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Mishnah, Berachot, 3.4

nanOne who has had a seminal emission utters the words [of the Shema] in his heart and he doesn’t say a blessing, neither before nor after. Over food he says a blessing afterwards, but not the blessing before. Rabbi Judah says: he blesses both before them and after them."

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 23.10-23.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

23.11. כִּי־יִהְיֶה בְךָ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יִהְיֶה טָהוֹר מִקְּרֵה־לָיְלָה וְיָצָא אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה לֹא יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.12. וְהָיָה לִפְנוֹת־עֶרֶב יִרְחַץ בַּמָּיִם וּכְבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יָבֹא אֶל־תּוֹךְ הַמַּחֲנֶה׃ 23.13. וְיָד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָצָאתָ שָׁמָּה חוּץ׃ 23.14. וְיָתֵד תִּהְיֶה לְךָ עַל־אֲזֵנֶךָ וְהָיָה בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ חוּץ וְחָפַרְתָּה בָהּ וְשַׁבְתָּ וְכִסִּיתָ אֶת־צֵאָתֶךָ׃ 23.15. כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּקֶרֶב מַחֲנֶךָ לְהַצִּילְךָ וְלָתֵת אֹיְבֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ וְהָיָה מַחֲנֶיךָ קָדוֹשׁ וְלֹא־יִרְאֶה בְךָ עֶרְוַת דָּבָר וְשָׁב מֵאַחֲרֶיךָ׃ 23.10. When thou goest forth in camp against thine enemies, then thou shalt keep thee from every evil thing." 23.11. If there be among you any man, that is not clean by reason of that which chanceth him by night, then shall he go abroad out of the camp, he shall not come within the camp." 23.12. But it shall be, when evening cometh on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he may come within the camp." 23.13. Thou shalt have a place also without the camp, whither thou shalt go forth abroad." 23.14. And thou shalt have a paddle among thy weapons; and it shall be, when thou sittest down abroad, thou shalt dig therewith, and shalt turn back and cover that which cometh from thee." 23.15. For the LORD thy God walketh in the midst of thy camp, to deliver thee, and to give up thine enemies before thee; therefore shall thy camp be holy; that He see no unseemly thing in thee, and turn away from thee."
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 19.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־הָעָם הֱיוּ נְכֹנִים לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת יָמִים אַל־תִּגְּשׁוּ אֶל־אִשָּׁה׃ 19.15. And he said unto the people: ‘Be ready against the third day; come not near a woman.’"
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.1-5.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

5.1. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃ 5.1. וְאִישׁ אֶת־קֳדָשָׁיו לוֹ יִהְיוּ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יִתֵּן לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃ 5.2. וְאַתְּ כִּי שָׂטִית תַּחַת אִישֵׁךְ וְכִי נִטְמֵאת וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ בָּךְ אֶת־שְׁכָבְתּוֹ מִבַּלְעֲדֵי אִישֵׁךְ׃ 5.2. צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וִישַׁלְּחוּ מִן־הַמַּחֲנֶה כָּל־צָרוּעַ וְכָל־זָב וְכֹל טָמֵא לָנָפֶשׁ׃ 5.3. מִזָּכָר עַד־נְקֵבָה תְּשַׁלֵּחוּ אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה תְּשַׁלְּחוּם וְלֹא יְטַמְּאוּ אֶת־מַחֲנֵיהֶם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי שֹׁכֵן בְּתוֹכָם׃ 5.3. אוֹ אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו רוּחַ קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהֶעֱמִיד אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְעָשָׂה לָהּ הַכֹּהֵן אֵת כָּל־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת׃ 5.1. And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:" 5.2. ’Command the children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every leper, and every one that hath an issue, and whosoever is unclean by the dead;" 5.3. both male and female shall ye put out, without the camp shall ye put them; that they defile not their camp, in the midst whereof I dwell.’"
4. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 21.5-21.6 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

21.5. וַיַּעַן הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־דָּוִד וַיֹּאמֶר אֵין־לֶחֶם חֹל אֶל־תַּחַת יָדִי כִּי־אִם־לֶחֶם קֹדֶשׁ יֵשׁ אִם־נִשְׁמְרוּ הַנְּעָרִים אַךְ מֵאִשָּׁה׃ 21.6. וַיַּעַן דָּוִד אֶת־הַכֹּהֵן וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כִּי אִם־אִשָּׁה עֲצֻרָה־לָנוּ כִּתְמוֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם בְּצֵאתִי וַיִּהְיוּ כְלֵי־הַנְּעָרִים קֹדֶשׁ וְהוּא דֶּרֶךְ חֹל וְאַף כִּי הַיּוֹם יִקְדַּשׁ בַּכֶּלִי׃ 21.5. And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread in my hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women." 21.6. And David answered the priest, and said to him, of a truth women have been kept from us as always when I am on a journey, and the vessels of the young men are holy, (although it is a common journey,) how much more today when there will be hallowed bread in their vessel."
5. Dead Sea Scrolls, Temple Scroll, 45.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)

6. Mishnah, Berachot, 3.5, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.5. If a man was standing saying the tefillah and he remembers that he is one who has had a seminal emission, he should not stop but he should abbreviate [the blessings]. If he went down to immerse, if he is able to come up and cover himself and recite the Shema before the rising of the sun, he should go up and cover himself and recite, but if not he should cover himself with the water and recite. He should not cover himself either with foul water or with steeping water until he pours fresh water into it. How far should he remove himself from it and from excrement? Four cubits." 8.1. These are the points [of difference] between Bet Shammai and Bet Hillel in regard to a meal.Bet Shammai says: first he blesses over the day and then over the wine. Bet Hillel says: first he blesses over the wine and then over the day."
7. Mishnah, Shabbat, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

2.6. For three sins women die in childbirth: because they are not observant of [the laws of] niddah, hallah, and the kindling of the [Shabbat] lights."
8. Tosefta, Berachot, 2.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

2.12. Zavim, Zavot, Niddot, and women who gave birth are permitted to read the Torah and to learn Mishna, Midrash, laws, and Aggadot. And men who had a seminal emission (Baalei Keraim) are forbidden in all of them. Rebbi Yossi says, “He can learn the laws that he is familiar with, as long as he does not arrange the Mishna.”"
9. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

82a. והא כי אתא ר' אבין א"ר יוחנן אחד אילן הנוטה לתוך שדה חבירו ואחד אילן הסמוך למצר מביא וקורא שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,אלא מאן תנא עשרה תנאין שהתנה יהושע ר' יהושע בן לוי הוא רב גביהה מבי כתיל מתני לה בהדיא ר' תנחום ור' ברייס אמרי משום זקן אחד ומנו ר' יהושע בן לוי עשרה תנאין התנה יהושע:,עשרה תקנות תיקן עזרא שקורין במנחה בשבת וקורין בשני ובחמישי ודנין בשני ובחמישי ומכבסים בחמישי בשבת ואוכלין שום בערב שבת ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת ושיהו רוכלין מחזירין בעיירות ותיקן טבילה לבעלי קריין:,שיהו קוראין במנחה בשבת משום יושבי קרנות:,ושיהו קוראין בשני ובחמישי עזרא תיקן והא מעיקרא הוה מיתקנא דתניא (שמות טו, כב) וילכו שלשת ימים במדבר ולא מצאו מים דורשי רשומות אמרו אין מים אלא תורה שנאמר (ישעיהו נה, א) הוי כל צמא לכו למים,כיון שהלכו שלשת ימים בלא תורה נלאו עמדו נביאים שביניהם ותיקנו להם שיהו קורין בשבת ומפסיקין באחד בשבת וקורין בשני ומפסיקין שלישי ורביעי וקורין בחמישי ומפסיקין ערב שבת כדי שלא ילינו ג' ימים בלא תורה,מעיקרא תקנו חד גברא תלתא פסוקי אי נמי תלתא גברי תלתא פסוקי כנגד כהנים לוים וישראלים אתא הוא תיקן תלתא גברי ועשרה פסוקי כנגד עשרה בטלנין:,ודנין בשני ובחמישי דשכיחי דאתו למקרא בסיפרא:,ושיהו מכבסין בחמישי בשבת משום כבוד שבת:,ושיהו אוכלין שום בע"ש משום עונה דכתיב (תהלים א, ג) אשר פריו יתן בעתו וא"ר יהודה ואיתימא רב נחמן ואיתימא רב כהנא ואיתימא ר' יוחנן זה המשמש מטתו מע"ש לע"ש,ת"ר חמשה דברים נאמרו בשום משביע ומשחין ומצהיל פנים ומרבה הזרע והורג כנים שבבני מעיים וי"א מכניס אהבה ומוציא את הקנאה:,ושתהא אשה משכמת ואופה כדי שתהא פת מצויה לעניים:,ושתהא אשה חוגרת בסינר משום צניעותא:,ושתהא אשה חופפת וטובלת דאורייתא היא,דתניא (ויקרא יד, ט) ורחץ את בשרו במים שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין בשרו למים את בשרו את הטפל לבשרו ומאי ניהו שער,אמרי דאורייתא לעיוני דלמא מיקטר אי נמי מאוס מידי משום חציצה 82a. The Gemara further questions the number of Joshua’s stipulations: bBut when Rabbi Avin camefrom Eretz Yisrael he said that bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bboth a tree that leans into the field of another and a tree that is close to a boundarywith another field, the owner of the tree bbringsthe first fruits of the tree band recitesthe accompanying declaration, as described in Deuteronomy 26:5–10, basit was bon this conditionthat bJoshua apportioned EretzYisrael bto the Jewish people.This is an additional stipulation by Joshua, which means that there are more than ten.,The Gemara answers: bRather, whois the one who btaughtthe ibaraitathat deals with the bten conditions that Joshua stipulated? It is Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi,an iamora /i. Therefore, Rabbi Yoḥa, another iamora /i, can disagree with it. bRav Geviha from Bei Katil teachesthis bexplicitlyin his version of the ibaraita /i: bRabbi Tanḥum and Rabbi Berayes say in the name of a certain elder, and who is thatelder? It is bRabbi Yehoshua ben Levi: Joshua stipulated ten conditions. /b,§ The Sages taught that bEzrathe Scribe binstituted ten ordices:He instituted bthatcommunities breadthe Torah bon Shabbat in the afternoon; and theyalso breadthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday; andthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday; and one does laundry on Thursday; and one eats garlic on Shabbat eve. AndEzra further instituted bthat a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she wants to bake; band that a woman should don a breechcloth; and that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath after being ritually impure; band that peddlersof cosmetics and perfumes bshould travel around throughall bthe towns. AndEzra further binstitutedthe requirement of bimmersion for those who experienced a seminal emission. /b,The Gemara analyzes these ordices, the first of which is bthatcommunities bshall readthe Torah bon Shabbat afternoon.This Gemara explains that this ordice was instituted bdue to those who sitidly on street bcorners,who do not attend the synagogue during the week.,The Gemara discusses the second of Ezra’s ordices: bAnd that they should readthe Torah bonevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara asks: bDid Ezra institutethis practice? bBut it was instituted from the beginning,i.e., long before his time. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the verse: “And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; band they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water”(Exodus 15:22). bThose who interpret versesmetaphorically bsaidthat bwaterhere is referring to bnothing other than Torah, as it is statedmetaphorically, concerning those who desire wisdom: b“Ho, everyone who thirsts, come for water”(Isaiah 55:1).,The ibaraitacontinues: The verse means that bsincethe Jews btraveled for three days withouthearing any bTorah they became weary,and therefore the bprophets among them arose and instituted for them that they should readfrom the Torah each bShabbat, and pauseon bSunday, and readagain on bMonday, and pauseon bTuesday and Wednesday, and readagain on bThursday, and pauseon bShabbat eve, so they would not tarry three days withouthearing the bTorah.Evidently this practice predates Ezra.,The Gemara answers: bInitially they institutedthat bone manread bthree verses;or balternatively,that bthree menread bthree verses.Either way, the number three bcorresponds tothe three types of Jews: bPriests, Levites, and Israelites.Ezra later bcameand binstitutedthat bthree menalways read, bandthat bten versesaltogether be read by them, bcorresponding to the ten idlersin a city, i.e., the ten men who are paid to spend their time dealing with synagogue and communal matters.,The next ordice of Ezra is: bAndthe courts convene and bjudgeevery bMonday and Thursday.The Gemara explains that the reason for this ordice is bthatmany people are bfoundin a city on these days, bas they comefrom the countryside bfor the reading of theholy bbook,the Torah, which is performed on Mondays and Thursdays, as stated above.,The ibaraitateaches: bAnd that one should do laundry on Thursday.This was instituted bdue tothe need to have clean garments in bdeference to Shabbat. /b,The Gemara explains the next listed ordice: bAnd that one should eat garlic Shabbat eve.This is bdue tothe fact that garlic enhances sexual potency, and Friday night is an appropriate time for bconjugal relations. As it is writtenconcerning the righteous: “And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, bwho brings forth his fruit in his season”(Psalms 1:3); band Rabbi Yehuda says, and some sayit was bRav Naḥman, and some sayit was bRav Kahana, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bThisis referring to bone who engages in sexual intercourse every Shabbat eve. /b, bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitathat bfive matters were stated with regard to garlic: It satisfies; it warmsthe body; bit causesone’s bcountece to shine; it increasesone’s bsperm, and it kills lice that are in the intestines. And some saythat it also binstills loveinto those who eat it band removes jealousyfrom them.,The next ordice is: bAnd that a woman should rise early and bakebread on those days when she bakes. This Gemara explains that this was instituted bso that bread should be available for poor people,who go begging for bread in the mornings.,The ibaraitafurther teaches: bAnd that a woman should don a breechcloth [ isinar /i].This ordice was instituted bdue toreasons of bmodesty. /b,The ibaraitaadds: bAnd that a woman shouldfirst bcombher hair bandonly then bimmersein a ritual bath. This is to ensure that there is no dirt or other substance in the hair that would invalidate the immersion. The Gemara questions this: bThis isrequired bby Torah law,Ezra did not institute this., bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i, concerning a verse that discusses one who must undergo ritual immersion: b“And he shall bathe his flesh [ iet besaro /i] in water”(Leviticus 14:9). This verse teaches bthat no substance should interpose between his flesh and the water.When the verse states this in the expanded form of b“ iethis flesh,”using the term “ iet /i,” this teaches that the water must come into contact even with bthat which is subordinate to his flesh. And what is that?It is one’s bhair.Accordingly, the Torah itself states that there may not be any interposing substance in the hair at the time of immersion. What, then, did Ezra add?,The Sages bsayin response: bBy Torah lawone is required bto inspecthis or her hair before immersion, as bperhapssome hairs are bknottedtogether, preventing contact with water at that spot, borperhaps there is some brepulsive substancein his hair. One must perform this inspection bbecausethese would constitute ban interposition. /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

14b. (ירמיהו י, י) וה' אלהים אמת,חוזר ואומר אמת או אינו חוזר ואומר אמת,א"ר אבהו א"ר יוחנן חוזר ואומר אמת רבה אמר אינו חוזר ואומר אמת ההוא דנחית קמיה דרבה שמעיה רבה דאמר אמת אמת תרי זימני אמר רבה כל אמת אמת תפסיה להאי,אמר רב יוסף כמה מעליא הא שמעתתא דכי אתא רב שמואל בר יהודה אמר אמרי במערבא ערבית דבר אל בני ישראל ואמרת אליהם אני ה' אלהיכם אמת,אמר ליה אביי מאי מעליותא והא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר וכי תימא ואמרת אליהם לא הוי התחלה והאמר רב שמואל בר יצחק אמר רב דבר אל בני ישראל לא הוי התחלה ואמרת אליהם הוי התחלה,אמר רב פפא קסברי במערבא ואמרת אליהם נמי לא הויא התחלה עד דאמר ועשו להם ציצית,אמר אביי הלכך אנן אתחולי מתחלינן דקא מתחלי במערבא וכיון דאתחלינן מגמר נמי גמרינן דהא אמר רב כהנא אמר רב לא יתחיל ואם התחיל גומר,חייא בר רב אמר אמר אני ה' אלהיכם צריך לומר אמת לא אמר אני ה' אלהיכם אינו צ"ל אמת,והא בעי לאדכורי יציאת מצרים,דאמר הכי מודים אנחנו לך ה' אלהינו שהוצאתנו מארץ מצרים ופדיתנו מבית עבדים ועשית לנו נסים וגבורות על הים ושרנו לך:,אמר ר' יהושע בן קרחה למה קדמה פרשת שמע וכו':,תניא ר"ש בן יוחי אומר בדין הוא שיקדים שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וזה ללמד והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה ללמוד וזה לעשות,אטו שמע ללמוד אית ביה ללמד ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב ושננתם וקשרתם וכתבתם ותו והיה אם שמוע ללמד הוא דאית ביה ולעשות לית ביה והא כתיב וקשרתם וכתבתם,אלא הכי קאמר בדין הוא שתקדם שמע לוהיה אם שמוע שזה ללמוד וללמד ולעשות והיה אם שמוע לויאמר שזה יש בה ללמד ולעשות ויאמר אין בה אלא לעשות בלבד,ותיפוק ליה מדרבי יהושע בן קרחה חדא ועוד קאמר חדא כדי שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ יקבל עליו עול מצות ועוד משום דאית בה הני מילי אחרנייתא.,רב משי ידיה וקרא ק"ש ואנח תפילין וצלי והיכי עביד הכי והתניא החופר כוך למת בקבר פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה הגיע זמן ק"ש עולה ונוטל ידיו ומניח תפילין וקורא ק"ש ומתפלל,הא גופא קשיא רישא אמר פטור וסיפא חייב,הא לא קשיא סיפא בתרי ורישא בחד,מ"מ קשיא לרב רב כרבי יהושע בן קרחה סבירא ליה דאמר עול מלכות שמים תחלה ואח"כ עול מצות,אימר דאמר רבי יהושע בן קרחה להקדים קריאה לקריאה קריאה לעשיה מי שמעת ליה,ותו מי סבר ליה כרבי יהושע בן קרחה והאמר רב חייא בר אשי זמנין סגיאין הוה קאימנא קמיה דרב ומקדים ומשי ידיה ומברך ומתני לן פרקין ומנח תפילין והדר קרי ק"ש וכ"ת בדלא מטא זמן ק"ש א"כ מאי אסהדתיה דרב חייא בר אשי,לאפוקי ממ"ד למשנה אין צריך לברך קמ"ל דאף למשנה נמי צריך לברך,מ"מ קשיא לרב שלוחא הוא דעוית:,אמר עולא כל הקורא ק"ש בלא תפילין כאילו מעיד עדות שקר בעצמו א"ר חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן כאילו הקריב עולה בלא מנחה וזבח בלא נסכים:,ואמר רבי יוחנן הרוצה שיקבל עליו עול מלכות שמים שלמה 14b. b“And the Lord, God, is True”(Jeremiah 10:10).,After the conclusion of the final paragraph of iShemaalong with the first word of the subsequent blessing, with the words: “The Lord, your God, is True [ iHashem Eloheikhem emet /i],” the question is posed: bDoes one repeat iemet /iwhen he begins the blessing of iemet veyatziv /i, bor does he not repeat iemet /i? /b, bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: He repeats iemet /i. Rabba said: He does not repeat iemet /i.The Gemara relates: bThis person who descendedto lead the service bbefore Rabba, Rabba heard that he said iemet /i, iemettwice. Rabbamocked him and bsaid: Every iemet /i, iemethas caught this one;he must be passionate about the pursuit of truth., bRav Yosef said: How excellent is this traditionthat I heard, bas when Rav Shmuel bar Yehuda camefrom Eretz Yisrael to Babylonia he said: bIn Eretz Yisrael, at the evening prayerthey do not recite the entire third portion of iShema /i, which deals with ritual fringes, as there is no obligation to wear ritual fringes at night. Rather, bthey saya condensed version of that portion that includes an excerpt from the beginning and an excerpt from the end: b“Speak to the children of Israel and say to them…I am the Lord, your God, True”(Numbers 15:38, 41)., bAbaye said to him: What is excellentabout this tradition? bDidn’t Rav Kahana saythat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit? bAnd if you say that:Speak to the children of Israel band say to them, is not considered the beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, bdidn’t Rav Shmuel bar Yitzḥak saythat bRav said: Speak to the children of Israel, is notconsidered ba beginningof the portion of ritual fringes, as many passages in the Torah begin this way; band say to them, isconsidered ba beginning. /b, bRav Pappa said: In Eretz Yisrael, they holdthat band say to them, is notconsidered ba beginning, until he said: And make for them ritual fringes. /b, bAbaye said: Therefore, we beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes, bsince they beginto recite it bin Eretz Yisrael. And once we beginto recite it, bwe complete it as well, as Rav Kahana saidthat bRav said: Oneshould bnot beginto recite the portion of ritual fringes at night, bbut if he does begin, he completesit., bḤiyya bar Rav said: Ifin the evening bone recitedthe portion of ritual fringes concluding with: bI am the Lord, your God, he must recite: Trueand Faithful [iemet /i ive’emuna /i], and the entire blessing of redemption. However, bif he did not recite: I am the Lord, your God, he need not recite iemet /i ive’emuna /i.,The Gemara asks: bIsn’t he required to mention the exodus from Egyptat night as well?,The Gemara responds: In place of reciting iemet ve’emuna bhe said the followingshorter passage: bWe give thanks to You, Lord, our God, Who took us out from Egypt and redeemed us from the house of bondage, and performed miracles and mighty deeds on our behalf on the sea, and we sang unto You,as this formula includes all of the content comprising iemet ve’emuna /i.,We learned in the mishna: bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa said: Why did the portion of iShemaprecedethat of iVeHaya im Shamoa /i? So that one will first accept upon himself the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven and only then accept upon himself the yoke of the mitzvot., bIt was taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Yoḥaioffers a different explanation for the order of the portions of iShema /i. He bsays: By right, iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe iShemaincludes the directive bto learn, while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach.Similarly, iVeHaya im Shamoa /ishould precede iVaYomer /i,the final paragraph of iShema /i, because iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directive bto teach, whilethe portion of ritual fringes includes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say thatthe portion of iShemacontainsthe directive bto learnbut bit does not containthe directive bto teach and perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall teach themto your children” (Deuteronomy 6:7), a directive to teach, as well as: b“And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 6:8) and: b“And write themon your door posts of your house” (Deuteronomy 6:9), directives to perform? bFurthermore, does iVeHaya im Shamoacontainthe directive bto teachbut bit does not containthe directive bto perform? Isn’t it written: “And you shall bind themas a sign upon your arm” (Deuteronomy 11:18), a directive to perform?, bRather,Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai bsaid as follows: By right,the portion of iShemashould precede iVeHaya im Shamoabecausethe portion of iShemaincludes the directives bto learn, to teach, and to perform,while iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives to teach and to perform. iVeHaya im Shamoashould precede iVaYomerbecause iVeHaya im Shamoaincludes the directives bto teach and to perform, while iVaYomer bonlyincludes the directive bto perform. /b,The Gemara asks: bLet him derive this,that the portion of iShemais recited first, bfromthe statement of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa.The Gemara responds: bHe stated onereason band another.Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai does not disagree with Rabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa; he simply suggested as additional explanation as follows: bOnereason the portion of iShemais recited first is bso that one will first accept the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven upon himself and afterward the yoke of the mitzvot; andthe second reason is bbecausethe portion of iShema bcontains these other elementsas well.,The Gemara relates: bRav washed his hands, recited iShema /i, donned phylacteries, and prayedin that order. The Gemara asks: bHow could he do that? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who digs a grave for the deadin the wall of the family burial cave bis exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, from prayer, from phylacteries, and from all mitzvot mentioned in the Torah.When btheappointed btime for the recitation of iShemaarrives, he emergesfrom the cave, bwashes his hands, dons phylacteries, recites iShema /i, and prays. /b,Before clarifying the problem, the Gemara comments: bThis ibaraita bitself is difficult;it appears to be contradictory. bThe first clauseof the ibaraita bstatedthat one digging a grave bis exemptfrom the recitation of iShema /i, band the latter clausestated that bhe is obligatedto emerge and recite iShema /i,The Gemara responds: bThat is not difficult. The latter clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof twoindividuals digging the grave together; one pauses to recite iShemawhile the other continues digging. bThe first clauseof the ibaraitarefers to a case bof oneindividual digging alone, who may not stop., bIn any case, this ibaraita bcontradicts Ravin terms of the order in which the mitzvot are performed. The Gemara responds: bRav holds in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa, who saidthat the acceptance of bthe yoke of the kingdom of Heaventakes precedence and should bcome first, followed bythe acceptance of bthe yoke of the mitzvot.Therefore, Rav first recited iShema /i, and only then donned phylacteries.,The Gemara challenges: bSaythat bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa saidto bgive precedence to recitationof the portion concerning the acceptance of the yoke of the kingdom of Heaven over brecitationof other portions. But bdid you hear himsay the ihalakhagives precedence to brecitation over performance? /b, bAnd furthermore, doesRav breally hold in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehoshua ben Korḥa? But didn’t Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi say: Many times I stood before Rav, and he first washed his hands, recited a blessing, taught us our lesson, donned phylacteries, and then recited iShema /i. And if you say:This was when bthe time for the recitation of iShemahad notyet barrivedand that is why he donned his phylacteries first, bthen what isthe point of bthe testimony of Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi? /b,The Gemara responds: Rav Ḥiyya bar Ashi’s story comes bto excludethe opinion of bthe one who said that one need not recite the blessingon Torah study bforthe study of bmishna. It teaches us that even for mishna, one must recite a blessing. /b, bIn any casethis ibaraita bis difficult for Rav.The Gemara responds: bThe messenger was at faultand brought Rav his phylacteries late, so Rav recited iShemaat its appropriate time and later donned phylacteries.,With regard to the recitation of iShemawithout phylacteries, bUlla said: Anyone who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, it is as if he has borne false testimony against himself,as in iShema /i, he mentions his obligation to don phylacteries and in this case fails to don them himself ( iTalmidei Rabbeinu Yona /i). bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said:One who recites iShemawithout phylacteries, bit is as if he has offered a burnt-offering without a meal-offering or a peace-offering without libations.Despite the fact that he fulfilled his obligation, his offering is incomplete., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said: One who seeks to accept upon himself the complete yoke of the kingdom of Heaven /b

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
aggada Hirshman (2009) 22
bathhouse,restrictions on study in Hirshman (2009) 22
deaf-mute,heave-offering separated by Avery-Peck (1981) 34
deeds vs. speech Hirshman (2009) 22
demons and baptism Blidstein (2017) 196
demons and sexual sin Blidstein (2017) 196
demons in jewish-christian texts Blidstein (2017) 196
ejaculants/baal qeri Cohen (2010) 388, 405, 406
exegesis Hirshman (2009) 22
foreigners,protecting sancta against Cohen (2010) 388
handwashing Klawans (2009) 201
health,and purity Blidstein (2017) 196
heave-offering,separation of Avery-Peck (1981) 34
holy spirit Blidstein (2017) 196
intention Libson (2018) 35
intentionality Libson (2018) 35
josephus Klawans (2009) 201
judah,heave-offering,separated by minor Avery-Peck (1981) 34
marriage as sacred Blidstein (2017) 196
menstruants/niddah,and the sacred Cohen (2010) 405, 406
menstruants/niddah,earliest expression of a fear of menstrual pollution Cohen (2010) 388
menstruants/niddah,food preparation Cohen (2010) 405
menstruants/niddah,from ritually impure to being a danger Cohen (2010) 406
menstruation Blidstein (2017) 196
minor,heave-offering separated by Avery-Peck (1981) 34
orality,v,vi Hirshman (2009) 22
pharaohs daughter (wife of solomon),reason for separation from city of david Cohen (2010) 388
prayer Blidstein (2017) 196
prayer (jewish/rabbinic) Klawans (2009) 201
purity requirement for Blidstein (2017) 196
purity systems,categorization of Blidstein (2017) 196
rabbinic conceptions of impurity Blidstein (2017) 196
reading,silent Hirshman (2009) 22
ritual baths (miqvaot) Klawans (2009) 201
ritual purity,maintained beyond the temple Klawans (2009) 201
sabbath Libson (2018) 35
seminal emissions Blidstein (2017) 196
study,silent Hirshman (2009) 22
temple,third/new temple Klawans (2009) 201
yose,heave-offering,separated by minor Avery-Peck (1981) 34
zav/zavim' Cohen (2010) 405