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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



750
Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 35.22
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6 results
1. Mishnah, Hulin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)

4.3. If a fetus died within the womb [of its mother] and the shepherd put in his hand and touched it, he is clean, whether it was a clean or unclean animal. Rabbi Yose HaGalili says: if it was an unclean animal he is unclean, and if it was a clean animal he is clean. If the fetus of a woman died within the womb of its mother and the midwife put in her hand and touched it, the midwife is unclean for seven days, but the mother is clean until the fetus comes out."
2. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 34.10 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

34.10. And Ad-nai said to his heart (Gen. 8:21) - The wicked are under control of their heart: 'The fool has said in his heart' (Ps. 14:1); 'And Esav said in his heart' (Gen.27:41); 'And Yerovoam said in his heart' (I Kings 12:25); 'Now Haman said in his heart' (Est. 6:6). But the righteous have their hearts under their control since it is written 'Now Hannah, she spoke at her heart' (I Sam. 1:13); 'And David said to his heart' (I Sam. 27:1); 'But Daniel put to his heart' (Dan. 1:8); [so too] 'And the Lord said to his heart: I will not again/add curse to the ground' (Gen. 8:21): He did not add to it, and let that indeed suffice. The Rabbis interpreted: I will not add [curse] to the children of Noah; I will not add [curse] to future generations. 'Because the devisings of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil'. Rabbi Hiyya the Elder said: How terrible must be the dough when the baker himself testifies it to be bad! 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth' Abba Jose the potter said: How terrible must be the leaven when he who created it testifies that it is bad, as it is written 'For He knows our inclinations, it is remembered that we are dust' (Ps. 103:14). The Rabbis said: How terrible must be the plant when the planter himself testifies that it is bad as it is written 'For the Lord of hosts, that planted you, has spoken evil of you (Jer. 1:17). Antoninus asked our teacher: ‘When is the evil inclination placed in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ ‘Before one comes out of the womb of one's mother’ he replied. [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be, if [the yetzer] is put before one comes out from the womb, one would dig through the womb and emerge! Rabbi agreed with him, because his view corresponds with that of Scripture: 'Because the inclination of man's heart [yetzer lev] is evil from his youth [mine'urav]'. Rabbi Yudan said: This is written mine'urav (from his awakening), which means, from when he awakes [nin'ar] to the world. Antoninus asked our Teacher further: “When is the soul [neshama] put in a person, from the moment one comes out of the womb of one's mother or before one comes out of the womb of one's mother?’ He answered: ‘When one comes out of the womb of one's mother.’ [Antoninus] replied ‘It can't be! This is comparable to meat left without salt for three days - will it not putrefy?' Our Teacher agreed with him, for Scripture supports him: 'You bestowed on me life and care; Your providence watched over my spirit[ruach].' (Job 10:12) - hence, when did You place the spirit in me? When You gave me Your providence."
3. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. כל תלתין יומין בין א"ל מחמת הלולא ובין לא א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור מכאן ואילך אי א"ל מחמת הלולא אסור ואי לא אמר ליה מחמת הלולא שרי,וכי א"ל מחמת הלולא עד אימת אמר רב פפא עד תריסר ירחי שתא ומעיקרא מאימת אסור אמר רב פפא משמיה דרבא מכי רמו שערי באסינתי,ולבתר תריסר ירחי שתא שרי והא רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא איקלע לבי ההוא עובד כוכבים לבתר תריסר ירחי שתא ושמעיה דאודי ופירש ולא אכל שאני רב יצחק בריה דרב משרשיא דאדם חשוב הוא:,וקרטסים וכו': מאי קרטסים אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל יום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות והתניא קרטסים ויום שתפסה בו רומי מלכות אמר רב יוסף שתי תפיסות תפסה רומי אחת בימי קלפטרא מלכתא ואחת שתפסה בימי יונים,דכי אתא רב דימי אמר תלתין ותרין קרבי עבדו רומאי בהדי יונאי ולא יכלו להו עד דשתפינהו לישראל בהדייהו והכי אתנו בהדייהו אי מינן מלכי מנייכו הפרכי אי מנייכו מלכי מינן הפרכי,ושלחו להו רומאי ליונאי עד האידנא עבידנא בקרבא השתא נעביד בדינא מרגלית ואבן טובה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו שלחו להו מרגלית לאבן טובה,אבן טובה (ואינך) איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אבן טובה לאינך אינך וספר תורה איזו מהן יעשה בסיס לחבירו אינך לספר תורה,שלחו להו [א"כ] אנן ספר תורה גבן וישראל בהדן כפו להו עשרין ושית שנין קמו להו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מכאן ואילך אישתעבדו בהו,מעיקרא מאי דרוש ולבסוף מאי דרוש מעיקרא דרוש (בראשית לג, יב) נסעה ונלכה ואלכה לנגדך ולבסוף דרוש (בראשית לג, יד) יעבר נא אדני לפני עבדו,עשרין ושית שנין דקמו בהימנותייהו בהדי ישראל מנא לן דאמר רב כהנא כשחלה רבי ישמעאל בר יוסי שלחו ליה רבי אמור לנו שנים וג' דברים שאמרת לנו משום אביך,אמר להו מאה ושמנים שנה קודם שנחרב הבית פשטה מלכות הרשעה על ישראל פ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גזרו טומאה על ארץ העמים ועל כלי זכוכית מ' שנה עד לא חרב הבית גלתה סנהדרין וישבה לה בחנות,למאי הלכתא א"ר יצחק בר אבדימי לומר שלא דנו דיני קנסות דיני קנסות סלקא דעתך והאמר רב יהודה אמר רב ברם זכור אותו האיש לטוב ורבי יהודה בן בבא שמו שאלמלא הוא נשתכחו דיני קנסות מישראל נשתכחו לגרסינהו,אלא בטלו דיני קנסות מישראל שגזרה מלכות הרשעה גזרה כל הסומך יהרג וכל הנסמך יהרג ועיר שסומכין בה תחרב ותחום שסומכין בו יעקר,מה עשה רבי יהודה בן בבא הלך וישב בין שני הרים גדולים ובין שתי עיירות גדולות בין ב' תחומי שבת בין אושא לשפרעם וסמך שם חמשה זקנים ר"מ ור' יהודה ור' יוסי ור"ש ורבי אלעזר בן שמוע ורב אויא מוסיף אף רבי נחמיה,כיון שהכירו בהם אויבים אמר להם בני רוצו אמרו לו רבי ואתה מה תהא עליך אמר להם הריני מוטל לפניהם כאבן שאין לה הופכין אמרו לא זזו משם עד שנעצו לגופו ג' מאות לולניאות של ברזל ועשאוהו לגופו ככברה,אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק לא תימא דיני קנסות אלא שלא דנו דיני נפשות,מ"ט כיון דחזו דנפישי להו רוצחין ולא יכלי למידן אמרו מוטב נגלי ממקום למקום כי היכי דלא ליחייבו,דכתיב (דברים יז, י) ועשית על פי הדבר אשר יגידו לך מן המקום ההוא מלמד שהמקום גורם:,מאה ושמנים ותו לא והתני רבי יוסי ברבי 8b. during ballthe bthirty daysthat follow the wedding celebration, if the gentile invites a Jew to a feast, bwhether he saidto the Jew that the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration or whether he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto attend, as it is assumed the festivity is part of the wedding celebration. bFrom thispoint bforward, if he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bprohibitedto participate, bbut if he did not say to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration,it is bpermittedto do so.,The Gemara asks: bAndin a case bwhere he said to himthat the feast is bdue to the wedding celebration, until whenis the feast assumed to be connected to idol worship? bRav Pappa said: Until twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding. The Gemara asks: bAnd initially,before the wedding, bfrom when is it prohibited? Rav Pappa said in the name of Rava: Fromthe time bwhen they cast barley into the mortars [ iba’asintei /i]to prepare beer for the wedding.,The Gemara asks: bAnd after the twelve months of the yearhave passed since the wedding, is it always bpermittedto participate in a feast? bBut Rav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, happenedto come bto the house of a certain gentile after twelve months of the yearhad passed since his son’s wedding, band he heardthe gentile bgiving thanksto his idol for the marriage of his son, band he withdrewfrom the feast band did not eatthere. The Gemara answers: bRav Yitzḥak, son of Rav Mesharshiyya, is different, as he is an important personand therefore his presence caused the gentile to rejoice.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd Kratesis,and the day of the festival of their kings. The Gemara asks: bWhatis the festival of bKratesis? Rav Yehuda saidthat bShmuel said:It commemorates bthe day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire.The Gemara asks: bBut isn’t it taughtin a ibaraita /i: Two festivals are bKratesis and the day when Rome seizedcontrol of ban empire?This indi-cates that Kratesis and the day when Rome seized control of an empire are two separate festivals. bRav Yosef said:On btwoseparate occasions bRome seizedcontrol of ban empire. Oneoccurred bin the days of Queen Cleopatra,when they conquered Egypt, band onehappened much earlier, bwhenRome bseizedcontrol bin the days of the Greeks. /b,The Gemara elaborates: bAs when Rav Dimi camefrom Eretz Yisrael bhe said: The Romans waged thirty-two battles with the Greeks but were unable todefeat bthem, until they formed a partnership with the Jewish peopleand finally vanquished the Greeks. bAnd this is the condition that they stipulated withthe Jewish people: bIf the kingscome bfrom among us, the governors [ ihiparkhei /i]will come bfrom among you;and bif the kingscome bfrom among you, the governorswill come bfrom among us. /b, bAnd the Romans sentthe following message bto the Greeks: Until now, weattempted to resolve our conflict bthroughfighting bbattles; now, let ussettle the matter bbymeans of bjudgment.In the case of ba pearl and a precious stone, whichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks bsent themin response: The bpearlshould serve as the base bforthe bprecious stone,which has a greater value.,The Romans further inquired: If there was ba precious stone and an onyx [ iinnakh /i],a particularly valuable precious stone, bwhichone bof them should serve as a base for the other?The Greeks answered: The bprecious stoneshould serve as the base bforthe bonyx.Once again, the Romans asked: In the case of ban onyx and a Torah scroll, whichone bof them should be serve as a base for the other?The Greeks responded: The bonyxshould serve as the base bfor the Torah scroll. /b,The Romans bsentthis response bto them: Ifthat is bso,then you should submit to us, as bwe havethe bTorah scroll with us, and the Jewish peopleare bwith us.The Romans are akin to the precious stone, and they are allied with the Jewish people who are akin to the onyx, and they possess the Torah scroll. The Romans therefore bforcedthe Greeks to surrender and took over their world domice. For btwenty-six yearsthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people; from thatpoint bforward, they subjugated them. /b,The Gemara asks: bInitially,when the Romans acted faithfully, bwhatverse bdid they interpret, and ultimately,when they subjugated the Jews, bwhatverse bdid they interpret? Initially, they interpretedthe verse where Esau said to Jacob upon their meeting: b“Let us take our journey, and let us go, and I will go before you”(Genesis 33:12). In this verse, Esau equates himself to Jacob, prefiguring the initial Roman treatment of the Jews. bAnd ultimately, they interpretedthe verse that recites Jacob’s response to Esau: b“Let my lord, I pray you, pass over before his servant”(Genesis 33:14), demonstrating Jacob’s subjugation to Esau, and by extension that of the Jews to Rome.,The Gemara asks: With regard to the btwenty-six years during whichthe Romans bstood faithfully with the Jewish people, from where do weknow that this was the case? The Gemara cites a proof. bAs Rav Kahana says: When Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, fell ill,the Sages bsentthe following message bto him:Our bteacher, tell us two or three statements that youonce btold us in the name of your father,Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, as we do not remember the statements precisely.,Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei, bsaid to themthe following statements that were passed down to him by his father: bOne hundred and eighty years before theSecond bTemple was destroyed, the evilRoman bEmpire stretched forth over Israeland ruled over them. bEighty years before the Temple was destroyed,the Sages bdecreed impurity on the land of the nations and on glass vessels. Forty years before the Temple was destroyed, the Sanhedrin was exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone band sat in the storenear the Temple Mount.,The Gemara asks: bWith regard to what ihalakha /iis it necessary to know where the Sanhedrin would convene? bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi said:It is necessary in order bto say that they nolonger bjudged cases of fines.The Gemara asks: bDoes it enter your mindthat at this point the Sanhedrin no longer judged bcases of fines? But doesn’t Rav Yehuda saythat bRav says: Indeed [ iberam /i], that man will be remembered favorably, and Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava is his name, as had it not been for him the laws of fines would have been forgotten fromamong bthe Jewish people.The Gemara challenges that assertion: bWouldthe laws of fines actually bhave been forgotten? Letthe scholars bstudy them,so they will not be forgotten., bRather,his intention was to say that bthe laws of fines would have ceasedto be implemented bfromamong bthe Jewish people,as they would not have been able to adjudicate cases involving these ihalakhotdue to a lack of ordained judges. This is bbecauseat one time bthe wicked kingdomof Rome bissued decrees of religious persecution against the Jewish peoplewith the aim of abolishing the chain of ordination and the authority of the Sages. They said that banyone who ordainsjudges bwill be killed, and anyone who is ordained will be killed, and the city in which they ordainthe judges bwill be destroyed, andthe areas around bthe boundaryof the city bin which they ordainjudges bwill be uprooted.These measures were intended to discourage the Sages from performing or receiving ordination due to fear for the welfare of the local population., bWhat didRabbi bYehuda ben Bava do? He went and sat between two large mountains, and between two large cities,and bbetween two Shabbat boundaries: Between Usha and Shefaram,i.e., in a desolate place that was not associated with any particular city so that he would not endanger anyone not directly involved, band there he ordained five Elders,namely: bRabbi Meir, and Rabbi Yehuda, and Rabbi Shimon, and Rabbi Yosei, and Rabbi Elazar ben Shammua. And Rav Avya addsthat bRabbi Neḥemyawas balsoamong those ordained., bWhentheir benemies discovered them,Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava bsaid tothe newly ordained rabbis: bMy sons, runfor your lives. bThey said to him:Our bteacher, and what will be with you?Rabbi Yehuda ben Bava was elderly and unable to run. He bsaid to them:In any case, bI am cast before them like a stone that cannot be overturned;even if you attempt to assist me I will not be able to escape due to my frailty, but if you do not escape without me you will also be killed. People bsaidabout this incident: The Roman soldiers bdid not move from there until they had inserted three hundred iron spears [ ilulniot /i] into his body, making his bodyappear blike a sievepierced with many holes. It can be inferred from this episode that there were ordained judges who could hear cases of fines for many years after the destruction of the Temple, in contrast to Rabbi Yitzḥak bar Avdimi’s statement., bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak saysin explanation: bDo not saythat after the Sanhedrin was exiled from the Chamber of Hewn Stone they no longer judged cases of bfines; rather,emend the statement to say bthat they nolonger bjudgedcases of bcapital law,as a court does not have the authority to hear capital cases when the Sanhedrin is not sitting in the Chamber of Hewn Stone.,The Gemara explains: bWhat is the reasonthat the members of the Sanhedrin ceased to meet in their proper place and thereby ended the adjudication of capital cases? bOnce they saw that the murderers were so numerous and they were not able to judgethem and punish them with death, bthey said:It is bbetter that we should be exiledfrom the Chamber of Hewn Stone and move bfrom place to place, so thatoffenders bwill not bedeemed bliableto receive the death penalty in a time period when the court does not carry out their sentences.,The Gemara explains why a court may not adjudicate capital cases once the Sanhedrin has left the Chamber of Hewn Stone. bAs it is written: “And you shall do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare to you from that place”(Deuteronomy 17:10). This verse bteaches thatit is bthe placewhere the Sanhedrin resides that bcausesthe judgment to take place. In other words, if the Sanhedrin has abandoned its proper place, the Chamber of Hewn Stone, all courts must cease judging capital cases.,The Gemara returns to the earlier comment of Rabbi Yishmael in the name of his father Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta, that the Roman Empire ruled over Israel one hundred and eighty years before the second Temple was destroyed. The Gemara asks: Did Rome rule over Israel for bone hundred and eightyyears before the destruction of the Temple band no more? But didn’t Rabbi Yosei the Great,i.e., Rabbi Yosei ben Ḥalafta himself, bteach: /b
4. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

37b. מה לנו ולצרה הזאת והלא כבר נאמר (ויקרא ה, א) והוא עד או ראה או ידע אם לא יגיד וגו' ושמא תאמרו מה לנו לחוב בדמו של זה והלא כבר נאמר (משלי יא, י) באבוד רשעים רנה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר כיצד מאומד אומר להן שמא כך ראיתם שרץ אחר חבירו לחורבה ורצתם אחריו ומצאתם סייף בידו ודמו מטפטף והרוג מפרפר אם כך ראיתם לא ראיתם כלום,תניא א"ר שמעון בן שטח אראה בנחמה אם לא ראיתי אחד שרץ אחר חבירו לחורבה ורצתי אחריו וראיתי סייף בידו ודמו מטפטף והרוג מפרפר ואמרתי לו רשע מי הרגו לזה או אני או אתה אבל מה אעשה שאין דמך מסור בידי שהרי אמרה תורה (דברים יז, ו) על פי שנים עדים יומת המת היודע מחשבות יפרע מאותו האיש שהרג את חבירו אמרו לא זזו משם עד שבא נחש והכישו ומת,והאי בר נחש הוא והאמר רב יוסף וכן תני דבי חזקיה מיום שחרב בית המקדש אף על פי שבטלה סנהדרי ארבע מיתות לא בטלו לא בטלו והא בטלו אלא דין ארבע מיתות לא בטלו,מי שנתחייב סקילה או נופל מן הגג או חיה דורסתו מי שנתחייב שריפה או נופל בדליקה או נחש מכישו מי שנתחייב הריגה או נמסר למלכות או ליסטין באין עליו מי שנתחייב חנק או טובע בנהר או מת בסרונכי,אמרי ההוא חטא אחריתי הוה ביה דאמר מר מי שנתחייב שתי מיתות ב"ד נידון בחמורה:,מאומד וכו': בדיני נפשות הוא דלא אמדינן הא בדיני ממונות אמדינן כמאן כר' אחא דתניא ר' אחא אומר גמל האוחר בין הגמלים ונמצא גמל הרוג בצידו בידוע שזה הרגו,וליטעמיך עד מפי עד דקתני בדיני נפשות הוא דלא אמרינן הא בדיני ממונות אמרינן והתנן אם אמר הוא אמר לי שאני חייב לו איש פלוני אמר לי שהוא חייב לו לא אמר כלום עד שיאמר בפנינו הודה לו שהוא חייב לו מאתים זוז,אלמא אף על גב דפסילי בדיני ממונות אמרינן להו בדיני נפשות הכא נמי אף על גב דפסילי בדיני ממונות אמרינן להו בדיני נפשות:,הוו יודעים כו': אמר רב יהודה בריה דר' חייא מלמד שעשה קין בהבל אחיו חבורות חבורות פציעות פציעות שלא היה יודע מהיכן נשמה יוצאה עד שהגיע לצוארו,וא"ר יהודה בריה דר' חייא מיום שפתחה הארץ את פיה וקיבלתו לדמו של הבל שוב לא פתחה שנאמר (ישעיהו כד, טז) מכנף הארץ זמירות שמענו צבי לצדיק מכנף הארץ ולא מפי הארץ איתיביה חזקיה אחיו (במדבר טז, לב) ותפתח הארץ את פיה א"ל לרעה פתחה לטובה לא פתחה,וא"ר יהודה בריה דרבי חייא גלות מכפרת עון מחצה מעיקרא כתיב (בראשית ד, יד) והייתי נע ונד ולבסוף כתיב (בראשית ד, טז) וישב בארץ נוד,אמר רב יהודה גלות מכפרת שלשה דברים שנאמר (כה אמר ה' וגו') היושב בעיר הזאת ימות בחרב ברעב ובדבר והיוצא ונפל אל הכשדים הצרים עליכם יחיה והיתה לו נפשו לשלל,ר' יוחנן אמר גלות מכפרת על הכל שנאמר (ירמיהו כב, ל) (כה אמר ה') כתבו את האיש הזה ערירי גבר לא יצלח בימיו כי לא יצלח מזרעו איש יושב על כסא דוד ומושל עוד ביהודה ובתר דגלה כתיב (דברי הימים א ג, יז) ובני יכניה אסיר (בנו) שלתיאל בנו אסיר שעיברתו אמו בבית האסורין שלתיאל ששתלו אל שלא כדרך הנשתלין גמירי שאין האשה מתעברת מעומד 37b. bWhy would wewant bthis trouble?Perhaps it would be better not to testify at all. bButbe aware, as bis it not already stated: “And he being a witness, whether he has seen or known, if he does not utter it,then he shall bear his iniquity” (Leviticus 5:1)? It is a transgression not to testify when one can do so. bAnd perhaps you will say: Why would wewant bto be responsible for the blood of thisperson? bButbe aware, as bis it not already stated: “When the wicked perish, there is song”(Proverbs 11:10)?, strongGEMARA: /strong bThe Sages taughtin a ibaraita /i: bHow doesthe court describe testimony bbased on conjecture?The court bsays tothe witnesses: bPerhaps you sawthis man about whom you are testifying bpursuing another into a ruin, and you pursued him and found a sword in his hand, drippingwith bblood, and the onewho was ultimately bkilledwas bconvulsing. If you sawonly bthis,it is as if byou saw nothing,and you cannot testify to the murder., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Shimon ben Shataḥ saidas an oath: bI willnot bsee the consolationof Israel bif I did notonce bsee oneperson bpursue another into a ruin, and I pursued him and saw a sword in his hand, drippingwith bblood, and the onewho was ultimately bkilledwas bconvulsing. And I said to him: Wicked person, who has killed this man? Either you or I. But what can I do, since your blood is not given over to me, as the Torah states: “At the mouth of two witnesses,or three witnesses, bshall he that is to die be put to death”(Deuteronomy 17:6), and I did not witness you killing him. bThe One Who knowsone’s bthoughts shall punish this man who killed another.The Sages bsaid: They did not move from there before a snake came and bit themurderer, band he died. /b,The Gemara questions this account: bBut was thismurderer bfitto die by being bitten bby a snake? But doesn’t Rav Yosef say, and so the school of Ḥizkiyyaalso btaught: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, although the Sanhedrin ceasedto be extant, the bfourtypes of court-imposed bcapital punishment have not ceased.The Gemara asks: bHave theyreally bnot ceased? But they have ceased,as court-imposed capital punishment is no longer given. bRather,the intention is that bthe ihalakhaofthe bfourtypes of court-imposed bcapital punishment has not ceasedto be applicable.,The Gemara explains: How so? For bone whowould bbe liableto be executed by bstoning, eitherhe bfalls from a roof or an animal mauls himand breaks his bones. This death is similar to death by stoning, in which the one liable to be executed is pushed from a platform and his bones break from the impact of the fall. For bone whowould bbe liableto be executed by bburning, eitherhe bfalls into a fireand is burned bor a snake bites him,as a snakebite causes a burning sensation. For bone whowould bbe liable tobe executed by bslayingthrough decapitation by the sword, beitherhe bis turned over to the authoritiesand they execute him with a sword, bor robbers come upon himand murder him. bOne whowould bbe liableto be executed by bstrangling either drowns in a riverand is choked by the water bor dies of diphtheria [ ibisronekhi /i],which causes his breathing to become constricted. According to this, a murderer, whose verdict in court would be death by slaying, should not be bitten by a snake.,The Sages bsayin explanation: bThatmurderer bhad another sinfor which he deserved execution by burning, and bas the Master says: One who is found liableby the court btoreceive btwotypes of bcourt-imposed capital punishment is sentenced to the harsherof the two, and burning is considered a harsher death than slaying (see 50a).,§ The mishna teaches that in cases of capital law the court warns the witnesses not to testify bbased on conjecture.The Gemara comments: One can infer that it is only bincases of bcapital law that we do notrule based on bconjecture, but incases of bmonetary law, we dorule based on bconjecture. In accordance with whoseopinion is the mishna taught? It is bin accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Aḥa. As it is taughtin a ibaraita( iTosefta /i, iBava Kamma3:6) that bRabbi Aḥa says:If there was ba ruttingmale bcamelthat was rampaging bamongother bcamels, andthen ba camel was found killed at its side, it is evident that thisrampaging camel bkilled it,and the owner must pay for the damage caused. The ibaraitaindicates that Rabbi Aḥa rules that cases of monetary law are decided based on conjecture.,The Gemara asks: bBut according to your reasoning,with regard to bthatwhich the mishna bteaches,that the court warns the witnesses not to provide btestimonybased on bhearsay,should one infer that it is bincases of bcapital law that we do not saythat testimony based on hearsay is allowed, bbut incases of bmonetary law, we do saythat testimony based on hearsay is allowed? bBut didn’t we learnin a mishna (29a): bIfthe witness bsaid:The defendant bsaid to me:It is true bthat I owethe plaintiff, or if he says: bSo-and-so said to me thatthe defendant bowesthe plaintiff, the witness bhas said nothing,i.e., his testimony is disregarded. These two statements by witnesses are examples of testimony based on hearsay, yet they are not valid in cases of monetary law. A witness’s testimony is not valid testimony bunless he says,for example: The defendant badmitted in our presence tothe plaintiff bthat he owes him two hundred dinars,as by admitting the debt in the presence of witnesses he rendered himself liable to pay the amount that he mentioned., bEvidently, althoughtestimony based on hearsay bis invalid incases of bmonetary law, we tellthe witnesses to be aware of this bin capital law. Here, too,with regard to testimony based on conjecture, one can say that balthoughtestimony based on conjecture bis invalid incases of bmonetary law, we tellthe witnesses to be aware of this bincases of bcapital law. /b,§ The mishna teaches that the court would say: bYou should knowthat cases of capital law are not like cases of monetary law, and would reference the murder of Abel by Cain. bRav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says:By employing the plural term for blood, “The voice of your brother’s blood [ idemei /i] cries out to Me from the ground” (Genesis 4:10), the verse bteaches that Cain caused multiple woundsand bmultiple injuries to his brother Abel. AsCain bdid not know from where the soul departs,he struck him multiple times. This continued buntil he came to his neckand struck him there, whereupon Abel died., bAnd Rav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says: From the day the earth opened its mouth and received the blood of Abel,its mouth bhas not opened again, as it is stated: “From the corner of the earth have we heard songs: Glory to the righteous”(Isaiah 24:16): One can infer that the songs are heard b“from the corner of the earth,” but not from the mouth of the earth,as the earth never again opened its mouth. bḤizkiyya,Rav Yehuda’s bbrother, raised an objection toRav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya: The verse states concerning Korah and his assembly: b“And the earth opened her mouthand swallowed them up, and their households, and all the men that appertained unto Korah, and all their goods” (Numbers 16:32). Rav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, bsaid to him:It bopenedagain bfor a deleteriouspurpose; it bdid not openagain bfor a constructivepurpose., bAnd Rav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, says: Exile atonesfor bhalfof ba sin.As binitiallyit bis writtenin the verse concerning Cain that he said: b“And I shall be a fugitive [ ina /i] and a wanderer [ ivanad]in the earth” (Genesis 4:14), band ultimatelyit bis written:“And Cain went out from the presence of the Lord, band dwelt in the land of Nod”(Genesis 4:16). Rav Yehuda, son of Rabbi Ḥiyya, equates “Nod” with “ inad /i,” and understands that Cain was given only the punishment of being a wanderer. Exile atoned for half his sin, thereby negating the punishment of being a fugitive., bRav Yehuda says: Exile atonesfor bthree matters,i.e., three types of death, bas it is stated: “So says the Lord:Behold, I set before you the way of life and the way of death. bHe that abides in this city shall die by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence; but he that goes out, and falls away to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall survive, and his life shall be for him for a prey”(Jeremiah 21:8–9), indicating that exile from Jerusalem will save one from those three deaths., bRabbi Yoḥa says: Exile atones for alltransgressions and renders a sinner like a new person, bas it is statedconcerning the king Jeconiah, a descendant of King David: b“So says the Lord: Write you this man childless, a man that shall not prosper in his days; for no man of his seed shall prosper, sitting upon the throne of David, and ruling anymore in Judah”(Jeremiah 22:30). bAnd afterJeconiah bwas exiled it is written: “And the sons of Jeconiah, the same is Assir, Shealtiel his son”(I Chronicles 3:17). The verse employs the plural “sons of” although he had only one son, Shealtiel. b“Assir,”literally, prisoner, teaches bthat his mother conceived him in prison. “Shealtiel,”literally, planted by God, teaches bthat God planted him in a way atypical ofmost bplants [ ihanishtalin /i],i.e., people. It bis learnedas a tradition bthat a woman does not conceivewhen she is bstandingduring sexual intercourse
5. Babylonian Talmud, Sotah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

8b. דרבנן אדרבנן נמי לא קשיא הכא טעמא מאי משום (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים התם אין לך ייסור גדול מזה,וכי תימא לעביד בה תרתי אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אמר קרא (ויקרא יט, יח) ואהבת לרעך כמוך ברור לו מיתה יפה,לימא דרב נחמן תנאי היא לא דכולי עלמא אית להו דרב נחמן והכא בהא קמיפלגי מר סבר בזיוניה עדיף ליה טפי מצערא דגופיה ומר סבר צערא דגופיה עדיף ליה טפי מבזיוניה,היתה מכוסה לבנים וכו' תנא אם היו שחורים נאים לה מכסין אותה בגדים מכוערים,היו עליה כלי זהב וכו' פשיטא השתא נוולי מנוויל לה הני מיבעיא מהו דתימא בהני אית לה בזיון טפי כדאמרי אינשי שליח ערטיל וסיים מסאני קמ"ל,ואחר כך מביא חבל וכו' בעא מיניה רבי אבא מרב הונא חבל המצרי מהו שיעכב בסוטה משום שלא ישמטו בגדיה מעליה הוא ובצלצול קטן נמי סגי או דילמא משום דאמר מר היא חגרה לו בצלצול לפיכך כהן מביא חבל המצרי וקושר לה למעלה מדדיה מעכב,א"ל תניתוה ואח"כ מביא חבל המצרי וקושרו לה למעלה מדדיה כדי שלא ישמטו בגדיה מעליה,וכל הרוצה לראות בה יראה וכו' הא גופא קשיא אמרת כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה אלמא לא שנא גברי ולא שנא נשי והדר תני כל הנשים מותרות לראותה נשים אין אנשים לא,אמר אביי תרגמה אנשים אמר ליה רבא והא כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה קתני,אלא אמר רבא כל הרוצה לראות בה רואה לא שנא גברי ולא שנא נשי ונשים חייבות לראותה שנאמר (יחזקאל כג, מח) ונוסרו כל הנשים ולא תעשינה כזמתכנה, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big במדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו היא קשטה את עצמה לעבירה המקום נוולה היא גלתה את עצמה לעבירה המקום גלה עליה בירך התחילה בעבירה תחילה ואחר כך הבטן לפיכך תלקה הירך תחילה ואחר כך הבטן ושאר כל הגוף לא פלט, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר רב יוסף אף על גב דמדה בטילה במדה לא בטיל,דאמר רב יוסף וכן תני ר' חייא מיום שחרב בהמ"ק אע"פ שבטלה סנהדרי ארבע מיתות לא בטלו והא בטלו אלא דין ארבע מיתות לא בטלו,מי שנתחייב סקילה או נופל מן הגג או חיה דורסתו מי שנתחייב שריפה או נופל בדליקה או נחש מכישו מי שנתחייב הריגה או נמסר למלכות או ליסטין באין עליו מי שנתחייב חניקה או טובע בנהר או מת בסרונכי,תניא היה רבי אומר מנין שבמדה שאדם מודד בה מודדין לו שנאמר (ישעיהו כז, ח) בסאסאה בשלחה תריבנה,אין לי אלא סאה מנין לרבות תרקב וחצי תרקב קב וחצי קב רובע וחצי רובע תומן ועוכלא מנין תלמוד לומר (ישעיהו ט, ד) כי כל סאון סואן ברעש,ומנין שכל פרוטה ופרוטה מצטרפת לחשבון גדול תלמוד לומר (קהלת ז, כז) אחת לאחת למצוא חשבון,וכן מצינו בסוטה שבמדה שמדדה בה מדדו לה היא עמדה על פתח ביתה ליראות לו לפיכך כהן מעמידה על שער נקנור ומראה קלונה לכל היא פרסה לו סודרין נאין על ראשה לפיכך כהן נוטל כפה מעל ראשה ומניחו תחת רגליה היא קשטה לו פניה לפיכך 8b. The contradiction between one ruling bof the Rabbis andthe other ruling bof the Rabbisis bnot difficult as well. Here,with regard to a isota /i, bwhat is the reasonthat her hair and body are uncovered? bBecauseof what is stated in the verse, that other women should be warned: “Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be chastenednot to do after your lewdness” (Ezekiel 23:48). bThere,with regard to stoning, byou have no greater chastening thanseeing bthisstoning itself., bAnd if you would say that twoforms of chastening, both stoning and humiliation, bshould be done with her, Rav Naḥman saidthat bRabba bar Avuh said:The bverse states: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself”(Leviticus 19:18), teaching that even with regard to a condemned prisoner, bselect a good,i.e., a compassionate, bdeath for him.Therefore, when putting a woman to death by stoning, she should not be humiliated in the process.,The Gemara suggests: bLet us say thatthe statement bof Rav Naḥman isa dispute between itanna’im /i,and according to Rabbi Yehuda there is no mitzva to select a compassionate death. The Gemara refutes this: bNo,it may be bthat everyone agrees withthe opinion of bRav Naḥman, and here they disagree about this:One bSage,i.e., the Rabbis, bholds:Minimizing bone’s degradation is preferable to him thanminimizing bhis physical pain.Therefore, the Rabbis view the more compassionate death as one without degradation, even if wearing clothes will increase the pain of the one being executed, as the clothes will absorb the blow and prolong death. bAndone bSage,Rabbi Yehuda, bholds thatminimizing bphysical pain is preferable to a person thanminimizing bhis degradation,and therefore the one being executed prefers to be stoned unclothed, without any chance of the clothing prolonging the death, although this adds to the degradation.,§ The mishna teaches: If bshe was dressed in whitegarments, he would cover her with black garments. A Sage btaught: If blackgarments bare becoming to her,then bshe is covered in unsightly garments. /b,The mishna teaches: If bshe was wearing gold adornmentsor other jewelry, they are removed from her. The Gemara asks: bIsn’tthis bobvious? Nowthat the priest brenders her unattractiveby uncovering her and dressing her in unsightly garments, bis it necessaryto teach that they remove btheseadornments from her? The Gemara answers: bLest you saythat bwith theseadornments on her, bshe has more degradation, as people sayin a known aphorism: bUndressed, naked, and wearing shoes.This means that a naked person who wears shoes emphasizes the fact that he is naked. Perhaps one would think that by a isotawearing jewelry, her nakedness is emphasized and her degradation is amplified. Therefore, the mishna bteaches usthat this is not so.,The mishna continues: bAnd afterwardthe priest bwould bringan Egyptian brope,and he would tie it above her breasts. bRabbi Abba raised a dilemma before Rav Huna: What isthe ihalakhaas to whether the lack of ban Egyptian rope will precludethe performance of the rite bwith regard to a isota /i?Does any means of tying suffice? Perhaps the primary function of the rope bis so that her clothes will not fall off her, andtherefore even ba small ribbon [ itziltzul /i] would also suffice. Or, perhapsthe rope is used bbecauseof what bthe Master said: She girdedherself bwitha comely bribbonwhen she committed her transgression, and btherefore the priest bringsspecifically ban Egyptian rope,which is coarse, band ties it above her breasts.If that is the case, then the Egyptian rope should be bindispensable. /b,Rav Huna bsaid to him: You learnedthe answer to this dilemma in a ibaraitathat teaches: bAnd afterwardthe priest bwould bring an Egyptian ropeand he would tie it above her breasts, bso that her clothes would not fall off her.The ibaraitastates that the use of an Egyptian rope is primarily for holding up her clothing, and therefore use of specifically Egyptian rope is not essential.,§ The mishna teaches: bAnd anyone who desires to watch her may watch,except for her slaves and maidservants, who are not permitted to watch because her heart is emboldened by them. And all of the women are permitted to watch her. The Gemara comments: bThismatter bis itself difficult,as there is an internal contradiction in the mishna. First byou say: And anyone who desires to watch her may watch. Apparently,there bis no differencewhether the onlookers are bmen andthere bis no differencewhether they are bwomen;all are permitted to observe the rite. bAnd thenthe mishna bteaches: And all of the women are permitted to watch her,which indicates bwomen, yes,they may watch her, but bmen, no,they may not., bAbaye said: Interpretthe first statement, which permits all people to observe the isota /i, as pertaining bto women,but men may not be onlookers. bRava said to him: Butit bteachesin that first statement that banyone who desires to watch her may watch,and one cannot limit this to women., bRather, Rava said: Anyone who desires to watch her may watch,there bis no differencewhether the onlookers are bmenand there bis no differencewhether they are bwomen. Andthe next clause of the mishna teaches that bwomen are obligated to watch her, as is stated:“Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out of the land, bthat all women may be chastened not to do after your lewdness”(Ezekiel 23:48)., strongMISHNA: /strong The mishna teaches lessons that can be derived from the actions and treatment of a isota /i. bWith the measure that a person measures, he is measured with it.For example, bshe,the isota /i, badorned herself toviolate ba transgression, the Omnipresenttherefore decreed that bshebe brendered unattractive; she exposed herself forthe purpose of violating ba transgression,as she stood in places where she would be noticed by potential adulterers, so bthe Omnipresenttherefore decreed that bherbody be bexposedpublicly; bshe began her transgression withher bthigh and afterward withher bstomach, therefore the thigh is smitten first and then the stomach, and the rest of allher bbodydoes bnot escapepunishment., strongGEMARA: /strong bRav Yosef says: Although the measurewith regard to court-imposed capital punishment bhas ceased,as there is no court today empowered to adjudicate and apply corporal punishment, punishment that is suitable to be applied bwith a measureby God bhas not ceased,as a person is punished by Heaven in accordance with his sin., bAs Rav Yosef says, and Rabbi Ḥiyya similarly teaches: From the day that the Temple was destroyed, although the Sanhedrin ceased,the bfourtypes of court-imposed bcapital punishment have not ceased.The Gemara asks: bBut they have ceased;court-imposed capital punishment is no longer given. bRather,the intention is: bThe law ofthe bfourtypes of court-imposed bcapital punishment has not ceased. /b,The Gemara explains: How so? bOne who is liableto be executed by bstoning either falls from a roof or an animal mauls himand breaks his bones. This death is similar to the experience of stoning, in which the one liable to be executed is pushed from a platform and his bones break from the impact of the fall. bOne who is liableto be executed by bburning either falls into a fireand is burned bor a snake bites him,as a snakebite causes a burning sensation. bOne who is liable tobe executed by bslayingof the sword beither is turned over to the authoritiesand they execute him with a sword, bor robbers come upon himand murder him. bOne who is liableto be executed by bstrangling either drowns in a riverand is choked by the water bor dies of diphtheria [ iseronekhi /i],which causes his throat to become clogged, and he dies., bIt is taughtin a baraita in the iTosefta(3:1–5) that bRabbiYehuda HaNasi bwould say: From whereis it derived bthat with the measure that a person measures, he is measured with it? As it is stated: “In full measure [ ibesase’a /i], when you send her away, you contend with her”(Isaiah 27:8). In other words, in the measure, ibese’a /i, that one used in one’s sin, God will contend with, i.e., punish, him.,The ibaraitacontinues: bI havederived bonlythe relatively large measurement of ba ise’a /i,which alludes to a significant sin. bFrom wheredo I know bto includeeven lesser sins that are comparable to smaller measurements, e.g., ba half- ise’a[ itarkav /i] and a half- itarkav /i; a ikavand a half- ikav /i; a quarter- ikavand half of a quarter- ikav /i; an eighth- ikav[ itoman /i] and an iukla /i,which is one-thirty-second of a ikav /i. bFrom whereis it derived that all these lesser sins are also dealt with in accordance with the measure of the sin? bThe verse states: “For every boot [ isa’on /i] stamped with fierceness,and every cloak rolled in blood, shall even be for burning, for fuel of fire” (Isaiah 9:4), indicating that every isa’on /i, which bRabbiYehuda HaNasi interprets as a small ise’a /i, is “stamped with fierceness” and doesn’t go unpunished., bAnd from whereis it derived bthat each and every iperutacombineto add up bto a great sum,alluding to the notion that even if one is not immediately punished for a small transgression, in the final accounting all misdeeds will combine together and be addressed by the imposition of a large punishment? bThe verse states:“Behold, this have I found, says Koheleth, badding one thing to another, to find out the account”(Ecclesiastes 7:27).,The ibaraitacontinues: bAnd we found this with regard to a isota /i, that with the measure with which she measured, she is measured with it: She stood by the opening of her house to exhibit herself toher paramour, btherefore a priest has her stand at the Gate of Nicanor and exhibits her disgrace to all; she spread beautiful shawls [ isudarin /i] on her head forher paramour, btherefore a priest removesher bkerchief from her head and places it under her feet; she adorned her face forher paramour, btherefore /b
6. Ephrem, Hymns On Nativity, 9.9 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
birth , soul before Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 140
body and soul Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 140
change, in conception Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 140
death penalty, beheading Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
death penalty, burning Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
death penalty, dead sea scrolls Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
death penalty, stoning Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
hanging Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 96
judah (biblical) Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
prostitution Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
rebellious elder' Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 96
second temple, destruction Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
sexual relations, matrimonial bond Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
spectacle Rosen-Zvi, The Mishnaic Sotah Ritual: Temple, Gender and Midrash (2012) 96
tamar (daughter-in-law of judah) Monnickendam, Jewish Law and Early Christian Identity: Betrothal, Marriage, and Infidelity in the Writings of Ephrem the Syrian (2020) 175
yehudah ha-nassi (the patriarch) Rubin Time and the Life Cycle in Talmud and Midrash: Socio-Anthropological Perspectives (2008) 140