Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 92
torahs deviation from Hayes, What's Divine about Divine Law?: Early Perspectives (2015) 215
women, donors Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, inscriptions Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, jerusalem temple Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, liturgical roles Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, sacrifices Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, seating, synagogue Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
women, torah reading Levine, The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years (2005) 505
yehoshua Lavee, The Rabbinic Conversion of Judaism The Unique Perspective of the Bavli on Conversion and the Construction of Jewish Identity (2017) 130