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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



1767
Babylonian Talmud, Makkot, 10a


דכתיב (הושע ו, ח) גלעד קרית פועלי און עקובה מדם מאי עקובה מדם א"ר אלעזר שהיו עוקבין להרוג נפשות,ומאי שנא מהאי גיסא ומהאי גיסא דמרחקי ומאי שנא מציעאי דמקרבי,אמר אביי בשכם נמי שכיחי רוצחים דכתיב (הושע ו, ט) וכחכי איש גדודים חבר כהנים דרך ירצחו שכמה וגו' מאי חבר כהנים א"ר אלעזר שהיו מתחברין להרוג נפשות ככהנים הללו שמתחברין לחלוק תרומות בבית הגרנות,ותו ליכא והא כתיב (במדבר לה, ו) ועליהם תתנו ארבעים ושתים עיר אמר אביי הללו קולטות בין לדעת בין שלא לדעת הללו לדעת קולטות שלא לדעת אינן קולטות,וחברון עיר מקלט הוא והכתיב (שופטים א, כ) ויתנו לכלב את חברון כאשר דבר משה אמר אביי פרוודהא דכתיב (יהושע כא, יב) ואת שדה העיר ואת חצריה נתנו לכלב בן יפנה,וקדש עיר מקלט הואי והכתיב (יהושע יט, לה) וערי מבצר הצדים צר וחמת רקת וכנרת [וגו'] וקדש ואדרעי ועין חצור ותניא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכים גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות אמר רב יוסף תרתי קדש הואי אמר רב אשי כגון סליקום ואקרא דסליקום,גופא ערים הללו אין עושין אותן לא טירין קטנים ולא כרכין גדולים אלא עיירות בינוניות ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום מים ואם אין שם מים מביאין להם מים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום שווקים ואין מושיבין אותן אלא במקום אוכלוסין נתמעטו אוכלוסיהן מוסיפין עליהן נתמעטו דיוריהן מביאין להם כהנים לוים וישראלים,ואין מוכרין בהן לא כלי זיין ולא כלי מצודה דברי רבי נחמיה וחכמים מתירין ושוין שאין פורסין בתוכן מצודות ואין מפשילין לתוכן חבלים כדי שלא תהא רגל גואל הדם מצויה שם,א"ר יצחק מאי קרא (דברים ד, מב) ונס אל אחת מן הערים האל וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא,תנא תלמיד שגלה מגלין רבו עמו שנאמר וחי עביד ליה מידי דתהוי ליה חיותא אמר ר' זעירא מכאן שלא ישנה אדם לתלמיד שאינו הגון,א"ר יוחנן הרב שגלה מגלין ישיבתו עמו איני והא א"ר יוחנן מנין לדברי תורה שהן קולטין שנאמר (דברים ד, מג) את בצר במדבר וגו' [וכתיב בתריה] (דברים ד, מד) וזאת התורה,לא קשיא הא בעידנא דעסיק בה הא בעידנא דלא עסיק בה,ואי בעית אימא מאי קולטין ממלאך המות כי הא דרב חסדא הוה יתיב וגריס בבי רב ולא הוה קא יכול שליחא [דמלאכא דמותא] למיקרב לגביה דלא הוה שתיק פומיה מגירסא סליק ויתיב אארזא דבי רב פקע ארזא ושתיק ויכיל ליה,א"ר תנחום בר חנילאי מפני מה זכה ראובן לימנות בהצלה תחלה מפני שהוא פתח בהצלה תחלה שנאמר (בראשית לז, כא) וישמע ראובן ויצילהו מידם,דרש רבי שמלאי מאי דכתיב (דברים ד, מא) אז יבדיל משה שלש ערים בעבר הירדן מזרחה [שמש] אמר לו הקב"ה למשה הזרח שמש לרוצחים איכא דאמרי א"ל הזרחת שמש לרוצחים,דרש רבי סימאי מאי דכתיב (קהלת ה, ט) אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה אוהב כסף לא ישבע כסף זה משה רבינו שהיה יודע שאין שלש ערים שבעבר הירדן קולטות עד שלא נבחרו שלש בארץ כנען ואמר מצוה שבאה לידי אקיימנה,ומי אוהב בהמון לא תבואה למי נאה ללמד בהמון מי שכל תבואה שלו והיינו דא"ר אלעזר מאי דכתיב (תהלים קו, ב) מי ימלל גבורות ה' ישמיע כל תהלתו למי נאה (ללמד) [למלל] גבורות ה' מי שיכול להשמיע כל תהלתו,ורבנן ואיתימא רבה בר מרי אמר מי אוהב בהמון לו תבואה כל האוהב (למלמד) בהמון לו תבואה יהבו ביה רבנן עינייהו ברבא בריה דרבה,(סימן אשי ללמוד רבינא ללמד),רב אשי אמר כל האוהב ללמוד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דא"ר יוסי בר' חנינא מאי דכתיב (ירמיהו נ, לו) חרב אל הבדים ונואלו חרב על צוארי שונאיהם של ת"ח שיושבין ועוסקין בתורה בד בבד ולא עוד אלא שמטפשין כתיב הכא ונואלו וכתיב התם (במדבר יב, יא) אשר נואלנו ולא עוד אלא שחוטאין שנאמר ואשר חטאנו ואיבעית אימא מהכא (ישעיהו יט, יג) נואלו שרי צוען,רבינא אמר כל האוהב ללמד בהמון לו תבואה והיינו דאמר רבי הרבה תורה למדתי מרבותי ומחבירי יותר מהם ומתלמידי יותר מכולן,א"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, ב) עומדות היו רגלינו בשעריך ירושלם מי גרם לרגלינו שיעמדו במלחמה שערי ירושלם שהיו עוסקים בתורה,וא"ר יהושע בן לוי מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכב, א) שיר המעלות לדוד שמחתי באומרים לי בית ה' נלך אמר דוד לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא רבש"ע שמעתי בני אדם שהיו אומרים מתי ימות זקן זה ויבא שלמה בנו ויבנה בית הבחירה ונעלה לרגל ושמחתי אמר לו הקב"ה (תהלים פד, יא) כי טוב יום בחצריך מאלף טוב לי יום אחד שאתה עוסק בתורה לפני מאלף עולות שעתיד שלמה בנך להקריב לפני על גבי המזבח:,ומכוונות להם דרכים וכו': תניא ר' אליעזר בן יעקב אומרTherefore, a greater number of cities of refuge per capita were required there, as it is written: “Gilead is a city of those who work iniquity; it is covered [akuba] with blood” (Hosea 6:8). What is the meaning of: Covered [akuba] with blood? Rabbi Elazar says: It means that they would set an ambush [okevin] to kill people.,The Gemara asks: And what is different about the cities of refuge closest to the border on this southern side of the country and from the border on that northern side of the country, that are distanced one-quarter of the length of Eretz Yisrael from the border, and what is different about the city of refuge in the middle of the country, which is relatively close to any potential murderers? The maximum distance that one would need to travel to reach the middle city is one-half the distance from the northern and southern borders to their respective cities of refuge.,Abaye said: Murderers are also common in Shechem, as it is written: “And as troops of robbers wait for a man, so does the band of priests; they murder in the way toward Shechem, yes, they commit enormity” (Hosea 6:9). What is the meaning of “the band of priests”? Rabbi Elazar says: It means that the people would band together to kill people, like those priests who band together to distribute teruma among themselves in the granaries.,The Gemara asks: And are there no more cities of refuge beyond these six? But isn’t it written: “And the cities that you shall give to the Levites: The six cities of refuge you shall give for the murderer to flee there, and beyond them you shall give forty-two cities” (Numbers 35:6), indicating that the status of all the Levite cities is that of cities of refuge? Abaye said: With regard to these six cities designated specifically for this purpose, unintentional murderers in need of refuge are admitted there whether they entered the cities deliberately, aware that they are cities of refuge, or whether they entered inadvertently. By contrast, with regard to those forty-two Levite cities, unintentional murderers are admitted only if they entered the cities deliberately, but if they entered the cities inadvertently, they are not admitted to the cities.,The Gemara asks: And is Hebron a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And they gave Hebron to Caleb, as Moses had spoken” (Judges 1:20)? This indicates that Hebron belonged to Caleb from the tribe of Judah, and it was not a Levite city. Abaye said: Its suburbs [parvadaha] were given to Caleb; the city itself was a city of priests, as it is written in the context of the distribution of the Levite cities: “And they gave them Kiryat Arba…which is Hebron…and the field of the city and its courtyards they gave to Caleb, son of Jephunneh” (Joshua 21:11–12).,The Gemara further asks: And is Kadesh a city of refuge? But isn’t it written: “And the fortified cities were Ziddim Zer, and Hammath, Rakkath, and Chinnereth…and Kedesh and Edrei and En Hazor” (Joshua 19:35–37), and it is taught in a baraita: With regard to these cities of refuge, one does not establish them in small settlements [tirin] or in large cities; rather, one establishes them in intermediate-sized towns? Apparently, Kadesh was a large, fortified city. Rav Yosef said: There were two cities named Kedesh, and the one listed among the fortified cities in the book of Joshua is not the one that was a city of refuge. Rav Ashi said: The listing of Kadesh among the fortified cities is not difficult, as it is similar to the two adjacent yet separate cities of Selikum and the fortification [ve’akra] of Selikum. Likewise, there was the fortified city of Kadesh, mentioned in Joshua, and the city itself, which was an intermediate city that served as city of refuge.,§ The Gemara discusses the matter itself, and it cites the complete baraita: With regard to these cities of refuge, one does not establish them in small settlements or in large cities; rather, one establishes them in intermediate-sized towns. And one establishes them only in a place where water is available, and if there is no water available there, as there is no spring accessible from the city, one brings them water by digging a canal. And one establishes them only in a place where there are markets, and one establishes them only in a populated place, where there are many people who regularly frequent the town. If the population of the surrounding areas diminishes, one adds to it. If the number of residents in the city of refuge itself diminishes, one brings new residents to the city, among them priests, Levites, and Israelites.,The baraita continues: And one may not sell weapons or hunting tools in the cities of refuge, to prevent the blood redeemer from gaining access to means that he could exploit to kill the unintentional murderer who fled to the city of refuge; this is the statement of Rabbi Neḥemya. And the Rabbis permit selling weapons and hunting tools. And Rabbi Neḥemya and the Rabbis agree that one may not spread nets in the cities of refuge, nor may they braid [mafshilin] ropes in those cities, so that the foot of the blood redeemer will not be found there. If the blood redeemer were to enter the city of refuge to purchase nets or ropes, he is apt to encounter the murderer and kill him.,Rabbi Yitzḥak says: What is the verse from which these matters are derived? It is written: “And he shall flee to one of these cities and live” (Deuteronomy 4:42), meaning: Perform some actions for the unintentional murderer so that life in the city of refuge will be conducive to living for him. All these steps are taken to facilitate that objective.,The Sages taught: In the case of a student who was exiled, his teacher is exiled to the city of refuge with him, so that the student can continue studying Torah with him there, as it is stated: “And he shall flee to one of these cities and live,” from which it is derived: Perform some actions for the unintentional murderer so that life in the city will be conducive to living for him. Since Torah study is an integral component of his life, arrangements must be made to ensure continuity in that facet of his existence. Rabbi Zeira says: From here one learns that a person should not teach a student who is not fit, as that may result in the teacher following the student into exile.,Rabbi Yoḥanan says: In the case of a teacher of Torah who was exiled, his school is exiled with him. The Gemara asks: Is that so that a teacher of Torah is exiled? But doesn’t Rabbi Yoḥanan himself say: From where is it derived that matters of Torah provide refuge, i.e., that the blood redeemer may not harm one who is engaged in Torah? It is derived from a verse, as it is stated: “Bezer in the wilderness, in the flatlands, for the Reubenites; and Ramoth in Gilead, for the Gadites; and Golan in Bashan, for the Manassites” (Deuteronomy 4:43), in the list of cities of refuge designated by Moses, and it is written thereafter: “And this is the Torah” (Deuteronomy 4:44). Based on that juxtaposition it is derived that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge.,The Gemara answers: This is not difficult, as this statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan, that the status of Torah is like that of a city of refuge, is referring to Torah at the time that one is engaged in its study, and that statement of Rabbi Yoḥanan, that the teacher of Torah must take his school to the city of refuge, is referring to the teacher of Torah at the time that he is not engaged in its study. His mere presence in a city of refuge provides him with continuous protection.,And if you wish, say: What is the meaning of Rabbi Yoḥanan’s statement that matters of Torah provide refuge? It means protection, but not for an unintentional murderer from the blood redeemer; rather, it means protection from the Angel of Death. This is as it was in this incident where Rav Ḥisda was sitting and studying in the study hall of Rav and the agent of the Angel of Death was unable to approach him and take his life because his mouth was not silent from his study for even a moment. The agent ascended and sat on the cedar tree of the study hall of Rav. The cedar tree broke and Rav Ḥisda was momentarily silent, startled by the sudden noise, and the agent of the Angel of Death overcame him. Apparently, matters of Torah provide protection from the Angel of Death only when one is actively engaged in their study.,§ Rabbi Tanḥum bar Ḥanilai says: For what reason was Reuben privileged to be enumerated first in the rescue, as the first city of refuge listed is Bezer (see Deuteronomy 4:43), which is located in the tribal portion of Reuben? It is due to the fact that he began the rescue of Joseph first, as it is stated: “And Reuben heard and delivered him from their hands” (Genesis 37:21).,Rabbi Simlai taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Then Moses separated three cities beyond the Jordan, to the east of the sun [mizreḥa shamesh]” (Deuteronomy 4:41)? The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Shine the sun [hazraḥ shemesh] for murderers, i.e., provide them with the hope of rescue. Some say that God said to Moses: In designating these cities of refuge you have shined the sun for murderers.,On a related note, Rabbi Simai taught: What is the meaning of that which is written: “He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver; nor he who loves abundance with increase” (Ecclesiastes 5:9)? “He who loves silver shall not be satisfied with silver”; this is a reference to Moses our teacher, whose love of mitzvot was so great that although he knew that an unintentional murderer would not be admitted to the three cities of refuge that were in the east bank of the Jordan until the three cities of refuge that were in the land of Canaan were selected, and that his designation of cities of refuge would have no practical ramifications in his lifetime, he nevertheless said: When there is a mitzva that has come my way, I will fulfill it.,The next phrase in that verse: “Nor he who loves abundance with increase,” is also interpreted as referring to Torah: For whom is it fitting to teach an abundance of people? One for whom all its increase belongs to him, i.e., one who knows all the content of the Torah is worthy of teaching it in public. And that is identical to that which Rabbi Elazar says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Who can express the mighty acts of God, or make all His praise heard” (Psalms 106:2)? For whom is it fitting to express the mighty acts of God? It is one who can make all His praise heard. One who knows only part of it is unfit to teach the multitudes.,And the Rabbis say, and some say Rabba bar Mari says, that the passage “nor he who loves abundance with increase” means whoever loves a Torah scholar who teaches in the presence of an abundance of people, to him shall be increase, i.e., sons who are Torah scholars. The Gemara relates: When they heard that interpretation, the Sages cast their eyes upon Rava, son of Rabba, who loved Torah scholars who disseminate Torah, and he was blessed with sons who were Torah scholars.,The Gemara provides a mnemonic for the ensuing interpretations of the second part of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): Ashi to study, Ravina to teach.,Rav Ashi says: Anyone who loves to study in abundance, i.e., with many colleagues, to him shall be increase, i.e., he will succeed in his studies. And that is parallel to that which Rabbi Yosei, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A sword is upon the baddim, veno’alu (Jeremiah 50:36)? It is fitting that a sword be placed on the necks of the enemies of Torah scholars, a euphemism for Torah scholars, who sit and engage in the study of the Torah individually [bad bevad]. Moreover, they grow foolish through individual study, as it is written here: Veno’alu, and it is written there: “For we have been foolish [no’alnu]” (Numbers 12:11). Moreover, they thereby sin, as it is stated immediately thereafter: “And for we have sinned.” And if you wish, say that from here it is derived that no’alu means sinned: “The ministers of Zoan have sinned [no’alu]” (Isaiah 19:13).,Ravina says that there is a different interpretation of the verse cited earlier (Ecclesiastes 5:9): Anyone who loves to teach in abundance, before the multitudes, to him shall be increase, as his Torah knowledge is enhanced through those lectures. And that is the parallel to that which Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: Much Torah have I studied from my teachers, and I have learned more from my colleagues than from them, and I have learned more from my students than from all of them.,Apropos the virtue of Torah study, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “Our feet were standing in your gates, Jerusalem” (Psalms 122:2)? What caused our feet to withstand the enemies in war? It is the gates of Jerusalem, where they were engaged in Torah study. He interprets the term “in your gates” to mean: Because of your gates, the place of justice and Torah.,And Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: What is the meaning of that which is written: “A song of the ascents to David: I rejoiced when they said to me, let us go to the house of God” (Psalms 122:1)? David said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, I heard people who were saying in reference to me: When will this old man die, and Solomon his son will come and succeed him and build the Temple and we will ascend there for the pilgrimage Festival? It was common knowledge that the Temple would be constructed by David’s successor. David continued: And despite my pain that I am not privileged to build the Temple, I rejoiced. The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: “For better is one day in your courtyard than one thousand” (Psalms 84:11), meaning, I prefer one day during which you engage in the study of Torah before Me than the one thousand burnt-offerings that your son Solomon is destined to sacrifice before Me upon the altar (see I Kings 3:4).,§ The mishna teaches: And roads were aligned for them from this city to that city. It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says:


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

26 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 27.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

27.17. בַּרְזֶל בְּבַרְזֶל יָחַד וְאִישׁ יַחַד פְּנֵי־רֵעֵהוּ׃ 27.17. Iron sharpeneth iron; So a man sharpeneth the countece of his friend."
2. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

12.9. מַדּוּעַ בָּזִיתָ אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בעינו [בְּעֵינַי] אֵת אוּרִיָּה הַחִתִּי הִכִּיתָ בַחֶרֶב וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ לָקַחְתָּ לְּךָ לְאִשָּׁה וְאֹתוֹ הָרַגְתָּ בְּחֶרֶב בְּנֵי עַמּוֹן׃ 12.9. Why hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriyya the Ĥittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of ῾Ammon."
3. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 50.36 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

50.36. חֶרֶב אֶל־הַבַּדִּים וְנֹאָלוּ חֶרֶב אֶל־גִּבּוֹרֶיהָ וָחָתּוּ׃ 50.36. A sword is upon the boasters, and they shall become fools; A sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed."
4. Mishnah, Avot, 3.14 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

3.14. He used to say:Beloved is man for he was created in the image [of God]. Especially beloved is he for it was made known to him that he had been created in the image [of God], as it is said: “for in the image of God He made man” (Genesis 9:6). Beloved are Israel in that they were called children to the All-Present. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that they are called children of the All-Present, as it is said: “your are children to the Lord your God” (Deuteronomy 14:1). Beloved are Israel in that a precious vessel was given to them. Especially beloved are they for it was made known to them that the desirable instrument, with which the world had been created, was given to them, as it is said: “for I give you good instruction; forsake not my teaching” (Proverbs 4:2)."
5. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 10.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

6. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 1.1, 79.6 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

1.1. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָה רַבָּה פָּתַח (משלי ח, ל): וָאֶהְיֶה אֶצְלוֹ אָמוֹן וָאֶהְיֶה שַׁעֲשׁוּעִים יוֹם יוֹם וגו', אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, וְאִית דַּאֲמַר אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא. אָמוֹן פַּדְּגוֹג, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (במדבר יא, יב): כַּאֲשֶׁר יִשָֹּׂא הָאֹמֵן אֶת הַיֹּנֵק. אָמוֹן מְכֻסֶּה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (איכה ד, ה): הָאֱמֻנִים עֲלֵי תוֹלָע וגו'. אָמוֹן מֻצְנָע, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (אסתר ב, ז): וַיְהִי אֹמֵן אֶת הֲדַסָּה. אָמוֹן רַבָּתָא, כְּמָא דְתֵימָא (נחום ג, ח): הֲתֵיטְבִי מִנֹּא אָמוֹן, וּמְתַרְגְּמִינַן הַאַתְּ טָבָא מֵאֲלֶכְּסַנְדְּרִיָא רַבָּתָא דְּיָתְבָא בֵּין נַהֲרוֹתָא. דָּבָר אַחֵר אָמוֹן, אֻמָּן. הַתּוֹרָה אוֹמֶרֶת אֲנִי הָיִיתִי כְּלִי אֻמְנוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, בְּנֹהַג שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם מֶלֶךְ בָּשָׂר וָדָם בּוֹנֶה פָּלָטִין, אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא מִדַּעַת אֻמָּן, וְהָאֻמָּן אֵינוֹ בּוֹנֶה אוֹתָהּ מִדַּעַת עַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא דִּפְתְּרָאוֹת וּפִנְקְסָאוֹת יֵשׁ לוֹ, לָדַעַת הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה חֲדָרִים, הֵיאךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה פִּשְׁפְּשִׁין. כָּךְ הָיָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא מַבִּיט בַּתּוֹרָה וּבוֹרֵא אֶת הָעוֹלָם, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה בְּרֵאשִׁית בָּרָא אֱלֹהִים. וְאֵין רֵאשִׁית אֶלָּא תּוֹרָה, הֵיאַךְ מָה דְּאַתְּ אָמַר (משלי ח, כב): ה' קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ. 1.1. רַבִּי יוֹנָה בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי לֵוִי אָמַר, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה סָתוּם מִכָּל צְדָדָיו וּפָתוּחַ מִלְּפָנָיו, כָּךְ אֵין לְךָ רְשׁוּת לוֹמַר, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּפָנִים, מַה לְּאָחוֹר, אֶלָּא מִיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרָא הָעוֹלָם וּלְהַבָּא. בַּר קַפָּרָא אָמַר (דברים ד, לב): כִּי שְׁאַל נָא לְיָמִים רִאשֹׁנִים אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ לְפָנֶיךָ, לְמִן הַיּוֹם שֶׁנִּבְרְאוּ אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ, וְאִי אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. (דברים ד, לב): וּלְמִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם וְעַד קְצֵה הַשָּׁמָיִם, אַתָּה דּוֹרֵשׁ וְחוֹקֵר, וְאִי אַתָּה חוֹקֵר לִפְנִים מִכָּאן. דָּרַשׁ רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶּן פָּזִי בְּמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בַּהֲדֵיהּ דְּבַר קַפָּרָא, לָמָּה נִבְרָא הָעוֹלָם בְּב', לְהוֹדִיעֲךָ שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי עוֹלָמִים, הָעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְלָמָּה בְּב' שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְלָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁהוּא לְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה לֹא בְּאָלֶ"ף שֶׁלֹא לִתֵּן פִּתְחוֹן פֶּה לָאֶפִּיקוֹרְסִין לוֹמַר הֵיאַךְ הָעוֹלָם יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד שֶׁהוּא נִבְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אֲרִירָה, אֶלָּא אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֲרֵי אֲנִי בּוֹרֵא אוֹתוֹ בִּלְשׁוֹן בְּרָכָה, וְהַלְּוַאי יַעֲמֹד. דָּבָר אַחֵר, לָמָּה בְּב' אֶלָּא מַה ב' זֶה יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁנֵי עוֹקְצִין, אֶחָד מִלְּמַעְלָה וְאֶחָד מִלְּמַטָּה מֵאֲחוֹרָיו, אוֹמְרִים לַב' מִי בְּרָאֲךָ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה בְּעוּקְצוֹ מִלְּמַעְלָה, וְאוֹמֵר זֶה שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה בְּרָאָנִי. וּמַה שְּׁמוֹ, וְהוּא מַרְאֶה לָהֶן בְּעוּקְצוֹ שֶׁל אַחֲרָיו, וְאוֹמֵר ה' שְׁמוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בַּר חֲנִינָא בְּשֵׁם רַבִּי אֲחָא, עֶשְׂרִים וְשִׁשָּׁה דוֹרוֹת הָיְתָה הָאָלֶ"ף קוֹרֵא תִּגָּר לִפְנֵי כִסְאוֹ שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, אָמְרָה לְפָנָיו רִבּוֹנוֹ שֶׁל עוֹלָם, אֲנִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אוֹתִיּוֹת וְלֹא בָּרָאתָ עוֹלָמְךָ בִּי, אָמַר לָהּ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הָעוֹלָם וּמְלוֹאוֹ לֹא נִבְרָא אֶלָּא בִּזְכוּת הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (משלי ג, יט): ה' בְּחָכְמָה יָסַד אָרֶץ וגו', לְמָחָר אֲנִי בָּא לִתֵּן תּוֹרָה בְּסִינַי וְאֵינִי פּוֹתֵחַ תְּחִלָה אֶלָּא בָּךְ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כ, ב): אָנֹכִי ה' אֱלֹהֶיךָ. רַבִּי הוֹשַׁעְיָא אוֹמֵר לָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ אָלֶ"ף, שֶׁהוּא מַסְכִּים מֵאָלֶ"ף, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (תהלים קה, ח): דָּבָר צִוָּה לְאֶלֶף דּוֹר. 79.6. וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר (בראשית לג, יח), חָנַן אֶת הַפָּנִים שֶׁבָּעִיר, הִתְחִיל מְשַׁלֵּחַ לָהֶם דּוֹרוֹנוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, הִתְחִיל מַעֲמִיד הַטְּלִיסִין וּמוֹכֵר בְּזוֹל, הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁאָדָם צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲזִיק טוֹבָה לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ הֲנָאָה מִמֶּנּוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי וְרַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרֵיהּ הֲווֹ טְמִירִין בִּמְעָרְתָא י"ג שָׁנָה בְּיוֹמֵי דִּשְׁמָדָא, וְהָיוּ אוֹכְלִין חֲרוּבִין שֶׁל גָּרוֹדָא עַד שֶׁהֶעֱלָה גּוּפָן חֲלוּדָה. לְסוֹף שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שְׁנִין נְפַק יְתֵיב עַל תְּרַע מְעָרְתָא, חֲמָא חַד צַיָּד קָאֵים וְצָיֵד צִיפֳּרִין, וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּרַת קָלָא אָמְרָה מִן שְׁמַיָא דִּימוֹס דִּימוֹס, פַּסְגָּא. וְכַד הֲוָה שָׁמַע בְּרַת קָלָא אֲמָרַת סְפֶקוּלָא, הֲוַת מִתָּצְדָה וְנִלְכָּדָה. אָמַר, צִפּוֹר מִבַּלְעֲדֵי שְׁמַיָא לָא מִתָּצְדָא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה נֶפֶשׁ דְּבַר נָשׁ, נְפַק וְאַשְׁכַּח מִלַּיָא מְשַׁדְּכָן, וְנִתְבַּטְּלָה הַגְּזֵרָה. אֲתוֹן וְאַסְחוֹן בַּהֲדָא בֵּי בָּנֵי דְּבֵית מוֹקֵד דִּטְבֶרְיָא, אֲמַר לֵיהּ בְּרֵיהּ כָּל הֲדָא טַבְתָא עֲבָדַת לָן טְבֶרְיָא וְלֵית אֲנַן מְדַכָּן יָתָהּ מִן קָטוֹלַיָא, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת טוֹבָה כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהָיוּ אֲבוֹתֵינוּ עוֹשִׂים, שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹשִׂים אִיטְלוּסִין וּמוֹכְרִין בְּזוֹל, אָמַר צְרִיכִין אָנוּ לְדַכָּיָא טְבֶרְיָא, מָה עֲבַד, נְסַב תֻּרְמוּסָא וַהֲוָה מְקַצֵּץ תֻּרְמוּסָא וְשַׁדֵּי קְצוֹצוּתֵיהּ וּמְקַלֵּק בַּשּׁוּק, וְכָל אַתְרָא דַּהֲוָה קְטִילָא סָלֵיק וְאִינוּן מַפְקוּן וְנָפְקִין, וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹא הָיְתָה שָׁמָּה טֻמְאָה תֻּרְמְסָא עוֹמֶדֶת, וְהוּא מְצַיֵּן אֵיזֶה מְקוֹם טֻמְאָה וּמְקוֹם טָהֳרָה, עַד זְמַן דְּדַכֵּי יָתָהּ מִן קָטִילַיָא. חֲמְתֵיהּ חַד כּוּתִי עַם דְאַרַע, אֲמַר לֵית אֲנָא אָזֵיל וּמַדְחַךְ בַּהֲדֵין סָבָא דִּיהוּדָאֵי, אִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּגַרְגִּינָא וְאִית דְּאָמְרֵי מִן הָדֵין שׁוּקָא דְּסַקָּאֵי, נְסַב קְטִיל וּטְמָרֵיהּ בְּשׁוּקָא דַּהֲווֹ מְדַכֵּי, בְּצַפְרָא אֲזַל אֲמַר לְהוֹן אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בֶּן יוֹחָאי טְבֶרְיָא אֲתוֹן חֲמוּן הָדֵין קְטִילָא [נסח אחר: אזל לגביה אמר ליה לא דכיתא שוק פלן, אמר ליה הין, אמר ליה ואין אפיקת לך מיתין מן בתרך, אמר ליה גוד חמי ליה], צָפָה רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן יוֹחָאי בְּרוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ שֶׁהוּא נְתָנוֹ שָׁם, אָמַר גּוֹזֵר אֲנִי עַל הָעֶלְיוֹן שֶׁיֵּרֵד וְעַל הַתַּחְתּוֹן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה, וַהֲוָה כֵן. וּסְלֵיק וּשְׁבַת בְּבֵיתֵיהּ, וַעֲבַר בְּהָדֵין מִגְדְּלָא דְּצַבָּעַיָא שְׁמַע קָלָא דְּנַקָּאי סַפְרָא, אָמַר לָא אַמְרִיתוּן דְּדַכֵּי בַּר יוֹחָאי לִטְבֶרְיָה, אָמְרִין אַשְׁכְּחוּן חַד קְטִילָא, אָמַר יָבוֹא עָלַי אִם אֵין בְּיָדִי הֲלָכוֹת כִּשְׂעַר רֹאשִׁי עַל טְבֶרְיָה שֶׁהִיא טְהוֹרָה חוּץ מִזֶּה וּמִזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא הָיִיתָ בַּמִּנְיָן עִמָּנוּ שֶׁנִּטְהֲרָה, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים, וְעָלֶיךָ נֶאֱמַר (קהלת י, ח): וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, מִיָּד נַעֲשָׂה גַּל שֶׁל עֲצָמוֹת. עָבַר בַּהֲדָא בִּקְעַת דְּבֵית נְטוֹפָא, חֲמָא חַד בַּר נָשׁ קָאֵים וּמְלַקֵּט סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא סְפִיחֵי שְׁבִיעִית הֵן, אָמַר לוֹ וְלֹא אַתָּה הוּא שֶׁהִתַּרְתָּ, לֹא כָךְ תְּנֵינַן רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר כָּל הַסְּפִיחִין מֻתָּרִין חוּץ מִסְּפִיחֵי כְּרוּב שֶׁאֵין כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם בְּיַרְקוֹת שָׂדֶה, אָמַר לוֹ וַהֲלוֹא חֲבֵרַי חוֹלְקִים עָלַי, פָּרַצְתָּ גְּדֵרָן שֶׁל חֲכָמִים וּפֹרֵץ גָּדֵר יִשְּׁכֶנּוּ נָחָשׁ, וְכֵן הֲוַת לֵיהּ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וַיִּחַן אֶת פְּנֵי הָעִיר, נִכְנַס בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת עִם דִּמְדּוּמֵי חַמָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְקָבַע תְּחוּמִין מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. הֲדָא אָמְרָת שֶׁשָּׁמַר יַעֲקֹב אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתַּן. 1.1. The great Rabbi Hoshaya opened [with the verse (Mishlei 8:30),] \"I [the Torah] was an amon to Him and I was a plaything to Him every day.\" Amon means \"pedagogue\" (i.e. ny). Amon means \"covered.\" Amon means \"hidden.\" And there is one who says amon means \"great.\" Amon means \"ny,\" as in (Bamidbar 11:12) “As a ny (omein) carries the suckling child.\" Amon means \"covered,\" as in (Eichah 4:5) \"Those who were covered (emunim) in scarlet have embraced refuse heaps.\" Amon means \"hidden,\" as in (Esther 2:7) \"He hid away (omein) Hadassah.\" Amon means \"great,\" as in (Nahum 3:8) \"Are you better than No-amon [which dwells in the rivers]?\" which the Targum renders as, \"Are you better than Alexandria the Great (amon), which dwells between the rivers?\" Alternatively, amon means \"artisan.\" The Torah is saying, \"I was the artisan's tool of Hashem.\" In the way of the world, a king of flesh and blood who builds a castle does not do so from his own knowledge, but rather from the knowledge of an architect, and the architect does not build it from his own knowledge, but rather he has scrolls and books in order to know how to make rooms and doorways. So too Hashem gazed into the Torah and created the world. Similarly the Torah says, \"Through the reishis Hashem created [the heavens and the earth],\" and reishis means Torah, as in \"Hashem made me [the Torah] the beginning (reishis) of His way\" (Mishlei 8:22)."
7. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 48 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

8. Palestinian Talmud, Berachot, 2.9 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

9. Palestinian Talmud, Moed Qatan, 3.7 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

10. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, 9.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

11. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

27b. סבר שיולי משאיל לו כי היכי דמשאיל לו משאיל לאיניש אחרינא ואתא ההוא גברא לאורועי נפשיה,אמר רבא א"ר יוחנן ואמרי לה אמר רב חסדא אמר ר' יוחנן ספק חי ספק מת אין מתרפאין מהן ודאי מת מתרפאין מהן,מת האיכא חיי שעה לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,ומנא תימרא דלחיי שעה לא חיישינן דכתיב (מלכים ב ז, ד) אם אמרנו נבוא העיר והרעב בעיר ומתנו שם והאיכא חיי שעה אלא לאו לחיי שעה לא חיישינן,מיתיבי לא ישא ויתן אדם עם המינין ואין מתרפאין מהן אפילו לחיי שעה,מעשה בבן דמא בן אחותו של ר' ישמעאל שהכישו נחש ובא יעקב איש כפר סכניא לרפאותו ולא הניחו ר' ישמעאל וא"ל ר' ישמעאל אחי הנח לו וארפא ממנו ואני אביא מקרא מן התורה שהוא מותר ולא הספיק לגמור את הדבר עד שיצתה נשמתו ומת,קרא עליו ר' ישמעאל אשריך בן דמא שגופך טהור ויצתה נשמתך בטהרה ולא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים (קהלת י, ח) ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש,שאני מינות דמשכא דאתי למימשך בתרייהו,אמר מר לא עברת על דברי חביריך שהיו אומרים ופורץ גדר ישכנו נחש איהו נמי חויא טרקיה חויא דרבנן דלית ליה אסותא כלל,ומאי ה"ל למימר (ויקרא יח, ה) וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם,ור' ישמעאל הני מילי בצינעא אבל בפרהסיא לא דתניא היה רבי ישמעאל אומר מנין שאם אומרים לו לאדם עבוד עבודת כוכבים ואל תהרג שיעבוד ואל יהרג ת"ל וחי בהם ולא שימות בהם יכול אפילו בפרהסיא ת"ל (ויקרא כב, לב) ולא תחללו את שם קדשי,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן כל מכה שמחללין עליה את השבת אין מתרפאין מהן ואיכא דאמרי אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר ר"י כל 27b. The Gemara explains the rationale for this leniency: The gentile bthinksto himself that the Jew bis asking himfor his opinion, and bjust as he is asking him, hewill also bask other people. Andthe gentile further reasons that if the Jew understands that the gentile provided him with bad advice, bthat man,i.e., the gentile, bwill bring harm to himselfby damaging his own reputation. It is therefore assumed that the gentile will provide good advice in order to avoid sullying his reputation.,§ The Gemara analyzes a situation in which one may receive medical attention from gentiles. bRava saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says, and some saythat it was bRav Ḥisdawho bsaysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:If there is buncertaintyas to whether a patient will blivethrough his ailment bor diefrom it, the patient bmay not be treated bygentile doctors, due to the concern that a gentile doctor may kill him. But if it is bcertainthat he will bdiefrom his affliction if he does not receive medical attention, the patient bis treated by them,as it is possible that a gentile physician will save him.,The Gemara challenges: Even if it is certain that the patient will bdieif he is not treated, bnevertheless, there isvalue in btemporal life,i.e., it is preferable for the Jew to live as long as his ailment permits rather than risking a premature death at the hands of a gentile physician. The Gemara explains: bWe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal lifewhen there is a possibility of permanent recovery, and therefore it is preferable to receive medical attention from a gentile despite the risk involved.,The Gemara asks: bAnd from where do you say that we are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? As it is writtenwith regard to the discussion held by four lepers left outside a besieged city: b“If we say: We will enter into the city, then the famine is in the city, and we shall die there;and if we sit still here, we also die. Now therefore come, and let us fall unto the host of the Arameans; if they save us alive, we shall live; and if they kill us, we shall but die” (II Kings 7:4). The starving lepers decided to risk premature death rather than waiting to die of starvation. The Gemara asks rhetorically: bBut isn’t there temporal lifeto be lost, in which case it would be preferable for the lepers to remain in their current location? bRather, is it notapparent that bwe are not concerned withthe value of btemporal life? /b,The Gemara braises an objectionfrom a ibaraita /i: bA person may not engage in dealings with heretics, and one may not be treated by them even ina case where it is clear that without medical attention one will experience only btemporal life. /b,The ibaraitarelates an incident illustrating this point. There was ban incident involving ben Dama, son of Rabbi Yishmael’s sister,in bwhich a snake bit him. Andfollowing the attack, bYa’akov of the village of Sekhanya,who was a heretic, a disciple of Jesus the Nazarene, bcame to treat him, but Rabbi Yishmael did not let himdo so. bAndben Dama bsaid to him: Rabbi Yishmael, my brother, let himtreat me, band I will be healed by him. And I will cite a verse from the Torahto prove bthataccepting medical treatment from a heretic bis permittedin this situation. bButben Dama bdid not manage to complete the statement before his soul departedfrom his body band he died. /b, bRabbi Yishmael recited with regard to him: Fortunate are you, ben Dama, as your body is pure and your soul departed in purity, and you did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him”(Ecclesiastes 10:8), i.e., one is punished for ignoring an ordice of the Sages. This incident indicates that it is not permitted for one to accept medical treatment from a heretic even if it is clear that without it he will live only a short while.,The Gemara explains: bHeresy is different, as it is enticing.In other words, it is prohibited to accept medical treatment from a heretic, bas one might come to be drawn afterhis heresy. By contrast, receiving medical attention from a gentile is permitted if it is certain that one will die if he is not treated., bThe Master saidabove: bYou did not transgress the statement of your colleagues, who would statethe verse: b“And who breaks through a fence, a snake shall bite him.”The Gemara asks: But ben Dama bwas also bitten by a snake,even before this declaration of Rabbi Yishmael, so how can he be considered fortunate? The Gemara explains: bThe snakementioned in the curse bof the Sagesis different, bas it has no remedy whatsoever.Although ben Dama was bitten by a snake, he could have been healed.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what wouldben Dama bhave said?What verse did he intend to cite as proof that it was permitted for him to be healed by a heretic? The verse: “You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My ordices, which if a man do, bhe shall live by them”(Leviticus 18:5). This teaches that one should live by God’s mitzvot, band not that heshould bdie by them.This verse serves as a source for the ihalakhathat one may violate a prohibition in order to save a life., bAndwhy does bRabbi Yishmaeldisagree with ben Dama? He maintains that bthis matterapplies only bin private, but in publicone bmay nottransgress a prohibition even to save a life. bAs it is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Yishmael would say: From whereis it derived bthat ifoppressors bsay to a person: Worship an idol and youwill bnot be killed, that one should worshipthe idol band not be killed? The verse states: “He shall live by them,” and not that he should die by them.One bmighthave thought that this applies beven in public.Therefore, bthe verse states: “And you shall not profane My holy name”(Leviticus 22:32).,§ The Gemara examines various circumstances in which one is permitted to receive treatment from a gentile. bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany injury for which Shabbat is desecrated, one may not be treated bygentiles. bAnd there arethose bwho saythat bRabba bar bar Ḥana saysthat bRabbi Yoḥa says:With regard to bany /b
12. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

59b. תנו רבנן הרואה חמה בתקופתה לבנה בגבורתה וכוכבים במסילותם ומזלות כסדרן אומר ברוך עושה בראשית ואימת הוי אמר אביי כל כ"ח שנין והדר מחזור ונפלה תקופת ניסן בשבתאי באורתא דתלת נגהי ארבע:,ר' יהודה אומר הרואה הים וכו': לפרקים עד כמה אמר רמי בר אבא א"ר יצחק עד שלשים יום,ואמר רמי בר אבא א"ר יצחק הרואה פרת אגשרא דבבל אומר ברוך עושה בראשית והאידנא דשניוה פרסאי מבי שבור ולעיל רב יוסף אמר מאיהי דקירא ולעיל ואמר רמי בר אבא הרואה דגלת אגשרא דשביסתנא אומר ברוך עושה בראשית,מאי (בראשית ב, יד) חדקל א"ר אשי שמימיו חדין וקלין מאי פרת שמימיו פרין ורבין,ואמר רבא האי דחריפי בני מחוזא משום דשתו מיא דדגלת האי דגיחורי משום דמשמשי ביממא והאי דניידי עינייהו משום דדיירו בבית אפל:,על הגשמים כו': ועל הגשמים הטוב והמטיב מברך והא"ר אבהו ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא מאימתי מברכין על הגשמים משיצא חתן לקראת כלה,מאי מברכין אמר רב יהודה מודים אנחנו לך על כל טפה וטפה שהורדת לנו ורבי יוחנן מסיים בה הכי אילו פינו מלא שירה כים וכו' אין אנו מספיקין להודות לך ה' אלהינו עד תשתחוה בא"י רוב ההודאות,רוב ההודאות ולא כל ההודאות אמר רבא אימא האל ההודאות א"ר פפא הלכך נימרינהו לתרוייהו רוב ההודאות והאל ההודאות,ואלא קשיא ל"ק הא דשמע משמע הא דחזא מחזי,דשמע משמע היינו בשורות טובות ותנן על בשורות טובות אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב,אלא אידי ואידי דחזי מחזי ולא קשיא הא דאתא פורתא הא דאתא טובא ואב"א הא והא דאתא טובא ולא קשיא הא דאית ליה ארעא הא דלית ליה ארעא,אית ליה ארעא הטוב והמטיב מברך והא (תנן) בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים אומר ברוך שהחיינו והגיענו לזמן הזה שלו ושל אחרים אומר הטוב והמטיב,לא קשיא הא דאית ליה שותפות הא דלית ליה שותפות והתניא קצרו של דבר על שלו הוא אומר ברוך שהחיינו וקיימנו על שלו ועל של חבירו אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב,וכל היכא דלית לאחרינא בהדיה לא מברך הטוב והמטיב והתניא אמרו ליה ילדה אשתו זכר אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא אשתו בהדיה דניחא לה בזכר,ת"ש מת אביו והוא יורשו בתחלה אומר ברוך דיין האמת ולבסוף הוא אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא אחי דקא ירתי בהדיה,ת"ש שינוי יין א"צ לברך שינוי מקום צריך לברך וא"ר יוסף בר אבא א"ר יוחנן אע"פ שאמרו שינוי יין א"צ לברך אבל אומר ברוך הטוב והמטיב התם נמי דאיכא בני חבורה דשתו בהדיה:,בנה בית חדש וקנה כלים חדשים וכו': א"ר הונא לא שנו אלא שאין לו כיוצא בהן אבל יש לו כיוצא בהן א"צ לברך ור' יוחנן אמר אפילו יש לו כיוצא בהן צריך לברך 59b. bThe Sages taught: One who sees the sun inthe beginning of bits cycle, the moon in its might, the planets in their orbit, or the signs of the zodiacaligned bin their order recites: Blessed…Author of creation.The Gemara asks: bAnd when is itthat the sun is at the beginning of its cycle? bAbaye said: Every twenty-eight yearswhen the bcycleis complete and breturnsto its genesis, band the Nisan,vernal, bequinox,when the spring days and nights are of equal length, bfalls withinthe constellation of bSaturn on the night of the third and eve of the fourthday of the week, as then their arrangement returns to be as it was when the constellations were first placed in the heavens.,We learned in the mishna that bRabbi Yehuda said: One who sees the great seaintermittently brecites:Blessed…Who has made the great sea. The Gemara asks: bHow muchis bintermittently? Rami bar Abba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak said: Thirty days. /b, bAnd Rami bar Abba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak said: One who sees the Euphrates River near the bridge of Babylonia recites: Blessed…Author of creation.The Gemara adds: bAnd now that the Persians have reroutedthe course of the river, one only recites the blessing bfrom Beit Shavor upriver.Downriver, it no longer flows as it did at creation, so there one does not recite the blessing: Author of creation. bRav Yosef said:One only recites the blessing bfrom Ihi Dekira upriver. And Rami bar Abba said: One who sees the Tigris on the bridge of Shabistana recites: Blessed…Author of creation. /b,The Gemara proceeds to explain the names of these rivers. bWhat isthe source of the name iḤidekel[ /bTigris]? bRav Ashi said:Its name is an acronym derived from the fact that bits waters are sharp [ iḥadin /i] and light [ ikalin /i]and therefore good for drinking. bWhat isthe source of the name iPerat /i[Euphrates]? It is so named bbecause its waters are fruitful [ iparin /i] and multiply [ iravin /i];there are many fish in it.,As for the Tigris River, bRava said: The inhabitantsof the city bMeḥoza are sharp because they drink the water of the Tigris; they are red because they engage inconjugal brelations in the daytime; and their eyes moveconstantly bbecause they live in dark houses. /b,We learned in our mishna that bover rainone recites the blessing: Blessed…Who is good and does good. The Gemara asks: bAnd over raindoes bonereally brecite the blessing: Who is good and does good? Didn’t Rabbi Abbahu say, and some say it was taught in a ibaraita /i: From when does one recite the blessing on rain? From when the groom went out to meet the bride.In other words, there are puddles of water on the ground. The groom, meaning the raindrops from above, cause the bride, meaning the water below, to splash.,The Gemara asks: bWhat blessing does one recite? Rav Yehuda said:The formula of the blessing is: bWe thank You for each and every drop that You have made fall for us. And Rav Yoḥa concludesthe blessing bas follows: If our mouths were as full of song as the sea…we could not sufficiently praise You O Lord our God,and he continues with the formula of inishmatthat is recited on Shabbat morning, buntil: Shall bowbefore You. bBlessed are You, O Lord,to Whom babundant thanksgivingsare offered.,The Gemara asks: Does the blessing say: bAbundant thanksgivings, and not: All thanksgivings?Certainly all thanksgivings are due to God. bRava said:Emend the formula of the blessing and bsay: The God of thanksgivings. Rav Pappa said: Therefore, we will recite them both: Abundant thanksgivings, and: The God of thanksgivings. /b, bHowever, it isstill bdifficult,as apparently the blessing for rain is not: Who is good and does good, as it appears in our mishna. The Gemara responds: This is bnot difficult. This,which we learned in our mishna, that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case bwhere one heardthat rain fell. bThis,where we learned that one recites: We thank You, etc., refers to a case bwhere one sawthe rain fall.,The Gemara asks: bOne heardthat the rain fell; bthat isa case of bgood tidings. And we learnedin the mishna bthat uponhearing bgood tidings one recites: Who is good and does good.Therefore, there is no reason for the mishna to mention rain separately., bRather,the difficulty can be otherwise resolved: bThis,Rabbi Abbahu’s statement, band that,the mishna, both refer to a case where one saw the rain fall, bandthis is bnot difficult. This,Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites We thank You, etc., brefers toa case bwhere a littlerain bfell,while bthat,the mishna which says that one recites: Who is good and does good, refers to a case bwhere a lotof rain bfell. And if you wish, sayinstead that bthis and thatrefer to cases bwhere a lotof rain bfell, andthis is bnot difficult. This,the mishna, brefers toa case bwhere one owns land,while bthat,Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: We thank You, etc., brefers toa case bwhere one does not own land,so the rain does not benefit him directly.,The Gemara asks: bOne who owns land recites: Who is good and does good? Didn’t we learnin the mishna: bOne who built a new house or purchased new vessels recites: Blessed…Who has given us life…and brought us to this time.However, if the land belonged bto him and othersin partnership, bhe recites: Who is good and does good?For rain falling onto land that one owns exclusively, he recites: Who has given us life and not: Who is good and does good.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. This,the mishna where we learned that one recites: Who is good and does good, brefers toa case bwhere oneowns his land bin partnershipwith another; bthat,Rabbi Abbahu’s statement that one recites: Who has given us life, brefers toa case bwhere oneowns the land exclusively and bdoes not have a partnership. Andindeed, this ihalakha bwas taughtin a ibaraita /i: bThe gist of the matter is, forthat which bisexclusively bhis, he recites: Blessed…Who has given us life and sustained us; forthat which bbelongs to him and to anotherin partnership, bhe recites: Who is good and does good. /b,The Gemara challenges this principle: bAnd in every case where others are not with him, one does not recite: Who is good and does good? Wasn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bIf they told him that his wife gave birth to a male, he recites: Who is good and does good?The Gemara responds: bThere too, his wife is with him, as she is also happy that a malechild was born.,The Gemara challenges further: bCome and heara contradiction from what was taught in a ibaraita /i: One whose bfather died and he is his heir, initially recites: Blessed…the true Judge,upon hearing of his father’s death, band ultimately,upon receiving his inheritance, bhe recites: Blessed…Who is good and does good.Despite the fact that the son alone benefits, he nevertheless recites: Who is good and does good. The Gemara responds: bThere, too,it refers to a case bwhere he has brothers who inherit along with him. /b,The Gemara cites an additional challenge: bCome and heara contradiction based on what was taught in a ibaraita /i: In the case of ba change inthe type of bwineduring a meal, bone need not recite the blessing:Who creates fruit of the vine, a second time. However, in the case of ba change in place, one must recite asecond bblessingover the wine. bAnd Rabbi Yosef bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Althoughthe Sages bsaid thatin the case of ba change inthe type of bwine one need not recite asecond bblessingover the wine, bhe does recite: Blessed…Who is good and does good.The Gemara responds: bThere, too,it refers to a case where he is not alone, but where bmembers of the group are drinking with him. /b,We learned in the mishna: One who bbuilt a new house or purchased new vesselsrecites: Blessed…Who has given us life, sustained us and brought us to this time. With regard to this blessing, bRav Huna said: They only taughtthat one recites: Who has given us life, upon purchasing a new vessel when bhe does notalready bhave something similar,i.e., something he inherited. bHowever, if healready bhas something similar he need not recite a blessing,as it is not new to him. bRabbi Yoḥa said: Evenif bonealready bhas something similarthat he inherited, bhe must recite a blessingbecause he never before purchased a vessel of that kind.
13. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

53a. וגשרים ונפשות שיש בהן בית דירה מוציאין את המדה כנגדן ועושין אותה כמין טבלא מרובעת כדי שיהא נשכר את הזויות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big רב ושמואל חד תני מעברין וחד תני מאברין,מאן דתני מאברין אבר אבר ומאן דתני מעברין כאשה עוברה (בראשית כג, ט),מערת המכפלה רב ושמואל חד אמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה וחד אמר בית ועלייה על גביו,בשלמא למאן דאמר זה על גב זה היינו מכפלה אלא למאן דאמר שני בתים זה לפנים מזה מאי מכפלה,שכפולה בזוגות (בראשית לה, כז) ממרא קרית ארבע א"ר יצחק קרית הארבע זוגות אדם וחוה אברהם ושרה יצחק ורבקה יעקב ולאה (בראשית יד, א),ויהי בימי אמרפל רב ושמואל חד אמר נמרוד שמו ולמה נקרא שמו אמרפל שאמר והפיל לאברהם אבינו בתוך כבשן האש וחד אמר אמרפל שמו ולמה נקרא שמו נמרוד שהמריד את כל העולם כולו עליו במלכותו (שמות א, ח),ויקם מלך חדש על מצרים רב ושמואל חד אמר חדש ממש וחד אמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו,מ"ד חדש ממש דכתיב חדש ומאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו מדלא כתיב וימת וימלוך,ולמאן דאמר שנתחדשו גזירותיו הא כתיב (שמות א, ח) אשר לא ידע את יוסף מאי אשר לא ידע את יוסף דהוה דמי כמאן דלא ידע ליה ליוסף כלל:,(סימן שמונה עשרה ושנים עשר למדנו בדוד ויבן):,א"ר יוחנן י"ח ימים גידלתי אצל רבי אושעיא בריבי ולא למדתי ממנו אלא דבר אחד במשנתינו כיצד מאברין את הערים באלף,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן י"ב תלמידים היו לו לרבי אושעיא בריבי וי"ח ימים גידלתי ביניהן ולמדתי לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד,לב כל אחד ואחד וחכמת כל אחד ואחד גמר גמרא לא גמר איבעית אימא מנייהו דידהו גמר מיניה דידיה לא גמר ואב"א דבר אחד במשנתינו קאמר,וא"ר יוחנן כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל ר' אושעיא היינו יושבין ארבעה ארבעה באמה אמר רבי כשהיינו לומדין תורה אצל רבי אלעזר בן שמוע היינו יושבין ששה ששה באמה,א"ר יוחנן רבי אושעיא בריבי בדורו כר' מאיר בדורו מה רבי מאיר בדורו לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו אף רבי אושעיא לא יכלו חבריו לעמוד על סוף דעתו,אמר ר' יוחנן לבן של ראשונים כפתחו של אולם ושל אחרונים כפתחו של היכל ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,ראשונים ר"ע אחרונים ר"א בן שמוע איכא דאמרי ראשונים ר' אלעזר בן שמוע אחרונים ר' אושעיא בריבי ואנו כמלא נקב מחט סידקית,אמר אביי ואנן כי סיכתא בגודא לגמרא אמר רבא ואנן כי אצבעתא בקירא לסברא אמר רב אשי אנן כי אצבעתא בבירא לשכחה,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בני יהודה שהקפידו על לשונם נתקיימה תורתם בידם בני גליל שלא הקפידו על לשונם לא נתקיימה תורתם בידם,מידי בקפידא תליא מילתא אלא בני יהודה דדייקי לישנא ומתנחי להו סימנא נתקיימה תורתן בידן בני גליל דלא דייקי לישנא ולא מתנחי להו סימנא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,בני יהודה גמרו מחד רבה נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גמרי מחד רבה לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,רבינא אמר בני יהודה דגלו מסכתא נתקיימה תורתן בידם בני גליל דלא גלו מסכתא לא נתקיימה תורתן בידם,דוד גלי מסכתא שאול לא גלי מסכתא דוד דגלי מסכתא כתיב ביה (תהלים קיט, עד) יראיך יראוני וישמחו שאול דלא גלי מסכתא כתיב ביה ((שמואל א יד, מז) אל כל) אשר יפנה 53a. band bridges and monumentsover graves bin which there is a residence, one extends the measureof that side of the city as though there were other structures bopposite themin the adjacent corner of the city. bAndprior to measuring the Shabbat limit, bone rendersthe city blike a square tablet so that it gains the corners,although there are actually no houses in those corners., strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara cites a dispute with regard to the mishna’s terminology. bRav and Shmueldisagreed: bOne taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter iayin /i, band one taughtthat the term in the mishna is ime’abberin /i,with the letter ialef /i.,The Gemara explains: bThe one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an ialefexplained the term in the sense of blimb[iever/b] by blimb.Determination of the city’s borders involves the addition of limbs to the core section of the city. bAnd the one who taught ime’abberin /iwith an iayinexplained the term in the sense of ba pregt woman[iubbera/b] whose belly protrudes. In similar fashion, all the city’s protrusions are incorporated in its Shabbat limit.,Apropos this dispute, the Gemara cites similar disputes between Rav and Shmuel. With regard to bthe Machpelah Cave,in which the Patriarchs and Matriarchs are buried, bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:The cave consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other. And one said:It consists of ba room anda second bstory above it. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted,this is understandable baccording to the one who saidthe cave consists of boneroom babove the other,as bthat isthe meaning of bMachpelah, double. However, according to the one who saidit consists of btwo rooms, onefarther binthan bthe other,in bwhatsense is it bMachpelah?Even ordinary houses contain two rooms.,Rather, it is called Machpelah in the sense bthat it is doubled withthe Patriarchs and Matriarchs, who are buried there bin pairs.This is similar to the homiletic interpretation of the alternative name for Hebron mentioned in the Torah: b“Mamreof bKiryat Ha’Arba,which is Hebron” (Genesis 35:27). bRabbi Yitzḥak said:The city is called Kiryat Ha’Arba, the city of four, because it is bthe city of the four couplesburied there: bAdam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca,and bJacob and Leah. /b,They disagreed about this verse as well: b“And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel”(Genesis 14:1). bRav and Shmuelboth identified Amraphel with Nimrod. However, bone said: Nimrod was his name. And why was his name called Amraphel?It is a contraction of two Hebrew words: bAs he said [ iamar /i]the command band cast [ ihippil /i] our father Abraham into the fiery furnace,when Abraham rebelled against and challenged his proclaimed divinity. bAnd one said: Amraphel was his name. And why was his name called Nimrod? Because he caused the entire world to rebel [ ihimrid /i]against bGod during his reign. /b,They also disagreed about this verse: b“There arose a new king over Egypt,who knew not Joseph” (Exodus 1:8). bRav and Shmueldisagreed. bOne said:He was bactuallya bnewking, band one said:He was in fact the old king, but bhis decrees were new. /b,The Gemara explains. bThe one who saidhe was bactuallya bnewking based his opinion on the fact bthat it is writtenin the verse that he was bnew. And the one who said that his decrees were newderived his opinion bfromthe fact bthat it is not written: Andthe king bdied, andhis successor breigned,as it is written, for example, with regard to the kings of Edom (Genesis 36).,The Gemara asks: bAnd according to the one who said that his decrees were new, isn’t it written: “Who knew not Joseph”?If it were the same king, how could he not know Joseph? The Gemara explains: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: b“Who knew not Joseph”?It means bthat heconducted himself blike one who did not know Joseph at all. /b,The Gemara cites a bmnemonicof key words from a series of traditions cited below: bEighteen and twelve we studied, with regard to David, and he will understand. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa said: I spent eighteen days with Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished [ iBeribbi /i], and I learned from him only one matter in our Mishna.In the phrase: bHow does one extend cities,the word ime’abberinis spelled bwith an ialef /i. /b,The Gemara asks: bIs this so? Didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: Rabbi Oshaya the Distinguished had twelve students, and I spent eighteen days among them, and I learned the heart of each and every one,i.e., the nature and character of each student, band theextent of the bwisdom of each and every one?How could Rabbi Yoḥa say that he learned only one matter?,The Gemara answers: It is possible that bhe learned the heart of each and every one and the wisdom of each and every one,but bhe did not learnsubstantive btradition.And bif you wish, sayinstead: bFromthe students bthemselves he learnedmany things; bfromRabbi Oshaya bhimself he did not learnanything beyond that one matter. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead: Rabbi Yoḥa meant to bsaythat he learned only one matter bin our Mishnafrom Rabbi Oshaya, but he learned other matters from him based on ibaraitotand other sources., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidabout that period: bWhen we were studying Torah with Rabbi Oshaya,it was so crowded with students that bwe would sit four in eachsquare bcubit.Similarly, bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: When we were studying Torah with Rabbi Elazar ben Shamua, we would sit six in eachsquare bcubit. /b, bRabbi Yoḥa saidabout his teacher: bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguishedwas as great bin his generation as Rabbi Meirwas bin his generation: Just aswith regard to bRabbi Meir, in his generation his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinkingdue to the subtlety of his great mind, bsoit was with bRabbi Oshaya; his colleagues were unable to fully graspthe profundity of bhis thinking. /b,Similarly, bRabbi Yoḥa said: The hearts,i.e., the wisdom, bofthe bearlySages were blike the doorway to the Entrance Hallof the Temple, which was twenty by forty cubits, bandthe hearts bofthe blaterSages bwere like the doorway to the Sanctuary,which was ten by twenty cubits. bAnd we,i.e., our hearts, bare likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,He explains: The term bearlySages is referring to bRabbi Akiva,and the term blaterSages is referring to his student, bRabbi Elazar ben Shamua. Some saythat the term bearlySages refers to bRabbi Elazar ben Shamuaand that the term the blaterSages refers to bRabbi Oshaya the Distinguished. And we are likethe beye of a fine needle. /b,On the topic of the steady decline of the generations, bAbaye said: And we,as far as our capabilities are concerned, bare like a peg in the wall with regard toTorah bstudy.Just as a peg enters a wall with difficulty, our studies penetrate our minds only with difficulty. bRava said: And we are like a finger in wax [ ikira /i] with regard to logical reasoning.A finger is not easily pushed into wax, and it extracts nothing from the wax. bRav Ashi said: We are like a finger in a pit with regard to forgetfulness.Just as a finger easily enters a large pit, similarly, we quickly forget our studies.,The Gemara continues the discussion relating to study and comprehension, and cites that which bRav Yehuda said that Rav said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who were particular in their speechand always made certain that it was both precise and refined, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not particular in their speech, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara asks: bIsthis bmatter at all dependent onbeing bparticularwith one’s language? bRather,with regard to bthe people of Judea, who were precise in their language andwho bwould formulate mnemonicsfor their studies, btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who were not precise in their language andwho bwould not formulate mnemonics, their Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,Furthermore, with regard to bthe people of Judea,who bstudied from one teacher, their Torahknowledge bendured for them,as their teacher provided them with a consistent approach; however, with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who did not study from one teacher,but rather from several teachers, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them,as it was a combination of the approaches and opinions of a variety of Sages., bRavina said:With regard to bthe people of Judea, who wouldpublicly bdisclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term so that everyone could prepare and study it in advance ( ige’onim /i), btheir Torahknowledge bendured for them;with regard to bthe people of the Galilee, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied in the coming term, btheir Torahknowledge bdid not endure for them. /b,The Gemara relates that King bDavid would disclose the tractateto be studied in advance, whereas bSaul would not disclose the tractateto be studied. bWith regard to David, who would disclose the tractate, it is written: “Those who fear You will see me and be glad”(Psalms 119:74), since all were prepared and could enjoy his Torah. bWith regard to Saul, who would not disclose the tractateto be studied, bit is written: “And wherever he turned himself /b
14. Babylonian Talmud, Hagigah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

10a. באונס כאן ברצון ואיבעית אימא הא והא באונס ול"ק כאן באשת כהן כאן באשת ישראל,(זכריה ח, י) וליוצא ולבא אין שלום אמר רב כיון שיוצא אדם מדבר הלכה לדבר מקרא שוב אין לו שלום,ושמואל אמר זה הפורש מתלמוד למשנה ור' יוחנן אמר אפילו מש"ס לש"ס:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big היתר נדרים פורחין באויר ואין להם על מה שיסמכו,הלכות שבת חגיגות והמעילות הרי הם כהררים התלוין בשערה שהן מקרא מועט והלכות מרובות הדינין והעבודות הטהרות והטמאות ועריות יש להן על מה שיסמכו והן הן גופי תורה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא רבי אליעזר אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (ויקרא כז, ב) כי יפליא (במדבר ו, ב) כי יפליא שתי פעמים אחת הפלאה לאיסור ואחת הפלאה להיתר,רבי יהושע אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (תהלים צה, יא) אשר נשבעתי באפי באפי נשבעתי וחזרתי בי,ר' יצחק אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (שמות לה, ה) כל נדיב לבו חנניה בן אחי רבי יהושע אומר יש להם על מה שיסמכו שנאמר (תהלים קיט, קו) נשבעתי ואקיימה לשמור משפטי צדקך,אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל אי הואי התם אמרי להו דידי עדיפא מדידכו שנאמר (במדבר ל, ג) לא יחל דברו הוא אינו מוחל אבל אחרים מוחלין לו אמר רבא לכולהו אית להו פירכא לבר מדשמואל דלית ליה פירכא,דאי מדר' אליעזר דלמא כדרבי יהודה שאמר משום ר' טרפון דתניא רבי יהודה אומר משום רבי טרפון לעולם אין אחד מהם נזיר שלא ניתנה נזירות אלא להפלאה,אי מדר' יהושע דלמא הכי קאמר באפי נשבעתי ולא הדרנא בי אי מדרבי יצחק דלמא לאפוקי מדשמואל דאמר שמואל גמר בלבו צריך שיוציא בשפתיו והא קמ"ל דאע"ג דלא הוציא בשפתיו,אי מדחנניה בן אחי רבי יהושע דלמא כרב גידל אמר רב דאמר רב גידל אמר רב מנין שנשבעין לקיים את המצוה שנאמר נשבעתי ואקיימה לשמור משפטי צדקך,אלא דשמואל לית ליה פירכא אמר רבא ואיתימא רב נחמן בר יצחק היינו דאמרי אינשי טבא חדא פלפלתא חריפתא ממלי צנא דקרי:,הלכות שבת: מיכתב כתיבן לא צריכא לכדר' אבא דאמר רבי אבא החופר גומא בשבת ואין צריך אלא לעפרה פטור עליה,כמאן כרבי שמעון דאמר מלאכה שאינה צריכה לגופה פטור עליה,אפילו תימא לרבי יהודה התם מתקן הכא מקלקל הוא,מאי כהררין התלויין בשערה 10a. bwith a rape,in which case it is not prohibited for the woman to return to her husband. bThere,it is referring to a woman who had relations bwillfully,and therefore she is forbidden to her husband. bAnd if you wish, saythat bthis and thatare both dealing bwith a rape, andit is still bnot difficult. Here,where the transgression cannot be rectified, it is referring btoone who raped bthe wife of a priest,as it is forbidden for a priest to have relations with his wife once she has intercourse with any other man, even unwillingly. bThere,it is referring btoone who raped bthe wife of an Israelite,in which case there is no prohibition against her returning to her husband.,Since the Gemara mentioned a Torah scholar who abandons the study of Torah, it cites a relevant verse: b“Neither was there any peace to him that went out or came indue to the adversary” (Zechariah 8:10). bRav said: Once a person leavesthe study bof ihalakha /i,i.e., Mishna and Gemara, even bforthe study bof the Torahitself, bhe will no longer have peace.The verses of the Torah are often obscure and it is difficult to learn ihalakhadirectly from them without the aid of the interpretations of the Talmud., bAnd Shmuel said: Thisis referring to bone who leavesthe study bof Talmud tolearn bMishna.Whereas the reasoning of the Talmud is relatively clear, the Mishna cites legal rulings without explaining their reasoning. bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:The verse applies bevento one who leaves the study bofone bTalmud forthe other bTalmud,i.e., who leaves off his study of the Jerusalem Talmud to begin the Babylonian Talmud, as he will encounter difficulties with the new style of learning., strongMISHNA: /strong Incidental to the Festival peace-offering, the mishna describes the nature of various areas of Torah study. The ihalakhotof the bdissolution of vows,when one requests from a Sage to dissolve them, bfly in the air and have nothing to support them,as these ihalakhotare not mentioned explicitly in the Torah. There is only a slight allusion to the dissolution of vows in the Torah, which is taught by the Sages as part of the oral tradition., bThe ihalakhotof Shabbat, Festival peace /b-offerings, band misuseof consecrated property bare like mountains suspended by a hair, as theyhave blittlewritten about them in bthe Torah, andyet the details of their ihalakhotare numerous.The details of bmonetary law,sacrificial brites, ritual purity and impurity, andthe ihalakhotof bthose with whom relations are forbiddenall bhave something to support them,i.e., there is ample basis in the Torah for these ihalakhot /i, band these are the essential parts of Torah. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Eliezer said:The ihalakhotof the dissolution of vows bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Whena man shall bclearly uttera vow” (Leviticus 27:2), and: b“Wheneither man or woman shall bclearly uttera vow” (Numbers 6:2), i.e., the words “clearly utter” appear btwice. One clear utterance is for prohibition,i.e., when one states his intention to accept the vow, band one clear utterance is for dissolution,when he provides the Sage with a reason why the vow should no longer apply. This is an allusion in the Torah to the annulment of vows., bRabbi Yehoshualikewise bsays:These ihalakhot bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Wherefore I swore in My wrath”(Psalms 95:11), meaning: bIn my wrath I swore, and I retracted.This is the basis for the dissolution of vows, in which the one who uttered the vow tells the Sage that he regrets it, as he did so in a moment of anger., bRabbi Yitzḥak says:These ihalakhot bhave something to support them, as it is stated: “Whoever is of a willing heart,let him bring it” (Exodus 35:5). This verse indicates that as long as one retains the same desire to fulfill the vow, he must continue to fulfill it, but if he regrets taking the vow he may arrange for it to be dissolved. bḤaya, son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother,also bsays: They have something to support them, as it is stated: “I have sworn, and have fulfilled it, to observe your righteous ordices”(Psalms 119:106). This verse indicates that certain oaths need not be fulfilled, i.e., those that have been dissolved., bRav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said: If I had been there,sitting with those Sages, I would have bsaid to them: Mysource bis better than yours, as it is stated: “He shall not nullify his word”(Numbers 30:3), from which it may be inferred: bHehimself bcannot nullify his word; however, others,i.e., a Sage, bmay nullifyit bfor himby dissolving his vow. bRava said: For all ofthe suggested sources for the dissolution of vows bthere isa possible brefutation, except for that of Shmuel, for which there is no refutation. /b,Rava elaborates. bAs, ifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Eliezer, perhapsthe phrase: “Clearly utter” should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda, who saidan alternative interpretation bin the name of Rabbi Tarfon. As it is taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to two people who are arguing whether or not someone who passed before them is a nazirite, each of them declaring that if he is correct he himself will become a nazirite, bRabbi Yehuda says in the name of Rabbi Tarfon: Actually, neither of them is a nazirite, as naziriteship is effected only bymeans of ba clear utteranceand neither party is certain they will be a nazirite at the time of their utterance. He derives this ihalakhafrom this phrase: “Clearly utter.”,Similarly, bifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Yehoshua, perhaps this is whatthe verse bis saying: In my wrath I swore and I do not take it back,despite the fact that it was stated in a moment of anger. bIfit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Yitzḥak, perhapsthe phrase “a willing heart” comes bto excludethe statement bof Shmuel, as Shmuel said:If bone decided in his heartbut did not verbalize a vow, it is insufficient, as bhe must verbally expressit. bAndtherefore bthisphrase bteaches us that even though he did not verbally expressthe vow he is still obligated to fulfill it.,Finally, bifit is derived bfromthe statement bof Rabbi Ḥaya, son of Rabbi Yehoshua’s brother, perhapsthe phrase “and fulfilled it” should be explained bin accordance withthe opinion of bRav Giddel,who said that bRav saida different interpretation of this verse. bAs Rav Giddel saidthat bRav said: From whereis it derived bthatalthough one is already obligated to fulfill all mitzvot bone may take an oath to fulfill a mitzva,and this is not considered an oath taken in vain? bAs it is stated: “I have sworn, and have fulfilled it, to observe Your righteous ordices”(Psalms 119:106).,Rav concludes. bHowever,for bShmuel’ssource bthere is no refutation. Rava said,and bsome sayit was bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥakwho said: bThisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: One spicy pepper is better than a basketful of squash,as the single pepper has more flavor than all the squash combined.,§ The mishna stated that bthe ihalakhotof Shabbatare like mountains suspended by a hair. The Gemara asks: But the ihalakhotof Shabbat bare written,i.e., the prohibition against performing labor is explicit in the Torah. The Gemara answers: bNo,it is bnecessaryto say this bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Abba. As Rabbi Abba said: One who digs a hole on Shabbat onlybecause he bneeds its dirtand not for the hole itself bis exempt fromliability for that act, as this is not the labor of digging prohibited on Shabbat by Torah law.,The Gemara asks: bIn accordance with whoseopinion did Rabbi Abba issue this ruling? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Shimon, who said:One who performs on Shabbat ba laborthat is bnot necessary for its own sake,i.e., he performs the labor for a purpose other than the direct result of the action, is bexempt fromliability bfor it. /b,The Gemara offers an alternative possibility. This ruling can be explained bevenif byou saythat Rabbi Abba holds bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yehuda,that one is liable for a labor that is not necessary for its own sake. bThere,in other cases, Rabbi Yehuda deems one liable because his purpose is bcreative. Here,where one is digging the hole for the dirt, the purpose bis destructive,as the action damages the ground. Therefore, Rabbi Yehuda concedes that in this case he is exempt.,The Gemara returns to the mishna. bWhatthen does the mishna mean by the phrase: bLike mountains suspended by a hair? /b
15. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

103b. והושיבו ישיבה לאחר שלשים יום שמעון בני חכם גמליאל בני נשיא חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש:,אל תספדוני בעיירות: סבור מינה משום טרחא הוא דקאמר כיון דחזי דקספדי בכרכים וקאתו כולי עלמא אמרו שמע מינה משום יקרא הוא דקאמר,הושיבו ישיבה לאחר שלשים יום דלא עדיפנא ממשה רבינו דכתיב (דברים לד, ח) ויבכו בני ישראל את משה בערבות מואב שלשים יום תלתין יומין ספדין ביממא וליליא מכאן ואילך ספדו ביממא וגרסי בליליא או ספדו בליליא וגרסי ביממא עד דספדי תריסר ירחי שתא,ההוא יומא דאשכבתיה דרבי נפקא בת קלא ואמרה כל דהוה באשכבתיה דרבי מזומן הוא לחיי העוה"ב ההוא כובס כל יומא הוה אתי קמיה ההוא יומא לא אתא כיון דשמע הכי סליק לאיגרא ונפל לארעא ומית יצתה בת קול ואמרה אף ההוא כובס מזומן הוא לחיי העולם הבא:,שמעון בני חכם: מאי קאמר הכי קאמר אע"פ ששמעון בני חכם גמליאל בני נשיא,אמר לוי צריכא למימר אמר רבי שמעון בר רבי צריכא לך ולמטלעתך מאי קשיא ליה הא קרא קאמר (דברי הימים ב כא, ג) ואת הממלכה נתן ליהורם כי הוא הבכור,ההוא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה ורבן גמליאל אינו ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה,ורבי מאי טעמא עבד הכי נהי דאינו ממלא מקום אבותיו בחכמה ביראת חטא ממלא מקום אבותיו הוה:,חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש לא קיבל רבי חנינא שהיה ר' אפס גדול ממנו שתי שנים ומחצה יתיב רבי אפס ברישא ויתיב רבי חנינא אבראי ואתא לוי ויתיב גביה,נח נפשיה דרבי אפס ויתיב רבי חנינא ברישא ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה וקאתא לבבל והיינו דאמרי ליה לרב גברא רבה אקלע לנהרדעא ומטלע ודריש כלילא שרי אמר שמע מינה נח נפשיה דרבי אפס ויתיב רבי חנינא ברישא ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה וקאתא,ואימא רבי חנינא נח נפשיה ור' אפס כדיתיב יתיב ולא הוה ליה ללוי איניש למיתב גביה וקאתא איבעית אימא לוי לר' אפס מיכף הוה כייף ליה,ואי בעית אימא כיון דאמר ר' חנינא בר חמא ישב בראש לא סגי דלא מליך דכתיב בהו בצדיקים (איוב כב, כח) ותגזר אומר ויקם לך,והא הוה ר' חייא נח נפשיה והאמר ר' חייא אני ראיתי קברו של רבי והורדתי עליו דמעות איפוך,והאמר רבי חייא אותו היום שמת רבי בטלה קדושה איפוך,והתניא כשחלה רבי נכנס ר' חייא אצלו ומצאו שהוא בוכה אמר לו רבי מפני מה אתה בוכה והתניא מת מתוך השחוק סימן יפה לו מתוך הבכי סימן רע לו פניו למעלה סימן יפה לו פניו למטה סימן רע לו פניו כלפי העם סימן יפה לו כלפי הכותל סימן רע לו פניו ירוקין סימן רע לו פניו צהובין ואדומים סימן יפה לו מת בע"ש סימן יפה לו במו"ש סימן רע לו מת בערב יוהכ"פ סימן רע לו במוצאי יוהכ"פ סימן יפה לו מת מחולי מעיים סימן יפה לו מפני שרובם של צדיקים מיתתן בחולי מעיים,א"ל אנא אתורה ומצות קא בכינא,איבעית אימא איפוך ואיבעית אימא לעולם לא תיפוך ר' חייא עסוק במצות הוה ורבי סבר לא אפגריה,והיינו דכי הוו מינצו ר' חנינא ור' חייא א"ל ר' חנינא לר' חייא בהדי דידי מינצת דאם חס ושלום נשתכחה תורה מישראל מהדרנא ליה מפלפולי,א"ל ר' חייא אנא עבדי דלא משתכחה תורה מישראל דאייתינא כיתנא ושדיינא ומגדלנא נישבי וציידנא טביא ומאכילנא בישרא ליתמי ואריכנא מגילתא ממשכי דטביא וסליקנא למתא דלית בה מקרי דרדקי וכתיבנא חמשא חומשי לחמשא ינוקי ומתנינא שיתא סידרי לשיתא ינוקי לכל חד וחד אמרי ליה אתני סידרך לחברך,והיינו דאמר רבי כמה גדולים מעשה חייא א"ל ר"ש ב"ר אפילו ממך א"ל אין א"ל רבי ישמעאל ברבי יוסי אפילו מאבא א"ל חס ושלום לא תהא כזאת בישראל,אמר להן לבני קטן אני צריך נכנס ר' שמעון אצלו מסר לו סדרי חכמה,אמר להן לבני גדול אני צריך נכנס רבן גמליאל אצלו ומסר לו סדרי נשיאות אמר לו בני נהוג נשיאותך ברמים זרוק מרה בתלמידים,איני והא כתיב (תהלים טו, ד) ואת יראי ה' יכבד ואמר מר זה יהושפט מלך יהודה כשהיה רואה תלמיד חכם היה עומד מכסאו ומחבקו ומנשקו וקורא לו רבי רבי מרי מרי,לא קשיא הא בצינעא הא בפרהסיא,תניא רבי מוטל בציפורי ומקום מוכן לו בבית שערים והתניא (דברים טז, כ) צדק צדק תרדף הלך אחר ר' לבית שערים,ר' בבית שערים הוה אלא כיון דחלש אמטיוהי לציפורי 103b. band reconvene thestudy sessions at the byeshiva after thirty daysof mourning. bMy son Shimon is a Sage. My son Gamlielshould be the iNasi /i. Ḥanina bar Ḥama will sit at the headof the yeshiva.,The Gemara explains the requests of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bDo not eulogize me in thesmall btowns.They bunderstood fromthis statement bthat he said this due to the troublethat would be caused for many if he were eulogized in every town, since they would have to travel from the outlying villages to take part in the eulogies. However, bwhen they saw that they were eulogizing him in the cities and everyone camedespite the trouble, bthey said: Conclude from here that he said this due toconsiderations of bhonor.Had they eulogized him in the towns, the gatherings would have been small and unfitting for a man of his stature. He therefore requested that they arrange things in a way that large crowds would gather.,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi further instructed: bReconvene thestudy sessions at the byeshiva after thirty daysof mourning. This is bbecause I am not better than Moses, our teacher, as it is written: “And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days”(Deuteronomy 34:8), which means that for bthirty days they eulogizedhim bby day and night. From thispoint bforward they eulogizedhim bby day and they studied by night, or they eulogizedhim bby night and studied by day, until they eulogizedhim bfor twelve monthsof bthe year. /b,The Gemara relates that bon the day of the funeralof bRabbiYehuda HaNasi, ba Divine Voice emerged and said: Whoever waspresent bat the funeral of RabbiYehuda HaNasi bis destined for lifein bthe World-to-Come.There was ba certain laundererwho bwould come beforeRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bevery day. On thatparticular bday, he did not comeand was therefore not present at the funeral. bWhen he heard this,that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had died, he was so full of grief that bhe ascended to the roof and fell to the ground and died. A Divine Voice emerged and said: That launderer too is destined for lifein bthe World-to-Come. /b,§ Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: bMy son Shimon is a Sage;my son Gamliel should be the iNasi /i. bWhatwas bhe saying,i.e., what did he mean by these remarks? The Gemara explains: bThis is what hewas bsaying: Although my son Shimon is agreater bSage, my son Gamlielshould be the iNasi /i. /b, bLevi said: Need this be said?After all, Gamliel was the firstborn. bRabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsaid:It is bnecessary for you and for your limp.The Gemara asks: bWhat didRabbi Shimon find bdifficultwith Levi’s question that caused him to scoff? bDoesn’t the verse state: “But the kingdom he gave to Jehoram because he was the firstborn”(II Chronicles 21:3)? This indicates that the firstborn is the one who inherits his father’s appointment, and so Levi legitimately asked why Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to leave specific instructions about this.,The Gemara explains: bHe,Jehoram, bfilled the place of his fathers,i.e., he was their equal in his personal attributes and leadership capabilities. However, bRabban Gamliel did not fill the place of his fathers,and for this reason Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi had to specifically command that he nevertheless be appointed as the iNasi /i.,The Gemara asks: bAndif that is so, bwhat is the reasonthat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bdid this?Why did he choose this son to be his successor if he was unfit for the position? The Gemara answers: bAlthough he did not fill the place of his fathers with regard to wisdom,as he was not as great a Torah scholar as his father, bhe did fill the place of his fathers with regard to fear of sinand was therefore fit to be appointed as the iNasi /i.,§ Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi instructed: bḤanina bar Ḥama will sit at the headof the yeshiva. The Gemara relates: bRabbi Ḥanina did not acceptthis appointment, bbecause Rabbi Afes was older than himby btwo and a half yearsand he did not want to precede him in accepting this position. Consequently, bRabbi Afes sat at the headof the yeshiva, band Rabbi Ḥanina sat outside,as it was unbefitting for him to sit as a student before Rabbi Afes. bAnd Levi came and satand studied bwith himoutside., bRabbi Afes died, and Rabbi Ḥanina,taking his place, bsat at the headof the yeshiva. bAnd Levi did not have anyone to sitand study bwith, andso bhe came to Babylonia. And this isthe background to the incident in which bthey said to Rav: A great man came to Neharde’a, and he limps, and he taught:It bis permittedfor a woman who is wearing a ikelila /i,a tiara-like ornament, to go out into the public domain on Shabbat. Rav then bsaid: Conclude from thisthat bRabbi Afes died and Rabbi Ḥanina,taking his place, bsat at the headof the yeshiva, band Levi did not have anyone to sitand study bwith, andso bhe cameto Babylonia.,The Gemara asks: How did Rav know that it was Rabbi Afes who died? bSaythat bRabbi Ḥaninawas the one who bdied,and bRabbi Afes sat as he had sat,i.e., he continued to sit at the head of the yeshiva, band Levi did not have anyone to sit with, andso bhe cameto Babylonia. The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat bLevi was subordinate to Rabbi Afesand would have sat before him as a student had Rabbi Afes still been alive, and the only reason why he sat outside in the first place was in deference to Rabbi Ḥanina, who sat outside because he did not consider himself subordinate to Rabbi Afes., bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bsince RabbiYehuda HaNasi had bsaid: Ḥanina bar Ḥama will sit at the headof the yeshiva, bit is not possible that he will notone day brulethe yeshiva. Therefore, it must have been Rabbi Afes who died and Rabbi Ḥanina who took his place, bas it is written about the righteous: “You shall also decree a thing, and it shall be established unto you”(Job 22:28).,The Gemara asks: bBut wasn’t Rabbi Ḥiyyathere? Why didn’t Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi appoint him as head of the yeshiva? The Gemara answers: bHe diedbefore Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi. The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya say: I saw the grave site of RabbiYehuda HaNasi band I shed tears over it?The Gemara answers: bReversethe names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who said that he saw the grave site of Rabbi Ḥiyya.,The Gemara asks: bBut didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya say:On bthat day that RabbiYehuda HaNasi bdied, sanctity ceased?The Gemara answers: bReversethe names. It was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who made this statement about Rabbi Ḥiyya.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhen RabbiYehuda HaNasi bfell ill, Rabbi Ḥiyya enteredto be bwith him and found him crying. He said to him: My teacher, for whatreason bare you crying? Isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: brIf one bdies while laughing, it is a good sign for him; while crying, it is a bad sign for him. brIf one dies with bhis face upward, it is a good sign for him;with bhis face downward, it is a bad sign for him. brIf one dies with bhis face facing the peoplestanding around him, bit is a good sign for him;with bhis face facing the wall, it is a bad sign for him. brIf one’s bfaceis bsallow, it is a bad sign for him;if bhis faceis byellow or ruddy, it is a good sign for him. brIf one bdies on the Shabbat eve it is a good sign for him,because he is heading straight into the Shabbat rest; if one dies bat the conclusion of Shabbat it is a bad sign for him. brIf one bdies on the eve of Yom Kippur, it is a bad sign for him,as his sins have not yet been forgiven; if one dies at bthe conclusion of Yom Kippur it is a good sign for him,because he died after his sins have been forgiven. brIf one bdies due to an intestinal disease, it is a good sign for him, because most of the righteous die due to intestinal disease. /b,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: I am crying for the Torah and the mitzvotthat I will be unable to fulfill after I die. This indicates that Rabbi Ḥiyya was present at the time of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s death.,The Gemara answers: bIf you wish, saythat one must breversethe names and that it was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi who came to visit Rabbi Ḥiyya prior to his death. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bactuallywe bdo notneed to breversethe names in all of the above statements, but rather explain that bRabbi Ḥiyya was occupied withthe performance of bmitzvot and RabbiYehuda HaNasi bthought: I will not hold him backfrom his performance of mitzvot by appointing him head of the yeshiva., bAnd this isthe background to an exchange that took place bwhen Rabbi Ḥanina and Rabbi Ḥiyya argued. Rabbi Ḥanina said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: You are arguing with me? If, Heaven forfend, the Torah would be forgotten from the Jewish people, I would restore it through my analyses,i.e., using my abilities of analysis I would be able to rediscover all that had been lost., bRabbi Ḥiyya saidto Rabbi Ḥanina: bI am workingto ensure bthat the Torah will not be forgotten from the Jewish people. For I bring flax and I plant it, and Ithen bweave netsfrom the flax fibers. bIthen go out and btrap deer, and I feedthe bmeat to orphans, and I form scrolls from the skins of the deer. And I go to a town that has no teachers of children in it and I write the five booksof the Torah bfor five children. And I teach the six ordersof the Mishna bto six children. To each and every oneof these children bI say: Teach your order to your friends.In this way all of the children will learn the whole of the Torah and the Mishna., bAnd this iswhat bRabbiYehuda HaNasi referred to when he bsaid: How great are the actions of Ḥiyya. Rabbi Shimon, son of RabbiYehuda HaNasi, bsaid tohis father: bEvengreater bthan yourworks? bHe said to him: Yes. Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, said toRabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bEvengreater bthanthe work of Rabbi Yosei, my bfather?Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: Heaven forfend. Suchcomments bshould not bemade bamong the Jewish people. /b,§ The Gemara returns to the narrative of the impending death of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bHe said to them: I need my younger son. Rabbi Shimon entered hispresence. bHe transmitted to him the orders of wisdom,including how he should conduct himself and the essential principles of the Torah., bHe said to them: I need my older son. Rabban Gamliel entered hispresence, bandRabbi Yehuda HaNasi btransmitted to him the proceduresof the office bof the iNasi /i.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid toRabban Gamliel: bMy son, conduct yourterm as iNasiwith assertivenessand bcast fear uponyour bstudents,i.e., treat them in a firm manner so that they will fear you.,The Gemara asks: bIs that sothat it is correct to behave in such a manner? bBut isn’t it written: “But he honors those that fear the Lord”(Psalms 15:4), band the Master said: Thisis referring to bJehoshaphat, king of Judea. When he would see a Torah scholar he would rise from his throne and hug him and kiss him and call to him: My teacher, my teacher, my master, my master.This demonstrates that it is appropriate even for a king to behave with affection toward Torah scholars.,The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult. Thisdisplay of affection should be applied bin private,when only the teacher and student are present, and bthatstern demeanor should be applied bin public,in order to ensure the teacher’s authority., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi was blyingill in bTzippori and aburial bsite was ready for him in Beit She’arim.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: b“Justice, justice shall you follow”(Deuteronomy 16:20); bfollow RabbiYehuda HaNasi bto Beit She’arim,i.e., one should seek to have his case adjudicated by Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s court in Beit She’arim. This indicates that Beit She’arim, not Tzippori, was Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s place of residence, and therefore he must have been lying ill in Beit She’arim.,The Gemara answers: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwas in Beit She’arim, but when he became ill they transferred him to Tzippori, /b
16. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. יכשל בו דאמר רבא בר מחסיא אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב בשביל משקל שני סלעים מילת שהוסיף יעקב ליוסף משאר אחיו נתגלגל הדבר וירדו אבותינו למצרים אמר רבי בנימן בר יפת רמז רמז לו שעתיד בן לצאת ממנו שיצא מלפני המלך בחמשה לבושי מלכות שנאמר ומרדכי יצא בלבוש מלכות תכלת וגו',(בראשית מה, יד) ויפול על צוארי בנימן אחיו כמה צוארין הוו ליה לבנימין אמר רבי אלעזר בכה על שני מקדשים שעתידין להיות בחלקו של בנימין ועתידין ליחרב ובנימין בכה על צואריו בכה על משכן שילה שעתיד להיות בחלקו של יוסף ועתיד ליחרב,(בראשית מה, יב) והנה עיניכם רואות ועיני אחי בנימין אמר רבי אלעזר אמר להם כשם שאין בלבי על בנימין אחי שלא היה במכירתי כך אין בלבי עליכם כי פי המדבר אליכם כפי כן לבי,(בראשית מה, כג) ולאביו שלח כזאת עשרה חמורים נושאים מטוב מצרים מאי מטוב מצרים אמר ר' בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר שלח לו יין [ישן] שדעת זקנים נוחה הימנו,(בראשית נ, יח) וילכו גם אחיו ויפלו לפניו אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר היינו דאמרי אינשי תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,תעלא מאי בצירותיה מאחווה אלא אי איתמר הכי איתמר (בראשית מז, לא) וישתחו ישראל על ראש המטה אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר תעלא בעידניה סגיד ליה,(בראשית נ, כא) וינחם אותם וידבר על לבם אמר רבי בנימין בר יפת אמר רבי אלעזר מלמד שאמר להם דברים שמתקבלין על הלב ומה עשרה נרות לא יכלו לכבות נר אחד נר אחד היאך יכול לכבות עשרה נרות,(אסתר ח, טז) ליהודים היתה אורה ושמחה וששון ויקר אמר רב יהודה אורה זו תורה וכן הוא אומר (משלי ו, כג) כי נר מצוה ותורה אור שמחה זה יום טוב וכן הוא אומר (דברים טז, יד) ושמחת בחגך ששון זו מילה וכן הוא אומר (תהלים קיט, קסב) שש אנכי על אמרתך,ויקר אלו תפלין וכן הוא אומר (דברים כח, י) וראו כל עמי הארץ כי שם ה' נקרא עליך ויראו ממך ותניא רבי אליעזר הגדול אומר אלו תפלין שבראש,ואת פרשנדתא וגו' עשרת בני המן אמר רב אדא דמן יפו עשרת בני המן ועשרת צריך לממרינהו בנשימה אחת מאי טעמא כולהו בהדי הדדי נפקו נשמתייהו אמר רבי יוחנן ויו דויזתא צריך למימתחה בזקיפא כמורדיא דלברות מאי טעמא כולהו בחד זקיפא אזדקיפו,אמר רבי חנינא בר פפא דרש ר' שילא איש כפר תמרתא כל השירות כולן נכתבות אריח על גבי לבינה ולבינה על גבי אריח,חוץ משירה זו ומלכי כנען שאריח על גבי אריח ולבינה על גבי לבינה מ"ט שלא תהא תקומה למפלתן,ויאמר המלך לאסתר המלכה בשושן הבירה הרגו היהודים אמר רבי אבהו מלמד שבא מלאך וסטרו על פיו,ובבאה לפני המלך אמר עם הספר אמר אמרה מיבעי ליה אמר רבי יוחנן אמרה לו יאמר בפה מה שכתוב בספר,דברי שלום ואמת אמר רבי תנחום ואמרי לה אמר רבי אסי מלמד שצריכה שרטוט כאמיתה של תורה,ומאמר אסתר קיים מאמר אסתר אין דברי הצומות לא אמר רבי יוחנן דברי הצומות ומאמר אסתר קיים (את ימי) הפורים האלה,כי מרדכי היהודי משנה למלך אחשורוש וגדול ליהודים ורצוי לרוב אחיו לרוב אחיו ולא לכל אחיו מלמד שפירשו ממנו מקצת סנהדרין,אמר רב יוסף גדול ת"ת יותר מהצלת נפשות דמעיקרא חשיב ליה למרדכי בתר ד' ולבסוף בתר חמשה מעיקרא כתיב (עזרא ב, ב) אשר באו עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה שריה רעליה מרדכי בלשן ולבסוף כתיב (נחמיה ז, ז) הבאים עם זרובבל ישוע נחמיה עזריה רעמיה נחמני מרדכי בלשן,אמר רב ואיתימא רב שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מבנין בית המקדש שכל זמן שברוך בן נריה קיים לא הניחו עזרא ועלה,אמר רבה אמר רב יצחק בר שמואל בר מרתא גדול תלמוד תורה יותר מכבוד אב ואם שכל אותן שנים שהיה יעקב אבינו בבית עבר לא נענש דאמר מר 16b. bhehimself bshould stumbleby showing favoritism to Benjamin? bAs Rava bar Meḥaseyya saidthat bRav Ḥama bar Gurya saidthat bRav said: Due tothe weight of btwo sela of fine wool that Jacobgave to Joseph, which he badded towhat he gave bJoseph beyondwhat he gave bthe rest of his brothers,as he made him his special coat, bthe story progressed and our forefathers went down to Egypt.How then could Joseph have displayed similar favoritism toward Benjamin? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet said: Hewas not showing favoritism. Rather, he bintimated to him that a descendant was destined to issue from him who would go out from the presence of the kingwearing bfive royal garments, as it is stated: “And Mordecai went forthfrom the presence of the king bin royal apparel of sky blueand white, and with a great crown of gold, and with a wrap of fine linen and purple” (Esther 8:15).,The Gemara elaborates on certain elements in the story of Joseph and his brothers. The verse states with regard to Joseph: b“And he fell on his brother Benjamin’s neck [ itzavarei/b] and wept” (Genesis 45:14). The wording of the verse gives rise to a question, as the word itzavareiis plural, meaning necks: bHow many necks did Benjamin have,such that the verse should use the plural itzavareirather than the singular itzavar /i? bRabbi Elazar said:This intimates bthatJoseph bcried over the two Temples that were destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Benjamin and were destined to be destroyed.The same verse continues: b“And Benjamin wept on his neck”(Genesis 45:14); bhe cried over the tabernacle of Shiloh that was destined to be in thetribal bterritory of Joseph and was destined to be destroyed. /b,The verse states: b“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin”(Genesis 45:12). bRabbi Elazar said:Joseph bsaid tohis brothers as follows: bJust as Icertainly bharbor noresentment bin my heart toward my brother Benjamin, for he was noteven bpresent when I was sold, so too, I harbor noresentment btoward you.The verse continues: b“That it is my mouth [ iki fi /i] that speaks to you”(Genesis 45:12), i.e., bAs my mouth [ ikefi /i] is, so is my heart. /b,The verse states: b“And to his father he sent after this manner ten donkeys laden with the good things of Egypt”(Genesis 45:23). The Gemara asks: bWhat are “the good things of Egypt”that are mentioned but not specified here? bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: He sent him aged wine, which the elderly find pleasing. /b,Following Jacob’s death, it states concerning Joseph: b“And his brothers even went and fell down before him”(Genesis 50:18). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: Thisexplains the folk saying bthat people say: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,i.e., if a fox is appointed king, one must bow down before and submit oneself to it.,The Gemara expresses astonishment at the use of this parable: Are you calling Joseph ba fox? What, was he inferior to his brotherssuch that in relation to them you call him a fox? bRather, if such a statement was stated, it was stated as follows,not in connection with this verse, but rather in connection with a different verse. The verse states: b“And Israel bowed himself upon the head of the bed”(Genesis 47:31). With regard to this, bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: When the fox is in its hour, bow down to it,as Jacob had to bow down before his son Joseph, who had reached greatness.,It says with regard to Joseph’s remarks to his brothers: b“And he comforted them and spoke to their hearts”(Genesis 50:21). bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Elazar said:This bteaches that he spoke to them words that are acceptable to the heart,and alleviated their fears. This is what he said: bIf ten lights could not put out one light,as all of you were unable to do me harm, bhow can one light put out ten lights? /b,§ The Gemara returns to its explanation of the Megilla. The verse states: b“The Jews had light and gladness, and joy and honor”(Esther 8:16). bRav Yehuda said: “Light”; thisis referring to the bTorahthat they once again studied. bAnd similarly it says: “For the mitzva is a lamp and the Torah is light”(Proverbs 6:23). b“Gladness” [ isimḥa /i]; thisis referring to bthe Festivalsthat they once again observed. bAnd similarly it says: “And you shall be glad [ ivesamakhta /i] on your Festival”(Deuteronomy 16:14). b“Joy” [ isasson /i]; thisis referring to bcircumcision,as they once again circumcised their sons. bAnd similarly it says: “I rejoice [ isas /i] at Your word”(Psalms 119:162), which the Sages understood as referring to David’s rejoicing over the mitzva of circumcision., b“Honor”; this isreferring to bphylacteries,which they once again donned. bAnd similarly it says: “And all peoples of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the Lord; and they will be afraid of you”(Deuteronomy 28:10). bAnd it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Eliezer the Great said: Thisis referring to bthe phylacteries worn on the head.Haman had banned the fulfillment of all the mitzvot mentioned, but upon Haman’s demise the Jews returned to their observance.,The verse states: “And in Shushan the capital the Jews slew and destroyed five hundred men. bAnd Parshandatha… /band Vaizatha, bthe ten sons of Haman”(Esther 9:6–10). bRav Adda from Jaffa said:When reading the Megilla, the names of bthe ten sons of Haman andthe word b“ten” must be said in one breath. What is the reasonfor this? It is that btheir souls all departed together. Rabbi Yoḥa said:The letter ivavinthe name b“Vaizatha”is a lengthened ivavand bmust be elongated as a pole, like a steering oar of a ship [ iliberot /i]. What is the reasonfor this? To indicate that bthey were all hanged on one pole. /b, bRabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa saidthat bRabbi Sheila, a man of the village of Timarta, interpreteda verse bhomiletically: Allof bthe songsin the Bible bare writtenin the form of ba half brick arranged upon a whole brick and a whole brick arranged upon a half brick,i.e., each line of the song is divided into a stitch of text, referred to as a half brick, which is separated by a blank space, referred to as a whole brick, from the concluding stitch of that line of text.,The next line of the song inverts the sequence. bThis is the principle for all songs in the Bible exceptfor bthis song,referring to the list of Haman’s sons, bandthe song listing bthe kings of Canaanwho were defeated by Joshua. These two songs are written in the form of ba half brick arranged upon a half brick and a whole brick arranged upon a whole brick,i.e., one stitch of text over another, and one blank space over another. bWhat is the reasonthat these two songs are written in this anomalous fashion? bSo that they should never rise from their downfall.Just as a wall that is built in this manner will not stand, so too, these individuals should have no resurgence.,The verse states: b“And the king said to Esther the queen: The Jews have slainand destroyed five hundred men bin Shushan the capital,and also the ten sons of Haman; what have they done in the rest of the king’s provinces? Now what is your petition and it shall be granted to you; and what more do you request, and it shall be done” (Esther 9:12). bRabbi Abbahu said: This teaches that an angel came and slapped him on his mouth,so that he was unable to finish what he was saying; he started with a complaint about what the Jews were doing, but ended on an entirely different note.,The verse states: b“But when she came before the king, he said with a letter”(Esther 9:25). Why does it say: b“He said”? It should have said: “She said,”as it was Esther who changed the decree. bRabbi Yoḥa said: She said toAhasuerus: bLet it be said byword of bmouth,indicating that bthat which is written in the lettershould also be ordered verbally.,With regard to what is stated: b“Words of peace and truth”(Esther 9:30), bRabbi Tanḥum said, and some saythat bRabbi Asisaid: This bteaches thata Megilla scroll brequires scoring,i.e., that the lines for the text must be scored onto the parchment, bas the Torah itself,i.e., as is done in a Torah scroll.,The verses say: “The matters of the fasts and their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmedthese matters of Purim” (Esther 9:31–32). The Gemara asks: Should we say that b“the decree of Esther” indeedconfirmed these matters of Purim, but b“the matters of the fasts”did bnot?But didn’t the fasts also contribute to the miracle? bRabbi Yoḥa said:These two verses, b“The matters of the fastsand their cry. bAnd the decree of Esther confirmed these matters of Purim,”should be read as one.,The verse states: b“For Mordecai the Jew was second to the king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the majority of his brethren”(Esther 10:3). The Gemara comments: The verse indicates that Mordecai was accepted only b“By the majority of his brethren,” but not by all his brethren.This bteaches that somemembers bof the Sanhedrin parted from him,because he occupied himself with community needs, and was therefore compelled to neglect his Torah study. They felt that this was a mistake and that he should have remained active on the Sanhedrin., bRav Yosef said: Studying Torah is greater than saving lives, as initially,when listing the Jewish leaders who came to Eretz Yisrael, bMordecai was mentioned after fourother people, bbut at the endhe was listed bafter five.This is taken to indicate that his involvement in governmental affairs instead of in Torah study lowered his stature one notch. The Gemara proves this: bAt first it is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Seraiah, Reelaiah, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Ezra 2:2); bbut in the endin a later list bit is written: “Who came with Zerubbabel, Jeshua, Nehemiah, Azariah, Raamiah, Nahmani, Mordecai, Bilshan”(Nehemiah 7:7)., bRav said, and some saythat bRav Shmuel bar Martasaid: bStudying Torah is greaterand more important bthan building the Temple.A proof of this is that bfor as long as Baruch ben Neriah was alivein Babylonia, bEzra,who was his disciple, bdid not leave him and go upto Eretz Yisrael to build the Temple., bRabba saidthat bRav Yitzḥak bar Shmuel bar Marta said: Studying Torah isgreater and bmoreimportant bthan honoring one’s father and mother,and a proof of this is bthat for all those years that our father Jacob spent in the house of Eberand studied Torah there bhe was not punishedfor having neglected to fulfill the mitzva of honoring one’s parents. bAs the Master said: /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

16b. אף דברי תורה בסתר,יצא רבי חייא ושנה לשני בני אחיו בשוק לרב ולרבה בר בר חנה שמע ר' איקפד אתא ר' חייא לאיתחזויי ליה א"ל עייא מי קורא לך בחוץ ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה תלתין יומין,ביום תלתין שלח ליה תא הדר שלח ליה דלא ליתי,מעיקרא מאי סבר ולבסוף מאי סבר מעיקרא סבר מקצת היום ככולו ולבסוף סבר לא אמרינן מקצת היום ככולו,לסוף אתא א"ל אמאי אתית א"ל דשלח לי מר דליתי והא שלחי לך דלא תיתי א"ל זה ראיתי וזה לא ראיתי קרי עליה (משלי טז, ז) ברצות ה' דרכי איש גם אויביו ישלים אתו,מ"ט עבד מר הכי א"ל דכתיב (משלי א, כ) חכמות בחוץ תרונה א"ל אם קרית לא שנית ואם שנית לא שילשת ואם שילשת לא פירשו לך,חכמות בחוץ תרונה כדרבא דאמר רבא כל העוסק בתורה מבפנים תורתו מכרזת עליו מבחוץ,והא כתיב (ישעיהו מח, טז) לא מראש בסתר דברתי ההוא ביומי דכלה,ור' חייא האי חמוקי ירכיך מאי עביד לה מוקי לה בצדקה ובגמילות חסדים,אלמא נזיפה דידהו תלתין יומין נזיפת נשיא שאני,ונזיפה דידן כמה הוי חד יומא כי הא דשמואל ומר עוקבא כי הוו יתבי גרס שמעתא הוה יתיב מר עוקבא קמיה דשמואל ברחוק ד' אמות וכי הוו יתבי בדינא הוה יתיב שמואל קמיה דמר עוקבא ברחוק ד' אמות והוו חייקי ליה דוכתא למר עוקבא בציפתא ויתיב עילויה כי היכי דלישתמען מיליה,כל יומא הוה מלוי ליה מר עוקבא לשמואל עד אושפיזיה יומא חד איטריד בדיניה הוה אזיל שמואל בתריה כי מטא לביתיה א"ל לא נגה לך לישרי לי מר בתיגריה ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ההיא איתתא דהוות יתבה בשבילא הוות פשטה כרעה וקא מניפה חושלאי והוה חליף ואזיל צורבא מרבנן ולא איכנעה מקמיה אמר כמה חציפא ההיא איתתא אתאי לקמיה דר"נ אמר לה מי שמעת שמתא מפומיה אמרה ליה לא אמר לה זילי נהוגי נזיפותא חד יומא בנפשיך,זוטרא בר טוביה הוה קפסיק סידרא קמיה דרב יהודה כי מטא להאי פסוקא (שמואל ב כג, א) ואלה דברי דוד האחרונים א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי נינהו,שתיק ולא אמר ליה ולא מידי הדר א"ל אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא א"ל מאי דעתך דלא ידע פירושא דהאי קרא לאו גברא רבה הוא ידע דנקט מילתא בדעתיה נהג נזיפותא בנפשיה חד יומא,ודאתן עלה מיהא אחרונים מכלל דאיכא ראשונים ראשונים מאי היא (שמואל ב כב, א) וידבר דוד לה' את דברי השירה הזאת ביום הציל ה' אותו מכף כל אויביו ומכף שאול,אמר לו הקב"ה לדוד דוד שירה אתה אומר על מפלתו של שאול אלמלי אתה שאול והוא דוד איבדתי כמה דוד מפניו,היינו דכתיב (תהלים ז, א) שגיון לדוד אשר שר לה' על דברי כוש בן ימיני וכי כוש שמו והלא שאול שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף שאול משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (במדבר יב, א) על אודות האשה הכושית אשר לקח וכי כושית שמה והלא ציפורה שמה אלא מה כושית משונה בעורה אף ציפורה משונה במעשיה כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (ירמיהו לח, ז) וישמע עבד מלך הכושי וכי כושי שמו והלא צדקיה שמו אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף צדקיה משונה במעשיו,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (עמוס ט, ז) הלא כבני כושיים אתם לי (בית) ישראל וכי כושיים שמן והלא ישראל שמן אלא מה כושי משונה בעורו אף ישראל משונין במעשיהן מכל האומות,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאי דכתיב (שמואל ב כג, א) נאם דוד בן ישי ונאם הגבר הוקם על נאם דוד בן ישי שהקים עולה של תשובה,(שמואל ב כג, ג) אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל מושל באדם צדיק מושל יראת אלהים מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק אמר אלהי ישראל לי דבר צור ישראל אני מושל באדם מי מושל בי צדיק שאני גוזר גזרה ומבטלה,(שמואל ב כג, ח) אלה שמות הגבורים אשר לדוד יושב בשבת וגו' מאי קאמר א"ר אבהו ה"ק ואלה שמות גבורותיו של דוד,יושב בשבת בשעה שהיה יושב בישיבה לא היה יושב על גבי כרים וכסתות אלא על גבי קרקע דכל כמה דהוה רביה עירא היאירי קיים הוה מתני להו לרבנן על גבי כרים וכסתות כי נח נפשיה הוה מתני דוד לרבנן והוה יתיב על גבי קרקע אמרו ליה ליתיב מר אכרים וכסתות לא קביל עליה,תחכמוני אמר רב אמר לו הקב"ה הואיל והשפלת עצמך תהא כמוני שאני גוזר גזרה ואתה מבטלה,ראש השלישים תהא ראש לשלשת אבות הוא עדינו העצני כשהיה יושב ועוסק בתורה היה מעדן עצמו כתולעת ובשעה שיוצא למלחמה היה מקשה עצמו כעץ,על שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת שהיה זורק חץ ומפיל שמונה מאות חלל בפעם אחת והיה מתאנח על מאתים דכתיב (דברים לב, ל) איכה ירדף אחד אלף,יצתה בת קול ואמרה (מלכים א טו, ה) רק בדבר אוריה החתי,אמר רבי תנחום בריה דרבי חייא איש כפר עכו אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר ר' שמלאי ואמרי לה אמר ר' תנחום אמר רב הונא ואמרי לה אמר רב הונא לחודיה 16b. bso too, the words of Torah,which are “the work of the hands of an artist,” i.e., God, must remain bhiddenin the study hall.,Despite Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s decree, bRabbi Ḥiyya went out and taught his two nephews, Rav and Rabba bar bar Ḥana, in the marketplace. RabbiYehuda HaNasi bheardwhat he had done and bbecame angrywith him. When bRabbi Ḥiyya cameat some later date bto visit him,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi mockingly bsaid to him: Iyya, who is calling you outside?By asking this question Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was intimating that Rabbi Ḥiyya should leave his house. Rabbi Ḥiyya bunderstood thatRabbi Yehuda HaNasi bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted, and so bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished,as a self-imposed punishment, bfor thirty days. /b, bOn the thirtieth day,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsent hima message, saying: bComeand visit me. However, bhe laterreversed his opinion and bsent himanother message, telling him bnot to come. /b,The Gemara asks: bAt the outset what did he hold, and ultimately what did he hold? Initially,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bheld thatthe legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday, and since the thirtieth day already begun, Rabbi Ḥiyya’s time of admonition had ended. bBut ultimately he heldthat with regard to this issue bwe do not saythat the legal status of bpart of the day is likethat bof an entireday., bIn the endRabbi Ḥiyya bcameon that same day. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi basked him: Why have you come?Rabbi Ḥiyya bresponded: Becauseyou, bMaster, sentme a message that bI should come.He said to him: bBut I sentyou a second message bthat you should not come. He responded: Thismessenger that you sent, i.e., the first one, bI sawhim and I did as he said, bbut thatmessenger, i.e., the second one, bI did not see.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi breadthe verse baboutRabbi Ḥiyya: b“When a man’s ways please the Lord, He makes even his enemies to be at peace with him”(Proverbs 16:7), as it was clear to him that Rabbi Ḥiyya had merited divine assistance.,§ Concerning the issue with which the entire incident had begun, Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi asked Rabbi Ḥiyya: bWhat is the reason thatyou, bthe Master, acted asyou did, ignoring my instructions not to teach Torah in the marketplace? Rabbi Ḥiyya bsaid to him: As it is written: “Wisdom cries aloud in the streets”(Proverbs 1:20), which implies that Torah should be publicized in the streets. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: If you readthis verse once, byoucertainly bdid not readit ba second timein greater depth; band if you readit ba second time, youcertainly bdid not readit ba third time;and bif you readit ba third time,then bit was notadequately bexplained to you,as it is clear that you do not understand it properly.,The words: b“Wisdom cries aloud in the streets,”should be understood bin accordance withthe opinion bof Rava. As Rava said:With regard to beveryone who occupies himself with Torahstudy binsidethe privacy of his home, bhis Torahknowledge bwill proclaim hisgreatness boutside,as it will be revealed to the masses and they will see his greatness.,The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it written: “From the beginning I have not spoken in secret”(Isaiah 48:16), implying that the Torah should be taught and proclaimed in public? The Gemara answers: bThatverse is referring to bthe days of the ikalla /i,the gathering for Torah study held during Elul and Adar, when many people come to listen to Torah discourses. During this time, it is not only permitted but even recommended to teach Torah to the masses. In this way, the verse can be explained in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,The Gemara asks: bAnd what did Rabbi Ḥiyya do with thisverse: b“Your rounded thighs are like jewels”?How did he understand it? This verse implies that the Torah must be kept hidden in the study hall and not publicized in the marketplace. The Gemara explains: bHe interprets itnot as a reference to Torah, but as referring btoacts of bcharity and loving-kindness,which should certainly be performed in private.,This incident demonstrates bthat, apparently, admonition of thosewho live in Eretz Yisrael lasts for bthirty daysand not for seven days. The Gemara answers that this is not a conclusive proof, since Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi was the iNasi /i. bThe admonition of the iNasi /iof the Sanhedrin bis differenti.e., more severe, than the admonition of anyone else.,The Gemara asks: bAnd howlong bis our admonitionin Babylonia? The Gemara answers: It is only bone day, as inthe case involving bShmuel andthe Exilarch bMar Ukva. When they would sit and study ihalakha /i, Mar Ukva would sit before Shmuel at a distance of four cubitsas a sign of respect. Mar Ukva would conduct himself as though Shmuel were his teacher because Shmuel was much greater than him in Torah matters. bAnd when they would sittogether bin judgment, Shmuel would sit before Mar Ukva at a distance of four cubitsbecause Mar Ukva was the Exilarch and the chief judge. bBut they would lower a place for Mar Ukva in the mattingupon which he sat, band he would sit on it so that he could hearShmuel’s bwordsof Torah even when they were engaged in judgment., bEvery day, Mar Ukva would accompany Shmuel to his lodgings,in the manner that a student would show honor toward his teacher. bOne day,Mar Ukva bwasso heavily bpreoccupied with a casethat had been brought before him for judgment that he did not realize that bShmuel was walking behind himto show him respect due to his position as the Exilarch. bWhenMar Ukva breached his home,Shmuel bsaid to him: Is it not enough for youthat I accompanied you until here? bRelease me, Master, from my obligation,so that I may return home. Mar Ukva bunderstood thatShmuel bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if he had been badmonished, for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,It was related that ba certain woman was sitting alongside a pathwith bher leg extendedwhile bshe was sifting barley. A Torah scholar passedby her on this path, bbut she did not yield to himand move her leg to make room for him. bHe said: How rude is that woman!The woman bcame before Rav Naḥmanto ask if this statement should be deemed as excommunication. bHe said to her: Did you hearthe word bexcommunicationexplicitly issue bfrom his mouth? She said to him: No. He said to her:If this is the case, then bgo and observe an admonition for one day,as it appears that the Torah scholar sought only to admonish you.,§ bZutra bar Toviyya wasonce breading the portionof the Bible bbefore Rav Yehuda. When he reached the verse: “Now these are the last words of David”(II Samuel 23:1), Zutra bar Toviyya bsaid toRav Yehuda: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? Prior to this, it mentions only David’s song, but not his words.,Rav Yehuda bremained silent and said nothing to him.Zutra bar Toviyya thought that Rav Yehuda did not hear what he had said, so he bthen said to hima second time: If it is written that these are the blastof David’s words, bby inference there are firstwords as well. If this is the case, bwhat are these firstwords of David? bHe said to him: What do you think?Do you think that anyone bwho does not know the meaning of this verse is not a great man?Why are you stressing the fact that I do not know the answer to your question? Zutra bar Toviyya bunderstood thatRav Yehuda bhad taken the matter to heartand was insulted. Therefore, bhe conductedhimself as if had been badmonished for one dayas a self-imposed punishment.,The Gemara asks: bButnow bthat we have cometo discuss this issue, since the verse mentions David’s blastwords, bby inference there arealso bfirstwords. bWhatthen bare these firstwords of David? The Gemara answers: The first words are: b“And David spoke to the Lord the words of this song in the day that the Lord delivered him out of the hand of his enemies, and out of the hand of Saul”(II Samuel 22:1), as that song is also referred to as words.,The Gemara elaborates: bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to David: David, do you recite a song over the fall of Saul? Had you been Saul and he were David,then bI would have destroyed many Davids before him.Although I decreed that Saul’s kingdom would not continue, as an individual he was far greater and more important than you.,The response to this admonishment bisfound in the verse, bas it is written: “Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the Lord, concerning the words of Cush the Benjaminite”(Psalms 7:1). bIs Cush his name? Saul is his name. Rather,this is a designation that indicates: bJust as a Cushite,a native of the ancient kingdom of Cush in eastern Africa, bis distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Saul was distinguished by his actions,as he was absolutely righteous and performed many good deeds. Therefore, David uses the word ishiggaionas an allusion to the error [ ishegia /i] that he had made when he sang a song of praise over Saul’s downfall.,The Gemara notes: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: “And Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses bdue to the Cushite woman whom he had married,for he had taken a Cushite woman” (Numbers 12:1). bBut is her name Cushite? Zipporah is her name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zipporah was distinguished by her actions.The Gemara continues: bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Now when Ebed-Melech the Cushite heard”(Jeremiah 38:7). bIs his name Cushite? Zedekiah is his name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, Zedekiah was distinguished by hisrighteous bactions. /b, bSimilarly, you can explainthe verse: b“Are you not as much Mine as the children of the Cushites, O children of Israel?”(Amos 9:7). bIs their name Cushite? Israel is their name. Rather, just as a Cushite is distinguished by hisdark bskin, so too, the Jewish people are distinguished by their actions,and they are different bfrom all theother bnations. /b,§ Having mentioned the last words of David, the Gemara continues to explain other expressions in that passage. bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said in the name of Rabbi Yonatan: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The saying of David, son of Yishai, and the saying of the man who was raised up on high [ ial]”(II Samuel 23:1)? It means as follows: bThe saying of David, son of Yishai, who raised the yoke of [ iulla /i] repentance,as through his actions he taught the power of repentance. The word ial /i, on high, and the word iullaare comprised of the same consots in Hebrew.,The passage continues: b“The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me, He that rules over men must be righteous, ruling in the fear of God”(II Samuel 23:3). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying?What does it mean? bRabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spoke to me:Although bI rule over man, who rules over Me?It is ba righteous person.How is it possible to say that a righteous person rules over God, as it were? bAs I,God, bissue a decreeand the righteous person bnullifies it. /b,Similarly, the verse states there: b“These are the names of David’s warriors; Josheb-Basshebetha Tahchemonite, chief of the captains; the same was Adino the Eznite; he raised his spear against eight hundred, whom he slew at one time” (II Samuel 23:8). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthis verse bsaying? Rabbi Abbahu said: This is whatthe verse bis saying: These are the names of the mighty actions of David.These expressions should not be read as names of people but instead as descriptions of David’s good deeds., bJosheb-Basshebeth [ iyoshev bashevet /i]indicates that bwhenDavid bwould sit [ iyoshev /i] in the study hall, he would not sit upon pillows and cushions,as an important person ordinarily would. bRather,he would sit bon the groundlike one of the students. bFor as long asDavid’s bteacher, Ira the Jairite, was alive,Ira bwould teach the Sageswhile sitting bon pillows and cushions. WhenIra bpassed away, David would teach the Sages, and hedid this while bsitting on the ground. They said to him: Master,you bshould sit upon pillows and blankets. He did not accepttheir suggestions, since in his humility he did not wish to appear as the teacher of the Jewish people.,In this verse, David is described as b“a Tahchemonite [ itaḥkemoni /i].” Rav said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Since you have humbled yourself, be younow blike Me [ itehe kamoni /i].How so? bAs I issue a decree, and you,owing to your righteousness, bmay nullify it. /b,David is also described here as b“chief of the captains [ irosh hashalishim /i]”because God said to him: bYou will be the head [ irosh /i] of the three [ isheloshet /i] Patriarchs. “The same was Adino the Eznite”;this alludes to the fact that bwhenDavid bwould sit and occupy himself with Torah, he would make himself soft [ ime’aden /i] as a worm, and when he would go out to war, he would make himself hardand strong bas a tree [ ietz /i]. /b,The expression: b“Against eight hundred people, which he slew at one time,”means bthat he would throw an arrowin the air bandwith it bkill eight hundred people at one time. AndDavid bwould sigh over the two hundredwho were missing from fulfillment of the Torah’s promise, bas it is written: “How should one man chase a thousand”(Deuteronomy 32:30)., bA Divine Voice issued forth and saidby way of explanation as to why the promise was not entirely fulfilled: “Because David did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, and turned not aside from anything that He commanded him all the days of his life, bsave only the matter of Uriah the Hittite”(I Kings 15:5). Had David not committed this sin, then all of the promises mentioned in the Torah would have been fulfilled in their entirety through him.,The Gemara returns to the ihalakhotof ostracism and mentions that bRabbi Tanḥum, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, of the village of Akko, saidthat bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Simlai said, andsome bsaythat this tradition was transmitted in the following manner: bRabbi Tanḥum saidthat bRav Huna said, andothers bsaythat bRav Huna himselfmade this statement without the chain of transmission:
18. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

32a. מפני שנתעסק במלון תחילה שנאמר ויהי בדרך במלון (שמות ד, כד),רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לא למשה רבינו ביקש שטן להרוג אלא לאותו תינוק שנאמר כי חתן דמים אתה לי (שמות ד כה) צא וראה מי קרוי חתן הוי אומר זה התינוק,דרש רבי יהודה בר ביזנא בשעה שנתרשל משה רבינו מן המילה באו אף וחימה ובלעוהו ולא שיירו ממנו אלא רגליו מיד ותקח צפורה צור ותכרת את ערלת בנה (שמות ד, כה) מיד וירף ממנו (שמות ד, כו),באותה שעה ביקש משה רבינו להורגן שנאמר הרף מאף ועזוב חמה (תהלים לז, ח) ויש אומרים לחימה הֲרָגוֹ שנאמר חמה אין לי (ישעיהו כז, ד) והכתיב כי יגרתי מפני האף והחמה (דברים ט, יט) תרי חימה הוו ואיבעית אימא גונדא דחימה,תניא רבי אומר גדולה מילה שאין לך מי שנתעסק במצוות כאברהם אבינו ולא נקרא תמים אלא על שם מילה שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב),דבר אחר גדולה מילה ששקולה כנגד כל המצוות שבתורה שנאמר כי על פי הדברים האלה וגו' (שמות לד, כז) דבר אחר גדולה מילה שאילמלא מילה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה וגו' (ירמיהו לג, כה),ופליגא דרבי אליעזר דאמר רבי אליעזר גדולה תורה שאילמלא תורה לא נתקיימו שמים וארץ שנאמר אם לא בריתי יומם ולילה חקות שמים וארץ לא שמתי וגו',אמר רב יהודה אמר רב בשעה שאמר לו הקב"ה לאברהם אבינו התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) אחזתו רעדה אמר שמא יש בי דבר מגונה כיוון שאמר לו ואתנה בריתי ביני ובינך (בראשית יז, ב) נתקררה דעתו,ויוצא אותו החוצה (בראשית טו, ה) אמר לפניו רבונו של עולם הסתכלתי במזל שלי ואין לי אלא בן אחד אמר לו צא מאיצטגנינות שלך אין מזל לישראל,אמר רבי יצחק כל המתמים עצמו הקב"ה מתמים עמו שנאמר עם חסיד תתחסד עם גבר תמים תתמם (תהלים יח, כו),אמר רבי הושעיא כל המתמים עצמו שעה עומדת לו שנאמר התהלך לפני והיה תמים (בראשית יז, א) וכתיב והיית לאב המון גוים (בראשית יז, ד),אמר רבי כל המנחש לו נחש שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב (במדבר כג, כג) והא בלמ"ד אל"ף כתיב אלא משום מידה כנגד מידה,תני אהבה בריה דרבי זירא כל אדם שאינו מנחש מכניסין אותו במחיצה שאפילו מלאכי השרת אין יכולין ליכנס בתוכה שנאמר כי לא נחש ביעקב ולא קסם בישראל וגו' (במדבר כג, כג),אמר רבי אבהו אמר רבי אלעזר מפני מה נענש אברהם אבינו ונשתעבדו בניו למצרים מאתיים ועשר שנים מפני שעשה אנגרייא בתלמידי חכמים שנאמר וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד),ושמואל אמר מפני שהפריז על מדותיו של הקב"ה שנאמר במה אדע כי אירשנה (בראשית טו, ח) ורבי יוחנן אמר שהפריש בני אדם מלהכנס תחת כנפי השכינה שנאמר תן לי הנפש והרכוש קח לך (בראשית יד, כא),וירק את חניכיו ילידי ביתו (בראשית יד, יד) רב אמר שהוריקן בתורה ושמואל אמר שהוריקן בזהב,שמנה עשר ושלש מאות (בראשית יד, יד) אמר רבי אמי בר אבא אליעזר כנגד כולם איכא דאמרי אליעזר הוא דחושבניה הכי הוי,ואמר רבי אמי בר אבא בן שלוש שנים הכיר אברהם את בוראו שנאמר עקב אשר שמע אברהם בקולי (בראשית כו, ה) חושבניה מאה ושבעין ותרין,ואמר רמי בר אבא 32a. bBecause he was occupied with lodging firstand did not immediately perform the mitzva of circumcision, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass on the way at the lodging-place”(Exodus 4:24)., bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: It was not Moses our teacherthat bSatan wanted to kill, but rather, that infantwho was not circumcised, bas it is stated: “Surely a bridegroom of blood are you to me”(Exodus 4:25). bGo out and see: Whodoes it make sense would be the one that bis called the bridegroomin this instance? bYou must say this is the infant,since he is the one who entered the covet of Abraham by means of the circumcision., bRabbi Yehuda bar Bizna taught: At the time that Moses our teacher was negligent about the circumcision,the destructive angels named bAf,meaning anger, band Ḥeima,meaning wrath, bcame and swallowed him, and only his legs were leftoutside. bImmediately, “Zipporah took a flint, and cut off the foreskin of her son”(Exodus 4:25), and bimmediately “He let him alone”(Exodus 4:26)., bAt that moment, Moses our teacher wanted to kill them, as it is stated: “Cease from anger [ iaf] and forsake wrath [ iḥeima /i]”(Psalms 37:8), which indicates that he wanted to harm them. bAnd there are those who say: He killedthe angel named bḤeima, as it is stated: “Wrath is not in me”(Isaiah 27:4). The Gemara asks: How is it possible to say that he killed Ḥeima? bIsn’t it writtenthat Moses himself said much later: b“For I was in dread of the anger and wrath”(Deuteronomy 9:19)? The Gemara answers: bThere are twotypes of bwrath. And if you wish, saythat bthe army of Ḥeimaremained but not the angel itself., bIt is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsays: Great isthe mitzva of bcircumcision, for there is no one who was engaged in mitzvot like Abraham our Patriarch, andyet bhe was called wholehearted only due tothe mitzva of bcircumcision, as it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is writtenin the next verse: b“And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), and Abraham was then commanded with regard to circumcision. This indicates that he was not called wholehearted until he performed circumcision., bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that it is equal to all the mitzvot of the Torah, as it is statedat the giving of the Torah: b“For according to these wordsI have made a covet with you and with Israel” (Exodus 34:27), and “covet” refers to circumcision. bAlternatively,so bgreat isthe mitzva of bcircumcision that if not for circumcision heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25), and the covet that exists day and night is the covet of circumcision, as it is always found on the person’s body.,The Gemara comments: bAndthis statement bdisagreeswith the words bof Rabbi Eliezer, for Rabbi Eliezer said: Great is the Torah, for if not for Torah, heaven and earth would not have been established, as it is stated: “If My covet be not with day and night,I would not have appointed the ordices of heaven and earth” (Jeremiah 33:25). According to Rabbi Eliezer, the covet that exists day and night is the Torah, as it says: “You should contemplate it day and night” (Joshua 1:8)., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: At the time that the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Abraham our Patriarch: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), a sensation of btrembling seized himand bhe said: Perhaps there is something disgraceful about medue to a transgression that I committed, and therefore I cannot be called complete. bWhenGod bsaid to him: “And I will make My covet between Me and you”(Genesis 17:2), bhis mind was set at ease,since he understood that the removal of the foreskin that he was now commanded to do was the reason he had not yet achieved completion.,The Gemara expounds the verse b“and He brought him outside”(Genesis 15:5): Abraham bsaid before Him: Master of the Universe, I looked at my constellation andaccording to it bIwill bhave only one son,and a son has already been born to me, i.e., Ishmael. bHe said to him: Emerge from your astrologybecause bthere is no constellation for the Jewish people,as they are not subject to the influence of astrology., bRabbi Yitzḥak said: Anyone who conducts himself with wholeheartedness, the Holy One, Blessed be He, treats him with wholeheartedness, as it is stated: “With the devout You act devoutly, and with the one who is strong in his wholeheartedness You act wholeheartedly”(II Samuel 22:26)., bRabbi Hoshaya said: Anyone who acts wholeheartedly, time will stand for him,i.e., he will be successful, bas it is stated: “Walk before Me and you should be wholehearted”(Genesis 17:1), band it is written: “And you shall be the father of a multitude of nations”(Genesis 17:4)., bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid: Anyone who divines,i.e., he guesses and looks for signs about the future, bthe signwill injure bhim, as it is stated: “For there is to him [ ilo /i] divination with Jacob”(Numbers 23:23). The Gemara asks: bBut it is written ilo bwiththe letters ilamed alef /i,meaning “no divination,” as opposed to with the letters ilamed vav /i, meaning “there is to him divination.” The straightforward meaning of the verse is that there is no divination with regard to Jacob. bRather,the reason that he will be injured is not based on the verse but rather bdue tothe concept of bmeasure for measure:Since he attempts to tell his fortune, it injures him., bAhava, son of Rabbi Zeira, teaches: Any person who does not divinehis future bis brought inside a partitionclose to God to a place bthat even the ministering angels cannot enter inside, as it is stated: “For there is no divination with Jacob, neither is there any enchantment with Israel,now it is said to Jacob and Israel what has God wrought” (Numbers 23:23). In other words, matters are revealed to Israel that even the angels do not know, since Israel is closer to God than the angels., bRabbi Abbahu saidthat bRabbi Elazar said: For what reason was Abraham our Patriarch punished and his children enslaved to Egyptfor b210 years? Because he made a draft [ iangarya /i] of Torah scholars, as it is stated: “He led forth his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). These trained men that he took to war were actually his disciples, who were Torah scholars., bAnd Shmuel said: Because he greatly examined [ ihifriz /i] the characteristics of the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?”(Genesis 15:8). bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa said:He was punished bbecause he distanced people from entering under the wings of the Divine Presence, as it is statedthat the king of Sodom said to him: b“Give me the people and take the goods to yourself”(Genesis 14:21), but Abraham refused to take any goods either. If he had not listened to the king of Sodom and had allowed the people to remain with him, he would have brought the prisoners under the wings of the Divine Presence.,The Gemara returns to discuss one of the verses cited previously: b“He led forth [ ivayyarek /i] his trained men, born in his house”(Genesis 14:14). bRav said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with Torahlike someone who pours from one vessel into another, band Shmuel said: He showered them [ ihorikan /i] with goldand gave them an abundance of money so that they would go to war with him.,The Torah states that he took b“eighteen and three hundred”(Genesis 14:14) men to war. bRabbi Ami bar Abba said: Eliezerwas bequivalentto ball of them. There arethose bwho say:Only bEliezer isreferred to here, bas the numerical valueof the letters of his name bis thisamount, i.e., 318., bAnd Rabbi Ami bar Abba said: Abraham recognized his Creator at the age of three years, as it is stated: “Because [ iekev /i] Abraham hearkened to My voice”(Genesis 26:5). bThe numerical valueof the letters of the word iekevis b172,indicating that he observed the ihalakhafor this many years. If Abraham lived until 175 then his first recognition of the Creator must have been at the age of three., bAnd Rami bar Abba saidin a similar manner:
19. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

20. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

107a. אוכל לחמי הגדיל עלי עקב,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב לעולם אל יביא אדם עצמו לידי נסיון שהרי דוד מלך ישראל הביא עצמו לידי נסיון ונכשל אמר לפניו רבש"ע מפני מה אומרים אלהי אברהם אלהי יצחק ואלהי יעקב ואין אומרים אלהי דוד אמר אינהו מינסו לי ואת לא מינסית לי אמר לפניו רבש"ע בחנני ונסני שנאמר (תהלים כו, ב) בחנני ה' ונסני וגו',אמר מינסנא לך ועבידנא מילתא בהדך דלדידהו לא הודעתינהו ואילו אנא קא מודענא לך דמנסינא לך בדבר ערוה מיד (שמואל ב יא, ב) ויהי לעת הערב ויקם דוד מעל משכבו וגו',אמר רב יהודה שהפך משכבו של לילה למשכבו של יום ונתעלמה ממנו הלכה אבר קטן יש באדם משביעו רעב ומרעיבו שבע,(שמואל ב יא, ב) ויתהלך על גג בית המלך וירא אשה רוחצת מעל הגג והאשה טובת מראה מאד בת שבע הוה קא חייפא רישא תותי חלתא אתא שטן אידמי ליה כציפרתא פתק ביה גירא פתקה לחלתא איגליה וחזייה,מיד (שמואל ב יא, ג) וישלח דוד וידרוש לאשה ויאמר הלא זאת בת שבע בת אליעם אשת אוריה החתי וישלח דוד מלאכים ויקחה ותבא אליו וישכב עמה והיא מתקדשת מטומאתה ותשב אל ביתה והיינו דכתיב (תהלים יז, ג) בחנת לבי פקדת לילה צרפתני בל תמצא זמותי בל יעבר פי אמר איכו זממא נפל בפומיה דמאן דסני לי ולא אמר כי הא מילתא,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים יא, א) למנצח לדוד בה' חסיתי איך תאמרו לנפשי נודי הרכם צפור אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון שלא יאמרו הר שבכם צפור נדדתו,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים נא, ו) לך לבדך חטאתי והרע בעיניך עשיתי למען תצדק בדברך תזכה בשפטך אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה גליא וידיעא קמך דאי בעיא למכפייה ליצרי הוה כייפינא אלא אמינא דלא לימרו עבדא זכי למריה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לח, יח) כי אני לצלע נכון ומכאובי נגדי תמיד ראויה היתה בת שבע בת אליעם לדוד מששת ימי בראשית אלא שבאה אליו במכאוב וכן תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל ראויה היתה לדוד בת שבע בת אליעם אלא שאכלה פגה,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (תהלים לה, טו) ובצלעי שמחו ונאספו נאספו עלי נכים [ולא ידעתי] קרעו ולא דמו אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע גלוי וידוע לפניך שאם היו קורעין בשרי לא היה דמי שותת,ולא עוד אלא בשעה שהם עוסקין בארבע מיתות ב"ד פוסקין ממשנתן ואומרים לי דוד הבא על אשת איש מיתתו במה אמרתי להם הבא על אשת איש מיתתו בחנק ויש לו חלק לעוה"ב אבל המלבין פני חבירו ברבים אין לו חלק לעולם הבא,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב אפילו בשעת חליו של דוד קיים שמנה עשרה עונות שנאמר (תהלים ו, ז) יגעתי באנחתי אשחה בכל לילה מטתי בדמעתי ערשי אמסה ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב בקש דוד לעבוד ע"ז שנאמר (שמואל ב טו, לב) ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלהים ואין ראש אלא ע"ז שנאמר (דניאל ב, לב) והוא צלמא רישיה די דהב טב,(שמואל ב טו, לב) והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו ואדמה על ראשו אמר לו לדוד יאמרו מלך שכמותך יעבוד ע"ז אמר לו מלך שכמותי יהרגנו בנו מוטב יעבוד ע"ז ואל יתחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,אמר מאי טעמא קנסיבת יפת תואר א"ל יפת תואר רחמנא שרייה א"ל לא דרשת סמוכין דסמיך ליה (דברים כא, יח) כי יהיה לאיש בן סורר ומורה כל הנושא יפת תואר יש לו בן סורר ומורה,דרש ר' דוסתאי דמן בירי למה דוד דומה לסוחר כותי אמר דוד לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע (תהלים יט, יג) שגיאות מי יבין [א"ל] שביקי לך ומנסתרות נקני שביקי לך גם מזדים חשוך עבדך שביקי לך אל ימשלו בי אז איתם דלא לישתעו בי רבנן שביקי לך,ונקיתי מפשע רב שלא יכתב סרחוני אמר לו א"א ומה יו"ד שנטלתי משרי עומד וצווח כמה שנים עד שבא יהושע והוספתי לו שנאמר (במדבר יג, טז) ויקרא משה להושע בן נון יהושע כל הפרשה כולה עאכ"ו,ונקיתי מפשע רב אמר לפניו רבש"ע מחול לי על אותו עון כולו אמר כבר עתיד שלמה בנך לומר בחכמתו (משלי ו, כז) היחתה איש אש בחיקו ובגדיו לא תשרפנה אם יהלך איש על הגחלים ורגליו לא תכוינה כן הבא על אשת רעהו לא ינקה כל הנוגע בה א"ל כל הכי נטרד ההוא גברא א"ל קבל עליך יסורין קבל עליו,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ששה חדשים נצטרע דוד ונסתלקה הימנו שכינה ופירשו ממנו סנהדרין נצטרע דכתיב (תהלים נא, ט) תחטאני באזוב ואטהר תכבסני ומשלג אלבין נסתלקה הימנו שכינה דכתיב (תהלים נא, יד) השיבה לי ששון ישעך ורוח נדיבה תסמכני ופרשו ממנו סנהדרין דכתי' (תהלים קיט, עט) ישובו לי יראיך וגו' ששה חדשים מנלן דכתי' (מלכים א ב, יא) והימים אשר מלך דוד על ישראל ארבעים שנה 107a. bwho did eat of my bread, has lifted his heel against me”(Psalms 41:10). Bread is a metaphor for Torah knowledge.,§ Apropos Ahithophel, the Gemara relates the events that led to his death. bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: A person should never bring himself toundergo ban ordeal, as David, king of Israel, brought himself toundergo ban ordeal and failed.David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, for whatreason bdoes one sayin prayer: bGod of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, and one does not say: God of David?God bsaidto David: bThey have undergone ordeals before Me, and you have not undergone an ordeal before Me.David bsaid before Him: Examine me and subject me to an ordeal, as it is stated: “Examine me, Lord, and subject me to an ordeal;try my kidneys and my heart” (Psalms 26:2).,God bsaidto him: bI will subject you to an ordeal, and I will perform a matter for youthat I did not perform for the Patriarchs, bas for them, I did not inform themof the nature of the ordeal, bwhile I am informing you that I will subject you to an ordeal involving a matter ofa married woman, with whom brelationsare bforbidden. Immediately,it is written: b“And it came to pass one evening that David rose from his bed”(II Samuel 11:2)., bRav Yehuda says:Once David heard the nature of his ordeal, he sought to prevent himself from experiencing lust. bHe transformed his nighttime bed into his daytime bed,i.e., he engaged in intercourse with his wives during the day, in an attempt to quell his lust. bBut a ihalakha /i,i.e., a Torah statement, bescaped him: There is a small limb in manthat he employs in sexual intercourse. If bhe starvesthe limb, and does not overindulge, it bis satiated; butif bhe satiatesthe limb and overindulges in sexual intercourse, it bis starving,and desires more. Therefore, his plan had the opposite effect.,The verse states: b“And he walked upon the roof of the king’s house; from the roof he saw a woman bathing, and the woman was very fair to look upon”(II Samuel 11:2). bBathsheba was shampooing her head behind a beehive,which concealed her from sight. bSatan came and appeared toDavid bas a bird.David bshot an arrow atthe bird, the arrow bsevered the beehive,Bathsheba bwas exposed, andDavid bsaw her. /b, bImmediately,it is written: b“And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said: Is not this Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite? And David sent messengers, and took her, and she came to him, and he lay with her, for she was purified from her impurity, and then she returned to her house”(II Samuel 11:3–4). bAnd that isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “You have proved my heart; You have visited me in the night: You have tried me, but You find nothing; let no presumptuous thought pass my lips”(Psalms 17:3). David bsaid: Oh, that a muzzle would have fallen upon the mouth of the one who hates me,a euphemism for his own mouth, band I would not have said anything like thatand I would have withstood the ordeal., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “To the leader, of David. In the Lord I put my trust; how can you say to my soul: Flee like a bird to your mountain”(Psalms 11:1)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, pardon me for that sinwith Bathsheba so bthatthe wicked people bwill not say: The mountain that is among you,i.e., the luminary of the generation, David, bwas drivenfrom the world due to ba birdthat led to his transgression., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “Against You, only You, have I sinned, and done what is evil in Your eyes; that You are justified when You speak, and right when You judge”(Psalms 51:6)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: It is revealed and known before You that if I sought to suppress myevil binclination, I would have suppressed it; but I said:I will sin, so bthat they will not say a servant overcame his masterand withstood the ordeal even though God said that he would not., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “For I am ready to stumble [ iletzela /i] and my pain is always before me”(Psalms 38:18)? bBathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David from the six days of Creation.Rava interprets that the term iletzelais referring to Eve, who was taken from the side [ itzela /i] of Adam, the first man, and explains that she was destined for him, just as Eve was destined for Adam. bBut she came to him through pain. And likewise, the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Bathsheba, daughter of Eliam, wasdesignated as bfit for David, but he partook of her unripe,before the appointed time. David would have ultimately married her in a permitted manner after the death of Uriah., bRava taught: Whatis the meaning of that bwhich is written: “And when I limped they rejoiced and gathered, the wretched gather themselves together against me, and those whom I know not; they tore and did not cease [ idammu /i]”(Psalms 35:15)? bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe. It is revealed and known before you that ifmy enemies bwere to tear my flesh, my blood [ idami /i] would not flow to the ground,due to excessive fasting (see II Samuel 12:16–17).,David continued: bMoreover,my enemies torment me to the extent that bat the time when they are engaged inthe public study of the ihalakhotof the bfour court-imposed death penalties they interrupt their study and say to me: David,concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married woman, his deathis effected bwith whatform of execution? And bI said to them:Concerning bone who engages in intercourse with a married womanbefore witnesses and with forewarning, bhis death is by strangulation, and he has a share in the World-to-Come. But one who humiliates another before the multitudes has no share in the World-to-Come.The transgression of those who humiliated David is clearly more severe than the transgression of David himself., bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: Even during the time of his illness he fulfilledthe mitzva of bconjugal rights for eighteenwives, bas it is stated: “I am weary with my groaning; every night I speak in my bed; I melt away my couch with tears”(Psalms 6:7). Even when he was weary and groaning he still spoke in his bed, a euphemism for sexual intercourse. bAnd Rav Yehuda saysthat bRav says: David sought to engage in idol worshipduring Absalom’s coup, bas it is stated: “And it came to pass when David was at the top [ irosh /i] of the ascent, where he would bow to God”(II Samuel 15:32), band irosh /imeans bnothing other than idol worship, as it is stated: “As for that image, its head [ ireishei /i] was of fine gold”(Daniel 2:32).,It is written: b“Behold Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent and earth upon his head”(II Samuel 15:32). Hushai bsaid to David: Shall they say a king like you will engage in idol worship?David bsaid to him:Is it preferable that they say with regard to ba king like me,known to be righteous, that bhis son will kill him?David continued, referring to himself in third person: bIt is preferable that he shall engage in idol worship and the name of Heaven shall not be desecrated in publicthrough the murder of a righteous king in this manner.,Hushai bsaidto him: bWhat is the reasonthat byou married a beautiful woman,the mother of Absalom? David bsaid to him:With regard to ba beautiful woman, the Merciful One permittedmarrying bher.Hushai bsaid to him:But byou did not interpret the juxtaposedverses, bas juxtaposed tothe portion of the beautiful woman is the portion beginning: b“If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son”(Deuteronomy 21:18). From that juxtaposition it is derived: bAnyone who marries a beautiful woman has a stubborn and rebellious son.Therefore, even if Absalom kills you, there will be no desecration of God’s name, as the people will attribute his actions to his mother., bRabbi Dostai from Biri taught: To what is David comparable?He is comparable bto a Samaritan merchant,who incrementally lowers the price until the buyer agrees to purchase the merchandise. bDavid said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe: “Who can discern his errors”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., forgive me for the unwitting sins that I committed. God bsaid to him: They are forgiven for you.David asked more: b“Cleanse me from hidden faults”(Psalms 19:13), i.e., pardon me for transgressions that I committed in private, even if I performed them intentionally. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Keep back your servant also from intentional sins”(Psalms 19:14). God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you.David requested: b“Let them not have dominion over me, then I shall be faultless”(Psalms 19:14), and I further request bthat the Sages will not speak of meand condemn me. God said to him: bThey are forgiven for you. /b,David requested: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14), meaning bthat my transgressionwith Bathsheba and Uriah bwill not be writtenin the Bible. God bsaid to him:That is bimpossible. And just asthe letter iyodthat I removed fromthe name of bSarai,wife of Abraham, when I changed her name to Sarah, was bstanding and screaming several yearsover its omission from the Bible buntil Joshua came and I addedthe iyod bto hisname, bas it is stated: “And Moses called Hosea, son of Nun, Joshua [ iYehoshua /i]”(Numbers 13:16); bthe entire portionof your transgression, which is fit to be included in the Bible, ball the more soit cannot be omitted.,The verse states: b“And I shall be clear from great transgression”(Psalms 19:14). David bsaid beforeGod: bMaster of the Universe, pardon me for that entire sin.God bsaidto him: bYour son Solomon is already destined to say with his wisdom: “Can a man take fire in his lap and his garments not be burned? Can one walk on hot coals and his feet not be scorched? So too one who lies with his neighbor’s wife; anyone who touches her shall not go unpunished”(Proverbs 6:27–29). David bsaid to Him: Will that man,David, bbe expelledfor bthat entiretransgression, with no remedy? God bsaid toDavid: bAccept upon yourself afflictions,and that will atone for your sins. bHe acceptedafflictions bupon himself. /b, bRav Yehuda saysthat bRav says:For bsix months David was afflicted with leprosy and the Divine Presence abandoned him andthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him. He was afflicted with leprosy, as it is stated: “Purge me with hyssop and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow”(Psalms 51:9), indicating that he required purification like a leper. bThe Divine Presence abandoned him, as it is stated: “Restore me to joy of Your salvation; and uphold me with a willing spirit”(Psalms 51:14). bAndthe members of bthe Sanhedrin dissociatedthemselves bfrom him, as it is stated: “Let those who fear You turn to me,and those who have known Your testimonies” (Psalms 119:79). bFrom where do wederive that this lasted for bsix months?It is derived bas it is written: “And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years; /b
21. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

30b. כל יומא דשבתא הוה יתיב וגריס כולי יומא ההוא יומא דבעי למינח נפשיה קם מלאך המות קמיה ולא יכיל ליה דלא הוה פסק פומיה מגירסא אמר מאי אעביד ליה הוה ליה בוסתנא אחורי ביתיה אתא מלאך המות סליק ובחיש באילני נפק למיחזי הוה סליק בדרגא איפחית דרגא מתותיה אישתיק ונח נפשיה,שלח שלמה לבי מדרשא אבא מת ומוטל בחמה וכלבים של בית אבא רעבים מה אעשה שלחו ליה חתוך נבלה והנח לפני הכלבים ואביך הנח עליו ככר או תינוק וטלטלו ולא יפה אמר שלמה (קהלת ט, ד) כי לכלב חי הוא טוב מן האריה המת ולענין שאילה דשאילנא קדמיכון נר קרויה נר ונשמתו של אדם קרויה נר מוטב תכבה נר של בשר ודם מפני נרו של הקב"ה:,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב בקשו חכמים לגנוז ספר קהלת מפני שדבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו מפני שתחילתו דברי תורה וסופו דברי תורה תחילתו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת א, ג) מה יתרון לאדם בכל עמלו שיעמול תחת השמש ואמרי דבי ר' ינאי תחת השמש הוא דאין לו קודם שמש יש לו סופו דברי תורה דכתיב (קהלת יב, יג) סוף דבר הכל נשמע את האלהים ירא ואת מצותיו שמור כי זה כל האדם מאי כי זה כל האדם אמר רבי (אליעזר) כל העולם כולו לא נברא אלא בשביל זה ר' אבא בר כהנא אמר שקול זה כנגד כל העולם כולו שמעון בן עזאי אומר ואמרי לה שמעון בן זומא אומר לא נברא כל העולם כולו אלא לצוות לזה,ומאי דבריו סותרין זה את זה כתיב (קהלת ז, ג) טוב כעס משחוק וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) לשחוק אמרתי מהלל כתיב (קהלת ח, טו) ושבחתי אני את השמחה וכתיב (קהלת ב, ב) ולשמחה מה זה עושה לא קשיא טוב כעס משחוק טוב כעס שכועס הקב"ה על הצדיקים בעוה"ז משחוק שמשחק הקב"ה על הרשעים בעולם הזה ולשחוק אמרתי מהלל זה שחוק שמשחק הקב"ה עם הצדיקים בעולם הבא,ושבחתי אני את השמחה שמחה של מצוה ולשמחה מה זה עושה זו שמחה שאינה של מצוה ללמדך שאין שכינה שורה לא מתוך עצבות ולא מתוך עצלות ולא מתוך שחוק ולא מתוך קלות ראש ולא מתוך שיחה ולא מתוך דברים בטלים אלא מתוך דבר שמחה של מצוה שנאמר (מלכים ב ג, טו) ועתה קחו לי מנגן והיה כנגן המנגן ותהי עליו יד ה' אמר רב יהודה וכן לדבר הלכה אמר רבא וכן לחלום טוב,איני והאמר רב גידל אמר רב כל תלמיד חכם שיושב לפני רבו ואין שפתותיו נוטפות מר תכוינה שנאמר (שיר השירים ה, יג) שפתותיו שושנים נוטפות מור עובר אל תקרי מור עובר אלא מר עובר אל תקרי שושנים אלא ששונים לא קשיא הא ברבה והא בתלמיד ואיבעית אימא הא והא ברבה ולא קשיא הא מקמי דלפתח הא לבתר דפתח כי הא דרבה מקמי דפתח להו לרבנן אמר מילתא דבדיחותא ובדחי רבנן לסוף יתיב באימתא ופתח בשמעתא,ואף ספר משלי בקשו לגנוז שהיו דבריו סותרין זה את זה ומפני מה לא גנזוהו אמרי ספר קהלת לאו עיינינן ואשכחינן טעמא הכא נמי ליעיינן ומאי דבריו סותרים זה את זה כתיב (משלי כו, ד) אל תען כסיל כאולתו וכתיב (משלי כו, ה) ענה כסיל כאולתו לא קשיא הא בדברי תורה הא במילי דעלמא,כי הא דההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי אמר ליה אשתך אשתי ובניך בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע ההוא דאתא לקמיה דרבי חייא אמר ליה אמך אשתי ואתה בני אמר ליה רצונך שתשתה כוס של יין שתה ופקע אמר רבי חייא אהניא ליה צלותיה לרבי דלא לשווייה בני ממזירי דרבי כי הוה מצלי אמר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתצילני היום מעזי. פנים ומעזות פנים,בדברי תורה מאי היא כי הא דיתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה אשה שתלד בכל יום שנאמר (ירמיהו לא, ח) הרה ויולדת יחדיו ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתן בעוה"ז נפק אחוי ליה תרנגולת,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידים אילנות שמוציאין פירות בכל יום שנאמר (יחזקאל יז, כג) ונשא ענף ועשה פרי מה ענף בכל יום אף פרי בכל יום ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד אמר והכתיב אין כל חדש תחת השמש א"ל בא ואראך דוגמתם בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה צלף,ותו יתיב רבן גמליאל וקא דריש עתידה ארץ ישראל שתוציא גלוסקאות וכלי מילת שנאמר (תהלים עב, טז) יהי פסת בר בארץ ליגלג עליו אותו תלמיד ואמר אין כל חדש תחת השמש אמר ליה בא ואראך דוגמתן בעולם הזה נפק אחוי ליה כמיהין ופטריות ואכלי מילת נברא בר קורא:,. ת"ר לעולם יהא אדם ענוותן כהלל ואל יהא קפדן כשמאי מעשה בשני בני אדם 30b. What did David do? bEvery Shabbat he would sit and learn all daylong to protect himself from the Angel of Death. On bthat day on whichthe Angel of Death bwas supposed to put his soul to rest,the day on which David was supposed to die, bthe Angel of Death stood before him and was unableto overcome him because bhis mouth did not pause from study.The Angel of Death bsaid: What shall I do to him? David had a garden [ ibustana /i] behind his house; the Angel of Death came, climbed, and shook the trees.David bwent out to see.As bhe climbed the stair, the stair broke beneath him.He was startled and bwas silent,interrupted his studies for a moment, band died. /b,Since David died in the garden, bSolomon sentthe following question bto the study hall: Father died and is lying in the sun, and the dogs of father’s house are hungry.There is room for concern lest the dogs come and harm his body. What shall I do? bThey sentan answer bto him: Cut up ananimal bcarcass and place it before the dogs.Since the dogs are hungry, handling the animal carcass to feed them is permitted. bAndwith regard to byour father,it is prohibited to move his body directly. bPlace a loafof bread bor an infant on top of him, andyou can bmove himinto the shade due to the bread or the infant. bAndis it bnot appropriatewhat bSolomon said: “ /bF bor a living dog is better than a dead lion.”The ultimate conclusion of this discussion is that life is preferable to death. bAndnow, bwith regard to the question that I asked before you;Rav Tanḥum spoke modestly, as, actually, they had asked him the question. bA lamp is called inerand a person’s soul isalso bcalled iner /i,as it is written: “The spirit of man is the lamp [ iner /i] of the Lord” (Proverbs 20:27). bIt is preferablethat bthe lamp ofa being of bflesh and blood,an actual lamp, bwill be extinguished in favor of the lamp of the Holy One, Blessed be He,a person’s soul. Therefore, one is permitted to extinguish a flame for the sake of a sick person.,Since contradictions in Ecclesiastes were mentioned, the Gemara cites additional relevant sources. bRav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: The Sages sought to suppress the book of Ecclesiastesand declare it apocryphal bbecause its statements contradict each otherand it is liable to confuse its readers. bAnd why did they not suppress it? Because its beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah and its endconsists of bmatters of Torah.The ostensibly contradictory details are secondary to the essence of the book, which is Torah. The Gemara elaborates: bIts beginningconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “What profit has man of all his labor which he labors under the sun?”(Ecclesiastes 1:3), bandthe Sages of bthe schoolof bRabbi Yannai said:By inference: bUnder the sun is whereman bhas noprofit from his labor; however, bbefore the sun,i.e., when engaged in the study of Torah, which preceded the sun, bhe does haveprofit. bIts endingconsists of bmatters of Torah, as it is written: “The end of the matter, all having been heard: Fear God, and keep His mitzvot; for this is the whole man” ( /bEcclesiastes 12:13). With regard to this verse, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of the phrase: bFor this is the whole man? Rabbi Eliezer said: The entire world was only created for thisperson. bRabbi Abba bar Kahana said: Thisperson bis equivalent to the entire world. Shimon ben Azzai says and some saythat bShimon ben Zoma says: The entire world was only created as companion to thisman, so that he will not be alone., bAndto the essence of the matter, the Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of: bIts statementsthat bcontradict each other? It is written: “Vexation is better than laughter”(Ecclesiastes 7:3), band it is written: “I said of laughter: It is praiseworthy”(Ecclesiastes 2:2), which is understood to mean that laughter is commendable. Likewise in one verse bit is written: “So I commended mirth”(Ecclesiastes 8:15), bandin another verse bit is written: “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?”(Ecclesiastes 2:2). The Gemara answers: This is bnot difficult,as the contradiction can be resolved. bVexation is better than laughtermeans: The bvexationof bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, toward the righteous in this world is preferable to the laughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the wicked in this worldby showering them with goodness. bI said of laughter: It is praiseworthy, that isthe blaughter which the Holy One, Blessed be He, laughs with the righteous in the World-to-Come. /b,Similarly, “ bSo I commended mirth,”that is bthe joy of a mitzva. “And of mirth: What does it accomplish?” that is joy that is notthe joy bof a mitzva.The praise of joy mentioned here is bto teach you that the Divine Presence restsupon an individual bneither froman atmosphere of bsadness, nor froman atmosphere of blaziness, nor froman atmosphere of blaughter, nor froman atmosphere of bfrivolity, nor froman atmosphere of bidle conversation, nor froman atmosphere of bidle chatter, but rather froman atmosphere imbued with bthe joy ofa bmitzva. As it was statedwith regard to Elisha that after he became angry at the king of Israel, his prophetic spirit left him until he requested: b“But now bring me a minstrel; and it came to pass, when the minstrel played, that the hand of the Lord came upon him”(II Kings 3:15). bRav Yehuda said: And, sotoo, one should be joyful before stating ba matter of ihalakha /i. Rava said: And, so too,one should be joyful before going to sleep in order btohave a bgood dream. /b,The Gemara asks: Is bthat so,that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully? bDidn’t Rav Giddel saythat bRav said: Any Torah scholar who sits before his teacher and his lips are not dripping with myrrhdue to fear of his teacher, those lips bshall be burnt,as bit is stated: “His lips are as lilies, dripping with flowing myrrh [ ishoshanim notefot mor over /i]”(Song of Songs 5:13)? He interpreted homiletically: bDo not read imor over /i, flowing myrrh; rather,read imar over /i, flowing bitterness.Likewise, bdo not read ishoshanim /i, lilies; rather,read isheshonim /i, that are studying,meaning that lips that are studying Torah must be full of bitterness. The Gemara explains: This is bnot difficult,there is no contradiction here, as bthis,where it was taught that one should introduce matters of ihalakhajoyfully, is referring bto a rabbi, and that,where it was taught that one must be filled with bitterness, is referring bto a student,who must listen to his teacher with trepidation. bAnd if you wish, sayinstead that bthis and thatare referring bto a rabbi, andit is bnot difficult. This,where it was taught that he must be joyful, is bbeforehe bbeginsteaching, whereas bthat,where it was taught that he must be filled with bitterness and trepidation, is bafterhe already bbeganteaching ihalakha /i. That explanation is blike that which Rabbadid. bBefore he beganteaching ihalakha bto the Sages, he would say something humorous and the Sages would be cheered. Ultimately, he sat in trepidation and beganteaching the ihalakha /i., bAnd,the Gemara continues, the Sages bsought to suppress the book of Proverbs as wellbecause bits statements contradict each other. And why did they not suppress it? They said:In the case of bthe book of Ecclesiastes, didn’t we analyze it and find an explanationthat its statements were not contradictory? bHere too, let us analyze it. And what isthe meaning of: bIts statements contradict each other?On the one hand, bit is written: “Answer not a fool according to his folly,lest you also be like him” (Proverbs 26:4), bandon the other hand, bit is written: “Answer a fool according to his folly,lest he be wise in his own eyes” (Proverbs 26:5). The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction: This is bnot difficult,as bthis,where one should answer a fool, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout Torah matters;whereas bthat,where one should not answer him, is referring to a case where the fool is making claims babout mundane matters. /b,The Gemara relates how Sages conducted themselves in both of those circumstances. bAs inthe case bof thatman bwho came before RabbiYehuda HaNasi and bsaid to him: Your wifeis bmy wife and your childrenare bmy children,Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. Similarly, the Gemara relates: bThere was that man who came before Rabbi Ḥiyya and said to him: Your motheris bmy wife, and youare bmy son. He said to him:Would byou like to drink a cup of wine? He drank and burstand died. bRabbi Ḥiyya saidwith regard to the incident involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi’s bprayerthat bhis children will not be rendered imamzerim /i,children of illicit relations, bwas effective for him. As when RabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould pray, he saidafter his prayer: bMay it be Your will, O Lord, my God, that You will deliver me today from impudent people and from insolence.Insolence, in this case, refers to imamzerut /i. It was due to his prayer that that man burst and was unsuccessful in disparaging Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi’s children., bIn matters of Torah, what isthe case with regard to which the verse said that one should respond to a fool’s folly? bAs inthe case bwhere Rabban Gamliel was sitting and he interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, ba woman will give birth every day, as it says: “The woman with child and her that gives birth together”(Jeremiah 31:7), explaining that birth will occur on the same day as conception. bA certain student scoffed at himand bsaid:That cannot be, as it has already been stated: b“There is nothing new under the sun”(Ecclesiastes 1:9). Rabban Gamliel bsaid to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He took him outside and showed him a chickenthat lays eggs every day., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,in the World-to-Come, btrees will produce fruits every day, as it is stated: “And it shall bring forth branches and bear fruit”(Ezekiel 17:23); bjust as a branchgrows bevery day, so too, fruitwill be produced bevery day. A certain student scoffed at himand bsaid: Isn’t it written: There is nothing new under the sun? He said to him: Come and I will show you an exampleof this bin this world. He went outside and showed him a caper bush,part of which is edible during each season of the year., bAnd furthermore: Rabban Gamliel sat and interpreteda verse bhomiletically: In the future,the World-to-Come, bEretz Yisrael will produce cakes andfine bwool garmentsthat will grow in the ground, bas it is stated: “Let abundant grain be in the land /b.” bA certain student scoffed at him and said: There is nothing new under the sun. He said to him: Come and I will show you an example in this world. He went outsideand bshowed him truffles and mushrooms,which emerge from the earth over the course of a single night and are shaped like a loaf of bread. bAnd with regard to wool garments,he showed him bthe covering of a heart of palm,a young palm branch, which is wrapped in a thin net-like covering.,Since the Gemara discussed the forbearance of Sages, who remain silent in the face of nonsensical comments, it cites additional relevant examples. bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bA person should always be patient like Hillel and not impatient like Shammai.The Gemara related: There was ban incidentinvolving btwo people /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

24a. יומא חד שמעיה דקא גריס אמר שמואל השולה דג מן הים בשבת כיון שיבש בו כסלע חייב א"ל ולימא מר ובין סנפיריו אמר ליה ולא סבר לה מר דההיא רבי יוסי בן רבי אבין אמרה אמר ליה אנא ניהו,א"ל ולאו קמיה דר' יוסי דמן יוקרת הוה שכיח מר א"ל (הין) א"ל ומ"ט שבקיה מר ואתא הכא אמר ליה גברא דעל בריה ועל ברתיה לא חס עלי דידי היכי חייס,בריה מאי היא יומא חד הוו אגרי ליה אגירי בדברא נגה להו ולא אייתי להו ריפתא אמרו ליה לבריה כפינן הוו יתבי תותי תאינתא אמר תאנה תאנה הוציאי פירותיך ויאכלו פועלי אבא אפיקו ואכלו,אדהכי והכי אתא אבוה אמר להו לא תינקטו בדעתייכו דהאי דנגהנא אמצוה טרחנא ועד השתא הוא דסגאי אמרו ליה רחמנא לישבעך כי היכי דאשבען ברך אמר להו מהיכא אמרו הכי והכי הוה מעשה אמר לו בני אתה הטרחת את קונך להוציא תאנה פירותיה שלא בזמנה יאסף שלא בזמנו,ברתיה מאי היא הויא ליה ברתא בעלת יופי יומא חד חזיא לההוא גברא דהויא כריא בהוצא וקא חזי לה אמר לו מאי האי אמר ליה רבי אם ללוקחה לא זכיתי לראותה לא אזכה אמר לה בתי קא מצערת להו לברייתא שובי לעפריך ואל יכשלו ביך בני אדם,הויא ליה ההוא חמרא כדהוו אגרי לה כל יומא לאורתא הוו משדרי לה אגרה אגבה ואתיא לבי מרה ואי טפו לה או בצרי לה לא אתיא יומא חד אינשו זוגא דסנדלי עלה ולא אזלה עד דשקלונהו מינה והדר אזלה,אלעזר איש בירתא כד הוו חזו ליה גבאי צדקה הוו טשו מיניה דכל מאי דהוה גביה יהיב להו יומא חד הוה סליק לשוקא למיזבן נדוניא לברתיה חזיוהו גבאי צדקה טשו מיניה,אזל ורהט בתרייהו אמר להו אשבעתיכו במאי עסקיתו אמרו ליה ביתום ויתומה אמר להן העבודה שהן קודמין לבתי שקל כל דהוה בהדיה ויהב להו פש ליה חד זוזא זבן ליה חיטי ואסיק שדייה באכלבא,אתא דביתהו אמרה לה לברתיה מאי אייתי אבוך אמרה לה כל מה דאייתי באכלבא שדיתיה אתיא למיפתח בבא דאכלבא חזת אכלבא דמליא חיטי וקא נפקא בצינורא דדשא ולא מיפתח בבא מחיטי אזלא ברתיה לבי מדרשא אמרה ליה בא וראה מה עשה לך אוהבך אמר לה העבודה הרי הן הקדש עליך ואין לך בהן אלא כאחד מעניי ישראל,ר' יהודה נשיאה גזר תעניתא בעי רחמי ולא אתא מיטרא אמר כמה איכא משמואל הרמתי ליהודה בן גמליאל אוי לו לדור שכן נתקע אוי לו למי שעלתה בימיו כך חלש דעתיה ואתא מיטרא,דבי נשיאה גזר תעניתא ולא אודעינהו לרבי יוחנן ולריש לקיש לצפרא אודעינהו אמר ליה ריש לקיש לרבי יוחנן הא לא קבילנא עלן מאורתא אמר ליה אנן בתרייהו גררינן,דבי נשיאה גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא תנא להו אושעיא זעירא דמן חברייא (במדבר טו, כד) והיה אם מעיני העדה נעשתה לשגגה,משל לכלה שהיא בבית אביה כל זמן שעיניה יפות אין כל גופה צריכה בדיקה עיניה טרוטות כל גופה צריכה בדיקה,אתו עבדיה ורמו ליה סודרא בצואריה וקא מצערו ליה אמרו (ליה) בני מאתיה שבקיה דהא נמי מצער לן כיון דחזינן דכל מיליה לשום שמים לא אמרי ליה מידי ושבקינן ליה אתון נמי שבקוהו,רבי גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא נחית קמיה אילפא ואמרי לה רבי אילפי אמר משיב הרוח ונשא זיקא מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא אמר ליה מאי עובדך אמר ליה דיירנא בקוסטא דחיקא דלית ביה חמרא לקידושא ואבדלתא טרחנא ואתינא חמרא לקידושא ואבדלתא ומפיקנא להו ידי חובתייהו,רב איקלע לההוא אתרא גזר תעניתא ולא אתא מיטרא נחית קמיה שליחא דצבורא אמר משיב הרוח ונשב זיקא אמר מוריד הגשם ואתא מיטרא אמר ליה מאי עובדך אמר ליה מיקרי דרדקי אנא ומקרינא לבני עניי כבני עתירי וכל דלא אפשר ליה לא שקלינא מיניה מידי ואית לי פירא דכוורי וכל מאן דפשע משחדינא ליה מינייהו ומסדרינן ליה ומפייסינן ליה עד דאתי וקרי,רב נחמן גזר תעניתא בעא רחמי ולא אתא מיטרא אמר שקלוה לנחמן חבוטו מן גודא לארעא חלש דעתיה ואתא מיטרא,רבה גזר תעניתא בעי רחמי ולא אתא מיטרא אמרו ליה והא רב יהודה כי הוה גזר תעניתא אתא מיטרא אמר להו מאי אעביד אי משום תנויי אנן עדיפינן מינייהו דבשני דרב יהודה כל תנויי 24a. bOne dayRabbi Yosei bar Avin bheardRav Ashi bstudyingand reciting the following statement. bShmuel said:With regard to bone who removes a fish from the seaon Shabbat, bwhenan area bonthe skin of the fish bthe size of a isela /icoin bhas dried up,he is bliablefor violating the prohibition against slaughtering an animal on Shabbat. A fish in that condition cannot survive, and therefore one who removed it from the water is liable for killing it. Rabbi Yosei bar Avin bsaid toRav Ashi: bAnd let the Master saythat this is the case provided that the skin that dried is bbetween its fins.Rav Ashi bsaid to him: And doesn’t the Master maintain that Rabbi Yosei ben Rabbi Avin said thisruling? Why didn’t you state it in his name? Rabbi Yosei bar Avin bsaid to him: I am he. /b,Rav Ashi bsaid to him: And didn’t the Mastersit bbeforeand bfrequentthe study hall bof Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat?Rabbi Yosei bar Avin bsaid to him: Yes.Rav Ashi bsaid to him: And what is the reasonthat bthe Master lefthim band came here?Rabbi Yosei bar Avin bsaid to him:I was concerned and departed because he is so severe and unforgiving. He is ba man who has no mercy on hisown bson, and no mercy on his daughter. How,then, bcould he have mercy on me? /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe incident involving bhis son? One dayRabbi Yosei from Yokrat bhiredday blaborers towork his bfield. It grew late and he did not bring them food.The workers bsaid to the son ofRabbi Yosei from Yokrat: bWe are starving. They were sitting under a fig tree,so the son bsaid: Fig tree, fig tree. Yield your fruits,so that my bfather’s workers may eat.The fig tree byieldedfruit, band they ate. /b, bIn the meantime, his father cameand bsaid tothe workers: bDo not be angry with me for being late, as I was engaged in a mitzva, and until just now I was travelingfor that purpose and could not get here any sooner. bThey said to him:May bthe Merciful One satisfy you just as your son satisfied usand gave us food. bHe said to them: From wheredid he find food to give you? bThey said: Such-and-such an incident occurred.Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat bsaid tohis son: bMy son, you troubled your Creatorto cause bthe fig to yield its fruit not in itsproper btime,so too, you will die young. And indeed, his son bdied before his time. /b,The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe incident involving bhis daughter? He hada very bbeautiful daughter. One dayRabbi Yosei from Yokrat bsaw a certain man piercing a hole in the hedgesurrounding his property band looking athis daughter. Rabbi Yosei bsaid to him: What is this?The man bsaid to him: My teacher, if I have not merited taking herin marriage, shall bI notat least bmerit to look at her? Rabbi Yosei said to her: My daughter, you are causing people distress. Return to your dust, and let people nolonger bstumbleinto sin bdue to you. /b,§ The Gemara relates another story involving Rabbi Yosei from Yokrat. bHe had a certain donkey that people hired each dayfor work. bIn the evening they would send it backwith bthe money for its hire on its back, andthe animal would bgo to its owner’s house. But if they added or subtracted fromthe appropriate sum, the donkey bwould not go. One daysomeone bforgot a pair of sandals onthe donkey, band it did not move until they removedthe sandals bfromits back, bafter which it went off. /b,The Gemara cites more stories about miracles that occurred to righteous individuals. bWhenever the charity collectors would see Elazar ofthe village of bBirta, they would hide from him, as anymoney Elazar bhad with him he would give them,and they did not want to take all his property. bOne day,Elazar bwent to the market to purchasewhat he needed bfor his daughter’s dowry. The charity collectors saw him and hid from him. /b, bHe went and ran after them, saying to them: I adjure you,tell me, bin whatmitzva bare you engaged? They said to him:We are collecting money for the wedding bof an orphan boy and an orphan girl. He said to them:I swear bby the Temple service that they take precedence over my daughter. He took everything he had with him and gave it to them. He was left with onesingle bdinar,with which bhe bought himself wheat, andhe then bascendedto his house band threw it into the granary. /b,Elazar’s bwife came and said to her daughter: What has your father brought? She said toher mother: bWhatever he brought he threw into the granary. She went to open the door of the granary,and bsaw that the granary was full of wheat,so much so that bit was coming out through the doorknob, and the door would not opendue bto the wheat.The granary had miraculously been completely filled. Elazar’s bdaughter went to the study halland bsaid toher father: bCome and see what He Who loves You,the Almighty, bhas performed for you. He said to her:I swear bby the Temple service,as far bas youare concerned this wheat bis consecratedproperty, band you havea share bin it only as one of the poor Jews.He said this because he did not want to benefit from a miracle.,The Gemara returns to the topic of fasting for rain. bRabbi Yehuda Nesia decreed a fastand bprayed for mercy, but rain did not come. He said,lamenting: bHow greatis the difference bbetweenthe prophet bSamuel of Rama,for whom rain fell even when he prayed for it in summer, bandmyself, bYehuda ben Gamliel. Woe to the generation that is stuckwith this leadership; bwoe to him in whose days this has occurred. He grew upset, and rain came. /b,The Gemara relates another story involving a iNasi’sdecree of a fast for rain. bIn the house of the iNasia fast was declared, but they didn’t inform Rabbi Yoḥa and Reish Lakishof the fast the day before. bIn the morning they informed them. Reish Lakish said to Rabbi Yoḥa:What are we to do? bWe did not acceptthis fast bupon ourselves the evening before,and a fast must be accepted in the afternoon service of the day preceding the fast. Rabbi Yoḥa bsaid to him: We are drawn afterthe community, and therefore, when the iNasideclares a public fast there is no need for an individual to accept it upon himself the day before.,The Gemara further states that on another occasion, ba fast was declared in the house of the iNasi /i, but rain did not come. Oshaya, the youngestmember bof the groupof Sages, btaught thema ibaraita /i. It is written: b“Then it shall be, if it shall be committed in error by the congregation, it being hidden from their eyes”(Numbers 15:24). This verse indicates that the leaders are considered the eyes of the congregation.,Oshaya continued: There is ba parablethat illustrates this, binvolving a bride who is in her father’s homeand has not yet been seen by her bridegroom. bAs long as her eyes are beautiful, her body need not be examined,as certainly she is beautiful. However, if bher eyes are bleary [ iterutot /i], her entire body requires examination.So too, if the leaders of the generation are flawed, it is a sign that the entire generation is unworthy. By means of this parable, Oshaya was hinting that rain was withheld from the entire nation due to the evil committed by the household of the iNasi /i.,The bservantsof the iNasi bcame and placed a scarf around his neck and tormented himas punishment for insulting the house of the iNasi /i. bHis townsmen said to them: Let him be, as he also causes us painwith his harsh reproof, but bsince we see that all his actions are for the sake of Heaven we do not say anything to him and let him be. You tooshould blet him be. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bdeclared a fast but rain did not come. Ilfa descendedto lead the service bbefore him, and some sayit was bRabbi Ilfi. He recited: He Who makes the wind blow, and the windindeed bblew.He continued to recite: And bWho makes the rain come, andsubsequently, bthe rain came.Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi bsaid to him: What are yourgood bdeeds,in the merit of which your prayers are answered so speedily? bHe said to him: I live in an impoverished city, in which there is no wine for ikiddushor ihavdala /i. I go to the effort of bringingthe residents bwine for ikiddushand ihavdala /i, and Ithereby enable them to bfulfill their duty.In reward for this mitzva, my prayers for rain were answered.,The Gemara relates a similar incident. bRav happenedto come to ba certain placewhere bhe decreed a fast but rain did not come. The prayer leader descendedto lead the service bbefore himand brecited: He Who makes the wind blow, and the wind blew.He continued and bsaid:And bWho makes the rain fall, and the rain came.Rav bsaid to him: What are yourgood bdeeds? He said to him: I am a teacher of children, and I teach the Bible to the children of the poor as to the children of the rich, andif there is banyone who cannotpay, bI do not take anything from him. And I have a fishpond, and anychild bwho neglectshis studies, bI bribe him withthe fish band calm him, and soothe him until he comes and reads. /b,The Gemara further relates: bRav Naḥman decreed a fast, prayed for mercy, but rain did not come.In his misery, he bsaid: Take Naḥmanand bthrow him from the wall to the ground,as the fast he decreed has evidently had no effect. bHe grew upset, and rain came. /b,The Gemara relates: bRabba decreed a fast. He prayed for mercy, but rain did not come. They said to him: But whenthis bRav Yehuda decreed a fast, rain would come. He said to them: What can I do? Ifthe difference between us is bdue toTorah bstudy, we are superior tothe previous generation, bas in the years of Rav Yehuda all of their learning /b
23. Babylonian Talmud, Yevamot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

122a. תלתא ריגלי אמר לה רב אדא בר אהבה זיל לקמיה דרב יוסף דחריף סכינא,אזלה קמיה פשט מהא מתניתין עובד כוכבים שהיה מוכר פירות בשוק ואמר פירות הללו של ערלה הן של עזיקה הן של נטע רבעי הן לא אמר כלום לא נתכוון אלא להשביח מקחו,אבא יודן איש ציידן אמר מעשה בישראל ועובד כוכבים שהלכו בדרך ובא עובד כוכבים ואמר חבל על יהודי שהיה עמי בדרך שמת בדרך וקברתיו והשיאו אשתו,ושוב מעשה בקולר של בני אדם שהיו מהלכין לאנטוכיא ובא עובד כוכבים אחד ואמר חבל על קולר של בני אדם שמתו וקברתים והשיאו את נשותיהם ושוב מעשה בששים בני אדם שהיו מהלכין לכרכום ביתר ובא עובד כוכבים ואמר חבל על ששים בני אדם שהיו מהלכין בדרך ביתר שמתו וקברתים והשיאו את נשותיהם:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעידין לאור הנר ולאור הלבנה ומשיאין על פי בת קול מעשה באחד שעמד על ראש ההר ואמר איש פלוני בן פלוני ממקום פלוני מת הלכו ולא מצאו שם אדם והשיאו את אשתו,ושוב מעשה בצלמון באחד שאמר אני איש פלוני בן איש פלוני נשכני נחש והרי אני מת והלכו ולא הכירוהו והלכו והשיאו את אשתו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רבה בר שמואל תנא בית שמאי אומרים אין משיאין על פי בת קול וב"ה אומרים משיאין על פי בת קול מאי קמ"ל מתני׳ היא הא קמ"ל דאי משתכחת סתמא דאין משיאין בית שמאי היא:,והלכו ולא מצאו: ודלמא שד הוה א"ר יהודה אמר רב שראו לו דמות אדם אינהו נמי דמו דחזו ליה בבואה,ואינהו נמי אית להו בבואה דחזו ליה בבואה דבבואה ודלמא לדידהו אית להו בבואה דבבואה אמר רבי חנינא אמר לי יונתן שידא בבואה אית להו בבואה דבבואה לית להו,ודלמא צרה הואי תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בשעת הסכנה כותבין ונותנין אף על פי שאין מכירין:, big strongמתני' /strong /big אמר רבי עקיבא כשירדתי לנהרדעא לעבר השנה מצאתי נחמיה איש בית דלי אמר לי שמעתי שאין משיאין את האשה בארץ ישראל על פי עד אחד אלא יהודה בן בבא ונומיתי לו כן הדברים אמר לי אמור להם משמי אתם יודעים שהמדינה משובשת בגייסות מקובלני מר"ג הזקן שמשיאין את האשה על פי עד אחד,וכשבאתי והרציתי הדברים לפני ר"ג שמח לדברי ואמר מצאנו חבר לרבי יהודה בן בבא,מתוך הדבר נזכר ר"ג שנהרגו הרוגים בתל ארזא והשיא ר"ג נשותיהן על פי עד אחד והוחזקו להיות משיאין עד מפי עד מפי עבד מפי אשה מפי שפחה ר' אליעזר ורבי יהושע אומרים אין משיאין את האשה על פי עד אחד ר' עקיבא אומר לא ע"פ אשה ולא על פי עבד ולא על פי שפחה ולא על פי קרובים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big וסבר רבי עקיבא ע"פ אשה לא והתניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר משום רבי עקיבא אשה נאמנת להביא גיטה מק"ו ומה נשים שאמרו חכמים אין נאמנות לומר מת בעלה נאמנות להביא גיטיהן זו שנאמנת לומר מת בעלה אינו דין שנאמנת להביא גיטה,נשים שאמרו חכמים הוא דלא מהימני אשה בעלמא מהימנא לא קשיא כאן קודם שהחזיקו כאן לאחר שהחזיקו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big אמרו לו מעשה בבני לוי שהלכו לצוער עיר התמרים וחלה אחד מהם והביאוהו בפונדק ובחזרתם אמרו לפונדקית איה חברנו נומית להם מת וקברתיו והשיאו את אשתו ולא תהא כהנת כפונדקית,אמר להו לכשתהא כפונדקית נאמנת הפונדקית הוציאה להם מקלו ותרמילו וספר תורה שהיה בידו: 122a. for bthreepilgrim bFestivals,on which the Sages gather together to study, but he could not resolve this uncertainty on any of those occasions. bRav Adda bar Ahava said to her: Go before Rav Yosef, whose knife is sharp,i.e., he has keen insight into halakhic matters, and ask him to decide your case., bShe went before himand bhe resolvedthe case bbased on this ibaraita /i:With regard to ba gentile who was selling fruit at the market and said: These fruits are from the first three years of the tree’s growth [ iorla /i];or bthey are from Azeka,i.e., land tilled on the Sabbatical Year, the produce of which it is prohibited to eat; or they bare fourth-year produce,which it is prohibited to eat outside of Jerusalem, bhehas bsaid nothingof consequence. His statement is not deemed credible, since it is possible that bhe intended only to enhancethe reputation of bhis goods,as he thought that his produce would fetch a higher price if he described it in that fashion. Rav Yosef derived from this ibaraitathat in the case of the missing Jew, the gentile’s statement could not be relied upon, as he may have stated it only to promote his own agenda., bAbba Yudan of Sidon said: An incidentoccurred binvolving a Jew and a gentile who traveled on the road, andlater bthe gentile came and said: Alas for the Jew who was with me on the road, for he died, and I buried him. Andthe Sages relied upon this statement and ballowed his wife to marry. /b, bAndthere was banother incident involvinga group of bpeople whohad been taken prisoner, each of whom was shackled bwith a collar [ ikolar /i]around his neck, and they bwere walking to Antokhya. Andsome time later ba certain gentile came and said: Alas for thegroup of bcollared people, for they died, and I buried them. Andthe Sages ballowed their wives to marry. Andthere was yet banother incident involving sixty people who were walking to the siege [ ikarkom /i] of Beitar, andlater ba gentile came and said: Alas for those sixty people who were walking on the roadto bBeitar, for they died, and I buried them. Andthe Sages ballowed their wives to marry. /b, strongMISHNA: /strong Witnesses bmay testifythat an individual died even if they saw his corpse only bby candlelight or by moonlight. Andthe court bmay allowa woman bto marry based onthe statement of ba disembodied voiceproclaiming that her husband died. There was ban incident with regard to a certainindividual bwho stood at the top of a mountain and said: So-and-so, son of so-and-so, from such and such a place died. They went and found no person there, buteven so btheyrelied upon the statement and ballowed the wife ofthe individual declared dead bto marry. /b,And there was banother incident in Tzalmon,a city in the Galilee, bwhere a particularman bsaid: I am so-and-so, son of so-and-so. A snake bit me and I am dying. And they wentand found his corpse bbut could not recognize him,yet bthey wentahead band allowed his wife to marrybased on what he said in his dying moments., strongGEMARA: /strong bRabba bar Shmuel said:It was btaughtin a ibaraitathat bBeit Shammai say:The judges of a court bmay not allowa woman bto marry based onthe statement of ba disembodied voice;they require actual testimony. bAnd Beit Hillel say:The judges bmay allowa woman bto marry based onthe statement of ba disembodied voice.The Gemara asks: bWhat isRabba bar Shmuel bteaching ushere? bThis issimply bour mishna,since the decisive ruling follows Beit Hillel’s opinion. The Gemara answers that he bteaches us this: That if an anonymousmishna or ibaraita bis foundthat states bthatthe judges bmay not allowa woman bto marryunder such circumstances, bit issimply the opinion of bBeit Shammai,and is not the accepted ruling.,With regard to the incident where btheyheard a disembodied voice but bwent and found noperson there, which is mentioned in the mishna, the Gemara asks: bPerhaps it was a demon. Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: They saw that he had the form of a person,so they knew it was not a demon. The Gemara asks: bThey,i.e., demons, balso appear similarto people. The Gemara answers: bThey saw that he had a shadow. /b,The Gemara asks: bBut they also have a shadow.The Gemara answers: It was a case bwhere they saw that he had a shadow of a shadow.The Gemara asks: bBut perhaps they also have a shadow of a shadow? Rabbi Ḥanina said: Yonatan the demonexpert bsaid to me: They have a shadow,but bthey do not have a shadow of a shadow. /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd perhaps it was a rivalwife, or some other enemy of that man’s wife, who cried out that her husband was dead and then fled, in order to trick her into disgracing herself by remarrying while her husband was still alive? The Gemara answers: bThe school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: During a period of danger, one may write and givea bill of divorce to a woman, balthoughthe witnesses bdo not knowthe husband, because we do not raise many suspicions at such a time. This case was similar to a period of danger in that they did not find witnesses that her husband died, and therefore the court did not require further clarification., strongMISHNA: /strong bRabbi Akiva said: When I descended to Neharde’a,in Babylonia, bto intercalate the year, I foundthe Sage bNeḥemya of Beit D’li. He said to me: I heard thatthe Sages bin Eretz Yisrael do not allow a woman to remarry based onthe testimony of ba single witness, except for Yehuda ben Bava. And I told him: That is so. He said to me: Tellthe Sages bin my name: You know that the country is confounded byarmy btroops,and I cannot come myself. I declare that bI received this tradition from Rabban Gamliel the Elder, thatthe court bmay allow a woman to remarry based onthe testimony of ba single witness. /b,Rabbi Akiva continues: bAnd when I came and presented the matter before Rabban Gamlielof Yavne, the grandson of Rabban Gamliel the Elder, bhe rejoiced at my words and said: We have found a companionwho agrees bwith Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava,and since his lenient opinion is no longer the opinion of a lone Sage, it may now be relied upon., bAs a result of this event, Rabban Gamliel remembered that people were murdered in Tel Arza, and Rabban Gamlielthen ballowed their wives to remarry based ononly bone witness. Andfrom then onward bthey establishedas protocol bto allowa woman bto remarry based on hearsay testimony, a slave’s testimony, a woman’s testimony,or ba maidservant’s testimony. Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua say:The court bmay not allow a woman to remarry based ononly bone witness. Rabbi Akiva says:The court may bnotallow a woman to marry bbased onthe testimony of ba woman, nor based onthe testimony of ba slave, nor based onthe testimony of ba maidservant, nor based onthe testimony of bclose relatives. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong The Gemara asks: bDoes Rabbi Akiva holdthat the court may bnotallow a woman to remarry bbased onanother bwoman’s testimony? But isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: bRabbi Shimon ben Elazar says in the name of Rabbi Akiva: A woman is trusted to bring herown bbill of divorceand affirm in court that it was written and signed properly, and that trust is bbased onthe following ia fortiori /iinference: bIf women,e.g., a rival wife, bwhom the Sages said are not deemed credible to saythat another woman’s bhusband died, arenevertheless btrusted to bringtheir bbills of divorce,then bis it not logical that thiswoman herself, bwho is deemed credible to saythat bher husband died, should be trusted to bring herown bbill of divorce? /b,This statement indicates that according to Rabbi Akiva, bit isspecifically bthe women who the Sages mentioned who are not deemed credible. In general, a woman is deemed credible,and another woman is permitted to remarry on the basis of her testimony. The Gemara answers: bThisis bnot difficult. Here,where Rabbi Akiva disqualified the testimony of a woman, it was bbefore they establishedthe protocol that a woman may be permitted to remarry on the basis of another woman’s testimony. bThere,where he allowed it, it was bafter they establishedthat protocol., strongMISHNA: /strong bThey said toRabbi Akiva: Do we not rely upon a woman’s testimony? After all, ban incident occurred involving Levites who traveled to Tzoar, the city of date palms. And one of them became ill, and they brought him to an inn [ ipundak /i]to rest, while they continued on their travels. bUpon their returnto the inn bthey said to the innkeeper,who was a woman: bWhere is our friend? She told them: He died, and I buried him. Andbased on her testimony bthey allowed his wife to remarry. And shouldn’t a priestess,or any Jewish woman who testifies that a man died, bbedeemed as credible bas an innkeeper? /b,Rabbi Akiva bsaid to them: Whena woman bwill be asconvincing as bthe innkeeper,then bshe shallalso bbe deemed credible. The innkeeper brought them his staff, and his bag, and the Torah scroll that was in his possession,thereby providing supporting evidence to reinforce her claim.
24. Babylonian Talmud, Yoma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

69b. אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנאמר (דברי הימים א יז, טז) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,והיכא איתמר דרב חסדא אהא מיתיבי דתניא היכן קורין בו בעזרה ראב"י אומר בהר הבית שנאמר (נחמיה ח, ג) ויקרא בו לפני הרחוב אשר לפני שער המים ואמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים,(נחמיה ח, ו) ויברך עזרא את ה' האלהים הגדול מאי גדול אמר רב יוסף אמר רב שגדלו בשם המפורש רב גידל אמר (דברי הימים א טז, לו) ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל מן העולם ועד העולם,אמר ליה אביי לרב דימי ודילמא שגידלו בשם המפורש א"ל אין אומרים שם המפורש בגבולים,ולא והכתיב (נחמיה ח, ד) ויעמוד עזרא הסופר על מגדל עץ אשר עשו לדבר ואמר רב גידל שגדלו בשם המפורש הוראת שעה היתה,(נחמיה ט, ד) ויצעקו אל ה' אלהים בקול גדול מאי אמור אמר רב ואיתימא ר' יוחנן בייא בייא היינו האי דאחרביה למקדשא וקליה להיכליה וקטלינהו לכולהו צדיקי ואגלינהו לישראל מארעהון ועדיין מרקד בינן כלום יהבתיה לן אלא לקבולי ביה אגרא לא איהו בעינן ולא אגריה בעינן,נפל להו פיתקא מרקיעא דהוה כתב בה אמת,אמר רב חנינא שמע מינה חותמו של הקב"ה אמת,אותיבו בתעניתא תלתא יומין ותלתא לילואתא מסרוהו ניהליהו נפק אתא כי גוריא דנורא מבית קדשי הקדשים אמר להו נביא לישראל היינו יצרא דעבודת כוכבים שנאמר (זכריה ה, ח) ויאמר זאת הרשעה,בהדי דתפסוה ליה אשתמיט ביניתא ממזייא ורמא קלא ואזל קליה ארבע מאה פרסי אמרו היכי נעביד דילמא חס ושלום מרחמי עליה מן שמיא אמר להו נביא שדיוהו בדודא דאברא וחפיוהו לפומיה באברא דאברא משאב שאיב קלא שנאמר (זכריה ה, ח) ויאמר זאת הרשעה וישלך אותה אל תוך האיפה וישלך את אבן העופרת אל פיה,אמרו הואיל ועת רצון הוא נבעי רחמי איצרא דעבירה בעו רחמי ואמסר בידייהו,אמר להו חזו דאי קטליתו ליה לההוא כליא עלמא חבשוהו תלתא יומי ובעו ביעתא בת יומא בכל ארץ ישראל ולא אשתכח אמרי היכי נעביד נקטליה כליא עלמא ניבעי רחמי אפלגא פלגא ברקיעא לא יהבי כחלינהו לעיניה ושבקוהו ואהני דלא מיגרי ביה לאיניש בקריבתה,במערבא מתנו הכי רב גידל אמר גדול שגדלו בשם המפורש ורב מתנא אמר (נחמיה ט, לב) האל הגדול הגבור והנורא,והא דרב מתנא מטייא לדרבי יהושע בן לוי דאמר רבי יהושע בן לוי למה נקרא שמן אנשי כנסת הגדולה שהחזירו עטרה ליושנה אתא משה אמר (דברים י, יז) האל הגדול הגבור והנורא אתא ירמיה ואמר נכרים מקרקרין בהיכלו איה נוראותיו לא אמר נורא אתא דניאל אמר נכרים משתעבדים בבניו איה גבורותיו לא אמר גבור,אתו אינהו ואמרו אדרבה זו היא גבורת גבורתו שכובש את יצרו שנותן ארך אפים לרשעים ואלו הן נוראותיו שאלמלא מוראו של הקב"ה היאך אומה אחת יכולה להתקיים בין האומות,ורבנן היכי עבדי הכי ועקרי תקנתא דתקין משה אמר רבי אלעזר מתוך שיודעין בהקב"ה שאמתי הוא לפיכך לא כיזבו בו,וקורא אחרי מות ואך בעשור ורמינהי מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה,לא קשיא כאן בכדי שיפסיק התורגמן כאן בכדי שלא יפסיק התורגמן,והא עלה קתני מדלגין בנביא ואין מדלגין בתורה ועד כמה מדלג בכדי שלא יפסיק התורגמן הא בתורה כלל כלל לא,אמר אביי לא קשיא כאן בענין אחד כאן בשני ענינין,והתניא מדלגין בתורה בענין אחד ובנביא בשני ענינין כאן וכאן בכדי שלא יפסיק התורגמן ואין מדלגין מנביא לנביא ובנביא של שנים עשר מדלגין 69b. bSitting in theTemple bcourtyard ispermitted bonly for kings of the House of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in and sat before the Lord”(I Chronicles 17:16)? How, then, could the High Priest have been sitting? The Gemara explains: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here, too,the reading was bin the women’s courtyard,where it is permitted to sit.,§ The Gemara clarifies: bAnd where wasthis statement bof Rav Ḥisdaoriginally bstated?It was stated bin relation to the following:The Sages braised an objectionbased on that bwhich was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bWhere did they readthe Torah scroll in fulfillment of the mitzva of assembly, in which the Torah is publicly read on the iSukkotfollowing the Sabbatical Year? It was read bin theTemple bcourtyard. Rabbi Eliezer ben Ya’akov says:It is read bon the Temple Mount, as it is statedconcerning the public reading performed by Ezra: b“And he read from it before the wide road that was before the Gate of the Water”(Nehemiah 8:3). bAnd Rav Ḥisda said:The courtyard referred to by the first itannais bthe women’s courtyard. /b,Apropos the verse in Nehemiah, the Gemara interprets an adjacent verse homiletically. It is stated: b“And Ezra blessed the Lord, the great God”(Nehemiah 8:6). The Gemara asks: bWhat isthe meaning of b“great”here? bRav Yosef saidthat bRav said:It means bthat he ascribed greatness to Him byenunciating God’s bexplicit name. Rav Giddel said:He established that one should say at the conclusion of every blessing: b“Blessed be the Lord, God of Israel, from eternity to eternity”(I Chronicles 16:36)., bAbaye said to Rav Dimi:Why does Rav Giddel interpret it this way? bPerhapsthe meaning of “great” is bthat he ascribed greatness to Him byenunciating God’s bexplicit name?Rav Dimi bsaid to him: The explicit name may not be enunciated in the provinces,i.e., outside the Temple courtyard.,The Gemara asks: bAndis this really bnotpermitted? bIsn’t it written: “And Ezra the Scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose...and Ezra blessed the Lord, the great God” (Nehemiah 8:4-6); band Rav Giddel said:“Great” in this verse means bthat he ascribed greatness to Him byenunciating God’s bexplicit name.Since this event took place outside the Temple (see Nehemiah 8:3), it suggests that God’s explicit name may indeed be enunciated outside the Temple. The Gemara answers: That cannot be proven from here because the permission to use God’s explicit name in that context bwas a provisional edictissued in exigent circumstances, since the people had uniquely come together in a prayerful commitment to God.,The Gemara recounts the event described in the verses: The verse states: bAnd they cried with a loud voice to the Lordtheir bGod(Nehemiah 9:4). bWhat was said? Rav said, and some sayit was bRabbi Yoḥawho said: bWoe, woe. It is this,i.e., the evil inclination for idol worship, bthat destroyed the Temple, and burned its Sanctuary, and murdered all the righteous ones, and caused the Jewish people to be exiled from their land. And it still dances among us,i.e., it still affects us. bDidn’t You give it to us solely for the purpose ofour breceiving rewardfor overcoming it? bWe do not want it, and we do not want its reward.We are prepared to forgo the potential rewards for overcoming the evil inclination as long as it departs from us.,In response to their prayer ba note fell to them from the heavens upon which was written: Truth,indicating that God accepted their request.,The Gemara makes a parenthetical observation. bRav Ḥanina said: Learn from thisthat bthe seal of the Holy One, Blessed be He, is truth. /b,In response to the indication of divine acceptance, bthey observed a fast for three days and three nights, and He deliveredthe evil inclination bto them. A form of a fiery lion cub came forth from the chamber of the Holy of Holies.Zechariah bthe prophet said to the Jewish people: This is theevil binclination for idol worship, as it is statedin the verse that refers to this event: b“And he said: This is the evil one”(Zechariah 5:8). The use of the word “this” indicates that the evil inclination was perceived in a physical form., bWhen they caught hold of it one of its hairs fell, and it let out a shriekof pain bthat was heard for four hundred parasangs. They said: Whatshould bwe doto kill it? bPerhaps, Heaven forfend, they will have mercy upon him from Heaven,since it cries out so much. bThe prophet said to them: Throw it into a containermade bof lead and seal the opening with lead, since lead absorbs sound. As it is stated: “And he said: This is the evil one. And he cast it down into the midst of the measure, and he cast a stone of lead upon its opening”(Zechariah 5:8). They followed this advice and were freed of the evil inclination for idol worship.,When they saw that the evil inclination for idol worship was delivered into their hands as they requested, the Sages bsaid: Since it is an auspicious time, let us pray also concerning theevil binclination for sinin the area of sexual relationships. bThey prayed, and it wasalso bdelivered into their hands. /b,Zechariah the prophet bsaid to them: Seeand understand bthat if you killthis evil inclination bthe world will be destroyedbecause as a result there will also no longer be any desire to procreate. They followed his warning, and instead of killing the evil inclination bthey imprisoned it for three days.At that time, people bsearched for a fresh egg throughout all of Eretz Yisrael and could not findone. Since the inclination to reproduce was quashed, the chickens stopped laying eggs. bThey said: Whatshould bwe do?If bwe kill it, the world will be destroyed.If bwe pray for half,i.e., that only half its power be annulled, nothing will be achieved because bHeaven does not grant halfgifts, only whole gifts. What did they do? bThey gougedout bits eyes,effectively limiting its power, band set it free. Andthis bwas effectiveto the extent bthat a person is nolonger baroused tocommit incest with bhisclose brelatives. /b,The Gemara returns to its discussion of the verse in Nehemiah cited above: bIn the West,i.e., Eretz Yisrael, bthey taughtthe debate concerning the verse “the Lord, the great God” bas follows: Rav Giddel said: “Great”means bthat he ascribed greatness to Him byenunciating God’s bexplicit name. And Rav Mattana said:They reinserted the following appellations of God into their prayers: b“The great, the mighty, and the awesome God”(Nehemiah 9:32).,The Gemara comments: bThisinterpretation that bRav Mattanasaid bleans to,i.e., is consot with, the exposition bof Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. As Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Why arethe Sages of those generations bcalled the members of the Great Assembly?It is bbecause they returned the crownof the Holy One, Blessed be He, bto its formerglory. How so? bMoses cameand bsaidin his prayer: b“The great, the mighty, and the awesomeGod”(Deuteronomy 10:17). bJeremiahthe prophet bcame and said: Gentiles,i.e., the minions of Nebuchadnezzar, bare carousing in His sanctuary; where is His awesomeness?Therefore, bhe did not say awesomein his prayer: “The great God, the mighty Lord of Hosts, is His name” (Jeremiah 32:18). bDaniel cameand bsaid: Gentiles are enslaving His children; where is His might?Therefore bhe did not say mightyin his prayer: “The great and awesome God” (Daniel 9:4).,The members of the Great Assembly bcame and said: On the contrary, this is the might of His might,i.e., this is the fullest expression of it, bthat He conquers His inclinationin bthat He exercises patience toward the wicked.God’s anger is flared by the gentile nations’ enslavement of His people, yet He expresses tremendous might by suppressing His anger and holding back from punishing them immediately. Therefore, it is still appropriate to refer to God as mighty. bAnd theseacts also express bHis awesomeness: Were it not for the awesomeness of the Holy One, Blessed be He, how could one people,i.e., the Jewish people, who are alone and hated by the gentile nations, bsurvive among the nations? /b,The Gemara asks: bAnd the Rabbis,i.e., Jeremiah and Daniel, bhow could they do this and uproot an ordice instituted by Moses,the greatest teacher, who instituted the mention of these attributes in prayer? bRabbi Elazar said:They did so bbecause they knew of the Holy One Blessed be He, that He is truthfuland hates a lie. bConsequently, they did not speak falsely about Him.Since they did not perceive His attributes of might and awesomeness, they did not refer to them; therefore, they cannot be criticized for doing so.,§ It was taught in the mishna: bAnd he readsfrom the scroll the Torah portion beginning with the verse: b“After the death”(Leviticus 16:1), bandthe portion beginning with the verse: b“But on the tenth”(Leviticus 23:26). Although both of these portions appear in the book of Leviticus, they are not adjacent to one another. Perforce, the High Priest skipped the sections in between the two portions. The Gemara braises a contradiction:It is taught in a mishna in tractate iMegilla /i: bOnemay bskipsections when reading the ihaftara bin the Prophets, but onemay bnot skipsections when reading bin the Torah. /b,The Gemara answers: bThis is not difficult: There,in the mishna in tractate iMegillathat teaches that one may not skip, the intention is that one should not skip if the sections are so far apart from one another that the delay caused by doing so will be bof such length that the translatorwho recites the Aramaic translation bwill concludehis translation before the next section is reached. In that case, the community would have to remain in silence while waiting for the next section to be reached, which is considered disrespectful of the community’s honor. bHere,in the case of the mishna, where it is permitted to skip, the delay caused is bof suchshort blength that the translator willstill bnot concludehis translation before the new section is reached.,The Gemara challenges this resolution: bBut it was taught concerning thisstatement in the continuation of that mishna: bOnemay bskipsections when reading bin the Prophets, and onemay bnot skipsections when reading bin the Torah. And how muchmay bone skip?One may skip bwhen thesection skipped is bofsuch short blength thatwhen the furling of the scroll is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation. The ibaraitaimplies that the qualification for the length of the section that may be skipped applies only to reading the Prophets, bbutwhen reading bthe Torah,one may bnotskip bat all.The Gemara’s resolution is therefore refuted.,The Gemara offers a different resolution. bAbaye said: This is not difficult. Here,in the case of the mishna here, where it is permitted to skip, it is referring to when both sections bpertain to a single topic,and therefore the listeners will be unaware that sections were skipped. bThere,in the mishna in tractate iMegilla /i, which teaches that one may not skip, it is referring to when the two sections bpertain to twodifferent btopics. /b, bAs it was taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOnemay bskipsections when reading bin the Torahwhen both sections read bpertain to one topic, and in the Prophetsone may skip from one section to another even if they bpertain to twodifferent btopics.Both bhere and there,one may skip only bwhenthe section skipped is bof suchshort blength thatwhen furling is completed bthe translator willstill bnot have concludedhis translation. But bonemay bnot skip from onebook of the bProphets to anotherbook of the bProphetseven if both pertain to the same topic, and even if the gap between them is short. However, bamong thebooks of the bTwelve Prophets one may skip,as the twelve are considered one book for these purposes.
25. Anon., Pesiqta De Rav Kahana, 4.7

26. Anon., Soferim, 9, 8



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
abaye Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
academies, rabbinic, and importance of torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
academies, rabbinic, heavenly Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
academies, rabbinic Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
aha, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
aha b. hanina, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
akiba, r., and moses Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
akiva, rabbi Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
alexandri, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
amei haarets (nonlearned jews) Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
angel, of death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
argumentation, dialectical, vs. memorization Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
argumentation, dialectical Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
babylonia Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
babylonian rabbis, sages, attitude to king david Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 85
babylonian sources, on studying with partner Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
bavli (babylonian talmud), on studying with partner Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
body, hand Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
corpse Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
david, king, diverse approaches of babylonian rabbis, palestinian rabbis Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 84, 85
death Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
dialectics Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
doeg Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
dreams, competitiveness in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
dreams, in bavli vs. yerushalmi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
efes, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
eleazar, r., on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
friedman, shamma Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
genesis rabbah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
hama b. hanina, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
hanina, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
healing Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
heaven Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
honi the circle drawer Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
intellectual skill, and private vs. group study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
intellectual skill, as sharpness, Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
joab, relations with king david Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 85
kingdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
law Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
levi, and r. efes Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
levi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
martyrdom Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
metaphors, of sharpness Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
miracle Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
mishna Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
moses, and r. akiba Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
palestine, travel in and from Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
palestinian sources, on studying with partner Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
palestinian sources, on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31, 171
papa, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
pumbedita yeshiva Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
r. yohanan Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
rabbah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rabbah bar bar hannah Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
rashi Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
rav (abba arikha), on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
rava Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
resh laqish, on torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
righteousness, in rabbinic sources Kalmin, The Sage in Jewish Society of Late Antiquity (1998) 144
sacrifice Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
sages, conflicts of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
sages, dialectical argumentation of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
sexuality, of honi the circle drawer' Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
sheshet, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
stammaim, and dialectical argumentation Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
stammaim, and torah study Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
syriac Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
tanhum b. r. hiyya, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
torah, esteem of Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
torah Herman, Rubenstein, The Aggada of the Bavli and Its Cultural World (2018) 242
torah study, and academies Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
torah study, and stammaim Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
torah study, bavli on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31, 171
torah study, palestinian sources on Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31, 171
torah study, partners in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
torah study, private vs. public Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
yehuda, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
yehuda of huzi, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177
yerushalmi (palestinian talmud), dreams in Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 31
yohanan, r., and resh laqish Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 52
yohanan, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 171
yose, r. Rubenstein, The Culture of the Babylonian Talmud (2003) 177