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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database



11551
Anon., Semahot, 8.15
NaN


Intertexts (texts cited often on the same page as the searched text):

10 results
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might."
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 17.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)

17.14. מִמְתִים יָדְךָ יְהוָה מִמְתִים מֵחֶלֶד חֶלְקָם בַּחַיִּים וצפינך [וּצְפוּנְךָ] תְּמַלֵּא בִטְנָם יִשְׂבְּעוּ בָנִים וְהִנִּיחוּ יִתְרָם לְעוֹלְלֵיהֶם׃ 17.14. From men, by Thy hand, O LORD, From men of the world, whose portion is in this life, And whose belly Thou fillest with Thy treasure; Who have children in plenty, And leave their abundance to their babes."
3. Anon., Leviticus Rabba, 22.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)

22.3. דָּבָר אַחֵר, וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ, אָמַר הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַנְּבִיאִים אִם אֵין אַתֶּם עוֹשִׂין שְׁלִיחוּתִי יֵשׁ לִי שְׁלוּחִין, הֱוֵי: וְיִתְרוֹן אֶרֶץ וגו', בַּכֹּל אֲנִי עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתִי. אָמַר רַבִּי אַחָא בַּכֹּל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָחָשׁ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי צְפַרְדֵּעַ וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי עַקְרָב וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי יַתּוּשׁ, טִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע נִכְנַס לְבֵית קֹדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְיָדוֹ וְגִדֵּר אֶת הַפָּרֹכֶת, וְנָטַל שְׁתֵּי זוֹנוֹת וְהִצִּיעַ סֵפֶר תּוֹרָה תַּחְתֵּיהֶן וּבְעָלָן עַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ, וְיָצְאָה חַרְבּוֹ מְלֵאָה דָּם. מַאן דְּאָמַר מִדַּם הַקָּרְבָּנוֹת, וּמַאן דְּאָמַר מִן דַם פָּר וְשָׂעִיר שֶׁל יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים. הִתְחִיל מְחָרֵף וּמְגַדֵּף כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה, אָמַר לָא דָמֵי הַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בַּמִּדְבָּר וְנָצַח לֵיהּ, לְהַהוּא דְּעָבֵיד קְרָבָא עִם מַלְכָּא בְּגוֹ פָּלָטִין דִּידֵיהּ וְנָצַח לֵיהּ. מֶה עָשָׂה כִּנֵּס כָּל כְּלֵי בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וְנָתַן לְתוֹךְ גַּרְגּוּתְנִי אַחַת וְיָרַד לוֹ לַסְּפִינָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּרַד מָחָא נַחְשׁוֹלָא בְּיַמָּא, אָמַר דּוֹמֶה לִי שֶׁאֵין כֹּחוֹ שֶׁל אֱלוֹהַּ זֶה אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, דּוֹר אֱנוֹשׁ לֹא פָּרַע מֵהֶם אֶלָּא בַּמַּיִם, וְכֵן דּוֹר הַמַּבּוּל, וְכֵן פַּרְעֹה וְחֵילוֹ, אַף אֲנִי כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיִיתִי בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּבִרְשׁוּתוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לַעֲמֹד בִּי וְעַכְשָׁיו לְכָאן קְדָמָנִי, אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא, רָשָׁע, חַיֶּיךָ בִּבְרִיָה פְּחוּתָה מִמַּה שֶּׁבָּרָאתִי מִשֵּׁשֶׁת יְמֵי בְרֵאשִׁית אֲנִי פּוֹרֵעַ מִמְךָ, מִיָּד רָמַז הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לַיָּם וְעָמַד מִזַעְפּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְרוֹמִי יָצְאוּ כָּל בְּנֵי רוֹמִי וְקִלְסוּהוּ, נְקִיטָא בַּרְבָּרַיָיא, מִיָּד הֵסִיקוּ לוֹ אֶת הַמֶּרְחָץ וְנִכְנַס וְרָחַץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא מָזְגוּ לוֹ כַּסָּא דְחַמְרָא וְזִמֵּן לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא יַתּוּשׁ אֶחָד וְנִכְנַס לְתוֹךְ חָטְמוֹ, וְהָיָה אוֹכֵל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְמֹחוֹ, הִתְחִיל מְנַקֵּר אֶת מֹחוֹ, אָמַר קִרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וִיפַצְעוּ מֹחוֹ שֶׁל אוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ וּדְעוּ בַּמֶּה אֱלוֹהַּ שֶׁל אֻמָּה זוֹ נִפְרַע מֵאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ, מִיָּד קָרְאוּ לָרוֹפְאִים וּפָצְעוּ אֶת מֹחוֹ וּמָצְאוּ בוֹ כְּמוֹ גּוֹזָל בֶּן יוֹנָה, וְהָיָה בּוֹ מִשְׁקַל שְׁתֵּי לִטְרָאוֹת, אָמַר רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בְּרַַבִּי יוֹסֵי תַּמָּן הֲוֵינָא וְיַהֲבִין גּוֹזָלָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתַרְתֵּין לִיטְרַיָא מִן דֵּין סִטְרָא וְתָקַל חַד כָּל קֳבֵל חַד, וּנְטָלוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּתוֹךְ קְעָרָה אַחַת, כָּל מַאן דַּהֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי הֲוָה הָדֵין שָׁנֵי, פָרַח יַתּוּשָׁא פָּרַח נִשְׁמָתָא דְּטִיטוּס הָרָשָׁע. 22.3. ...The wicked Titus entered the sanctum of the Holy of Holies, and with his sword brandished in his hand he slashed the two curtains, and taking two whores he spread out a scroll of the Law beneath them and ravished them on top of the altar, and his sword came out full of blood, and some say from the blood of Yom Kippur [sprinkled by the Kohen Gadol on the curtains]. He [Titus] began to revile and blaspheme saying, “He who wages battle with a king in the desert and triumphs is different from him who wages battle in the king's own palace and vanquishes him.” What did he [Titus] do? He gathered all of the Temple vessels and put them in a sack and descended to a ship. At sea, a wave rose up to drown him. He said, “It would appear that this nation's god has power only on water. He [God] only punished the generation of Enosh with water, likewise He could only punish the generation of the flood with water, the generation of the Dispersal and Pharaoh and his army were only punished with water. So I, when I was in His house and domain He had no power to stand against me, and now he opposes me here!” The Holy One said, “By your life, I will punish you with the most insignificant of my creatures.” Immediately God hinted to the sea and it stayed its anger. When he arrived in Rome, all of the citizens came out and acclaimed him: “Conqueror of the Barbarians.” Immediately they heated the bath-house and he entered and washed himself. When he came out they poured for him the double glass for after the bath, and God appointed a mosquito for him and it entered his nose and gnawed its way up until it reached his brain. He said, “Call for the doctors to split open the head of that man [Titus] so I can know with what the God of that nation has punished him.” Forthwith they summoned the doctors, and they split open his brain and found in it the likeness of a young dove and its weight was two litras. R. Elazar son of R. Yosi said: I was there, and they put the young bird on one side [of the scales], and two litras on the other, and they balances one another. They took it and put it in a bowl, and as the mosquito withered so Titus deteriorated. The mosquito flew away, and away flew the soul of the wicked Titus...."
4. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

5. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 328 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)

6. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

38b. אשמעינן טעמא ואשמעינן דהלכתא כרבנן אלא דאמר מוציא מאי קמ"ל ואיהו דעבד לאפוקי נפשיה מפלוגתא,והלכתא המוציא לחם מן הארץ דקי"ל כרבנן דאמרי דאפיק משמע:,ועל הירקות אומר וכו': קתני ירקות דומיא דפת מה פת שנשתנה ע"י האור אף ירקות נמי שנשתנו ע"י האור אמר רבנאי משמיה דאביי זאת אומרת שלקות מברכין עליהן בורא פרי האדמה (ממאי מדקתני ירקות דומיא דפת),דרש רב חסדא משום רבינו ומנו רב שלקות מברכין עליהם בורא פרי האדמה ורבותינו היורדין מארץ ישראל ומנו עולא משמיה דר' יוחנן אמר שלקות מברכין עליהן שהכל נהיה בדברו ואני אומר כל שתחלתו בורא פרי האדמה שלקו שהכל נהיה בדברו וכל שתחלתו שהכל נהיה בדברו שלקו בורא פרי האדמה,בשלמא כל שתחלתו שהכל נהיה בדברו שלקו בפה"א משכחת לה בכרבא וסלקא וקרא אלא כל שתחלתו בפה"א שלקו שהכל היכי משכחת לה א"ר נחמן בר יצחק משכחת לה בתומי וכרתי,דרש רב נחמן משום רבינו ומנו שמואל שלקות מברכין עליהם בפה"א וחברינו היורדים מארץ ישראל ומנו עולא משמיה דר' יוחנן אמר שלקות מברכין עליהן שהכל נהיה בדברו,ואני אומר במחלוקת שנויה דתניא יוצאין ברקיק השרוי ובמבושל שלא נמוח דברי ר"מ ור' יוסי אומר יוצאים ברקיק השרוי אבל לא במבושל אע"פ שלא נמוח,ולא היא דכ"ע שלקות מברכין עליהן בפה"א ועד כאן לא קאמר ר' יוסי התם אלא משום דבעינן טעם מצה וליכא אבל הכא אפי' רבי יוסי מודה,אמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן שלקות מברכין עליהם בפה"א ור' בנימין בר יפת א"ר יוחנן שלקות מברכין עליהם שהכל נהיה בדברו א"ר נחמן בר יצחק קבע עולא לשבשתיה כר' בנימין בר יפת,תהי בה ר' זירא וכי מה ענין ר' בנימין בר יפת אצל ר' חייא בר אבא ר' חייא בר אבא דייק וגמיר שמעתא מרבי יוחנן רביה ורבי בנימין בר יפת לא דייק ועוד רבי חייא בר אבא כל תלתין יומין מהדר תלמודיה קמיה דר' יוחנן רביה ור' בנימין בר יפת לא מהדר ועוד בר מן דין ובר מן דין דההוא תורמסא דשלקי ליה שבע זמנין בקדרה ואכלי ליה בקנוח סעודה אתו ושאלו לר' יוחנן ואמר להו מברכין עלויה בורא פרי האדמה,ועוד אמר ר' חייא בר אבא אני ראיתי את ר' יוחנן שאכל זית מליח ובריך עליו תחלה וסוף אי אמרת בשלמא שלקות במילתייהו קיימי בתחלה מברך עליו בורא פרי העץ ולבסוף מברך עליו ברכה אחת מעין שלש אלא אי אמרת שלקות לאו במילתייהו קיימי בשלמא בתחלה מברך עליו שהכל נהיה בדברו אלא לבסוף מאי מברך,דילמא בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן על כל מה שברא,מתיב רב יצחק בר שמואל ירקות שאדם יוצא בהן ידי חובתו בפסח יוצא בהן ובקלח שלהן אבל לא כבושין ולא שלוקין ולא מבושלין ואי ס"ד במילתייהו קאי שלוקין אמאי לא,שאני התם דבעינן טעם מרור וליכא,אמר ליה רבי ירמיה לרבי זירא רבי יוחנן היכי מברך על זית מליח כיון דשקילא לגרעיניה 38b. I would have understood that bhethereby btaught us the meaningof the verse: “Who brought you forth from Egypt,” band hethereby btaught us that the ihalakhais in accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis. However, what did he teach us by reciting imotzi /i?Everyone agrees that one fulfills his obligation when reciting imotzi /i. The Gemara explains: The son of Rav Zevid bdid thisin order bto preclude himself fromtaking sides in bthe dispute.He preferred to phrase his blessing in a manner appropriate according to all opinions, rather than teach a novel concept, which is not universally accepted.,The Gemara concludes: bAnd the ihalakha /iis that one recites: bWho brings forth [ ihamotzi /i] bread from the earth, as we hold in accordance withthe opinion of bthe Rabbis who saythat it also means: Who brought forth.,We learned in the mishna that bover vegetables one recites:Who creates fruits of the ground. The Gemara comments: The mishna btaught vegetablestogether with, and therefore bsimilar to, bread,and from this analogy one may infer: bJust as breadis food bthat was transformed by fire, so too vegetablesretain the blessing: Who creates fruits of the ground, after they bhave been transformed by fire. Rabbenai said in the nameof bAbaye: This meansthat bover boiled vegetables one recites: Who creates fruits of the ground. From whereis this matter inferred? From the fact that the mishna btaught vegetables similar to bread. /b, bRav Ḥisda taught in the name of Rabbeinu; andthe Gemara remarks incidentally: bWho isRabbeinu? bRav. Over boiled vegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. And our Rabbis who descended from Eretz Yisrael,and again the Gemara explains: bAnd who isthe Sage with this title? bUlla said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: Over boiled vegetables one recites: By whose word all things came to be,since after they are boiled, they are no longer the same as they were before. Expressing his own opinion, Rav Ḥisda said: bAnd I saythat there is an intermediate opinion: bAnyvegetable that, when eaten bin its originaluncooked state, one recites: bWho creates fruit of the ground,when he bboiled it,he recites: bBy whose word all things came to be,as boiling damages it qualitatively. bAnd anyvegetable that when eaten bin its originaluncooked state, one recites: bBy whose word all things came to be,because it is not typically eaten raw, when he bboiled it,he recites: bWho creates fruit of the ground. /b,The Gemara asks: bGranted, anyvegetable that, when eaten bin its originaluncooked state, one recites: bBy whose word all things came to be,when he bboiled it,he recites: bWho creates fruit of the ground,as byoucan bfindseveral vegetables, e.g., bcabbage, chard, and pumpkinwhich are virtually inedible raw, and boiling renders it edible. bHowever,under bwhatcircumstances can byou finda case where banyvegetable that when eaten bin its originaluncooked state, one recites: bWho creates fruit of the ground,when he bboiled it,he recites: bBy whose word all things came to be,as boiling damages the vegetable qualitatively? bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Youcan bfind itin the case of bgarlic and leeks. /b, bRav Naḥman taught in the name of Rabbeinu; and who isRabbeinu? bShmuel: Over boiled vegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. And our colleagues who descended from Eretz Yisrael; and who isthe Sage with this title? bUlla said in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa: Over boiled vegetables, one recites: By whose word all things came to be. /b,Rav Naḥman remarked: bI say thisis dependent upon and btaught as atannaitic bdispute, as it was taughtin a ibaraitawith regard to the ihalakhotof imatzaon Passover: bOne fulfills themitzva of imatza bwith a wafer soakedin water or bwithone that is bboiledas long that bit did not dissolve;this is bthe statement of Rabbi Meir. And Rabbi Yosei says: One fulfills themitzva of imatza bwith a soaked wafer but not withone that is bboiled even if it did not dissolve.Rav Naḥman concludes that this dispute with regard to boiled imatzareflects a larger dispute with regard to boiling in general, whether or not it diminishes the flavor of that which is boiled.,This approach is rejected by the Gemara: bThat is not so; as everyone agrees that over boiled vegetables one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground. Rabbi Yosei only saidthe ihalakha /i, that one fulfills his obligation of imatzaif it is soaked but not if it is boiled, bthere, becausein order to fulfill the mitzva, bwe requirethe btaste of imatza /i, and it is lacking. However, here, even Rabbi Yosei agreesthat boiling vegetables does not damage it qualitatively.,Ulla’s statement in the name of Rabbi Yoḥa with regard to boiled vegetables was cited above. The Gemara cites two conflicting traditions with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement. bRabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Over boiled vegetables, one recites: Who creates fruit of the ground, and Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet saidthat bRabbi Yoḥa said: Over boiled vegetables, one recites: By whose word all things came to be.Commenting on this, bRav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: Ulla established his error in accordance withthe opinion of bRabbi Binyamin bar Yefet,which conflicted with the prevailing opinion among the Sages in Babylonia., bRabbi Zeira wonderedwith regard to Ulla’s approach: bWhat is the matter of Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefetdoing in the same discussion bwith Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba? Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba was meticulous and learned the ihalakhafrom Rabbi Yoḥa, his teacher; and Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet was not meticulous. Furthermore, every thirty days, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba reviews his studies before Rabbi Yoḥa, his teacher, while Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet does not reviewhis studies. bFurthermore, aside from thesereasons concerning the difference between a wise and meticulous student like Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba and a student like Rabbi Binyamin bar Yefet, one can also bring proof from the custom of Rabbi Yoḥa, as bthe lupin is boiled seven times in a pot and eaten as dessertat the end of a bmeal. They came and asked Rabbi Yoḥawith regard to the blessing to be recited over this lupin, band he said to them: One recites over it: Who creates fruit of the ground,indicating that one recites that blessing over boiled vegetables., bFurthermore, Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: I saw Rabbi Yoḥa eat a salted olive,which, halakhically, is considered cooked, band he recited a blessing over it both before and after. Granted, if you saythat bboiled vegetables remain in their original stateand that cooking does not qualitatively damage them, then certainly bat the start one recites over it: Who creates fruit of the tree, and at the end one recites over it one blessing abridged fromthe bthreeblessings of Grace after Meals, just as he would over any of the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael was praised. bHowever, if you saythat bboiled vegetables do not remain in their original state, granted, at the start, one recites: By whose word all things came to be. However, at the end, what blessing does he recite?There are several opinions that hold that no blessing is recited after eating something whose initial blessing was: By whose word all things came to be.,The Gemara rejects this: That is no proof, as bperhapsRabbi Yoḥa held that on items over which at the start one recites: By whose word all things came to be, at the end he recites: bWho creates the many forms of life and their needs, for all that You have created. /b, bRabbi Yitzḥak bar Shmuel raised an objectionto the ruling that over both boiled vegetables and raw vegetables one recites the same blessing, from a ibaraitaconcerning the ihalakhotof eating bitter herbs on Passover: bVegetables with which one may fulfill his obligationin the mitzva of bitter herbs bon Passover, one fulfillshis obligation bwithboth the vegetables bthemselves as well as with their stalks. However,one may bneitherfulfill his obligation bwith pickledvegetables, bnor with boiledvegetables bnor with cookedvegetables. bAnd if it would enter your mindthat bthey remain in their original state, why are boiledvegetables not fit for use in fulfilling the mitzva of bitter herbs?,The Gemara answers: bIt is different there, aseven if we assert that boiled vegetables remain in their original state, bwe requirethe btaste of bitter herbs, and it is lacking.There is no proof that boiling damages the vegetable qualitatively.,The Gemara related above that Rabbi Yoḥa recited a blessing over a salted olive. With regard to this story, bRabbi Yirmeya said to Rabbi Zeira: How did Rabbi Yoḥa recite a blessing over a salted oliveafter he ate it? bSince the pit was removed,i.e., he did not eat it
7. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

56b. איברא מלכא את דאי לאו מלכא את לא מימסרא ירושלים בידך דכתיב (ישעיהו י, לד) והלבנון באדיר יפול ואין אדיר אלא מלך דכתיב (ירמיהו ל, כא) והיה אדירו ממנו וגו' ואין לבנון אלא ביהמ"ק שנאמר (דברים ג, כה) ההר הטוב הזה והלבנון ודקאמרת אי מלכא אנא אמאי לא קאתית לגבאי עד האידנא בריוני דאית בן לא שבקינן,אמר ליה אילו חבית של דבש ודרקון כרוך עליה לא היו שוברין את החבית בשביל דרקון אישתיק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי ליה למימר ליה שקלינן צבתא ושקלינן ליה לדרקון וקטלינן ליה וחביתא שבקינן לה,אדהכי אתי פריסתקא עליה מרומי אמר ליה קום דמית ליה קיסר ואמרי הנהו חשיבי דרומי לאותיבך ברישא הוה סיים חד מסאני בעא למסיימא לאחרינא לא עייל בעא למשלפא לאידך לא נפק אמר מאי האי,אמר ליה לא תצטער שמועה טובה אתיא לך דכתיב (משלי טו, ל) שמועה טובה תדשן עצם אלא מאי תקנתיה ליתי איניש דלא מיתבא דעתך מיניה ולחליף קמך דכתיב (משלי יז, כב) ורוח נכאה תיבש גרם עבד הכי עייל אמר ליה ומאחר דחכמיתו כולי האי עד האידנא אמאי לא אתיתו לגבאי אמר ליה ולא אמרי לך אמר ליה אנא נמי אמרי לך,אמר ליה מיזל אזילנא ואינש אחרינא משדרנא אלא בעי מינאי מידי דאתן לך אמר ליה תן לי יבנה וחכמיה ושושילתא דרבן גמליאל ואסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק קרי עליה רב יוסף ואיתימא רבי עקיבא (ישעיהו מד, כה) משיב חכמים אחור ודעתם יסכל איבעי למימר ליה לשבקינהו הדא זימנא,והוא סבר דלמא כולי האי לא עביד והצלה פורתא נמי לא הוי,אסוותא דמסיין ליה לרבי צדוק מאי היא יומא קמא אשקיוה מיא דפארי למחר מיא דסיפוקא למחר מיא דקימחא עד דרווח מיעיה פורתא פורתא,אזל שדריה לטיטוס ואמר (דברים לב, לז) אי אלהימו צור חסיו בו זה טיטוס הרשע שחירף וגידף כלפי מעלה,מה עשה תפש זונה בידו ונכנס לבית קדשי הקדשים והציע ספר תורה ועבר עליה עבירה ונטל סייף וגידר את הפרוכת ונעשה נס והיה דם מבצבץ ויוצא וכסבור הרג את עצמו שנאמר (תהלים עד, ד) שאגו צורריך בקרב מועדיך שמו אותותם אותות,אבא חנן אומר (תהלים פט, ט) מי כמוך חסין יה מי כמוך חסין וקשה שאתה שומע ניאוצו וגידופו של אותו רשע ושותק דבי רבי ישמעאל תנא (שמות טו, יא) מי כמוכה באלים ה' מי כמוכה באלמים,מה עשה נטל את הפרוכת ועשאו כמין גרגותני והביא כל כלים שבמקדש והניחן בהן והושיבן בספינה לילך להשתבח בעירו שנאמר (קהלת ח, י) ובכן ראיתי רשעים קבורים ובאו וממקום קדוש יהלכו וישתכחו בעיר אשר כן עשו אל תיקרי קבורים אלא קבוצים אל תיקרי וישתכחו אלא וישתבחו,איכא דאמרי קבורים ממש דאפילו מילי דמטמרן איגלייא להון,עמד עליו נחשול שבים לטובעו אמר כמדומה אני שאלהיהם של אלו אין גבורתו אלא במים בא פרעה טבעו במים בא סיסרא טבעו במים אף הוא עומד עלי לטובעני במים אם גבור הוא יעלה ליבשה ויעשה עמי מלחמה יצתה בת קול ואמרה לו רשע בן רשע בן בנו של עשו הרשע בריה קלה יש לי בעולמי ויתוש שמה,אמאי קרי לה בריה קלה דמעלנא אית לה ומפקנא לית לה,עלה ליבשה ותעשה עמה מלחמה עלה ליבשה בא יתוש ונכנס בחוטמו ונקר במוחו שבע שנים יומא חד הוה קא חליף אבבא דבי נפחא שמע קל ארזפתא אישתיק אמר איכא תקנתא כל יומא מייתו נפחא ומחו קמיה לנכרי יהיב ליה ארבע זוזי לישראל אמר ליה מיסתייך דקא חזית בסנאך עד תלתין יומין עבד הכי מכאן ואילך כיון דדש דש,תניא אמר רבי פנחס בן ערובא אני הייתי בין גדולי רומי וכשמת פצעו את מוחו ומצאו בו כצפור דרור משקל שני סלעים במתניתא תנא כגוזל בן שנה משקל שני ליטרין,אמר אביי נקטינן פיו של נחושת וצפורניו של ברזל כי הוה קא מיית אמר להו ליקליוה לההוא גברא ולבדרי לקיטמיה אשב ימי דלא לשכחיה אלהא דיהודאי ולוקמיה בדינא,אונקלוס בר קלוניקוס בר אחתיה דטיטוס הוה בעי לאיגיורי אזל אסקיה לטיטוס בנגידא אמר ליה מאן חשיב בההוא עלמא אמר ליה ישראל מהו לאידבוקי בהו אמר ליה מילייהו נפישין ולא מצית לקיומינהו זיל איגרי בהו בההוא עלמא והוית רישא דכתיב (איכה א, ה) היו צריה לראש וגו' כל המיצר לישראל נעשה ראש אמר ליה דיניה דההוא גברא במאי א"ל 56b. bin truth, you are a king,if not now, then in the future. bAs if you are not a king, Jerusalem will not be handed over into your hand, as it is written: “And the Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one”(Isaiah 10:34). bAnd “mighty one”means bonly a king, as it is written: “And their mighty one shall be of themselves,and their ruler shall proceed from the midst of them” (Jeremiah 30:21), indicating that “mighty one” parallels “ruler.” bAnd “Lebanon”means bonly the Temple, as it is stated: “That good mountain and the Lebanon”(Deuteronomy 3:25). bAndas for bwhat you saidwith your second comment: bIf I am a king why didn’t you come to me until now, there are zealots among uswho bdid not allow usto do this.,Understanding that Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai was prepared to ask him not to destroy the Temple, Vespasian bsaid to him: Ifthere is ba barrel of honey and a snake [ iderakon /i] is wrapped around it, wouldn’t they break the barrel in order tokill bthe snake?In similar fashion, I am forced to destroy the city of Jerusalem in order to kill the zealots barricaded within it. Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bwas silentand did not answer. In light of this, bRav Yoseflater breadthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25). As Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bshould have saidthe following btoVespasian in response: In such a case, bwe take tongs, remove the snake, and kill it, andin this way bwe leave the barrelintact. So too, you should kill the rebels and leave the city as it is., bIn the meantime,as they were talking, ba messenger [ iferistaka /i] arrived from Rome,and bsaid to him: Rise, for the emperor has died, and the noblemen of Rome plan to appoint you astheir bleaderand make you the next emperor. At that time Vespasian bwas wearingonly bone shoe,and when bhe tried to put on the other one, it would not go onhis foot. bHethen btried to remove the othershoe that he was already wearing, but bit would not come off. He said: What is this? /b,Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Be not distressedor troubled, for bgood tidings have reached you, as it is written: “Good tidings make the bone fat”(Proverbs 15:30), and your feet have grown fatter out of joy and satisfaction. Vespasian said to him: bBut what is the remedy?What must I do in order to put on my shoe? Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Have someone with whom you are displeased come and pass before you, as it is written: “A broken spirit dries the bones”(Proverbs 17:22). bHe did this, andhis shoe bwent onhis foot. Vespasian bsaid to him: Since you are so wise, why didn’t you come tosee bme until now?Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: But didn’t Ialready btell you?Vespasian bsaid to him: I also told youwhat I had to say.,Vespasian then bsaid toRabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: bI will be goingto Rome to accept my new position, band I will send someone elsein my place to continue besieging the city and waging war against it. bButbefore I leave, bask something of me that Ican bgive you.Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai bsaid to him: Give me Yavne and its Sagesand do not destroy it, bandspare bthe dynasty of Rabban Gamlieland do not kill them as if they were rebels, bandlastly give me bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok. Rav Yosef readthe following verse babout him, and some saythat it was bRabbi Akivawho applied the verse to Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: “I am the Lord… bWho turns wise men backward and makes their knowledge foolish”(Isaiah 44:25), as bhe should have said to him to leavethe Jews alone bthis time. /b, bAndwhy didn’t Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai make this request? bHe maintainedthat Vespasian bmight not do that muchfor him, band there would not be even a smallamount of bsalvation.Therefore, he made only a modest request, in the hope that he would receive at least that much.,The Gemara asks: bWhatwas he requesting when he asked for bdoctors to heal Rabbi Tzadok?How did they heal him? bThe first day they gave him water to drinkthat contained bbran [ iparei /i]. The nextday they gave him bwatercontaining bflour mixed with bran [ isipuka /i]. The following daythey gave him bwatercontaining bflour.In this way they slowly restored his ability to eat, allowing bhis stomach to broaden little by little. /b,§ Vespasian bwentback to Rome and bsent Titusin his place. The Gemara cites a verse that was expounded as referring to Titus: b“And he shall say: Where is their God, their rock in whom they trusted?”(Deuteronomy 32:37). bThis is the wicked Titus, who insulted and blasphemed God on High. /b, bWhat didTitus bdowhen he conquered the Temple? bHe took a prostitute with his hand, and entered the Holy of Holieswith her. bHethen bspread out a Torah scrollunderneath him band committed a sin,i.e., engaged in sexual intercourse, bon it.Afterward bhe took a sword and cut into the curtainseparating between the Sanctuary and the Holy of Holies. bAnd a miracle was performed and blood spurted forth.Seeing the blood, bhemistakenly bthoughtthat bhe had killed himself.Here, the term himself is a euphemism for God. Titus saw blood issuing forth from the curtain in God’s meeting place, the Temple, and he took it as a sign that he had succeeded in killing God Himself. bAs it is stated: “Your enemies roar in the midst of Your meeting place; they have set up their own signs for signs”(Psalms 74:4)., bAbba Ḥa says:The verse states: b“Who is strong like You, O Lord?”(Psalms 89:9). bWho is strong and indurate like You, as You hear the abuse and the blasphemy of that wicked man and remain silent.Similarly, bthe school of Rabbi Yishmael taughtthat the verse: b“Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods [ ielim /i]”(Exodus 15:11), should be read as: bWho is like You among the mute [ iilmim /i],for You conduct Yourself like a mute and remain silent in the face of Your blasphemers., bWhatelse did Titus bdo? He took the curtain and formed it like a large basket, and brought all of thesacred bvessels of the Temple and placed them in it. And he put them on a ship to go and be praised in his citythat he had conquered Jerusalem, bas it is stated: “And so I saw the wicked buried, and come to their rest; but those that had done right were gone from the holy place, and were forgotten in the city; this also is vanity”(Ecclesiastes 8:10). bDo not readthe word bas “buried [ ikevurim /i].” Rather,read it as bcollected [ ikevutzim /i].And bdo not readthe word bas “and were forgotten [ iveyishtakeḥu /i].” Rather,read it as: bAnd they were praised [ iveyishtabeḥu /i].According to this interpretation, the verse speaks of those who will gather and collect items “from the holy place,” the Temple, and be praised in their city about what they had done., bThere arethose bwho saythat the verse is to be read as written, as it is referring to items that were bactually buried.This is because beven items that had been buried were revealed to them,i.e., Titus and his soldiers, as they found all of the sacred vessels.,It is further related about Titus that he was once traveling bat seaand ba wave rose up against himand threatened bto drown him.Titus bsaid: It seems to me that their God,the God of Israel, bhas power only in water. Pharaoh roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water. Sisera roseagainst them and bHe drowned him in water.Here btoo, He has risen up against me to drown me in water. If He isreally bmighty, let Him go up on dry land andthere bwage war against me. A Divine Voice issued forth and said to him: Wicked one, son of a wicked one, grandson of Esau the wicked,for you are among his descendants and act just like him, bI have a lowly creature in My world and it is called a gnat. /b,The Gemara interjects: bWhy is it called a lowly creature?It is called this bbecause it has an entrancefor taking in food, bbut it does not have an exitfor excretion.,The Gemara resumes its story about Titus. The Divine Voice continued: bGo up on dry land and make war with it. He went up on dry land,and ba gnat came, entered his nostril, and picked at his brain for seven years.Titus suffered greatly from this until bone day he passed by the gate of a blacksmith’s shop.The gnat bheard the sound of a hammerand bwas silentand still. Titus bsaid:I see that bthere is a remedyfor my pain. bEvery day they would bring a blacksmith who hammered before him. He would give four dinarsas payment bto a gentileblacksmith, and bto a Jew he wouldsimply bsay: It is enough for you that you see your enemyin so much pain. bHe did this for thirty daysand it was effective until then. bFrom thatpoint bforward, sincethe gnat bbecame accustomedto the hammering, bit became accustomedto it, and once again it began to pick away at Titus’s brain., bIt is taughtin a ibaraitathat bRabbi Pineḥas ben Arova said: I wasat that time bamong the noblemen of Rome, and whenTitus bdied they split open his head and foundthat the gnat had grown to bthe size of a sparrow weighing two isela /i. It was taught inanother ibaraita /i:It was blikea one- byear-old pigeon weighing two ilitra /i. /b, bAbaye said: We have a traditionthat bits mouthwas made bof copper and its claws werefashioned of biron. WhenTitus bwas dying, he said tohis attendants: bBurn that man,i.e., me, band scatter his ashes across the seven seas, so that the God of the Jews should not find me and stand me for judgment. /b,§ The Gemara relates: bOnkelos bar Kalonikos, the son of Titus’s sister, wanted to convertto Judaism. bHe wentand braised Titusfrom the grave bthrough necromancy,and bsaid to him: Who ismost bimportant in that worldwhere you are now? Titus bsaid to him: The Jewish people.Onkelos asked him: bShould Ithen battachmyself bto themhere in this world? Titus bsaid to him: Their commandments are numerous, and you will not be able to fulfill them.It is best that you do as follows: bGoout and bbattle against them in that world, and you will become the chief, as it is written: “Her adversaries [ itzareha /i] have become the chief”(Lamentations 1:5), which means: bAnyone who distresses [ imeitzer /i] Israel will become the chief.Onkelos bsaid to him: What is the punishment of that man,a euphemism for Titus himself, in the next world? Titus bsaid to him: /b
8. Babylonian Talmud, Taanit, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)

18b. מותרין בהספד ותענית אימת אילימא בני חמיסר וקא קרו ליה בארביסר ומי שרי,והכתיב במגילת תענית יום ארבעה עשר בו ויום חמשה עשר בו יומי פוריא אינון דלא למיספד בהון ואמר רבא לא נצרכא אלא לאסור את של זה בזה ואת של זה בזה,ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתליסר יום ניקנור הוא ואלא בני ארביסר וקא קרי ליה בתריסר יום טוריינוס הוא,אלא לאו דקא קרו ליה בחדיסר וקתני מותר בהספד ובתענית,לא בני ארבעה עשר וקא קרו ליה בתריסר ודקאמרת יום טריינוס הוא יום טריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו כי הא דרב נחמן גזר תעניתא בתריסר אמרו ליה רבנן יום טוריינוס הוא אמר להו יום טוריינוס גופיה בטולי בטלוהו הואיל ונהרגו בו שמעיה ואחיה אחיו,ותיפוק ליה דהוה ליה יום שלפני ניקנור אמר רב אשי השתא איהו גופיה בטלוהו משום יום ניקנור ניקום ונגזר,מאי ניקנור ומאי טוריינוס דתניא ניקנור אחד מאפרכי יוונים היה ובכל יום ויום היה מניף ידו על יהודה וירושלים ואומר אימתי תפול בידי וארמסנה וכשגברה מלכות בית חשמונאי ונצחום קצצו בהונות ידיו ורגליו ותלאום בשערי ירושלים ואמרו פה שהיה מדבר בגאוה וידים שהיו מניפות על ירושלים תעשה בהם נקמה,מאי טוריינוס אמרו כשבקש טוריינוס להרוג את לולינוס ופפוס אחיו בלודקיא אמר להם אם מעמו של חנניה מישאל ועזריה אתם יבא אלהיכם ויציל אתכם מידי כדרך שהציל את חנניה מישאל ועזריה מיד נבוכדנצר אמרו לו חנניה מישאל ועזריה צדיקים גמורין היו וראויין היו ליעשות להם נס ונבוכדנצר מלך הגון היה וראוי ליעשות נס על ידו,ואותו רשע הדיוט הוא ואינו ראוי ליעשות נס על ידו ואנו נתחייבנו כליה למקום ואם אין אתה הורגנו הרבה הורגים יש לו למקום והרבה דובין ואריות יש לו למקום בעולמו שפוגעין בנו והורגין אותנו אלא לא מסרנו הקדוש ברוך הוא בידך אלא שעתיד ליפרע דמינו מידך,אעפ"כ הרגן מיד אמרו לא זזו משם עד שבאו דיופלי מרומי ופצעו את מוחו בגיזרין:,אין גוזרין תענית על הצבור בתחלה בחמישי כו' אין גוזרין תענית בראשי חדשים כו': וכמה הויא התחלה רב אחא אמר שלש רבי אסי אמר אחת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי רבי מאיר שאמר משום רבן (שמעון בן) גמליאל אבל חכמים אומרים מתענה ומשלים דרש מר זוטרא משמיה דרב הונא הלכה מתענה ומשלים:, br br big strongהדרן עלך סדר תעניות כיצד /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongסדר /strong /big תעניות אלו האמור ברביעה ראשונה אבל צמחים ששנו מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן שפסקו גשמים בין גשם לגשם ארבעים יום מתריעין עליהן מפני שהיא מכת בצורת,ירדו לצמחין אבל לא ירדו לאילן לאילן ולא לצמחין לזה ולזה אבל לא לבורות לשיחין ולמערות מתריעין עליהן מיד וכן עיר שלא ירדו עליה גשמים דכתיב (עמוס ד, ז) והמטרתי על עיר אחת ועל עיר אחת לא אמטיר חלקה אחת תמטר וגו' 18b. as the Sages decreed that in certain places one may read the Scroll of Esther on the eleventh, twelfth, or thirteenth of Adar, nevertheless, it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston these days. The Gemara clarifies: bWhendoes this ruling apply? bIf we saythat it applies to bthosein walled cities, who normally read the scroll on the bfifteenthof Adar bandyet this year bthey read it on the fourteenth,a day on which they normally are permitted to fast and eulogize, bbutthis cannot be the case, as bare they permittedto fast and eulogize at all on these days?, bBut isn’t it written in iMegillat Ta’anit /i: The day of the fourteenth ofAdar band the day of the fifteenth ofAdar bare the days of Purim, on which eulogizing is prohibited. And Rava said:Since these days are already mentioned in the Bible (Esther 9:18–19), it bis necessaryto state this ihalakhain iMegillat Ta’anit bonly to prohibitthose living bin thesewalled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon thisdate, the fourteenth, and those living bin thesenon-walled cities from fasting and eulogizing bon this date,the fifteenth.,The Gemara continues its explanation of the difficulty. bBut rather,the mishna must be referring to bthosewho normally read on the bfourteenthof Adar, bbut who readthe Scroll of Esther early, bon the thirteenth.However, it is already prohibited to fast on the thirteenth, as bit is Nicanor’s Day,which is a commemorative day in its own right. bBut rather,you will say that the mishna is referring to bthoseresidents of cities who normally read on bthe fourteenth, but who read itearly that year, bon the twelfth;however, the twelfth of Adar is also a commemorative day, as bit is Trajan’s Day. /b, bRather, isn’tthe mishna referring to a case bwhere they readthe Scroll of Esther bon the eleventhof Adar, bandnevertheless that mishna bteachesthat it is bpermitted to eulogize and faston this day, despite the fact that it is the day before Trajan’s Day? The opinion in this unattributed mishna is not in accordance with that of Rabbi Yosei, which means that there is a contradiction between the two statements of Rabbi Yoḥa.,The Gemara answers: bNo;the mishna is actually referring to bthosewho normally read bon the fourteenth, but who read itthat year bon the twelfthof Adar. bAndwith regard to bthat which you said,that bit is Trajan’s Day, Trajan’s Day itself was annulledand is no longer celebrated, bsince Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday. We learn this bas inthe incident bwhen Rav Naḥman decreed a fast on the twelfthof Adar and bthe Sages said to him: It is Trajan’s Day. He said to them: Trajan’s Day itself was annulled, since Shemaya and his brother Aḥiya were killed on thatday.,The Gemara asks: bAnd let him derivethat fasting on the twelfth is prohibited in any case, bas it is the day before Nicanor’sDay. bRav Ashi said: Nowthat with regard to Trajan’s Day bitself, they annulled it, will wethen barise and issue a decreenot to fast on this date bdue tothe following day, bNicanor’sDay?,In relation to the above, the Gemara inquires: bWhat isthe origin of bNicanor’sDay band what isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bAs it is taughtin a ibaraita /i: bNicanor was one of the generals [ iiparkhei /i]in the bGreekarmy, band each and every day he would wave his hand over Judea and Jerusalem and say: When willthis city bfall into my hands, and I shall trample it? And when the Hasmonean monarchy overcamethe Greeks band emerged victorious over them,they killed Nicanor in battle, bcut off his thumbs and big toes, and hung them on the gates of Jerusalem, saying: The mouth that spoke with pride, and the hands that waved over Jerusalem, may vengeance be taken against them.This occurred on the thirteenth of Adar., bWhat isthe origin of bTrajan’sDay? bThey saidin explanation: bWhen Trajan sought to killthe important leaders bLuleyanus and his brother Pappas in Laodicea, he said to them: If you are from the nation of Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah, let your God come and save you from my hand, just as He saved Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah from the hand of Nebuchadnezzar.Luleyanus and Pappas bsaid to him: Haiah, Mishael, and Azariah were full-fledged righteouspeople, band they were worthy that a miracleshould be bperformed for them, and Nebuchadnezzar was a legitimate kingwho rose to power through his merit, band it is fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him. /b, bBut this wickedman, Trajan, bis a commoner,not a real king, band it is not fitting that a miraclebe performed bthrough him.Luleyanus and Pappas continued: bAndwe are not wholly righteous, band have been condemned to destruction by the Omnipresentfor our sins. bAnd if you do not kill us, the Omnipresent has many other executioners. Andif men do not kill us, bthe Omnipresent has many bears and lions in His world thatcan bhurt us and kill us. Instead, the Holy One, Blessed be He, placed us into your hands only so that He will avenge our blood in the future. /b, bEven so,Trajan remained unmoved by their response and bkilled them immediately. It is saidthat bthey had not moved fromthe place of execution bwhen two officials [ idiyoflei /i] arrived from Romewith permission to remove Trajan from power, band they split his skull with clubs.This was viewed as an act of divine retribution and was established as a commemorative day.,§ The mishna taught: bOne may not decree a fast on the community starting on a Thursday,so as not to cause prices to rise. Furthermore, bone may not decree a fast on New Moons,on Hanukkah, or on Purim. However, if one began a set of fasts, one does not interrupt the sequence for these days. The Gemara asks: bAnd how manyfasts bareconsidered ba beginning? Rav Aḥa said:If one fasted bthreefasts before the festive day. bRabbi Asi said:Even if one fasted bonefast before it., bRav Yehuda saidthat bRav said: This ihalakhaof the mishna that a fast that occurs on a festival is not observed, bis the statement of Rabbi Meir, who saidit bin the name of Rabban Gamliel. However, the Rabbis say:If a communal fast occurs on one of these days, one must bfast and completethe fast until nightfall. bMar Zutra taught in the name of Rav Huna:The practical ihalakha /iis in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis, that one bfasts and completeshis fast until nightfall.,, strongMISHNA: /strong bThe order of these fastsof increasing severity, as explained in Chapter One, bis statedonly bina case when bthe first rainfallhas not materialized. bHowever,if there is bvegetation thatgrew and its appearance bchangeddue to disease, the court does not wait at all; bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise, if rain ceasedfor a period of bforty daysbetween bone rainfall and another, they cry out about it because it is a plague of drought. /b,If sufficient rain bfell for the vegetation but notenough bfell for the trees;or if it was enough bfor the trees but not for the vegetation;or if sufficient rain fell bfor both this and that,i.e., vegetation and trees, bbut notenough btofill the bcisterns, ditches, and caveswith water to last the summer, bthey cry out about it immediately. And likewise,if there is a particular bcity upon which it did not rain,while the surrounding area did receive rain, this is considered a divine curse, bas it is written: “And I caused it to rain upon one city, but caused it not to rain upon another city; one piece was rained upon,and the portion upon which it did not rain withered” (Amos 4:7).
9. Anon., Semahot, 8.10-8.11

10. Anon., Kallah, 23



Subjects of this text:

subject book bibliographic info
amoraic literature, questions of theodicy Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
amoraic literature, shaped by christian discourse Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
angelic mediators Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 388
bar kokhba revolt, r. akivas acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
dialogue during martyrdom, rabbinic martyrs Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
heavenly voice, praises martyr Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
heresy, in rabbinic texts Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 195
interrelationship of christian and jewish martyrdom discourse, amoraic texts shaped by christian discourse Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
kiddush ha-shem Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
love of god, r. akiva Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176, 388
megilat taanit Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162
merit of martyrs Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
pappus ben yehuda Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
posthumous vindication, the world to come in rabbinic texts Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
r. akiva, acclaim of bar kokhba as messiah Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
r. akiva, imprisonment Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
r. akiva, love of god Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176, 388
r. akiva, martyrdom Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
rabbi johannan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162
rabbi nehemiah Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162
rabbi pinchas ben aruba Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162
rabbinic literature, dating Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162
semahot, theodicy Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
semahot Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176, 177
shema yisrael, rabbi akivas recitation Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176, 177
ten martyrs tradition, in midrash canticles Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 177
ten martyrs tradition, in semahot Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
theodicy, emphasis in bavli Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 176
theodicy, emphasis in semahot Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
theodicy, guilt of martyrs Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
theodicy, justification of gods judgment' Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 195
theodicy, justification of gods judgment Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194
tora scroll, wrapping martyr Avemarie, van Henten, and Furstenberg, Jewish Martyrdom in Antiquity (2023) 194, 195
trajan Schremer, Brothers Estranged: Heresy, Christianity and Jewish Identity in Late Antiquity (2010) 162