The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Index Database
Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, 13a

פר כהן משוח ופר עדה כו': מנא הני מילי דת"ר (ויקרא ד, כא) ושרף אותו כאשר שרף את הפר הראשון מה ת"ל הראשון שיהא ראשון קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו,ת"ר פר כהן משיח ופר העדה עומדים פר כהן משיח קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו הואיל ומשיח מכפר ועדה מתכפרת דין הוא שיקדים המכפר למתכפר וכן הוא אומר (ויקרא טז, יז) וכפר בעדו ובעד ביתו ובעד כל קהל ישראל,פר העלם דבר של צבור קודם לפר של עבודת כוכבים מ"ט האי חטאת והאי עולה ותניא (ויקרא ה, ח) והקריב את אשר לחטאת ראשונה מה ת"ל אם ללמד שתהא חטאת ראשונה הרי כבר נאמר ואת השני יעשה עולה כמשפט אלא זה בנה אב שיהו כל חטאות קודמות לעולות הבאים עמהם וקיי"ל דאפילו חטאת העוף קודמת לעולת בהמה,פר עבודת כוכבים קודם לשעיר עבודת כוכבים אמאי האי חטאת והאי עולה אמרי במערבא משמיה דרבא בר מרי חטאת עבודת כוכבים חסירא אל"ף (במדבר טו, כד) לחטת כתיב רבא אמר כמשפט כתיב ביה,שעיר עבודת כוכבים קודם לשעיר נשיא מ"ט האי צבור והאי יחיד שעיר נשיא קודם לשעירת יחיד מ"ט האי מלך והאי הדיוט,שעירת יחיד קודמת לכבשת יחיד והא תניא כבשת יחיד קודמת לשעירת יחיד אמר אביי תנאי היא מר סבר שעירה עדיפא שכן נתרבתה אצל עבודת כוכבים ביחיד ומר סבר כבשה עדיפא שכן נתרבתה באליה,עומר קודם לכבש הבא עמו שתי הלחם קודמים לכבשים הבאים עמהם זה הכלל דבר הבא בגין ליום קודם לדבר הבא בגין לחם:,§ The mishna teaches: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation, which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? It is as the Sages taught: “And he shall burn it as he burned the first bull” (Leviticus 4:21). Why must the verse state “the first”? The verse could simply state that he shall burn it as he burned the bull. It is in order to establish that the first offering precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions.,The Sages taught in a baraita: If the bull of the anointed priest and the bull of the congregation are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions. Since the anointed priest atones for the entire Jewish people, and the congregation gains atonement, it is logical that the one who atones will precede the one who gains atonement. And so the verse states: “And he shall atone for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel” (Leviticus 16:17).,The baraita continues: A bull for an unwitting communal sin precedes a bull for idol worship. What is the reason for this halakha? This, i.e., the bull for an unwitting communal sin, is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull for idol worship, is a burnt-offering, and it is taught in a baraita: “And he shall sacrifice that which is for the sin-offering first” (Leviticus 5:8); why must the verse state this? If it is to teach that the sin-offering will be first, it is already stated: “And the second he shall prepare as a burnt-offering according to the ordinance” (Leviticus 5:10). Rather, this established a paradigm from which all similar cases may be derived, teaching that all sin-offerings precede the burnt-offerings that accompany them, and we maintain that even bird sin-offerings precede animal burnt-offerings.,A bull for idol worship brought by the entire congregation precedes a goat for idol worship brought by the entire congregation. The Gemara asks: Why is this so; this, i.e., the goat is a sin-offering, and that, i.e., the bull is a burnt-offering? In the West, Eretz Yisrael, they say in the name of Rava bar Mari: In the verse: “If it is performed unwittingly by the congregation, being hidden from their eyes, the entire congregation shall bring one young bull for a burnt-offering, for a pleasing aroma to the Lord, with its meal-offering, and its libation, according to the ordinance, and one goat as a sin-offering [leḥattat]” (Numbers 15:24), the sin-offering for idol worship is lacking an alef, i.e., leḥattat” is written without an alef. This indicates that not all the halakhot of sin-offerings apply to it. Rava said: “According to the ordinance” is written concerning it, indicating that the service must be performed in accordance with the order stated in the verse, i.e., the bull is sacrificed before the goat.,The goat for idol worship of the congregation precedes the goat of the king. What is the reason for this? The reason is that this goat is brought by the general public and that goat is brought by an individual, and the communal precedes the individual even if that individual is the king. The male goat of the king precedes the female goat of the individual. What is the reason for this? This male goat is brought by a king, and that female goat is brought by a commoner.,The female goat of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering precedes the ewe of an individual brought as a standard sin-offering. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: The ewe of an individual precedes the female goat of an individual? Abaye said: It is a dispute between tanna’im. One Sage holds that a female goat is preferable and takes precedence, as it has an increased applicability in that it is brought for idol worship by an individual, in which case one must bring a female goat, not a female sheep. And one Sage holds that the ewe is preferable and takes precedence, as it has more sacrificial portions than a female goat, as its tail is also included, which indicates that it is a preferable offering.,The omer offering precedes the lamb that accompanies it; the two loaves, i.e., the public offering on Shavuot of two loaves of bread from the new wheat, precede the sheep that accompany them. This is the principle: A matter that comes due to a mitzva of the day precedes a matter that comes due to the bread. The omer and two loaves are meal-offerings brought due to the day. The accompanying sheep are brought due to the meal-offerings.,The man precedes the woman when there is uncertainty with regard to which of them to rescue or to return a lost item to first. And the woman precedes the man with regard to which of them to provide with a garment first, because her humiliation is great, or to release from captivity first, due to the concern that she will be raped. When they are both subject to degradation, i.e., there is also concern that the man will be raped in captivity, the release of the man precedes the release of the woman.,the Sages taught in a baraita: If one and his father and his teacher were in captivity, his release precedes his teacher’s because one’s own life takes precedence, and his teacher’s release precedes his father’s release. His mother’s release precedes the release of all of them.,A Torah scholar precedes the king of Israel, because in the case of a Sage who dies, we have no one like him, but in the case of a king of Israel who dies, all of Israel are fit for royalty.,A king precedes a High Priest, as it is stated: “And the king said unto them: Take with you the servants of your lord” (I Kings 1:33). King David was referring to himself as lord when speaking to Zadok the priest.,A High Priest precedes a prophet, as it is stated: “And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there” (I Kings 1:34); Zadok is written before Natan. And similarly, the prophet says: “Hear now, Joshua the High Priest, you and your colleagues who sit before you, for they are men that are a sign; for behold, I will bring forth My servant Zemah” (Zechariah 3:8). One might have thought that these colleagues were laymen. Therefore, the verse states: “For they are men that are a sign,” and “sign” means nothing other than a prophet, as it is stated: “And he gives you a sign or a wonder” (Deuteronomy 13:2).,A High Priest anointed with anointing oil precedes a priest consecrated by donning multiple garments. A High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down, even if he did so due to his seminal emission. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his seminal emission precedes an anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish. An anointed High Priest who stepped down due to his blemish precedes a priest anointed for war. A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest, who replaces the High Priest when he is unable to serve in the Temple.,The baraita concludes: A deputy High Priest precedes the overseer [la’amarkal], one of the seven appointed officials in the Temple. The Gemara asks: What is the meaning of amarkal? Rav Ḥisda said: Amarkal is an acronym for amar kulla, meaning: He says it all. The overseer of the Temple has the final word in matters concerning the administration of the Temple. The overseer precedes the Temple treasurer. The treasurer precedes the head of the priestly watch that would serve in the Temple for a period of one week at a time. The head of the priestly watch precedes the head of the patrilineal family. Each patrilineal family performed the Temple service for one day during the week of its priestly watch. The head of the patrilineal family precedes an ordinary priest.,A dilemma was raised before the Sages: With regard to the matter of ritual impurity, when there is a corpse with no one to bury it [met mitzva], which even a priest and a nazirite are commanded to bury, and the deputy High Priest and the priest anointed for war are available to bury it, which of them precedes the other and becomes impure?,Mar Zutra, son of Rav Naḥman, said: Come and hear a resolution, as it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a deputy High Priest and a priest anointed for war who were walking along the path and they encountered a met mitzva and one of them must bury him and become ritually impure, it is preferable that the priest anointed for war will become ritually impure and the deputy High Priest will not become ritually impure. The reason is that if disqualification befalls the High Priest, the deputy enters and performs the Temple service in his stead. Therefore, one must ensure to every possible extent that the deputy High Priest remain ritually pure. The Gemara asks: But isn’t it taught in a baraita: A priest anointed for war precedes a deputy High Priest? Ravina said: When that baraita is taught, it is not with regard to ritual impurity; rather, it is taught with regard to rescuing him, as the standing of the priest anointed for war is higher than that of the deputy High Priest.,A priest precedes a Levite. A Levite precedes an Israelite. An Israelite precedes a son born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship [mamzer], and a mamzer precedes a Gibeonite, and a Gibeonite precedes a convert, and a convert precedes an emancipated slave. When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. But if there were a mamzer who is a Torah scholar and a High Priest who is an ignoramus, a mamzer who is a Torah scholar precedes a High Priest who is an ignoramus, as Torah wisdom surpasses all else.,A priest precedes a Levite, as it is stated: “The sons of Amram: Aaron and Moses, and Aaron was separated that he should be sanctified as the most sacred” (I Chronicles 23:13). A Levite precedes an Israelite, as it is stated: “At that time the Lord separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, to stand before the Lord to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name, unto this day” (Deuteronomy 10:8).,An Israelite precedes a mamzer because this Israelite is of legitimate lineage and that mamzer is not of legitimate lineage and is disqualified from entering into the congregation of Israel. A mamzer precedes a Gibeonite because this mamzer comes from a fit drop of semen, i.e., from Jewish parentage, and that Gibeonite comes from an unfit drop of semen, from gentile parentage. A Gibeonite precedes a convert, as this Gibeonite grew among us in sanctity and conducted his life as a Jew, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. A convert precedes an emancipated Canaanite slave as this emancipated Canaanite slave was included in the category of the curse while he was enslaved, and that convert was not included in the category of the curse.,The mishna teaches: When do these halakhot of precedence take effect? In circumstances when they are all equal in terms of wisdom. The Gemara asks: From where are these matters derived? Rav Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: This is derived from a verse, as the verse states: “She is more precious than rubies [mipeninim]” (Proverbs 3:15). The Torah is more precious than the High Priest who enters the innermost sanctum [lifnai velifnim], the Holy of Holies.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai says: By right, an emancipated Canaanite slave should have preceded a convert, because this emancipated Canaanite slave grew among us in sanctity, and that convert did not grow among us in sanctity. But the convert precedes the Canaanite slave because this Canaanite slave was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse.,The students of Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Tzadok, asked him: For what reason does everyone, i.e., do many people, run to marry a female convert, and not everyone runs to marry an emancipated Canaanite maidservant? He said to them: This Canaanite maidservant was in the category of the curse, and that convert was not in the category of the curse. Alternatively, the reason is that this convert has the presumptive status of chastity, and that Canaanite maidservant does not have the presumptive status of chastity.,The students of Rabbi Elazar asked him: For what reason does a dog recognize its master, while a cat does not recognize its master? Rabbi Elazar said to them: If it is established that with regard to one who eats from that which a mouse eats, eating that item causes him to forget, with regard to the cat, who eats the mouse itself, all the more so does eating it cause it to forget.,The students of Rabbi Eliezer asked him: For what reason do all predators dominate mice and prey on them? He said to them: Because concerning mice, their inclination [shesuran] is evil. The Gemara asks: What is the indication of this? Rava said: They gnaw even at cloaks, despite the fact that cloaks do not provide nourishment for them.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

7 results
1. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.2-23.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)

23.2. וַיִּזְבַּח אֶת־כָּל־כֹּהֲנֵי הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם עַל־הַמִּזְבְּחוֹת וַיִּשְׂרֹף אֶת־עַצְמוֹת אָדָם עֲלֵיהֶם וַיָּשָׁב יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃ 23.2. וַיַּעַל הַמֶּלֶךְ בֵּית־יְהוָה וְכָל־אִישׁ יְהוּדָה וְכָל־יֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם אִתּוֹ וְהַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַנְּבִיאִים וְכָל־הָעָם לְמִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל וַיִּקְרָא בְאָזְנֵיהֶם אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית הַנִּמְצָא בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃ 23.3. וַיַּרְכִּבֻהוּ עֲבָדָיו מֵת מִמְּגִדּוֹ וַיְבִאֻהוּ יְרוּשָׁלִַם וַיִּקְבְּרֻהוּ בִּקְבֻרָתוֹ וַיִּקַּח עַם־הָאָרֶץ אֶת־יְהוֹאָחָז בֶּן־יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ וַיִּמְשְׁחוּ אֹתוֹ וַיַּמְלִיכוּ אֹתוֹ תַּחַת אָבִיו׃ 23.3. וַיַּעֲמֹד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־הָעַמּוּד וַיִּכְרֹת אֶת־הַבְּרִית לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לָלֶכֶת אַחַר יְהוָה וְלִשְׁמֹר מִצְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־עֵדְוֺתָיו וְאֶת־חֻקֹּתָיו בְּכָל־לֵב וּבְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ לְהָקִים אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת הַכְּתֻבִים עַל־הַסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה וַיַּעֲמֹד כָּל־הָעָם בַּבְּרִית׃ 23.2. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covet which was found in the house of the LORD." 23.3. And the king stood on the platform, and made a covet before the LORD, to walk after the LORD, and to keep His commandments, and His testimonies, and His statutes, with all his heart, and all his soul, to confirm the words of this covet that were written in this book; and all the people stood to the covet."
2. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.9, 8.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)

8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃ 8.9. וַיֹּאמֶר נְחֶמְיָה הוּא הַתִּרְשָׁתָא וְעֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן הַסֹּפֵר וְהַלְוִיִּם הַמְּבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לְכָל־הָעָם הַיּוֹם קָדֹשׁ־הוּא לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אַל־תִּתְאַבְּלוּ וְאַל־תִּבְכּוּ כִּי בוֹכִים כָּל־הָעָם כְּשָׁמְעָם אֶת־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.12. וַיֵּלְכוּ כָל־הָעָם לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת וּלְשַׁלַּח מָנוֹת וְלַעֲשׂוֹת שִׂמְחָה גְדוֹלָה כִּי הֵבִינוּ בַּדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר הוֹדִיעוּ לָהֶם׃ 8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel." 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month." 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law." 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam." 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up." 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground." 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place." 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading." 8.9. And Nehemiah, who was the Tirshatha, and Ezra the priest the scribe, and the Levites that taught the people, said unto all the people: ‘This day is holy unto the LORD your God; mourn not, nor weep.’ For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law." 8.12. And all the people went their way to eat, and to drink, and to send portions, and to make great mirth, because they had understood the words that were declared unto them."
3. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)

4. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

17b. אין פרץ שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של דוד שיצא ממנו אחיתופל ואין יוצאת שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של שאול שיצא ממנו דואג האדומי ואין צוחה שלא תהא סיעתנו כסיעתו של אלישע שיצא ממנו גחזי ברחובותינו שלא יהא לנו בן או תלמיד שמקדיח תבשילו ברבים: (ישעיהו מו, יב),שמעו אלי אבירי לב הרחוקים מצדקה רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר חד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בצדקה והם נזונין בזרוע וחד אמר כל העולם כולו נזונין בזכותם והם אפילו בזכות עצמן אין נזונין כדרב יהודה אמר רב,דאמר רב יהודה אמר רב בכל יום ויום בת קול יוצאת מהר חורב ואומרת כל העולם כולו נזונין בשביל חנינא בני וחנינא בני די לו בקב חרובין מערב שבת לערב שבת,ופליגא דרב יהודה דאמר רב יהודה מאן אבירי לב גובאי טפשאי אמר רב יוסף תדע דהא לא איגייר גיורא מינייהו,אמר רב אשי בני מתא מחסיא אבירי לב נינהו דקא חזו יקרא דאורייתא תרי זמני בשתא ולא קמגייר גיורא מינייהו:,חתן אם רוצה לקרות וכו':,למימרא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל חייש ליוהרא ורבנן לא חיישי ליוהרא והא איפכא שמעינן להו דתנן מקום שנהגו לעשות מלאכה בתשעה באב עושין מקום שנהגו שלא לעשות אין עושין וכל מקום תלמידי חכמים בטלים רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר לעולם יעשה כל אדם את עצמו כתלמיד חכם,קשיא דרבנן אדרבנן קשיא דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל,אמר רבי יוחנן מוחלפת השיטה רב שישא בריה דרב אידי אמר לעולם לא תחליף דרבנן אדרבנן לא קשיא ק"ש כיון דכ"ע קא קרו ואיהו נמי קרי לא מיחזי כיוהרא הכא כיון דכולי עלמא עבדי מלאכה ואיהו לא קא עביד מיחזי כיוהרא,דרבן שמעון בן גמליאל אדרבן שמעון בן גמליאל לא קשיא התם בכונה תליא מילתא ואנן סהדי דלא מצי לכווני דעתיה אבל הכא הרואה אומר מלאכה הוא דאין לו פוק חזי כמה בטלני איכא בשוקא:, br br big strongהדרן עלך היה קורא /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שמתו מוטל לפניו פטור מק"ש ומן התפלה ומן התפילין ומכל מצות האמורות בתורה,נושאי המטה וחלופיהן וחלופי חלופיהן את שלפני המטה ואת שלאחר המטה את שלפני המטה צורך בהם פטורים ואת שלאחר המטה צורך בהם חייבין ואלו ואלו פטורים מן התפלה,קברו את המת וחזרו אם יכולין להתחיל ולגמור עד שלא יגיעו לשורה יתחילו ואם לאו לא יתחילו,העומדים בשורה הפנימיים פטורים והחיצונים חייבים (נשים ועבדים וקטנים פטורים מק"ש ומן התפילין וחייבין בתפלה ובמזוזה ובברכת המזון):, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מוטל לפניו אין ושאינו מוטל לפניו לא,ורמינהי מי שמתו מוטל לפניו אוכל בבית אחר ואם אין לו בית אחר אוכל בבית חבירו ואם אין לו בית חבירו עושה מחיצה ואוכל ואם אין לו דבר לעשות מחיצה מחזיר פניו ואוכל ואינו מיסב ואוכל ואינו אוכל בשר ואינו שותה יין ואינו מברך ואינו מזמן 17b. b“There is no breach”; that our factionof Sages bshould not be like the faction of David, from which Ahitophel emerged,who caused a breach in the kingdom of David. br b“And no going forth”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Saul, from which Doeg the Edomite emerged,who set forth on an evil path. br b“And no outcry”; that our faction should not be like the faction of Elisha, from which Geihazi emerged. br b“In our open places”; that we should not have a child or student who overcooks his food in public,i.e., who sins in public and causes others to sin, basin the well-known case of bJesus the Nazarene. /b,Having cited a dispute with regard to the interpretation of a verse where we are uncertain whether the dispute is between Rav and Shmuel or Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, the Gemara cites another verse with regard to which there is a similar dispute. It is said: b“Hear Me, stubborn-hearted who are far from charity”(Isaiah 46:12). While both agree that the verse refers to the righteous, bRav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar,disagreed as to how to interpret the verse. bOne said: The entire world is sustained byGod’s bcharity,not because it deserves to exist, bwhilethe righteous who are far from God’s charity bare sustained by force,as due to their own good deeds they have the right to demand their sustece. bAnd one said: The entire world is sustained by the meritof btheirrighteousness, bwhile they are not sustainedat all, bnot even by their own merit, in accordance withthe statement that bRav Yehudasaid that bRav said. /b, bAs Rav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: Every day a Divine Voice emerges from Mount Horeb and says: The entire world is sustained bythe merit of bḤaninaben Dosa, bmy son, andfor bḤanina, my son, a ikavof carobs is sufficientto sustain him for an entire week, bfromone bShabbat eve tothe next bShabbat eve. /b, bAndthis exegesis bdisagrees withthe opinion of bRav Yehuda, as Rav Yehuda said, who are the stubborn-hearted?They are the bfoolishheathens bof Gova’ei. Rav Yosef said: Knowthat this is so, bas no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,Similarly, bRav Ashi said:The heathen residents bofthe city bMata Meḥasya are the stubborn-hearted, as they witness the glory of the Torah twice a yearat the ikallagatherings in Adar and Elul, when thousands of people congregate and study Torah ien masse /i, byet no convert has ever converted from theirranks.,We learned in our mishna that bif a groom wishes to recite iShemaon the first night of his marriage, he may do so, and Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel prohibited doing so because of the appearance of presumptuousness.,The Gemara asks: bIs that to say that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about presumptuousness and the Rabbis are not concerned about presumptuousness? Didn’t we learnthat btheysay bthe opposite? As we learnedin a mishna: bA place where they were accustomed to perform labor on Ninth of Av, onemay bperformlabor. bA place where they were accustomed not to performlabor on Ninth of Av, bonemay bnot performlabor. bAnd everywhere, Torah scholars are idleand do not perform labor. bRabban Shimon ben Gamliel says:With regard to performing labor on the Ninth of Av, bone should always conduct himself as a Torah scholar. /b,If so, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere. And, bthere is a contradiction betweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere., bRabbi Yoḥa said: The attributionof the opinions bis reversedin one of the sources in the interest of avoiding contradiction. bRav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, said: Actually,you need bnot reversethe opinions, as the contradiction between the statement of bthe Rabbishere bandthe statement of bthe Rabbisthere bis not difficult.In the case of bthe recitation of iShema /ion his wedding night, bsince everyone is reciting iShema band he is also reciting iShema /i, he is not conspicuous and bit does not appear as presumptuousness. Here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, however, bsince everyone is performing labor and he is not performing labor,his idleness is conspicuous and bappears as presumptuousness. /b,So too, the contradiction bbetweenthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielhere bandthe statement of bRabban Shimon ben Gamlielthere bis not difficult. There,in the case of the recitation of iShemaon his wedding night, bthe matter is dependent upon hiscapacity to bconcentrate,and bit is clear to allthat bhe is unable to concentrate.Reciting iShemaunder those circumstances is a display of presumptuousness. bBut here,in the case of the Ninth of Av, bone who seeshim idle bsays: It isbecause bhe has no laborto perform. bGo out and see how many idle people there are in the marketplace,even on days when one is permitted to work. Consequently, his idleness is not conspicuous.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid outunburied bbefore him is exempt from the recitation of iShema /i, fromthe iAmida bprayer, and fromthe mitzva to don bphylacteries, as well as allpositive bmitzvot mentioned in the Torah,until the deceased has been buried.,With regard to bthe pallbearers and their replacements and the replacements of their replacements, thoselocated bbefore the bierwho have not yet carried the deceased band thoselocated bafter the bier. Those before the bier who are neededto carry the bier bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i; bwhile those after the bier,even if bthey arestill bneededto carry it, since they have already carried the deceased, they are bobligatedto recite iShema /i. However, both bthese and those are exempt fromreciting the iAmida bprayer,since they are preoccupied and are unable to focus and pray with the appropriate intent.,After bthey buried the deceased and returned, if theyhave sufficient time to bbeginto recite iShema band conclude before they arrive at the row,formed by those who attended the burial, through which the bereaved family will pass in order to receive consolation, bthey should begin. Ifthey do bnothave sufficient time to conclude reciting the entire iShema /i, then bthey should not begin. /b,And bthose standing in the row, thosein the binteriorrow, directly before whom the mourners will pass and who will console them, bare exemptfrom reciting iShema /i, while bthosein the bexteriorrow, who stand there only to show their respect, bare obligatedto recite iShema /i. bWomen, slaves and minors are exempt from the recitation of iShemaand from phylacteries, but are obligated in prayer, imezuzaand Grace after Meals. /b, strongGEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna that one whose deceased relative is laid out before him is exempt from the recitation of iShemaand other positive mitzvot. The Gemara deduces: When the corpse is blaid out before him, yes,he is exempt, but when the corpse is bnotphysically blaid out before him, no,he is not exempt from these mitzvot.,The Gemara braises a contradictionfrom a ibaraita /i: bOne whose deceasedrelative bis laid out before him eats in another room. If he does not have another room, he eats in the house of a friend. If he does not have a friend’s houseavailable, bhe makes a partitionbetween him and the deceased band eats. If he does not have materialwith which bto make a partition, he averts his facefrom the dead and beats. Andin any case, bhe does not recline while he eats,as reclining is characteristic of a festive meal. bFurthermore, he neither eats meat nor drinks wine, and does not recitea bblessingbefore eating, band does notrecite the formula to binvitethe participants in the meal to join together in the Grace after Meals [ izimmun /i], i.e., he is exempt from the obligation of Grace after Meals.
5. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

87b. דבלים דבה רעה בת דבה רעה ושמואל אמר שמתוקה בפי הכל כדבלה ורבי יוחנן אמר שהכל דשין בה כדבלה,דבר אחר גומר אמר רבי יהודה שבקשו לגמר ממונן של ישראל בימיה רבי יוחנן אמר בזזו וגמרו שנאמר (מלכים ב יג, ז) כי אבדם מלך ארם וישימם כעפר לדוש,(הושע א, ג) ותהר ותלד לו בן ויאמר ה' אליו קרא שמו יזרעאל כי עוד מעט ופקדתי את דמי יזרעאל על בית יהוא והשבתי ממלכות בית ישראל ותהר עוד ותלד בת ויאמר לו קרא שמה לא רוחמה כי לא אוסיף עוד ארחם את בית ישראל כי נשא אשא להם ותהר ותלד בן ויאמר (ה' אליו) קרא שמו לא עמי כי אתם לא עמי ואנכי לא אהיה לכם,לאחר שנולדו [לו] שני בנים ובת אחת אמר לו הקב"ה להושע לא היה לך ללמוד ממשה רבך שכיון שדברתי עמו פירש מן האשה אף אתה בדול עצמך ממנה אמר לו רבש"ע יש לי בנים ממנה ואין אני יכול להוציאה ולא לגרשה,א"ל הקב"ה ומה אתה שאשתך זונה ובניך [בני] זנונים ואין אתה יודע אם שלך הן אם של אחרים הן כך ישראל שהן בני בני בחוני בני אברהם יצחק ויעקב אחד מארבעה קנינין שקניתי בעולמי,תורה קנין אחד דכתיב (משלי ח, כב) ה' קנני ראשית דרכו שמים וארץ קנין אחד דכתיב (בראשית יד, יט) קונה שמים וארץ בית המקדש קנין אחד דכתיב (תהלים עח, נד) הר זה קנתה ימינו ישראל קנין אחד דכתיב (שמות טו, טז) עם זו קנית ואתה אמרת העבירם באומה אחרת,כיון שידע שחטא עמד לבקש רחמים על עצמו אמר לו הקב"ה עד שאתה מבקש רחמים על עצמך בקש רחמים על ישראל שגזרתי עליהם שלש גזירות בעבורך,עמד ובקש רחמים ובטל גזירה והתחיל לברכן שנאמר (הושע ב, א) והיה מספר בני ישראל כחול הים וגו' והיה במקום אשר יאמר להם לא עמי אתם יאמר להם בני אל חי ונקבצו בני יהודה ובני ישראל יחדו וגו' (הושע ב, כה) וזרעתיה לי בארץ ורחמתי את לא רוחמה ואמרתי ללא עמי עמי אתה,אמר רבי יוחנן אוי לה לרבנות שמקברת את בעליה שאין לך כל נביא ונביא שלא קיפח ארבעה מלכים בימיו שנאמר (ישעיהו א, א) חזון ישעיהו בן אמוץ אשר חזה על יהודה וירושלים וגו',אמר ר' יוחנן מפני מה זכה ירבעם בן יואש מלך ישראל להמנות עם מלכי יהודה מפני שלא קבל לשון הרע על עמוס,מנלן דאימני דכתיב (הושע א, א) דבר ה' אשר היה אל הושע בן בארי בימי עוזיה יותם אחז יחזקיה מלכי יהודה ובימי ירבעם בן יואש מלך ישראל,ומנלן דלא קיבל לשון הרע דכתיב (עמוס ז, י) וישלח אמציה כהן בית אל אל ירבעם מלך ישראל לאמר קשר עליך וגו' וכתיב כי כה אמר עמוס בחרב ימות ירבעם וגו' אמר חס ושלום אמר אותו צדיק כך ואם אמר מה אעשה לו שכינה אמרה לו,אמר ר"א אפילו בשעת כעסו של הקב"ה זוכר את הרחמים שנאמר (הושע א, ו) כי לא אוסיף עוד ארחם את בית ישראל ר' יוסי בר ר' חנינא אמר מהכא כי נשא אשא להם,ואמר ר"א לא הגלה הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל לבין האומות אלא כדי שיתוספו עליהם גרים שנאמר (הושע ב, כה) וזרעתיה לי בארץ כלום אדם זורע סאה אלא להכניס כמה כורין,ור' יוחנן אמר מהכא (הושע ב, כה) ורחמתי את לא רוחמה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי מאי דכתיב (משלי ל, י) אל תלשן עבד אל אדוניו פן יקללך ואשמת וכתיב (משלי ל, יא) דור אביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך משום דאביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך אל תלשן,אלא אפילו דור שאביו יקלל ואת אמו לא יברך אל תלשן עבד אל אדוניו מנלן מהושע,א"ר אושעיא מאי דכתיב (שופטים ה, יא) צדקת פרזונו בישראל צדקה עשה הקב"ה בישראל שפזרן לבין האומות והיינו דא"ל ההוא מינא לר' חנינא אנן מעלינן מינייכו כתיב בכו (מלכים א יא, טז) כי ששת חדשים ישב שם וגו' ואלו אנן איתינכו גבן כמה שני ולא קא עבדינן לכו מידי אמר לו רצונך יטפל לך תלמיד א',נטפל ליה ר' אושעיא א"ל משום דלא ידעיתו היכי תעבדו תכלינן כולהו ליתנהו גבייכו מאי דאיכא גבייכו קרי לכו מלכותא קטיעתא אמר ליה גפא דרומאי בהא נחתינן ובהא סלקינן:,תני רבי חייא מאי דכתיב (איוב כח, כג) אלהים הבין דרכה והוא ידע את מקומה יודע הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל שאינן יכולין לקבל גזירות אכזריות אדום לפיכך הגלה אותם לבבל ואמר רבי אלעזר לא הגלה הקדוש ברוך הוא את ישראל לבבל אלא מפני שעמוקה כשאול שנאמר (הושע יג, יד) מיד שאול אפדם ממות אגאלם רבי חנינא אמר מפני שקרוב לשונם ללשון תורה,רבי יוחנן אמר מפני ששיגרן לבית אמן משל לאדם שכעס על אשתו להיכן משגרה לבית אמה,והיינו דרבי אלכסנדרי דאמר שלשה חזרו למטעתן אלו הן ישראל כסף מצרים וכתב לוחות ישראל הא דאמרן כסף מצרים דכתיב (מלכים א יד, כה) ויהי בשנה החמישית למלך רחבעם עלה שישק מלך מצרים על ירושלים וגו' כתב הלוחות דכתיב (דברים ט, יז) ואשברם לעיניכם תנא לוחות נשברו ואותיות פורחות,עולא אמר כדי שיאכלו 87b. bDiblaim”;the name Diblaim can be taken as the dual form of the word idibba /i, ill repute. It suggests that she was a woman of bill repute, daughter ofa woman of bill repute. And Shmuel said:The name Diblaim is the plural of the word ideveila /i, a cake of pressed figs, indicating that bshe was as sweet as a cake of pressed figs,and therefore everyone used her services. bRabbi Yoḥa,based on a similar derivation, bsaidthe name signifies bthat everyone would tread [ idashin /i] upon her,a euphemism for sexual relations, blike a cake of pressed figs. /b, bAlternatively,with regard to the name bGomer, Rav Yehuda said:The name can be understood as deriving from the root igamar /i, to finish. It alludes to the fact that the gentiles bsought to finish the money of the Jewish people in her days. Rabbi Yoḥa said:They did not just seek to do so, but were successful. bThey plundered and finishedit, bas it is stated: “For the king of Aram destroyed them and made them like the dust in threshing”(II Kings 13:7).,The passage in Hosea continues: b“And she conceived, and bore him a son. And the Lord said to him: Call his name Jezreel; for soon I will visit the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and will obliterate the kingdom of the house of Israel…And she conceived again, and bore a daughter. And He said to him: Call her name Lo-ruhamah, for I will no more have compassion upon the house of Israel that I should bear them…And she conceived, and bore a son. And He said: Call his name Lo-ammi; for you are not My people, and I will not be yours”(Hosea 1:3–9)., bAfter two sons and one daughter had been born to him, the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Hosea: Shouldn’t you have learned fromthe example of byour master Moses, who, once I spoke with him, separated fromhis bwife? You too, separate yourself fromyour wife. bHe said to Him: Master of the Universe, I have sons from her and I am unable to dismiss her or to divorce her. /b,In response to Hosea’s show of loyalty to his family, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He,rebuked him and bsaid to him: Just as you, whose wife is a prostitute and your childrenfrom her bare children of prostitution, and you do noteven bknow if they are yoursor bif they arechildren bof othermen, despite this, you are still attached to them and will not forsake them, bsotoo, I am still attached to bthe Jewish people, who are My sons, the sons of Myfaithful who withstood bordeals, the sons of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.They are so special that they are bone of the four acquisitions that I acquired in My world. /b,The Gemara proceeds to enumerate all four: bTorah is one acquisition, as it is written: “The Lord acquired me as the beginning of His way”(Proverbs 8:22). bHeaven and earth are one acquisition [ ikinyan /i], as it is written:“Blessed be Abram of God Most High, bCreator [ ikoneh /i] of heaven and earth”(Genesis 14:19). bThe Holy Temple is one acquisition, as it is written:“And He brought them to His sacred border, bto this mountain, which His right hand had acquired”(Psalms 78:54). bThe Jewish people are one acquisition, as it is written: “The nation that You have acquired”(Exodus 15:16). bAnd you,Hosea, bsaidthat I should breplace them with another nation? /b, bOnceHosea brealized that he had sinned, he got up to requestthat God have bcompassion upon himfor having spoken ill of the Jewish people. bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, said to him: Before you request compassion upon yourself,first brequest compassion upon the Jewish people, since I havealready bdecreed upon them threeharsh bdecrees on your account,in response to your condemnation of them. There is an allusion to these three decrees in the names of the children born of the prostitute. Jezreel is an allusion to a decree for Jehu’s actions in the Jezreel Valley (see II Kings 9–10). Lo-ruhamah, one that had not received compassion, suggests that God will no longer have compassion for the Jewish people. Lo-ammi, not My people, indicates that the Jewish people will no longer be considered God’s people.,Hosea bstood and requested compassionupon the Jewish people band nullifiedthe bdecree.God responded band began to bless them, as it is stated: “Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea,which cannot be measured nor numbered. bAnd it will be that instead of that which was said to them: You are not My people, it shall be said to them: You are the children of the living God. And the children of Judea and the children of Israel shall be gathered together”(Hosea 2:1). bAnd I will sow her to Me in the land; and I will have compassion upon her that had not received compassion; and I will say to them that were not My people: You are My people”(Hosea 2:25)., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Woe to authority, whichshortens the life and bburies its holders.This is evident from the fact bthat you don’t have any prophet who did not outlast four kings in his lifetime,as the kings’ positions of authority caused them to die young. A prophet outliving four kings is demonstrated in the opening verses of Hosea, and similarly, bas it is statedwith regard to Isaiah: b“The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judea and Jerusalemin the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judea” (Isaiah 1:1)., bRabbi Yoḥa said: Due to whatreason was the less than righteous bJeroboam, son of Joash, king of Israel, privileged to be countedin the verse together bwith therighteous bkings of Judea?It is bdue tothe fact bthat he did not accept slander about Amos. /b,The Gemara asks: bFrom where do wederive bthat he was countedtogether with the righteous kings of Judea? bAs it is written: “The word of the Lord that came to Hosea, son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judea, and in the days of Jeroboam, the son of Joash, king of Israel”(Hosea 1:1)., bAnd from where do wederive bthat he did not accept slander? As it is written: “Then Amaziah the priest of Beth-El sent to Jeroboam king of Israel, saying: Amos has conspired against youin the midst of the house of Israel” (Amos 7:10). bAnd it is written: “For thus said Amos: Jeroboam shall die by the swordand Israel shall surely be led away captive out of his land” (Amos 7:11). Jeroboam bsaid: Heaven forfendthat bthat righteous person,Amos, bsaid this,that I will die by the sword; band if heindeed bsaidit, bwhat shall I do to himand why should I punish him? bThe Divine Presence said it to him,and he is required to transmit his prophecy., bRabbi Elazar said: Even atthe btime ofthe banger of the Holy One, Blessed be He, He remembers theattribute of bcompassion, as it is stated: “For I will no more have compassion upon the house of Israel”(Hosea 1:6). Even when implementing His attribute of justice, God still mentions His attribute of compassion. bRabbi Yosei bar Rabbi Ḥanina saidthat this is also indicated bfrom here,from the continuation of the verse, which states: b“That I should bear them,”indicating that God promised to eventually bear Israel’s sins and pardon them., bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, exiled Israel among the nations only so that converts would join them, as it is stated: “And I will sow her to Me in the land”(Hosea 2:25). bDoes a person sow a ise’a /iof grain for any reason other bthan to bring in several ikor /iof grain during the harvest? So too, the exile is to enable converts from the nations to join the Jewish people., bAnd Rabbi Yoḥa saidthat this idea may be derived bfrom here: “And I will have compassion upon her that had not received compassion;and I will say to them that were not My people: You are My people” (Hosea 2:25). Even those who were initially “not My people,” i.e., gentiles, will convert and become part of the Jewish nation., bRabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon ben Yoḥai: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Slander not a servant to his master, lest he curse you, and you be found guilty”(Proverbs 30:10), band it isthen bwrittenin the next verse: b“There is a generation that curses its father, and does not bless its mother”(Proverbs 30:11). Is it bbecause they curse their father and do not bless their motherthat byou should not slanderthem? Clearly that is absurd., bRather,the juxtaposition serves to emphasize that bevenin a wicked bgeneration that curses its father and does not bless its mother, one should not slander a servant to his master. From where do wederive this? bFrom Hosea,whose criticism of the Jewish people, God’s servants, to God, their master, aroused His ire, despite the fact that it was a wicked generation., bRabbi Oshaya said: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “The righteous acts of His rulers [ ipirzono /i] in Israel”(Judges 5:11)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, performed a charitable deed toward Israelin bthat He scattered them [ ipizran /i] among the nations;had He exiled them to one place, they could have all been destroyed at once. bAnd thisconcept bis that which a certain apostate said to Rabbi Ḥanina: Wegentiles bare superior to youJews in that we have patience. bIt is written of you: “ForJoab and all Israel bremained there six monthsuntil he had cut off every male in Edom” (I Kings 11:16), bwhereas we,although byou have been with us for several years, are not doing anything to you. He said to him:With byour consent, let one student deal with yourassertion and answer you., bRabbi Oshaya dealt with hisassertion and bsaid to him:This is not a sign of your righteousness but is simply bbecause you do not know how to doit, to destroy us. If you seek bto destroy all ofthe Jewish people, you cannot because bthey are notall bwith youin your kingdom. If you destroy only bthoseJews bwho are with youin your kingdom, byou will be called a severed kingdomfor murdering part of its own population. The apostate bsaid to him:I swear by bGappa,god bof the Romans, with thisproblem bwe lie down and with thisproblem bwe rise up,for we are constantly struggling with the dilemma of how to eliminate the Jewish people., bRabbi Ḥiyya teaches: What isthe meaning of that bwhich is written: “God understands its ways and He knows its place”(Job 28:23)? bThe Holy One, Blessed be He, knows the Jewish people, who are unable to withstand theharsh bdecrees of the Romans. Therefore, He exiled them to Babylonia,whose people are less cruel. bAnd Rabbi Elazar said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, exiled Israel to Babylonia only due tothe fact bit isa land bas deep as the netherworld,i.e., it is a land of plains and valleys, which alludes to that bwhich is stated: “I shall ransom them from the power of the netherworld, I shall redeem them from death”(Hosea 13:14). bRabbi Ḥanina said: It is due tothe fact bthat their language,Aramaic, bis similar to the language of the Torah,which enables the Jews who live there to study Torah., bRabbi Yoḥa said: It is due tothe fact bthat He sent them to their mother’s house,i.e., the birthplace of the forefathers of the Jewish people, who lived in Aram-Nahara’im, which is in Babylonia. This is bcomparable to a man who is angry at his wife; to where does he send her?He sends her bto her mother’s house. /b, bAnd this isexpressed in the statement of bRabbi Alexandri, who said:There are bthreethat breturned to theirpoints of borigin,and bthese are they: The Jewish people, the money of Egypt, and the writingon the bTabletsof the Covet. bThe Jewish people; that which wejust bsaid,they returned to Babylonia. bThe money of Egypt; as it is written: “And it came to pass in the fifth year of King Rehoboam, that Shishak, king of Egypt, came up against Jerusalem;and he took away the treasures of the house of the Lord and the treasures of the king’s house; he took everything” (I Kings 14:25–26). bThe writing on the Tabletsof the Covet; bas it is written:“And I took hold of the two tablets, and cast them out of my two hands, band broke them before your eyes”(Deuteronomy 9:17). And bit was taughtin the iTosefta /i: bThe tablets were broken and the letters are flyingand returning to their point of origin., bUlla saidthat Israel was exiled to Babylonia bin orderto enable them bto eat /b
6. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

41b. מאתחלתא דמועד,וחזן הכנסת נוטל ס"ת ונותנו לראש הכנסת שמעת מינה חולקין כבוד לתלמיד במקום הרב אמר אביי כולה משום כבודו דמלך,והמלך עומד ומקבל וקורא יושב אגריפס המלך עמד וקיבל וקרא עומד עומד מכלל דיושב והאמר מר אין ישיבה בעזרה אלא למלכי בית דוד בלבד שנא' (שמואל ב ז, יח) ויבא המלך דוד וישב לפני ה' ויאמר וגו' כדאמר רב חסדא בעזרת נשים הכא נמי בעזרת נשים,ושבחוהו חכמים שבחוהו מכלל דשפיר עבד האמר רב אשי אפי' למ"ד נשיא שמחל על כבודו כבודו מחול מלך שמחל על כבודו אין כבודו מחול שנא' (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך שתהא אימתו עליך,מצוה שאני,וכשהגיע ללא תוכל לתת תנא משמיה דרבי נתן באותה שעה נתחייבו שונאי ישראל כלייה שהחניפו לו לאגריפס,אמר ר' שמעון בן חלפתא מיום שגבר אגרופה של חנופה נתעוותו הדינין ונתקלקלו המעשים ואין אדם יכול לומר לחבירו מעשי גדולים ממעשיך,דרש ר' יהודה בר מערבא ואיתימא ר' שמעון בן פזי מותר להחניף לרשעים בעולם הזה שנאמר (ישעיהו לב, ה) לא יקרא עוד לנבל נדיב ולכילי לא יאמר שוע מכלל דבעולם הזה שרי,ר' שמעון בן לקיש אמר מהכא (בראשית לג, י) כראות פני אלהים ותרצני,ופליגא דרבי לוי דאמר רבי לוי משל של יעקב ועשו למה הדבר דומה לאדם שזימן את חבירו והכיר בו שמבקש להורגו אמר לו טעם תבשיל זה שאני טועם כתבשיל שטעמתי בבית המלך אמר ידע ליה מלכא מיסתפי ולא קטיל ליה,אמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה מביא אף לעולם שנא' (איוב לו, יג) וחנפי לב ישימו אף ולא עוד אלא שאין תפלתו נשמעת שנאמר (איוב לו, יג) לא ישועו כי אסרם,סימן א"ף עוב"ר גיהנ"ם ביד"ו ניד"ה גול"ה,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה אפילו עוברין שבמעי אמן מקללין אותו שנא' (משלי כד, כד) אומר לרשע צדיק אתה יקבוהו עמים יזעמוהו לאומים ואין קוב אלא קללה שנא' (במדבר כג, ח) לא קבה אל ואין לאום אלא עוברין שנא' (בראשית כה, כג) ולאום מלאום יאמץ,ואמר רבי אלעזר כל אדם שיש בו חנופה נופל בגיהנם שנא' (ישעיהו ה, כ) הוי האומרים לרע טוב ולטוב רע וגו' מה כתיב אחריו לכן כאכל קש לשון אש וחשש להבה ירפה וגו',ואמר רבי אלעזר כל המחניף לחבירו סוף נופל בידו ואם אינו נופל בידו נופל ביד בניו ואם אינו נופל ביד בניו נופל ביד בן בנו שנא' (ירמיהו כח, ה) ויאמר ירמיה לחנניה אמן כן יעשה ה' יקם ה' את דבריך וכתי' 41b. implying that the assembly takes place bat the beginning of the Festival,when the entire Jewish people comes to Jerusalem.,§ It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the synagogue attendant takes a Torah scroll and gives it to the head of the synagogue,until it is eventually passed to the king. The Gemara suggests: bYou can learn fromthe fact that all of these dignitaries receive the Torah scroll before the king that bhonor may be given to a student in the presence of the teacher. Abaye said:A proof may not be adduced from here, as the bentireprocess bis for the honor of the king,to show that he is removed from ordinary people by many ranks.,It is taught in the mishna: bAnd the king stands, and receivesthe Torah scroll, band readsfrom it while bsitting. King Agrippa arose, and receivedthe Torah scroll, band readfrom it while bstanding.The Gemara asks: bBy inference,until that point he had been bsitting. But didn’t the Master say( iTosefta /i, iSanhedrin4:4) that bsitting in theTemple bcourtyardis permitted bonly for kings from the house of David, as it is stated: “Then King David went in, and sat before the Lord; and he said:Who am I?” (II Samuel 7:18). The Gemara answers: bAs Rav Ḥisda saidin a similar context: This took place not in the Israelite courtyard, where the prohibition against sitting applies, but bin the women’s courtyard. Here too,the assembly was bin the women’s courtyard. /b,It is stated in the mishna that King Agrippa read from the Torah while standing, band the Sages praised himfor this. The Gemara asks: bFrom the factthat bthey praised him,can it be concluded bthat he acted appropriately? Didn’t Rav Ashi say: Even according to the one who sayswith regard to ba iNasiwho relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is relinquished,i.e., he may do so, with regard to ba king who relinquishedthe bhonordue bhim, his honor is not relinquished, as it is stated: “You shall place a king over you”(Deuteronomy 17:15). This is interpreted to mean bthat his awe shall be upon you.The Torah establishes that awe is an essential component of kingship, and it is not the prerogative of the king to relinquish it.,The Gemara answers: Since he relinquished his honor for the sake of ba mitzva,this situation bis differentand does not dishonor him.,The mishna continues: bAnd whenAgrippa barrived atthe verse: b“You may not appointa foreigner over you” (Deuteronomy 17:15), tears flowed from his eyes because he was a descendant of the house of Herod and was not of Jewish origin. The entire nation said to him: You are our brother. It is btaught in the name of Rabbi Natan: At that moment the enemies of the Jewish people,a euphemism for the Jewish people, bwere sentenced to destruction for flattering Agrippa. /b, bRabbi Shimon ben Ḥalafta says: From the day that the power of flattery prevailed, the judgment has become corrupted, andpeople’s bdeeds have become corrupted, and a person cannot say to another: My deeds are greater than your deeds,as everyone flatters one another and people no longer know the truth., bRabbi Yehuda of the West,Eretz Yisrael, band some say Rabbi Shimon ben Pazi, taught: It is permitted to flatter wicked people in this world, as it is statedconcerning the future: b“The vile person shall no longer be called generous, nor shall the churl be said to be noble”(Isaiah 32:5). bBy inference,this indicates bthat in this world it is permittedto flatter them., bRabbi Shimon ben Lakish saidthat this can be proven bfrom here.Jacob said to Esau: “I have seen your face, bas one sees the face of angels, and you were pleased with me”(Genesis 33:10). Jacob flattered him by comparing seeing him to seeing a divine vision.,The Gemara notes: bAndRabbi Shimon ben Lakish, in interpreting Jacob’s statement, bdisagrees with Rabbi Levi, as Rabbi Levi says:With regard to the interaction between bJacob and Esau, to what is this matter comparable? To a person who invited anotherto his home bandthe guest brealized that he wants to kill him.The guest bsaid to him: The flavor of this dish that I taste is like a dish that I tasted in the king’s house.The host then bsaidto himself: bThe kingmust bknow him.Therefore, bhe was afraid and did not kill him.Similarly, when Jacob told Esau that his face is like the face of an angel, he intended to let him know that he had seen angels, in order to instill fear in him so that Esau would not seek to harm him., bRabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him brings wrath to the world, as it is stated: “But those with flattery in their hearts bring about wrath”(Job 36:13). bAnd moreover, his prayer is not heard, as it is statedin that same verse: b“They do not cry for help when He binds them.” /b,The Gemara cites ba mnemonicdevice for the statements of Rabbi Elazar: bWrath, fetus, Gehenna, in his hands, menstruating woman, exiled. /b, bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him, even fetuses in their mothers’ wombs curse him, as it is stated: “He who says to the wicked: You are righteous, peoples shall curse him [ iyikkevuhu /i], nations [ ileummim /i] shall execrate him”(Proverbs 24:24); band ikov /i,the linguistic root of the word iyikkevuhu /i, means bonly a curse, as it is stated:Balaam explained that he did not curse the Jewish people, as he said: “How can I curse [ iekkov /i] bwhom God has not cursed [ ikabbo /i]?”(Numbers 23:8). bAnd ile’om /iis homiletically interpreted to mean bonly fetuses, as it is statedwith regard to Jacob and Esau, when they were still in Rebecca’s womb: b“And one people [ ile’om /i] shall be stronger than the other people [ ile’om /i]”(Genesis 25:23)., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Any person who has flattery in him falls into Gehenna, as it is stated: “Woe to those who call evil good, and good evil”(Isaiah 5:20). bWhat is written afterward? “Therefore, as the tongue of fire devours straw, and as the chaff is consumed by the flame”(Isaiah 5:24), meaning that the people described in the earlier verse will end up burning like straw in the fires of Gehenna., bAnd Rabbi Elazar says: Anyone who flatters another ultimately falls into his hands. And if he does not fall into his hands, he falls into his children’s hands. And if he does not fall into his children’s hands, he falls into his grandchild’s hands, as it is stated: “Then the prophet Jeremiah said to Haiah…Amen, the Lord should do so, the Lord should perform your words”(Jeremiah 28:5–6). This was a form of flattery, as Jeremiah did not explicitly say that Haiah was a false prophet. bAnd it is written: /b
7. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 310

310. After the books had been read, the priests and the elders of the translators and the Jewish community and the leaders of the people stood up and said, that since so excellent and sacred and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was and no

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
akiva Lavee (2017) 132
allegory Rosenblum (2016) 132
babylonian agenda,projection into the past Lavee (2017) 132
butchery,animal Rosenblum (2016) 132
carrion Rosenblum (2016) 132
din Hayes (2015) 183
elders/council of elders Fraade (2011) 306
fat Rosenblum (2016) 132
hillel and shammai Lavee (2017) 132
honor Fraade (2011) 306
israel,nan Fraade (2011) 306
kings,biblical Fraade (2011) 306
law,biblical/rabbinic—see also,halakhah Fraade (2011) 306
mice Rosenblum (2016) 132
non-jews,approach to rabbis concerning conversion Lavee (2017) 132
non-jews,proselytization towards Lavee (2017) 132
non-jews,shammai and Lavee (2017) 132
prayer Fraade (2011) 306
sages,the Fraade (2011) 306
second temple period Lavee (2017) 132
slaves,emancipated Lavee (2017) 132
tannaim Lavee (2017) 132
tannaitic literature Fraade (2011) 306
timna Lavee (2017) 132
torah Fraade (2011) 306
torahs deviation from Hayes (2015) 183
truth,formal' Hayes (2015) 183
what is hateful to you,do not to your neighbor (phrase) Lavee (2017) 132
you shall love your neighbor as yourself (concept) Lavee (2017) 132