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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

Anon., Sifre Zuta Numbers, 19.14

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1. Babylonian Talmud, Nazir, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

52b. ואי ס"ד או שדרה או גולגולת הני שבעה הויין כי קתני (סימן יחיד שהוא גילח ואחד),כל היכא דפליגי עליה רבים לאפוקי עצם כשעורה דיחיד הוא דפליג עליה דתני' עצם כשעורה שנחלק לשנים ר"ע מטמא ורבי יוחנן בן נורי מטהר,ואי בעית אימא כי קתני אבר מן המת אבר מן החי לא קתני,ואיבעית אימא כי קתני כל היכא דנזיר מגלח על אהילו לאפוקי עצם כשעורה דלא,ואיבעית אימא כי קתני כל היכא דהדר ביה לאפוקי רביעית דם דלא הדר ביה דאמר ליה רבי לבר קפרא לא תשנה רביעית דם בחזרה שהרי למודו של ר' עקיבא בידו,ועוד המקרא מסייעו ועל כל נפשות מת לא יבא ר"ש אומר עד ימיו היה מטמא אם משמת חזר בו איני יודע תנא הושחרו שיניו מפני תעניותיו,ת"ש דתניא בש"א רובע עצמות מן העצמים או משנים או משלשה ובה"א רובע מן הגויה מרוב הבנין או מרוב המנין אמר רבי יהושע יכולני לעשות דברי ב"ש ודברי ב"ה כאחד,שב"ש אומרים משנים או משלשה או משני שוקיים וירך אחד או משני ירכיים ושוק אחד הואיל ורוב גובהו של אדם מגובה וב"ה אומרים מן הגויה או מרוב בנין או מרוב מנין הואיל וישנן במפרקי ידים ורגלים שמאי אומר אפילו עצם מן השדרה או מן הגולגולת,שאני שמאי דמחמיר ליפשוט מינה טעמא דבית שמאי דמחמיר הא רבנן עד דאיכא שדרה וגולגולת לא עד כאן לא פליגי רבנן עליה דשמאי אלא בעצם אחד דאתי מן השדרה ומן הגולגולת אבל היכא דאיתיה בעיניה אפילו חדא מינהון,בעי רמי בר חמא רובע עצמות מן שדרה וגולגולת מאי כי קתני חצי קב עצמות היכא דאיכא משאר אבריו אבל מן שדרה וגולגולת דחמירי אפי' רובע עצמות או דלמא לא שנא,אמר רבא ת"ש השדרה והגולגולת ואי סלקא דעתך רובע עצמות דאתי מן שדרה וגולגולת חמיר ליתני על רובע עצמות הבא מן השדרה כו' 52b. bAnd if it enters your mindthat the ihalakhaapplies to beither a spine or a skulland they are two separate ihalakhot /i, bthese are sevencases, rather than six. The Gemara rejects this claim: No proof can be brought from here, bas whenthe itanna bteachesthis tally he lists seven items. However, only six are fully relevant here, and therefore he said they were six. The Gemara inserts ba mnemonicdevice for the ensuing suggestions as to which item in the list is not necessary in this context: bAn individualdisagrees with him; bthat he;a nazirite bshavesfor it; band onequarter- ilog /i.,The first explanation is: Rabbi Akiva listed the spine and skull as separate items, but the six include banywhere that manySages bdisagree with him, to the exclusion ofthe case of a bone that is ba barley-grain-bulk,as here bit is an individual who disagrees withRabbi Akiva, bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iOholot2:7): If ba bone that is a barley-grain-bulk was divided into two, Rabbi Akiva deemsit bimpure and Rabbi Yoḥa ben Nuri deemsit bpure.In this case, only one Sage disagrees with Rabbi Akiva., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he includes ba limbsevered bfrom a corpse,but bhe does not teach a limbsevered bfrom a livingperson, and that was the case that was not listed., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he mentions banywhere that a nazirite shaves for his overlaying,i.e., he formed a tent over the remains of a corpse, bto the exclusion ofthe case of ba bone that is a barley-grain-bulk, asit bdoes notimpart ritual impurity in a tent. As stated in the mishna, this bone imparts impurity only through contact and carrying., bAnd if you wish, saya different item on the list that is omitted from the tally: bWhen he teachessix, he lists banywhere thatRabbi Akiva bretractedhis opinion, bto the exclusion of a quarter-ilog bof blood, as he did not retract hisopinion in that case, bas RabbiYehuda HaNasi bsaid to bar Kappara: Do not teach a quarter-ilog bof blood in thelist of Rabbi Akiva’s bretractions, as Rabbi Akiva held onto hisopinion in this regard., bAnd furthermore, the verse supports hisopinion, as it states: b“Neither shall he go in to any dead bodies”(Leviticus 21:11). The plural form “bodies” indicates that two corpses can join together, as stated by Rabbi Akiva. Similarly, bRabbi Shimon says: All his days,Rabbi Akiva bwould deema quarter- ilogof blood from two corpses britually impure. Whether he retracted hisopinion bafter he died,this bI do not know.A Sage btaught:Rabbi Shimon’s bteeth blackened due to his fasts,which he undertook for uttering this irreverent comment about Rabbi Akiva.,§ The Gemara returns to the earlier discussion. bComeand bhearan answer to the question of whether a spine and skull must be together to impart ritual impurity, bas it is taughtin a mishna ( iEduyyot1:7) that bBeit Shammai say:The bquarter-ikav bof bones,which imparts impurity in a tent, can be bfromseveral bbones [ iha’atzamim /i] or from two or from threebones, but they cannot be from one bone. bAnd Beit Hillel say:The bquarter /b- ikavof bones must come bfrom thesame bbody,either bfrom the majority of the structureof the skeleton bor from the majority of the numberof 248 bones in the body. bRabbi Yehoshua said: I can establish the statement of Beit Shammai and the statement of Beit Hillel as one.In other words, I can explain their opinions so that there is no dispute between them.,How so? bAswhen bBeit Shammai say: From two or threebones, they mean beither from two shins and one thigh, or from two thighs and one shin. Since the majority of a person’s heightis contained binthe bheightof these limbs, they are considered the majority of the structure of the body. bAnd Beit Hillel say:Parts bfrom the body, or from the majority of the structure, or from the majority of the numberof bones, bsince they include the joints of the hands and feet,which comprise many small bones, impart impurity. bShammai says: Even a bone from the spine or from the skullimparts impurity. In this source, Shammai explicitly refers to a spine or a skull.,The Gemara rejects this proof: One cannot establish a general ihalakhafrom this source, for bShammai is different, as he isinvariably bstringent,whereas the Rabbis might disagree. The Gemara inquires: If so, blet us resolvethe opposite bfromthis ibaraita /i: bThe reasonthat Shammai spoke of a spine or a skull bis that Beit Shammai are stringent,from which it may be inferred that according to bthe Rabbisa spine and skull are not ritually impure bunlessboth ba spine and skull are present.The Gemara rejects this proof too: bNo, the Rabbis disagree with Shammai only with regard to one bone that comes from the spine or from the skull, but when it is intact, evenif the bone is from bone of them,either the spine or the skull, they possibly agree that it imparts impurity.,§ bRami bar Ḥama raised a dilemma:With regard to ba quarter-ikav bof bones from a spine and a skull, whatis the ihalakha /i? Does a nazirite shave for them? The Gemara explains the two sides of the dilemma: bWhenthe mishna bteachesthat one shaves for ba half- ikavof bones,does this apply only bwhenthey bare from his other limbs, butin the case of bones bfromthe bspine and skull, which are stringent,as they impart ritual impurity on their own, beven a quarter-ikav bof bonesimparts impurity? bOr perhapsit bis no different. /b, bRava said: Comeand bheara resolution from the mishna, which teaches: bThe spine and the skull. And if it enters your mindthat ba quarter-ikav bof bones that come from a spine and skull ismore bstringentthan other limbs and imparts ritual impurity, bletthe itanna bteachthis ihalakhain a manner that presents a greater novelty, by stating: bFor a quarter-ikav bof bones that come from the spineand the skull.

Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
ariès,philippe Balberg (2014) 105
blood Balberg (2014) 105, 218
bones Balberg (2014) 105, 218
corpse Libson (2018) 119
corpse impurity Balberg (2014) 105
flesh (from a corpse) Balberg (2014) 105
graham,emma-jayne Balberg (2014) 105
impurity Libson (2018) 119
parturient Libson (2018) 119
person/hood,of corpses (symbolic personhood) Balberg (2014) 105
rot (raqav) impurity Balberg (2014) 105, 218
suffering Libson (2018) 119
thought (mahshava),role of in purity system Balberg (2014) 218
transmission and contraction of impurity,through carriage Balberg (2014) 105
transmission and contraction of impurity,through overhang Balberg (2014) 105
transmission and contraction of impurity,through touch Balberg (2014) 105
visibility,implications of for im/purity' Balberg (2014) 218