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Mishnah, Berachot, 4.3

nanRabban Gamaliel says: every day a man should pray the eighteen [blessings]. Rabbi Joshua says: an abstract of the eighteen. Rabbi Akiva says: if he knows it fluently he prays the eighteen, and if not an abstract of the eighteen."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

15 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 147.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

147.2. לֹא עָשָׂה כֵן לְכָל־גּוֹי וּמִשְׁפָּטִים בַּל־יְדָעוּם הַלְלוּ־יָהּ׃ 147.2. בּוֹנֵה יְרוּשָׁלִַם יְהוָה נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְכַנֵּס׃ 147.2. The LORD doth build up Jerusalem, He gathereth together the dispersed of Israel;"
2. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.12, 27.13, 56.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

11.12. וְנָשָׂא נֵס לַגּוֹיִם וְאָסַף נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּנְפֻצוֹת יְהוּדָה יְקַבֵּץ מֵאַרְבַּע כַּנְפוֹת הָאָרֶץ׃ 27.13. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃ 56.8. נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה מְקַבֵּץ נִדְחֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עוֹד אֲקַבֵּץ עָלָיו לְנִקְבָּצָיו׃ 11.12. And He will set up an ensign for the nations, And will assemble the dispersed of Israel, And gather together the scattered of Judah From the four corners of the earth." 27.13. And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem." 56.8. Saith the Lord GOD who gathereth the dispersed of Israel: Yet I will gather others to him, beside those of him that are gathered."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 8.1-8.2, 31.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

8.1. לָכֵן אֶתֵּן אֶת־נְשֵׁיהֶם לַאֲחֵרִים שְׂדוֹתֵיהֶם לְיוֹרְשִׁים כִּי מִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל כֻּלֹּה בֹּצֵעַ בָּצַע מִנָּבִיא וְעַד־כֹּהֵן כֻּלֹּה עֹשֶׂה שָּׁקֶר׃ 8.1. בָּעֵת הַהִיא נְאֻם־יְהוָה ויציאו [יוֹצִיאוּ] אֶת־עַצְמוֹת מַלְכֵי־יְהוּדָה וְאֶת־עַצְמוֹת־שָׂרָיו וְאֶת־עַצְמוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְאֵת עַצְמוֹת הַנְּבִיאִים וְאֵת עַצְמוֹת יוֹשְׁבֵי־יְרוּשָׁלִָם מִקִּבְרֵיהֶם׃ 8.2. עָבַר קָצִיר כָּלָה קָיִץ וַאֲנַחְנוּ לוֹא נוֹשָׁעְנוּ׃ 8.2. וּשְׁטָחוּם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְלַיָּרֵחַ וּלְכֹל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם אֲשֶׁר אֲהֵבוּם וַאֲשֶׁר עֲבָדוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ אַחֲרֵיהֶם וַאֲשֶׁר דְּרָשׁוּם וַאֲשֶׁר הִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לָהֶם לֹא יֵאָסְפוּ וְלֹא יִקָּבֵרוּ לְדֹמֶן עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה יִהְיוּ׃ 31.8. הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְקִבַּצְתִּים מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָרֶץ בָּם עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת יַחְדָּו קָהָל גָּדוֹל יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה׃ 8.1. At that time, saith the LORD, they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of their graves;" 8.2. and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served, and after whom they have walked, and whom they have sought, and whom they have worshipped; they shall not be gathered, nor be buried, they shall be for dung upon the face of the earth." 31.8. Behold, I will bring them from the north country, And gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, And with them the blind and the lame, The woman with child and her that travaileth with child together; A great company shall they return hither."
4. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

14c. Euthyphro. Yes. Socrates. And sacrificing is making gifts to the god
5. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.27-1.29 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

1.27. Gather together our scattered people, set free those who are slaves among the Gentiles, look upon those who are rejected and despised, and let the Gentiles know that thou art our God.' 1.28. Afflict those who oppress and are insolent with pride. 1.29. Plant thy people in thy holy place, as Moses said.'
6. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 36.1-36.17 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

36.1. Have mercy upon us, O Lord, the God of all, and look upon us 36.1. Crush the heads of the rulers of the enemy,who say, "There is no one but ourselves. 36.2. and cause the fear of thee to fall upon all the nations. 36.2. A perverse mind will cause grief,but a man of experience will pay him back. 36.3. Lift up thy hand against foreign nations and let them see thy might. 36.4. As in us thou hast been sanctified before them,so in them be thou magnified before us; 36.5. and let them know thee, as we have known that there is not God but thee, O Lord. 36.6. Show signs anew, and work further wonders;make thy hand and thy right arm glorious. 36.7. Rouse thy anger and pour out thy wrath;destroy the adversary and wipe out the enemy. 36.8. Hasten the day, and remember the appointed time,and let people recount thy mighty deeds. 36.9. Let him who survives be consumed in the fiery wrath,and may those who harm thy people meet destruction. 36.11. Gather all the tribes of Jacob,and give them their inheritance, as at the beginning. 36.12. Have mercy, O Lord, upon the people called by thy name,upon Israel, whom thou hast likened to a first-born son. 36.13. Have pity on the city of thy sanctuary,Jerusalem, the place of thy rest. 36.14. Fill Zion with the celebration of thy wondrous deeds,and thy temple with thy glory. 36.15. Bear witness to those whom thou didst create in the beginning,and fulfil the prophecies spoken in thy name. 36.16. Reward those who wait for thee,and let thy prophets be found trustworthy. 36.17. Hearken, O Lord, to the prayer of thy servants,according to the blessing of Aaron for thy people,and all who are on the earth will know that thou art the Lord, the God of the ages.
7. Anon., Didache, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

10. But after you are filled, thus give thanks: We thank You, holy Father, for Your holy name which You caused to tabernacle in our hearts, and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which You made known to us through Jesus Your Servant; to You be the glory forever. You, Master almighty, created all things for Your name's sake; You gave food and drink to men for enjoyment, that they might give thanks to You; but to us You freely gave spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Your Servant. Before all things we thank You that You are mighty; to You be the glory forever. Remember, Lord, Your Church, to deliver it from all evil and to make it perfect in Your love, and gather it from the four winds, sanctified for Your kingdom which You have prepared for it; for Yours is the power and the glory forever. Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maran atha. Amen. But permit the prophets to make Thanksgiving as much as they desire.
8. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 34.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

34.7. καὶ ἡμεῖς, οὖν, ἐν ὁμονοίᾳ ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ συναχθέντες τῇ συνειδήσει, ὡς ἐξ ἑνὸς στόματος βοήσωμεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐκτενῶς εἰς τὸ μετόχους ἡμᾶς γενέσθαι τῶν μεγάλων καὶ ἐνδόξων ἐπαγγελιῶν αὐτοῦ.
9. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.160 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

10. Mishnah, Berachot, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.1. The morning Tefillah (Shacharit) is until midday. Rabbi Judah says until the fourth hour. The afternoon Tefillah (Minhah) until evening. Rabbi Judah says: until the middle of the afternoon. The evening prayer has no fixed time. The time for the additional prayers (musaf) is the whole day. Rabbi Judah says: until the seventh hour."
11. New Testament, Matthew, 6.9-6.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

6.9. Pray like this: 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. 6.10. Let your kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. 6.11. Give us today our daily bread. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.'
12. Tosefta, Berachot, 3.25 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

3.25. Eighteen Berachot (blessings) that the Sages have established [for the prayer of Shemoneh Esreh have been established] corresponding to eighteen mentionings [of God’s name] that are in [the chapter of Tehillim that begins with] “Ascribe to God, children of princes…” (Tehillim 29) And [a person] should include [the Beracha against] the heretics into [the Beracha] for the Rabbinical Jews, and [the Beracha] for the converts into [the Beracha] for the elders, and [the Beracha] for [King] David into [the Beracha] for [the rebuilding of] Jerusalem. But if he said each one of them separately he has fulfilled his obligation [of praying Shemoneh Esreh]."
13. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

14. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

26b. תנו רבנן טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בערב שבת מתפלל בליל שבת שתים טעה ולא התפלל מנחה בשבת מתפלל במוצאי שבת שתים של חול מבדיל בראשונה ואינו מבדיל בשניה ואם הבדיל בשניה ולא הבדיל בראשונה שניה עלתה לו ראשונה לא עלתה לו,למימרא דכיון דלא אבדיל בקמייתא כמאן דלא צלי דמי ומהדרינן ליה,ורמינהו טעה ולא הזכיר גבורות גשמים בתחיית המתים ושאלה בברכת השנים מחזירין אותו הבדלה בחונן הדעת אין מחזירין אותו מפני שיכול לאומרה על הכוס קשיא,איתמר רבי יוסי ברבי חנינא אמר תפלות אבות תקנום רבי יהושע בן לוי אמר תפלות כנגד תמידין תקנום,תניא כוותיה דר' יוסי ברבי חנינא ותניא כוותיה דרבי יהושע בן לוי תניא כוותיה דרבי יוסי בר' חנינא אברהם תקן תפלת שחרית שנא' (בראשית יט, כז) וישכם אברהם בבקר אל המקום אשר עמד שם ואין עמידה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קו, ל) ויעמד פינחס ויפלל,יצחק תקן תפלת מנחה שנאמר (בראשית כד, סג) ויצא יצחק לשוח בשדה לפנות ערב ואין שיחה אלא תפלה שנאמר (תהלים קב, א) תפלה לעני כי יעטף ולפני ה' ישפוך שיחו,יעקב תקן תפלת ערבית שנאמר (בראשית כח, יא) ויפגע במקום וילן שם ואין פגיעה אלא תפלה שנאמר (ירמיהו ז, טז) ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ואל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי,ותניא כוותיה דר' יהושע בן לוי מפני מה אמרו תפלת השחר עד חצות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד חצות ורבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות שהרי תמיד של שחר קרב והולך עד ארבע שעות,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת המנחה עד הערב שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד הערב רבי יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה שהרי תמיד של בין הערבים קרב והולך עד פלג המנחה,ומפני מה אמרו תפלת הערב אין לה קבע שהרי אברים ופדרים שלא נתעכלו מבערב קרבים והולכים כל הלילה,ומפני מה אמרו של מוספין כל היום שהרי קרבן של מוספין קרב כל היום רבי יהודה אומר עד שבע שעות שהרי קרבן מוסף קרב והולך עד שבע שעות,ואיזו היא מנחה גדולה משש שעות ומחצה ולמעלה ואיזו היא מנחה קטנה מתשע שעות ומחצה ולמעלה,איבעיא להו רבי יהודה פלג מנחה קמא קאמר או פלג מנחה אחרונה קאמר תא שמע דתניא ר' יהודה אומר פלג המנחה אחרונה אמרו והיא י"א שעות חסר רביע,נימא תיהוי תיובתיה דר' יוסי בר' חנינא אמר לך ר' יוסי בר' חנינא לעולם אימא לך תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות דאי לא תימא הכי תפלת מוסף לר' יוסי בר' חנינא מאן תקנה אלא תפלות אבות תקנום ואסמכינהו רבנן אקרבנות:,רבי יהודה אומר עד ארבע שעות: איבעיא להו עד ועד בכלל או דלמא עד ולא עד בכלל תא שמע ר' יהודה אומר עד פלג המנחה אי אמרת בשלמא עד ולא עד בכלל היינו דאיכא בין ר' יהודה לרבנן אלא אי אמרת עד ועד בכלל ר' יהודה 26b. On a similar note, bthe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on the eve of Shabbat, prays inthe evening prayer btwo iAmidaprayers bon Shabbat evening. One who erred and did not recite the afternoon prayer on Shabbat, recites two weekday iAmidaprayers in the evening prayer bat the conclusion of Shabbat. He recites ihavdala[ /bthe prayer of bdistinction]between the sanctity of Shabbat and the profanity of the week by reciting: You have graced us, etc., in the fourth blessing of the iAmida,which is: Who graciously grants knowledge, bin the firstprayer, as it is the actual evening prayer, bbut he does not recite ihavdalain the secondprayer, which is in place of the afternoon prayer. Moreover, bif he recited ihavdalain the secondprayer band did not recite ihavdalain the first, the second prayer fulfilled hisobligation, the bfirst one did not fulfill hisobligation.,The Gemara comments: bIs that to saythat bsince he did not recite ihavdalain the firstprayer, he is bas one who did not pray and we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it? If so, the conclusion is that one who fails to recite ihavdalain the prayer must repeat that prayer.,The Gemara braises a contradictionto the above conclusion from the iTosefta /i: bOne who erred and did not mention the might of the rains:He makes the wind blow and rain fall binthe second blessing of the iAmida /i, the blessing on bthe revival of the dead, andone who erred and failed to recite bthe requestfor rain binthe ninth blessing of the iAmida /i, bthe blessing of the years, we require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it. However, one who erred and failed to recite ihavdalainthe blessing: bWho graciously grants knowledge, we do not require him to returnto the beginning of the prayer and repeat it, bas he can recite ihavdala bover the cupof wine, independent of his prayer. This contradiction was not resolved and remains bdifficult. /b,The dispute between the Rabbis and Rabbi Yehuda with regard to the times beyond which the different prayers may not be recited is rooted in a profound disagreement, also manifest in a later amoraic dispute. bIt was stated: Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said:The practice of praying three times daily is ancient, albeit not in its present form; bprayers were instituted by the Patriarchs.However, bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi saidthat the bprayers were instituted based on the daily offeringssacrificed in the Holy Temple, and the prayers parallel the offerings, in terms of both time and characteristics.,The Gemara comments: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, and it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi.The Gemara elaborates: bIt was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina: Abraham instituted the morning prayer, as it is statedwhen Abraham came to look out over Sodom the day after he had prayed on its behalf: b“And Abraham rose early in the morning to the place where he had stoodbefore the Lord” (Genesis 19:27), bandfrom the context as well as the language utilized in the verse, the verb bstandingmeans bnothing other than prayer,as this language is used to describe Pinehas’ prayer after the plague, bas it is stated: “And Pinehas stood up and prayedand the plague ended” (Psalms 106:30). Clearly, Abraham was accustomed to stand in prayer in the morning., bIsaac instituted the afternoon prayer, as it is stated: “And Isaac went out to converse [ ilasuaḥ /i] in the field toward evening”(Genesis 24:63), band conversationmeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is stated: “A prayer of the afflicted when he is faint and pours out his complaint [ isiḥo /i] before the Lord”(Psalms 102:1). Obviously, Isaac was the first to pray as evening approached, at the time of the afternoon prayer., bJacob instituted the evening prayer, as it is stated: “And he encountered [ ivayifga /i] the place and he slept therefor the sun had set” (Genesis 28:11). The word bencountermeans bnothing other than prayer, as it is statedwhen God spoke to Jeremiah: b“And you, do not pray on behalf of this nation and do not raise on their behalf song and prayer, and do not encounter [ itifga /i] Mefor I do not hear you” (Jeremiah 7:16). Jacob prayed during the evening, after the sun had set., bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levithat the laws of prayer are based on the laws of the daily offerings: bWhy didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe morning prayermay be recited buntil noon? Because,although the bdaily morning offeringis typically brought early in the morning, it may be bsacrificed until noon. And Rabbi Yehuda says:My opinion, that the morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursinto the day, is bbecause the daily morning offering is sacrificed until four hours. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited buntil the evening? Because the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the evening. Rabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe afternoon prayermay be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon because,according to his opinion, bthe daily afternoon offering is sacrificed until the midpoint of the afternoon. /b, bAnd why did they saythat bthe evening prayer is not fixed? Becausethe burning of the blimbs and fatsof the offerings that were bnot consumedby the fire on the altar buntil the evening.They remained on the altar and were boffered continuouslythroughout bthe entire night. /b, bAnd why didthe Rabbis bsaythat bthe additional prayermay be recited ball day? Because the additional offering is broughtthroughout bthe entire day.However, bRabbi Yehuda saysthat bthe additional prayermay be recited buntil the seventh hourof the day, bbecause the additional offering is sacrificed until the seventh hour. /b,The ibaraitacontinues and states that there are two times for the afternoon prayer. Greater, earlier iminḥa[ iminḥa gedola /i] and lesser, later iminḥa[ iminḥa ketana /i]. The Gemara clarifies the difference between them: bWhich is iminḥa gedola /i? From six-and-a-half hoursafter sunrise band on,which is a half an hour after noon and on. It is the earliest time that the daily afternoon offering may be sacrificed, as in the case on the eve of Passover that occurs on Shabbat. bWhich is iminḥa ketana /i? From nine-and-a-half hours and on,which is the standard time that the daily afternoon offering is sacrificed.,On that note, ba dilemma was raised before them: Rabbi Yehuda,who holds that the afternoon prayer may be recited only until the midpoint of the afternoon, does bhe say the midpoint of the first iminḥa /i, iminḥa gedola /i? bOr,does bhe say the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i? Come and hearan explicit resolution to this dilemma: bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i, bRabbi Yehuda says: They said the midpoint of the last iminḥa /i, and that is eleven hours minus a quarterof an hour after sunrise, i.e., an hour-and-a-quarter hours before sunset.,In any case, it is clear that according to this ibaraitathe ihalakhotof prayer are based on the Temple offerings. The Gemara suggests: bLet us say that this is a conclusive refutation ofthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,who held that the forefathers instituted the prayers. bRabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina,could have bsaid to you: Actually, I will say to youthat bthe Patriarchs instituted the prayers and the Sages basedthe times and characteristics of prayer bon the Temple offerings,even though they do not stem from the same source. bAs, if you do not say so,that even Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, would agree that the laws of offerings and those of prayers are related, bthen, according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, who instituted the additional prayer?It is not one of the prayers instituted by the forefathers. bRather,even according to Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, bthe prayers were instituted by the Patriarchs and the Sages based themon the laws of the bofferings. /b,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda says:The morning prayer may be recited buntil four hoursof the day. bA dilemma was raised beforethe yeshiva students: When Rabbi Yehuda says buntil,does he mean buntil and includingthe fourth hour, bor, perhapswhen he says b“until”he means buntil and not including,in which case one may not pray during the fourth hour? bCome and heara resolution to this dilemma based on the mishna. bRabbi Yehuda says:The afternoon prayer may be recited only buntil the midpoint of the afternoon.Now, bgranted, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and not including, then there isa difference bbetweenthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda andthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, if you saythat buntilmeans buntil and including,then the opinion of bRabbi Yehuda /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. (דברים ו, ו) והיו בהויתן יהו ורבנן מ"ט אמר קרא (דברים ו, ד) שמע בכל לשון שאתה שומע,ורבי נמי הא כתיב שמע ההוא מיבעי ליה השמע לאזניך מה שאתה מוציא מפיך ורבנן סברי כמאן דאמר הקורא את שמע ולא השמיע לאזנו יצא,ורבנן נמי הכתיב והיו ההוא מיבעי ליה שלא יקרא למפרע ורבי שלא יקרא למפרע מנא ליה מדברים הדברים ורבנן דברים הדברים לא משמע להו,לימא קסבר רבי כל התורה כולה בכל לשון נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בלשון הקודש נאמרה למה לי למכתב והיו,אצטריך סלקא דעתך שמע כרבנן כתב רחמנא והיו,לימא קסברי רבנן כל התורה בלשון הקודש נאמרה דאי סלקא דעתך בכל לשון נאמרה למה לי למכתב שמע,איצטריך סלקא דעתך אמינא והיו כרבי כתב רחמנא שמע,תפלה מנא לן דתניא שמעון הפקולי הסדיר שמונה עשרה ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר רבי יוחנן ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מאה ועשרים זקנים ובהם כמה נביאים תיקנו שמונה עשרה ברכות על הסדר,ת"ר מנין שאומרים אבות שנאמר (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' בני אלים ומנין שאומרים גבורות שנאמר (תהלים כט, א) הבו לה' כבוד ועוז ומנין שאומרים קדושות שנאמר (תהלים כט, ב) הבו לה' כבוד שמו השתחוו לה' בהדרת קדש,ומה ראו לומר בינה אחר קדושה שנאמר (ישעיהו כט, כג) והקדישו את קדוש יעקב ואת אלהי ישראל יעריצו וסמיך ליה וידעו תועי רוח בינה ומה ראו לומר תשובה אחר בינה דכתיב (ישעיהו ו, י) ולבבו יבין ושב ורפא לו,אי הכי לימא רפואה בתרה דתשובה לא ס"ד דכתיב (ישעיהו נה, ז) וישוב אל ה' וירחמהו ואל אלהינו כי ירבה לסלוח,ומאי חזית דסמכת אהא סמוך אהא כתב קרא אחרינא (תהלים קג, ג) הסולח לכל עוניכי הרופא לכל תחלואיכי הגואל משחת חייכי למימרא דגאולה ורפואה בתר סליחה היא והכתיב ושב ורפא לו ההוא לאו רפואה דתחלואים היא אלא רפואה דסליחה היא,ומה ראו לומר גאולה בשביעית אמר רבא מתוך שעתידין ליגאל בשביעית לפיכך קבעוה בשביעית והאמר מר בששית קולות בשביעית מלחמות במוצאי שביעית בן דוד בא מלחמה נמי אתחלתא דגאולה היא,ומה ראו לומר רפואה בשמינית אמר רבי אחא מתוך שנתנה מילה בשמינית שצריכה רפואה לפיכך קבעוה בשמינית,ומה ראו לומר ברכת השנים בתשיעית אמר רבי אלכסנדרי כנגד מפקיעי שערים דכתיב (תהלים י, טו) שבור זרוע רשע ודוד כי אמרה בתשיעית אמרה,ומה ראו לומר קיבוץ גליות לאחר ברכת השנים דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, ח) ואתם הרי ישראל ענפכם תתנו ופריכם תשאו לעמי ישראל כי קרבו לבוא וכיון שנתקבצו גליות נעשה דין ברשעים שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כה) ואשיבה ידי עליך ואצרוף כבור סיגיך וכתיב (ישעיהו א, כו) ואשיבה שופטיך כבראשונה,וכיון שנעשה דין מן הרשעים כלו הפושעים וכולל זדים עמהם שנאמר (ישעיהו א, כח) ושבר פושעים וחטאים יחדיו (יכלו),וכיון שכלו הפושעים מתרוממת קרן צדיקים דכתיב (תהלים עה, יא) וכל קרני רשעים אגדע תרוממנה קרנות צדיק וכולל גירי הצדק עם הצדיקים שנאמר (ויקרא יט, לב) מפני שיבה תקום והדרת פני זקן וסמיך ליה וכי יגור אתכם גר,והיכן מתרוממת קרנם בירושלים שנאמר (תהלים קכב, ו) שאלו שלום ירושלם ישליו אוהביך,וכיון שנבנית ירושלים בא דוד שנאמר 17b. b“Andthese words… bshall be”(Deuteronomy 6:6), teaching that these words, the words of the iShema /i, always b“shall be” as they are,i.e., in the Hebrew language. The Gemara asks: bAndas for bthe Sages, what is the reasonfor their opinion? bThe verse states: “Hear,O Israel” (Deuteronomy 6:4), which could also be translated, “Understand, O Israel,” indicating that you may recite these words bin any language that you hear,i.e., understand.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bas well, isn’t itindeed bwritten, “hear”?What does he learn from this word, if not that the iShemamay be recited in any language? The Gemara answers: bThisword bis necessaryto teach something else: bMake heard to your ears what your mouth is saying,i.e., the iShemamust be recited audibly, not merely thought in one’s heart. The Gemara asks: bAndhow do bthe Sagesknow this? The Gemara explains: They bhold like the one who saidthat if bone recites the iShemabut does not make it audible to his ears, he hasnevertheless bfulfilledhis obligation.,The Gemara asks: bAndaccording to bthe Sages as well, isn’t itindeed bwritten, “Andthese words bshall be”?What do they learn from this, if not that the iShemamust be recited in Hebrew? The Gemara answers: bThatword bis necessaryto teach bthat one must not recitethe words of the iShema bout of order,but they “shall be” as they are, in the proper order. The Gemara asks: bAnd from where does RabbiYehuda HaNasi learn bthat one must not recitethe iShema bout of order?The Gemara answers: He derives it from the fact that the verse does not say just: bWords,but b“the words,”referring to specific words, which teaches that they must be recited in their proper order without any variation. The Gemara asks: bAndwhat do bthe Sageslearn from the phrase “the words”? The difference between bwordsand b“the words” is inconsequential according to them. /b,The Gemara analyzes the dispute: bShall we say that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bmaintainsthat bthe entire Torah may be recited in any language? As, if it enters your mindto say that the entire Torah bmay be recited only in the sacred tongue,Hebrew, and not in any other language, bwhy do Ineed the Torah bto write “andthese words bshall be”with respect to the iShema /i? Why would I think that the iShemais different from the rest of the Torah?,The Gemara rejects this argument: There is no proof from here, as even if the Torah must generally be recited in Hebrew bit isnevertheless bnecessaryto specify the matter here, since without such specification bit might have entered your mindto say that in this context b“hear”means understand, basmaintained by bthe Sages,and that the iShemamay be recited in any language. Therefore bthe Merciful One writesin the Torah, b“andthese words bshall be,”to teach us that the iShemamay be recited only in the original Hebrew.,The Gemara suggests: bShall we saythen bthat the Sages maintainthat bthe entire Torah must be recitedspecifically bin the sacred tongue,Hebrew? bAs, if it enters your mindto say that the entire Torah bmay be recited in any language, why do Ineed the Torah bto write “hear”with respect to the iShema /i? Why would one think that the iShemais different from the rest of the Torah?,The Gemara rejects this argument: Even if the Torah may generally be recited in any language, bit wasnevertheless bnecessaryto specify the matter here. Without such specification bit could enter your mind to saythat the words b“andthese words bshall be”teach that the iShemamay be recited only in Hebrew, basasserted by bRabbiYehuda HaNasi. Therefore bthe Merciful One writesthe word b“hear”in the Torah, to teach us that the iShemamay be recited in any language.,§ The ibaraitacited previously taught that the ihalakhaagainst reciting a text out of order applies to the iAmida bprayeras well. The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive this? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bShimon HaPakuli arranged the eighteen blessingsof the iAmidaprayer bbefore Rabban Gamliel in theirfixed border in Yavne,which indicates that there is a specific order to these blessings that must not be changed. bRabbi Yoḥa said, and some say that it was taught in a ibaraita /i: A hundred and twenty Elders,i.e., the Men of the Great Assembly, and bamong them several prophets, establishedthe beighteen blessingsof the iAmida bin theirfixed border,which also shows that the order of these blessings may not be changed.,The Gemara proceeds to explain this order: bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bFrom whereis it derived bthat one saysthe blessing of bthe Patriarchs,the first blessing of the iAmida /i? bAs it is stated: “Ascribe to the Lord, mighty ones”(Psalms 29:1), which means that one should mention before the Lord the mighty ones of the world, i.e., the Patriarchs. bAnd from whereis it derived bthat onethen bsaysthe blessing of bmighty deeds? As it is statedin the continuation of that verse: b“Ascribe to the Lord glory and strength”(Psalms 29:1). bAnd from whereis it derived bthat onethen bsaysthe blessing of bholiness? As it is statedin the next verse: b“Give to the Lord the glory due to His name; worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness”(Psalms 29:2).,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of bunderstanding afterthe blessing of bholiness? As it is stated: “They shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall revere the God of Israel”(Isaiah 29:23), and adjacent to that verse it is written: b“They also that erred in spirit shall come to understanding”(Isaiah 29:24). This shows that it is proper for the theme of understanding to follow the theme of God’s holiness. bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of brepentance afterthe blessing of bunderstanding? As it is written: “And they will understand with their heart, repent, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10-11), showing that the theme of repentance properly follows the theme of understanding.,The Gemara asks: bIf so,that the sequence of blessings is based on this verse, bletus bsaythat btheblessing of bhealing should be said afterthe blessing of brepentance.Why, then, is the next blessing in the iAmidathe blessing of forgiveness and not the blessing of healing? The Gemara explains: bThis cannot enter your mind, as it is written: “And let him return to the Lord, and He will have compassion upon him; and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon”(Isaiah 55:7), which shows that the theme of repentance should be followed by that of forgiveness.,The Gemara poses a question: bBut what did you see to rely on thisverse? bRely on the otherverse, which juxtaposes repentance to healing. The Gemara answers: bAnother verse,in which it is bwritten: “Who forgives all your iniquities, Who heals all your diseases, Who redeems your life from the pit”(Psalms 103:3–4), proves that the theme of healing should follow that of forgiveness. The Gemara asks: bIs thatverse coming bto say thatthe blessings of bredemption and healingshould be placed following the blessing of bforgiveness? But isn’t it written: “Repent, and be healed”(Isaiah 6:10), which suggests that repentance should be followed by healing? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring bnotto btheliteral bhealing from illness, but ratherto bthefigurative bhealing of forgiveness,and therefore this verse too supports the sequence of forgiveness following repentance.,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute bto saythe blessing of bredemption as the seventhblessing? bRava said: Sincethere is a tradition that the Jewish people are bdestined to be redeemed in the seventhyear of the Sabbatical cycle, bconsequently, they fixedredemption bas the seventhblessing. bBut didn’t the Master sayin a ibaraita /i: bIn the sixthyear of the Sabbatical cycle in the days of the arrival of the Messiah, heavenly bsoundswill be heard; bin the seventhyear there will be bwars; and upon the conclusion of the seventhyear, in the eighth year, bthe son of David,the Messiah, bwill come?The redemption will take place not during the seventh year but after it. The Gemara answers: Nevertheless, the bwarthat takes place during the seventh year bis also the beginning of the redemptionprocess, and it is therefore correct to say that Israel will be redeemed in the seventh year.,The Gemara continues: bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing of bhealing as the eighthblessing? bRabbi Aḥa said: Since circumcision was assigned to the eighthday of life, and circumcision brequires healing, consequently, they establishedhealing bas the eighthblessing., bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsays the blessing ofbountiful byears as the ninthblessing? bRabbi Alexandri said:This blessing was instituted bin reference to those who raise the pricesof food. We pray for rain so that the price of produce will not rise as a result of shortages, bas it is written: “Break the arm of the wicked”(Psalms 10:15), referring to the wicked, who practice deception and extort the poor. bAnd when David expressed thisrequest, bhe expressed it in the ninthpsalm. Although today it is considered the tenth psalm, the first and second psalms are actually counted as one, and therefore this is the ninth psalm. Therefore, the blessing of the years was fixed as the ninth blessing.,The Gemara asks: bAnd why did they seefit to institute that one bsaysthe blessing of bthe ingathering ofthe bexiles after the blessing of the years? As it is written: “And you, O mountains of Israel, you shall shoot forth your branches, and yield your fruit to My people Israel; for they will soon be coming”(Ezekiel 36:8), which indicates that the ingathering of the exiles will follow after Eretz Yisrael is blessed with bountiful produce. bAnd once the exiles have been gathered, judgment will be meted out to the wicked, as it is stated: “And I will turn my hand against you and purge away your dross as with lye”(Isaiah 1:25), bandimmediately after bit is written: “And I will restore your judges as at first”(Isaiah 1:26). For this reason the blessing of the restoration of judges comes after the blessing of the ingathering of the exiles., bAnd once judgment is meted out to the wicked, the transgressors,i.e., the heretics and sectarians, bwill cease to be.Consequently, the next blessing is that of the heretics, band one includes evildoers with them, as it is stated: “And the destruction of the transgressors and of the sinners shall be together,and they that forsake the Lord bshall cease to be”(Isaiah 1:28). The “transgressors and sinners” are the evildoers, and “they that forsake the Lord” are the heretics., bAnd once the heretics cease to be, the horn,i.e., the glory, bof the righteous will be exalted, as it is written: “All the horns of the wicked will I cut off; but the horns of the righteous shall be exalted”(Psalms 75:11). Therefore, after the blessing of the heretics, one says the blessing about the righteous. bAnd he includes the righteous converts along with the righteous, as it is stated: “You shall rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the elder”(Leviticus 19:32), band adjacent to thisit is stated: b“And if a stranger sojourns with you”(Leviticus 19:33). An “elder” is one with Torah wisdom and a “stranger” is one who has converted to Judaism., bAnd where will the hornsof the righteous bbe exalted? In Jerusalem, as it is stated: “Pray for the peace of Jerusalem; they who love you shall prosper”(Psalms 122:6). “They who love you” are the righteous. Therefore, the blessing of the rebuilding of Jerusalem is placed after the blessing of the righteous., bAnd once Jerusalem is rebuilt,the Messiah, scion of the house of bDavid, will come, as it is stated: /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
adam Eilberg-Schwartz (1986) 107
agency Eilberg-Schwartz (1986) 217
amidah Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
authorship,rabbinic,refusal of responsibility for Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 21
authorship,rabbinic Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 21, 27, 28
bertinoro Eilberg-Schwartz (1986) 217
deuteronomist Eilberg-Schwartz (1986) 217
eichrodt Eilberg-Schwartz (1986) 217
eighteen benedictions Esler (2000) 99
elders Levine (2005) 544
gamliel,rabban (also gamaliel) Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 21, 27
homer Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 21
horus,diaspora jews Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
jews,prayer Esler (2000) 99
language,secret Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
lemmatic composition Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 27, 28
liturgy Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
microforms Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 28
philo Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 21
prayer,festival' Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
prayer Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 563; Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 27
qumran Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 166
r. aqiva Levine (2005) 544
r. gamaliel ii Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 563
r. joshua (b. hanania) Levine (2005) 544
rabban gamaliel ii of yavneh,obligatory prayer liturgy Levine (2005) 544
scha¨ fer,p. Fonrobert and Jaffee (2007) 28
shechemites Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 563
simeon hapaquli,origin of amidah Levine (2005) 544
synagogues,liturgy Esler (2000) 99
yavnean period,rabbis and prayer Levine (2005) 544