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Babylonian Talmud, Betzah, 32b

דקמתקן מנא באור נמי קא מתקן מנא תני ר' חייא חותכה באור בפי שתי נרות אמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב מוחטין את הפתילה ביום טוב מאי מוחטין אמר רב חנינא בר שלמיא (משמיה דרב) לעדויי חושכא,תני בר קפרא ו' דברים נאמרו בפתילה ג' להחמיר וג' להקל להחמיר אין גודלין אותה לכתחלה ביו"ט ואין מהבהבין אותה באור ואין חותכין אותה לשנים להקל ממעכה ביד ושורה בשמן וחותכה באור בפי שתי נרות,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב עתירי בבל יורדי גיהנם הם כי הא דשבתאי בר מרינוס אקלע לבבל בעא מנייהו עסקא ולא יהבו ליה מזוני מיזן נמי לא זינוהו,אמר הני מערב רב קא אתו דכתיב (דברים יג, יח) ונתן לך רחמים ורחמך כל המרחם על הבריות בידוע שהוא מזרעו של אברהם אבינו וכל מי שאינו מרחם על הבריות בידוע שאינו מזרעו של אברהם אבינו,ואמר רב נתן בר אבא אמר רב כל המצפה על שלחן אחרים עולם חשך בעדו שנאמר (איוב טו, כג) נודד הוא ללחם איה ידע כי נכון בידו יום חשך רב חסדא אמר אף חייו אינן חיים,ת"ר ג' חייהן אינם חיים ואלו הן המצפה לשלחן חבירו ומי שאשתו מושלת עליו ומי שיסורין מושלין בגופו ויש אומרים אף מי שאין לו אלא חלוק אחד ות"ק אפשר דמעיין במניה:,Is it because he thereby mends a vessel? If so, when one cuts it in the fire, he is also preparing a vessel for use. Rabbi Ḥiyya taught in explanation: He cuts it by fire in the mouth of two candles. In other words, he does not simply cut a wick, but rather inserts a long wick into two lamps, which he subsequently lights in the middle. This indeed leads to the formation of two separate wicks, but only as a result of kindling two lamps. Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: One may moḥet a wick on a Festival. The term moḥet was unknown, and the Gemara therefore asks: What is the meaning of the word moḥet? Rav Ḥanina bar Shelemya said in the name of Rav: To remove the dark; in other words, it is permitted to remove the burnt, charcoaled section to make the lamp shine more brightly.,Bar Kappara taught: Six matters were stated with regard to the halakhot of a wick on a Festival, three of which are to be stringent and three of which are to be lenient. The three halakhot to be stringent are: One may not spin or twist it ab initio on a Festival, and one may not singe it in fire before lighting it so that it will burn well, and one may not cut it into two. The three halakhot to be lenient are: One may crush it by hand, as although it is prohibited to twist it into a wick, one may adjust its shape in an unusual manner; and one may soak it in oil so that it will later burn well; and one may cut it by fire in the mouth of two candles.,§ After citing one teaching in the name of Rav Natan bar Abba, the Gemara quotes a few more statements attributed to the same scholar. Since he is not mentioned often, Rav Natan’s teachings are arranged together, so that they can be remembered more easily. Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: The wealthy Jews of Babylonia will descend to Gehenna because they do not have compassion on others. This is illustrated by incidents such as this: Shabbetai bar Marinus happened to come to Babylonia. He requested their participation in a business venture, to lend him money and receive half the profits in return, and they did not give it to him. Furthermore, when he asked them to sustain him with food, they likewise refused to sustain him.,He said: These wealthy people are not descendants of our forefathers, but they came from the mixed multitude, as it is written: “And show you compassion, and have compassion upon you, and multiply you, as He has sworn to your fathers” (Deuteronomy 13:18), from which it is derived: Anyone who has compassion for God’s creatures, it is known that he is of the descendants of Abraham, our father, and anyone who does not have compassion for God’s creatures, it is known that he is not of the descendants of Abraham, our father. Since these wealthy Babylonians do not have compassion on people, clearly they are not descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.,This is another teaching that Rav Natan bar Abba said that Rav said: Whoever looks to the table of others for his sustenance, the world is dark for him. Everything looks bleak and hopeless to him, for it is stated: “He wanders abroad for bread: Where is it? He knows the day of darkness is ready at his hand” (Job 15:23). Rav Ḥisda said: Even his life is no life, as he receives no satisfaction from it.,In support of this last claim, the Gemara cites a baraita in which the Sages taught: There are three whose lives are not lives, and they are as follows: One who looks to the table of others for his sustenance; and one whose wife rules over him; and one whose body is ruled by suffering. And some say: Even one who has only one robe. Since he cannot wash it properly, he suffers from lice and dirt. The Gemara comments: And the first tanna, who did not include such a person, maintains: It is possible for him to examine his clothes and remove the lice, which would alleviate his suffering.,One may not break earthenware on a Festival. And one may not cut paper in order to roast salted fish on it. Earthenware shards or pieces of paper that have been soaked in water were placed on the metal surface or in the oven in which the fish was roasted, so that it would not be burned by the heat.,And one may not sweep out anything that has fallen into an oven or stove that interferes with the baking, such as plaster. But one may press down and flatten any accumulated dust and ashes at the bottom of the oven, which might prevent it from lighting properly.,And one may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them, so that its contents will be cooked by a fire lit between the barrels. And one may not prop a pot that does not stand straight with a piece of wood, in order to prevent it from falling. And similarly, with a door. And one may not lead an animal with a stick in the public domain on a Festival; and Rabbi Elazar, son of Rabbi Shimon, permits it.,What is the reason for this prohibition? Because one is thereby preparing a vessel for use.,It was taught in the mishna: And one may not sweep out an oven or stove. Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Yosef taught before Rav Naḥman: And if it is not possible to bake unless one sweeps it out, it is permitted. The Gemara relates an incident with regard to the wife of Rabbi Ḥiyya: A part of a brick fell into her oven on a Festival, preventing her from baking. Rav Ḥiyya said to her: See, you should know that I want good-quality bread. He thereby stated that it would be impossible unless she removed the brick, making it permissible for her to do so. Similarly, Rava said to his attendant: Roast for me a duck in an oven, and be careful not to singe it. He thereby implied that the attendant may remove all impediments from the oven in order to fulfill this requirement because otherwise it would not be possible to cook without singeing.,In a related case, Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Rav Aḥa from Hutzal said to us that the master, Rav Ashi, allows his attendants to plaster the mouth of the oven for him on a Festival. This was done in order to ensure that the roasted or cooked dish would be fully prepared. Why does this not constitute the prohibited labor of kneading on a Festival? He said to him: We rely on the bank of the Euphrates River. We avoid the labor of kneading by taking sufficiently kneaded mud from the riverbank. The Gemara comments: And this applies only when one wrapped or made some mark on the mud the day before, so that it not be muktze. Ravina said: And as for kneading with ashes for this purpose, it is permitted, since the labor of kneading does not apply to ashes.,§ It was taught in the mishna: One may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them. Rav Naḥman said: With regard to large stones of a lavatory, upon which one sits to attend to his needs, it is permitted to put them together in the proper manner, so that they may be used on a Festival. Rabba raised an objection to Rav Naḥman: Wasn’t it taught that one may not draw two barrels together in order to place a pot on them? This seems to indicate that any arrangement resembling building is prohibited. He said to him: There, with regard to barrels, it is different, because one makes a tent. It is not the drawing of the barrels close together that is prohibited. Rather, the placement of the pot over them forms a kind of covering, which is similar to building a tent.,Rabba the Younger, so called to distinguish him from the more famous amora known as Rabba, said to Rav Ashi: However, if that is so, then if, on a Festival, one built a solid bench [itztaba], without a gap below the seat, a situation in which one does not make a tent, so too, will you say that it is permitted? He said to him: The two cases are not comparable: There, with regard to a proper construction, such as a bench, the Torah prohibited erecting a permanent construction, but the Torah did not prohibit erecting a temporary construction. The Sages, however, decreed against creating a temporary construction on a Festival due to a permanent construction. However, here, with regard to a lavatory, due to the dignity of the user, the Sages did not decree with regard to it.,Rav Yehuda said: With regard to this bonfire, in which the wood is arranged in the form of a house, if one arranges it from above to below it is permitted, as this is not the regular manner of building. However, if one prepares it in the usual fashion, from below to above, it is prohibited, for this is considered building.

Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

19.18. לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃ 19.18. Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD."
2. Anon., Testament of Gad, 6.1-6.7 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

6.1. AND now, my children, I exhort you, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your hearts, love one another in deed, and in word, and in the inclination of the soul. 6.2. For in the presence of my father I spake peaceably to Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of hatred darkened my mind, and stirred up my soul to slay him. 6.3. Love ye one another from the heart; and if a man sin against thee, speak peaceably to him, and in thy soul hold not guile; and if he repent and confess, forgive him. 6.4. But if he deny it, do not get into a passion with him, lest catching the poison from thee he take to swearing and so thou sin doubly. 6.5. Let not another man hear thy secrets when engaged in legal strife, lest he come to hate thee and become thy enemy, and commit a great sin against thee; for ofttimes he addresseth thee guilefully or busieth himself about thee with wicked intent. 6.6. And though he deny it and yet have a sense of shame when reproved, give over reproving him. For be who denieth may repent so as not again to wrong thee; yea, he may also honour thee, and fear and be at peace with thee. 6.7. And if he be shameless and persist in his wrong-doing, even so forgive him from the heart, and leave to God the avenging.
3. Anon., Testament of Joseph, 18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

18.2. And if any one seeketh to do evil unto you, do well unto him, and pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord from all evil.
4. Anon., Testament of Zebulun, 8.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. CE)

5. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 8.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)

8.5. Do not reproach a man who is turning away from sin;remember that we all deserve punishment.
6. Mishnah, Yoma, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

8.9. One who says: I shall sin and repent, sin and repent, they do not afford him the opportunity to repent. [If one says]: I shall sin and Yom HaKippurim will atone for me, Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement. For transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow. This was expounded by Rabbi Elazar b. Azariah: “From all your sins before the Lord you shall be clean” (Leviticus 16:30) for transgressions between man and God Yom HaKippurim effects atonement, but for transgressions between man and his fellow Yom HaKippurim does not effect atonement, until he has pacified his fellow.. Rabbi Akiva said: Happy are you, Israel! Who is it before whom you become pure? And who is it that purifies you? Your Father who is in heaven, as it is said: “And I will sprinkle clean water upon you and you shall be clean” (Ezekiel 36:25). And it further says: “O hope (mikveh) of Israel, O Lord” (Jeremiah 17:1--just as a mikveh purifies the unclean, so too does he Holy One, blessed be He, purify Israel."
7. New Testament, Mark, 11.24-11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

11.24. Therefore I tell you, all things whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you receive them, and you shall have them. 11.25. Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father, who is in heaven, may also forgive you your transgressions.
8. New Testament, Matthew, 5.23-5.26, 5.43-5.48, 6.12-6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)

5.23. If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you 5.24. leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. 5.25. Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. 5.26. Most assuredly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. 5.43. You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.' 5.44. But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you 5.45. that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 5.46. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.47. If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don't even the tax collectors do the same? 5.48. Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 6.12. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. 6.13. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen.' 6.14. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. 6.15. But if you don't forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
9. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

23a. מר סבר אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש ומר סבר למקום שפסק,אמר רב אשי האי אם שהה אם לא שהה מיבעי ליה אלא דכולי עלמא אם שהה כדי לגמור את כולה חוזר לראש והתם בדלא שהה קמיפלגי דמר סבר גברא דחויא הוא ואין ראוי ואין תפלתו תפלה ומר סבר גברא חזיא הוא ותפלתו תפלה,תנו רבנן הנצרך לנקביו אל יתפלל ואם התפלל תפלתו תועבה אמר רב זביד ואיתימא רב יהודה לא שנו אלא שאינו יכול לשהות בעצמו אבל אם יכול לשהות בעצמו תפלתו תפלה,ועד כמה אמר רב ששת עד פרסה איכא דמתני לה אמתניתא במה דברים אמורים כשאין יכול לעמוד על עצמו אבל אם יכול לעמוד על עצמו תפלתו תפלה ועד כמה אמר רב זביד עד פרסה,אמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן הנצרך לנקביו הרי זה לא יתפלל משום שנאמר (עמוס ד, יב) הכון לקראת אלהיך ישראל,ואמר רבי שמואל בר נחמני אמר רבי יונתן מ"ד (קהלת ד, יז) שמור רגלך כאשר תלך אל בית האלהים שמור עצמך שלא תחטא ואם תחטא הבא קרבן לפני וקרוב לשמוע (דברי חכמים) אמר רבא הוי קרוב לשמוע דברי חכמים שאם חוטאים מביאים קרבן ועושים תשובה מתת הכסילים [זבח] אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואין עושים תשובה,כי אינם יודעים לעשות רע אי הכי צדיקים נינהו אלא אל תהי ככסילים שחוטאים ומביאים קרבן ואינם יודעים אם על הטובה הם מביאים אם על הרעה הם מביאים אמר הקב"ה בין טוב לרע אינן מבחינים והם מביאים קרבן לפני,רב אשי ואיתימא רב חנינא בר פפא אמר שמור נקביך בשעה שאתה עומד בתפלה לפני.,תנו רבנן הנכנס לבית הכסא חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ד' אמות ונכנס אמר רב אחא בר רב הונא אמר רב ששת לא שנו אלא בית הכסא קבוע אבל בית הכסא עראי חולץ ונפנה לאלתר וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ד' אמות ומניחן מפני שעשאו בית הכסא קבוע,איבעיא להו מהו שיכנס אדם בתפילין לבית הכסא קבוע להשתין מים רבינא שרי רב אדא בר מתנא אסר אתו שיילוה לרבא אמר להו אסור חיישינן שמא יפנה בהן ואמרי לה שמא יפיח בהן,תניא אידך הנכנס לבית הכסא קבוע חולץ תפיליו ברחוק ד' אמות ומניחן בחלון הסמוך לרשות הרבים ונכנס וכשהוא יוצא מרחיק ד' אמות ומניחן דברי בית שמאי ובית הלל אומרים אוחזן בידו ונכנס ר"ע אומר אוחזן בבגדו ונכנס,בבגדו ס"ד זימנין מישתלי להו ונפלי אלא אימא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס,ומניחם בחורין הסמוכים לבית הכסא ולא יניחם בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים שמא יטלו אותם עוברי דרכים ויבא לידי חשד,ומעשה בתלמיד אחד שהניח תפילין בחורין הסמוכים לרשות הרבים ובאת זונה אחת ונטלתן ובאת לבית המדרש ואמרה ראו מה נתן לי פלוני בשכרי כיון ששמע אותו תלמיד כך עלה לראש הגג ונפל ומת באותה שעה התקינו שיהא אוחזן בבגדו ובידו ונכנס,תנו רבנן בראשונה היו מניחין תפילין בחורין הסמוכין לבית הכסא ובאין עכברים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהו מניחין אותן בחלונות הסמוכות לרשות הרבים ובאין עוברי דרכים ונוטלין אותן התקינו שיהא אוחזן בידו ונכנס,אמר רבי מיאשא בריה דריב"ל הלכה גוללן כמין ספר ואוחזן בימינו כנגד לבו אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן ובלבד שלא תהא רצועה יוצאת מתחת ידו טפח,אמר רבי יעקב בר אחא אמר רבי זירא לא שנו אלא שיש שהות ביום ללבשן אבל אין שהות ביום ללבשן עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן ביום גוללן כמין ספר ומניחן בידו כנגד לבו ובלילה עושה להן כמין כיס טפח ומניחן,אמר אביי לא שנו אלא בכלי שהוא כליין אבל בכלי שאינו כליין אפילו פחות מטפח,אמר מר זוטרא ואיתימא רב אשי תדע שהרי פכין קטנים מצילין באהל המת,ואמר רבה בר בר חנה כי הוה אזלינן בתריה דרבי יוחנן כי הוה בעי למיעל לבית הכסא כי הוה נקיט ספרא דאגדתא הוה יהיב לן כי הוה נקיט תפילין לא הוה יהיב לן אמר הואיל ושרונהו רבנן 23a. One bSage heldthat, as a rule, bifone interrupted his prayer and bdelayedcontinuing his prayer for an interval bsufficient to complete the entireprayer, bhe returns to the beginningof the prayer. bAndone bSage held:He returns bto the placein the prayer bwhere he stopped. /b,Rejecting this possibility, bRav Ashi said:If bthatwas the crux of their dispute, they bshould havediscussed the element of: bIf he delayed /b, and: bIf he did not delay /b. Nowhere in their dispute do they mention the matter of how long the delay was for. bRather, everyone /b, both Rav Ḥisda and Rav Hamnuna, bagrees that if one delayedcontinuing his prayer for an interval bsufficient to complete the entireprayer, bhe returns to the beginningof the prayer. bAnd there /b, in the dispute under discussion, bthey disagree with regard to one who did not delaythat long. The dispute centers on the status of the one praying in this particular case. bAsone bSage holdsthat since he evidently needed to urinate before starting his prayer, bhe is a man who was disqualified, and unfitfor prayer, band his prayer is nota valid bprayer /b; therefore he must repeat it in its entirety. bAndone bSage holds he is a man who was fitfor prayer band his prayer isa valid bprayer /b., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bOne who needs to relieve himself may not pray, and if he prayed, his prayer is an abomination. Rav Zevid and some say Rav Yehuda saidin qualifying this statement: bThey only taughtthis ihalakhain a case where bone cannot restrain himself. But, if he can restrain himself, his prayer is avalid bprayeras he is not tarnished by his need to relieve himself.,The Gemara asks: bAndfor bhow longmust he be able to restrain himself? bRav Sheshet said:For bas long asit takes to walk bone parasang. Some teach this ihalakhadirectly bonwhat was taught in bthe ibaraita /i: In whatcase bis this statement said? Where he is unable to restrain himself, but if he is able to restrain himself, his prayer is avalid bprayer. And for how long? Rav Zevid said:For bas long asit takes to walk bone parasang. /b, bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: One who needs to relieve himself may not pray, because it is stated: “Prepare to greet your God, O Israel”(Amos 4:12), and one must clear his mind of all distractions to prepare to receive the Lord during prayer.,In this context, the Gemara cites an additional statement, which bRabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani saidthat bRabbi Yonatan said: What isthe meaning of bthat which is written: “Guard your foot when you go to the house of God,and prepare to listen; it is better than when fools offer sacrifices, as they know not to do evil” (Ecclesiastes 4:17)? It means: When you enter the house of the Lord, bguard yourself from transgression, and if you commit a transgression, bring a sacrifice before Mein atonement. The verse continues: b“And draw near and listen to the words of the wise.” Rava said: Be prepared to hearken to the words of the wise, who, if they commit a transgression, they bring a sacrifice and repent.He interprets the next part of the verse: b“It is better than when fools give sacrifices,”that bone should not act like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice but do not repent. /b,Regarding the end of the verse: b“As they know not to do evil,”the Gemara asks: bIf so, they are righteous. Ratherit must be understood: bDo not be like the fools who commit a transgression and bring a sacrifice, but are unaware whether they are bringing itas a thanks-offering bfor the good,or as an offering of atonement bfor the evil.This is the meaning of the verse: “As they know not to do evil”; they know not if and when their actions are evil. With regard to those individuals, bthe Holy One, Blessed be He, said: They cannot distinguish between good and evil andyet bthey bring a sacrifice before me? /b, bRav Ashi and some say Rabbi Ḥanina bar Pappa said: Mind your orifices when you stand before me in prayer. /b, bThe Sages taught: One who enters a bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits and enter. Rav Aḥa bar Rav Huna saidthat bRav Sheshet said: This was only taughtwith regard to one entering ba regular bathroom, butone who enters ba makeshift bathroom may removehis phylacteries and bdefecate immediately. But when one exitsfrom a makeshift bathroom, bhe must distance himself four cubitsbefore bdonninghis phylacteries because bhe hasnow brenderedthat place ba regular bathroom. /b, bA dilemma was raisedbefore the Sages in the yeshiva: bWhat isthe ihalakha /i; may bone enter a regular bathroom wearing his phylacteries in order to urinate?The Sages disagreed: bRavina permittedto do so while bRav Adda bar Mattana prohibitedit. bThey cameand basked this of Rava. He said to them: It is forbiddenbecause bwe are concerned lest he willcome to bdefecate with themstill on. bOthers saythat this ihalakhais because we are concerned that, since he is already in the bathroom, he bmightforget that his phylacteries are on his head and bwill break wind with themstill on him., bIt was taught in another ibaraita /i: bOne who enters a regular bathroom must remove his phylacteries at a distance of four cubits, place them in the windowin the wall of the bathroom badjacent to the public domain, and then enter. And when he exits, he must distancehimself bfour cubits before donning them.This is bthe statement of Beit Shammai. Beit Hillel say:He must remove his phylacteries but bhe holds them in his hand and enters. Rabbi Akiva says: He holds them in his garment and enters. /b,The Gemara wonders: bDoes it enter your mindto say bin his garment?There is room for concern because bsometimes he forgets them andthey bfall. Rather, say: He holds them with his garment and in his hand and entersthe bathroom. He holds the phylacteries in his hand and covers it with the garment.,It was established in the ibaraita /i: bAndif there is room to place them, bhe places them in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, but he does not place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain, lestthe phylacteries bwill be taken by passersby and he will come to be suspect. /b, bAnd an incidentoccurred binvolving a student who placed his phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the public domain, and a prostitute passed by and tookthe phylacteries. bShe came to the study hall and said: See what so-and-so gave me as my payment. When that student heard this, he ascended to the rooftop and fell and died. At that moment they instituted that one should hold them with his garment and in his hand and enterto avoid situations of that kind., bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraitaon this topic: bAt first, they would place the phylacteries in the holes adjacent to the bathroom, and mice would come and take themor gnaw upon them. Therefore, bthey instituted that they should place them in the holes adjacent to the public domain,where there were no mice. However, bpassersby would come and take thephylacteries. Ultimately, bthey instituted that one should holdthe phylacteries bin his hand and enter. /b,On this topic, bRabbi Meyasha, son of Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: The ihalakha /iin this case bis that one rolls upthe phylacteries in their straps blike a scroll, and holds them in his hand opposite his heart. Rav Yosef bar Manyumi saidthat bRav Naḥman said:This is bprovided that the strapof the phylacteries bdoes not emergemore than ba handbreadth below his hand. /b, bRabbi Ya’akov bar Aḥa saidthat bRabbi Zeira said: It was only taughtthat one rolls up his phylacteries when there is still btimeleft bin the day to don them. If there is not timeleft bin the day to don thembefore nightfall, when phylacteries are not donned, bhe makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places themin it.,Similarly, bRabba bar bar Ḥana saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: During the day one rolls upthe phylacteries blike a scroll and places them in his hand opposite his heart, and at night he makes a one-handbreadth pouch of sorts for them and he places themin it., bAbaye said: They only taughtthat it must be a one-handbreadth pouch bwith regard to a vessel that isthe phylacteries’ regular bvessel, but in a vessel that is not theirregular bvessel,he may place the phylacteries in it, bevenif it is bless than a handbreadth. /b, bMar Zutra and, some say, Rav Ashi, saidas proof for that distinction: The laws of impurity state that only a space of at least a handbreadth can serve as a barrier to prevent the spread of impurity imparted by a corpse. Nevertheless, bsmallsealed bvesselsless than a handbreadth in size bprotecttheir contents from ritual impurity even if they are inside ba tent over a corpse.This proves that even a space smaller than a handbreadth can serve as a barrier before impurity., bRabba bar bar Ḥana said: When we would walk after Rabbi Yoḥa,we would see bthat when he sought to enter the bathroom while holding a book of iaggada /i, he would giveit bto us. When he was holding phylacteries, he would not givethem bto us,as bhe said: Since the Sages permittedto hold bthem, /b
10. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

49b. כמאן מצלינן על קצירי ועל מריעי [כמאן כר' יוסי] מדאמר קצירי ומריעי שמע מינה קצירי קצירי ממש מריעי רבנן:,ומותר בעבה: מתני' דלא כבבלאי דאמר ר' זירא בבלאי טפשאי דאכלי לחמא בלחמא,א"ר חסדא דמשאיל להון להלין נקדני דהוצל הדין דייסא היכין מעלי למיכלה דחיטי בלחמא דחיטי ודשערי בלחמא דשערי או דלמא דחיטי בדשערי ודשערי בדחיטי,רבא אכליה בחסיסי רבה בר רב הונא אשכחי' לרב הונא דקאכיל דייסא באצבעתיה אמ' ליה אמאי קאכיל מר בידיה א"ל הכי אמר רב דייסא באצבעתא בסים וכל דכן בתרתין וכל דכן בתלת,אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן אמר ליה רב הונא לרבה בריה מזמנים לך למיכל דייסא עד פרסה למיכל בישרא דתורא עד תלתא פרסין אמר ליה רב לחייא בריה וכן א"ל רב הונא לרבה בריה כל מידעם לא תפלוט קמיה רבך לבר מן קרא ודייסא שהן דומין לפתילתא של אבר ואפילו קמי שבור מלכא פלוט,רבי יוסי ורבי יהודה חד אכיל דייסא באצבעתיה וחד אכיל בהוצא א"ל דאכיל בהוצא לדאכיל באצבעתיה עד מתי אתה מאכילני צואתך אמר ליה דאכיל באצבעתיה לדאכיל בהוצא עד מתי אתה מאכילני רוקך,רבי יהודה ורבי שמעון אייתו לקמייהו בלוספיין רבי יהודה אכל ר' שמעון לא אכל א"ל רבי יהודה מאי טעמא לא אכיל מר אמר ליה ר' שמעון אלו אין יוצאין מבני מעים כל עיקר אמר ליה רבי יהודה כ"ש שנסמוך עליהן למחר,רבי יהודה הוה יתיב קמיה דר' טרפון אמר ליה רבי טרפון היום פניך צהובין אמר ליה אמש יצאו עבדיך לשדה והביאו לנו תרדין ואכלנום בלא מלח ואם אכלנום במלח כל שכן שהיו פנינו צהובין,אמרה ההיא מטרוניתא לרבי יהודה מורה ורוי אמר לה הימנותא בידא דההיא איתתא אי טעימנא אלא קידושא ואבדלתא וארבעה כסי דפסחא וחוגרני צידעי מן הפסח עד העצרת אלא (קהלת ח, א) חכמת אדם תאיר פניו,אמר לי' ההוא צדוקי לרבי יהודה פניך דומין אי כמלוי רבית אי כמגדלי חזירין א"ל ביהודאי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא אית לי מן ביתא עד בי מדרשא וכל שעה ושעה אני נכנס לכל אחד ואחד,ר' יהודה כד אזיל לבי מדרשא שקיל גולפא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה רבי שמעון שקיל צנא על כתפיה אמר גדולה מלאכה שמכבדת את בעליה,דביתהו דרבי יהודה נפקת נקטת עמרא עבדה גלימא דהוטבי כד נפקת לשוקא מיכסיא ביה וכד נפיק רבי יהודה לצלויי הוה מיכסי ומצלי וכד מיכסי ביה הוה מברך ברוך שעטני מעיל,זימנא חדא גזר רבן שמעון בן גמליאל תעניתא ר' יהודה לא אתא לבי תעניתא אמרין ליה לא אית ליה כסויא שדר ליה גלימא ולא קביל 49b. bIn accordance with whoseopinion bdo we prayevery day bfor the sick and for the suffering? In accordance with whoseopinion? bIn accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Yosei,who holds that one is judged every day, not only on Rosh HaShana, and therefore it is appropriate to pray for people every day. bFromthe fact bthat he said: The sick and the suffering,one can blearn fromhis statement that the term: bThe sick,is referring to bactual sickpeople, while the term: bThe suffering,is referring to bthe Sages,who typically are physically frail.,§ It is stated in the mishna that one who vowed that loose cooked food is forbidden to him is bpermitted totaste ba thickcooked food. The Gemara comments: bThe mishna is not in accordance with thecustom of the bBabylonians, as Rabbi Zeira said: Babylonians are foolish, as they eat bread with bread.They eat thick porridge with their bread, which is essentially eating one kind of bread with another. According to their custom, one who vows that cooked foods are forbidden to him is prohibited from eating even a thick cooked food.,In that context, bRav Ḥisda said that those fastidiousresi-dents bof Huzal,Babylonia bwere asked: How is it best to eat this porridge?Should bwheatporridge be eaten bwith wheat bread and barleyporridge bwith barley bread, or perhaps wheatporridge should be eaten bwith barleybread band barleyporridge bwith wheatbread?,The Gemara relates: bRava would eathis bread bwith iḥasisei /i,a porridge made of toasted barley grains. bRabba, son of Rav Huna, found Rav Huna eating porridge with his fingers. He said to him: Why is the Master eating with his hands?Rav Huna bsaid to him: Thisis what bRav said: Porridgeeaten bwith a finger is tasty, and all the more soif it is eaten bwith twofingers, band all the more so with three.It is more enjoyable to eat porridge with your hands., bRav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba:If byou are invited to eat porridge,for such a meal you should travel bup tothe distance of ba parasang [ iparsa /i].If you are invited bto eat ox meat,you should travel bup to three parasangs. Rav said to his son Ḥiyya, and Rav Huna similarly said to his son Rabba: You should not spit out anything before your teacher,as this is disrespectful, bapart from gourd and porridge, as they are likea burning blead wickin the intestines when they cannot be digested, bandtherefore bspitthem bout even before King Shapur,due to the danger involved.,The Gemara relates more incidents: bRabbi Yosei and Rabbi Yehudadined together. bOneof them bate porridge with his fingers, andthe other bone ate with a fork [ ihutza /i].The one bwho was eating with a fork said tothe one bwho was eating with his fingers: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your filth?Must I keep eating off of your dirty fingernails? The one bwho was eating with his fingers said tothe one bwho was eating with a fork: For how long will youkeep bfeeding me your spittle,as you eat with a fork which you then put back in the common bowl.,iBelospayin /i,a type of figs, bwere brought before Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Shimon. Rabbi Yehuda atethem, but bRabbi Shimon did not eatthem. bRabbi Yehuda said to him: What is the reasonthat the bMaster is not eating? Rabbi Shimon said to him: These do not leave the intestines at all.They remain undigested. bRabbi Yehuda said to him:If so, ball the more that one can rely on themto feel full btomorrow. /b, bRabbi Yehuda was sitting before Rabbi Tarfon. Rabbi Tarfon said to him: Your face today is ruddy,i.e., a rosy, healthy color. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Last night your servants,i.e., we students, bwent out to the field, and beets were brought to us, and we ate them without salt.This is the reason for our healthy complexion. bAnd had we eaten them with salt, all the more so would our faces have been ruddy. /b,The Gemara cites related incidents: bA certaingentile blady [ imatronita /i] said to Rabbi Yehuda,whose face was ruddy: How can one bteachthe Jews bandbe ba drunkat the same time? bHe said to her:I place my bintegrity in the hands of this womanand should no longer be deemed credible bif Iever btasteany wine bexceptfor that of ikiddush /i, ihavdala /i, and the four cups of Passover. Andafter I drink those four cups bI tie my temples from Passover to iShavuot /i,as wine gives me a headache. bRather,my complexion is explained by the verse b“A man’s wisdom makes his face to shine”(Ecclesiastes 8:1)., bA certain heretic said to Rabbi Yehuda: Your face is similar either to usurers or to pig breeders.These people would earn a good living without expending much energy, which gave them plump, healthy complexions. Rabbi Yehuda bsaid to him: Bothof these occupations bare prohibited to Jews. Rather,my face is ruddy because bI have twenty-four bathroomson the way bfrom my home to the study hall, and all the time I enter each and every oneof them. He did not suffer from constipation, which had a beneficial effect on his complexion.,§ The Gemara relates: bWhen Rabbi Yehuda would go to the study hall he would carry a pitcher [ igulefa /i] on his shoulderto sit on, bsaying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit.It brought him honor by enabling him to avoid sitting on the floor of the study hall. Similarly, bRabbi Shimon would carry a basket on his shoulder, saying: Labor is great, as it brings honor to the laborerwho performs bit. /b,The Gemara further relates: bRabbi Yehuda’s wife went outto the market, bcollected wool,and bmade a thick [ ihutevei /i] cloak. When she would go out to the market she would cover herself with it, and when Rabbi Yehuda would go out to pray he would cover himselfwith the cloak band pray. And when hewould bcover himself with it he would recite the blessing: Blessed is He who wrapped me in a coat,as he took much pleasure in it.,On bone occasion Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel,the iNasi /i, bdecreed a fast. Rabbi Yehuda did not come to the house of the fast,where everyone gathered. The people bsaid toRabban Shimon ben Gamliel: Rabbi Yehuda bdoes not havea dignified garment to bcoverhimself with, and therefore he shies away from public events. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel bsent him a cloakof his own, bbutRabbi Yehuda bdid not acceptthis gift.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
clothing Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
dead sea scrolls vii Ruzer (2020) 119
elijah Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
evil Ruzer (2020) 119
garment Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
health Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 78
himation Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
israel,the people of,redemption/restoration of,the kingdom of,israelite Ruzer (2020) 119
jesus,divine status Ruzer (2020) 119
jews,jewry,jewish,jewish matrix,jewish setting,anti-jewish,non-jewish Ruzer (2020) 119
jews Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
lords prayer Ruzer (2020) 119
love-your-enemy Ruzer (2020) 119
oil Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 78
palestine Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 78; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
persia,persian Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 78
prayer Ruzer (2020) 119
rabbi,rabbinic' Faßbeck and Killebrew (2016) 78
rabbinic Ruzer (2020) 119
sage Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
second temple period,jewry,tradition Ruzer (2020) 119
sermon on the mount Ruzer (2020) 119
sins,transgressions,sinners,forgiveness of Ruzer (2020) 119
talit Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
tannaitic Ruzer (2020) 119
temptation Ruzer (2020) 119
woman Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131
women Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 131