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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 123

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

14 results
1. Hesiod, Theogony, 940 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)

940. The hardest of all things, which men subdue
2. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 225-247, 224 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

224. The sacrificer of his daughter — strange! —
3. Herodotus, Histories, 1.44.2 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

1.44.2. and in his great and terrible grief at this mischance he called on Zeus by three names—Zeus the Purifier, Zeus of the Hearth, Zeus of Comrades: the first, because he wanted the god to know what evil his guest had done him; the second, because he had received the guest into his house and thus unwittingly entertained the murderer of his son; and the third, because he had found his worst enemy in the man whom he had sent as a protector.
4. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

653d. in the course of men’s lives; so the gods, in pity for the human race thus born to misery, have ordained the feasts of thanksgiving as periods of respite from their troubles; and they have granted them as companions in their feasts the Muses and Apollo the master of music, and Dionysus, that they may at least set right again their modes of discipline by associating in their feasts with gods. We must consider, then, whether the account that is harped on nowadays is true to nature? What it says is that, almost without exception, every young creature is able of keeping either its body or its tongue quiet
5. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.43-1.45, 1.49 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

1.43. With the errors of the poets may be classed the monstrous doctrines of the magi and the insane mythology of Egypt, and also the popular beliefs, which are a mere mass of inconsistencies sprung from ignorance. "Anyone pondering on the baseless and irrational character of these doctrines ought to regard Epicurus with reverence, and to rank him as one of the very gods about whom we are inquiring. For he alone perceived, first, that the gods exist, because nature herself has imprinted a conception of them on the minds of all mankind. For what nation or what tribe is there but possesses untaught some 'preconception' of the gods? Such notions Epicurus designates by the word prolepsis, that is, a sort of preconceived mental picture of a thing, without which nothing can be understood or investigated or discussed. The force and value of this argument we learn in that work of genius, Epicurus's Rule or Standard of Judgement. 1.44. You see therefore that the foundation (for such it is) of our inquiry has been well and truly laid. For the belief in the gods has not been established by authority, custom or law, but rests on the uimous and abiding consensus of mankind; their existence is therefore a necessary inference, since we possess an instinctive or rather an innate concept of them; but a belief which all men by nature share must necessarily be true; therefore it must be admitted that the gods exist. And since this truth is almost universally accepted not only among philosophers but also among the unlearned, we must admit it as also being an accepted truth that we possess a 'preconception,' as I called it above, or 'prior notion,' of the gods. (For we are bound to employ novel terms to denote novel ideas, just as Epicurus himself employed the word prolepsis in a sense in which no one had ever used it before.) 1.45. We have then a preconception of such a nature that we believe the gods to be blessed and immortal. For nature, which bestowed upon us an idea of the gods themselves, also engraved on our minds the belief that they are eternal and blessed. If this is so, the famous maxim of Epicurus truthfully enunciates that 'that which is blessed and eternal can neither know trouble itself nor cause trouble to another, and accordingly cannot feel either anger or favour, since all such things belong only to the weak.' "If we sought to attain nothing else beside piety in worshipping the gods and freedom from superstition, what has been said had sufficed; since the exalted nature of the gods, being both eternal and supremely blessed, would receive man's pious worship (for what is highest commands the reverence that is its due); and furthermore all fear of the divine power or divine anger would have been banished (since it is understood that anger and favour alike are excluded from the nature of a being at once blessed and immortal, and that these being eliminated we are menaced by no fears in regard to the powers above). But the mind strives to strengthen this belief by trying to discover the form of god, the mode of his activity, and the operation of his intelligence. 1.49. Yet their form is not corporeal, but only resembles bodily substance; it does not contain blood, but the semblance of blood. "These discoveries of Epicurus are so acute in themselves and so subtly expressed that not everyone would be capable of appreciating them. Still I may rely on your intelligence, and make my exposition briefer than the subject demands. Epicurus then, as he not merely discerns abstruse and recondite things with his mind's eye, but handles them as tangible realities, teaches that the substance and nature of the gods is such that, in the first place, it is perceived not by the senses but by the mind, and not materially or individually, like the solid objects which Epicurus in virtue of their substantiality entitles steremnia; but by our perceiving images owing to their similarity and succession, because an endless train of precisely similar images arises from the innumerable atoms and streams towards the gods, our minds with the keenest feelings of pleasure fixes its gaze on these images, and so attains an understanding of the nature of a being both blessed and eternal.
6. Philodemus, (Pars I) \ On Piety, 13, 12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

7. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 1.49, 1.80-1.101, 2.352-2.366, 2.651, 5.5, 5.8, 5.146-5.155, 5.1161-5.1163, 5.1194-5.1195, 5.1198-5.1202, 5.1240, 6.64-6.66 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)

8. Sextus, Against The Mathematicians, 7.216 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

9. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 10.33, 10.120 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

10.33. By preconception they mean a sort of apprehension or a right opinion or notion, or universal idea stored in the mind; that is, a recollection of an external object often presented, e.g. Such and such a thing is a man: for no sooner is the word man uttered than we think of his shape by an act of preconception, in which the senses take the lead. Thus the object primarily denoted by every term is then plain and clear. And we should never have started an investigation, unless we had known what it was that we were in search of. For example: The object standing yonder is a horse or a cow. Before making this judgement, we must at some time or other have known by preconception the shape of a horse or a cow. We should not have given anything a name, if we had not first learnt its form by way of preconception. It follows, then, that preconceptions are clear. The object of a judgement is derived from something previously clear, by reference to which we frame the proposition, e.g. How do we know that this is a man?
10. Epicurus, On Nature, 12

11. Epicurus, Letter To Menoeceus, 124

12. Epicurus, Letter To Herodotus, 74, 76-78, 73

13. Epicurus, Letters, 97

14. Epicurus, Letters, 97

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abraham,isaac,and jacob/patriarchs Allison (2018) 199
abraham Allison (2018) 199
accomodation/ sunoikeiosis Frede and Laks (2001) 219
action,and cult Mackey (2022) 233
action,religious Mackey (2022) 233
aeschylus Gale (2000) 104
aetiology Mackey (2022) 233
agency,causes of Mackey (2022) 233
analogy Mackey (2022) 233
animals,sacrificial Gale (2000) 104
animals Gale (2000) 104
anthropomorphization Mackey (2022) 233
apollo Frede and Laks (2001) 220
assimilation,to god/gods Allison (2020) 81
assimilation to god Frede and Laks (2001) 174
belief,epiphanic Mackey (2022) 233
belief,false Mackey (2022) 233
belief,in gods/goddesses Mackey (2022) 233
belief,religious Mackey (2022) 218
belief,theological Mackey (2022) 218, 233
bury,r.g. Long (2006) 114
cattle Gale (2000) 104
cognition,theological Mackey (2022) 218
concepts Long (2006) 114
connections within,in greek thought McDonough (2009) 106
consensus Mackey (2022) 218
creation and ownership,hellenistic views McDonough (2009) 106
cult,action Mackey (2022) 233
diogenes of babylon Long (2006) 114
empedocles Gale (2000) 104
empiricus,sextus Mackey (2022) 233
epicureanism Long (2006) 114
epicureans McDonough (2009) 106
epicurus,authority in the de rerum natura Bryan (2018) 237; Wardy and Warren (2018) 237
epicurus,on nature and the self Long (2006) 114
epicurus,religious observance Allison (2020) 60, 63
epicurus,theology Bryan (2018) 237; Wardy and Warren (2018) 237
epicurus Frede and Laks (2001) 217, 219, 220; Gale (2000) 104; Mackey (2022) 218
epilepsy,and its medical explanation by lucretius Kazantzidis (2021) 87
epilepsy Kazantzidis (2021) 87
epiphany Mackey (2022) 218, 233
epoche Long (2006) 114
fever Kazantzidis (2021) 87
god,in greek thought McDonough (2009) 106
godenzonen Versnel (2011) 392
gods,apotheosis,deus mortalis Frede and Laks (2001) 174
gods,concepts of Long (2006) 114
gods,scepticism about Long (2006) 114
gods/goddesses,belief in Mackey (2022) 233
gods/goddesses,common notion of Mackey (2022) 218
gods/goddesses,epiphanies of Mackey (2022) 218
gods (epicurean),character (blessedness and incorruptibility) Allison (2020) 59, 60
gods (epicurean),involvement in moral formation Allison (2020) 58, 59, 60, 63, 81
gods (epicurean),realist and idealist conceptions of Allison (2020) 81, 82
greek gods,and harms Frede and Laks (2001) 217
greek gods,knowledge of god Frede and Laks (2001) 217
greek gods,preconception/ prolepsis Frede and Laks (2001) 217, 219
indestructibility,of the divine Kazantzidis (2021) 87
inference Mackey (2022) 218, 233
iphigenia Gale (2000) 104
knowledge,epicurean Allison (2020) 81
liturgical expressions/elements Allison (2018) 199
logos,as world creator McDonough (2009) 106
lucretius,devotion to epicurus Wardy and Warren (2018) 237
lucretius,religion in Gale (2000) 104
lucretius,theology Wardy and Warren (2018) 237
lucretius Mackey (2022) 218, 233
matter McDonough (2009) 106
maturity Allison (2020) 81
measure Frede and Laks (2001) 174
medical,intertexts Kazantzidis (2021) 87
mind McDonough (2009) 106
moral formation,involvement of god/gods within Allison (2020) 58, 59, 60, 63, 81
moses Allison (2018) 199
nimirum,its philosophical and medical background Kazantzidis (2021) 87
omnipotence (divine),in jewish-christian theology Versnel (2011) 392
philodemus Frede and Laks (2001) 217, 219, 220
pietas Mackey (2022) 233
piety Frede and Laks (2001) 174
plato,laws Frede and Laks (2001) 174
posidonius of apamea Wynne (2019) 83
prayer Gale (2000) 104
prolēpsis Mackey (2022) 218
reason Long (2006) 114
religion,attacks against religious modes of healing in medical texts Kazantzidis (2021) 87
religion,in lucretius Gale (2000) 104
sacra Mackey (2022) 233
scepticism,academic Long (2006) 114
scepticism,pyrrhonean Long (2006) 114
sextus empiricus Long (2006) 114
stoicism,stoics,theology of Long (2006) 114
stoics,stoicism Frede and Laks (2001) 219, 220
strife' McDonough (2009) 106
superstition/religio Frede and Laks (2001) 174
thauma / thaumazein,in the hippocratic corpus Kazantzidis (2021) 87
theology Long (2006) 114
veyne,paul Versnel (2011) 392