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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Mishnah, Berachot, 9.5

nanOne must bless [God] for the evil in the same way as one blesses for the good, as it says, “And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul and with all your might” (Deuteronomy 6:5). “With all your heart,” with your two impulses, the evil impulse as well as the good impulse. “With all your soul” even though he takes your soul [life] away from you. “With all your might” with all your money. Another explanation, “With all your might” whatever treatment he metes out to you. One should not show disrespect to the Eastern Gate, because it is in a direct line with the Holy of Holies. One should not enter the Temple Mount with a staff, or with shoes on, or with a wallet, or with dusty feet; nor should one make it a short cut, all the more spitting [is forbidden]. All the conclusions of blessings that were in the Temple they would say, “forever [lit. as long as the world is].” When the sectarians perverted their ways and said that there was only one world, they decreed that they should say, “for ever and ever [lit. from the end of the world to the end of the world]. They also decreed that a person should greet his fellow in God’s name, as it says, “And behold Boaz came from Bethlehem and said to the reapers, ‘May the Lord be with you.’ And they answered him, “May the Lord bless you’” (Ruth 2:. And it also says, “The Lord is with your, you valiant warrior” (Judges 6:12). And it also says, “And do not despise your mother when she grows old” (Proverbs 23:22). And it also says, “It is time to act on behalf of the Lord, for they have violated Your teaching” (Psalms 119:126). Rabbi Natan says: [this means] “They have violated your teaching It is time to act on behalf of the Lord.”"

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

67 results
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 9.6 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife.
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.5, 6.8, 13.14-13.18, 14.21, 15.7-15.11, 22.1-22.3, 32.41 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.8. וּקְשַׁרְתָּם לְאוֹת עַל־יָדֶךָ וְהָיוּ לְטֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֶיךָ׃ 13.14. יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃ 13.15. וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃ 13.16. הַכֵּה תַכֶּה אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי הָעִיר ההוא [הַהִיא] לְפִי־חָרֶב הַחֲרֵם אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ וְאֶת־בְּהֶמְתָּהּ לְפִי־חָרֶב׃ 13.17. וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ תִּקְבֹּץ אֶל־תּוֹךְ רְחֹבָהּ וְשָׂרַפְתָּ בָאֵשׁ אֶת־הָעִיר וְאֶת־כָּל־שְׁלָלָהּ כָּלִיל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהָיְתָה תֵּל עוֹלָם לֹא תִבָּנֶה עוֹד׃ 13.18. וְלֹא־יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן־הַחֵרֶם לְמַעַן יָשׁוּב יְהוָה מֵחֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְנָתַן־לְךָ רַחֲמִים וְרִחַמְךָ וְהִרְבֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃ 14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃ 15.7. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אֶבְיוֹן מֵאַחַד אַחֶיךָ בְּאַחַד שְׁעָרֶיךָ בְּאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ לֹא תְאַמֵּץ אֶת־לְבָבְךָ וְלֹא תִקְפֹּץ אֶת־יָדְךָ מֵאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן׃ 15.8. כִּי־פָתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לוֹ וְהַעֲבֵט תַּעֲבִיטֶנּוּ דֵּי מַחְסֹרוֹ אֲשֶׁר יֶחְסַר לוֹ׃ 15.9. הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה דָבָר עִם־לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל לֵאמֹר קָרְבָה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְרָעָה עֵינְךָ בְּאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן וְלֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃ 15.11. כִּי לֹא־יֶחְדַּל אֶבְיוֹן מִקֶּרֶב הָאָרֶץ עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לֵאמֹר פָּתֹחַ תִּפְתַּח אֶת־יָדְךָ לְאָחִיךָ לַעֲנִיֶּךָ וּלְאֶבְיֹנְךָ בְּאַרְצֶךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תִרְאֶה אֶת־שׁוֹר אָחִיךָ אוֹ אֶת־שֵׂיוֹ נִדָּחִים וְהִתְעַלַּמְתָּ מֵהֶם הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֵם לְאָחִיךָ׃ 22.1. לֹא־תַחֲרֹשׁ בְּשׁוֹר־וּבַחֲמֹר יַחְדָּו׃ 22.2. וְאִם־לֹא קָרוֹב אָחִיךָ אֵלֶיךָ וְלֹא יְדַעְתּוֹ וַאֲסַפְתּוֹ אֶל־תּוֹךְ בֵּיתֶךָ וְהָיָה עִמְּךָ עַד דְּרֹשׁ אָחִיךָ אֹתוֹ וַהֲשֵׁבֹתוֹ לוֹ׃ 22.2. וְאִם־אֱמֶת הָיָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לֹא־נִמְצְאוּ בְתוּלִים לנער [לַנַּעֲרָה׃] 22.3. וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לַחֲמֹרוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשִׂמְלָתוֹ וְכֵן תַּעֲשֶׂה לְכָל־אֲבֵדַת אָחִיךָ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְצָאתָהּ לֹא תוּכַל לְהִתְעַלֵּם׃ 32.41. אִם־שַׁנּוֹתִי בְּרַק חַרְבִּי וְתֹאחֵז בְּמִשְׁפָּט יָדִי אָשִׁיב נָקָם לְצָרָי וְלִמְשַׂנְאַי אֲשַׁלֵּם׃ 6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE." 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." 6.8. And thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes." 13.14. ’Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known’;" 13.15. then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in the midst of thee;" 13.16. thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword." 13.17. And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the broad place thereof, and shall burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, unto the LORD thy God; and it shall be a heap for ever; it shall not be built again." 13.18. And there shall cleave nought of the devoted thing to thy hand, that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of His anger, and show thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee, as He hath sworn unto thy fathers;" 14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk." 15.7. If there be among you a needy man, one of thy brethren, within any of thy gates, in thy land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, thou shalt not harden thy heart, nor shut thy hand from thy needy brother;" 15.8. but thou shalt surely open thy hand unto him, and shalt surely lend him sufficient for his need in that which he wanteth." 15.9. Beware that there be not a base thought in thy heart, saying: ‘The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand’; and thine eye be evil against thy needy brother, and thou give him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin in thee." 15.10. Thou shalt surely give him, and thy heart shall not be grieved when thou givest unto him; because that for this thing the LORD thy God will bless thee in all thy work, and in all that thou puttest thy hand unto." 15.11. For the poor shall never cease out of the land; therefore I command thee, saying: ‘Thou shalt surely open thy hand unto thy poor and needy brother, in thy land.’" 22.1. Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ox or his sheep driven away, and hide thyself from them; thou shalt surely bring them back unto thy brother." 22.2. And if thy brother be not nigh unto thee, and thou know him not, then thou shalt bring it home to thy house, and it shall be with thee until thy brother require it, and thou shalt restore it to him." 22.3. And so shalt thou do with his ass; and so shalt thou do with his garment; and so shalt thou do with every lost thing of thy brother’s, which he hath lost, and thou hast found; thou mayest not hide thyself." 32.41. If I whet My glittering sword, And My hand take hold on judgment; I will render vengeance to Mine adversaries, And will recompense them that hate Me."
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.18, 20.2, 20.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃ 20.2. אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים׃ 20.2. לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּי אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם׃ 20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃ 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever." 20.2. I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." 20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off."
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.11, 8.1, 27.33 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

1.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים תַּדְשֵׁא הָאָרֶץ דֶּשֶׁא עֵשֶׂב מַזְרִיעַ זֶרַע עֵץ פְּרִי עֹשֶׂה פְּרִי לְמִינוֹ אֲשֶׁר זַרְעוֹ־בוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיְהִי־כֵן׃ 8.1. וַיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים וַיֹּסֶף שַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃ 8.1. וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֵת כָּל־הַחַיָּה וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ עַל־הָאָרֶץ וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ הַמָּיִם׃ 27.33. וַיֶּחֱרַד יִצְחָק חֲרָדָה גְּדֹלָה עַד־מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר מִי־אֵפוֹא הוּא הַצָּד־צַיִד וַיָּבֵא לִי וָאֹכַל מִכֹּל בְּטֶרֶם תָּבוֹא וָאֲבָרֲכֵהוּ גַּם־בָּרוּךְ יִהְיֶה׃ 1.11. And God said: ‘Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.’ And it was so." 8.1. And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that were with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged;" 27.33. And Isaac trembled very exceedingly, and said: ‘Who then is he that hath taken venison, and brought it me, and I have eaten of all before thou camest, and have blessed him? yea, and he shall be blessed.’"
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 3.2, 3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

3.2. וָאֶכְּרֶהָ לִּי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר כָּסֶף וְחֹמֶר שְׂעֹרִים וְלֵתֶךְ שְׂעֹרִים׃ 3.5. אַחַר יָשֻׁבוּ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבִקְשׁוּ אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם וְאֵת דָּוִד מַלְכָּם וּפָחֲדוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וְאֶל־טוּבוֹ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים׃ 3.2. So I bought her to me for fifteen pieces of silver and a homer of barley, and a half-homer of barley;" 3.5. afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king; and shall come trembling unto the LORD and to His goodness in the end of days."
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 5.2, 7.21, 7.24, 18.5, 22.8, 24.22, 26.42, 26.45 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 7.21. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִגַּע בְּכָל־טָמֵא בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם אוֹ בִּבְהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּכָל־שֶׁקֶץ טָמֵא וְאָכַל מִבְּשַׂר־זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים אֲשֶׁר לַיהוָה וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 7.24. וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃ 18.5. וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי אֲשֶׁר יַעֲשֶׂה אֹתָם הָאָדָם וָחַי בָּהֶם אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 22.8. נְבֵלָה וּטְרֵפָה לֹא יֹאכַל לְטָמְאָה־בָהּ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 24.22. מִשְׁפַּט אֶחָד יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כַּגֵּר כָּאֶזְרָח יִהְיֶה כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃ 26.42. וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יַעֲקוֹב וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי יִצְחָק וְאַף אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אַבְרָהָם אֶזְכֹּר וְהָאָרֶץ אֶזְכֹּר׃ 26.45. וְזָכַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּרִית רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי־אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לְעֵינֵי הַגּוֹיִם לִהְיֹת לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;" 7.21. And when any one shall touch any unclean thing, whether it be the uncleanness of man, or an unclean beast, or any unclean detestable thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace-offerings, which pertain unto the LORD, that soul shall be cut off from his people." 7.24. And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it." 18.5. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and Mine ordices, which if a man do, he shall live by them: I am the LORD." 22.8. That which dieth of itself, or is torn of beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself therewith: I am the LORD." 24.22. Ye shall have one manner of law, as well for the stranger, as for the home-born; for I am the LORD your God.’" 26.42. then will I remember My covet with Jacob, and also My covet with Isaac, and also My covet with Abraham will I remember; and I will remember the land." 26.45. But I will for their sakes remember the covet of their ancestors, whom I brought forth out of the land of Egypt in the sight of the nations, that I might be their God: I am the LORD."
7. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.6-5.8, 25.1-25.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.6. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אִישׁ אוֹ־אִשָּׁה כִּי יַעֲשׂוּ מִכָּל־חַטֹּאת הָאָדָם לִמְעֹל מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְאָשְׁמָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא׃ 5.7. וְהִתְוַדּוּ אֶת־חַטָּאתָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־אֲשָׁמוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִישִׁתוֹ יֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן לַאֲשֶׁר אָשַׁם לוֹ׃ 5.8. וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃ 25.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 25.1. וַיֵּשֶׁב יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּשִּׁטִּים וַיָּחֶל הָעָם לִזְנוֹת אֶל־בְּנוֹת מוֹאָב׃ 25.2. וַתִּקְרֶאןָ לָעָם לְזִבְחֵי אֱלֹהֵיהֶן וַיֹּאכַל הָעָם וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ לֵאלֹהֵיהֶן׃ 25.3. וַיִּצָּמֶד יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר וַיִּחַר־אַף יְהוָה בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.4. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח אֶת־כָּל־רָאשֵׁי הָעָם וְהוֹקַע אוֹתָם לַיהוָה נֶגֶד הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְיָשֹׁב חֲרוֹן אַף־יְהוָה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.5. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־שֹׁפְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הִרְגוּ אִישׁ אֲנָשָׁיו הַנִּצְמָדִים לְבַעַל פְּעוֹר׃ 25.6. וְהִנֵּה אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בָּא וַיַּקְרֵב אֶל־אֶחָיו אֶת־הַמִּדְיָנִית לְעֵינֵי מֹשֶׁה וּלְעֵינֵי כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהֵמָּה בֹכִים פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃ 5.6. Speak unto the children of Israel: When a man or woman shall commit any sin that men commit, to commit a trespass against the LORD, and that soul be guilty;" 5.7. then they shall confess their sin which they have done; and he shall make restitution for his guilt in full, and add unto it the fifth part thereof, and give it unto him in respect of whom he hath been guilty." 5.8. But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him." 25.1. And Israel abode in Shittim, and the people began to commit harlotry with the daughters of Moab." 25.2. And they called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods; and the people did eat, and bowed down to their gods." 25.3. And Israel joined himself unto the Baal of Peor; and the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel." 25.4. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Take all the chiefs of the people, and hang them up unto the LORD in face of the sun, that the fierce anger of the LORD may turn away from Israel.’" 25.5. And Moses said unto the judges of Israel: ‘Slay ye every one his men that have joined themselves unto the Baal of Peor.’" 25.6. And, behold, one of the children of Israel came and brought unto his brethren a Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and in the sight of all the congregation of the children of Israel, while they were weeping at the door of the tent of meeting." 25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand." 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel." 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand."
8. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 23.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.22. שְׁמַע לְאָבִיךָ זֶה יְלָדֶךָ וְאַל־תָּבוּז כִּי־זָקְנָה אִמֶּךָ׃ 23.22. Hearken unto thy father that begot thee, And despise not thy mother when she is old."
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 74.8, 119.126 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

74.8. אָמְרוּ בְלִבָּם נִינָם יָחַד שָׂרְפוּ כָל־מוֹעֲדֵי־אֵל בָּאָרֶץ׃ 119.126. עֵת לַעֲשׂוֹת לַיהוָה הֵפֵרוּ תּוֹרָתֶךָ׃ 74.8. They said in their heart: 'Let us make havoc of them altogether'; They have burned up all the meeting-places of God in the land." 119.126. It is time for the LORD to work; They have made void Thy law."
10. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 2.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

2.4. וְהִנֵּה־בֹעַז בָּא מִבֵּית לֶחֶם וַיֹּאמֶר לַקּוֹצְרִים יְהוָה עִמָּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה׃ 2.4. And, behold, Boaz came from Beth-lehem, and said unto the reapers: ‘The LORD be with you.’ And they answered him: ‘The LORD bless thee.’"
11. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 12.20-12.21, 12.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.21. ויבאו [וַיָּבֹא] רְחַבְעָם יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיַּקְהֵל אֶת־כָּל־בֵּית יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־שֵׁבֶט בִּנְיָמִן מֵאָה וּשְׁמֹנִים אֶלֶף בָּחוּר עֹשֵׂה מִלְחָמָה לְהִלָּחֵם עִם־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהָשִׁיב אֶת־הַמְּלוּכָה לִרְחַבְעָם בֶּן־שְׁלֹמֹה׃ 12.32. וַיַּעַשׂ יָרָבְעָם חָג בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁמִינִי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ כֶּחָג אֲשֶׁר בִּיהוּדָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כֵּן עָשָׂה בְּבֵית־אֵל לְזַבֵּחַ לָעֲגָלִים אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה וְהֶעֱמִיד בְּבֵית אֵל אֶת־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃ 12.20. And it came to pass, when all Israel heard that Jeroboam was returned, that they sent and called him unto the congregation, and made him king over all Israel; there was none that followed the house of David, but the tribe of Judah only." 12.21. And when Rehoboam was come to Jerusalem, be assembled all the house of Judah, and the tribe of Benjamin, a hundred and fourscore thousand chosen men that were warriors, to fight against the house of Israel, to bring the kingdom back to Rehoboam the son of Solomon." 12.32. And Jeroboam ordained a feast in the eighth month, on the fifteenth day of the month, like unto the feast that is in Judah, and he went up unto the altar; so did he in Beth-el, to sacrifice unto the calves that he had made; and he placed in Beth-el the priests of the high places that he had made."
12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 9.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

9.3. וַתֹּאבַדְנָה הָאֲתֹנוֹת לְקִישׁ אֲבִי שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמֶר קִישׁ אֶל־שָׁאוּל בְּנוֹ קַח־נָא אִתְּךָ אֶת־אַחַד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וְקוּם לֵךְ בַּקֵּשׁ אֶת־הָאֲתֹנֹת׃ 9.3. And the asses of Qish Sha᾽ul’s father were lost. And Qish said to Sha᾽ul his son, Take now one of the servants with thee, and arise, go seek the asses."
13. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.25. וְכָמֹהוּ לֹא־הָיָה לְפָנָיו מֶלֶךְ אֲשֶׁר־שָׁב אֶל־יְהוָה בְּכָל־לְבָבוֹ וּבְכָל־נַפְשׁוֹ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדוֹ כְּכֹל תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה וְאַחֲרָיו לֹא־קָם כָּמֹהוּ׃ 23.25. And like unto him was there no king before him, that turned to the LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the law of Moses; neither after him arose there any like him."
14. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 27.13, 33.14, 44.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

27.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 33.14. פָּחֲדוּ בְצִיּוֹן חַטָּאִים אָחֲזָה רְעָדָה חֲנֵפִים מִי יָגוּר לָנוּ אֵשׁ אוֹכֵלָה מִי־יָגוּר לָנוּ מוֹקְדֵי עוֹלָם׃ 44.6. כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה מֶלֶךְ־יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֹאֲלוֹ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן וַאֲנִי אַחֲרוֹן וּמִבַּלְעָדַי אֵין אֱלֹהִים׃ 27.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem." 33.14. The sinners in Zion are afraid; Trembling hath seized the ungodly: ‘Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?’" 44.6. Thus saith the LORD, the King of Israel, And his Redeemer the LORD of hosts: I am the first, and I am the last, And beside Me there is no God."
15. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 2.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

2.2. הָלֹךְ וְקָרָאתָ בְאָזְנֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה זָכַרְתִּי לָךְ חֶסֶד נְעוּרַיִךְ אַהֲבַת כְּלוּלֹתָיִךְ לֶכְתֵּךְ אַחֲרַי בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּאֶרֶץ לֹא זְרוּעָה׃ 2.2. כִּי מֵעוֹלָם שָׁבַרְתִּי עֻלֵּךְ נִתַּקְתִּי מוֹסְרֹתַיִךְ וַתֹּאמְרִי לֹא אעבד [אֶעֱבוֹר] כִּי עַל־כָּל־גִּבְעָה גְּבֹהָה וְתַחַת כָּל־עֵץ רַעֲנָן אַתְּ צֹעָה זֹנָה׃ 2.2. Go, and cry in the ears of Jerusalem, saying: Thus saith the LORD: I remember for thee the affection of thy youth, the love of thine espousals; how thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown."
16. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 34.4, 34.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

34.4. אֶת־הַנַּחְלוֹת לֹא חִזַּקְתֶּם וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה לֹא־רִפֵּאתֶם וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת לֹא חֲבַשְׁתֶּם וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת לֹא הֲשֵׁבֹתֶם וְאֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת לֹא בִקַּשְׁתֶּם וּבְחָזְקָה רְדִיתֶם אֹתָם וּבְפָרֶךְ׃ 34.16. אֶת־הָאֹבֶדֶת אֲבַקֵּשׁ וְאֶת־הַנִּדַּחַת אָשִׁיב וְלַנִּשְׁבֶּרֶת אֶחֱבֹשׁ וְאֶת־הַחוֹלָה אֲחַזֵּק וְאֶת־הַשְּׁמֵנָה וְאֶת־הַחֲזָקָה אַשְׁמִיד אֶרְעֶנָּה בְמִשְׁפָּט׃ 34.4. The weak have ye not strengthened, neither have ye healed that which was sick, neither have ye bound up that which was broken, neither have ye brought back that which was driven away, neither have ye sought that which was lost; but with force have ye ruled over them and with rigour." 34.16. I will seek that which was lost, and will bring back that which was driven away, and will bind up that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick; and the fat and the strong I will destroy, I will feed them in justice."
17. Septuagint, Tobit, 9.6 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

9.6. In the morning they both got up early and came to the wedding feast. And Gabael blessed Tobias and his wife.
18. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 9.8-9.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

19. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 9.8-9.10, 14.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

20. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 7.30, 50.1-50.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

50.1. The leader of his brethren and the pride of his people was Simon the high priest, son of Onias,who in his life repaired the house,and in his time fortified the temple. 50.1. like an olive tree putting forth its fruit,and like a cypress towering in the clouds. 50.2. He laid the foundations for the high double walls,the high retaining walls for the temple enclosure. 50.2. Then Simon came down, and lifted up his hands over the whole congregation of the sons of Israel,to pronounce the blessing of the Lord with his lips,and to glory in his name; 50.3. In his days a cistern for water was quarried out,a reservoir like the sea in circumference. 50.4. He considered how to save his people from ruin,and fortified the city to withstand a seige. 50.5. How glorious he was when the people gathered round him as he came out of the inner sanctuary!
21. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.84 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)

1.84. But the high priest is commanded to wear a similar dress when he goes into the holy of holies to offer incense, because linen is not made of any animal that dies, as woollen garments are. He is also commanded to wear another robe also, having very beautiful embroidery and ornament upon it, so that it may seem to be a copy and representation of the world. And the description of the ornament is a clear proof of this;
22. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 10.277-10.278, 12.145-12.146, 13.297 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10.277. All these things did this man leave in writing, as God had showed them to him, insomuch that such as read his prophecies, and see how they have been fulfilled, would wonder at the honor wherewith God honored Daniel; and may thence discover how the Epicureans are in an error 10.278. who cast Providence out of human life, and do not believe that God takes care of the affairs of the world, nor that the universe is governed and continued in being by that blessed and immortal nature, but say that the world is carried along of its own accord, without a ruler and a curator; 12.145. 4. And these were the contents of this epistle. He also published a decree through all his kingdom in honor of the temple, which contained what follows: “It shall be lawful for no foreigner to come within the limits of the temple round about; which thing is forbidden also to the Jews, unless to those who, according to their own custom, have purified themselves. 12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.” 13.297. but of these matters we shall speak hereafter. What I would now explain is this, that the Pharisees have delivered to the people a great many observances by succession from their fathers, which are not written in the laws of Moses; and for that reason it is that the Sadducees reject them, and say that we are to esteem those observances to be obligatory which are in the written word, but are not to observe what are derived from the tradition of our forefathers.
23. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.165 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.165. and they say, that to act what is good, or what is evil, is at men’s own choice, and that the one or the other belongs so to every one, that they may act as they please. They also take away the belief of the immortal duration of the soul, and the punishments and rewards in Hades.
24. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.4. Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst."
25. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

5.3. The one who says, “On a bird’s nest may Your mercy be extended,” [or] “For good may Your name be blessed” or “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who was passing before the ark and made a mistake, another should pass in his place, and he should not be as one who refuses at that moment. Where does he begin? At the beginning of the blessing in which the other made a mistake."
26. Mishnah, Hulin, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.9. One may not slaughter [so that the blood runs] into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics."
27. Mishnah, Kelim, 1.6-1.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

1.6. There are ten grades of holiness: the land of Israel is holier than all other lands. And what is the nature of its holiness? That from it are brought the omer, the firstfruits and the two loaves, which cannot be brought from any of the other lands." 1.7. Cities that are walled are holier, for metzoras must be sent out of them and a corpse, though it may be carried about within them as long as it is desired, may not be brought back once it has been taken out." 1.8. The area within the wall [of Jerusalem] is holier, for it is there that lesser holy things and second tithe may be eaten. The Temple Mount is holier, for zavim, zavot, menstruants and women after childbirth may not enter it. The chel is holier, for neither non-Jews nor one who contracted corpse impurity may enter it. The court of women is holier, for a tevul yom may not enter it, though he is not obligated a hatat for doing so. The court of the Israelites is holier, for a man who has not yet offered his obligatory sacrifices may not enter it, and if he enters he is liable for a hatat. The court of the priests is holier, for Israelites may not enter it except when they are required to do so: for laying on of the hands, slaying or waving." 1.9. The area between the porch (ulam) and the altar is holier, for [priests] who have blemishes or unkempt hair may not enter it. The Hekhal is holier, for no one whose hands or feet are unwashed may enter it. The Holy of Holies is holier, for only the high priest, on Yom Kippur, at the time of the service, may enter it. Rabbi Yose said: in five respects the area between the porch and the altar is equal to the Hekhal, for those afflicted with blemishes or with a wild growth of hair, or who have drunk wine or whose hands or feet are unwashed may not enter there, and the people must keep away from the area between the porch and the altar when the incense is being burned."
28. Mishnah, Megillah, 4.8-4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. If one says, “I will not pass before the ark in colored clothes,” even in white clothes he may not pass before it. [If one says], “I will not pass before it in shoes,” even barefoot he may not pass before it. One who makes his tefillin [for the head] round, it is dangerous and has no religious value. If he put them on his forehead or on the palm of his hand, behold this is the way of heresy. If he overlaid them with gold or put [the one for the hand] on his sleeve, behold this is the manner of the outsiders." 4.9. If one says “May the good bless you,” this is the way of heresy. [If one says], “May Your mercy reach the nest of a bird,” “May Your name be mentioned for the good,” “We give thanks, we give thanks,” they silence him. One who uses euphemisms in the portion dealing with forbidden marriages, he is silenced. If he says, [instead of] “And you shall not give any of your seed to be passed to Moloch,” (Leviticus 18:21) “You shall not give [your seed] to pass to a Gentile woman,” he silenced with a rebuke."
29. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.5. After the omer was offered they used to go out and find the market of Jerusalem already full of flour and parched grain [of the new produce]; This was without the approval of the rabbis, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: it was with the approval of the rabbis. After the omer was offered the new grain was permitted immediately, but for those that lived far off it was permitted only after midday. After the Temple was destroyed Rabbi Yoha ben Zakkai decreed that it should be forbidden throughout the day of the waving. Rabbi Judah said: is it not so forbidden by the law of the Torah, for it is said, “Until this very day?” Why was it permitted for those that lived far away from midday? Because they know that the court would not be negligent with it."
30. Mishnah, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.3. They arrived at the Temple Mount and got down. Beneath the Temple Mount and the courts was a hollow which served as a protection against a grave in the depths. And at the entrance of the courtyard there was the jar of the ashes of the sin-offerings. They would bring a male from among the sheep and tie a rope between its horns, and a stick or a bushy twig was tied at the other end of the rope, and this was thrown into the jar. They then struck the male [sheep] was so that it started backwards. And [a child] took the ashes and put it [enough] so that it could be seen upon the water. Rabbi Yose said: do not give the Sadducees an opportunity to rule! Rather, [a child] himself took it and mixed it."
31. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.1. If they don’t know him [the one who came to testify], they send another with him to testify concerning [his reliability]. Originally testimony concerning the new moon was accepted from anyone. When the minim disrupted this, it was decreed that testimony should be received only from persons known [to the court]."
32. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 4.5, 10.1-10.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.5. How did they admonish witnesses in capital cases? They brought them in and admonished them, [saying], “Perhaps you will say something that is only a supposition or hearsay or secondhand, or even from a trustworthy man. Or perhaps you do not know that we shall check you with examination and inquiry? Know, moreover, that capital cases are not like non-capital cases: in non-capital cases a man may pay money and so make atonement, but in capital cases the witness is answerable for the blood of him [that is wrongfully condemned] and the blood of his descendants [that should have been born to him] to the end of the world.” For so have we found it with Cain that murdered his brother, for it says, “The bloods of your brother cry out” (Gen. 4:10). It doesn’t say, “The blood of your brother”, but rather “The bloods of your brother” meaning his blood and the blood of his descendants. Another saying is, “The bloods of your brother” that his blood was cast over trees and stones. Therefore but a single person was created in the world, to teach that if any man has caused a single life to perish from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had caused a whole world to perish; and anyone who saves a single soul from Israel, he is deemed by Scripture as if he had saved a whole world. Again [but a single person was created] for the sake of peace among humankind, that one should not say to another, “My father was greater than your father”. Again, [but a single person was created] against the heretics so they should not say, “There are many ruling powers in heaven”. Again [but a single person was created] to proclaim the greatness of the Holy Blessed One; for humans stamp many coins with one seal and they are all like one another; but the King of kings, the Holy Blessed One, has stamped every human with the seal of the first man, yet not one of them are like another. Therefore everyone must say, “For my sake was the world created.” And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be involved with this trouble”, was it not said, “He, being a witness, whether he has seen or known, [if he does not speak it, then he shall bear his iniquity] (Lev. 5:1). And if perhaps you [witnesses] would say, “Why should we be guilty of the blood of this man?, was it not said, “When the wicked perish there is rejoicing” (Proverbs 11:10).]" 10.1. All Israel have a portion in the world to come, for it says, “Your people, all of them righteous, shall possess the land for ever; They are the shoot that I planted, my handiwork in which I glory” (Isaiah 60:2. And these are the ones who have no portion in the world to come: He who maintains that resurrection is not a biblical doctrine, that the torah was not divinely revealed, and an epikoros. Rabbi Akiva says: “Even one who reads non-canonical books and one who whispers [a charm] over a wound and says, “I will not bring upon you any of the diseases whichbrought upon the Egyptians: for I the lord am you healer” (Exodus 15:26). Abba Shaul says: “Also one who pronounces the divine name as it is spelled.”" 10.2. Three kings and four commoners have no portion in the world to come:The three kings are Jeroboam, Ahab, and Manasseh. Rabbi Judah says: “Manasseh has a portion in the world to come, for it says, “He prayed to him, and He granted his prayer, and heard his plea and he restored him to Jerusalem, to his kingdom” (II Chronicles 33:13). They [the sages] said to him: “They restored him to his kingdom, but not to [his portion in] the world to come.” The four commoners are: Bilaam, Doeg, Ahitophel, and Gehazi." 10.3. The generation of the flood has no portion in the world to come, nor will they stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “[And the Lord said,] my spirit will not always enter into judgment with man” (Genesis 6:3), [meaning] there will be neither judgment nor [my] spirit for them. The generation of the dispersion have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “So the Lord scattered them from there upon the face of all the earth” (Genesis 11:8): “So the lord scattered them”, refers to this world, “And from there the Lord scattered them” (Genesis 11:9), refers to the world to come. The men of Sodom have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And the men of Sodom were wicked and great sinners before the Lord” (Genesis 13:1: “wicked” in this world, and “sinners” in the world to come; Yet will they stand at judgment. R. Nehemiah says: “Neither [the generation of the flood nor the men of Sodom] will stand at judgment, as it says, “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment, nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous” (Psalms 1:5) “Therefore the wicked shall not stand in judgment”, refers to the generation of the flood; “nor sinners in the congregation of the righteous”, refers to the men of Sodom. They [the Sages] said to him: “They will not stand in the congregation of the righteous, but they will stand in the congregation of the wicked.” The spies have no portion in the world to come, as it says, “And those men that spread such calumnies about the land, died by the plague before the lord” (Numbers 14:37): “[they] died” in this world, “by the plague” in the world to come. The generation of the wilderness have no share in the world to come and will not stand at the [last] judgment, as it says, “In this wilderness they shall be consumed, and there they shall die” (Numbers 14:3, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘Bring in My devotees, who made a covet with Me over sacrifice” (Psalms 50:5). The congregation of Korah is not destined to ascend [from the earth], as it says, “And the earth closed upon them” in this world, “and they perished from among the congregation” (Numbers 16:33) in the world to come, according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “Concerning them it is said, ‘The Lord kills and makes alive: He brings down to Sheol, and brings up” (I Samuel 2:6). The ten tribes will not return [to the Land of Israel], for it is said, “And He cast them into another land, as is this day” (Deuteronomy 29:2: just as the day goes and does not return, so they too went and will not return: according to the words of Rabbi Akiba. Rabbi Eliezer says: “‘As is this day’ just as the day darkens and then becomes light again, so the ten tribes even as it went dark for them, so will it in the future become light for them."
33. Mishnah, Sotah, 7.6, 9.15 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

7.6. How was the priestly blessing [pronounced]?In the province (outside of the Temple) it was said as three blessings, but in the Temple as one blessing. In the Temple the name was uttered as it is written, but in the province in its substituted name. In the province the priests raise their hands at the height of their shoulders, but in the Temple above their heads, except the high priest who does not raise his hands higher than the frontlet (on his forehead). Rabbi Judah says: even the high priest raises his hands higher than the frontlet, as it says, “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them” (Leviticus 9:22)." 9.15. When Rabbi Meir died, the composers of fables ceased. When Ben Azzai died, the diligent students [of Torah] ceased. When Ben Zoma died, the expounders ceased. When Rabbi Joshua died, goodness ceased from the world. When Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel died, locusts come and troubles multiplied. When Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah died, the sages ceased to be wealthy. When Rabbi Akiba died, the glory of the Torah ceased. When Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa died, men of wondrous deeds ceased. When Rabbi Yose Katnuta died, the pious men (hasidim) ceased and why was his name called Katnuta? Because he was the youngest of the pious men. When Rabban Yoha ben Zakkai died, the splendor of wisdom ceased. When Rabban Gamaliel the elder died, the glory of the torah ceased, and purity and separateness perished. When Rabbi Ishmael ben Fabi died, the splendor of the priesthood ceased. When Rabbi died, humility and fear of sin ceased. Rabbi Phineas ben Yair says: when Temple was destroyed, scholars and freemen were ashamed and covered their head, men of wondrous deeds were disregarded, and violent men and big talkers grew powerful. And nobody expounds, nobody seeks, and nobody asks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Eliezer the Great says: from the day the Temple was destroyed, the sages began to be like scribes, scribes like synagogue-attendants, synagogue-attendants like common people, and the common people became more and more debased. And nobody seeks. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. In the footsteps of the messiah insolence (hutzpah) will increase and the cost of living will go up greatly; the vine will yield its fruit, but wine will be expensive; the government will turn to heresy, and there will be no one to rebuke; the meeting-place [of scholars] will be used for licentiousness; the Galilee will be destroyed, the Gablan will be desolated, and the dwellers on the frontier will go about [begging] from place to place without anyone to take pity on them; the wisdom of the learned will rot, fearers of sin will be despised, and the truth will be lacking; youths will put old men to shame, the old will stand up in the presence of the young, “For son spurns father, daughter rises up against mother, daughter-in-law against mother-in-law a man’s own household are his enemies” (Micah 7:6). The face of the generation will be like the face of a dog, a son will not feel ashamed before his father. Upon whom shall we depend? Upon our father who is in heaven. Rabbi Pinchas ben Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to purity, purity leads to separation, separation leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to fear of sin, fear of sin leads to piety, piety leads to the Holy Spirit, The Holy Spirit leads to the resurrection of the dead, and the resurrection of the dead comes from Elijah, blessed be his memory, Amen.”"
34. Mishnah, Taanit, 2.2-2.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. [When] they stand up to pray they bring down before the ark an old man conversant [with the prayers], one who has children and whose house is empty [of food], so that his heart is complete prayer. He recites before them twenty-four benedictions, the eighteen recited daily, to which he adds six." 2.3. These are they [the six additional benedictions:Zikhronot,“If there is famine in the land, if there is pestilence” (I Kings 8:37). Shofarot,“The word of the Lord which came to Jeremiah concerning the droughts” (Jeremiah. “In my distress I called to the Lord and He answered me” (Psalm. “I turn my eyes to the mountains” (Psalm. “Out of the depths I call you, O Lord” (Psalm. “A prayer of lowly man when he is faint” (Psalm. Rabbi Judah says: he need not recite the zikhronot and shofarot, but instead he should recite [the following]: And he ends each [of the additional six] sections with its appropriate concluding benediction."
35. Mishnah, Yoma, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.2. Section one: It once happened that two were even as they ran up the ramp, and one of them pushed his fellow who fell and broke his leg. When the court saw that they incurred danger, they decreed that they would remove the ashes from only by a count. Section two: There were four counts. This is the first count."
36. Mishnah, Yadayim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.8. A Galilean min said: I complain against you Pharisees, that you write the name of the ruler and the name of Moses together on a divorce document. The Pharisees said: we complain against you, Galilean min, that you write the name of the ruler together with the divine name on a single page [of Torah]? And furthermore that you write the name of the ruler above and the divine name below? As it is said, \"And Pharoah said, Who is the Lord that I should hearken to his voice to let Israel go?\" (Exodus 5:2) But when he was smitten what did he say? \"The Lord is righteous\" (Exodus 9:27)."
37. New Testament, Acts, 10.10, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
38. New Testament, John, 2.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

2.16. To those who sold the doves, he said, "Take these things out of here! Don't make my Father's house a marketplace!
39. New Testament, Luke, 1.68, 20.34-20.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

1.68. Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, For he has visited and worked redemption for his people; 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 20.35. But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage.
40. New Testament, Mark, 5.42, 11.15-11.17, 12.2, 12.18-12.19, 12.21-12.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.42. Immediately the young lady rose up, and walked, for she was twelve years old. They were amazed with great amazement. 11.15. They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered into the temple, and began to throw out those who sold and those who bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold the doves. 11.16. He would not allow anyone to carry a container through the temple. 11.17. He taught, saying to them, "Isn't it written, 'My house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations?' But you have made it a den of robbers! 12.2. When it was time, he sent a servant to the farmer to get from the farmer his share of the fruit of the vineyard. 12.18. There came to him Sadducees, who say that there is no resurrection. They asked him, saying 12.19. Teacher, Moses wrote to us, 'If a man's brother dies, and leaves a wife behind him, and leaves no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up offspring for his brother.' 12.21. The second took her, and died, leaving no children behind him. The third likewise; 12.22. and the seven took her and left no children. Last of all the woman also died. 12.23. In the resurrection, when they rise, whose wife will she be of them? For the seven had her as a wife. 12.24. Jesus answered them, "Isn't this because you are mistaken, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the power of God? 12.25. For when they will rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. 12.26. But about the dead, that they are raised; haven't you read in the book of Moses, about the Bush, how God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?' 12.27. He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are therefore badly mistaken.
41. Tosefta, Bava Metzia, 2.33 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

42. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.25. Eighteen Berachot (blessings) that the Sages have established [for the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh have been established] corresponding to eighteen mentionings [of God’s name] that are in [the chapter of Tehillim that begins with] “Ascribe to God, children of princes…” (Tehillim 29) And [a person] should include [the Beracha against] the heretics into [the Beracha] for the Rabbinical Jews, and [the Beracha] for the converts into [the Beracha] for the elders, and [the Beracha] for [King] David into [the Beracha] for [the rebuilding of] Jerusalem. But if he said each one of them separately he has fulfilled his obligation [of praying Shemoneh Esreh]."
43. Tosefta, Hulin, 1.1, 2.18-2.19, 2.21-2.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

44. Tosefta, Parah, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

45. Tosefta, Rosh Hashanah, 1.15, 2.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

46. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 8.7, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

47. Tosefta, Shabbat, 13.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

48. Tosefta, Taanit, 1.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

49. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.9, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

50. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 63.13 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

63.13. וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב מִכְרָה כַיּוֹם (בראשית כה, לא), אָמַר לוֹ זַבֵּין לִי חַד יוֹם מִן דִּידָךְ, אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא כָּל מִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ לְחַשֵּׁב יְמֵי הַגָּלוּת, יִמְצָא שֶׁיּוֹם אֶחָד יָשַׁב יַעֲקֹב בְּשַׁלְוָה בְּצִלּוֹ שֶׁל עֵשָׂו. (בראשית כב, לב): וַיֹּאמֶר עֵשָׂו הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ אָמַר הִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף, לָמָּה לִי אֵין כְּתִיב כָּאן, אֶלָּא (בראשית כב, לב): לָמָּה זֶּה לִי, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּפַר בְּזֶה אֵלִי (שמות טו, ב). דָּבָר אַחֵר, הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הוֹלֵךְ לָמוּת, שֶׁהָיָה נִמְרוֹד מְבַקֵּשׁ לְהָמִית אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל אוֹתוֹ הַבֶּגֶד שֶׁהָיָה לְאָדָם הָרִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה לוֹבְשׁוֹ וְיוֹצֵא לַשָּׂדֶה הָיוּ בָּאִים כָּל חַיָּה וָעוֹף שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם וּמִתְקַבְּצִין אֶצְלוֹ. (בראשית כה, לג): וַיֹּאמֶר הִשְּׁבְעָה לִי, מָה רָאָה אָבִינוּ יַעֲקֹב שֶׁנָּתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל הַבְּכוֹרָה, דִּתְנֵינַן עַד שֶׁלֹא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרִים, מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים, אָמַר יִהְיֶה רָשָׁע זֶה עוֹמֵד וּמַקְרִיב, לְפִיכָךְ נָתַן נַפְשׁוֹ עַל הַבְּכוֹרָה, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (יחזקאל לה, ו): כִּי לְדָם אֶעֶשְׂךָ וְדָם יִרְדֳּפֶךָ אִם לֹא דָם שָׂנֵאתָ וְדָם יִרְדֳּפֶךָ, וְעֵשָׂו הוּא שׂוֹנֵא אֶת הַדָּם. רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר זֶה דַּם בְּכוֹרָה וְקָרְבָּנוֹת. רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר זֶה דַּם שֶׁל מִילָה. רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי שָׂנֵאתָ דָּמוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם בְּגוּפוֹ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים קט, יז): וַיֶּאֱהַב קְלָלָה וַתְּבוֹאֵהוּ. רַבִּי לֵוִי בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי חָמָא אָמַר לֹא חָפֵץ בִּבְרָכָה וְלֹא חָפֵץ בְּכוֹרָה. רַבִּי הוּנָא אָמַר זֶה דַּם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת שֶׁהוּא קָרוּי בְּרָכָה, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (שמות כ, כד): מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה תַּעֲשֶׂה לִי.
51. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 13.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

13.5. אָמַר רַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן כָּל הַנְּבִיאִים רָאוּ הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (בראשית ב, י): וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת וגו', רַבִּי תַּנְחוּמָא וְאַמְרֵי לָהּ רַבִּי מְנַחֲמָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן לֵוִי אָמַר עָתִיד הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְהַשְׁקוֹת כּוֹס הַתַּרְעֵלָה לְאֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם לֶעָתִיד לָבוֹא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב: וְנָהָר יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַדִּין יוֹצֵא, (בראשית ב, י): וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים, אֵלּוּ אַרְבָּעָה נְהָרוֹת, (בראשית ב, יא): שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פִּישׁוֹן, זֶה בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (חבקוק א, ח): וּפָשׁוּ פָּרָשָׁיו. (בראשית ב, יא): הוּא הַסֹּבֵב אֵת כָּל אֶרֶץ הַחֲוִילָה, נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הָרָשָׁע שֶׁעָלָה וְהִקִּיף אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁמְּיַחֶלֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (תהלים מב, ו): הוֹחִלִי לֵאלֹהִים. (בראשית ב, יא): אֲשֶׁר שָׁם הַזָּהָב, אֵלּוּ דִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים יט, יא): הַנֶּחֱמָדִים מִזָּהָב וּמִפָּז רָב. (בראשית ב, יב): וּזֲהַב הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא טוֹב, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁאֵין תּוֹרָה כְּתוֹרַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֵין חָכְמָה כְּחָכְמַת אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, (בראשית ב, יב): שָׁם הַבְּדֹלַח וְאֶבֶן הַשֹּׁהַם, מִקְרָא מִשְׁנָה תַּלְמוּד הֲלָכוֹת וְאַגָּדוֹת. (בראשית ב, יג): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשֵּׁנִי גִיחוֹן, זֶה מָדַי, שֶׁהֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הָמָן הָרָשָׁע שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ עִסָּה כַּנָּחָשׁ, עַל שׁוּם (בראשית ג, יד): עַל גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ. (בראשית ב, יג): הוּא הַסּוֹבֵב אֶת כָּל אֶרֶץ כּוּשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר א, א): מֵהוֹדוּ וְעַד כּוּשׁ. (בראשית ב, יד): וְשֵׁם הַנָּהָר הַשְּׁלִישִׁי חִדֶּקֶל, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהִיא חַדָּה וְקַלָּה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאוֹמֵר לָהֶם כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בֵּאלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): הַהֹלֵךְ קִדְמַת אַשּׁוּר, אָמַר רַב הוּנָא כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם אַשּׁוּר, שֶׁהָיוּ מְאַשְׁרִין עַצְמָן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בְּרַבִּי חֲנִינָא, כָּל הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת נִקְרְאוּ עַל שֵׁם מִצְרַיִם, עַל שֵׁם שֶׁהָיוּ מְצֵירִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל. (בראשית ב, יד): וְהַנָּהָר הָרְבִיעִי הוּא פְרָת, הוּא אֱדוֹם שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת בִּתְפִלָּתוֹ שֶׁל זָקֵן. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְעוֹלָמוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לִבְנוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, שֶׁפָּרָת וְרָבָת וְהֵצֵירָה לְבֵיתוֹ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, פָּרָת עַל שׁוּם סוֹפָהּ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה סג, ג): פּוּרָה דָרַכְתִּי לְבַדִּי. אַבְרָהָם רָאָה הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן (בראשית טו, יב): וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה, זוֹ בָּבֶל עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ג, יט): נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר הִתְמְלִי חֱמָא. (בראשית טו, יב): חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ מָדַי, שֶׁהֶחֱשִׁיכָה בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ג, יג): לְהַשְׁמִיד לַהֲרֹג וּלְאַבֵּד. (בראשית טו, יב): גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ יָוָן, אָמַר רַב נַחְמָן מְלַמֵּד שֶׁהָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת מֵאָה וְשִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד אִפַּרְכִין, מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁבְעָה אִסְטְרָטָלִיטוּן, וְרַבָּנָן אָמְרִין שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִׁים, וְרַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חָנִין עַל הֲדָא דְרַבָּנָן (דברים ח, טו): הַמּוֹלִיכְךָ בַּמִּדְבָּר הַגָּדֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא נָחָשׁ שָׂרָף וְעַקְרָב, נָחָשׁ זֶה בָּבֶל. שָׂרָף, זֶה מָדַי. עַקְרָב, זֶה יָוָן, מָה עַקְרָב זֶה מַשְׁרֶצֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת יָוָן מַעֲמֶדֶת שִׁשִּׁים שִׁשִּׁים. (בראשית טו, יב): נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (ירמיה מט, כא): מִקּוֹל נִפְלָם רָעֲשָׁה הָאָרֶץ. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֵימָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, עַל שֵׁם (דניאל ז, ז): דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי. חֲשֵׁכָה, זוֹ יָוָן. גְּדֹלָה, זוֹ מָדַי, עַל שֵׁם (אסתר ג, א): גִּדַּל הַמֶּלֶךְ אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ. נֹפֶלֶת, זוֹ בָּבֶל, עַל שֵׁם (ישעיה כא, ט): נָפְלָה נָפְלָה בָּבֶל. רָאָה דָּנִיֵּאל אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ב ג): חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוִי עִם לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ אַרְבַּע רוּחֵי שְׁמַיָא מְגִיחָן לְיַמָּא רַבָּא, וְאַרְבַּע חֵיוָן רַבְרְבָן סָלְקָן מִן יַמָּא, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן יַמָּא וְאִם לָאו מִן חוֹרְשָׁא, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא דְיַמָּא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן יַמָּא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, דְכַוָּותָא (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר, עַיִ"ן תְּלוּיָה, אִם זְכִיתֶם מִן הַיְאוֹר וְאִם לָאו מִן הַיַּעַר, הֲדָא חֵיוְתָא כִּי סָלְקָא מִן נַהֲרָא הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, סָלְקָא מִן חוֹרְשָׁא לֵית הִיא מִמַּכְיָא, (דניאל ז, ג): שָׁנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, אַל תִּקְרֵי שָׁנְיָן אֶלָּא סָנְיָן דָּא מִן דָּא, מְלַמֵּד שֶׁכָּל אֻמָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹלֶטֶת בָּעוֹלָם הִיא שׂוֹנְאָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְשַׁעְבְּדָא בָּהֶן. (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה, זוֹ בָּבֶל, יִרְמְיָה רָאָה אוֹתָהּ אֲרִי וְרָאָה אוֹתָהּ נֶשֶׁר, דִּכְתִיב (ירמיה ד, ז): עָלָה אַרְיֵה מִסֻּבְּכוֹ (ירמיה מט, כב): הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יַעֲלֶה וְיִדְאֶה, אָמְרִין לְדָנִיֵּאל אַתּ מָה חָמֵית לְהוֹן, אָמַר לְהוֹן חָמֵיתִי אַפִּין כְּאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): קַדְמָיְתָא כְאַרְיֵה וְגַפִּין דִּי נְשַׁר לַהּ חָזֵה הֲוֵית עַד דִּי מְּרִיטוּ גַּפֵּיהּ וּנְטִילַת מִן אַרְעָא. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן, רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר אוֹמֵר כָּל אוֹתוֹ אֲרִי לָקָה וְלִבּוֹ לֹא לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ז, ד): וּלְבַב אֱנָשׁ יְהִיב לַהּ. וְרַבִּי שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר נַחְמָן אָמַר אַף לִבּוֹ לָקָה, דִּכְתִיב (דניאל ד, יג): לִבְבֵהּ מִן אֲנָשָׁא יְשַׁנּוֹן. חָזֵה הֲוֵית (דניאל ז, ה): וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה אָחֳרֵי תִנְיָנָא דָמְיָא לְדֹב, לְדב כְּתִיב זֶה מָדַי, הוּא דַעְתֵּיהּ דְּרַבִּי יוֹחָנָן דְּאָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן (ירמיה ה, ו): עַל כֵּן הִכָּם אַרְיֵה מִיַּעַר, זוֹ בָּבֶל. (ירמיה ה, ו): זְאֵב עֲרָבוֹת יְשָׁדְדֵם, זוֹ מָדַי. (ירמיה ה, ו): נָמֵר שֹׁקֵד עַל עָרֵיהֶם, זוֹ יָוָן. (ירמיה ה, ו): כָּל הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֵנָּה יִטָּרֵף, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, לָמָּה, (ירמיה ה, ו): כִּי רַבּוּ פִּשְׁעֵיהֶם עָצְמוּ מְשֻׁבוֹתֵיהֶם. (דניאל ז, ו): חָזֵה הֲוֵית וַאֲרוּ אָחֳרִי כִּנְמַר, זוֹ יָוָן, שֶׁהָיְתָה מַעֲמֶדֶת בִּגְזֵרוֹתֶיהָ וְאוֹמֶרֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּתְבוּ עַל קֶרֶן הַשּׁוֹר שֶׁאֵין לָכֶם חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. (דניאל ז, ז): בָּאתַר דְּנָא חָזֵה הֲוֵית בְּחֶזְוֵי לֵילְיָא וַאֲרוּ חֵיוָה רְבִיעָאָה דְּחִילָה וְאֵימְתָנִי וְתַקִּיפָא יַתִּירָה, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, דָּנִיֵּאל רָאָה שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד וְלָזוֹ בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד, לָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לָהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ (יחזקאל כא, יט): וְתִכָּפֵל. משֶׁה רָאָה אֶת הַמַּלְכֻיּוֹת בְּעִסּוּקָן, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קלז, ח): אַשְׁרֵי שֶׁיְשַׁלֶּם לָךְ אֶת גְּמוּלֵךְ שֶׁגָּמַלְתְּ לָנוּ. (ויקרא יא, ה): אֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי. רַבָּנָן וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי מַה הַשָּׁפָן הַזֶּה יֵשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנֵי טֻמְאָה וְסִימָנֵי טָהֳרָה, כָּךְ הָיְתָה מַלְכוּת מָדַי מַעֲמֶדֶת צַדִּיק וְרָשָׁע. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּרַבִּי סִימוֹן דָּרְיָוֶשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן בְּנָהּ שֶׁל אֶסְתֵּר הָיָה, טָהוֹר מֵאִמּוֹ וְטָמֵא מֵאָבִיו. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, אִמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּלְמַי אַרְנֶבֶת שְׁמָהּ. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ פָּרַס, משֶׁה נָתַן שְׁלָשְׁתָּם בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָזוֹ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וְלָמָּה, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן וְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ, רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן אָמַר שֶׁשְּׁקוּלָה כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלָשְׁתָּן, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ אָמַר (דניאל ז, ז): יַתִּירָה. מָתִיב רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ בֶּן אָדָם הִנָּבֵא וְהַךְ כַּף אֶל כָּף, דָּא מָה עָבַד לֵיהּ רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן לָקִישׁ וְתִכָּפֵל. רַבִּי פִּנְחָס וְרַבִּי חִלְקִיָּה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי סִימוֹן מִכָּל הַנְּבִיאִים לֹא פִּרְסְמוּהָ אֶלָּא שְׁנַיִם אָסָף וּמשֶׁה, אָסָף אָמַר (תהלים פ, יד): יְכַרְסְמֶנָּה חֲזִיר מִיָּעַר. משֶׁה אָמַר (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר כִּי מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה, לָמָּה נִמְשְׁלָה לַחֲזִיר, לוֹמַר לָךְ מָה חֲזִיר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹבֵץ מוֹצִיא טְלָפָיו וְאוֹמֵר רְאוּ שֶׁאֲנִי טָהוֹר, כָּךְ מַלְכוּת אֱדוֹם מִתְגָּאָה וְחוֹמֶסֶת וְגוֹזֶלֶת וְנִרְאֵית כְּאִלּוּ מַצַּעַת בִּימָה. מַעֲשֶׂה בְּשִׁלְטוֹן אֶחָד שֶׁהָיָה הוֹרֵג הַגַּנָּבִים וְהַמְנָאֲפִים וְהַמְכַשְּׁפִים, גָּחִין וְאָמַר לַסַּנְקְלִיטִין, שְׁלָשְׁתָּן עָשִׂיתִי בְּלַיְלָה אֶחָד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, (ויקרא יא, ד): אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, (ויקרא יא, ד): כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. רַבִּי בֶּרֶכְיָה וְרַבִּי חֶלְבּוֹ בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל בַּר נַחְמָן, כָּל מַה שֶּׁפָּרַט דָּוִד כָּלַל אוֹתוֹ רָשָׁע בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ד, לד): כְּעַן אֲנָה נְבֻכַדְנֶצַּר מְשַׁבַּח וּמְרוֹמֵם וּמְהַדַּר לְמֶלֶךְ שְׁמַיָא. מְשַׁבַּח (תהלים קמז, יב): שַׁבְּחִי יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אֶת ה'. וּמְרוֹמֵם (תהלים ל, ב): אֲרוֹמִמְךָ ה'. וּמְהַדַּר (תהלים קד, א): ה' אֱלֹהַי גָדַלְתָּ מְאֹד הוֹד וְהָדָר לָבָשְׁתָּ. (דניאל ד, לד): דִּי כָל מַעֲבָדוֹהִי קְשֹׁט (תהלים קלח, ב): עַל חַסְדְּךָ וְעַל אֲמִתֶּךָ. (דניאל ד, לד): וְאֹרְחָתֵהּ דִּין (תהלים צו, י): יָדִין עַמִּים בְּמֵישָׁרִים. (דניאל ד, לד): וְדִי מַהְלְכִין בְּגֵוָה (תהלים צג, א): ה' מָלָךְ גֵּאוּת לָבֵשׁ. (דניאל ד, לד): יָכִל לְהַשְׁפָּלָה (תהלים עה, יא): וְכָל קַרְנֵי רְשָׁעִים אֲגַדֵּעַ. (ויקרא יא, ה): וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, (ויקרא יא, ה): כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (עזרא א, ב): כֹּה אָמַר כֹּרֶשׁ מֶלֶךְ פָּרַס. (ויקרא יא, ו): וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, (ויקרא יא, ו): כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְּקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס מוֹקְדוֹן כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק, אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ ה' אֱלֹהֵי שֶׁל שִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק. (ויקרא יא, ז): וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זֶה אֱדוֹם, (ויקרא יא, ז): וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, וְלֹא דַּיָּן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְקַלֶּסֶת אֶלָּא מְחָרֶפֶת וּמְגַדֶּפֶת וְאוֹמֶרֶת (תהלים עג, כה): מִי לִי בַשָּׁמָיִם. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת דָּנִיֵּאל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דניאל ב, מט): וְדָנִיֵּאל בִּתְרַע מַלְכָּא. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי, כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת אֶת מָרְדְּכַי, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (אסתר ב, יט): וּמָרְדֳּכַי ישֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר הַמֶּלֶךְ. וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא, שֶׁמְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים. אֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרוֹס כַּד הֲוָה חָמֵי לְשִׁמְעוֹן הַצַּדִּיק הֲוָה קָאֵים עַל רַגְלֵיהּ, אָמְרִין לֵיהּ מִינָאֵי, מִן קֳדָם יְהוּדָאי אַתְּ קָאֵים, אָמַר לָהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֲנִי יוֹצֵא לְמִלְחָמָה דְּמוּתוֹ אֲנִי רוֹאֶה וְנוֹצֵחַ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת הַצַּדִּיקִים, וְלֹא דַי שֶׁאֵינָה מְגַדֶּלֶת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוֹרֶגֶת אוֹתָם. הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (ישעיה מז, ו): קָצַפְתִּי עַל עַמִּי חִלַּלְתִּי נַחֲלָתִי וגו', נַחֲלָתִי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא וַחֲבֵרָיו. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אֶת הַגָּמָל, זוֹ בָּבֶל, כִּי מַעֲלֶה גֵרָה, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַשָּׁפָן, זוֹ מָדַי כִּי מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְאֶת הָאַרְנֶבֶת, זוֹ יָוָן, כִּי מַעֲלַת גֵרָה הִוא, שֶׁגָּרְרָה מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ. וְאֶת הַחֲזִיר, זוֹ אֱדוֹם, וְהוּא גֵרָה לֹא יִגָּר, שֶׁאֵינָה גוֹרֶרֶת מַלְכוּת אַחֲרֶיהָ, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ חֲזִיר, שֶׁמַּחֲזֶרֶת עֲטָרָה לִבְעָלֶיהָ, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (עובדיה א, כא): וְעָלוּ מוֹשִׁיעִים בְּהַר צִיּוֹן לִשְׁפֹּט אֶת הַר עֵשָׂו וְהָיְתָה לַה' הַמְּלוּכָה.
52. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 320, 331, 48, 317 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

53. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 115, 143, 16, 39, 43, 112 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

54. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 96.2, 137.2 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

55. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Batra, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. ללדת עולה לראש ההר כדי שיפול ממנה וימות ואני מזמין לה נשר שמקבלו בכנפיו ומניחו לפניה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מתאחר רגע אחד מיד מת בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לט, א) חולל אילות תשמור אילה זו רחמה צר בשעה שכורעת ללדת אני מזמין לה דרקון שמכישה בבית הרחם ומתרפה ממולדה ואלמלי מקדים רגע אחד או מאחר רגע אחד מיד מתה בין רגע לרגע לא נתחלף לי בין איוב לאויב נתחלף לי,(איוב לד, לה) [איוב] לא בדעת ידבר ודבריו לא בהשכל (וכתיב (איוב מב, ז) כי לא דברתם אלי נכונה כעבדי איוב) אמר רבא מכאן שאין אדם נתפס בשעת צערו,(איוב ב, יא) וישמעו שלשת רעי איוב את כל הרעה הזאת הבאה עליו ויבאו איש ממקומו אליפז התימני ובלדד השוחי וצופר הנעמתי ויועדו יחדו לבוא לנוד לו ולנחמו מאי ויועדו יחדו אמר רב יהודה אמר רב מלמד שנכנסו כולן בשער אחד ותנא בין כל אחד ואחד שלש מאות פרסי,מנא הוו ידעי איכא דאמרי כלילא הוה להו ואיכא דאמרי אילני הוה להו וכיון דכמשי הוו ידעי אמר רבא היינו דאמרי אינשי או חברא כחברי דאיוב או מיתותא,(בראשית ו, א) ויהי כי החל האדם לרוב על פני האדמה ובנות יולדו להם רבי יוחנן אמר רביה באה לעולם ריש לקיש אמר מריבה באה לעולם אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן לדידך דאמרת רבייה באה לעולם מפני מה לא נכפלו בנותיו של איוב,אמר לו נהי דלא נכפלו בשמות אבל נכפלו ביופי דכתיב (איוב מב, יג) ויהי לו שבענה בנים ושלוש בנות ויקרא שם האחת ימימה ושם השנית קציעה ושם השלישית קרן הפוך,ימימה שהיתה דומה ליום קציעה שהיה ריחה נודף כקציעה קרן הפוך אמרי דבי רבי שילא שדומה לקרנא דקרש מחייכו עלה במערבא קרנא דקרש לקותא היא אלא אמר רב חסדא ככורכמא דרישקא במיניה שנאמר (ירמיהו ד, ל) כי תקרעי בפוך,רבי שמעון ברבי איתילידא ליה ברתא הוה קא חלש דעתיה אמר ליה אבוה רביה באה לעולם אמר ליה בר קפרא תנחומין של הבל ניחמך אבוך [דתניא] אי אפשר לעולם בלא זכרים ובלא נקבות אלא אשרי למי שבניו זכרים אוי לו למי שבניו נקבות אי אפשר לעולם בלא בסם ובלא בורסי אשרי מי שאומנותו בוסמי אוי למי שאומנותו בורסי,כתנאי (בראשית כד, א) וה' ברך את אברהם בכל מאי בכל רבי מאיר אומר שלא היתה לו בת רבי יהודה אומר שהיתה לו בת אחרים אומרים בת היתה לו לאברהם ובכל שמה רבי אלעזר המודעי אומר איצטגנינות היתה בלבו של אברהם אבינו שכל מלכי מזרח ומערב משכימין לפתחו רבי שמעון בן יוחי אומר אבן טובה היתה תלויה בצוארו של אברהם אבינו שכל חולה הרואה אותו מיד מתרפא ובשעה שנפטר אברהם אבינו מן העולם תלאה הקדוש ברוך הוא בגלגל חמה אמר אביי היינו דאמרי אינשי אידלי יומא אידלי קצירא,דבר אחר שלא מרד עשו בימיו דבר אחר שעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו שלא מרד עשו בימיו מנלן דכתיב (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה והוא עיף ותנא אותו היום נפטר אברהם אבינו ועשה יעקב אבינו תבשיל של עדשים לנחם את יצחק אביו,[ומ"ש של עדשים] אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבה בר מרי מה עדשה זו אין לה פה אף אבל אין לו פה דבר אחר מה עדשה זו מגולגלת אף אבילות מגלגלת ומחזרת על באי העולם מאי בינייהו איכא בינייהו לנחומי בביעי,אמר רבי יוחנן חמש עבירות עבר אותו רשע באותו היום בא על נערה מאורסה והרג את הנפש וכפר בעיקר וכפר בתחיית המתים ושט את הבכורה,בא על נערה מאורסה כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, כט) ויבא עשו מן השדה וכתיב התם (דברים כב, כז) כי בשדה מצאה הרג את הנפש כתיב הכא עיף וכתיב התם (ירמיהו ד, לא) אוי נא לי כי עיפה נפשי להורגים וכפר בעיקר כתיב הכא (בראשית כה, לב) למה זה לי וכתיב התם (שמות טו, ב) זה אלי ואנוהו וכפר בתחיית המתים דכתיב (בראשית כה, לב) הנה אנכי הולך למות ושט את הבכורה דכתיב (בראשית כה, לד) ויבז עשו את הבכורה,ושעשה ישמעאל תשובה בימיו מנלן כי הא דרבינא ורב חמא בר בוזי הוו יתבי קמיה דרבא וקא מנמנם רבא א"ל רבינא לרב חמא בר בוזי ודאי דאמריתו כל מיתה שיש בה גויעה זו היא מיתתן של צדיקים אמר ליה אין והא דור המבול אמר ליה אנן גויעה ואסיפה קאמרינן,והא ישמעאל דכתיב ביה גויעה ואסיפה אדהכי איתער בהו רבא אמר להו דרדקי הכי א"ר יוחנן ישמעאל עשה תשובה בחיי אביו שנאמר (בראשית כה, ט) ויקברו אותו יצחק וישמעאל בניו,ודילמא דרך חכמתן קא חשיב להו אלא מעתה (בראשית לה, כט) ויקברו אותו עשו ויעקב בניו מאי טעמא לא חשיב להו דרך חכמתן אלא מדאקדמיה אדבורי אדבריה ומדאדבריה שמע מינה תשובה עבד בימיו,תנו רבנן שלשה הטעימן הקב"ה בעולם הזה 16b. bto give birth she ascends to the top of a mountain so thatthe kid bshould fall down from her and die. And I summon her an eagle that receives it with his wings and places it before her; and ifthe eagle breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late,the kid bwould immediately die.Now, if bI do not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,Similarly: b“Can you mark when the hinds do calve?”(Job 39:1). bThe womb of this hind is narrow,which makes for a difficult delivery. bWhen she squats to give birth, I summon her a snake [ iderakon /i] that bites her at the opening of the womb, whichthen bbecomes loose, and she gives birth, and ifthe snake breachedher bone moment early or was one moment late, she would immediately die.Now, if I bdo not confuse one moment with another moment, would I confuse iIyovwith ioyev /i? /b,The Gemara comments: On the one hand, the text states: b“Job has spoken without knowledge, and his words were without wisdom”(Job 34:35). bButon the other hand, bit is writtenwith regard to Job’s friends: b“You have not spoken of Me the thing that is right, like my servant Job”(Job 42:8). bRava said: From hereit may be inferred bthat a person is not held responsiblefor what he says bwhen he is in distress.Although Job uttered certain words that were wrong and inappropriate, he was not punished for them because he said them at a time of pain and hardship.,The verse states: b“And Job’s three friends heard of all this evil that was come upon him, they came every one from his own place, Eliphaz the Temanite, and Bildad the Shuhite, and Zophar the Naamathite; for they had made an appointment together to come to mourn with him and to comfort him”(Job 2:11). bWhatdoes b“they had made an appointment together”mean? bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Thisphrase bteaches that they all enteredthrough bone gateat the same time. bAnda Sage btaughtin a ibaraita /i: There were bthree hundred parasangs between each and every oneof them, i.e., each one lived three hundred parasangs away from the other.,The Gemara asks: bHow did theyall bknowat the same time what had happened to Job so that the three of them came together? bThere arethose bwho saythat btheyeach bhad a crownwhich displayed certain signs when something happened to one of the others. bAnd there arethose bwho say theyeach bhad trees and whenthe trees bwithered they knewthat sorrow had visited one of them. bRava saidthat bthiscloseness between Job and his friends explains the adage bthat people say: Either a friend like the friends of Job or death.If a person lacks close friends, he is better off dead.,The Gemara cites another place where Job is mentioned. b“And it came to pass, when men began to multiply [ ilarov /i] on the face of the earth, and daughters were born to them”(Genesis 6:1). bRabbi Yoḥa says: iLarovmeans that bpropagation [ ireviyya /i] came to the worldthrough these daughters. bReish Lakish says: Strife [ imeriva /i] came to the world.Once daughters were born, the men began to fight among themselves over them. bReish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa: According to you who saythat due to the daughters bpropagation came to the world, for whatreason bwerethe number of bJob’s daughters not doubled,when at the end of the story God doubled everything that Job had lost (see Job 1:3, 42:12)?,Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: Granted,the numbers of Job’s daughters bwere not doubled in name,meaning they did not become twice as many, bbut they were doubled in beauty, as it is written: “He had also seven sons and three daughters. And he called the name of the first Jemimah, and the name of the second was Keziah, and the name of the third one was Keren-happuch”(Job 42:13–14). All three names relate to the daughters’ beauty., bJemimah [ iYemima /i];in her beauty bshe was similar to the day [ iyom /i]. Keziah; her scent wafted likethe bcassia [ iketzia /i]tree. bKeren-happuch; in the school of Rav Sheila they say: She was similar to the horn [ ikeren /i] of a ikeresh /i,an animal whose horns are particularly beautiful. bThey laughed at this in the West,Eretz Yisrael, since it is considered ba blemishwhen a person resembles bthe horn of a ikeresh /i. Rather, Rav Ḥisda said:She was blike garden saffron [ ikekurkema derishka /i],which is the best bof its kind. iKerenrefers to a garden, and ipukhmeans ornament, bas it is stated: “Though you enlargeyour eyes bwith paint [ ipukh /i],you beautify yourself in vain” (Jeremiah 4:30).,It is reported that ba daughter was born to Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, and bhe was upsetthat he did not have a son. bHis father said to him: Propagation has come to the worldthrough the birth of a daughter. bBar Kappara said toRabbi Shimon: bYour father has consoled you with meaningless consolation, as it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe world cannot endure without males and females,as both are needed for the perpetuation of humanity. bBut fortunate is he whose children are males and woe to him whose children are females.Similarly, bthe world cannot endure without either a spice dealerwhose wares are sweet-smelling, bor a tanner [ ibursi /i],who is engaged in a foul-smelling occupation. bFortunate is he whose occupation is a spice seller,and bwoe to him whose occupation is a tanner. /b,The Gemara comments that this disagreement is bparallel toa dispute between itanna’im /i:The Torah states: b“And the Lord blessed Abraham with everything [ ibakkol /i]”(Genesis 24:1), and the Sages disagree about bwhat ibakkol /imeans. bRabbi Meir says:The blessing is bthat he did not have a daughter. Rabbi Yehuda says:On the contrary, the blessing was bthat he had a daughter. Others say: Abraham had a daughter and her name was Bakkol. Rabbi Elazar HaModa’i says: Abraham our forefather was so knowledgeable in astrology [ iitztagninut /i] that all the kings of the East and the West would come early to his doordue to his wisdom. This is the blessing of ibakkol /i, that he possessed knowledge that everybody needed. bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai says: A precious stone hung around the neck of Abraham our forefather; any sick person who looked at it would immediately be healed. When Abraham our forefather died, the Holy One, Blessed be He, hungthis stone bfrom the sphere of the sun,which from that point on brought healing to the sick. bAbaye said: Thisexplains the adage bthat people say: As the day progresses, sickness is lifted. /b, bAlternatively,what is the blessing of ibakkol /i? bThat Esau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime,that is to say, as long as Abraham lived Esau did not sin. bAlternatively,the blessing of ibakkolis bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime.The Gemara explains: bFrom where do wederive that bEsau did not rebel inAbraham’s blifetime? As it is written:“And Jacob was cooking a stew band Esau came in from the field and he was faint”(Genesis 25:29), banda ibaraita btaught: On that day Abraham our forefather passed away, and Jacob our forefather prepared a lentil stew to comfort Isaac, his father,as it was customary to serve mourners lentil stew.,The Gemara explains: bAnd what is different about lentilsthat they in particular are the fare customarily offered to mourners? bThey say in the West,Eretz Yisrael, bin the name of Rabba bar Mari: Just as this lentil has no mouth,i.e., it does not have a crack like other legumes, bso too a mourner has no mouth,that is, his anguish prevents him from speaking. bAlternatively, just as this lentil iscompletely bround, so too mourning comes around to the inhabitants of the world.The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe practical difference bbetweenthe two explanations? The Gemara answers: bThere isa practical difference bbetween themwith regard to whether it is appropriate bto consolea mourner bwith eggs,which have no opening but are not completely round., bRabbi Yoḥa says: That wickedEsau bcommitted five transgressions on that daythat Abraham died: bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden, he killed a person, he denied the principleof God’s existence, bhe denied resurrection of the dead, and he despised the birthright. /b,The Gemara cites proofs to support these charges. bHe engaged in sexual intercourse with a betrothed maiden,as bit is written here: “And Esau came in from the field”; and it is written therewith regard to rape of a betrothed maiden: b“For he found her in a field”(Deuteronomy 22:27). bHe killed a person,as bit is written here:“And he was bfaint”; and it is written there: “Woe is me, for my soul faints before the slayers”(Jeremiah 4:31). bAnd he denied the principleof God’s existence, as bit is written here: “What profit is this to me”(Genesis 25:32); band it is written there: “This is my God and I will glorify Him”(Exodus 15:2). When he questioned the profit of “this,” he was challenging the assertion that “this is my God.” bAnd he denied resurrection of the dead, as it is written: “Behold, I am at the point of death”(Genesis 25:32), indicating that he did not believe in resurrection after death. bAnd he despised the birthright, as it is written: “And Esau despised the birthright”(Genesis 25:34)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat Ishmael repented inAbraham’s blifetime? Fromthe incident involving bRavina and Rav Ḥama bar Buzi,who bwere sitting before Rava, and Rava was dozingwhile they were talking. bRavina said to Rav Ḥama bar Buzi: Is it true that you saythat bany death with regard to whichthe word igevia /i,expire, is mentioned bis the death of the righteous?Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: Yes.For example: “And Isaac expired [ ivayyigva /i], and died” (Genesis 35:29). Ravina objected: bButwith regard to bthe generation of the floodit states: “And all flesh expired [ ivayyigva /i]” (Genesis 7:21), and there they died for their wickedness. Rav Ḥama bar Buzi bsaid to him: We saythis only when both igeviaand iasifa /i,gathering, are used; when these two terms are mentioned together they indicate the death of a righteous person.,Ravina asked: bBut isn’t there Ishmael, about whom igeviaand iasifaare written,as it is stated: “And these are the years of the life of Yishmael…and he expired and died [ ivayyigva vayyamot /i]; and was gathered to his people” (Genesis 25:17)? bMeanwhile Rava,who had heard the discussion in his dozed state, fully bawokeand bsaid to them: Children [ idardekei /i], this is what Rabbi Yoḥa says: Ishmael repented in the lifetime of his father, as it is stated: “And Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 25:9). The fact that Ishmael allowed Isaac to precede him demonstrates that he had repented and accepted his authority.,The Gemara asks: bBut perhapsthe verse blisted them in the order of their wisdom;that is to say, perhaps in fact Ishmael preceded Isaac but the Torah did not list them in that order. The Gemara answers: bBut if that is so,consider that the verse states: b“And Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him”(Genesis 35:29). bWhat is the reasonthat the verse there bdid not list them in the order of their wisdom? Rather, sinceIshmael ballowedIsaac bto precede him,it is clear that he bmadeIsaac bhis leader, and since he made him his leader, learn from it that he repented inAbraham’s blifetime. /b,Incidental to the discussion of the verse “And God blessed Abraham with everything” (Genesis 24:1), the Gemara states that bthe Sages taught:There were bthreepeople bto whom the Holy One, Blessed be He, gavealready bin this world /b
56. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

28b. רב אויא חלש ולא אתא לפרקא דרב יוסף למחר כי אתא בעא אביי לאנוחי דעתיה דרב יוסף א"ל מ"ט לא אתא מר לפרקא א"ל דהוה חליש לבאי ולא מצינא א"ל אמאי לא טעמת מידי ואתית א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המוספין א"ל איבעי ליה למר לצלויי צלותא דמוספין ביחיד ולטעום מידי ולמיתי א"ל ולא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הצבור א"ל לאו אתמר עלה א"ר אבא בצבור שנו,ולית הלכתא לא כרב הונא ולא כריב"ל כרב הונא הא דאמרן כריב"ל דאריב"ל כיון שהגיע זמן תפלת המנחה אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המנחה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר' נחוניא בן הקנה היה מתפלל בכניסתו לבית המדרש וביציאתו תפלה קצרה אמרו לו מה מקום לתפלה זו אמר להם בכניסתי אני מתפלל שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי וביציאתי אני נותן הודאה על חלקי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי ולא אכשל בדבר הלכה וישמחו בי חברי ולא אומר על טמא טהור ולא על טהור טמא ולא יכשלו חברי בדבר הלכה ואשמח בהם,ביציאתו מהו אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי ששמת חלקי מיושבי בית המדרש ולא שמת חלקי מיושבי קרנות שאני משכים והם משכימים אני משכים לדברי תורה והם משכימים לדברים בטלים אני עמל והם עמלים אני עמל ומקבל שכר והם עמלים ואינם מקבלים שכר אני רץ והם רצים אני רץ לחיי העולם הבא והם רצים לבאר שחת:,ת"ר כשחלה ר' אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו אמרו לו רבינו למדנו אורחות חיים ונזכה בהן לחיי העולם הבא,אמר להם הזהרו בכבוד חבריכם ומנעו בניכם מן ההגיון והושיבום בין ברכי תלמידי חכמים וכשאתם מתפללים דעו לפני מי אתם עומדים ובשביל כך תזכו לחיי העולם הבא,וכשחלה רבי יוחנן בן זכאי נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו כיון שראה אותם התחיל לבכות אמרו לו תלמידיו נר ישראל עמוד הימיני פטיש החזק מפני מה אתה בוכה,אמר להם אילו לפני מלך בשר ודם היו מוליכין אותי שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר שאם כועס עלי אין כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני אין איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני אין מיתתו מיתת עולם ואני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולשחדו בממון אעפ"כ הייתי בוכה ועכשיו שמוליכים אותי לפני ממ"ה הקב"ה שהוא חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים שאם כועס עלי כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני מיתתו מיתת עולם ואיני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולא לשחדו בממון ולא עוד אלא שיש לפני שני דרכים אחת של גן עדן ואחת של גיהנם ואיני יודע באיזו מוליכים אותי ולא אבכה,אמרו לו רבינו ברכנו אמר להם יהי רצון שתהא מורא שמים עליכם כמורא בשר ודם אמרו לו תלמידיו עד כאן אמר להם ולואי תדעו כשאדם עובר עבירה אומר שלא יראני אדם.,בשעת פטירתו אמר להם פנו כלים מפני הטומאה והכינו כסא לחזקיהו מלך יהודה שבא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רבן גמליאל אומר בכל יום ויום מתפלל אדם שמנה עשרה רבי יהושע אומר מעין י"ח ר"ע אומר אם שגורה תפלתו בפיו מתפלל י"ח ואם לאו מעין י"ח,ר"א אומר העושה תפלתו קבע אין תפלתו תחנונים,ר' יהושע אומר ההולך במקום סכנה מתפלל תפלה קצרה ואומר הושע ה' את עמך את שארית ישראל בכל פרשת העבור יהיו צרכיהם לפניך ברוך אתה ה' שומע תפלה,היה רוכב על החמור ירד ויתפלל ואם אינו יכול לירד יחזיר את פניו ואם אינו יכול להחזיר את פניו יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים היה מהלך בספינה או באסדא יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הני י"ח כנגד מי,א"ר הלל בריה דר' שמואל בר נחמני כנגד י"ח אזכרות שאמר דוד (תהלים כט, א) בהבו לה' בני אלים רב יוסף אמר כנגד י"ח אזכרות שבקריאת שמע א"ר תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כנגד שמונה עשרה חוליות שבשדרה.,ואמר ר' תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיכרע עד שיתפקקו כל חוליות שבשדרה,עולא אמר עד כדי שיראה איסר כנגד לבו רבי חנינא אמר כיון שנענע ראשו שוב אינו צריך אמר רבא והוא דמצער נפשיה ומחזי כמאן דכרע,הני תמני סרי תשסרי הוויין,אמר רבי לוי ברכת הצדוקים ביבנה תקנוה כנגד מי תקנוה,א"ר לוי לרבי הלל בריה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני כנגד (תהלים כט, ג) אל הכבוד הרעים לרב יוסף כנגד אחד שבקריאת שמע לר' תנחום א"ר יהושע בן לוי כנגד חוליא קטנה שבשדרה:,ת"ר שמעון הפקולי הסדיר י"ח ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר להם ר"ג לחכמים כלום יש אדם שיודע לתקן ברכת הצדוקים עמד שמואל הקטן ותקנה,לשנה אחרת שכחה 28b. After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: bRav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. WhenRav Avya bcame the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef,and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef. brTo this end, he asked him: bWhy did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture? brRav Avya bsaid to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unableto attend. brAbaye bsaid to him: Why did you not eat something and come? brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bthe Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer. brAbaye bsaid to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, andthen bcometo the lecture. brRav Avya bsaid to him:Does bmy Master not holdin accordance with bthatstatement bof Rabbi Yoḥa: A person may not recite hisindividual bprayer prior to the communal prayer? brAbaye bsaid to him:Was bit not stated regarding this ihalakha /i, bRabbi Abba said: They taughtthis bin a communalsetting? brIn other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion., bAndthe Gemara summarizes: bThe ihalakhais neither in accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna nor in accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara explains: It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRav Huna, as we saidabove with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not bin accordance withthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the timeto recite bthe afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong In addition to the ihalakhotrelating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: bRabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him:The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so bwhat room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpirecaused bby mein the study hall. bAnd upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathe complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: bUpon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishapin determining the ihalakha btranspirescaused bby me, and that I not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that my colleagues,who together with me engage in clarifying the ihalakha, bwill rejoice in me.He specified: bAnd that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nordeclare bimpure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of ihalakha /i, and that I will rejoice in them. /b, bUpon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sitidly bonstreet bcorners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early topursue bmatters of Torah, and they rise early topursue bfrivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction. /b,On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. bThe Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life,guidelines by which to live, band we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b, bHe said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logicwhen studying verses that tend toward heresy ( ige /i’ ionim /i), band placeyour children, while they are still young, bbetween the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. Fordoing bthat, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b,A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: When bRabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer,the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, bfor whatreason bare you crying?With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?, bHe said to them:I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. bIf they were leading me before a flesh and blood kingwhose life is temporal, bwho is here today anddead bin the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternaland, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; bif he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration,as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. bIf he kills me, his killing is not for eternity,as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, bI am able to appease him with words andeven bbribe him with money,and beven so I would crywhen standing before royal judgment. bNow that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry? /b,His students bsaid to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it beHis bwill that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His studentswere puzzled band said: To that pointand not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? bHe said to them: Would thata person achieve that level of fear. bKnow that when one commits a transgression, he saysto himself: I hope bthat no man will see me.If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.,The Gemara relates that bat the time of his death,immediately beforehand, bhe said to them: Remove the vesselsfrom the house and take them outside bdue to the ritual impuritythat will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. bAnd prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is comingfrom the upper world to accompany me., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, also known as iShemoneh Esreh /i, the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as itefilla /i, prayer. bRabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites theprayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says:A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva saysan intermediate opinion: bIf he is fluent in his prayer, he recites theprayer of beighteen blessings, and if not,he need only recite ban abridgedversion of the prayer of beighteen blessings. /b, bRabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplicationand is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw., bRabbi Yehoshua says: One whocannot recite a complete prayer because he bis walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remt of Israel, at every transition [ iparashat ha’ibur /i],the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. bMay their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer. /b,While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. bOne who was riding on a donkey should dismount and praycalmly. bIf he is unable to dismount, he should turn his facetoward the direction of the Temple. bIf he is unable to turn his face,it is sufficient that bhe focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies.Similarly, bone who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [ iasda /i]and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, bshould focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the iAmidaprayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. bCorresponding to what were these eighteenblessings instituted? When the iShemoneh Esrehwas instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?, bRabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s namethat King bDavid saidin the psalm: b“Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might”(Psalms 29). bRav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i. Rabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spinebeneath the ribs.,Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the iAmidaprayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said:In those blessings where one is required to bow, bone who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude. /b,Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, bUlla said:Until bhe can see a small coin [ iissar /i],on the ground before him bopposite his heart(Rav Hai Gaon). bRabbi Ḥanina said:There is room for leniency; bonce he moves his headforward, bhe need notbow any further. bRava said: But thatapplies only if bhe is exerting himselfwhen doing so, band he appears like one who is bowing.However, if he is able, he should bow further.,Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are bthese eighteenblessings? bThey are nineteen. /b, bRabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics,which curses informers, bwas instituted in Yavneand is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: bCorresponding to what wasthis nineteenth blessing binstituted? /b, bRabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing bcorresponds toa reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: b“The God of glory thunders” ( /bPsalms 29:3). bAccording to Rav Yosef,who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in iShema /i, the additional blessing bcorresponds tothe word bone that is in iShema /i.Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. bAccording towhat bRabbi Tanḥumsaid that bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said,that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing bcorresponds to the small vertebra that isat the bottom bof the spine. /b,In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: bThe Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arrangedthe beighteen blessings,already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, bbefore Rabban Gamliel,the iNasiof the Sanhedrin, bin order in Yavne.Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. bRabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics,a blessing directed against the Sadducees? bShmuel HaKatan,who was one of the most pious men of that generation, bstood and instituted it. /b,The Gemara relates: bThe next year,when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, bhe forgotthat blessing
57. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

50a. כאיסורו מה איסורו בכזית אף חזרתו בכזית,תניא ר' נתן אומר זה וזה כשתי ביצים ולא הודו לו חכמים,(זכריה יד, ו) והיה ביום ההוא לא יהיה אור יקרות וקפאון מאי יקרות וקפאון,א"ר אלעזר זה אור שיקר בעולם הזה וקפוי לעולם הבא,ר' יוחנן אמר אלו נגעים ואהלות שיקרין הן בעוה"ז וקפויין הן לעולם הבא,ור' יהושע בן לוי אמר אלו בני אדם שיקרין הן בעולם הזה וקפויין הן לעוה"ב כי הא דרב יוסף בריה דר' יהושע בן לוי חלש ואיתנגיד כי הדר אמר ליה אבוה מאי חזית אמר ליה עולם הפוך ראיתי עליונים למטה ותחתונים למעלה אמר לו בני עולם ברור ראית ואנן היכי התם כי היכי דאיתו אנן הכא הכי איתינן התם,ושמעתי שהיו אומרים אשרי מי שבא לכאן ותלמודו בידו ושמעתי שהיו אומרים הרוגי מלכות אין אדם יכול לעמוד במחיצתן,(ומאן) נינהו אילימא ר"ע וחביריו משום הרוגי מלכות ותו לא אלא הרוגי לוד,(זכריה יד, כ) ביום ההוא יהיה על מצלות הסוס קדש לה' מאי מצלות הסוס,א"ר יהושע בן לוי עתיד הקב"ה להוסיף על ירושלים עד שהסוס רץ ומציל,ר' אלעזר אמר כל מצילות שתולין לסוס בין עיניו יהיה קדש לה',ור' יוחנן אמר כל ביזה שבוזזין ישראל עד שעה שהסוס רץ ומציל יהיה קדש לה',בשלמא למאן דאמר כל ביזה שבזזו ישראל היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כ) והיה הסירות בבית ה' כמזרקים לפני המזבח אלא למ"ד בהנך תרתי מאי והיה הסירות בבית ה' מילתא אחריתי קאמר דמתעתרי ישראל ומתנדבי ומייתי,בשלמא למ"ד ביזה היינו דכתיב (זכריה יד, כא) ולא יהיה כנעני עוד בבית ה' צבאות אלא למ"ד הנך תרתי מאי ולא יהיה כנעני א"ר ירמיה אין כאן עני,וכנעני מנלן דאיקרי תגר דכתיב (בראשית לח, ב) וירא שם יהודה בת איש כנעני מאי כנעני אילימא כנעני ממש אפשר בא אברהם והזהיר את יצחק בא יצחק והזהיר את יעקב ויהודה אזיל ונסיב אלא אמר רבי שמעון בן לקיש בת גברא תגרא דכתיב (הושע יב, ח) כנען בידו מאזני מרמה ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו כג, ח) אשר סוחריה שרים כנעניה נכבדי ארץ:,(זכריה יד, ט) והיה ה' למלך על כל הארץ ביום ההוא יהיה ה' אחד ושמו אחד אטו האידנא לאו אחד הוא,אמר רבי אחא בר חנינא לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב ועל בשורות רעות אומר ברוך דיין האמת לעולם הבא כולו הטוב והמטיב,ושמו אחד מאי אחד אטו האידנא לאו שמו אחד הוא,א"ר נחמן בר יצחק לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הזה נכתב ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת אבל לעולם הבא כולו אחד נקרא ביו"ד ה"י ונכתב ביו"ד ה"י,סבר רבא למדרשה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,ר' אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעלם וזה זכרי לדור דור אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"א ונקרא אני באל"ף דל"ת:, br br big strongהדרן עלך אלו עוברין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמקום /strong /big שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בערבי פסחים עד חצות עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין ההולך ממקום שעושין למקום שאין עושין או ממקום שאין עושין למקום שעושין נותנין עליו חומרי מקום שיצא משם וחומרי מקום שהלך לשם 50a. bis analogous to its prohibition. Just as its prohibition isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk, so too,the requirement to breturn it isonly when it is the size of an bolive-bulk. /b,Another opinion on this issue bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i. bRabbi Natan says:The minimum measure for both bthis and that,leaven and sacrificial meat, is btwo egg-bulksof prohibited material, bbut the Rabbis did not agree with him. /b,Incidental to the discussion of leaving Jerusalem and its surrounding area, the Gemara cites expositions of a prophetic passage, including a statement that God will eventually expand the boundaries of Jerusalem. The verse states: b“And it shall come to pass on that day that there shall not be light,but bheavy clouds [ iyekarot /i] and thickness [ ivekippaon /i]”(Zechariah 14:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression b“ iyekarot vekippaon /i”? /b, bRabbi Elazar said: This isthe blightcurrently provided by the sun, bwhich is significant[iyakar /i] in this world and insignificant[ikafuy /i] in the World-to-Come,when the moon will shine as brightly as the sun does now and the sun will be seven times brighter than it is currently., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Thisexpression refers to the tractates of iNega’imand iOholot /i, which are weighty [ iyekarim /i]owing to their difficulty bin this world,as they are among the most complex subjects, bbutwill be beasy [ ikefuyin /i] in the World-to-Come,when people will be much wiser., bAnd Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: These are people who areconsidered bimportant [ iyekarim /i] in this world and unimportant[ikefuyim /i] in the World-to-Come.This is blikethe incident involving bRav Yosef, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,who bbecame ill andwas about to bexpire. When he returnedto good health, bhis father said to him: What did you seewhen you were about to die? bHe said to him: I saw an inverted world. Those above,i.e., those who are considered important in this world, were bbelow,insignificant, while bthose below,i.e., those who are insignificant in this world, were babove. He said to him: My son, you have seen a clear world.The world you have seen is the true world, as in that world people’s standings befit them. Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi asked: bAnd where are we,the Torah scholars, bthere?Rav Yosef responded: bJust as we areregarded bhere, so are weregarded bthere. /b,Rav Yosef added: bAnd I heard that they were sayingin that world: bPraiseworthy is the one who arrives here with his studies in hand. And Ialso bheard that they were saying: Those executed by the governmentenjoy such an exalted status that bno one can stand in their enclosure. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd who are thesemartyrs that Rav Yosef was referring to? bIf you saythat he was referring to bRabbi Akiva and his colleagues,who were martyred, this cannot be: Is their elevated status bdueonly btothe fact that bthey were martyred bythe Roman bgovernment and nothing more?These men were exceptional in their piety and sanctity during their lives as well. bRather,it is referring to bthe martyrs of Lod,Pappos and Luliyanos, who gave themselves up to be martyred for the sake of the Jewish people. They falsely admitted to killing the king’s daughter in order to prevent a harsh decree from being issued against the entire community. Although they were not known for exceptional piety before that event, they are considered to be extremely holy due to their martyrdom.,The Gemara continues to expound the section of the book of Zechariah cited above. The verse states: b“On that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses [ imetzillot hasus /i]: Holy unto the Lord”(Zechariah 14:20). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the expression imetzillot hasus /i? /b, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: In the future the Holy One, Blessed be He, will extend Jerusalemby bas much asthe distance that ba horse can runthe entire time bit casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i].Jerusalem will be so large that a horse running from one side of the city in the morning will not arrive at the other end of the city until midday, when its shadow will have disappeared., bRabbi Elazar said: Alldecorative bbells [ imetzillot /i] that one hangs between the eyes of a horse will be sanctified to God,i.e., they will be consecrated for the Temple treasury., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: All spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btakefrom gentiles who wage war against them, bup to the time a horse runs and casts a shadow [ imetzeil /i],i.e., half a day, bwill be sanctified for God. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to ball spoils that the Jewish peoplewill btake, this is as it is writtenin the continuation of the verse, which mentions additional treasure donated to the Temple: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house shall be like the basins before the altar.” However, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of: b“And the pots in the Lord’s house”?The Gemara explains that according to these opinions the verse bis saying something else:It is prophesying that in the future bthe Jewish people will become wealthy and bring donationsto the Temple.,The Gemara goes on to ask: bGranted, according to the one who saidthat this expression refers to bspoils, this is as it is writtenin the next verse: b“Andon that day bthere shall no longer be a merchant [ ikena’ani /i] in the house of the Lord of hosts”(Zechariah 14:21), as he will no longer be needed. bHowever, according to the ones who said theseother btwoexplanations, bwhatis the meaning of the expression: b“There shall no longer be a merchant”? Rabbi Yirmeya said:The word ikena’aniis in fact a contraction of the phrase: bThere is no poor person here [ iein kan ani /i].In other words, there will no longer be poor people, and therefore the Jews themselves will be able to donate whatever is needed in the Temple (Maharsha)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat a merchant can be called a ikena’ani /i? As it is written: “And Judah saw there the daughter of a certain ikena’ani /i… /band he took her, and went in unto her” (Genesis 38:2). bWhat isthe meaning of the word ikena’ani /iin this context? bIf you sayit refers to ban actual Canaanite, is it possible that Abraham warned Isaacnot to marry a Canaanite woman, and bIsaac warned Jacobto the same effect, bandnonetheless bJudah went and marrieda Canaanite woman? bRather, Rabbi Shimon ben Lakish said:She was bthe daughter of a merchant, as it is written: “As for the merchant [ ikena’an /i], the balances of deceit are in his hand. He lovesto oppress” (Hosea 12:8). bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that this meaning of the word can be understood from the following verse, which describes Tyre: b“Whose traders are princes, whose merchants [ ikieha /i] are the honorable of the earth”(Isaiah 23:8).,The Gemara cites another verse from the prophecy at the end of the book of Zechariah: b“And the Lord shall be King over all the earth, on that day shall the Lord be one and His name one”(Zechariah 14:9). The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that now He is not one? /b, bRabbi Aḥa bar Ḥanina said: The World-to-Come is not like this world.In bthis world, upon good tidings one recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good, and over bad tidings one recites: Blessed…the true Judge. In the World-to-Comeone will balwaysrecite: bBlessed…Who is good and does good.There will be only one mode of blessing God for tidings.,The verse states: “On that day shall the Lord be one band His name one.”The Gemara asks: bWhatis the meaning of the word bonein this context? bIs that to say that now His name is not one? /b, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: The World-to-Come is not like this world. In this world,God’s name that bis written withthe letters iyod /iand ihehis readas iAdonai /i, which begins with the letters ialef /iand idalet /i.God’s name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written. bHowever, in the World-to-Come it will all be one,as God’s name will be both bread withthe letters iyod /iand ihehand written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i. /b, bRava thought to expoundupon the correct punctuation and enunciation of the name of God during his public blecturebefore one of the Festivals. bA certain old man said to him:The word bforever is writtenin the verse: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]” (Exodus 3:15) without the letter ivav /i, such that it can be read ile’alem /i, to conceal, meaning that the name should be concealed., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is writtenin the verse: b“This is My name forever,”implying a requirement to conceal the name of God, and in the very next phrase it states: b“And this is My memorial unto all generations”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that the name of God is to be publicized and remembered by all. Rather, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: I,i.e., My name, is bnot read as I am written. I am written withthe letters iyod /iand iheh /i, and I am read withthe letters ialef /iand idalet /i. /b,, strongMISHNA: /strong In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed to perform labor on Passover eve until midday, onemay bdoso on that day. In ba place wherethe people were baccustomed not to performlabor, bonemay bnot doso. The performance of labor on the eve of Passover is not prohibited by Torah law, but is dependent on local custom. If one btravels from a place wherepeople bperformlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor, bor from a place wherepeople bdo not performlabor on Passover eve bto a place wherepeople bperformlabor, the Sages bimpose upon him the stringencies ofboth bthe place from which he left and the stringencies of the place to which he went.In both cases, he may not perform labor.
58. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

71a. מטהר שבטים שבטו של לוי מטהר תחילה שנא' (מלאכי ג, ג) וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף וטיהר את בני לוי וזיקק אותם כזהב וככסף והיו לי"י מגישי מנחה בצדקה,אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כסף מטהר ממזרים שנאמר וישב מצרף ומטהר כסף מאי מגישי מנחה בצדקה א"ר יצחק צדקה עשה הקב"ה עם ישראל שמשפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,גופא אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל בימי רבי בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להן קוצים אתם משימים לי בין עיני רצונכם יטפל עמכם ר' חנינא בר חמא,נטפל עמהם ר' חנינא בר חמא אמר להם כך מקובלני מר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי שאמר משום אביו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל,בימי רבי פנחס בקשו לעשות בבל עיסה לארץ ישראל אמר להם לעבדיו כשאני אומר שני דברים בבית המדרש טלוני בעריסה ורוצו כי עייל אמר להם אין שחיטה לעוף מן התורה,אדיתבי וקמעייני בה אמר להו כל ארצות עיסה לארץ ישראל וארץ ישראל עיסה לבבל נטלוהו בעריסה ורצו רצו אחריו ולא הגיעוהו ישבו ובדקו עד שהגיעו לסכנה ופירשו,א"ר יוחנן היכלא בידינו היא אבל מה אעשה שהרי גדולי הדור נטמעו בה סבר לה כר' יצחק דאמר ר' יצחק משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,אמר אביי אף אנן נמי תנינא משפחת בית הצריפה היתה בעבר הירדן וריחקה בן ציון בזרוע עוד אחרת היתה וקירבה בן ציון בזרוע כגון אלו אליהו בא לטמא ולטהר לרחק ולקרב כגון אלו דידעין אבל משפחה שנטמעה נטמעה,תאנא עוד אחרת היתה ולא רצו חכמים לגלותה אבל חכמים מוסרים אותו לבניהם ולתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע כדתניא הריני נזיר אם לא אגלה משפחות יהיה נזיר ולא יגלה משפחות,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר' יוחנן שם בן ארבע אותיות חכמים מוסרין אותו לתלמידיהן פעם אחת בשבוע ואמרי לה פעמים בשבוע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק מסתברא כמאן דאמר פעם אחת בשבוע דכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי לעולם לעלם כתיב רבא סבר למידרשיה בפירקא א"ל ההוא סבא לעלם כתיב,רבי אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה שמי וכתיב (שמות ג, טו) זה זכרי אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת,ת"ר בראשונה שם בן שתים עשרה אותיות היו מוסרין אותו לכל אדם משרבו הפריצים היו מוסרים אותו לצנועים שבכהונה והצנועים שבכהונה מבליעים אותו בנעימת אחיהם הכהנים תניא אמר רבי טרפון פעם אחת עליתי אחר אחי אמי לדוכן והטיתי אזני אצל כהן גדול ושמעתי שהבליע שם בנעימת אחיו הכהנים,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב שם בן ארבעים ושתים אותיות אין מוסרין אותו אלא למי שצנוע ועניו ועומד בחצי ימיו ואינו כועס ואינו משתכר ואינו מעמיד על מדותיו וכל היודעו והזהיר בו והמשמרו בטהרה אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ואימתו מוטלת על הבריות ונוחל שני עולמים העולם הזה והעולם הבא,אמר שמואל משמיה דסבא בבל בחזקת כשרה עומדת עד שיודע לך במה נפסלה שאר ארצות בחזקת פסול הן עומדות עד שיודע לך במה נכשרה ארץ ישראל מוחזק לפסול פסול מוחזק לכשר כשר,הא גופא קשיא אמרת מוחזק לפסול פסול הא סתמא כשר והדר תני מוחזק לכשר כשר הא סתמא פסול אמר רב הונא בר תחליפא משמיה דרב לא קשיא 71a. bpurifiesthe btribes,i.e., clarifies their lineage, He will bpurifythat of bthe tribe of Levi first, as it is statedwith regard to the angel sent forth by God: b“And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and he shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver; and there shall be they that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”(Malachi 3:3)., bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Money purifies imamzerim /i.Money causes rich imamzerimto become assimilated with Jews of unflawed lineage, since other families marry them despite their flawed lineage. In the future, God will not single them out as imamzerim /i, bas it is stated: “And he shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver,”which teaches that money, i.e., silver, purifies them. bWhat,then, is the connection to the next part of the verse: b“They that shall offer to the Lord offerings in righteousness”? Rabbi Yitzḥak says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, performedan act of brighteousness with the Jewish peopleby establishing bthat a family that has become assimilatedwith Jews of unflawed lineage remains bassimilated.They are not removed from their tribe despite their flawed lineage.,§ With regard to bthematter bitselfthat was discussed earlier, the lineage of the Jews in various lands, bRav Yehuda saysthat bShmuel says:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of the residents of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.The Gemara relates: bIn the days of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bthey sought to establishthe lineage of the Jews in bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael.In other words, the people of Eretz Yisrael wanted their lineage to be considered superior to that of the residents of Babylonia, so that if people from Eretz Yisrael would wish to marry Babylonians, they would have to investigate the lineage of the Babylonians. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was descended from Hillel, a Babylonian, so bhe said tothose who put forth this suggestion: bAre you placing thorns between my eyes?Do you wish to insult me? bIf you wish, Rabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama will join youand explain it to you., bRabbi Ḥanina bar Ḥama joined themand bsaid to them: Thisis the tradition that bI received from Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, who says in the name of his father,who was from Eretz Yisrael: The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia. /b,The Gemara further relates with regard to the same issue: bIn the days of Rabbi Pineḥas, they sought to establishthe lineage of bBabyloniaas bmuddledrelative btothat of bEretz Yisrael. He said to his servants: When I have said two statements in the house of study, pick me up on a stretcher and run,so that I will not be attacked for my statements. bWhen he enteredthe house of study bhe said tothose studying there: bSlaughter of a bird is notobligatory bby Torah law. /b, bWhile they were sitting and scrutinizing thisnovel ihalakha /i, bhe said to them:The lineage of residents of ball lands is muddledcompared btothat of bEretz Yisrael, andthe lineage of residents of bEretz Yisrael is muddledcompared btothat of bBabylonia.His servants bpicked him up on a stretcher and ran.Those that were in the house of study bpursued him but could not catch him.Nevertheless, bthey sat and examinedthe lineage of various families in order to determine whether in fact the lineage of the residents of Eretz Yisrael was problematic, buntil they reachedpowerful families. It was bdangerousto accuse them of flaws due to their power, band they withdrewfrom their inspections., bRabbi Yoḥa saysas an oath: By the bSanctuary! It is in our powerto reveal the identity of a family that has a flawed lineage, bbut what can I do, as the greatest of the generation are assimilated into it?Consequently, I will not reveal its name. The Gemara comments: Rabbi Yoḥa bholds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yitzḥak, as Rabbi Yitzḥak says: A family that has become assimilatedremains bassimilated,and one should not reveal their flawed status., bAbaye said: We too learnin the mishna ( iEduyyot8:7): bThere was a familyknown as bBeit HaTzerifa in Transjordan, anda person called bben Tziyyon forcefully distanced itand proclaimed that its lineage was flawed, although its lineage was unflawed. bThere was anotherone bthat ben Tzion forcefully drew near,although its lineage was flawed. The mishna adds: Known families bsuch as these, Elijah comes todeclare bimpure and todeclare bpure, to distance and to draw near.Abaye continues: When the mishna states: bSuch as these,it means those bwhosestatus bwe know. But a family that has become assimilated,whose flawed lineage is unknown to the public, bhasalready bbecome assimilated,and not even Elijah will publicize its flaw.,The Sage btaught( iTosefta /i, iEduyyot3:4): bThere was anotherfamily with flawed lineage, bbut the Sages did not want to reveal itsidentity to all. bBut the Sages transmit itsname bto their children and to their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years,to prevent them from marrying into their family. bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iNazir1:2): One who says: bI am hereby a nazirite if I do not revealthe names of bfamiliesof flawed lineage among the Jewish people, bhe should be a nazirite and not revealthe identity of such bfamilies.This shows that such information should be kept secret as much as possible.,§ The above statement, concerning a matter that the Sages transmitted privately and infrequently, leads the Gemara to teach a similar ihalakha /i: bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says: The Sages transmitthe correct pronunciation of bthe four-letter nameof God bto their students once every seven years, and some say twice every seven years. Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak says: It stands to reason in accordance with the one who saysthat they transmit it bonce every seven years, as it is written: “This is My name forever [ ile’olam /i]”(Exodus 3:15), which is bwrittenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,to hide. This indicates that the Divine Name must remain hidden. The Gemara relates: bRava planned to expoundand explain the proper way to say the name bina public bdiscourse. A certain elder said to him: It is writtenso that it can be read ile’alem /i,indicating that it must stay hidden., bRabbi Avina raised a contradiction: It is written: “This is My name,”indicating that the name as written is that of God; band it is written: “This is My remembrance”(Exodus 3:15), which indicates that it is not God’s actual name but merely a way of remembering His name. The explanation is as follows: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: Not as I am written am I pronounced. I am written withthe letters iyod /i, iheh /i, ivav /i, iheh /i, bwhileMy name is bpronounced withthe letters ialef /i, idalet /i, inun /i, iyod /i., bThe Sages taught: Initially,the Sages bwould transmit the twelve-letter nameof God bto any person. When the uninhibited oneswho used the name disrespectfully bincreased, they would transmit itonly bto discreetmembers bof the priesthood, and the discreetmembers bof the priesthoodwould pronounce the name during the Priestly Benediction. They would bconceal itby saying it bduring the sweetmelody bof their priestly brothers,so that it would not become publicly known. bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tarfon,who was himself a priest, bsaid:On bone occasion I ascended after my mother’s brother to the platformto give the Priestly Benediction, band I inclined my ear near the High Priest, and I heard him conceal the name during the sweetmelody bof his priestly brothers. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: The forty-two-letter nameof God bmay be transmitted only to one who is discreet, and humble, and stands atat least bhalf his life, and does not get angry, and does not get drunk, and does not insist upon his rightsbut is willing to yield. There is no concern that such a person might reveal the name in a fit of anger or drunkenness. bAnd anyone who knowsthis name band is careful with it and guards it in purity is beloved above and treasured below; and fear of him is cast upon the creatures; and he inherits two worlds, this world and the World-to-Come. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the issue of lineage: bShmuel says in the name ofa certain belder:A family in bBabylonia has a presumptive status of unflawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered of bflawedlineage. Conversely, a family from bother lands has a presumptive status of flawedlineage buntil it becomes known to you in what way it wasrendered bunflawed.As for families in bEretz Yisrael,one who bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, whereas one who bhas presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage.,The Gemara is puzzled by this last statement: bThis matter itself is difficult:First, byou saidthat a family that bhas a presumptive status of flawedlineage is of bflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bunflawedlineage. bAnd thenyou bteach:A family that bhas a presumptive status of unflawedlineage is of bunflawedlineage, indicating that a family with bunspecifiedstatus is of bflawedlineage. bRav Huna bar Taḥalifa said in the name of Rav:This is bnot difficult. /b
59. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

29b. ברכת הלחם של מצה וברכת היין של קידוש היום מהו כיון דחובה הוא מפיק או דלמא ברכה לאו חובה היא,ת"ש דאמר רב אשי כי הוינן בי רב פפי הוה מקדש לן וכי הוה אתי אריסיה מדברא הוה מקדש להו,ת"ר לא יפרוס אדם פרוסה לאורחין אלא אם כן אוכל עמהם אבל פורס הוא לבניו ולבני ביתו כדי לחנכן במצות ובהלל ובמגילה אף על פי שיצא מוציא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך ראוהו בית דין /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongיום /strong /big טוב של ר"ה שחל להיות בשבת במקדש היו תוקעין אבל לא במדינה משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שיהו תוקעין בכל מקום שיש בו ב"ד אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו בית דין,ועוד זאת היתה ירושלים יתירה על יבנה שכל עיר שהיא רואה ושומעת וקרובה ויכולה לבוא תוקעין וביבנה לא היו תוקעין אלא בב"ד בלבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רבי לוי בר לחמא אמר רבי חמא בר חנינא כתוב אחד אומר (ויקרא כג, כד) שבתון זכרון תרועה וכתוב אחד אומר (במדבר כט, א) יום תרועה יהיה לכם לא קשיא כאן ביו"ט שחל להיות בשבת כאן ביום טוב שחל להיות בחול,אמר רבא אי מדאורייתא היא במקדש היכי תקעינן ועוד הא לאו מלאכה היא דאצטריך קרא למעוטי,דתנא דבי שמואל (במדבר כט, א) כל מלאכת עבודה לא תעשו יצתה תקיעת שופר ורדיית הפת שהיא חכמה ואינה מלאכה,אלא אמר רבא מדאורייתא מישרא שרי ורבנן הוא דגזור ביה כדרבה דאמר רבה הכל חייבין בתקיעת שופר ואין הכל בקיאין בתקיעת שופר גזירה שמא יטלנו בידו וילך אצל הבקי ללמוד ויעבירנו ד' אמות ברה"ר,והיינו טעמא דלולב והיינו טעמא דמגילה:,משחרב בהמ"ק התקין רבי יוחנן בן זכאי כו': תנו רבנן פעם אחת חל ראש השנה להיות בשבת [והיו כל הערים מתכנסין] אמר להם רבן יוחנן בן זכאי לבני בתירה נתקע אמרו לו נדון,אמר להם נתקע ואחר כך נדון לאחר שתקעו אמרו לו נדון אמר להם כבר נשמעה קרן ביבנה ואין משיבין לאחר מעשה:,אמר רבי אלעזר לא התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאי אלא ביבנה בלבד אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמרו לו היינו ת"ק,איכא בינייהו בי דינא דאקראי:,אמרו לו אחד יבנה ואחד כל מקום שיש בו ב"ד: אמר רב הונא 29b. With regard to bthe blessing over breadthat is recited before eating imatza /iat the Passover seder band the blessing over winerecited as part bof the sanctification of the dayof Shabbat or a Festival, bwhat isthe ihalakha /i? The Gemara analyzes the question: Do we say that bsince there is an obligationto recite these blessings due to the mitzva involved, therefore bone can dischargethe obligation for others, even if he himself has already fulfilled his obligation? bOr perhapswe say that bthe blessingitself bis not an obligation,but rather the obligation lies in the eating and drinking, and the blessing is recited over one’s physical enjoyment; therefore, if he already fulfilled his own obligation, he cannot recite the blessing for others, as he derives no pleasure at this time.,The Gemara answers: bComeand bhearan answer to this question from what bRav Ashi said: When we werestudying bin the school of Rav Pappi, he would recite ikiddushfor us, and when his tets would arrive from the field he would recite ikiddush /ionce again bon their behalf.Therefore, it is clear that one may recite ikiddushon behalf of others, including the blessing that is recited over the wine, even if he himself has already fulfilled his own obligation., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne should not break breadand recite a blessing bfor guests unless he is eating with them,so that he is obligated to recite a blessing for himself. bBut he may breakbread bfor his children and forthe other bmembers of his householdand recite the blessing, bin order to educate them toperform bthe mitzvot,so that they know how to recite a blessing. bAnd with regard to ihalleland the Scrollof Esther, the ihalakhais that beven if healready bfulfilledhis obligation, bhe canstill bdischargethe obligation of others.,, strongMISHNA: /strong With regard to the bFestival day of Rosh HaShana that occurs on Shabbat, in the Temple they would soundthe ishofaras usual. bHowever,they would bnotsound it bin therest of the bcountryoutside the Temple. bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people bshould soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin every place where there is a courtof twenty-three judges. bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne,where the Great Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges resided in his time, but nowhere else. bThey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. /b,The mishna adds: bAnd Jerusalemin earlier times bhad this additional superiority over Yavneafter Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted this practice, bforin bany city whoseresidents bcould seeJerusalem band hearthe sounding of the ishofarfrom there, bandwhich bwas nearto Jerusalem bandpeople bcould cometo Jerusalem from there, btheywould bsoundthe ishofarthere as well, as it was considered part of Jerusalem. bBut in Yavne they would soundthe ishofar bonly in the courtitself, not in the surrounding cities., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bFrom whereare bthese matters;from where is it derived that the ishofaris not sounded on Shabbat? bRabbi Levi bar Laḥma saidthat bRabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: One verse says,with regard to Rosh HaShana: b“A solemn rest, a memorial of blasts”(Leviticus 23:24), which indicates that one should merely remember the ishofarwithout actually sounding it. bAnd another verse says: “It is a day of blowing for you”(Numbers 29:1), i.e., a day on which one must actually sound the ishofar /i. This apparent contradiction is bnot difficult: Here,the verse in which the ishofaris only being remembered but not sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on Shabbat; there,the verse in which the ishofaris actually sounded, is referring bto a Festival that occurs on a weekday. /b, bRava said:This explanation is difficult, for bifthe distinction between Shabbat and the rest of the week applies bby Torah law, how does one soundthe ishofaron Shabbat bin the Temple?If it is prohibited to sound the ishofaron Shabbat, it should be prohibited everywhere. bAnd furthermore,there is an additional problem with this explanation: Although the Sages prohibited sounding a ishofarand playing other musical instruments on Shabbat, by Torah law sounding a ishofar bis not a prohibited laboron Shabbat such bthat a verse is necessary to excludeit when Rosh HaShana occurs on Shabbat.,The Gemara cites a proof for this last claim: bAsa Sage bof the school of Shmuel taughtin a ibaraita /i, with regard to the verse that prohibits performing prohibited labor on Festivals: b“Any prohibited labor of work you shall not perform”(Numbers 29:1). This comes bto excludefrom the category of prohibited labors bthe sounding of the ishofarand the removal of breadfrom the oven, each of bwhich is a skill and not a labor,and therefore they are not included in the category of prohibited labor. Apparently, sounding the ishofaris not prohibited by Torah law., bRather, Rava said: By Torah law one is permittedto sound the ishofaron Rosh HaShana even on Shabbat, band it was the Sages who decreedthat bitis prohibited. This is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabba, as Rabba said: All are obligated to sound the ishofar /ion Rosh HaShana, bbut not all are experts in sounding the ishofar /i.Therefore, the Sages instituted ba decreethat the ishofarshould not be sounded on Shabbat, blest one takethe ishofar bin his hand and go to an expert to learnhow to sound it or to have him sound it for him, banddue to his preoccupation bhemight bcarry it four cubits in the public domain,which is a desecration of Shabbat.,The Gemara comments: bAnd this isalso bthe reason forthe rabbinical decree that bthe palm branch[ilulav/b] may not be taken on Shabbat, band this islikewise bthe reason forthe decree that bthe Megillaof Esther may not be read on Shabbat. The Sages were concerned that one might carry the ilulavor the Megilla four cubits in the public domain to take it to an expert who will teach him the proper manner to perform these mitzvot.,§ The mishna taught: bAfter the Temple was destroyed, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai instituted thatthe people should sound the ishofareven on Shabbat in every place where there is a court of twenty-three judges. The background to this decree is related in greater detail in a ibaraita /i, as bthe Sages taught: Once Rosh HaShana occurred on Shabbat, and all the cities gatheredat the Great Sanhedrin in Yavne for the Festival prayers. bRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said to the sons of Beteira,who were the leading halakhic authorities of the generation: bLet us soundthe ishofar /i, as in the Temple. bThey said to him: Let us discusswhether or not this is permitted., bHe said to them:First blet us soundit, band afterward,when there is time, blet us discussthe matter. bAfter they soundedthe ishofar /i, the sons of Beteira bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bLet usnow bdiscussthe issue. bHe said to them: The horn has already been heard in Yavne, and one does not refutea ruling bafter actionhas already been taken. There is no point in discussing the matter, as it would be inappropriate to say that the community acted erroneously after the fact.,§ The mishna further stated that bRabbi Elazar said: Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai institutedthis practice bonly in Yavne. They said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court.The Gemara asks: This last statement of the Rabbis: bThey said to him,etc.; bisthe same as the opinion of bthe first itanna /iof the mishna. Why did the mishna repeat this opinion?,The Gemara answers: The practical difference bbetweenthe opinion of the first itannaand the opinion of the Rabbis who issued that last statement is with regard to ba temporary court,i.e., one that is not fixed in a certain place. According to the opinion of the first itanna /i, the ishofaris sounded there as well, whereas according to the opinion of the Rabbis who responded to Rabbi Elazar, the ishofaris sounded only in a place where there is a permanent court, similar to that in Yavne.,§ The mishna taught that bthey said to him:He instituted the practice bbothin bYavne andin bany place where there is a court. Rav Huna said: /b
60. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. גופו מבבל וראשו מארץ ישראל ואבריו משאר ארצות עגבותיו א"ר אחא מאקרא דאגמא,א"ר יוחנן בר חנינא שתים עשרה שעות הוי היום שעה ראשונה הוצבר עפרו שניה נעשה גולם שלישית נמתחו אבריו רביעית נזרקה בו נשמה חמישית עמד על רגליו ששית קרא שמות שביעית נזדווגה לו חוה שמינית עלו למטה שנים וירדו ארבעה תשיעית נצטווה שלא לאכול מן האילן עשירית סרח אחת עשרה נידון שתים עשרה נטרד והלך לו שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) אדם ביקר בל ילין,אמר רמי בר חמא אין חיה רעה שולטת באדם אלא אם כן נדמה לו כבהמה שנאמר (תהלים מט, יג) נמשל כבהמות נדמו:,(שע"ה בסו"ף ארמ"י סימן) אמר רב יהודה א"ר בשעה שבקש הקב"ה לבראות את האדם ברא כת אחת של מלאכי השרת אמר להם רצונכם נעשה אדם בצלמנו אמרו לפניו רבש"ע מה מעשיו אמר להן כך וכך מעשיו,אמרו לפניו רבש"ע (תהלים ח, ה) מה אנוש כי תזכרנו ובן אדם כי תפקדנו הושיט אצבעו קטנה ביניהן ושרפם וכן כת שניה כת שלישית אמרו לפניו רבש"ע ראשונים שאמרו לפניך מה הועילו כל העולם כולו שלך הוא כל מה שאתה רוצה לעשות בעולמך עשה,כיון שהגיע לאנשי דור המבול ואנשי דור הפלגה שמעשיהן מקולקלין אמרו לפניו רבש"ע לא יפה אמרו ראשונים לפניך אמר להן (ישעיהו מו, ד) ועד זקנה אני הוא ועד שיבה אני אסבול וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מסוף העולם ועד סופו היה שנאמר (דברים ד, לב) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים כיון שסרח הניח הקדוש ברוך הוא ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר (תהלים קלט, ה) אחור וקדם צרתני ותשת עלי כפכה,אמר ר"א אדם הראשון מן הארץ עד לרקיע היה שנאמר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ ולמקצה השמים (עד קצה השמים) כיון שסרח הניח הקב"ה ידו עליו ומיעטו שנאמר אחור וקדם צרתני וגו' קשו קראי אהדדי אידי ואידי חדא מידה היא,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון בלשון ארמי ספר שנאמר (תהלים קלט, יז) ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,והיינו דאמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (בראשית ה, א) זה ספר תולדות אדם מלמד שהראהו הקב"ה דור דור ודורשיו דור דור וחכמיו כיון שהגיע לדורו של רבי עקיבא שמח בתורתו ונתעצב במיתתו אמר ולי מה יקרו רעיך אל,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב אדם הראשון מין היה שנאמר (בראשית ג, ט) ויקרא ה' אלהים אל האדם ויאמר לו איכה אן נטה לבך רבי יצחק אמר מושך בערלתו היה כתיב הכא (הושע ו, ז) והמה כאדם עברו ברית וכתיב התם (בראשית ט, ט) את בריתי הפר,רב נחמן אמר כופר בעיקר היה כתיב הכא עברו ברית וכתיב התם (את בריתי הפר) (ירמיהו כב, ט) ואמרו על אשר עזבו (את) ברית ה' (אלהי אבותם),תנן התם ר"א אומר הוי שקוד ללמוד תורה ודע מה שתשיב לאפיקורוס אמר ר' יוחנן ל"ש אלא אפיקורוס (של) עובדי כוכבים אבל אפיקורוס ישראל כ"ש דפקר טפי,א"ר יוחנן כ"מ שפקרו המינים תשובתן בצידן (בראשית א, כו) נעשה אדם בצלמנו (ואומר) (בראשית א, כז) ויברא אלהים את האדם בצלמו (בראשית יא, ז) הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם (בראשית יא, ה) וירד ה' לראות את העיר ואת המגדל (בראשית לה, ז) כי שם נגלו אליו האלהים (בראשית לה, ג) לאל העונה אותי ביום צרתי,(דברים ד, ז) כי מי גוי גדול אשר לו אלהים קרובים אליו כה' אלהינו בכל קראנו אליו (שמואל ב ז, כג) ומי כעמך כישראל גוי אחד בארץ אשר הלכו אלהים לפדות לו לעם (דניאל ז, ט) עד די כרסוון רמיו ועתיק יומין יתיב,הנך למה לי כדרבי יוחנן דא"ר יוחנן אין הקב"ה עושה דבר אא"כ נמלך בפמליא של מעלה שנאמר (דניאל ד, יד) בגזירת עירין פתגמא ובמאמר קדישין שאילתא,התינח כולהי עד די כרסוון רמיו מאי איכא למימר אחד לו ואחד לדוד דתניא אחד לו ואחד לדוד דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' יוסי עקיבא עד מתי אתה עושה שכינה חול אלא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה,קבלה מיניה או לא קבלה מיניה ת"ש דתניא אחד לדין ואחד לצדקה דברי ר"ע א"ל ר' אלעזר בן עזריא עקיבא מה לך אצל הגדה כלך אצל נגעים ואהלות אלא אחד לכסא ואחד לשרפרף כסא לישב עליו שרפרף להדום רגליו,אמר רב נחמן האי מאן דידע לאהדורי למינים כרב אידית ליהדר ואי לא לא ליהדר אמר ההוא מינא לרב אידית כתיב (שמות כד, א) ואל משה אמר עלה אל ה' עלה אלי מיבעי ליה א"ל זהו מטטרון ששמו כשם רבו דכתיב (שמות כג, כא) כי שמי בקרבו,אי הכי ניפלחו ליה כתיב (שמות כג, כא) אל תמר בו אל תמירני בו אם כן לא ישא לפשעכם למה לי א"ל הימנותא בידן דאפילו בפרוונקא נמי לא קבילניה דכתיב (שמות לג, טו) ויאמר אליו אם אין פניך הולכים וגו',אמר ליה ההוא מינא לר' ישמעאל בר' יוסי כתיב (בראשית יט, כד) וה' המטיר על סדום ועל עמורה גפרית ואש מאת ה' מאתו מיבעי ליה א"ל ההוא כובס שבקיה אנא מהדרנא ליה דכתיב (בראשית ד, כג) ויאמר למך לנשיו עדה וצלה שמען קולי נשי למך נשיי מיבעי ליה אלא משתעי קרא הכי הכא נמי משתעי קרא הכי א"ל מנא לך הא מפירקיה דר"מ שמיע לי,דא"ר יוחנן כי הוה דריש ר' מאיר בפירקיה הוה דריש תילתא שמעתא תילתא אגדתא תילתא מתלי ואמר ר' יוחנן ג' מאות משלות שועלים היו לו לרבי מאיר ואנו אין לנו אלא שלש 38b. bhis torsowas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Babylonia, and his headwas fashioned from dust taken bfrom Eretz Yisrael,the most important land, band his limbswere fashioned from dust taken bfrom the rest of the landsin the world. With regard to bhis buttocks, Rav Aḥa says:They were fashioned from dust taken bfrom Akra De’agma,on the outskirts of Babylonia., bRabbi Yoḥa bar Ḥanina says: Daytime is twelve hourslong, and the day Adam the first man was created was divided as follows: In the bfirst hourof the day, bhis dust was gathered.In the bsecond,an undefined bfigure was fashioned.In the bthird, his limbs were extended.In the bfourth, a soul was cast into him.In the bfifth, he stood on his legs.In the bsixth, he calledthe creatures by the bnameshe gave them. In the bseventh, Eve was paired with him.In the beighth, they arose to the bed two, and descended four,i.e., Cain and Abel were immediately born. In the bninth, he was commanded not to eat of the Treeof Knowledge. In the btenth, he sinned.In the beleventh, he was judged.In the btwelfth, he was expelled and leftthe Garden of Eden, bas it is stated: “But man abides not in honor;he is like the beasts that perish” (Psalms 49:13). Adam did not abide, i.e., sleep, in a place of honor for even one night., bRami bar Ḥama saysin explanation of the end of that verse: bA wild animal does not have power over a person unlessthat person bseems tothe wild animal blike an animal, as it is stated: “He is like the beasts that perish.” /b,The Gemara presents ba mnemonicfor the statements that follow: bAt the time, to the end, Aramaic. Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, sought to create a person, He created one group of ministering angels. He said to them:If byou agree, let us fashion a person in our image.The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe, what are the actions ofthis person You suggest to create? God bsaid to them: His actions are such and such,according to human nature.,The angels bsaid before him: Master of the Universe: “What is man that You are mindful of him? And the son of man that You think of him?”(Psalms 8:5), i.e., a creature such as this is not worth creating. God boutstretched His small finger among them and burned themwith fire. bAnd the sameoccurred with ba second groupof angels. The bthird groupof angels that He asked bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, the firsttwo groups bwho spoketheir mind bbefore You, what did they accomplish? The entire world is Yours; whatever You wish to do in Your world, do.God then created the first person., bWhenhistory barrived atthe time of bthe people of the generation of the flood and the people of the generation of the dispersion,i.e., the Tower of Babel, bwhose actions were ruinous,the angels bsaid before God: Master of the Universe, didn’t thefirst set of angels bspeak appropriately before You,that human beings are not worthy of having been created? God bsaid to themconcerning humanity: b“Even to your old age I am the same; and even to hoar hairs will I suffer you;I have made and I will bear; and I will carry, and I will deliver you” (Isaiah 46:4), i.e., having created people, I will even suffer their flaws., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman spanned bfrom one end of the world until the other, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other”(Deuteronomy 4:32), meaning that on the day Adam was created he spanned from one end of the heavens until the other. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created me and laid Your hand upon me”(Psalms 139:5), that at first Adam spanned “behind and before,” meaning everywhere, and then God laid His hand on him and diminished him., bRabbi Elazar says:The height of bAdam the firstman bwas from the ground until the firmament, as it is stated: “Since the day that God created man upon the earth, and from the one end of heaven unto the other.”Adam stood “upon the earth” and rose to the end of the heavens. bOnceAdam bsinned, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed His hand on him and diminished him, as it is stated: “Behind and before You have created meand laid Your hand upon me.” The Gemara asks: The interpretations of bthe verses contradict each other.The first interpretation is that his size was from one end of the world to the other, and the second interpretation is that it was from the earth until the heavens. The Gemara answers: bThis and that,from one end of the world to another and from the earth until the heavens, bare one measure,i.e., the same distance., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bspoke in the language of Aramaic, as it is statedin the chapter of Psalms speaking in the voice of Adam: b“How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God”(Psalms 139:17)., bAnd this,i.e., that the verse in Psalms is stated by Adam, is what bReish Lakish says: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “This is the book of the generations of Adam”(Genesis 5:1)? This verse bteaches that the Holy One, Blessed be He, showedAdam bevery generation and itsTorah binterpreters, every generation and its wise ones. When he arrived athis vision of bthe generation of Rabbi Akiva,Adam bwas gladdened by his Torah, and saddened by hismanner of bdeath. He said: “How weighty also are Your thoughts to me, O God,”i.e., how it weighs upon me that a man as great as Rabbi Akiva should suffer., bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Adam the firstman bwas a heretic, as it is stated: “And the Lord called to the man and said to him: Where are you”?(Genesis 3:9), meaning, to bwhere has your heart turned,indicating that Adam turned from the path of truth. bRabbi Yitzḥak says: He wasone who bdrew his foreskinforward, so as to remove any indication that he was circumcised. It bis written here: “And they like men [ iadam /i] have transgressed the covet”(Hosea 6:7), bandit bis written there:“And the uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his people; bhe has broken My covet”(Genesis 17:14)., bRav Naḥman says: He was a denier of the fundamental principleof belief in God. It bis written here:“And they like men [ iadam /i] bhave transgressed the covet,” andit bis written there: “He has broken My covet,”and it is written in a third verse: b“And then they shall answer: Because they have forsaken the covet of the Lord their Godand worshipped other gods and served them” (Jeremiah 22:9).,§ bWe learnedin a mishna bthere(Avot 2:14): bRabbi Eliezer says: Be persistent to learn Torah, and know what to respond to the heretic [ ila’apikoros /i]. Rabbi Yoḥa says:This was btaught onlywith regard to ba gentile heretic, butnot with regard to ba Jewish heretic,as one should not respond to him. bAll the more so,if one does respond bhe will become more heretical.His heresy is assumed to be intentional, and any attempt to rebut it will only cause him to reinforce his position., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Any placein the Bible from bwhere the hereticsattempt to bprove their heresy,i.e., that there is more than one god, bthe response to theirclaim is balongside them,i.e., in the immediate vicinity of the verses they cite. The verse states that God said: b“Let us make man in our image”(Genesis 1:26), employing the plural, bbut itthen bstates: “And God created man in His image”(Genesis 1:27), employing the singular. The verse states that God said: b“Come, let us go down and there confound their language”(Genesis 11:7), but it also states: b“And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower”(Genesis 11:5). The verse states in the plural: b“There God was revealed [ iniglu /i] to himwhen he fled from the face of his brother” (Genesis 35:7), but it also states in the singular: b“To God Who answers [ ihaoneh /i] me in the day of my distress”(Genesis 35:3).,Rabbi Yoḥa cites several examples where the counterclaim is in the same verse as the claim of the heretics. The verse states: b“For what nation is there so great that has God so near to them as the Lord our God is whenever we call upon Him?”(Deuteronomy 4:7), where the term “near” is written in plural, ikerovim /i, but the term “upon Him” is written in singular. Another verse states: b“And who is like Your people, like Israel, a nation one in the earth, whom God went to redeem unto Himself for a people?”(II Samuel 7:23), where the term “went” is written in plural, ihalekhu /i, but the term “Himself” is written in singular. Another verse states: “I beheld btill thrones were placed, and one that was ancient of days did sit”(Daniel 7:9); where the term “thrones” is written in plural, ikharsavan /i, but the term “sit” is written in singular.,The Gemara asks: bWhy do Ineed btheseinstances of plural words? Why does the verse employ the plural at all when referring to God? The Gemara explains: This is bin accordance withthe statement bof Rabbi Yoḥa, as Rabbi Yoḥa says: The Holy One, Blessed be He, does not act unless He consults with the entourage of Above,i.e., the angels, bas it is stated: “The matter is by the decree of the watchers, and the sentence by the word of the holy ones”(Daniel 4:14).,The Gemara clarifies: This bworks out well foralmost ballthe verses, as they describe an action taken by God, but bwhat is there to sayconcerning the verse: “I beheld btill thrones were placed”?The Gemara answers: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David,i.e., the messiah, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor Him and onethrone is bfor David;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Yosei said to him: Akiva! Until when will you desacralize the Divine Presenceby equating God with a person? bRather,the correct interpretation is that both thrones are for God, as bonethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness. /b,The Gemara asks: Did Rabbi Akiva bacceptthis explanation bfromRabbi Yosei bordid he bnot accept it from him?The Gemara suggests: bComeand bheara proof to the matter from what was taught in another ibaraita /i, bas it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnethrone is bfor judgment and onethrone is bfor righteousness;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya said to him: Akiva! What are you doing near,i.e., discussing, matters of iaggada /i? Go neartractates iNega’imand iOholot /i,which examine the complex ihalakhotof ritual purity, where your knowledge is unparalleled. bRather,the correct interpretation is that while both thrones are for God, boneis bfor a throne and oneis bfor a stool.There is ba throne for God to sit upon, and a stoolthat serves bas His footstool. /b, bRav Naḥman says: This one,i.e., any person, bwho knowshow bto respond to the hereticsas effectively bas Rav Idit should respondto them, bbut ifhe does bnotknow, he bshould not respondto them. The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rav Idit:It bis writtenin the verse concerning God: b“And to Moses He said: Come up to the Lord”(Exodus 24:1). The heretic raised a question: bIt should havestated: bCome up to Me.Rav Idit bsaid to him: Thisterm, “the Lord,” in that verse bisreferring to the angel bMetatron, whose name is like the name of his Master, as it is written:“Behold I send an angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you to the place that I have prepared. Take heed of him and obey his voice; do not defy him; for he will not pardon your transgression, bfor My name is in him”(Exodus 23:20–21).,The heretic said to him: bIf so,if this angel is equated with God, bwe should worship himas we worship God. Rav Idit said to him: It bis written: “Do not defy [ itammer /i] him,”which alludes to: bDo not replace Me [ itemireni /i] with him.The heretic said to him: bIf so, why do Ineed the clause b“For he will not pardon your transgression”?Rav Idit bsaid to him: We believe that we did not acceptthe angel beven as a guide [ ibefarvanka /i]for the journey, bas it is written: “And he said to him: If Your Presence go not with meraise us not up from here” (Exodus 33:15). Moses told God that if God Himself does not accompany the Jewish people they do not want to travel to Eretz Yisrael.,The Gemara relates: bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei:It bis written: “And the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lordout of heaven” (Genesis 19:24). The heretic raised the question: bIt should havestated: bFrom Himout of heaven. bA certain launderer said toRabbi Yishmael: bLeave him be; I will respond to him.This is bas it is written: “And Lemech said to his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; wives of Lemech,hearken to my speech” (Genesis 4:23). One can raise the question: bIt should havebeen written: bMy wives,and not: “Wives of Lemech.” bRather, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. bHere too, it isthe style of bthe verseto bspeak in thismanner. Rabbi Yishmael bsaid tothe launderer: bFrom where did youhear bthisinterpretation? The launderer bsaid to him: I heard it at the lecture of Rabbi Meir. /b,The Gemara comments: This is bas Rabbi Yoḥa said: When Rabbi Meir would teach his lecture he would expound one-third ihalakha /i, one-third iaggada /i,and bone-third parables. And Rabbi Yoḥa says: Rabbi Meir had,i.e., taught, bthree hundred parables of foxes, and we have only three. /b
61. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38a. ככתבו ובמדינה בכינויו במדינה כהנים נושאים את ידיהן כנגד כתפיהן ובמקדש על גבי ראשיהן חוץ מכהן גדול שאינו מגביה את ידיו למעלה מן הציץ ר' יהודה אומר אף כהן גדול מגביה ידיו למעלה מן הציץ שנאמר (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן (במדבר ו, כג) כה תברכו בלשון הקודש אתה אומר בלשון הקודש או אינו אלא בכל לשון נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (דברים כז, יב) אלה יעמדו לברך את העם מה להלן בלשון הקודש אף כאן בלשון הקודש,רבי יהודה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר כה עד שיאמרו בלשון הזה,תניא אידך כה תברכו בעמידה אתה אומר בעמידה או אינו אלא אפי' בישיבה נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן אלה יעמדו לברך מה להלן בעמידה אף כאן בעמידה,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים י, ח) לשרתו ולברך בשמו מה משרת בעמידה אף מברך בעמידה ומשרת גופיה מנלן דכתיב (דברים יח, ה) לעמוד לשרת,תניא אידך כה תברכו בנשיאות כפים אתה אומר בנשיאות כפים או אינו אלא שלא בנשיאות כפים נאמר כאן כה תברכו ונאמר להלן (ויקרא ט, כב) וישא אהרן את ידיו אל העם ויברכם מה להלן בנשיאות כפים אף כאן בנשיאות כפים,קשיא ליה לר' יונתן אי מה להלן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת צבור אף כאן כהן גדול וראש חודש ועבודת ציבור,ר' נתן אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (דברים יח, ה) הוא ובניו כל הימים מקיש בניו לו מה הוא בנשיאות כפים אף בניו בנשיאות כפים וכתיב כל הימים ואיתקש ברכה לשירות,ותניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל בשם המפורש אתה אומר בשם המפורש או אינו אלא בכינוי ת"ל (במדבר ו, כז) ושמו את שמי שמי המיוחד לי,יכול אף בגבולין כן נאמר כאן ושמו את שמי ונאמר להלן (דברים יב, ה) לשום את שמו שם מה להלן בית הבחירה אף כאן בבית הבחירה,רבי יאשיה אומר אינו צריך הרי הוא אומר (שמות כ, כא) בכל המקום אשר אזכיר את שמי אבוא אליך בכל מקום ס"ד אלא מקרא זה מסורס הוא בכל מקום אשר אבוא אליך וברכתיך שם אזכיר את שמי והיכן אבוא אליך וברכתיך בבית הבחירה שם אזכיר את שמי בבית הבחירה,תניא אידך כה תברכו את בני ישראל אין לי אלא בני ישראל גרים נשים ועבדים משוחררים מנין ת"ל (במדבר ו, כג) אמור להם לכולהו,תניא אידך כה תברכו פנים כנגד פנים אתה אומר פנים כנגד פנים או אינו אלא פנים כנגד עורף ת"ל אמור להם כאדם האומר לחבירו,תניא אידך כה תברכו בקול רם או אינו אלא בלחש ת"ל אמור להם כאדם שאומר לחבירו,אמר אביי נקטינן לשנים קורא כהנים ולא' אינו קורא כהן שנא' אמור להם לשנים ואמר רב חסדא נקטינן כהן קורא כהנים ואין ישראל קורא כהנים שנאמר אמור להם אמירה 38a. bas it is writtenin the Torah, i.e., the Tetragrammaton, band in the countrythey use bits substitute nameof Lordship. bIn the country, the priests lift their handsso they are baligned with their shouldersduring the benediction. bAnd in the Templethey lift them babove their heads, except for the High Priest, who does not lift his hands above the frontplate.Since the Tetragrammaton is inscribed on it, it is inappropriate for him to lift his hands above it. bRabbi Yehuda says: Even the High Priest lifts his hands above the frontplate, as it is stated: “And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22)., strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taught:The mitzva given to the priests: b“So you shall blessthe children of Israel” (Numbers 6:23), is that they bless them bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew. Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bin the sacred tongue, orperhaps it may be recited bin any language?The ibaraitaanswers: bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless the people”(Deuteronomy 27:12). There is a verbal analogy between these two usages of the word “bless”: bJust as there,the blessings and curses were recited bin the sacred tongue,as stated above (33a), bso too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bin the sacred tongue. /b, bRabbi Yehuda says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit sayswith regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“Thus,”which means that it is not recited correctly bunless they recite it in thisexact blanguage,as it is written in the Torah., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means bwhile standing.Do byou saythat the benediction must be recited bwhile standing, orperhaps it may bevenbe recited bwhile sitting? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the blessings and curses: b“These shall standon Mount Gerizim bto bless.” Just as there,the blessing was recited bwhile standing, so too here,the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bwhile standing. /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive this from a verbal analogy, as bit saysin the verse: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi to bear the Ark of the Covet of the Lord, to stand before the Lord bto minister to Him and to bless in His name”(Deuteronomy 10:8). bJust asa priest bperforms theTemple bservice while standing, so too, he blesses while standing.The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do wederive that bhe performs the service itselfwhile standing? bAs it is written: “To stand to ministerin the name of the Lord” (Deuteronomy 18:5)., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means bwith lifted hands.Do byou saythat the priests must recite the benediction bwith lifted hands, orperhaps they may recite it bwithout lifted hands? It is stated here: “So you shall bless,” and it is stated there,with regard to the dedication of the Tabernacle: b“And Aaron lifted up his hands toward the people and blessed them”(Leviticus 9:22). bJust as there,Aaron blessed the nation bwith lifted hands, so too here,the Priestly Benediction is recited bwith lifted hands. /b,This ihalakhawas bdifficult for Rabbi Yonatan to understand: Ifthis ihalakhais derived from the dedication of the Tabernacle, then why not also say: bJust as there,the bHigh Priestwas the one who recited the blessing, bandit was the bNew Moon, andthe offerings that were brought were ba communal service, so too here,the Priestly Benediction must be recited only by the bHigh Priest, andon the bNew Moon, andwhen performing ba communal service? /b, bRabbi Natan says: It is not necessaryto derive from a verbal analogy that the Priestly Benediction is recited with lifted hands, as bit sayswith regard to Aaron: “To stand to minister in the name of the Lord, bhim and his sons forever”(Deuteronomy 18:5). In this verse, bhis sons are juxtaposed with him. Just asAaron recited the Priestly Benediction bwith lifted hands, so too, his sonsrecite the benediction bwith lifted hands. Andfurthermore, bit is written “forever,”which indicates that it is referring not only to special occasions. bAndalthough the verse is not referring to the Priestly Benediction, the bbenediction is juxtaposed tothe Temple bservicein another verse: “To minister to Him and to bless in His name” (Deuteronomy 10:8)., bAnd it is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the children of Israel”means the blessing should be recited bwith the ineffable name.Do byou saythat the Priestly Benediction must be recited bwith the ineffable name, orperhaps bit isrecited bwith only the substitute name, iAdonai /i? bThe verse states: “So shall they put My name”(Numbers 6:27), which means bMy name that is unique to Me. /b,One bmighthave thought that beven in the outlying areas,outside the Temple, bthisineffable name is used. bIt is stated here,with regard to the Priestly Benediction: b“So shall they put My name,” and it is stated there,with regard to the place one must sacrifice offerings: “The place that the Lord your God has chosen out of all your tribes bto put His name there”(Deuteronomy 12:5). The verbal analogy teaches that bjust as there,the expression “to put His name there” is referring to bthe Temple, so too here,the mitzva of “so shall they put My name” applies bin the Templeand not anywhere else., bRabbi Yoshiya says: It is not necessaryto derive this ihalakhafrom the verbal analogy, as it can be derived from a verse. bIt saysin the verse: b“In every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come to youand bless you” (Exodus 20:20). Does it benter your mindthat this verse literally means that the Divine Presence will be revealed beverywhere? Rather, this versemust be interpreted by btransposition.It must be reordered and read as follows: bIn every place where I will come to you and bless you, there I will cause My name to be mentioned.Rabbi Yoshiya explains that God is stating: bAnd where will I come to you and bless you? In the Temple.Therefore, he derives: bThere, in the Temple, I will cause My name to be mentioned,but the ineffable name is not mentioned elsewhere., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless the sons of Israel”(Numbers 6:23). bI havederived bonlythe ihalakhato bless bthe sons of Israel. From wheredo I derive the ihalakhaof blessing bconverts, women, and emancipated slaves? The verse statesimmediately afterward: b“You shall say to them,”meaning bto all ofthe Jewish people., bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless,”means that the priests must recite the Priestly Benediction bface-to-facewith the congregation. Do byou saythat the Benediction must be recited bface-to-face, orperhaps bit is onlyrecited with the bfacesof the priests bfacing the back of the necksof the congregation? bThe verse states: “You shall say to them,”face-to-face, blike a person who is talking to another. /b, bIt is taughtin banother ibaraita /i: b“So you shall bless”means that the benediction must be recited bout loud. Or,perhaps, bis itrecited bonly in a whisper? The verse states: “You shall say to them,” like a person who is talking to another. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionwith regard to the prayer leader calling the priests to recite the Priestly Benediction: When there are btwopriests, bhe calls: Priests, butwhen there is bonepriest bhe does not call: Priest, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”in plural, meaning btoa minimum of btwopriests. bAnd Rav Ḥisda said: We have a traditionthat ba priest calls: Priests, but an Israelite does not call: Priests, as it is stated: “You shall say to them,”which means that the bsaying /b
62. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

122b. big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי גריעותא דפונדקית אמר רב כהנא פונדקית עובדת כוכבים היתה ומסיחה לפי תומה היתה זה מקלו וזה תרמילו וזה קבר שקברתיו בו וכן תני אבא בריה דרב מניומי בר חייא פונדקית עובדת כוכבים היתה ומסיחה לפי תומה היתה זה מקלו וזה תרמילו וזה קבר שקברתיו בו,והא איה חברנו קאמרי לה כיון דחזיתינהו בכיא אמרו לה איה חברנו אמרה להם מת וקברתיו,תנו רבנן מעשה באדם אחד שבא להעיד על האשה לפני רבי טרפון אמר לו בני היאך אתה יודע בעדות אשה זו אמר אני והוא היינו הולכים בדרך ורדף אחרינו גייס ונתלה בייחור של זית ופשחו והחזיר את הגייס לאחוריו,אמרתי לו אריה יישר כחך אמר לי מנין אתה יודע שאריה שמי כך קורין אותי בעירי יוחנן ברבי יהונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא לימים חלה ומת והשיא רבי טרפון את אשתו,ורבי טרפון לא בעי דרישה וחקירה והתניא מעשה באדם אחד שבא לפני רבי טרפון להעיד עדות אשה אמר לו בני היאך אתה יודע עדות זו אמר לו אני והוא היינו הולכין בדרך ורדף אחרינו גייס ונתלה בייחור תאנה ופשחו והחזיר את הגייס לאחוריו אמרתי לו יישר כחך אריה אמר לי יפה כוונת לשמי שכך קורין אותי בעירי יוחנן בן יונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא לימים חלה ומת,אמר לו לא כך אמרת לי יוחנן בן יונתן דמכפר שיחיא אריה אמר ליה לא אלא כך אמרתי לך יוחנן בן יונתן אריה דמכפר שיחיא ודקדק עליו שנים ושלשה פעמים וכיון את דבריו והשיא רבי טרפון את אשתו,תנאי היא דתניא אין בודקין עדי נשים בדרישה וחקירה דברי ר"ע רבי טרפון אומר בודקין,וקמיפלגי בדר' חנינא דאמר רבי חנינא דבר תורה אחד דיני ממונות ואחד דיני נפשות בדרישה וחקירה שנאמר (ויקרא כד, כב) משפט אחד יהיה לכם,ומה טעם אמרו דיני ממונות אין צריכין דרישה וחקירה שלא תנעול דלת בפני לוין,ובמאי קמיפלגי מר סבר כיון דאיכא כתובה למשקל כדיני ממונות דמי ומר סבר כיון דקא שרינן אשת איש לעלמא כדיני נפשות דמי,אמר רבי אלעזר אמר רבי חנינא תלמידי חכמים מרבים שלום בעולם שנאמר (ישעיהו נד, יג) וכל בניך למודי ה' ורב שלום בניך:, br br big strongהדרן עלך האשה בתרא וסליקא לה מסכת יבמות /strong /big br br
63. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan A, 2 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

64. Anon., Avot Derabbi Nathan B, 3 (6th cent. CE - 8th cent. CE)

65. Anon., 4 Baruch, 4.11

4.11. When he had said this, Baruch departed from the city, weeping andsaying: Grieving because of you, Jerusalem, I went out from you.
66. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 12

67. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None

27b. סבר שיולי משאיל לו כי היכי דמשאיל לו משאיל לאיניש אחרינא ואתא ההוא גברא לאורועי נפשיה,אמר רבא א"ר יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר רב חסדא אמר ר' יוחנן ספק חי ספק מת אין מתרפאין מהן ודאי מת מתרפאין מהן,מת האיכא חיי שעה לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,ומנא תימרא דלחיי שעה לא חיישינן דכתיב (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבוא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם והאיכא חיי שעה אלא לאו לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,מיתיבי לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינין ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה,מעשה בבן דמא בן אחותו של ר' ישמעאל שהכישו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו ולא הניחו ר' ישמעאל וא"ל ר' ישמעאל אחי הנח לו וארפא ממנו ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת,קרא עליו ר' ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שגופך טהור ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים (קהלת י, ח) ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש,שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי למימשך בתרייהו,אמר מר לא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש איהו נמי חויא טרקיה חויא דרבנן דלית ליה אסותא כלל,ומאי ה"ל למימר (ויקרא יח, ה) וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם,ור' ישמעאל הני מילי בצינעא אבל בפרהסיא לא דתניא היה רבי ישמעאל אומר מנין שאם אומרים לו לאדם עבוד עבודת כוכבים ואל תהרג שיעבוד ואל יהרג ת"ל וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם יכול אפילו בפרהסיא ת"ל (ויקרא כב, לב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כל מכה שמחללין עליה את השבת אין מתרפאין מהן ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר"י כל 27b. The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile bthinksto himself that the Jew bis asking himfor his opinion, and bjust as he is asking him, hewill also bask other people. Andthe gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, bthat man,i.e., the gentile, bwill bring harm to himselfby damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.,§ The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. bRava saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho bsaysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If there is buncertaintyas to whether a patient will blivethrough his ailment bor diefrom it, the patient bmay not be treated bygentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is bcertainthat he will bdiefrom his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient bis treated by them,as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.,The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will bdieif he is not treated, bnevertheless, there isvalue in btemporal life,i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: bWe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal lifewhen there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do you say that we are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? As it is writtenwith regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: b“If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there;and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: bBut isn’t there temporal lifeto be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? bRather, is it notapparent that bwe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even ina case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only btemporal life. /b,The ibaraitarelates an incident illustrating this point. There was ban incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister,in bwhich a snake bit him. Andfollowing the attack, bYa’akov of the village of Sekhanya,who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, bcame to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let himdo so. bAndben Dama bsaid to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let himtreat me, band I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torahto prove bthataccepting medical treatment from a heretic bis permittedin this situation. bButben Dama bdid not manage to complete the statement before his soul departedfrom his body band he died. /b, bRabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him”(Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordice of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.,The Gemara explains: bHeresy is different, as it is enticing.In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, bas one might come to be drawn afterhis heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated., bThe Master saidabove: bYou did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.”The Gemara asks: But ben Dama bwas also bitten by a snake,even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: bThe snakementioned in the curse bof the Sagesis different, bas it has no remedy whatsoever.Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what wouldben Dama bhave said?What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: “You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordices, which if a man do, bhe shall live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by God’s mitzvot, band not that heshould bdie by them.This verse serves as a source for the ihalakhathat one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life., bAndwhy does bRabbi Yishmaeldisagree with ben Dama? He maintains that bthis matterapplies only bin private, but in publicone bmay nottransgress a prohibition even to save a life. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael would say: From whereis it derived bthat ifoppressors bsay to a person: Worship an idol and youwill bnot be killed, that one should worshipthe idol band not be killed? The verse states: “He shall live by them,” and not that he should die by them.One bmighthave thought that this applies beven in public.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall not profane My holy name”(Leviticus 22:32).,§ The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated bygentiles. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abba saul Schiffman (1983) 147
abimelech/ebed-melech,sleep of Allison (2018) 233
abimelech/ebed-melech Allison (2018) 233
abot,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
achan Samely (2002) 158
ahitophel Samely (2002) 158
al-ʿammānī,aaron ibn Salvesen et al (2020) 546
albeck,chanoch Klawans (2019) 15
alexander,philip s. Klawans (2019) 15, 71
alexandria,judah ha-levis poetry and Salvesen et al (2020) 546
alexandria Salvesen et al (2020) 546
amidah (jewish daily prayer) Schremer (2010) 35, 36
amoraim,amoraic period Schiffman (1983) 135
animals,abundant in judaea Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
animals,skins Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
antiochus,iii' "123.0_75.0@'amidah" '123.0_75.0@bible Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
arabic language (judaeo-) Salvesen et al (2020) 546
baethesians Schremer (2010) 79, 175
bailees (shomerin) Schiffman (1983) 124
bar kokhba revolt,failure of Schremer (2010) 37
bible,allusions in poetry and other literature Salvesen et al (2020) 546
bible,qumran manuscripts Schiffman (1983) 135
birkat haminim Cohen (2010) 59
blasphemy Schremer (2010) 175
boaz Samely (2002) 158, 159
boethusians Cohn (2013) 169
boyarin,daniel,border lines Cohn (2013) 169
boyarin,daniel Klawans (2019) 14
christian jew Sigal (2007) 20
christianity Schiffman (1983) 147
christians Sigal (2007) 20
consensus Klawans (2019) 70
david Samely (2002) 158
death penalty Schiffman (1983) 147
destruction of the second temple Schremer (2010) 36
destruction of the second templereactions to Schremer (2010) 35, 37
different way (אחרת דרך ,( Schremer (2010) 192
divine name,surrogate Schiffman (1983) 135, 147
dositheans Schiffman (1983) 135
epicureans Klawans (2019) 14, 70, 71
esau Schremer (2010) 175
exegesis,sectarian Schiffman (1983) 124
expulsion of books from canon Cohen (2010) 59
ezekiel,vision of divine chariot,vision of future temple Klawans (2009) 233
fatimids (dynasty) Salvesen et al (2020) 546
flattering Schremer (2010) 52
fourth philosophy Klawans (2019) 70, 71
gnosticism,gnostics Klawans (2019) 71
god,denial of Schremer (2010) 52
god,devouring fire Schremer (2010) 52
god,doubt concerning his divinity Schremer (2010) 35
god,doubt concerning his power Schremer (2010) 35
god,lack of display of his power Schremer (2010) 37
god,name Schremer (2010) 36, 37
god,powerless Schremer (2010) 35, 37
goodman,martin Klawans (2019) 14, 71
greek,language Salvesen et al (2020) 546
grossberg,david m. Klawans (2019) 14, 71
ha-levi,judah Salvesen et al (2020) 546
hai gaon Schiffman (1983) 147
halakhah and custom' "123.0_75.0@shema'" Reif (2006) 75
handwashing Klawans (2009) 202
hasidim Schiffman (1983) 147
hebrew,biblical Schiffman (1983) 124
hebrew,qumran Schiffman (1983) 124, 135, 147
hebrew,rabbinic Schiffman (1983) 124
henderson,john b. Klawans (2019) 14
hererobaptists Schiffman (1983) 147
heresy,and orthodoxy Klawans (2019) 15, 71
heresy,definition of Klawans (2019) 15
heresy,jewish origins denied Klawans (2019) 14, 15
herford,r. travers Klawans (2019) 14, 15, 70, 71
herod i,king of judea Klawans (2009) 233
impure,book renders the hands Schiffman (1983) 135
iqqar Schremer (2010) 175
jacob son of abraham,patriarch Salvesen et al (2020) 546
jerusalem Salvesen et al (2020) 546
jesus,temple incident of Klawans (2009) 224, 233
jesus seminar Klawans (2009) 224
jewish-christians Klawans (2019) 15
kalmin,richard Klawans (2019) 71
kimelman,reuven Schremer (2010) 35
kuttim (samaritans) Schremer (2010) 192
lamentations rabbah,law,exemplary cases and Neusner (2004) 80
langer,ruth Klawans (2019) 15
laws of minim Schremer (2010) 191
lieberman,saul Klawans (2019) 15; Schremer (2010) 192
manual of discipline Schiffman (1983) 135
martyrdom,jewish Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 308
miller,stuart Klawans (2019) 71
mimouni,simon claude Klawans (2019) 14, 15
minim,christians Schremer (2010) 79, 192
minim,deny god Schremer (2010) 52
minim,gentiles Schremer (2010) 52
minim,gnostics Schremer (2010) 79
minim,in rabbinic literature Schremer (2010) 79, 191
minim,laws of Schremer (2010) 79
minim,nations of the world Schremer (2010) 52
minim,sectarians Schremer (2010) 79
minim,their identity Schremer (2010) 79
minim,two powers Schremer (2010) 52
minim Klawans (2019) 14, 15, 70, 71; Schremer (2010) 36
minut,denial of god Schremer (2010) 52
minut,deviance Schremer (2010) 79
minut,in rabbinic literature Schremer (2010) 79, 192
mishnah,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
nagid,negidim,nagidate Salvesen et al (2020) 546
narrative,in mishnah Neusner (2004) 80
nations of the world,two powers Schremer (2010) 52
oath,formula Schiffman (1983) 147
oath Schiffman (1983) 124
orthodoxy Klawans (2019) 15, 71
owner,lost property,not located Schiffman (1983) 124
owner,lost property Schiffman (1983) 124
pharisaic-rabbinic connection Cohen (2010) 59
pharisaic-rabbinic tradition,law Schiffman (1983) 147
pharisees Klawans (2019) 14; Schiffman (1983) 147
phylacteries Schremer (2010) 79
pig Schremer (2010) 175
pilgrimage Salvesen et al (2020) 546
poetry Salvesen et al (2020) 546
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans (2009) 202
priesthood Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
priests,aaronide Schiffman (1983) 124
property,disposition of Schiffman (1983) 124
property,guardian of Schiffman (1983) 124
property,lost or missing Schiffman (1983) 124
property,restitution of lost or stolen Schiffman (1983) 124
property,stolen Schiffman (1983) 124
purity and impurity,ritual purity Schiffman (1983) 147
rabbi ishmael Schremer (2010) 191
rabbi jonathan Schremer (2010) 52
rabbi nathan Schremer (2010) 52
repentance Schiffman (1983) 124
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans (2009) 202
ritual purity,maintained beyond the temple Klawans (2009) 202
ritual purity Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
roman empire,oppressor of the jews Schremer (2010) 175
roman empire,reference to in rabbinic texts Schremer (2010) 175
roman empire,victory of Schremer (2010) 166
sacrifice Allison (2018) 233
sadducees Klawans (2019) 14, 70
samaritans Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365; Schiffman (1983) 135
samuel b. hananyah (nagid of cairo) Salvesen et al (2020) 546
sanders,e. p. Klawans (2009) 233
schremer,adiel Klawans (2019) 14, 71
scribal error,traditions and practices,qumran Schiffman (1983) 135
script,palaeo-hebrew Schiffman (1983) 135
sectarian settlements Schiffman (1983) 124
segal,alan f. Klawans (2019) 15, 71; Schremer (2010) 52
seleucid monarchy Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
seleucids,privileges granted jews Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
shema Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 308
sifra,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
sifre to deuteronomy,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
sifré to numbers,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
simeon the just (simeon ii) Schiffman (1983) 147
smith,jonathan z. Klawans (2009) 202
stone vessels Klawans (2009) 202
strenski,ivan Klawans (2019) 15
sussman,yaakov Schremer (2010) 192
synagogue Schiffman (1983) 124
synagogues Klawans (2009) 202
tannaim,tannaitic law,judaism,period Schiffman (1983) 135
tannaim,treatment of heretics' Cohen (2010) 59
temple,as ritually inadequate,in new testament Klawans (2009) 224, 233
temple,regulations Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
temple,seleucid proclamation Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365
temple,third/new temple,trade in Klawans (2009) 233
temple,third/new temple Klawans (2009) 233
temple,writings about,narrative subordinated to topical program in Neusner (2004) 80
temple in jerusalem,destruction of Allison (2018) 233
temple tax Klawans (2009) 233
ten commandments (decalogue) Reif (2006) 75
tetragrammaton Schiffman (1983) 135
the world,appellation for rome Schremer (2010) 175
theft Schiffman (1983) 124
theodoret Schiffman (1983) 135
tineius rufus,as the (greek) word tyrannos Nikolsky and Ilan (2014) 308
titus Schremer (2010) 35
tomb Allison (2018) 233
tosefta,exemplarity in Neusner (2004) 80
utility,factor in defining key terms Klawans (2019) 15
world to come Schiffman (1983) 135
written law,documents Schiffman (1983) 135
zion Salvesen et al (2020) 546
zodiac Klawans (2009) 202